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Sample records for brassica napus saagikusele

  1. Genomic Changes in Resynthesized Brassica napus and Their Effect on Gene Expression and Phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robert T. Gaeta; J. Chris Pires; Federico Iniguez-Luy; Enrique Leon; Thomas C. Osborn

    2007-01-01

    .... We analyzed genetic, epigenetic, gene expression, and phenotypic changes in ∼50 resynthesized Brassica napus lines independently derived by hybridizing double haploids of Brassica oleracea and Brassica rapa...

  2. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  3. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  5. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  6. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...

  7. Factors affecting the density of Brassica napus seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, L.; Jalink, H.; Denkert, R.; Reaney, M.

    2006-01-01

    Brassica napus seed is composed of low density oil (0.92 g.cm(-3)) and higher density solids (1.3-1.45 g.cm(-3)). Seed buoyant density may potentially be used to determine seed oil content and to separate seeds with different oil contents, however, we have found that seeds with the lowest buoyant

  8. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of copper by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Ihsan Elahi; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Gill, Rafaqa Ali; Najeeb, Ullah; Iqbal, Naeem; Ahmad, Rehan

    2015-10-01

    Use of organic acids for promoting heavy metals phytoextraction is gaining worldwide attention. The present study investigated the influence of citric acid (CA) in enhancing copper (Cu) uptake by Brassica napus L. seedlings. 6 Weeks old B. napus seedlings were exposed to different levels of copper (Cu, 0, 50 and 100µM) alone or with CA (2.5mM) in a nutrient medium for 40 days. Exposure to elevated Cu levels (50 and 100µM) significantly reduced the growth, biomass production, chlorophyll content, gas exchange attributes and soluble proteins of B. napus seedlings. In addition, Cu toxicity increased the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaf and root tissues of B. napus. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in root and shoot tissues of B. napus were increased in response to lower Cu concentration (50µM) but increased under higher Cu concentration (100µM). Addition of CA into nutrient medium significantly alleviated Cu toxicity effects on B. napus seedlings by improving photosynthetic capacity and ultimately plant growth. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CA-treated plants seems to play a role in capturing of stress-induced reactive oxygen species as was evident from lower level of H2O2, MDA and EL in CA-treated plants. Increasing Cu concentration in the nutrient medium significantly increased Cu concentration in in B. napus tissues. Cu uptake was further increased by CA application. These results suggested that CA might be a useful strategy for increasing phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils.

  9. RAPESEED (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris) A NEW OILSEED CROP FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KURAL, Aynur

    1995-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris L.) is an important oil crop in many parts of the world. Rapeseed is well-adapted to cool, moist growing conditions and requires fewer heat units than either soybean or sunflower for maturity. Rapeseed oil can be used for human consumption (Canola) and ındustrial purposes. Oil from Canola cultivars must contain less than 2% erucic acid compared with 40-45% in industrial use rape varieties. The meal remaining after oil extraction of Canola seed ...

  10. Phosphate-assisted phytoremediation of arsenic by Brassica napus and Brassica juncea: Morphological and physiological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Bibi, Irshad; Fatimah, Ayesha; Shahid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Wang, Hailong; Ok, Yong Sik; Bashir, Safdar; Murtaza, Behzad; Saqib, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined the potential role of phosphate (P; 0, 50, 100 mg kg(-1)) on growth, gas exchange attributes, and photosynthetic pigments of Brassica napus and Brassica juncea under arsenic (As) stress (0, 25, 50, 75 mg kg(-1)) in a pot experiment. Results revealed that phosphate supplementation (P100) to As-stressed plants significantly increased shoot As concentration, dry biomass yield, and As uptake, in addition to the improved morphological and gas exchange attributes and photosynthetic pigments over P0. However, phosphate-assisted increase in As uptake was substantially (up to two times) greater for B. napus, notably due to higher shoot As concentration and dry biomass yield, compared to B. juncea at the P100 level. While phosphate addition in soil (P100) led to enhanced shoot As concentration in B. juncea, it reduced shoot dry biomass, primarily after 50 and 75 mg kg(-1) As treatments. The translocation factor and bioconcentration factor values of B. napus were higher than B. juncea for all As levels in the presence of phosphate. This study demonstrates that phosphate supplementation has a potential to improve As phytoextraction efficiency, predominantly for B. napus, by minimizing As-induced damage to plant growth, as well as by improving the physiological and photosynthetic attributes.

  11. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  12. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  13. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  14. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  15. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method.

  16. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  17. Transcriptomic basis for drought-resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Cuiling; Chen, Hao; Song, Chunpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Daojie

    2017-01-01

    Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were fairly uniformly distributed on different chromosomes and their expression patterns are variety specific. Except commonly enriched in response to various stimuli or stresses, different categories of DEGs show specific enrichment in certain biological processes or pathways, which indicated the possibility of functional differences among the three categories. Network analysis revealed relationships among the 169 DEGs, annotated biological processes and pathways. The 169 DEGs can be classified into different functional categories via preferred pathways or biological processes. Some pathways might simultaneously involve a large number of shared DEGs, and these pathways are likely to cross-talk and have overlapping biological functions. Several members of the identified DEGs fit to drought stress signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR validations confirmed the reproducibility of the RNA-seq data. These investigations are profitable for the improvement of crop varieties through transgenic engineering. PMID:28091614

  18. Transcriptomic basis for drought-resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Cuiling; Chen, Hao; Song, Chunpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Daojie

    2017-01-01

    Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were fairly uniformly distributed on different chromosomes and their expression patterns are variety specific. Except commonly enriched in response to various stimuli or stresses, different categories of DEGs show specific enrichment in certain biological processes or pathways, which indicated the possibility of functional differences among the three categories. Network analysis revealed relationships among the 169 DEGs, annotated biological processes and pathways. The 169 DEGs can be classified into different functional categories via preferred pathways or biological processes. Some pathways might simultaneously involve a large number of shared DEGs, and these pathways are likely to cross-talk and have overlapping biological functions. Several members of the identified DEGs fit to drought stress signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR validations confirmed the reproducibility of the RNA-seq data. These investigations are profitable for the improvement of crop varieties through transgenic engineering.

  19. Endogenous Gibberellins and Shoot Growth and Development in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, S B; Mandel, R; Pharis, R P

    1989-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus, annual Canola variety ;Westar') plants were harvested at six dates from the vegetative phase until the early pod (silique)-fill/late flowering stage. Endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were extracted from stems, purified, and chromatographed on silica gel partition columns prior to bioassay in serial dilution using the ;Tan-ginbozu' dwarf rice microdrop assay. The concentrations of total endogenous GA-like substances were low during vegetative stages (1 nanogram GA(3) equivalents/gram dry weight), and rose 300-fold by the time of floral initiation. After floral initiation the concentration of GA-like substances fell, then rose again during bolting to maximal levels during the early pod-fill stage (940 nanograms per gram dry weight). The qualitative profiles of GA-like substances varied across harvests, with higher proportions of a GA(1)-like substance at the early pod-fill stage. In a second study stems were similarly harvested at eight dates and the concentrations of endogenous GA(1), the principal bioactive native GA of oilseed rape, were determined by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [17,17-(2)H]GA(1) as a quantitative internal standard. The concentration of GA(1) increased at about the time of floral initiation and then subsequently fell, thus confirming the pattern noted above for total GA-like substances. The exogenous application of paclobutrazol (PP333), a persistent triazole plant growth regulator (PGR) which blocks GA biosynthesis, or another triazole, triapenthenol (RSW0411), prevented flowering as well as bolting; plants remained at the vegetative rosette stage. These results imply a causal role for endogenous GA, in the control of bolting, which normally precedes anthesis. Further, the rise in the concentration of total endogenous GA-like substances, including GA(1), which was associated with floral initiation, and the prevention of visable floral development by the triazole PGRs

  20. Induction and purification of chitinase in Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera infected with Phoma lingam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Giese, H.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    A pathogen-induced chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) was isolated from cotyledons of oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Bienvenu) 8 d after inoculation with Phoma lingam. The purified chitinase has a molecular weight of 30 kDa, and an isoelectric point of approx. 9.1. A partial amino-acid sequence obtained a...

  1. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  2. Cloning and characterization of a pathogen-induced chitinase in Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Bojsen, K.; Collinge, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    A chitinase cDNA clone from rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) was isolated. The cDNA clone, ChB4, represents a previously purified and characterized basic chitinase isozyme. The longest open reading frame in ChB4 encodes a polypeptide of 268 amino acids. This polypeptide consists of a 24...

  3. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L.

  4. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  5. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski,Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B....

  6. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  7. A consensus map of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) based on diversity array technology markers: applications in genetic dissection of qualitative and quantitative traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Kilian, Andrzej; Detering, Frank; Long, Yan; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A P; Sharpe, Andrew G; Nelson, Matthew N; Larkan, Nick; Zou, Jun; Meng, Jinling; Aslam, M Naveed; Batley, Jacqueline; Cowling, Wallace A; Lydiate, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Dense consensus genetic maps based on high-throughput genotyping platforms are valuable for making genetic gains in Brassica napus through quantitative trait locus identification, efficient predictive...

  8. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  9. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of stem and globally comparison with other tissues in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Miao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. However, there is currently no enough stem transcriptome information and comparative transcriptome analysis of different tissues, which impedes further functional genomics research on B. napus. In this study, the stem transcriptome of B. napus was characterized by RNA-seq technology. Approximately 13.4 Gb high-quality clean reads with an average length of 100 bp were generated and used for comparative transcriptome analysis with the existing transcriptome sequencing data of roots, leaves, flower buds and immature embryos of B. napus. All the transcripts were annotated against GO and KEGG databases. The common genes in five tissues, differentially expressed genes (DEGs of the common genes between stems and other tissues, and tissue-specific genes were detected, and the main biochemical activities and pathways implying the common genes, DEGs and tissue-specific genes were investigated. Accordingly, the common transcription factors (TFs in the five tissues and tissue-specific TFs were identified, and a TFs-based regulation network between TFs and the target genes involved in Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were constructed to show several important TFs and key nodes in the regulation process. Collectively, this study not only provided an available stem transcriptome resource in B. napus, but also revealed a valuable comparative transcriptome information of five tissues of B. napus for future investigation on specific processes, functions and pathways.

  11. Analysis of plants regenerated from protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahleson, J; Råhlén, L; Glimelius, K

    1988-10-01

    Protoplasts from etiolated hypocotyls of Brassica napus stained with carboxyfluorescein were fused with mesophyll protoplasts from Eruca sativa. Hybrid cells could be identified under the light microscope by (1) fully developed chloroplasts derived from E. sativa and (2) the cytoplasmic strands of the B. napus hypocotyl protoplasts, or (3) by the presence of both red and green fluorescence when investigated under UV light. The heterokaryons were selected using either a micro-manipulator or a flow sorter. On average, 5.4% of the calli obtained after selection differentiated into shoots. Regenerated shoots were subjected to isozyme analysis for verification of their hybrid character. Of the 23 hybrids successfully transferred to the greenhouse, 11 were asymmetric according to isozyme analysis. The nuclear DNA content of the hybrids was determined by flow cytometry, which gives an estimate of chromosome number. Most of the hybrids had a DNA content, and thus a chromosome number, that deviated from the expected sum of the parents. Almost all of the hybrids had some degree of fertility and produced seeds. Seed set, expressed as seeds per pollinated flower, was on average 7% of that of B. napus in the case of self-pollination and 26% of that of B. napus when backcrossed to B. napus. The chloroplast genotype was investigated in 13 hybrids. Of these, 11 had chloroplasts derived from B. napus, while only 2 had chloroplasts of E. sativa origin.

  12. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  13. Identifying conserved and novel microRNAs in developing seeds of Brassica napus using deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Körbes

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of plant development and seed formation. In Brassica napus, an important edible oil crop, valuable lipids are synthesized and stored in specific seed tissues during embryogenesis. The miRNA transcriptome of B. napus is currently poorly characterized, especially at different seed developmental stages. This work aims to describe the miRNAome of developing seeds of B. napus by identifying plant-conserved and novel miRNAs and comparing miRNA abundance in mature versus developing seeds. Members of 59 miRNA families were detected through a computational analysis of a large number of reads obtained from deep sequencing two small RNA and two RNA-seq libraries of (i pooled immature developing stages and (ii mature B. napus seeds. Among these miRNA families, 17 families are currently known to exist in B. napus; additionally 29 families not reported in B. napus but conserved in other plant species were identified by alignment with known plant mature miRNAs. Assembled mRNA-seq contigs allowed for a search of putative new precursors and led to the identification of 13 novel miRNA families. Analysis of miRNA population between libraries reveals that several miRNAs and isomiRNAs have different abundance in developing stages compared to mature seeds. The predicted miRNA target genes encode a broad range of proteins related to seed development and energy storage. This work presents a comparative study of the miRNA transcriptome of mature and developing B. napus seeds and provides a basis for future research on individual miRNAs and their functions in embryogenesis, seed maturation and lipid accumulation in B. napus.

  14. Plant genetics. Early allopolyploid evolution in the post-Neolithic Brassica napus oilseed genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalhoub, Boulos; Denoeud, France; Liu, Shengyi; Parkin, Isobel A P; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Chiquet, Julien; Belcram, Harry; Tong, Chaobo; Samans, Birgit; Corréa, Margot; Da Silva, Corinne; Just, Jérémy; Falentin, Cyril; Koh, Chu Shin; Le Clainche, Isabelle; Bernard, Maria; Bento, Pascal; Noel, Benjamin; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Charles, Mathieu; Arnaud, Dominique; Guo, Hui; Daviaud, Christian; Alamery, Salman; Jabbari, Kamel; Zhao, Meixia; Edger, Patrick P; Chelaifa, Houda; Tack, David; Lassalle, Gilles; Mestiri, Imen; Schnel, Nicolas; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Fan, Guangyi; Renault, Victor; Bayer, Philippe E; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Manoli, Sahana; Lee, Tae-Ho; Thi, Vinh Ha Dinh; Chalabi, Smahane; Hu, Qiong; Fan, Chuchuan; Tollenaere, Reece; Lu, Yunhai; Battail, Christophe; Shen, Jinxiong; Sidebottom, Christine H D; Wang, Xinfa; Canaguier, Aurélie; Chauveau, Aurélie; Bérard, Aurélie; Deniot, Gwenaëlle; Guan, Mei; Liu, Zhongsong; Sun, Fengming; Lim, Yong Pyo; Lyons, Eric; Town, Christopher D; Bancroft, Ian; Wang, Xiaowu; Meng, Jinling; Ma, Jianxin; Pires, J Chris; King, Graham J; Brunel, Dominique; Delourme, Régine; Renard, Michel; Aury, Jean-Marc; Adams, Keith L; Batley, Jacqueline; Snowdon, Rod J; Tost, Jorg; Edwards, David; Zhou, Yongming; Hua, Wei; Sharpe, Andrew G; Paterson, Andrew H; Guan, Chunyun; Wincker, Patrick

    2014-08-22

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) was formed ~7500 years ago by hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea, followed by chromosome doubling, a process known as allopolyploidy. Together with more ancient polyploidizations, this conferred an aggregate 72× genome multiplication since the origin of angiosperms and high gene content. We examined the B. napus genome and the consequences of its recent duplication. The constituent An and Cn subgenomes are engaged in subtle structural, functional, and epigenetic cross-talk, with abundant homeologous exchanges. Incipient gene loss and expression divergence have begun. Selection in B. napus oilseed types has accelerated the loss of glucosinolate genes, while preserving expansion of oil biosynthesis genes. These processes provide insights into allopolyploid evolution and its relationship with crop domestication and improvement. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. A Simplified Seed Transformation Method for Obtaining Transgenic Brassica napus Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; ZHAO De-gang; WU Yong-jun; TIAN Xiao-e

    2009-01-01

    We report here a seed transformation of sonication-assisted,no-tissue culture to rapidly produce transgenic Brassica napus plants.This method comprises the steps of treating seeds by ultrasonic wave,inoculating Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a recombinant ChlFN-a gene and germinating directly of treatment seed on wet filter papers.The obtained transformants were verified by GUS histochemical assay and nested PCR amplification.It suggests that seed transformation has a potential use in genetic transformation of rape.

  16. The progress of intersubgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica napus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... meiosis and embryo sac development of new-typed B. napus, the appearance of ... Long years of evolution and artificial selection have made .... tions in the hybrids and give rise to heterotic phenotypes ... variation from 4.41 to 13.45% in the TN DH population .... Taxonomy, cytogenetics and origin of crop.

  17. Agronomic and seed quality traits dissected by genome-wide association mapping in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eKörber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. % as well as require high experimental effort due to their quantitative inheritance and the importance of genotype*environment interaction. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 Brassica napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P-value 100 and a sequence identity of > 70 % to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations.

  18. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74% of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in “stimulus” “stress” biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in “cell” “cell part” components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  20. Multiple evolutionary events involved in maintaining homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs in Brassica rapa and three in B. oleracea (BoHRs. B. napus (Bn is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs. It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  1. A large-scale introgression of genomic components of Brassica rapa into B. napus by the bridge of hexaploid derived from hybridization between B. napus and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinfei; Mei, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yongjing; Li, Jiana; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun; Qian, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Brassica rapa (AA) has been used to widen the genetic basis of B. napus (AACC), which is a new but important oilseed crop worldwide. In the present study, we have proposed a strategy to develop new type B. napus carrying genomic components of B. rapa by crossing B. rapa with hexaploid (AACCCC) derived from B. napus and B. oleracea (CC). The hexaploid exhibited large flowers and high frequency of normal chromosome segregation, resulting in good seed set (average of 4.48 and 12.53 seeds per pod by self and open pollination, respectively) and high pollen fertility (average of 87.05 %). It was easy to develop new type B. napus by crossing the hexaploid with 142 lines of B. rapa from three ecotype groups, with the average crossability of 9.24 seeds per pod. The genetic variation of new type B. napus was diverse from that of current B. napus, especially in the A subgenome, revealed by genome-specific simple sequence repeat markers. Our data suggest that the strategy proposed here is a large-scale and highly efficient method to introgress genomic components of B. rapa into B. napus.

  2. Proteomic Dissection of Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Gan, Lu; Guo, Liangxing; Zhang, Kai; Li, Yonghong; Wang, Hao; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The success of seed germination and establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of seed germination by using a proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in B. napus. One hundred and thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that were mainly involved in storage (23.4%), energy metabolism (18.9%), protein metabolism (16.2%), defense/disease (12.6%), seed maturation (11.7%), carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%), lipid metabolism (4.5%), amino acids metabolism (3.6%), cell growth/division (3.6%), and some unclear functions (2.7%) were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed that heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and that the onset of defense mechanisms might start during seed germination. These findings will help generate a more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of the germination process in B. napus.

  3. Proteomic dissection of seed germination and seedling establishment in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Gu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The success of seed germination and the establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only few studies have focused on the genetic control of the seed germination by proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE in B. napus. One hundred thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs, which were mainly involved in storage proteins (23.4%, energy metabolism (18.9%, protein metabolism (16.2%, defense/disease (12.6%, seed maturation (11.7%, carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%, lipid metabolism (4.5%, amino acids metabolism (3.6%, cell growth/division (3.6%, and some unclear proteins (2.7% were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed the heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and the onset of defense system might start during seed germination. These findings will help us more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of germination process in B. napus.

  4. Distribution, Transportation and Cytolocalization of Neodymium in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏幼璋

    2001-01-01

    Observation with the transmission electronic microscopy shows that Nd can not enter into the cytoplasm of oilseed rape (brassica napus L.) in solution culture. It combines with the cell wall or amasses in the intercellular space. Nd accumulates in root tip after it enters into the plants, while only a small amount of Nd is transferred to the stem and leaf via apoplasm, and the leaf contains the least of Nd. Such observations are consistent with the analytical results of Nd distribution in rape tissues in soil culture experiment. It suggests that the physiological effects of Nd in plants might mainly function on plasmalemma of root system.

  5. Field tolerance to fungal pathogens of Brassica napus constitutively expressing a chimeric chitinase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, R.; Grezes-Besset, B.; Lucante, N. [Rustica Prograin Genetique, Mondonville (France)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Constitutive overexpression of a protein involved in plant defense mechanisms to disease is one of the strategies proposed to increase plant tolerance to fungal pathogens. A hybrid endochitinase gene under a constitutive promoter was introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into a winter-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) inbred line. Progeny from transformed plants was challenged using three different fungal pathogens (Cylindrosporium concentricum, Phoma lingam, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in field trials at two different geographical locations. These plants exhibited an increased tolerance to disease as compared with the nontransgenic parental plants. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. [Gene flow and its ecological risks of transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guixiang; Song, Wenjian; Zhou, Weijun

    2005-12-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape Brassica napus, one of the first genetically modified crops, has now been released to commercial use in Canada and Australia. As a cross-pollinating crop, its natural crossing rate is 30%, and it is liable to cross with other Brassica species. The ecological risk of transgenic oilseed rape has been concerned by the scientists all over the world. There are two ways for the pollens flow of transgenic oilseed rape, one takes place between transgenic oilseed rape and other related wild species, and the other occurs between transgenic and nontransgenic oilseed rape. The gene may flow to other related wild species, but it is unlikely to get hybrids in field. Because the gene can really flow to the conventional oilseed rape, it is necessary to have a sufficient isolation distance in cultivating transgenic oilseed rape.

  7. Microtubule configurations and nuclear DNA synthesis during initiation of suspensor-bearing embryos from Brassica napus cv. Topas microspores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, E.; Custers, J.B.M.; Kieft, H.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the new Brassica napus microspore culture system, wherein embryos with suspensors are formed, ab initio mimics zygotic embryogenesis. The system provides a powerful in vitro tool for studying the diverse developmental processes that take place during early stages of plant embryogenesis. Here, we

  8. Genetic dissection of seed oil and protein content and identification of networks associated with oil content in Brassica napus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongbo Chao; Hao Wang; Xiaodong Wang; Liangxing Guo; Jianwei Gu; Weiguo Zhao; Baojun Li; Dengyan Chen; Nadia Raboanatahiry; Maoteng Li

    2017-01-01

    ... 3072.7 cM of the Brassica napus genome was constructed in the KenC-8 × N53-2 (KNDH) population. A total of 67 and 38 QTLs for seed oil and protein content were identified with an average confidence interval...

  9. Distribution of splicing proteins and putative coiled bodies during pollen development and androgenesis in Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatman, K.R.; Schel, J.H.N.

    2001-01-01

    Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) are subunits of splicing complexes, which show a transcription-dependent localization pattern. We have analyzed the labelling pattern of snRNPs during pollen development and microspore and pollen embryogenesis in Brassica napus with an antibody

  10. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. Var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. Var. costata) inflorescences

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of -carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as “grelos” (rap...

  11. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  12. Purification and protein composition of oil bodies from Brassica napus seeds

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    Jolivet Pascale

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil bodies are intracellular particles to store lipids as food reserves in oleaginous plants. Description of oil body-associated proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently reported whereas only few data are available in the case of rapeseed. Oil bodies have been prepared from two double-low varieties of Brassica napus seeds, a standard variety (Explus and an oleic variety (Cabriolet. Oil bodies have been purified using floatation technique in the successive presence of high salt concentration, detergent or urea in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. The integrity of the oil bodies has been verified and their size estimated. Their protein and fatty acid contents have been determined. The proteins composing these organelles were extracted, separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, digested by trypsin and their peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed using Arabidopsis thaliana protein sequence database and a collection of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST of Brassica napus generated from the framework of the French plant genomics programme “Genoplante”. This led to the identification of a limited number of proteins: eight oleosins showing a high similarity each other and representing up to 75% of oil body proteins, a 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein highly homologous to the same protein from A. thaliana, and only few contaminating proteins associated with myrosinase activity.

  13. Relationship Between Hybrid Performance and Genetic Diversity Based on SSRs and ISSRs in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jin-xiong; FU Ting-dong; YANG Guang-sheng

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between genetic distance (GD) and hybrid performance, twotypes of molecular markers, microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) and intro-simple sequence repeats(ISSRs), were employed to detect the genetic diversity of 3 double low self-incompatible lines and 22 male pa-rental varieties of Brassica napus from different geographical origins. Hybrids were produced in a NC Ⅱ mat-ing design by hand-pollination. The result indicated that 25 parental varieties (lines) could be divided into sixgroups by Un-weighted Pair Group Mathematics Average (UPGMA) clustering based on GDs. SI-1300 and SI-1320 could be singly clustered into one group, respectively. Varieties from China could be separated into an-other group, SI-1310 and varieties from foreign countries could be separated into other three groups. Thegrouping was generally consistent with parental pedigrees and geographical origins. Significant differences inyield, quality and phenological period traits were observed among these parent groups. Although hybrid yield/plant showed significantly positive correlation with genetic distance based on SSR and ISSR markers, but thedetermination coefficient was iow. It appeared to be unsuitable for using the genetic distance based on SSR andISSR markers to predict heterosis and hybrid performance in Brassica napus.

  14. QTL Analysis of the Oil Content and the Hull Content in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Meng-yang; LI Jia-na; FU Fu-you; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; ZHANG Xue-kun; LIU Lie-zhao

    2007-01-01

    The QTLs of the oil content and the hull content were analyzed in Brassica napus L. By constructing the linkage map. The F2:6 RIL population with 188 lines, derived from the cross of GH06 × P147, was used as the mapping population. The SRAP, SSR, AFLP, and TRAP markers were used to construct the linkage map, and the composite interval mapping (CIM) to identify the quantitative trait loci associated with the oil content and the hull content. 300 markers were integrated into 19 linkage groups, covering 1 248.5 cM in total. Seven QTLs were found to be responsible for the oil content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 3.73 to 10.46%; four QTLs were found for the hull content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 4.89 to 6.84%. The yellow-seeded Brassica napus L. Has the advantage of higher oil content and the hull content has a significant effect on the oil content. In addition, the SRAP marker is good for detecting QTL.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  16. Effects of Salinity on Yield and Component Characters in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

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    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivars �Okapi�, �SLM046�, �Elite�, �Fornax� and �Licord� Brassica napus were tested for yield and component characters under different levels of salinity. The variations due to salinity levels, cultivars and cultivarxsalinity (interaction were significant for different characters. The variable degrees of increase and decrease of regression coefficient estimate mates (curve estimation showed the performance as influenced by different salinity levels. The performance of Brassica napus variety in plant height and days to first flowering was the best for �SLM046�, �Okapi� �SLM046� and �Okapi� cultivars. �SLM046� showed the best performance in days to maturity, followed by �Licord� and �Elite�. �Okapi� performed better than others regarding the increased number of seeds per plant and seed yield per plant, followed by �Fornax�. Considering all characters, the most tolerance ability was found in �SLM046� and �Okapi�, against different levels of salinity.

  17. LMI1-like genes involved in leaf margin development of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xiyuan; Liu, Han; Huang, Jixiang; Zhao, Jianyi

    2017-06-01

    In rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), leaf margins are variable and can be entire, serrate, or lobed. In our previous study, the lobed-leaf gene (LOBED-LEAF 1, BnLL1) was mapped to a 32.1 kb section of B. napus A10. Two LMI1-like genes, BnaA10g26320D and BnaA10g26330D, were considered the potential genes that controlled the lobed-leaf trait in rapeseed. In the present study, these two genes and another homologous gene (BnaC04g00850D) were transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants to identify their functions. All three LMI1-like genes of B. napus produced serrate leaf margins. The expression analysis indicated that the expression level of BnaA10g26320D determined the difference between lobed- and entire-leaved lines in rapeseed. Therefore, it is likely that BnaA10g26320D corresponds to BnLL1.

  18. Chelate-assisted phytoextraction: effect of EDTA and EDDS on copper uptake by Brassica napus L.

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    TIJANA M. ZEREMSKI-ŠKORIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chelate-assisted phytoextraction is proposed as an effective approach for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil through the use of high biomass plants. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of the two chelators: EDTA and biodegradable EDDS in enhancing Cu uptake and translocation by Brassica napus L. grown on moderately contaminated soil and treated with increasing concentrations of EDTA or EDDS. Increasing amounts of EDDS caused serious growth suppression of B. napus and an increase in shoot metal concentrations. Growth suppression limited the actual amount of phytoextracted Cu at high concentrations of EDDS. The maximum amount of extracted Cu was achieved by the application of 8.0 and 4.0+4.0 mmol kg-1 EDDS. The shoot Cu concentrations after EDTA application were much lower than with EDDS at the same doses. According to these experiments, EDTA does not appear to be an efficient amendment if Cu phytoextraction with B. napus is considered but EDDS is.

  19. Heme oxygenase 1 defects lead to reduced chlorophyll in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixia; Yang, Zonghui; Zeng, Xinhua; Gao, Jie; Liu, Jie; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We previously described a Brassica napus chlorophyll-deficient mutant (ygl) with yellow-green seedling leaves and mapped the related gene, BnaC.YGL, to a 0.35 cM region. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this chlorophyll defect are still unknown. In this study, the BnaC07.HO1 gene (equivalent to BnaC.YGL) was isolated by the candidate gene approach, and its function was confirmed by genetic complementation. Comparative sequencing analysis suggested that BnaC07.HO1 was lost in the mutant, while a long noncoding-RNA was inserted into the promoter of the homologous gene BnaA07.HO1. This insert was widely present in B. napus cultivars and down-regulated BnaA07.HO1 expression. BnaC07.HO1 was highly expressed in the seedling leaves and encoded heme oxygenase 1, which was localized in the chloroplast. Biochemical analysis showed that BnaC07.HO1 can catalyze heme conversion to form biliverdin IXα. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the loss of BnaC07.HO1 impaired tetrapyrrole metabolism, especially chlorophyll biosynthesis. According, the levels of chlorophyll intermediates were reduced in the ygl mutant. In addition, gene expression in multiple pathways was affected in ygl. These findings provide molecular evidences for the basis of the yellow-green leaf phenotype and further insights into the crucial role of HO1 in B. napus.

  20. Response of Nitrate Metabolism in Seedlings of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) to Low Oxygen Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-bing; XIE Yu-yun; HOU Jia-jia; FU You-qiang; SHEN Hong; LIAO Xing

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the response of nitrate metabolism in seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to low oxygen stress (LOS), two cultivars were studied at different light, LOS time and exogenous nitrate concentrations under hydroponic stress. Results show that N-uptake and dry matter of rape seedlings were decreased after LOS stress while nitrate accumulation (NA) under LOS was induced by darkness. Nitrate accumulation peaked at 3 d while root activity (RA, deifned as dehydrogenase activity) decreased with prolonged waterlogging exposure. Exogenous nitrate signiifcantly elevated NA and RA. Tungstate (TS) and LOS inhibited nitrate reductase (NR) activity while NR transcription and activity were enhanced by exogenous nitrate. Low oxygen stress stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) slightly, but inhibited that of catalase (CAT). B. napus L. Zhongshuang 10 (ZS10), a LOS tolerant cultivar, displayed smaller decrease upon dry matter under LOS, higher NA in darkness and lower NA in light than B. napus L. Ganlan CC (GAC), a LOS sensitive variety. ZS10 had lower NA and higher RA after waterlogging and exogenous nitrate treatment, and higher NR activity under TS inhibition than GAC, but the activity of antioxidant enzymes did not change under LOS. The results indicate that nitrate metabolism involved tolerance of rape seedlings to LOS, with lower accumulation and higher reduction of nitrate being related to higher LOS tolerance of rape seedlings exposed to waterlogging.

  1. Complete sequence of heterogenous-composition mitochondrial genome (Brassica napus and its exogenous source

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    Wang Juan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike maternal inheritance of mitochondria in sexual reproduction, somatic hybrids follow no obvious pattern. The introgressed segment orf138 from the mitochondrial genome of radish (Raphanus sativus to its counterpart in rapeseed (Brassica napus demonstrates that this inheritance mode derives from the cytoplasm of both parents. Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of five species from Brassica family allowed the prediction of other extraneous sources of the cybrids from the radish parent, and the determination of their mitochondrial rearrangement. Results We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of Ogura-cms-cybrid (oguC rapeseed. To date, this is the first time that a heterogeneously composed mitochondrial genome was sequenced. The 258,473 bp master circle constituted of 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA sequences, and 23 tRNA sequences. This mitotype noticeably holds two copies of atp9 and is devoid of cox2-2. Relative to nap mitochondrial genome, 40 point mutations were scattered in the 23 protein-coding genes. atp6 even has an abnormal start locus whereas tatC has an abnormal end locus. The rearrangement of the 22 syntenic regions that comprised 80.11% of the genome was influenced by short repeats. A pair of large repeats (9731 bp was responsible for the multipartite structure. Nine unique regions were detected when compared with other published Brassica mitochondrial genome sequences. We also found six homologous chloroplast segments (Brassica napus. Conclusions The mitochondrial genome of oguC is quite divergent from nap and pol, which are more similar with each other. We analyzed the unique regions of every genome of the Brassica family, and found that very few segments were specific for these six mitotypes, especially cam, jun, and ole, which have no specific segments at all. Therefore, we conclude that the most specific regions of oguC possibly came from radish. Compared with the chloroplast genome

  2. Introgression between oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and its weedy relative B. rapa L. in a natural population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.B.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Jørgensen, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated introgression in a mixed weedy population ofoilseed rape (Brassica napus) and itsrelative B. rapa usingspecies-specific AFLP-markers. The population wassituated in a field relayed from conventional to organic cultivation11 years ago. One-hundred-and-twoB. napus orB. rapa-like plan...... history of the field, thissuggests that the introgression process in the weedy mixed populationhas been in progress for some time. This study is the first to showintrogression between B.napus and B.rapa under natural conditions.......-like plantswere collected in a 3 m2 plot. Of these, onewas a first generation hybrid (F1) and nearlyhalf (44 plants) were introgressed, having bothB. napus andB. rapa specific markers.The remaining plants apparently corresponded to pure species, with 50having only B. rapa-and seven having only B...

  3. Effect of CaCl2 treatment on the changing of drought related physiological and biochemical indexes of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun XIANG; Zhaobo CHEN; Pei WANG; Longjiang YU; Maoteng LI

    2008-01-01

    Some experiments revealed that the Ca2+ has a relationship with drought resistance. In this paper, some physiological and biochemical indices were studied in order to analyze the effect of Ca2+ treatment on the drought resistance of Brassica napus. The physiological and biochemical experiments revealed that the proline content and the soluble sugar contents in the Ca2+-treated B. napus were much higher than those of water-treated B. napus. However, the content of malonaldehyde in the Ca2+ treated B. napus was lower than that of control. The tran-spiration and stomatal conductance analysis show that the transpiration and stomatal conductance in the Ca2+-treated materials were lower than those of water-treated materials. Further research revealed that the stomata hatch of Ca2+-treated materials was markedly less than that of water-treated materials, which indicated that the closure of the stomata was the main reason for the decrease of transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  4. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, Vanina A. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Orejas, Joaquin [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Medina, Maria I. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Agostini, Elizabeth, E-mail: eagostini@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields}B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. {yields} High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). {yields} Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. {yields} Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. {yields} This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  5. Disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus by mutations causing severe seed hormonal imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung eNguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica napus (oilseed rape accession 1012-98 shows a disturbed germination phenotype that was thought to be associated with its lack of testa pigmentation and thin seed coat. Here we demonstrate that the disturbed germination and seedling development are actually due to independent mutations that disrupt the balance of hormone metabolites and their regulators in the seeds. High-throughput UPLC-MS/MS hormone profiling of seeds and seedlings before and after germination revealed that 1012-98 has a severely disturbed hormone balance with extremely atypical, excessive quantities of auxin and ABA metabolites. The resulting hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and a corresponding increase in dormancy often results in death of the embryo after imbibition or high frequencies of disturbed, often lethal developmental phenotypes, resembling Arabidopsis mutants for the auxin regulatory factor gene ARF10 or the auxin-overproducing transgenic line iaaM-OX. Molecular cloning of Brassica ARF10 orthologues revealed four loci in normal B. napus, two derived from the Brassica A genome and two from the C genome. On the other hand, the phenotypic mutant 1012-98 exhibited amplification of C-genome BnaC.ARF10 copy number along with a chimeric allele originating from recombination between homoeologous A and C genome loci which lead to minor increase of Bna.ARF10 transcription on the critical timepoint for seed germination, the indirect regulator of ABI3, the germinative inhibitor. Bna.GH3.5 expression was upregulated to conjugate free auxin to IAA-asp between 2-6 DAS. Functional amino acid changes were also found in important DNA binding domains of one BnaC.ARF10 locus, suggesting that regulatory changes in Bna.ARF10 are collectively responsible for the observed phenotpyes in 1012-98. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus caused by the crosstalk of auxin-ABA and the

  6. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Yang, Zhi Min, E-mail: zmyang@njau.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus.

  7. Dissecting quantitative trait loci for boron efficiency across multiple environments in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunkang Zhao

    Full Text Available High yield is the most important goal in crop breeding, and boron (B is an essential micronutrient for plants. However, B deficiency, leading to yield decreases, is an agricultural problem worldwide. Brassica napus is one of the most sensitive crops to B deficiency, and considerable genotypic variation exists among different cultivars in response to B deficiency. To dissect the genetic basis of tolerance to B deficiency in B. napus, we carried out QTL analysis for seed yield and yield-related traits under low and normal B conditions using the double haploid population (TNDH by two-year and the BQDH population by three-year field trials. In total, 80 putative QTLs and 42 epistatic interactions for seed yield, plant height, branch number, pod number, seed number, seed weight and B efficiency coefficient (BEC were identified under low and normal B conditions, singly explaining 4.15-23.16% and 0.53-14.38% of the phenotypic variation. An additive effect of putative QTLs was a more important controlling factor than the additive-additive effect of epistatic interactions. Four QTL-by-environment interactions and 7 interactions between epistatic interactions and the environment contributed to 1.27-4.95% and 1.17-3.68% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The chromosome region on A2 of SYLB-A2 for seed yield under low B condition and BEC-A2 for BEC in the two populations was equivalent to the region of a reported major QTL, BE1. The B. napus homologous genes of Bra020592 and Bra020595 mapped to the A2 region and were speculated to be candidate genes for B efficiency. These findings reveal the complex genetic basis of B efficiency in B. napus. They provide a basis for the fine mapping and cloning of the B efficiency genes and for breeding B-efficient cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  8. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

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    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  9. Karyotyping of Brassica napus L. Based on C0t-1 DNA Banding by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hui WEI; Wan-Peng ZHAO; Li-Jun WANG; Bo CHEN; Yun-Chang LI; Yun-Chun SONG

    2005-01-01

    In order to precisely recognize and karyotype Brassica napus L. chromosomes, C0t- 1 DNA was extracted from its genomic DNA, labeled with biotin- 11-dUTP and in situ hybridized. The hybridized locations were detected by Cy3-conjugated streptavidin. Specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)signal bands were detected on all individual chromosome pairs. Each chromosome pair showed specific banding patterns. The B. napus karyotype has been constructed, for the first time, on the basis of both C0t-1 DNA FISH banding patterns and chromosome morphology.

  10. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  11. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  12. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  13. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  14. Effects of Partially N-acetylated Chitosans to Elicit Resistance Reaction on Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; TANG Zhang-lin; CHEN Li; GUO Yi-hong; CHEN Yun-ping; LI Jia-na

    2002-01-01

    The effects to elicit resistance reaction on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv Xinongchangjiao )by four partially N-acetylated chitosan 7B, 8B, 9B and 10B (Degree of acetylation (D. A. ) is 30%, 20%,10%, 0%, respectively) and Glycol chitosan (GC, D.A. is 0%) were investigated and compared. Results showed that chitosan were similar to salicylic acid (SA), and could induce resistance reaction, but the reaction was influenced by the degree of acetylation of chitosan. Fully deacetylated chitosans, 10B and GC, elicited chitinase activity, but partially acetylated chitosan, 7B, 8B and 9B, inhibited chitinase activity. Phenyalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was also elicited. Elicitor activity increased with on increasing degree of acetylation, 7B induced highest PAL activity among all chitosans. All chitosans induced peroxidase (POD) in a similar level.After elicited by glycol chitosan, like SA treatment, the seedlings increased disease resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum significantly.

  15. The use of protein patterns in genetic diversity analysis in some Brassica napus cultivars

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    Roya Razavizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, protein variations of seeds and five-day old cotyledonal leaves of four selected Brassica napus cultivars including Elite, Ocapy, Tasilo and Zarfam were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to identify protein markers. The amount of total soluble protein of seed storage proteins did not show significant differences in all cultivars whereas it was different in cotyledonal leaves. Protein patterns of seeds and cotyledonal leaves showed significant differences using SDS-PAGE and consequence analysis of bands by ImageJ program. Relative expression of six protein bands in seeds and five-day old cotyledonal leaves were significantly different. Three protein markers were identified by protein patterns of seed and cotyledonal leaves. The results of relationship analysis based on presence and absence of the specific protein bands in protein pattern of seed storage proteins showed that Tasilo and Elite cultivars had the highest similarities.

  16. Identification of Polymorphisms Associated with Drought Adaptation QTL in Brassica napus by Resequencing

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    Richard S. Fletcher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus is a globally important oilseed for which little is known about the genetics of drought adaptation. We previously mapped twelve quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying drought-related traits in a biparental mapping population created from a cross between winter and spring B. napus cultivars. Here we resequence the genomes of the mapping population parents to identify genetic diversity across the genome and within QTL regions. We sequenced each parental cultivar on the Illumina HiSeq platform to a minimum depth of 23 × and performed a reference based assembly in order to describe the molecular variation differentiating them at the scale of the genome, QTL and gene. Genome-wide patterns of variation were characterized by an overall higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP density in the A genome and a higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in the C genome. Nonsynonymous substitutions were used to categorize gene ontology terms differentiating the parent genomes along with a list of putative functional variants contained within each QTL. Marker assays were developed for several of the discovered polymorphisms within a pleiotropic QTL on chromosome A10. QTL analysis with the new, denser map showed the most associated marker to be that developed from an insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the candidate gene Bna.FLC.A10, and it was the only candidate within the QTL interval with observed polymorphism. Together, these results provide a glimpse of genome-wide variation differentiating annual and biennial B. napus ecotypes as well as a better understanding of the genetic basis of root and drought phenotypes.

  17. Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene gene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londo, Jason P.; Bautista, Nonnatus S.; Sagers, Cynthia L.; Lee, E. Henry; Watrud, Lidia S.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide-resistant Brassica napus has become a model system for examining the risks and potential ecological consequences of escape of transgenes from cultivation into wild compatible species. Escaped transgenic feral B. napus and hybrids with compatible weedy species have been identified outside of agriculture and without the apparent selection for herbicide resistance. However, herbicide (glyphosate) exposure can extend beyond crop field boundaries, and a drift-level of herbicide could function as a selective agent contributing to increased persistence of transgenes in the environment. Methods The effects of a drift level (0·1 × the field application rate) of glyphosate herbicide and varied levels of plant competition were examined on plant fitness-associated traits and gene flow in a simulated field plot, common garden experiment. Plants included transgenic, glyphosate-resistant B. napus, its weedy ancestor B. rapa, and hybrid and advanced generations derived from them. Key Results The results of this experiment demonstrate reductions in reproductive fitness for non-transgenic genotypes and a contrasting increase in plant fitness for transgenic genotypes as a result of glyphosate-drift treatments. Results also suggest that a drift level of glyphosate spray may influence the movement of transgenes among transgenic crops and weeds and alter the processes of hybridization and introgression in non-agronomic habitats by impacting flowering phenology and pollen availability within the community. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate the potential for persistence of glyphosate resistance transgenes in weedy plant communities due to the effect of glyphosate spray drift on plant fitness. Additionally, glyphosate drift has the potential to change the gene-flow dynamics between compatible transgenic crops and weeds, simultaneously reducing direct introgression into weedy species

  18. Substoichiometrically different mitotypes coexist in mitochondrial genomes of Brassica napus L.

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    Jianmei Chen

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been identified in numerous plant species. Brassica napus CMS plants, such as Polima (pol, MI, and Shaan 2A, have been identified independently by different researchers with different materials in conventional breeding processes. How this kind of CMS emerges is unclear. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the prevalent mitotype in the most widely used pol-CMS line, which has a length of 223,412 bp and encodes 34 proteins, 3 ribosomal RNAs, and 18 tRNAs, including two near identical copies of trnH. Of these 55 genes, 48 were found to be identical to their equivalents in the "nap" cytoplasm. The nap mitotype carries only one copy of trnH, and the sequences of five of the six remaining genes are highly similar to their equivalents in the pol mitotype. Forty-four open reading frames (ORFs with unknown function were detected, including two unique to the pol mitotype (orf122 and orf132. At least five rearrangement events are required to account for the structural differences between the pol and nap sequences. The CMS-related orf224 neighboring region (∼5 kb rearranged twice. PCR profiling based on mitotype-specific primer pairs showed that both mitotypes are present in B. napus cultivars. Quantitative PCR showed that the pol cytoplasm consists mainly of the pol mitotype, and the nap mitotype is the main genome of nap cytoplasm. Large variation in the copy number ratio of mitotypes was found, even among cultivars sharing the same cytoplasm. The coexistence of mitochondrial mitotypes and substoichiometric shifting can explain the emergence of CMS in B. napus.

  19. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

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    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  20. Cytogenetic and Molecular Characterization of B-Genome Introgression Lines of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Inderpreet; Mason, Annaliese S.; Banga, Shashi; Bharti, Sakshi; Kaur, Beerpal; Gurung, Allison Mary; Salisbury, Phillip Anthony; Batley, Jacqueline; Banga, Surinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus introgression lines (ILs), having B-genome segments from B. carinata, were assessed genetically for extent of introgression and phenotypically for siliqua shatter resistance. Introgression lines had 7–9% higher DNA content, were meiotically stable, and had almost normal pollen fertility/seed set. Segment introgressions were confirmed by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization (fl-GISH), SSR analyses, and SNP studies. Genotyping with 48 B-genome specific SSRs detected substitutions from B3, B4, B6, and B7 chromosomes on 39 of the 69 ILs whereas SNP genotyping detected a total of 23 B-segments (≥3 Mb) from B4, B6, and B7 introgressed into 10 of the 19 (C1, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C9, A3, A9, A10) chromosomes in 17 ILs. The size of substitutions varied from 3.0 Mb on chromosome A9 (IL59) to 42.44 Mb on chromosome C2 (IL54), ranging from 7 to 83% of the recipient chromosome. Average siliqua strength in ILs was observed to be higher than that of B. napus parents (2.2–6.0 vs. 1.9–4.0 mJ) while siliqua strength in some of the lines was almost equal to that of the donor parent B. carinata (6.0 vs.7.2 mJ). These ILs, with large chunks of substituted B-genome, can prove to be a useful prebreeding resource for germplasm enhancement in B. napus, especially for siliqua shatter resistance. PMID:27821632

  1. A developmentally regulated Cre-lox system to generate marker-free transgenic Brassica napus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopertekh, Lilya; Broer, Inge; Schiemann, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, a strategy for engineering marker-free Brassica napus plants is described. It is based on the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system and includes three essential steps. At first, the binary vector pLH-nap-lx-cre-35S-bar-lx-vst has been designed. In this vector, the cre gene and the bar expression cassette are flanked by two lox sites in direct orientation. The lox-flanked sequence is placed between a seed-specific napin promoter and a coding region for the vstI gene. At the second step, the cre-bar vector was transferred into B. napus hypocotyl explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Finally, T1 progeny was tested for excision of the marker gene at phenotypic and molecular levels. PCR, sequencing, and Southern blot analysis confirmed complete and precise deletion of the lox-flanked DNA region. This developmentally regulated Cre-lox system can be applied to remove undesirable DNA in transgenic plants propagated by seeds.

  2. Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization Between Brassica napus L. And Sinapis alba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ping WANG; Karin SONNTAG; Eicke RUDLOFF; Jian-Min CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Electrically induced protoplast fusion was used to produce somatic hybrids between Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L. Seven hybrids were obtained and verified by the simple sequence repeat and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis of the genefael, indicating that the characteristic bands from S. alba were present in the hybrids. The hybridity was also confirmed by chromosome number counting because the hybrids possessed 62 chromosomes, corresponding to the sum of fusion-parent chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at meiosis was predominantly normal, which led to high pollen fertility,ranging from 66% to 77%. All hybrids were grown to full maturity and could be fertilized and set seed after self-pollination or back-crosses with B. napus. The morphology of the hybrids resembled characteristics from both parental species. An analysis of the fatty acid composition in the seeds of F1 plants was conducted and the seeds were found to contain different amounts of erucic acid, ranging from 11.0% to 52.1%.

  3. Non-lethal freezing effects on seed degreening in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham-Smith, P C; Gilmer, S; Zhou, R; Galka, M; Abrams, S R

    2006-06-01

    The effects of a non-lethal freezing stress on chlorophyll content, moisture level and distribution, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels were examined in siliques and seeds of Brassica napus (canola). A non-lethal freezing stress resulted in the retention of chlorophyll in seed at harvest that was most pronounced for seeds 28, 32 and 36 days after flowering (DAF). This increase was primarily due to an increased retention of chlorophyll a relative to chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll retention in seeds exposed to a non-lethal freezing stress correlated with an increased ABA catabolism, as measured 1, 3 or 7 days after the stress treatment. Although the non-lethal freezing stress had no significant effect on moisture content in seeds of siliques stressed at 28-44 DAF, moisture distribution, as viewed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed an uneven drying of 32 and 40 DAF siliques after exposure to the non-lethal freezing stress. Moisture was initially lost more rapidly from the silique wall between seeds, than in control non-stressed siliques. Increased moisture loss was not due to structural changes in the vasculature of the silique/seed of stressed tissues. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a non-lethal freezing stress-induced decrease in ABA level, during seed maturation, effects an inhibition of normal chlorophyll a catabolism resulting in mature but green B. napus seed.

  4. Genetic Diversity in Commercial Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Varieties from Turkey as Revealed by RAPD

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    Özlem ÖZBEK

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In cultivated commercial crop species, genetic diversity tends to decrease because of the extensive breeding processes. Therefore, germplasm of commercial crop species, such as Brassica napus L. should be evaluated and the genotypes, which have higher genetic diversity index, should be addressed as potential parental cross materials in breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity was analysed by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD technique in nine Turkish commercial rapeseed varieties. The RAPD primers (10-mer oligonucleotides produced 51 scorable loci, 31 loci of which were polymorphic (60.78% and 20 loci (39.22% were monomorphic The RAPD bands were scored as binary matrix data and were analysed using POPGENE version 1.32. At locus level, the values of genetic diversity within population (Hs and total (HT were 0.15 and 0.19 respectively. The genetic differentiation (GST and the gene flow (Nm values between the populations were 0.20 and 2.05 respectively. The mean number of alleles (na, the mean number of effective alleles (nae, and the mean value of genetic diversity (He were 2.00, 1.26, and 0.19 respectively. According to Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and principal component analyses, eco-geographical conditions in combination had significant effect on genetic indices of commercial B. napus L. varieties were discussed.

  5. Cloning of Lactate dehydrogenase Gene and Effect on the Waterlogging Tolerance of Brassica napus L.

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    Ben-bo Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism on waterlogging tolerance in Brassica napus, 12 B. napus cultivars with different waterlogging tolerance were used in the research and Waterlogging Tolerance Index (WTI was calculated by multiplying relative percentage germination and the relative seedling height. The results indicated that Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH enzyme activity rapidly increased at 24 h after waterlogging treatment and reached peak between 48-72 h. WTI was correlated with LDH enzyme activity at 24 h after water logging treatment and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.84. Transcription level of the BnLDH had significant difference in the 12 lines after waterlogging treatment. BnLDH expression level was very low before waterlogging treatment and induced by waterlogging treatment and arrived at peak at 48 h. Correlation analysis indicated correlation coefficient between WTI and BnLDH expression at 24 and 48 h after waterlogging treatment was 0.56 and 0.72, respectively. An LDH gene, denoted BnLDH-1, was cloned from oilseeds by the Rapid Amplification of CDNA Ends (RACE from 12 materials and the results indicated all of them had same protein sequence.

  6. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  7. Genome-wide association mapping unravels the genetic control of seed germination and vigor in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzig, Sarah V; Frisch, Matthias; Breuer, Frank; Nesi, Nathalie; Ducournau, Sylvie; Wagner, Marie-Helene; Leckband, Gunhild; Abbadi, Amine; Snowdon, Rod J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination is a crucial prerequisite for crop establishment and high yield levels in crop production. A disclosure of genetic factors contributing to adequate seed vigor would help to further increase yield potential and stability. Here we carried out a genome-wide association study in order to define genomic regions influencing seed germination and early seedling growth in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A population of 248 genetically diverse winter-type B. napus accessions was genotyped with the Brassica 60k SNP Illumina genotyping array. Automated high-throughput in vitro phenotyping provided extensive data for multiple traits related to germination and early vigor, such as germination speed, absolute germination rate and radicle elongation. The data obtained indicate that seed germination and radicle growth are strongly environmentally dependent, but could nevertheless be substantially improved by genomic-based breeding. Conditions during seed production and storage were shown to have a profound effect on seed vigor, and a variable manifestation of seed dormancy appears to contribute to differences in germination performance in B. napus. Several promising positional and functional candidate genes could be identified within the genomic regions associated with germination speed, absolute germination rate, radicle growth and thousand seed weight. These include B. napus orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes SNOWY COTYLEDON 1 (SCO1), ARABIDOPSIS TWO-COMPONENT RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR4), and ARGINYL-t-RNA PROTEIN TRANSFERASE 1 (ATE1), which have been shown previously to play a role in seed germination and seedling growth in A. thaliana.

  8. Cloning and functions analysis of a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Jun; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Zhan, Gao-Miao; Wang, Han-Zhong; Hua, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a negative regulator of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC), which plays a key role in intermediary metabolism. In this study, a 1,490-bp PDK in Brassica napus (BnPDK1) was isolated and cloned from Brassica cDNA library. BnPDK1 has an 1,104 open reading frame encoding 367 amino acids. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis result indicated that BnPDK1 is a multi-copy gene. RNA gel blot analysis and RNA in situ hybridization were used to determine the expression of BnPDK1 in different organs. BnPDK1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in almost all the tissues tested, having the highest expression in the stamen and the young silique. Over-expression of BnPDK1 in transgenic Arabidopsis lines would repress the PDC activity, and resulted in the decrease of seed oil content and leaf photosynthesis. These results implied that BnPDK1 was involved in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in developing seeds.

  9. DNA Methylation Alterations at 5'-CCGG Sites in the Interspecific and Intraspecific Hybridizations Derived from Brassica rapa and B. napus.

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    Wanshan Xiong

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for gene expression that involved in the biological processes of development and differentiation in plants. To investigate the association of DNA methylation with heterosis in Brassica, a set of intraspecific hybrids in Brassica rapa and B. napus and interspecific hybrids between B. rapa and B. napus, together with parental lines, were used to monitor alterations in cytosine methylation at 5'-CCGG sites in seedlings and buds by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The methylation status of approximately a quarter of the methylation sites changed between seedlings and buds. These alterations were related closely to the genomic structure and heterozygous status among accessions. The methylation status in the majority of DNA methylation sites detected in hybrids was the same as that in at least one of the parental lines in both seedlings and buds. However, the association between patterns of cytosine methylation and heterosis varied among different traits and between tissues in hybrids of Brassica, although a few methylation loci were associated with heterosis. Our data suggest that changes in DNA methylation at 5'-CCGG sites are not associated simply with heterosis in the interspecific and intraspecific hybridizations derived from B. rapa and B. napus.

  10. Population Genomic Analysis Reveals Differential Evolutionary Histories and Patterns of Diversity across Subgenomes and Subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazave, Elodie; Tassone, Erica E; Ilut, Daniel C; Wingerson, Megan; Datema, Erwin; Witsenboer, Hanneke M A; Davis, James B; Grant, David; Dyer, John M; Jenks, Matthew A; Brown, Jack; Gore, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed) and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this species. We used sequence-based genotyping to identify and genotype 30,881 SNPs in a diversity panel of 782 B. napus accessions, representing samples of winter and spring growth habits originating from 33 countries across Europe, Asia, and America. We detected strong population structure broadly concordant with growth habit and geography, and identified three major genetic groups: spring (SP), winter Europe (WE), and winter Asia (WA). Subpopulation-specific polymorphism patterns suggest enriched genetic diversity within the WA group and a smaller effective breeding population for the SP group compared to WE. Interestingly, the two subgenomes of B. napus appear to have different geographic origins, with phylogenetic analysis placing WE and WA as basal clades for the other subpopulations in the C and A subgenomes, respectively. Finally, we identified 16 genomic regions where the patterns of diversity differed markedly from the genome-wide average, several of which are suggestive of genomic inversions. The results obtained in this study constitute a valuable resource for worldwide breeding efforts and the genetic dissection and prediction of complex B. napus traits.

  11. Genome-Wide Association and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Underlying Yield-determining Traits in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Peng, Liu; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Junhua; Yang, Bo; Xiao, Zhongchun; Liang, Ying; Xu, Xingfu; Qu, Cunmin; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Liezhao; Zhu, Qinlong; Fu, Minglian; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiana

    2017-01-01

    Yield is one of the most important yet complex crop traits. To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of yield establishment, and to identify candidate genes responsible for yield improvement in Brassica napus, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for seven yield-determining traits [main inflorescence pod number (MIPN), branch pod number (BPN), pod number per plant (PNP), seed number per pod (SPP), thousand seed weight, main inflorescence yield (MIY), and branch yield], using data from 520 diverse B. napus accessions from two different yield environments. In total, we detected 128 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93 of which were revealed as novel by integrative analysis. A combination of GWAS and transcriptome sequencing on 21 haplotype blocks from samples pooled by four extremely high-yielding or low-yielding accessions revealed the differential expression of 14 crucial candiate genes (such as Bna.MYB83, Bna.SPL5, and Bna.ROP3) associated with multiple traits or containing multiple SNPs associated with the same trait. Functional annotation and expression pattern analyses further demonstrated that these 14 candiate genes might be important in developmental processes and biomass accumulation, thus affecting the yield establishment of B. napus. These results provide valuable information for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying the establishment of high yield in B. napus, and lay the foundation for developing high-yielding B. napus varieties. PMID:28261256

  12. Global Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Brassica napus Developing Seeds Reveals a Conserved Lipid Metabolism Regulation with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Niu; Guo-Zhang Wu; Rui Ye; Wen-Hui Lin; Qiu-Ming Shi; Liang-Jiao Xue; Xiao-Dong Xu; Yao Li; Yu-Guang; Hong-Wei Xue

    2009-01-01

    In order to study Brassica napus fatty acid (FA) metabolism and relevant regulatory networks, a systematic identification of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis-related genes was conducted. Following gene identification, gene expression profiles during B. napus seed development and FA metabolism were performed by cDNA chip hybridization (>8000 EST clones from seed). The results showed that FA biosynthesis and regulation, and carbon flux, were conserved between B. napus and Arabidopsis. However, a more critical role of starch metabolism was detected for B. napus seed FA metabolism and storage-component accumulation when compared with Arabidopsis. In addition, a crucial stage for the transition of seed-to-sink tissue was 17-21 d after flowering (DAF), whereas FA biosynthesis-related genes were highly expressed pri-marily at 21 DAF. Hormone (auxin and jasmonate) signaling is found to be important for FA metabolism. This study helps to reveal the global regulatory network of FA metabolism in developing B. napus seeds.

  13. Genetic and epigenetic changes in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. extracted from intergeneric allopolyploid and additions with Orychophragmus

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    Mayank eGautam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n=38, genomes AACC was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n=62, genomes AACCOO with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n=24, genome OO, by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.

  14. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Extracted from Intergeneric Allopolyploid and Additions with Orychophragmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mayank; Dang, Yanwei; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, genomes AACC) was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n = 62, genomes AACCOO) with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24, genome OO), by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments) and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.

  15. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  16. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

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    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  17. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Yan-Ping

    1993-12-31

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B{sub BE}). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 {mu}m paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40{mu}m) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE} with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation.

  18. Analysis of gene expression in resynthesized Brassica napus Allopolyploids using arabidopsis 70mer oligo microarrays.

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    Robert T Gaeta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization

  19. Capturing sequence variation among flowering-time regulatory gene homologues in the allopolyploid crop species Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eSchiessl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flowering, the transition from the vegetative to the generative phase, is a decisive time point in the lifecycle of a plant. Flowering is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors, photoreceptors, enzymes and miRNAs. In recent years, several studies gave rise to the hypothesis that this network is also strongly involved in the regulation of other important lifecycle processes ranging from germination and seed development through to fundamental developmental and yield-related traits. In the allopolyploid crop species Brassica napus, (genome AACC, homoeologous copies of flowering time regulatory genes are implicated in major phenological variation within the species, however the extent and control of intraspecific and intergenomic variation among flowering-time regulators is still unclear. To investigate differences among B. napus morphotypes in relation to flowering-time gene variation, we performed targeted deep sequencing of 29 regulatory flowering-time genes in four genetically and phenologically diverse B. napus accessions. The genotype panel included a winter-type oilseed rape, a winter fodder rape, a spring-type oilseed rape (all B. napus ssp. napus and a swede (B. napus ssp. napobrassica, which show extreme differences in winter-hardiness, vernalization requirement and flowering behaviour. A broad range of genetic variation was detected in the targeted genes for the different morphotypes, including non-synonymous SNPs, copy number variation and presence-absence variation. The results suggest that this broad variation in vernalisation, clock and signaling genes could be a key driver of morphological differentiation for flowering-related traits in this recent allopolyploid crop species.

  20. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Graham J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola. Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH. Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs, 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species.

  1. Divergent patterns of allelic diversity from similar origins: the case of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in China and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Nelson, M N; Ghamkhar, K; Fu, T; Cowling, W A

    2008-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Australia and China have similar origins, with introductions from Europe, Canada, and Japan in the mid 20th century, and there has been some interchange of germplasm between China and Australia since that time. Allelic diversity of 72 B. napus genotypes representing contemporary germplasm in Australia and China, including samples from India, Europe, and Canada, was characterized by 55 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the entire B. napus genome. Hierarchical clustering and two-dimensional multidimensional scaling identified a Chinese group (China-1) that was separated from "mixed group" of Australian, Chinese (China-2), European, and Canadian lines. A small group from India was distinctly separated from all other B. napus genotypes. Chinese genotypes, especially in the China-1 group, have inherited unique alleles from interspecific crossing, primarily with B. rapa, and the China-2 group has many alleles in common with Australian genotypes. The concept of "private alleles" is introduced to describe both the greater genetic diversity and the genetic distinctiveness of Chinese germplasm, compared with Australian germplasm, after 50 years of breeding from similar origins.

  2. MorphologiCal and Cytogenetic Analysis on the Advanced Generations of Generic Hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHAO; Dezhi DU; Zaiyun LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to reveal the genetic changes of advanced generation hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] The morphological characteristics such as the plant shape, branching sites, leaf shape, leaf color, primary branches and secondary branches, as well as the cytolog- ical characteristics of the advanced generation hybrids (Fs-F10) between B. napus and O. violaceus were observed. [Result] The morphology analysis revealed that the hybrid progeny was more like B. rapa in leaf shape, leaf color, plant shape and ear- ly flowering phenotype, whereas more like B. napus in number of secondary branch- es, silique length and 1 000-seed weight. Analysis on the cytogenetics characteristics showed that these advanced inbred progenies were hypoploids with less than 38 chromosomes; moreover, all the chromosomes from O. violaceus had been lost. Chromosome pairings at meiotic diakinesis of hybrids between the advanced inbred progenies and B. rapa revealed that chromosomes lost in hypoploids possibly be- longed to the C genome of B. oleracea. With generations developing, chromosomes number of plants from two populations gradually increased and developed into the number of B. napus (2n=38). [Conclusion] This study will provide reference to reveal the source of chromosome lost in hypoploids and the morphological change of hybrids.

  3. Gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to cruciferous weeds under mentor pollen inducement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alien gene flow between genetically modified glyphosate-resistant rapeseed variety Q3 ( Brassica napus L. ) and four cruciferous weeds was studied under mentor pollen inducement. The results showed that when Thlaspi arvense L., Capsella bursapastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine hirsuta L. and Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser were pollinated with mentor pollen, the mixed Q3 and the weed, pollen grains aggregated largely and germinated quickly, and the numbers of pollen tubes penetrating into the style and the ovary were greatly increased as compared with corresponding self-pollination groups. Twenty four to forty eight hours after pollination, several pollen tubes were observed to penetrate into the ovule via micropyle in each mentor combination. However, when the mentor progenies were analyzed by PCR, all of them showed negative for the Q3 herbicide-resistant gene. Collectively, these results indicated that crossing between T. arvense, C. bursa-pastoris, C. hirsuta, R. palustris (as female) and Q3 (as male) was highly incompatible and the herbicide-resistant gene could not flow from Q3 to these four weeds.

  4. Effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of Brassica napus phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Albacete, Alfonso; Rios, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of phloem sap exudates from Brassica napus using 2DE (IEF-SDS-PAGE). The experiment was repeated thrice and two technical replicates per treatment were done. Phloem sap purity was assessed by measuring sugar concentrations. Two hundred sixty-three spots were consistently detected and 15.6% (41) of them showed significant changes in relative abundance (22 decreasing and 19 increasing) as a result of Fe deficiency. Among them, 85% (35 spots), were unambiguously identified. Functional categories containing the largest number of protein species showing changes as a consequence of Fe deficiency were signaling and regulation (32%), and stress and redox homeostasis (17%). The Phloem sap showed a higher oxidative stress and significant changes in the hormonal profile as a result of Fe deficiency. Results indicate that Fe deficiency elicits major changes in signaling pathways involving Ca and hormones, which are generally associated with flowering and developmental processes, causes an alteration in ROS homeostasis processes, and induces decreases in the abundances of proteins involved in sieve element repair, suggesting that Fe-deficient plants may have an impaired capacity to heal sieve elements upon injury.

  5. Detection of Fungus Infection on Petals of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Infected petals are often regarded as the source for the spread of fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in all growing process of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plants. This research aimed to detect fungal infection of rapeseed petals by applying hyperspectral imaging in the spectral region of 874–1734 nm coupled with chemometrics. Reflectance was extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral image of each sample. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to conduct a cluster analysis with the first several principal components (PCs). Then, two methods including X-loadings of PCA and random frog (RF) algorithm were used and compared for optimizing wavebands selection. Least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) methodology was employed to establish discriminative models based on the optimal and full wavebands. Finally, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was utilized to evaluate classification performance of these LS-SVM models. It was found that LS-SVM based on the combination of all optimal wavebands had the best performance with AUC of 0.929. These results were promising and demonstrated the potential of applying hyperspectral imaging in fungus infection detection on rapeseed petals.

  6. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures.

  7. Early biochemical responses of Brassica napus var Exagone seed germination at salt treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapeseed is the third most important edible oil source in the world, after soybean and palm. This plant is very sensitive to salt stress throughout the growth and development cycle. Salt stress reduces plant growth and productivity and can affected several physiological and biochemical process. For this reason, this study was carried out to determine early the effects of NaCl treatment on the protein content, amylase (EC 3.2.1.1, acide phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.2, peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6 in young rape plant (Brassica napus L. var Exagone. The rape seed were treated four hour with three NaCl solutions (50mM, 100mM, 150mM comparatively with a control who wasn’t exposed at treatment. Amylase activity was inhibited by all used salts concentrations at both time intervals studied. Salinity stimulated the acid phosphatase activity, more intense at 4 days and moderately at 7 days after treatment. The activity of the two assayed antioxidant enzymes (except peroxidase in the second period increase in salinity conditions with increasing salt concentration. Soluble protein content is reduced compared to the control at both studied intervals.

  8. QTL analysis of leaf photosynthesis rate and related physiological traits in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xing-ying; QU Cun-min; LI Jia-na; CHEN Li; LIU Lie-zhao

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oil is the crucial source of edible oil in China. In addition, it can become a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. It is known that photosynthesis products are the primary sources for dry matter accumulation in rapeseed. Therefore, increasing the photosynthetic efifciency is desirable for the raise of rapeseed yield. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic mechanism of photosynthesis based on the description of relationships between different photosynthetic traits and their quantitative trait loci (QTL) by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 172 lines. Speciifcal y, correlation analysis in this study showed that internal CO2 concentration has negative correlations with other three physiological traits under two different stages. Total y, 11 and 12 QTLs of the four physiological traits measured at the stages 1 and 2 were detected by using a high-density single nu-cleotidepolymorphism (SNP) markers linkage map with composite interval mapping (CIM), respectively. Three co-localized QTLs on A03 were detected at stage 1 with 5, 5, and 10%of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Other two co-localized QTLs were located on A05 at stage 2, which explained up to 12 and 5%of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The results are beneifcial for our understanding of genetic control of photosynthetic physiological characterizations and improvement of rapeseed yield in the future.

  9. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration.

  10. Sulfate resupply accentuates protein synthesis in coordination with nitrogen metabolism in sulfur deprived Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lee, Bok-Rye; Park, Sang-Hyun; Zaman, Rashed; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the regulatory interactions between S assimilation and N metabolism in Brassica napus, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was quantified by (15)N and (34)S tracing, and the responses of transporter genes, assimilatory enzymes and metabolites pool involving in nitrate and sulfate metabolism were assessed under continuous sulfur supply, sulfur deprivation and sulfate resupply after 3 days of sulfur (S) deprivation. S-deprived plants were characterized by a strong induction of sulfate transporter genes, ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), and by a repressed activity of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS). Sulfate resupply to the S-deprived plants strongly increased cysteine, amino acids and proteins concentration. The increase in sulfate and cysteine concentration caused by sulfate resupply was not matched with the expression of sulfate transporters and the activity of ATPS and APR which were rapidly decreased by sulfate resupply. A strong induction of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), NR and GS upon sulfate resupply was accompanied with the increase in cysteine, amino acids and proteins pool. Sulfate resupply resulted in a strong increase in de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins, as evidenced by the increases in N and S incorporation into amino acids (1.8- and 2.4-fold increase) and proteins (2.2-and 6.3-fold increase) when compared to S-deprived plants. The results thus indicate that sulfate resupply followed by S-deprivation accelerates nitrate assimilation for protein synthesis.

  11. Changes in Protein Synthesis in Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Seedlings during a Low Temperature Treatment 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Basso, Luis; Alberdi, Miren; Raynal, Monique; Ferrero-Cadinanos, Maria-Luz; Delseny, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Changes induced by cold treatment in young rapeseed (Brassica napus) seedlings were investigated at the molecular level. Following germination at 18°C for 48 hours, one half of the seedlings was transferred to 0°C for another 48 hour period, the other half being kept at 18°C as a control. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled for the last 6 hours of incubation with [35S]methionine. The different polypeptides were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Newly synthesized proteins were revealed by fluorography. Protein synthesis clearly continues at 0°C and some polypeptides preferentially accumulate at this temperature. On the other hand, synthesis of several others is repressed while many are insensitive to cold treatment. Similar changes are also observed when mRNA is prepared from cold treated seedlings, translated in vitro in a reticulocyte cell free system and compared with the products of mRNA extracted from control samples. Among the genes which are repressed we identified the small subunit of ribulose 1,6-bisphosphate carboxylase. These changes are also detectable after shorter treatments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665102

  12. Breeding double low super hybrids with dominant genic male sterility three lines in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Maolin; Zhao Yun

    2005-01-01

    A double low homozygous two-type sterile line ZY-2AB, its near-isogenic temporary maintainer line ZY-4, and the full sterile line ZY-3 derived from the cross of ZY-2A with ZY-4, were developed to breed three-line dominant GMS hybrid in Brassica napus. Three years data showed that the ratios of sterile and fertile plants fit the expected 1:1 ratio in ZY-2AB, and the 1:0 ratio in ZY-3, respectively. Some double low super hybrid combinations were screened out when the full sterile line ZY-3 was used as female parent, among which the combination 01Z24 increased 36.88 percent more yield than control and the combination 98Z131 has been passed through the Sichuan Provincial Regional Test and registered in Sichuan Province. Two years data showed that the agronomic performance of the two-line hybrids derived from crosses of ZY-2A with restorer lines versus that of the three-line hybrids produced by ZY-3 was not different for any of the nine most important agronomic characteristics, revealing that near-isogenic line of homozygous two-type line was used as temporary maintainer could effectively avoid the disadvantage of three-way cross hybrid in breeding three-line dominant GMS hybrid.

  13. Correlation, Stepwise Regressionand Path Analysis of Traits Affecting Grain Yield of canola (Brassica napus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soltani Hoveize

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between yield and its components and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to seed yield. This study was conducted to analysis the correlation among seed yield and some important traits in seventhin spring canola (Brassica napus L. cultivars at the farm in safi abad, from 2014 to 2015. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Results analysis of variance showed that highly significant differences were detected among cultivars for all studied traits. The correlation coefficients among the seed yield and 1000-seed weight, number of seed per pod, duration of flowering, and days to physiological maturity were positive and significant (0.61**, 0.72**, 0.66** and 0.65**, respectively. According to stepwise regression seed yield trait is cosidered by dependent variable and other traits by independent variables. Model determination coefficient is R2=0.897. The most of determination coefficients there were for duration of flowering, number of seed per pod and days to physiological maturity (0.51, 0.54 and 0.38, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the number of seed per pod, duration of flowering and days to physiological maturity had the largest direct effects on the seed yield, its seams possible to use there traits as a selection criteria in breeding programs for improve seed yield of spring rapeseed cultivars.

  14. Over-Expression of BnMAPK1 in Brassica napus Enhances Tolerance to Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Chang-mei; LU Jun-xing; WAN Hua-fang; WANG Shu-wen; WANG Zhen; LU Kun; LIANG Ying

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases widely conserved in all eukaryotes and involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, two over-expressing BnMAPK1 oilseed rape lines, ov3 and ov11, were used to study the drought-resistant mechanism of BnMAPK1 under natural drought and simulation drought through spraying 10%PEG 8000 in seedlings. Zhongyou 821 (WT) was used as control. Compared with wild type, transgenic seedlings had higher leaf water content, higher root activity, slightly higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, higher proline content and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The expression of drought-resistant related genes, including P5CSB, PLC, LEA4 and SCE1, have been up-regulated in some degree and the expressed time of transgenic lines were earlier than that of wild type. These results suggested that over-expression of BnMAPK1 can enhance the resistance to drought in oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

  15. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

  16. Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, G; Jan, A; Arif, M; Jan, M T; Khattak, R A

    2007-10-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, Pakistan, during winter 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur levels and methods of nitrogen application on canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98) under rainfed conditions. Four levels of S (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg/ha) and three levels of N (40, 60, and 80 kg/ha) and a control treatment with both nutrients at zero level were included in the experiments. Sulfur levels were applied at sowing while N levels were applied by three methods (100% soil application, 90% soil+10% foliar application, and 80% soil +20% foliar application). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design having four replications. Oil content increased significantly up to 20 kg S/ha but further increase in S level did not enhance oil content. Glucosinolate content increased from 13.6 to 24.6 micromol/g as S rate was increased from 0 to 30 kg/ha. Protein content increased from 22.4% to 23.2% as S rate was increased from 0 to 20 kg/ha. Oil content responded negatively to the increasing N levels. The highest N level resulted in the highest values for protein (23.5%) and glucosinolate (19.9 micromol/g) contents. Methods of N application had no significant impact on any parameters under study.

  17. Intraspecific chromosomal and genetic polymorphism in Brassica napus L. detected by cytogenetic and molecular markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexandra V. Amosova; Lyudmila V. Zemtsova; Zoya E. Grushetskaya; Tatiana E. Samatadze; Galina V. Mozgova; Yadviga E. Pilyuk; Valentina T. Volovik; Natalia V. Melnikova; Alexandr V. Zelenin; Valentina A. Lemesh; Olga V. Muravenko

    2014-04-01

    The application of DNA intercalator 9-aminoacridine allowed us to increase the resolution of chromosome C-banding and DAPI-banding patterns and to investigate chromosomal polymorphism in karyotypes of seven spring and six winter rape varieties. It was shown that the pericentromeric and intercalary C-bands of most of the chromosomes in spring rape were smaller in size and less polymorphic than those of winter rape. More 26S and 5S rDNA sites were found in the winter rape karyotypes than the spring varieties. Separate or colocalized 26S and 5S rDNA sites were revealed on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16 and 18. Intervarietal and intravarietal polymorphism of the number and chromosomal localization of rDNA sites were detected. The generalized idiogram of chromosomes of 13 Brassica napus varieties with account of all possibilities of C-banding patterns as well as localization of 26S and 5S rDNA sites were constructed. Polymorphism of the examined molecular and cytogenetic markers as well as the heterozygosis level of FAE1.1 gene controlling erucic acid synthesis in rapeseed was higher in the winter varieties than in the spring ones. The obtained data were in a satisfactory agreement with increased tolerance to environmental stress conditions of winter rape.

  18. A genome-wide association study reveals new loci for resistance to clubroot disease in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, the yield and quality of rapeseed were largely decreased by clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. Therefore, it is of great importance for screening more resistant germplasms or genes and improving the resistance to P. brassicae in rapeseed breeding. In this study, a massive resistant identification for a natural global population was conducted in two environments with race/pathotype 4 of P. brassicae which was the most predominant in China, and a wide range of phenotypic variation was found in the population. In addition, a genome-wide association study of 472 accessions for clubroot resistance (CR was performed with 60K Brassica Infinium SNP arrays for the first time. In total, 9 QTLs were detected, 7 of which were novel through integrative analysis. Furthermore, additive effects in genetic control of CR in rapeseed among the above loci were found. By bioinformatic analyses, the candidate genes of these loci were predicted, which indicated that TIR-NBS gene family might play an important role in CR. It is believable that the results presented in our study could provide valuable information for understanding the genetic mechanism and molecular regulation of CR.

  19. Data for iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis of Brassica napus leaves in response to chlorophyll deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Chu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential pigment chlorophyll (Chl plays important roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis. Here we present the data from a comparative proteomic analysis of chlorophyll-deficient Brassica napus mutant cde1 and its corresponding wild-type using the iTRAQ approach (Pu Chu et al., 2014 [1]. The distribution of length and number of peptides, mass and sequence coverage of proteins identified was calculated, and the repeatability of the replicates was analyzed. A total of 443 differentially expressed proteins were identified in B. napus leaves, including 228 down-accumulated proteins mainly involved in photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, carbon fixation and 215 up-accumulated proteins that enriched in the spliceosome, mRNA surveillance and RNA degradation.

  20. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    To obtain information on possible sources of contamination of the seed harvest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., spp. napus) by other varieties (adventitious presence), we investigated the purity of certified seed lots; the abundance and origin of volunteers; and longevity and origin of seeds...... in the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with ISSR...... profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed rape...

  1. Genome-wide association mapping unravels the genetic control of seed germination and vigour in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vanessa Hatzig

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination is a crucial prerequisite for crop establishment and high yield levels in crop production. A disclosure of genetic factors contributing to adequate seed vigour would help to further increase yield potential and stability. Here we carried out a genome-wide association study in order to define genomic regions influencing seed germination and early seedling growth in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.. A population of 248 genetically diverse winter-type B. napus accessions was genotyped with the Brassica 60kSNP Illumina genotyping array. Automated high-throughput in vitro phenotyping provided extensive data for multiple traits related to germination and early vigour, such as germination speed, absolute germination rate and radicle elongation. The data obtained indicate that seed germination and radicle growth are strongly environmentally dependent, but could nevertheless be substantially improved by genomic-based breeding,. Conditions during seed production and storage were shown to have a profound effect on seed vigour, and a variable manifestation of seed dormancy appears to contribute to differences in germination performance in B. napus. Several promising positional and functional candidate genes could be identified within the genomic regions associated with germination speed, absolute germination rate, radicle growth and thousand seed weight. These include B. napus orthologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes SNOWY COTYLEDON 1 (SCO1, ARABIDOPSIS TWO-COMPONENT RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR4 and ARGINYL-t-RNA PROTEIN TRANSFERASE 1 (ATE1, which have been shown previously to play a role in seed germination and seedling growth in A. thaliana.

  2. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eHay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using Brassica napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA. Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two Brassica napus genotypes contrasting in starch and

  3. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19 % of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Ca...

  4. Genome-Wide Gene Expressions Respond Differently to A-subgenome Origins in Brassica napus Synthetic Hybrids and Natural Allotetraploid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Tan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    The young allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) is one of models to study genomic responses to allopolyploidization. The extraction of AA component from natural B. napus and then restitution of progenitor B. rapa should provide a unique opportunity to reveal the genome interplay for gene expressions during the evolution. Herein, B. napus hybrids (2n = 19, AC) between the extracted and extant B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and the same B. oleracea genotype (2n = 18, CC) were studied by RNA-seq and compared with natural B. napus donor, to reveal the gene expression changes from hybridization and domestication and the effects of A genome with different origins. Upon the initial merger of two diploid genomes, additive gene expression was prevalent in these two hybrids, for non-additively expressed genes only represented a small portion of total expressed genes. A high proportion of genes exhibited expression level dominance, with no preference to either of the parental genomes. Comparison of homoeolog expressions also showed no bias toward any genomes and the parental expression patterns were often maintained in the hybrids and natural allotetraploids. Although, the overall patterns of gene expression were highly conserved between two hybrids, the extracted B. rapa responded less and appeared more compatible for hybridization than the extant B. rapa. Our results suggested that expression level dominance and homoeolog expressions bias were balanced at the initial stage of genome merger, and such balance were largely maintained during the domestication of B. napus, despite the increased extent over time. PMID:27790227

  5. Identification of a potential structural marker for embryogenic competency in the Brassica napus spp. oleifera embryogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Parameswari; Skepper, Jeremy; Hanke, David

    2006-09-01

    The Brassica napus secondary embryogenesis system requires no exogenous growth regulator to stimulate embryo development. It is stable embryogenically over a long period of culture and has a distinct pre-embryogenic stage. This system was used to investigate the morphological and cellular changes occurring in the embryogenic tissue compared to non-embryogenic tissue using various microscopy techniques. A unique ultrastructural feature designated the extracellular matrix (ECM) was observed on the surface of pre-embryogenic embryoids but not on the non-embryogenic individuals. The ECM layer was found to be dominant in the pre-embryogenic stage and reduced to fragments during embryo growth and development in mature embryogenic tissue. This is a novel aspect of the phenotype previously unreported in the Brassica system. This structure might be linked to acquisition of embryogenic competence.

  6. Endogenous Gibberellins and Shoot Growth and Development in Brassica napus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B.; Mandel, Roger; Pharis, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus, annual Canola variety `Westar') plants were harvested at six dates from the vegetative phase until the early pod (silique)-fill/late flowering stage. Endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were extracted from stems, purified, and chromatographed on silica gel partition columns prior to bioassay in serial dilution using the `Tan-ginbozu' dwarf rice microdrop assay. The concentrations of total endogenous GA-like substances were low during vegetative stages (1 nanogram GA3 equivalents/gram dry weight), and rose 300-fold by the time of floral initiation. After floral initiation the concentration of GA-like substances fell, then rose again during bolting to maximal levels during the early pod-fill stage (940 nanograms per gram dry weight). The qualitative profiles of GA-like substances varied across harvests, with higher proportions of a GA1-like substance at the early pod-fill stage. In a second study stems were similarly harvested at eight dates and the concentrations of endogenous GA1, the principal bioactive native GA of oilseed rape, were determined by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [17,17-2H]GA1 as a quantitative internal standard. The concentration of GA1 increased at about the time of floral initiation and then subsequently fell, thus confirming the pattern noted above for total GA-like substances. The exogenous application of paclobutrazol (PP333), a persistent triazole plant growth regulator (PGR) which blocks GA biosynthesis, or another triazole, triapenthenol (RSW0411), prevented flowering as well as bolting; plants remained at the vegetative rosette stage. These results imply a causal role for endogenous GA, in the control of bolting, which normally precedes anthesis. Further, the rise in the concentration of total endogenous GA-like substances, including GA1, which was associated with floral initiation, and the prevention of visable floral development by the triazole PGRs, also indicates

  7. Brassica napus DS-3, encoding a DELLA protein, negatively regulates stem elongation through gibberellin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Haitao; Li, Juanjuan; Wang, Bo; Dai, Cheng; Wang, Jing; Liu, Kede

    2017-04-01

    Identification and characterization of a semi-dwarfing gene ds-3 encoding a mutant DELLA protein regulating plant height through gibberellin signaling pathway. Lodging is one of the most important factors causing severe yield loss in oilseed rape. Utilization of semi-dwarf varieties has been proved the most effective way to increase lodging resistance and yield in many crops. To develop semi-dwarf germplasm in oilseed rape, we identified a semi-dwarf mutant ds-3 which showed a reduced response to phytohormones gibberellins (GAs). Genetic analysis indicated the dwarfism was controlled by a single semi-dominant gene, ds-3. The DS-3 gene was mapped to a genomic region on chromosome C07, which is syntenic to the region of a previously identified semi-dwarf gene ds-1 (BnaA06.RGA). In this region, DS-3 (BnaC07.RGA) gene was identified to encode a DELLA protein that functions as a repressor in GA signaling pathway. A substitution of proline to leucine was identified in ds-3 in the conserved VHYNP motif, which is essential for GA-dependent interaction between gibberellin receptor GID1 and DELLA proteins. Segregation analysis in the F2 population derived from the cross between ds-1 and ds-3 demonstrated that BnaA06.RGA displayed a stronger effect on plant height than BnaC07.RGA, indicating that different RGA genes may play different roles in stem elongation. In addition to BnaA06.RGA and BnaC07.RGA, two more RGA genes (BnaA09.RGA and BnaC09.RGA) were identified in the Brassica napus (B. napus) genome. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays suggest that both BnaA09.RGA and BnaC09.RGA are transcribed in leaves and stems and can mediate GA signaling in vivo. These genes represent potential targets for screening ideal semi-dwarfing alleles for oilseed rape breeding.

  8. Identification of a Novel Proline-Rich Antimicrobial Peptide from Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Cao

    Full Text Available Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PR-AMPs are a group of cationic host defense peptides that are characterized by a high content of proline residues. Up to now, they have been reported in some insects, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, but are not found in plants. In this study, we performed an in silico screening of antimicrobial peptides, which led to discovery of a Brassica napus gene encoding a novel PR-AMP. This gene encodes a 35-amino acid peptide with 13 proline residues, designated BnPRP1. BnPRP1 has 40.5% identity with a known proline-rich antimicrobial peptide SP-B from the pig. BnPRP1 was artificially synthetized and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a/His-EDDIE-GFP. Recombinant BnPRP1 was produced in Escherichia coli and has a predicted molecular mass of 3.8 kDa. Analysis of its activity demonstrated that BnPRP1 exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacterium, Gram-negative bacterium, yeast and also had strong antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Mucor sp., Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea. Circular dichroism (CD revealed the main secondary structure of BnPRP1 was the random coil. BnPRP1 gene expression detected by qRT-PCR is responsive to pathogen inoculation. At 48 hours after S. sclerotiorum inoculation, the expression of BnPRP1 increased significantly in the susceptible lines while slight decrease occurred in resistant lines. These suggested that BnPRP1 might play a role in the plant defense response against S. sclerotiorum. BnPRP1 isolated from B. napus was the first PR-AMP member that was characterized in plants, and its homology sequences were found in some other Brassicaceae plants by the genome sequences analysis. Compared with the known PR-AMPs, BnPRP1 has the different primary sequences and antimicrobial activity. Above all, this study gives a chance to cast a new light on further understanding about the AMPs' mechanism

  9. Identification and characterization of orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Andrew Ford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving crop species by breeding for salt tolerance or introducing salt tolerant traits is one method of increasing crop yields in saline affected areas. The model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has been extensively studied and there is substantial information available about the function and importance of many genes and proteins involved in salt tolerance. The identification and characterization of A. thaliana orthologs in species such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape can prove difficult due to the significant genomic changes that have occurred since their divergence approximately 20 million years ago. The recently released B. rapa genome provides an excellent resource for comparative studies of Arabidopsis and the cultivated Brassica species, and facilitates the identification of Brassica species orthologs which may be of agronomic importance. Sodium hydrogen antiporter (NHX proteins transport a sodium or potassium ion in exchange for a hydrogen ion in the other direction across a membrane. In A. thaliana there are eight members of the NHX family designated AtNHX1-8 that can be sub-divided into three clades (plasma membrane (PM, intracellular class I (IC-I and intracellular class II (IC-II based on their subcellular localization. In plants, many NHX proteins are primary determinants of salt tolerance and act by transporting Na+ out of the cytosol where it would otherwise accumulate to toxic levels. Significant work has been done analyzing both PM and IC-I clade members role in salt tolerance in a variety of plant species but relatively little analysis has been described for the IC-II clade. Here we describe the identification of B. napus orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, using the Brassica rapa genome sequence, macro- and micro-synteny analysis, comparative expression and promoter motif analysis, and highlight the value of these multiple approaches for identifying true orthologs in closely related species with multiple paralogs.

  10. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapsis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus sativus L. (oil-radish) and Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) into oil-seed r

  11. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

    2004-10-01

    Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.

  12. Seeding date affects fall growth of winter canola (Brassica napus L. ‘Baldur’) and its performance as a winter cover crop in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, interest has increased in finding non-grass cover crop species that could be planted after soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) and before corn (Zea mays L.) in Iowa crop rotations. In this study, we investigate the use of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) as an alternative cover crop fo...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beneficial Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569, a Natural Isolate of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Thuermer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Braus, Gerhard H

    2015-03-26

    Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569 represents a natural isolate of the rhizosphere of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Germany and possesses antagonistic potential toward the fungal pathogen Verticillium. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain DSM 8569, which comprises 5,914 protein-coding sequences.

  14. Seed losses during the harvesting of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. at on-farm scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian environments, the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is subjected, at ripening, to a seed shattering causing significant losses that reduce the yield and increase the oilseed rape seedbank in the soil. Meteorological events and mechanical harvesting are the main factors affecting the extent of seed dispersal. Lacking the availability of works investigating the actual losses during the harvest at large scale, the Consiglio per la sperimentazione e la ricerca in agricoltura, Unità di ricerca per l’ingegneria agraria (CRA-ING has conducted a study in order to determine the effective seed losses at on-farm scale. The amount of losses of two combine headers, traditional for wheat and specific for oilseed rape harvest, was compared. The rapeseed header had a hydraulic sliding cut-bar and two vertical electric blade on both sides in order to reduce the pulling and tearing action between the cut-off plants and those still standing. The seed losses were evaluated before and during the harvesting by using plastic trays placed on the ground within the crop rows. The trays were arranged in a layout allowing the estimation of the seed losses of three different sectors of the combine headers. The results have demonstrated that, at farm level, the use of a specific oilseed rape header adapted and optimized for the crop requirements allows to obtain a level of seed losses (0,97% of total production, below the values reported in literature. For rapeseed, the higher losses are localized at the final parts of the head, where the plants are strictly intertwined.

  15. Methyl jasmonate regulates antioxidant defense and suppresses arsenic uptake in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Farooq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl jasmonate (MJ is an important plant growth regulator, involved in plant defense against abiotic stresses, however its possible function in response to metal stress is poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of MJ on physiological and biochemical changes of the plants exposed to arsenic (As stress were investigated in two Brassica napus L. cultivars (ZS 758 – a black seed type, and Zheda 622 – a yellow seed type. The As treatment at 200 µM was more phytotoxic, however its combined application with MJ resulted in significant increase in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass production and reduced malondialdehyde content compared with As stressed plants. The application of MJ minimized the oxidative stress, as revealed via a lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis (H2O2 and OH- in leaves and the maintenance of high redox states of glutathione and ascorbate. Enhanced enzymatic activities and gene expression of important antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT, POD, secondary metabolites (PAL, PPO, CAD and induction of lypoxygenase gene suggest that MJ plays an effective role in the regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways which were involved in oxidative stress responses. The content of As was higher in yellow seeded plants (cv. Zheda 622 as compared to black seeded plants (ZS 758. The application of MJ significantly reduced the As content in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Findings of the present study reveal that MJ improves ROS scavenging through enhanced antioxidant defense system, secondary metabolite and reduced As contents in both the cultivars.

  16. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  17. Activation of rape (Brassica napus L. embryo during seed germination. III. Ultrastructure of dry embryo axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Kuraś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mature dry winter rape (Brassica napus L., var. oleifera, cv. Górczański embryos were studied in the light and the electron microscope. Considerable modifications and regression of the cell ultrastructure were noted in the resting embryo as compared with the metabolically active cells. The degree of regression of the ultrastructure differed in the particular organs and tissues of the embryo. Of most regressed character are the cells of the storage organs - the hypocotyl and cotyledones. They are almost completely filled with protein and lipid bodies. The small spaces between them are filled with dense cytoplasm with a lobular nucleus and not numerous, difficult to identify, plastids and mitochondria. The cells of the shoot primordium and radicle, particularly of the protoderm at the boundary of the hypocotyl and root and columella of root cap have a less regressed ultrastructure. They contain less storage material, a less dense cytoplasm and nearly all cell organelles with a normal appearance. The mitochondria are quite numerous with rather large cristae. Plastids are large with characteristic infolds filled with cytoplasm and some lamellae and a few agglomerations of plastoglobules. The nucleus is lobular with distinctly double and porous nuclear envelope and uniformly dense nucleolus. These cells do not contain dictyosomes and the ER is reduced to short, mostly rough cisternae and vesicles. Cells within the columella itself are also differentiated. The least regression of ultrastructure is seen in the cells of external layers containing the most numerous and most active looking mitochondria and more ER structures. The promeristem cells are similar to those of the deeper columella layers but their mitochondria are more regressed. The cells of the lateral parts of the cap and radicle cells, distant from the promeristem are more similar to the hypocotyl cells.

  18. Response of Brassica napus L grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid

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    Salarizdah Mohammadreza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research, effect of grain soaking presowing in (0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 5 mM of salicylic acid (SA and NaCl (0, 4, 8 and 12 dsm-1 on canola (Brassica napus L was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage(GP, Average velocity of germination (AVG and growth parameters of 15-day old seedlings in compared to control plants. pretreated of SA in content 1mM significantly increased the germination percentage, and in contents more than of 1mM reduced the germination percentage in seeds under salinity stress. SA in content 1mM increased RWC, root and shoot of fresh weight in the stressed seedlings. Increasing of NaCl level increased Electrolyte leakage and MDA content in the stress seedling. electrolyte leakage and MDA content were markedly reduced under salt stress with SA 1mM than without. It was concluded that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator to improve salt tolerance in canola. Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  19. Fatty Acid and Transcript Profiling in Developing Seeds of Three Brassica napus Cultivars

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    Petkova Mariana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid levels and gene expression profiles for selected genes associated with the synthesis of fatty acids (FA, triacylglycerol, and oil body proteins were examined in three oilseed rape (Brassica napus cultivars that have utility for cultivar development in our spring canola breeding program. The seed oil content of Bronowski, Q2, and Westar was 39.0, 40.1, and 40.6%, respectively at 40 days after flowering (DAF. During the 20 to 40 day period of seed development, cultivars had varying levels of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosenoic, and erucic acid. In general, the percentage of each FA was similar among the cultivars during seed development. However, the level of oleic acid was lower and the levels of eicosenoic acid and erucic acid were higher in Bronowski than in Q2 and Westar seeds; linoleic acid also tended to be lower in Bronowski. Gene expression among the cultivars was similar from 10 to 40 DAF. The few exceptions were that expression of KAS1 and SAD were higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 25 DAF, SAD was highest in Q2, intermediate in Westar, and lowest in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD2 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 35 DAF, FAD3 was higher in Q2 than in Bronowski at 15 DAF and Q2 and Westar at 25 and 30 DAF, and FAE1 was higher in Westar and Q2 than in Bronowski at 30 DAF. Correlation analysis for gene expression against DAF for each genotype supported a common trend in gene expression among the three cultivars with gene expression tending to decrease over time; except for LPAAT, which tended to increase. The correlation between the level of FAs and expression of genes by genotype indicated no general trend; rather correlations seem to depend on the genotype.

  20. The biocontrol agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 primes Brassica napus defenses through distinct gene networks.

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    Duke, Kelly A; Becker, Michael G; Girard, Ian J; Millar, Jenna L; Dilantha Fernando, W G; Belmonte, Mark F; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2017-06-19

    The biological control agent Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is capable of protecting Brassica napus (canola) from the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum via direct antagonism. While we have elucidated bacterial genes and gene products responsible biocontrol, little is known about how the host plant responds to bacterial priming on the leaf surface, including global changes in gene activity in the presence and absence of S. sclerotiorum. Application of PA23 to the aerial surfaces of canola plants reduced the number of S. sclerotiorum lesion-forming petals by 91.1%. RNA sequencing of the host pathogen interface showed that pretreatment with PA23 reduced the number of genes upregulated in response to S. sclerotiorum by 16-fold. By itself, PA23 activated unique defense networks indicative of defense priming. Genes encoding MAMP-triggered immunity receptors detecting flagellin and peptidoglycan were downregulated in PA23 only-treated plants, consistent with post-stimulus desensitization. Downstream, we observed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production involving low levels of H2O2 and overexpression of genes associated with glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P)-mediated systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Leaf chloroplasts exhibited increased thylakoid membrane structures and chlorophyll content, while lipid metabolic processes were upregulated. In addition to directly antagonizing S. sclerotiorum, PA23 primes the plant defense response through induction of unique local and systemic defense networks. This study provides novel insight into the effects of biocontrol agents applied to the plant phyllosphere. Understanding these interactions will aid in the development of biocontrol systems as an alternative to chemical pesticides for protection of important crop systems.

  1. Yield and Yield Components of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L. Affected by

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    M AghaAlikhani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the critical period of weed control and investigation the effect of periodical control and interference of weeds natural population on yield and yield components of winter canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Okapi in west region of Tehran an experiment was carried out at research field of Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran on 2004-5 growing season. Fourteen experimental treatments which divided into two sets were arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. In the first set, the crop was kept weedfree from canola emergence time to two-leaf stage (V2, four-leaf stage (V4, six-leaf stage (V6, eight-leaf stage (V8, initiation of flowering (If, %50 of pod set (%50Ps and final harvest (H. In the second set of treatments, weeds were permitted to grow with the crop until above mentioned stages and then related plots kept weed free till end of season. Furthermore two additional treatments known as whole season control and whole season weed infested were established. At mentioned phonological stages in interference treatments weeds were removed, separated to species and measured for dry weight. Also during canola growth season trend of plant height and dry matter distribution were studied. At the end of season canola grain yield and yield components were determined. Results showed that extending interference duration and limiting weed control duration significantly decreased all canola yield components except 1000 grain weight .Furthermore extended weed interference duration up to canola 4-leaf stage decreased %20-70 of grain yield in compare to whole season control. Delayed weed control up to early rosette stage creates decreasing trend in canola grain yield. According to Gompertz and Logistic equations, critical period of weed control in canola was estimated between 25-70 days after emergence of canola.

  2. Detection of DNA methylation changes during seed germination in rapeseed (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guangyuan; WU Xiaoming; CHEN Biyun; GAO Guizhen; XU Kun; LI Xiangzhi

    2006-01-01

    DNA methylation is known to play a crucial role in regulating plant development and organ or tissue differentiation. In this study, we assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation during rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seed germination, and compared the methylation level of various tissues in seedling, using the techniques of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and HPLC separation and quantification of nucleosides. In all, 484 bands, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers, were amplified by 12 pairs of selective primers in DNA obtained from dry seeds. A total of 76 sites were found to be differentially digested by the isoschizomers, indicating that approximately 15.7% of 5(-CCGG-3( sites in the genome were cytosine methylated. Four classes of patterns were observed in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation in the dry and germinating seeds; a small number of hypermethylation events occurred at 5(-CCGG-3( sites in germinating seeds compared with dry seeds, while many more hypomethylation events were detected after seed germination. Differences in DNA methylation level in various tissues were also detected; radicel was less methylated than hypocotyl and cotyledon. These observations were further confirmed by HPLC analysis. In addition, sequencing of eleven differentially methylated fragments and the subsequent blast search revealed that cytosine methylated 5(-CCGG- 3( sequences were equally distributed between coding and non-coding regions. These results clearly demonstrate the power of MSAP technique for large-scale DNA methylation detection in rapeseed genome, and the complexity of DNA methylation change during seed germination. DNA Hypomethylation going with seed germination appears to be a necessary step toward transcriptional activation in gene expression, and 5 well contribute to the developmental gene regulation.

  3. Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

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    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.

  4. Genome-wide identification of Brassica napus microRNAs and their targets in response to cadmium.

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    Zhou, Zhao Sheng; Song, Jian Bo; Yang, Zhi Min

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a distinct class of small RNAs in plants that not only regulate biological processes but also regulate response to environmental stresses. The toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) induces expression of several miRNAs in rapeseed (Brassica napus), but it is not known on a genome-wide scale how the expression of miRNAs and their target genes, is regulated by Cd. In this study, four small RNA libraries and four degradome libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and non-Cd-treated roots and shoots of B. napus seedlings. Using high-throughput sequencing, the study identified 84 conserved and non-conserved miRNAs (belonging to 37 miRNA families) from Cd-treated and non-treated B. napus, including 19 miRNA members that were not identified before. Some of the miRNAs were validated by RNA gel blotting. Most of the identified miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in roots/shoots or regulated by Cd exposure. The study simultaneously identified 802 targets for the 37 (24 conserved and 13 non-conserved) miRNA families, from which there are 200, 537, and 65 targets, belonging to categories I, II, and III, respectively. In category I alone, many novel targets for miRNAs were identified and shown to be involved in plant response to Cd.

  5. Determination of Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Mutant Lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Raza; Aquil Siddique; Imtiaz Ahmad Khan; Muhammed Yasin Ashraf; Abdullah Khatri

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), γ-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17)of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95116, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. 'Westar' (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3-41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1-28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.

  6. Effect of arabinogalactan proteins from the root caps of pea and Brassica napus on Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore chemotaxis and germination.

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    Cannesan, Marc Antoine; Durand, Caroline; Burel, Carole; Gangneux, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Laval, Karine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2012-08-01

    Root tips of many plant species release a number of border, or border-like, cells that are thought to play a major role in the protection of root meristem. However, little is currently known on the structure and function of the cell wall components of such root cells. Here, we investigate the sugar composition of the cell wall of the root cap in two species: pea (Pisum sativum), which makes border cells, and Brassica napus, which makes border-like cells. We find that the cell walls are highly enriched in arabinose and galactose, two major residues of arabinogalactan proteins. We confirm the presence of arabinogalactan protein epitopes on root cap cell walls using immunofluorescence microscopy. We then focused on these proteoglycans by analyzing their carbohydrate moieties, linkages, and electrophoretic characteristics. The data reveal (1) significant structural differences between B. napus and pea root cap arabinogalactan proteins and (2) a cross-link between these proteoglycans and pectic polysaccharides. Finally, we assessed the impact of root cap arabinogalactan proteins on the behavior of zoospores of Aphanomyces euteiches, an oomycetous pathogen of pea roots. We find that although the arabinogalactan proteins of both species induce encystment and prevent germination, the effects of both species are similar. However, the arabinogalactan protein fraction from pea attracts zoospores far more effectively than that from B. napus. This suggests that root arabinogalactan proteins are involved in the control of early infection of roots and highlights a novel role for these proteoglycans in root-microbe interactions.

  7. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Salt Tolerance and Identification of Salt-Tolerant Genes in Brassica napus L

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    Lina Lang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of typical abiotic stresses that seriously limit crop production. In this study, a genetic linkage map based on 532 molecular markers covering 1341.1 cM was constructed to identify the loci associated with salt tolerance in Brassica napus. Up to 45 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for 10 indicators were identified in the F2:3 populations. These QTLs can account for 4.80–51.14% of the phenotypic variation. A major QTL, qSPAD5 on LG5 associated with chlorophyll can be detected in three replicates. Two intron polymorphic (IP markers in this QTL region were developed successfully to narrow down the QTL location to a region of 390 kb. A salt tolerance related gene Bra003640 was primary identified as the candidate gene in this region. The full length of the candidate gene was 1,063 bp containing three exons and two introns in B. napus L. The open reading frame (ORF is 867 bp and encodes 287 amino acids. Three amino acid differences (34, 54, and 83 in the conserved domain (B-box were identified. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the gene expression had significant difference between the two parents. The study laid great foundation for salt tolerance related gene mapping and cloning in B. napus L.

  8. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  9. Phenolic Composition Analysis and Gene Expression in Developing Seeds of Yellow-and Black-seeded Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjin Jiang; Yanlin Shao; Aimin Li; Chunliang Lu; Yongtai Zhang; Youping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Breeders have focused on yellow-seeded Brassica napus (rapeseed) for its better quality compared with the black-seeded variety.Moreover,flavonoids have been associated with this kind of rapeseed.In this study,we applied lipid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn) to compare flavonoids in developing seeds of natural black-seeded B.napus and yellow-seeded introgression lines selected from progenies of B.napus-Sinapis alba somatic hybrids.Aside from the most abundant phenolic compounds (sinapine and sinapic acid) and 1,2-disinapoylglucose,16 different flavonoids were identified and quantified,including (-)-epicatechin,five monocharged oligomers of (-)-epicatechin ([DP 2]-,[DP 3]-,[DP 4] [DP 2]-B2 and [DP 2]-B5),quercetin,kaempferol,isorhamnetin-dihexoside,kaempferol-sinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetinsinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetin-hexoside-sulfate,and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside.Most of the flavonoids accumulated with seed development,whereas some rapidly decreased during maturation.The content of these flavonoids was lower in the yellow-seeded materials than in the black seeds.In addition,variations of insoluble procyanidin oligomers and soluble phenolic acids were observed among both rapeseed varieties.Transcriptome changes of genes participating in the flavonoid pathway were discovered by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis.Consistent with flavonoid changes identified by high performance liquid chromatography analysis,the expression of most genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was also downregulated.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of Seed Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) and Hull Content in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lijuan; Qu, Cunmin; Xu, Xinfu; Lu, Kun; Qian, Wei; Li, Jiana; Li, Maoteng; Liu, Liezhao

    2015-01-01

    A stable yellow-seeded variety is the breeding goal for obtaining the ideal rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant, and the amount of acid detergent lignin (ADL) in the seeds and the hull content (HC) are often used as yellow-seeded rapeseed screening indices. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis of 520 accessions was performed using the Q + K model with a total of 31,839 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites. As a result, three significant associations on the B. napus chromosomes A05, A09, and C05 were detected for seed ADL content. The peak SNPs were within 9.27, 14.22, and 20.86 kb of the key genes BnaA.PAL4, BnaA.CAD2/BnaA.CAD3, and BnaC.CCR1, respectively. Further analyses were performed on the major locus of A05, which was also detected in the seed HC examination. A comparison of our genome-wide association study (GWAS) results and previous linkage mappings revealed a common chromosomal region on A09, which indicates that GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary strategy for dissecting complex traits in B. napus. Genomic selection (GS) utilizing the significant SNP markers based on the GWAS results exhibited increased predictive ability, indicating that the predictive ability of a given model can be substantially improved by using GWAS and GS. PMID:26673885

  11. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-12-14

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features.

  12. Characterization of interploid hybrids from crosses between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea and the production of yellow-seeded B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhu, Lixia; Qi, Liping; Ke, Hongmei; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-06-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica napus was for the first time developed from interspecific crosses using yellow-seeded B. juncea (AABB), yellow-seeded B. oleracea (CC), and black-seeded artificial B. napus (AACC). Three different mating approaches were undertaken to eliminate B-genome chromosomes after trigenomic hexaploids (AABBCC) were generated. Hybrids (AABCC, ABCC) from crosses AABBCC × AACC, AABBCC × CC and ABCC × AACC were advanced by continuous selfing in approach 1, 2 and 3, respectively. To provide more insight into Brassica genome evolution and the cytological basis for B. napus resynthesis in each approach, B-genome chromosome pairing and segregation were intensively analyzed in AABCC and ABCC plants using genomic in situ hybridization methods. The frequencies at which B-genome chromosomes underwent autosyndesis and allosyndesis were generally higher in ABCC than in AABCC plants. The difference was statistically significant for allosyndesis but not autosyndesis. Abnormal distributions of B-genome chromosomes were encountered at anaphase I, including chromosome lagging and precocious sister centromere separation of univalents. These abnormalities were observed at a significantly higher frequency in AABCC than in ABCC plants, which resulted in more rapid B-genome chromosome elimination in the AABCC derivatives. Yellow or yellow-brown seeds were obtained in all approaches, although true-breeding yellow-seeded B. napus was developed only in approaches 2 and 3. The efficiency of the B. napus construction approaches was in the order 1 > 3 > 2 whereas this order was 3 > 2 > 1 with respect to the construction of yellow-seeded B. napus. The results are discussed in relation to Brassica genome evolution and the development and utilization of the yellow-seeded B. napus obtained here.

  13. High-Density SNP Map Construction and QTL Identification for the Apetalous Character in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Kunjiang; Li, Hongge; Peng, Qi; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Song; Hu, Maolong; Zhang, Jiefu

    2015-01-01

    The apetalous genotype is a morphological ideotype for increasing seed yield and should be of considerable agricultural use; however, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of this trait in Brassica napus. In the present study, a recombinant inbred line, the AH population, containing 189 individuals was derived from a cross between an apetalous line ‘APL01’ and a normally petalled variety ‘Holly’. The Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array harboring 52,157 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers was used to genotype the AH individuals. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed based on 2,755 bins involving 11,458 SNPs and 57 simple sequence repeats, and was used to identify loci associated with petalous degree (PDgr). The linkage map covered 2,027.53 cM, with an average marker interval of 0.72 cM. The AH map had good collinearity with the B. napus reference genome, indicating its high quality and accuracy. After phenotypic analyses across five different experiments, a total of 19 identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) distributed across chromosomes A3, A5, A6, A9 and C8 were obtained, and these QTLs were further integrated into nine consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Interestingly, the major QTL qPD.C8-2 was consistently detected in all five experiments, and qPD.A9-2 and qPD.C8-3 were stably expressed in four experiments. Comparative mapping between the AH map and the B. napus reference genome suggested that there were 328 genes underlying the confidence intervals of the three steady QTLs. Based on the Gene Ontology assignments of 52 genes to the regulation of floral development in published studies, 146 genes were considered as potential candidate genes for PDgr. The current study carried out a QTL analysis for PDgr using a high-density SNP map in B. napus, providing novel targets for improving seed yield. These results advanced our understanding of the genetic control of PDgr regulation in B. napus. PMID:26779193

  14. Identiifcation of the Regulator of G-Protein Signaling Protein Responsive to Plant Hormones and Abiotic Stresses in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; ZHU Xia; ZHU Xiao-bin; YU Yi-fan; GE Hui-min; GAO Yong; LIANG Jian-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling proteins (RGS) accelerate the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Gαproteins, thus acting as negative regulators of G-protein signaling. Studies on Arabidopsis and soybean have proven that RGS proteins are physiologically important in plants and contribute to the signaling pathways regulated by different stimuli. Brassica napus is an important agriculturally relevant plant, the wildly planted oilseed rape in the world, which possesses an identiifed Gα, Gβand Gγsubunits. In the present study, we identiifed and characterized a Brassica napus RGS gene, BnRGS1, which contained an open reading frame of 1 380 bp encoding a putative 52.6 kDa polypeptide of 459 amino acids, within seven putative transmembrane domains in the N-terminal and RGS box in the C-terminal. BnRGS1 is located on the membrane in onion epidermal cells and tobacco leaves, and interacts with BnGA1 in the mating-based split-ubiquitin system. The expression levels of BnRGS1 were quite different in different tissues and developmental stages, and induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The effects of gibberellin (GA3) and brassinolide (BR) on the expression of BnRGS1 were irregular under the concentrations tested. Moreover, the transcript level of BnRGS1 was also induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), whereas remained little changed by 200 mmol L-1 NaCl. These results suggested that the BnRGS1 may be involved in B. napus response to plant hormone signaling and abiotic stresses.

  15. Genomic DNA enrichment using sequence capture microarrays: a novel approach to discover sequence nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E Clarke

    Full Text Available Targeted genomic selection methodologies, or sequence capture, allow for DNA enrichment and large-scale resequencing and characterization of natural genetic variation in species with complex genomes, such as rapeseed canola (Brassica napus L., AACC, 2n=38. The main goal of this project was to combine sequence capture with next generation sequencing (NGS to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in specific areas of the B. napus genome historically associated (via quantitative trait loci -QTL- analysis to traits of agronomical and nutritional importance. A 2.1 million feature sequence capture platform was designed to interrogate DNA sequence variation across 47 specific genomic regions, representing 51.2 Mb of the Brassica A and C genomes, in ten diverse rapeseed genotypes. All ten genotypes were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences chemistry and to assess the effect of increased sequence depth, two genotypes were also sequenced using Illumina HiSeq chemistry. As a result, 589,367 potentially useful SNPs were identified. Analysis of sequence coverage indicated a four-fold increased representation of target regions, with 57% of the filtered SNPs falling within these regions. Sixty percent of discovered SNPs corresponded to transitions while 40% were transversions. Interestingly, fifty eight percent of the SNPs were found in genic regions while 42% were found in intergenic regions. Further, a high percentage of genic SNPs was found in exons (65% and 64% for the A and C genomes, respectively. Two different genotyping assays were used to validate the discovered SNPs. Validation rates ranged from 61.5% to 84% of tested SNPs, underpinning the effectiveness of this SNP discovery approach. Most importantly, the discovered SNPs were associated with agronomically important regions of the B. napus genome generating a novel data resource for research and breeding this crop species.

  16. Selection of reference genes for quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction normalization in Brassica napus under various stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Chen, Yu; Fang, Hedi; Shi, Haifeng; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-10-01

    Data normalization is essential for reliable output of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, as the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s), whose expression might be influenced by exogenous treatments in plant tissues, could cause misinterpretation of results. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in stressed Brassica napus. In this study, we investigated the expression variations of nine candidate reference genes in 40 samples of B. napus leaves subjected to various exogenous treatments. Parallel analyses by geNorm and NormFinder revealed that optimal reference genes differed across the different sets of samples. The best-ranked reference genes were PP2A and TIP41 for salt stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for heavy metal (Cr(6+)) stress, PP2A and UBC21 for drought stress, F-box and SAND for cold stress, F-box and ZNF for salicylic acid stress, TIP41, ACT7, and PP2A for methyl jasmonate stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for abscisic acid stress, and TIP41, UBC21, and PP2A for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. Two newly employed reference genes, TIP41 and PP2A, showed better performances, suggesting their suitability in multiple conditions. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes, the expression patterns of BnWRKY40 and BnMKS1 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR normalization in B. napus, an agriculturally important crop, under different stress conditions. The results will contribute toward more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in gene analysis of the genus Brassica.

  17. Overexpression of Three Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Genes in Brassica napus Identifies Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are notorious plant pathogenic fungi with an extensive host range including Brassica crops. Glucosinolates (GSLs are an important group of secondary metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important in plant protection. Enhancing the defense effect of GSL and their associated degradation products is an attractive strategy to strengthen the resistance of plants by transgenic approaches. We generated the lines of Brassica napus with three biosynthesis genes involved in GSL metabolic pathway (BnMAM1, BnCYP83A1 and BnUGT74B1, respectively. We then measured the foliar GSLs of each transgenic lines and inoculated them with S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Compared with the wild type control, over-expressing BnUGT74B1 in B. napus increased the aliphatic and indolic GSL levels by 1.7 and 1.5 folds in leaves respectively; while over-expressing BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1 resulted in an approximate 1.5-fold higher only in the aliphatic GSL level in leaves. The results of plant inoculation demonstrated that BnUGT74B1-overexpressing lines showed less severe disease symptoms and tissue damage compared with the wild type control, but BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1-overexpressing lines showed no significant difference in comparison to the controls. These results suggest that the resistance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea in B. napus could be enhanced through tailoring the GSL profiles by transgenic approaches or molecular breeding, which provides useful information to assist plant breeders to design improved breeding strategies.

  18. Comparative mapping reveals similar linkage of functional genes to QTL of yield-related traits between Brassica napus and Oryza sativa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fupeng Li; Chaozhi Ma; Qingfang Chen; Touming Liu; Jinxiong Shen; Jinxing Tu; Yongzhong Xing; Tingdong Fu

    2012-08-01

    Oryza sativa and Brassica napus—two important crops for food and oil, respectively—share high seed yield as a common breeding goal. As a model plant, O. sativa genomics have been intensively investigated and its agronomic traits have been advanced. In the present study, we used the available information on O. sativa to conduct comparative mapping between O. sativa and B. napus, with the aim of advancing research on seed-yield and yield-related traits in B. napus. Firstly, functional markers (from 55 differentially expressed genes between a hybrid and its parents) were used to detect B. napus genes that co-localized with yield-related traits in an F2∶3 population. Referring to publicly available sequences of 55 B. napus genes, 53 homologous O. sativa genes were subsequently detected by screening, and their chromosomal locations were determined using silico mapping. Comparative location of yield-related QTL between the two species showed that a total of 37 O. sativa and B. napus homologues were located in similar yield-related QTL between species. Our results indicate that homologous genes between O. sativa and B. napus may have consistent function and control similar traits, which may be helpful for agronomic gene characterization in B. napus based on what is known in O. sativa.

  19. Development of a protocol for frost-tolerance evaluation in rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danielle Fiebelkorn; Mukhlesur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost can severely damage or even kill rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. A protocol for large scale screening of rapeseed germplasm under frost-simulating conditions has not yet been developed. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to develop a protocol for screening rapeseed germplasm under artificial frost-simulation conditions in a plant growth chamber and in a greenhouse. Nine rapeseed varieties, including three commercial hybrids, three spring types, and three winter types were used. Cold acclimation at 4 °C was applied for 0, 7, or 14 days to two-week old seedlings. The seedlings were treated with four freezing temperatures (−4 °C, −8 °C, −12 °C, and −16 °C). The length of the freezing period was 16 h, including the ramping of temperature down from 4 °C and up from the respective freezing temperature to 4 °C. Plants were allowed to recover at 4 °C for 24 h before they were moved back to the greenhouse. Frost damage was scored on a 0–5 scale, where 0 denotes completely dead and 5 denotes no damage. Seedling survival from the freezing treatment increased from the non-acclimation to the cold acclimation treatment. However, no significant differences (P<0.05) were found between 7 and 14 days of acclimation. Frost treatment at −4 °C resulted in significant differences in seedling damage relative to the other three temperatures, with the −16 °C treatment resulting in the highest overall seedling damage. Significant differences were found between the spring type and the other two types (hybrid and winter). However, no significant differences were found between the hybrid and winter types. The suggested protocol for the assessment of frost tolerance is acclimation of two-week old seedlings for 7 days at 4 °C followed by frost treatment at−4 °C for 16 h.

  20. Members of the germin-like protein family in Brassica napus are candidates for the initiation of an oxidative burst that impedes pathogenesis of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Steffen; Bernsdorff, Friederike E M; Cai, Daguang

    2012-09-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are defined by their sequence homology to germins from barley and are present ubiquitously in plants. Analyses of corresponding genes have revealed diverse functions of GLPs in plant development and biotic and abiotic stresses. This study describes the identification of a family of 14 germin-like genes from Brassica napus (BnGLP) designated BnGLP1-BnGLP14 and investigated potential functions of BnGLPs in plant defense against the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses classify the 14 BnGLPs into four groups, which were clearly distinguished from known germin oxalic acid oxidases. Transcriptional responses of the BnGLP genes to S. sclerotiorum infection was determined by comparing cultivars of susceptible B. napus 'Falcon' and partially resistant B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9'. Of the 14 BnGLP genes tested, BnGLP3 was transcriptionally upregulated in both B. napus cultivars at 6h after S. sclerotiorum infection, while upregulation of BnGLP12 was restricted to resistant B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9'. Biochemical analysis of five representative BnGLP members identified a H(2)O(2)-generating superoxide dismutase activity only for higher molecular weight complexes of BnGLP3 and BnGLP12. By analogy, H(2)O(2) formation at infected leaf sites increased after 6h, with even higher H(2)O(2) production in B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9' compared with B. napus 'Falcon'. Conversely, exogenous application of H(2)O(2) significantly reduced the susceptibility of B. napus 'Falcon'. These data suggest that early induction of BnGLP3 and BnGLP12 participates in an oxidative burst that may play a pivotal role in defence of B. napus against S. sclerotiorum.

  1. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants.

  2. Modification of (137)Cs transfer to rape (Brassica napus L.) phytomass under the influence of soil microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareniuk, O; Shavanova, K; Laceby, J P; Illienko, V; Tytova, L; Levchuk, S; Gudkov, I; Nanba, K

    2015-11-01

    After nuclear accidents, such as those experienced in Chernobyl and Fukushima, microorganisms may help purify contaminated soils by changing the mobility of radionuclides and their availability for plants by altering the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Here, using model experiments with quartz sand as a substrate we investigate the influence of microorganisms on (137)Cs transfer from substrate to plants. The highest transition of (137)Cs from substrate to plants (50% increase compared to the control) was observed after Brassica napus L. seeds were inoculated by Azotobacter chroococcum. The best results for reducing the accumulation of (137)Cs radionuclides (30% less) were noted after the inoculation by Burkholderia sp.. Furthermore, Bacillus megaterium demonstrated an increased ability to accumulate (137)Cs. This research improves our prediction of the behavior of radionuclides in soil and may contribute towards new, microbiological countermeasures for soil remediation following nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal genetic correlations for seven essential amino acids in rapeseed meal (Brassica napus L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Lin Chen; Jian Guo Wu; Murali-Tottekkaad Variath; Zhong Wei Yang; Chun Hai Shi

    2011-04-01

    Genetic correlations of nutrient quality traits including lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine and threonine contents in rapeseed meal were analysed by the genetic model for quantitative traits of diploid plants using a diallel design with nine parents of Brassica napus L. These results indicated that the genetic correlations of embryo, cytoplasm and/or maternal plant havemade different contribution to total genetic correlations of most pairwise nutrient quality traits. The genetic correlations among the amino acids in rapeseed meal were simultaneously controlled by genetic main correlations and genotype × environment (GE) interaction correlations, especially for the maternal dominance correlations. Most components of genetic main correlations and GE interaction correlations for the pairwise traits studied were significantly positive. Some of the pairwise traits had negative genetic correlations, especially between valine and other amino acid contents. Indirect selection for improving the quality traits of rapeseed meal could be expected in rape breeding according to the magnitude and direction of genetic correlation components.

  4. Methylene blue adsorption onto swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) modified by tartaric acid: equilibrium, kinetic and adsorption mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yanfang; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Guohua; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Lu, Haiying; Yang, Linzhang; Wu, Yonghong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a promising and competitive bioadsorbent with the abundant of source, low price and environmentally friendly characters to remove cationic dye from wastewater. The swede rape straw (Brassica napus L.) modified by tartaric acid (SRSTA) was prepared, characterized and used to remove methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution at varied operational conditions (including MB initial concentrations, adsorbent dose, etc.). Results demonstrated that the equilibrium data was well fitted by Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum MB adsorption capacity of SRSTA was 246.4 mg g(-1), which was comparable to the results of some previous studied activated carbons. The higher dye adsorption capacity could be attributed to the presence of more functional groups such as carboxyl group on the surface of SRSTA. The adsorption mechanism was also discussed. The results indicate that SRSTA is a promising and valuable absorbent to remove methylene blue from wastewater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  6. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with (13)C-metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan O; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from (13)C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch and oil content.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of duplicated homoeologous regions involved in the resistance of Brassica napus to stem canker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berline eFopa Fomeju

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All crop species are current or ancient polyploids. Following whole genome duplication, structural and functional modifications result in differential gene content or regulation in the duplicated regions, which can play a fundamental role in the diversification of genes underlying complex traits. We have investigated this issue in Brassica napus, a species with a highly duplicated genome, with the aim of studying the structural and functional organization of duplicated regions involved in quantitative resistance to stem canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Genome-wide association analysis on two oilseed rape panels confirmed that duplicated regions of ancestral blocks E, J, R, U and W were involved in resistance to stem canker. The structural analysis of the duplicated genomic regions showed a higher gene density on the A genome than on the C genome and a better collinearity between homoeologous regions than paralogous regions, as overall in the whole B. napus genome. The three ancestral sub-genomes were involved in the resistance to stem canker and the fractionation profile of the duplicated regions corresponded to what was expected from results on the B. napus progenitors. About 60% of the genes identified in these duplicated regions were single-copy genes while less than 5% were retained in all the duplicated copies of a given ancestral block. Genes retained in several copies were mainly involved in response to stress, signaling or transcription regulation. Genes with resistance-associated markers were mainly retained in more than two copies. These results suggested that some genes underlying quantitative resistance to stem canker might be duplicated genes. Genes with a hydrolase activity that were retained in one copy or R-like genes might also account for resistance in some regions. Further analyses need to be conducted to indicate to what extent duplicated genes contribute to the expression of the

  8. Protein pattern of canola (Brassica napus L. changes in response to salt and salicylic acid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavizadeh Roya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salicylic acid (SA on the salt (NaCl tolerance mechanism was studied in canola plants (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. by molecular and physiological experiments in plant tissue culture. Seeds of B. napus ‘Ocapy’ were germinated at 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels (0, 2, and 5 μM of SA for 4 weeks. Total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid content increased in response to interactive effects of SA and NaCl treatments at some concentrations. Proline content was increased under salt and SA treatments in shoot and root tissues. Salt alone and in combination with SA increased the total soluble protein content of shoots only, while the different concentrations of SA in the culture media affected variously the total soluble protein content. Protein patterns of shoots and roots showed some remarkable differences, based on gel electrophoresis and the consequent analysis of bands by ImageJ program. The relative expression of 15 and 12 protein bands in shoots and roots, respectively, differed under the applied treatments. In addition, the protein profile indicated that salinity and SA regulate the expression of salt-stress-inducible proteins as well as induced de novo synthesis of specific polypeptides. The findings may help to explain the salt tolerance mechanisms and to produce salt-tolerant canola plants.

  9. Analysis of the contribution of acid phosphatase to P efficiency in Brassica napus under low phosphorus conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To understand whether genotypic variation in acid phosphatase (APase) activity in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) induced by phosphorus (P) deficiency has impact on P efficiency,soil APase activity in the rhizosphere for rapeseed P-efficient genotype 102 and P-inefficient genotype 105 was measured against organic and inorganic P sources in the pot experiment,and the activities of root-secreted APase and leaf intracellular APase were investigated in different P-starvation periods in the nutrient solution.Higher activity of root-secreted APase in B.napus was induced under low P conditions.However,P nutrition and P uptake efficiency of the plants supplied with organic P were not directly related to the activity of root-secreted APase due to several confounding factors affecting APase availability.The higher activity of leaf APase improved P remobilization in plants and played important roles in enhancing P use efficiency,shown by the significant correlation between leaf APase activity and P use efficiency in a rapeseed recombinant inbred population of 135 lines.

  10. Molecular cloning of a Brassica napus thiohydroximate S-glucosyltransferase gene and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marillia, Elizabeth-France; MacPherson, Jim M.; Tsang, Edward W. T.; Van Audenhove, Katrien; Keller, Wilf A.; GrootWassink, Jan W. D.

    2001-10-01

    A genomic clone encoding a thiohydroximate S-glucosyltransferase (S-GT) was isolated from Brassica napus by library screening with probes generated by PCR using degenerated primers. Its corresponding cDNA was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR and also cloned by cDNA library screening. The genomic clone was 5 896 bp long and contained a 173-bp intron. At least two copies of the S-GT gene were present in B. napus. The full-length cDNA clone was 1.5 kb long and contained an open reading frame encoding a 51-kDa polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a significant degree of homology with other glucosyltransferases characterized in other species, including a highly conserved motif within this family of enzymes corresponding to the glucose-binding domain. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme activity was tested by a biochemical assay based on the measure of glucose incorporation. The high thiohydroximate S-GT activity detected from the recombinant protein confirmed that this clone was indeed a S-glucosyltransferase.

  11. Alteration of chromosome behavior and synchronization of parental chromosomes after successive generations in Brassica napus x Orychophragmus violaceus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ma, Ni; Li, Zaiyun

    2007-02-01

    In an earlier study, the progenies of intergeneric hybrids Brassica napus (2n = 38) x Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24) were investigated in successive generations (F1-F4) for the cytological phenomenon of parental genome separation during mitotic and meiotic division. In the present study, inbred lines (F5-F8) derived from 1 such hybrid were characterized for morphology, chromosome pairing behaviour, and genome composition. One F5 plant (2n = 31) with slightly yellow petals and 12:19 and 15:16 segregation ratios in its pollen mother cells (PMCs) produced F6 plants with distinct morphological characteristics and wide variations in fertility and chromosome numbers (2n = 25-38). F7 and F8 lines with distinctive morphology and wide ranges in chromsome numbers were established. In PMCs of F7 plants from 4 F6 plants, 0-12 labelled chromosomes from O. violaceus, which predominantly appeared as bivalents, were identified by genomic in situ hybridization. They behaved synchronously with B. napus chromosomes during meiotic division. The results provide molecular cytogenetic evidence of the inclusion of O. violaceus chromosomes in the original hybrids and the cytology in the hybrids documented earlier. They also show that chromosome behaviour was altered and the parental chromosomes became synchronized after successive generations.

  12. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Gene Involved in Fatty Acid Synthesis in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gang; ZHANG Zhen-qian; LIU Rui-yang; YIN Chang-fa; WU Xian-meng; TAN Tai-long; GUAN Chun-yun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sequence of a novel expressed sequence tag (EST), the full-length cDNA of 1 017 nucleotides was cloned from Brassica napus cv. Xiangyou 15 through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The gene was designated as Bnhol34 (HQ585980), encoding a protein of 338 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed no high degree of sequence identity to any known gene. The calculated molecular weight of the Bnhol34 protein was 36.23 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 8.74. The Bnhol34 was also cloned from a high oleic acid mutant 854-1 through homologous cloning. There was no difference between the two Bnhol34 genes. Bnhol34 was localized in a tissue-specific manner in B. napus, and its expression level was about eight-fold greater in Xiangyou 15 seeds than in 854-1. The promoter region sequences of Bnhol34 were then isolated from Xiangyou 15 and 854-1, and a 93-bp deletion was found to occur in the Bnhol34 promoter region of 854-1. Three abscisic acid-responsive cis-elements (ABRE) were identified in the promoter region of Xiangyou 15. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that exogenous abscisic acid increased Bnhol34 expression by about four-fold in Xiangyou 15 seeds, yet did not change Bnhol34 expression in 854-1. It appeared that Bnhol34 might be abscisic acid insensitive in 854-1.

  13. Effect of Super Absorbent Application on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Canola (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars under Water Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Tohidi-Moghadam; A. H. Shirani-Rad; G. Nour-Mohammadi; D. Habibi; M. Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Drought stress significantly limits Canola (Brassica napus L.) growth and crop productivity. Hence, efficient management of soil moisture and study metabolic changes which occur in response to drought is important for agricultural production of this Crop. Approach: For a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improving soil water content management strategies, an experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block des...

  14. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found si...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  15. Gene expression profiling via LongSAGE in a non-model plant species: a case study in seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serial analysis of gene expression (LongSAGE was applied for gene expression profiling in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus. The usefulness of this technique for detailed expression profiling in a non-model organism was demonstrated for the highly complex, neither fully sequenced nor annotated genome of B. napus by applying a tag-to-gene matching strategy based on Brassica ESTs and the annotated proteome of the closely related model crucifer A. thaliana. Results Transcripts from 3,094 genes were detected at two time-points of seed development, 23 days and 35 days after pollination (DAP. Differential expression showed a shift from gene expression involved in diverse developmental processes including cell proliferation and seed coat formation at 23 DAP to more focussed metabolic processes including storage protein accumulation and lipid deposition at 35 DAP. The most abundant transcripts at 23 DAP were coding for diverse protease inhibitor proteins and proteases, including cysteine proteases involved in seed coat formation and a number of lipid transfer proteins involved in embryo pattern formation. At 35 DAP, transcripts encoding napin, cruciferin and oleosin storage proteins were most abundant. Over both time-points, 18.6% of the detected genes were matched by Brassica ESTs identified by LongSAGE tags in antisense orientation. This suggests a strong involvement of antisense transcript expression in regulatory processes during B. napus seed development. Conclusion This study underlines the potential of transcript tagging approaches for gene expression profiling in Brassica crop species via EST matching to annotated A. thaliana genes. Limits of tag detection for low-abundance transcripts can today be overcome by ultra-high throughput sequencing approaches, so that tag-based gene expression profiling may soon become the method of choice for global expression profiling in non-model species.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observa...

  17. Using the Proteomic Method to Research the Interaction between Brassica napus and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen; Ying Chen; Jiabin Shu; Tailong Tan; Qiuping Zhang; Mingzhi Yin; Chunyun Guan

    2012-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is an economically important oilseed crop that is cultivated worldwide,especially in China.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious disease in agronomically important crop species.S.sclerotiorum is a generalist parasite capable of infecting approximately 400 plant species,including canola,sunflower etc.The infection of S.sclerotiorum can cause the wilt even death of the plant and serious diseases affecting canola and has the potential to significantly limit yields and qualities.The biochemical and molecular events occurring in host plant tissues during disease progression are not clear and the molecular basis of plant defense to this pathogen is poorly understood.In this paper,we investigated protein expression changes associated with S.sclerotiorum and a susceptible and a resistant genotype of oilseed respectively using a proteomic method.we describe the changes in the leaf proteome of two lines of B.napus accompanying infection by S.sclerotiorum,which was investigated using two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and tandem MS.We have identified 42 proteins having levels that were modulated significantly at various time points after pathogen challenge,and the roles of these proteins are discussed within the context of the stem rot pathosystem.To investigate the mechanism of the resistance of S.sclerotiorum in oil rape,comparatively proteomic analysis was used to study the changes of proteins after infected by S.sclerotiorum,and the susceptible and the disease-resistant near-isogenic lines were used as the materials.Plants were selected for inoculation and sampling using a randomized design with three biological replicates for each cultivar.Each replicate consisted of 60 plants for three time points (24,48 and 72 hpi) and two treatments (inoculated and mock-inoculated controls).The tissues harvested from one biological replicate at each time point were pooled as one sample.Harvested tissues were frozen

  18. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  19. Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide resistant B. napus has become a model system for examining the risks of escape of transgenes from cultivation and for evaluating potential ecological consequences of novel genes in wild species. 2. We exam...

  20. Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide resistant B. napus has become a model system for examining the risks of escape of transgenes from cultivation and for evaluating potential ecological consequences of novel genes in wild species. 2. We exam...

  1. Discovery of clubroot-resistant genes in Brassica napus by transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S W; Liu, T; Gao, Y; Zhang, C; Peng, S D; Bai, M B; Li, S J; Xu, L; Zhou, X Y; Lin, L B

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot significantly affects plants of the Brassicaceae family and is one of the main diseases causing serious losses in B. napus yield. Few studies have investigated the clubroot-resistance mechanism in B. napus. Identification of clubroot-resistant genes may be used in clubroot-resistant breeding, as well as to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind B. napus clubroot-resistance. We used three B. napus transcriptome samples to construct a transcriptome sequencing library by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. In total, 171 million high-quality reads were obtained, containing 96,149 unigenes of N50-value. We aligned the obtained unigenes with the Nr, Swiss-Prot, clusters of orthologous groups, and gene ontology databases and annotated their functions. In the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database, 25,033 unigenes (26.04%) were assigned to 124 pathways. Many genes, including broad-spectrum disease-resistance genes, specific clubroot-resistant genes, and genes related to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signal transduction, cytokinin synthesis, and myrosinase synthesis in the Huashuang 3 variety of B. napus were found to be related to clubroot-resistance. The effective clubroot-resistance observed in this variety may be due to the induced increased expression of these disease-resistant genes and strong inhibition of the IAA signal transduction, cytokinin synthesis, and myrosinase synthesis. The homology observed between unigenes 0048482, 0061770 and the Crr1 gene shared 94% nucleotide similarity. Furthermore, unigene 0061770 could have originated from an inversion of the Crr1 5'-end sequence.

  2. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  3. Nitrogen Use Efficiency Is Mediated by Vacuolar Nitrate Sequestration Capacity in Roots of Brassica napus[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Liang; Song, Hai-Xing; Liao, Qiong; Yu, Yin; Lepo, Joe Eugene; Liu, Qiang; Rong, Xiang-Min; Tian, Chang; Zeng, Jing; Guan, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crop plants is an important breeding target to reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers, with substantial benefits to farmers and the environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), allocation of more NO3− to shoots was associated with higher NUE; however, the commonality of this process across plant species have not been sufficiently studied. Two Brassica napus genotypes were identified with high and low NUE. We found that activities of V-ATPase and V-PPase, the two tonoplast proton-pumps, were significantly lower in roots of the high-NUE genotype (Xiangyou15) than in the low-NUE genotype (814); and consequently, less vacuolar NO3− was retained in roots of Xiangyou15. Moreover, NO3− concentration in xylem sap, [15N] shoot:root (S:R) and [NO3−] S:R ratios were significantly higher in Xiangyou15. BnNRT1.5 expression was higher in roots of Xiangyou15 compared with 814, while BnNRT1.8 expression was lower. In both B. napus treated with proton pump inhibitors or Arabidopsis mutants impaired in proton pump activity, vacuolar sequestration capacity (VSC) of NO3− in roots substantially decreased. Expression of NRT1.5 was up-regulated, but NRT1.8 was down-regulated, driving greater NO3− long-distance transport from roots to shoots. NUE in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in proton pumps was also significantly higher than in the wild type col-0. Taken together, these data suggest that decrease in VSC of NO3− in roots will enhance transport to shoot and essentially contribute to higher NUE by promoting NO3− allocation to aerial parts, likely through coordinated regulation of NRT1.5 and NRT1.8. PMID:26757990

  4. The tolerant responses to NaCl Stress in IrrE-transgenic Brassica napus%转IrrE基因甘蓝型油菜对NaCl胁迫的耐受性应答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉斌; 代其林; 刘婷婷; 田霞; 龚元亚; 孙英坤; 杜世章; 王劲

    2011-01-01

    The tolerant responses to NaC1 stress in IrrE-transgenic Brassica napus were studied. The results showed that the activity of peroxidas (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in transgenic Brassica napus was gradually increased under 200 mmol/L NaCl during 0~48 h, but the activity of POD, SOD and CAT in non-transgenic Brassica napus was increased during 0~24 h and subsequently decreased after 24 h. The content of proline and the dissoluble proein in transgenic Brassica hapus was higher than non-transgenic Brassica napus, but the content of malonaldehyde(MDA) in transgenie Brassica napus was lower than non-transgenic Brassica napus. Therefore, IrrE gene enhanced the activities of three antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Brassica napus, and then enhanced the tolerance of Brassica napus against NaCl stress.%以转IrrE基因甘蓝型油菜为材料,研究了转IrrE基因甘蓝型油菜幼苗对NaCl胁迫的耐受性应答情况.在200mmol/L NaCl胁迫下,随着胁迫时间的延长,转IrrE基因和野生型油菜的POD、SOD和CAT三种抗氧化酶活性均增加,其中野生型油菜的三种抗氧化酶在24h后达到峰值,随后逐渐下降,而转IrrE基因油菜的三种抗氧化酶活性却持续增加,并在相同的胁迫时间内均高于野生型油菜的酶活性;同时转IrrE基因油菜的脯氨酸和可溶性蛋白质含量均比野生型油菜的高,但其丙二醛(MDA)的含量比野生型油菜的低.结果表明,IrrE基因作为一种转录因子可能广泛参与了油菜幼苗对NaCl胁迫的耐受性应答过程,从而提高了植物对NaCl胁迫的耐受能力.

  5. Differential regulation of gene products in newly synthesized Brassica napus allotetraploids is not related to protein function nor subcellular localization

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    Valot Benoît

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allopolyploidy is a preeminent process in plant evolution that results from the merger of distinct genomes in a common nucleus via inter-specific hybridization. Allopolyploid formation is usually related to genome-wide structural and functional changes though the underlying mechanisms operating during this "genomic shock" still remain poorly known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modifications occurring at the proteomic level following an allopolyploidization event and to determine whether these changes are related to functional properties of the proteins. In a previous report, we applied comparative proteomics to synthetic amphiploids of Brassica napus and to its diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Although several hundred polypeptides displayed additivity (i.e. mid-parent values in the amphiploids, many of them showed non-additivity. Here, we report the in silico functional characterization of the "non-additive" proteins (the ones with a non-additive pattern of regulation in synthetic B. napus. Results The complete set of non-additive proteins (335 in the stem and 205 in the root, as well as a subset of additive polypeptides (200 per organ, was identified by mass spectrometry. Several protein isoforms were found, and most of them (~55% displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the amphiploids, i.e. isoforms of the same protein showing both up-regulation and down-regulation in the synthetic B. napus compared to the mid-parent value. Components of protein complexes were identified of which ~50% also displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the allotetraploids. In silico functional categorization of the identified proteins was carried out, and showed that neither functional category nor metabolic pathway were systematically affected by non-additivity in the synthetic amphiploids. In addition, no subcellular compartment was found to be over- or under

  6. Evaluation of Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Four Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars in drought condition

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    A Jamshidi zinab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is one of the major crops cultivated mainly for oil, human consumption and renewable fuel all over the world. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors which adversely affect growth, metabolism and yield of crops in semiarid and arid area. Drought stress during any particular growth stage of crops causes yield reduction. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on yield, physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics of rapeseed in flowering stage, this field experiment was carried out in Yazd agricultural research institute during 2011-2012. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications imposed. Irrigation was considered as the main plot at two levels including control (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan and stress in the anthesis stage (irrigation after 160 mm evaporation from class A pan and cultivars (Oise, Triangle, Karun and SLM046 were considered as sub plots. Sampling was carried out 7, 12 and 26 days after drought stress imposed. In each plot, 7, 12 and 26 days after stop irrigation from flowering stage (drought stress treatment, 4-5 expanded leaves from above of canopy were harvested. Relative water content of leaves and stomatal conductance were recorded. Soluble carbohydrate and proline content were measured. The lipid peroxidation level of the leaves was determined by measuring the content of malondealdehyde. Yield and yield components (number of grains per pod, number of pod per plant and weight of 1000 grains were recorded at maturity. Results and Discussion The results showed that drought and cultivar interaction on SPAD value was not significant after stress. The interaction of the drought on leaf relative water content was significant at 26 days after the stress. The results revealed that, drought stress led to a significant decrease in relative

  7. Flowering Without Vernalization in Winter Canola (Brassica napus: use of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS to accelerate genetic gain

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    Raúl Álvarez-Venegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciclos de reproducción cortos y la oportunidad de incrementar la ganancia genética, junto con el estudio de las bases moleculares de la vernalización, son áreas esenciales de investigación dentro de la biología de plantas. Varios métodos se han empleado para lograr el silenciamiento génico en plantas, pero ninguno reportado a la fecha para canola (Brassica napus, y en particular para inducir la floración sin vernalización en líneas de invierno a través del uso de secuencias sentido de DNA en vectores diseñados para el silenciamiento génico inducido por virus (VIGS. La presente investigación provee los métodos para transitoriamente regular a la baja, por medio de VIGS, genes de la vernalización en plantas anuales de invierno, específicamente la familia de genes de Flowering Locus C (FLC en canola de invierno (BnFLC1 a BnFLC5. La regulación a la baja de estos genes permite a las plantas anuales de invierno florecer sin vernalización y, consecuentemente, provee los medios para acelerar la ganancia genética. El sistema de silenciamiento propuesto puede ser utilizado para regular a la baja familias de genes, para determinar la función génica, y para inducir la floración sin la vernalización en líneas de invierno tanto del género Brassica como de muchos cultivos importantes de invierno.

  8. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

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    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  9. The Vascular Pathogen Verticillium longisporum Does Not Affect Water Relations and Plant Responses to Drought Stress of Its Host, Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a host-specific vascular pathogen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) that causes economic crop losses by impairing plant growth and inducing premature senescence. This study investigates whether plant damage through Verticillium stem striping is due to impaired plant water relations, whether V. longisporum affects responses of a susceptible B. napus variety to drought stress, and whether drought stress, in turn, affects plant responses to V. longisporum. Two-factorial experiments on a susceptible cultivar of B. napus infected or noninfected with V. longisporum and exposed to three watering levels (30, 60, and 100% field capacity) revealed that drought stress and V. longisporum impaired plant growth by entirely different mechanisms. Although both stresses similarly affected plant growth parameters (plant height, hypocotyl diameter, and shoot and root dry matter), infection of B. napus with V. longisporum did not affect any drought-related physiological or molecular genetic plant parameters, including transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency, relative leaf water content, leaf proline content, or the expression of drought-responsive genes. Thus, this study provides comprehensive physiological and molecular genetic evidence explaining the lack of wilt symptoms in B. napus infected with V. longisporum. Likewise, drought tolerance of B. napus was unaffected by V. longisporum, as was the level of disease by drought conditions, thus excluding a concerted action of both stresses in the field. Although it is evident that drought and vascular infection with V. longisporum impair plant growth by different mechanisms, it remains to be determined by which other factors V. longisporum causes crop loss.

  10. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Two Brassica napus Near-Isogenic Lines Reveals a Network of Genes That Influences Seed Oil Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxue; Singh, Sanjay K.; Du, Chunfang; Li, Chen; Fan, Jianchun; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs). The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates significantly higher (∼10%) seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1), LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3), ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl-lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  11. Comparison of Leptosphaeria biglobosa-induced and chemically induced systemic resistance to L. maculans in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShengYi; LIU RenHu; Akinwunmi O. LATUNDE-DADA; Hans J. COOLS; Simon J. FOSTER; HUANG YongJu; Bruce D. L. FITT

    2007-01-01

    Brassica napus (cv. Madrigal) seedlings pre-treated with ascospores of Leptosphaeria biglobosa or foliar sprays of either acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) or menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB) were challenge inoculated with L. Maculans ascospores and assessed for phoma leaf spot development and tissue morphology and gene expression responses to infection. Rates of increase in phoma leaf spot area 8-21 d after challenge inoculation were significantly greater on water pre-treated plants than on plants pre-treated with L. Biglobosa, ASM or MSB on both pre-treated leaves (local effect) and younger leaves without pre-treatment (systemic effect). Ninety-six h after challenge inoculation, the invasive hyphae of L. Maculans were encircled by rings of necrotic mesophyll cells on leaves pre-treated with L.biglobosa, ASM or MSB but not those pre-treated with water. Quantification of transcript levels of genes commonly used as markers of the major defence signalling pathways (PDF1.2, PR-1, NPR1, APX,CHB4) 0-96 h after L. Maculans challenge inoculation showed expression patterns indicating preferential activation of the jasmonate/ethylene pathway and involved induction of NPR1 locally and systemically in leaves of plants pre-treated with L. Biglobosa ascospores.

  12. A comparison of screening methods to identify waterlogging tolerance in the field in Brassica napus L. during plant ontogeny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiling Zou

    Full Text Available Waterlogging tolerance is typically evaluated at a specific development stage, with an implicit assumption that differences in waterlogging tolerance expressed in these systems will result in improved yield performance in fields. It is necessary to examine these criteria in fields. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to screen waterlogging tolerance in 25 rapeseed (Brassica napus L. varieties at different developmental stages, such as seedling establishment stage and seedling stage at controlled environment, and maturity stage in the fields. The assessments for physiological parameters at three growth stages suggest that there were difference of waterlogging tolerance at all the development stages, providing an important basis for further development of breeding more tolerant materials. The results indicated that flash waterlogging restricts plant growth and growth is still restored after removal of the stress. Correlation analysis between waterlogging tolerance coefficient (WTC of yield and other traits revealed that there was consistency in waterlogging tolerance of the genotypes until maturity, and good tolerance at seedling establishment stage and seedling stage can guarantee tolerance in later stages. The waterlogging-tolerant plants could be selected using some specific traits at any stage, and selections would be more effective at the seedling establishment stage. Thus, our study provides a method for screening waterlogging tolerance, which would enable the suitable basis for initial selection of a large number of germplasm or breeding populations for waterlogging tolerance and help for verifying their potential utility in crop-improvement.

  13. The Relationship of Color Formation with Related Enzymes and Protein Contents in the Seedcoat of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ying; LI Jia-na

    2004-01-01

    Three pairs of near-isogenic lines with different genetic backgrounds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape (Brassica napus L.) were used as experiment materials to study the relationship of color formation in the seedcoat with enzyme activity and protein content in it. The results showed that with similar genetic backgrounds, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activities in the black-seeded lines were much higher than in their yellow-seeded counterparts and maximum PAL activity in the seedcoat occurred comparatively late while no significant difference was present in glutamine synthetase (GS) between the two types of rape. The plants were treated with red light,blue light, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (a PAL inhibitor), polyvinylpyridoxal (a PPO inhibitor),urea (a protein synthesis promoter) or chloramphenicol (CM, a plastid protein synthesis inhibitor) during seed development. It is speculated that PAL may be primarily responsible for coloration in the yellow seed; PPO may be the main factor contributing to the darkness of the testa of the black genotypes; and nitrogen assimilation is, probably, not directly related to the difference in protein content observed between yellow- and black-seeded genotypes, which may be induced mainly by PAL.

  14. Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase-producing fluorescent pseudomonads, to alleviate salinity stress on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Farzad; Khavazi, Kazem; Pazira, Ebrahim; Nejati, Alireza; Rahmani, Hadi Asadi; Sadaghiani, Hasan Rasuli; Miransari, Mohammad

    2009-04-01

    Salinity stress is of great importance in arid and semi-arid areas of the world due to its impact in reducing crop yield. Under salinity stress, the amount of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a precursor for ethylene production in plants, increases. Here, we conducted research under the hypothesis that isolated ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida can alleviate the stressful effects of salinity on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth. The experiments were conducted in the Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran. Seven experimental stages were conducted to isolate and characterize ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and to determine factors enhancing their growth and, consequently, their effects on the germination of canola seeds. Under salinity stress, in 14% of the isolates, ACC deaminase activity was observed, indicating that they were able to utilize ACC as the sole N-source. Bacterial strains differed in their ability to synthesize auxin and hydrogen cyanide compounds, as well as in their ACC deaminase activity. Under salinity stress, the rate of germinating seeds inoculated with the strains of ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and seedling growth was significantly higher. These results indicate the significance of soil biological activities, including the activities of plant growth-promoting bacteria, in the alleviation of soil stresses such as salinity on plant growth.

  15. Rapid Identification of Candidate Genes for Seed Weight Using the SLAF-Seq Method in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Geng

    Full Text Available Seed weight is a critical and direct trait for oilseed crop seed yield. Understanding its genetic mechanism is of great importance for yield improvement in Brassica napus breeding. Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines derived by microspore culture were developed from a cross between a large-seed line G-42 and a small-seed line 7-9. According to the 1000-seed weight (TSW data, the individual DNA of the heaviest 46 lines and the lightest 47 lines were respectively selected to establish two bulked DNA pools. A new high-throughput sequencing technology, Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq, was used to identify candidate genes of TSW in association analysis combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA. A total of 1,933 high quality polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and 4 associated markers of TSW were procured. A hot region of ~0.58 Mb at nucleotides 25,401,885-25,985,931 on ChrA09 containing 91 candidate genes was identified as tightly associated with the TSW trait. From annotation information, four genes (GSBRNA2T00037136001, GSBRNA2T00037157001, GSBRNA2T00037129001 and GSBRNA2T00069389001 might be interesting candidate genes that are highly related to seed weight.

  16. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  17. Transgenic glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as an invasive weed in Argentina: detection, characterization, and control alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Carbonell, Francisco Torres; Ureta, Soledad; Poverene, Mónica; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The presence of glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape populations in Argentina was detected and characterized. The resistant plants were found as weeds in RR soybeans and other fields. The immunological and molecular analysis showed that the accessions presented the GT73 transgenic event. The origin of this event was uncertain, as the cultivation of transgenic oilseed rape cultivars is prohibited in Argentina. This finding might suggest that glyphosate resistance could come from unauthorized transgenic oilseed rape crops cultivated in the country or as seed contaminants in imported oilseed rape cultivars or other seed imports. Experimentation showed that there are alternative herbicides for controlling resistant Brassica napus populations in various situations and crops. AHAS-inhibiting herbicides (imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam), glufosinate, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr and saflufenacil proved to be very effective in controlling these plants. Herbicides evaluated in this research were employed by farmers in one of the fields invaded with this biotype and monitoring of this field showed no evidence of its presence in the following years.

  18. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  19. Characterization of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oils by bulk C, O, H, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Eva Katharina; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2010-07-14

    Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) oils differing in cultivar, sites of growth, and harvest year were characterized by fatty acid concentrations and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope analyses of bulk oils (delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), delta(18)O(bulk) values) and individual fatty acids (delta(13)C(FA)). The delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), and delta(18)O(bulk) values were determined by continuous flow combustion and high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS, TC-EA/IRMS). The delta(13)C(FA) values were determined using gas chromatography--combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). For comparison, other C(3) vegetable oils rich in linolenic acid (flax and false flax oils) and rich in linoleic acid (poppy, sunflower, and safflower oils) were submitted to the same chemical and isotopic analyses. The bulk and molecular delta(13)C values were typical for C(3) plants. The delta(13)C value of palmitic acid (delta(13)C(16:0)) and n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (delta(13)C(18:3n-3)) differed (p oils. Also within species, significant differences of delta(13)C(FA) were observed (p oil differed between cultivars (p oil and specific fatty acid stable isotope analysis might be useful in tracing dietary lipids differing in their origin.

  20. Cysteine- and glutathione-mediated uptake of lead and cadmium into Zea mays and Brassica napus roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadas, Timothy M., E-mail: tvadas@umbc.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ahner, Beth A., E-mail: baa7@cornell.ed [Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, 320 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This study examines a new mechanism for the uptake of Pb and Cd into Brassica napus and Zea mays roots. During hydroponic experiments, the uptake of Pb and Cd was enhanced in the presence of cysteine and glutathione, whereas no or very low uptake was observed in EDTA and penicillamine controls. Uptake rates were also enhanced after pre-exposure to cysteine or glutathione and inhibited in the presence of vanadate, suggesting a biological mechanism of uptake. Increasing concentrations of glutathione in solution resulted in decreasing Pb uptake rates, indicating competition for transport between free-glutathione and Pb-glutathione species. Pb uptake in the presence of increasing cysteine concentrations resulted in decreased uptake initially but linearly increasing uptake at higher concentrations. Experimentation showed concentration dependent Pb uptake rates. We speculate that there are specific transporters for these thiol ligands and describe what barriers remain for application of this novel transport mechanism in chelator-assisted phytoremediation. - Cysteine and glutathione mediate the transport of lead and cadmium into plant roots.

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF COMPOUNDS OF PEPTIDE NATURE CONTAINED IN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BRASSICA NAPUS SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM AND TETRAGONIA TETRAGONIOIDES LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Neubauerová

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of infections caused by pathogenic bacteria is still harder. Due to increasing number of microbial species resistant against so far invented antibiotics. This presents great problem for public health. One of the potential solutions seems to be antimicrobial peptides. Those peptides are synthetized in all organisms as a part of innate immunity with rapid mode of antimicrobial action. Lot of them have been isolated from bacteria, plants, insects and mammals as well. Our project was aimed on finding such peptides in plant extracts, respectively in leaves of Brassica napus (canola, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato and Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach. We used several separation techniques to obtain fractions containing compounds of peptide nature with hydrophobic character. Antimicrobial activity of these fractions was tested against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial active fractions proved presence of low molecular peptides with molecular masses 1.9 - 4.9 kDa and a partial amino acid sequence in hydrophobic part of Tetragonia extract. In hydrophilic fraction of the Solanum extract with proved antibacterial activity two patogenesis-related proteins with antifungal activity NP24 and TPM-1 were detected.

  2. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  3. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Brassica napus L. in the area around Turów Power Station, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedźwiecka Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus L. is a known bioaccumulator of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and arsenic from soils. The metal ions are accumulated in the roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the oilseed rape. The samples of soils and plants were collected in the area around the Turów power station (Bogatynia city, Lower Silesia. The soil samples were collected from the surface layer of 0-25 cm. Roots, stems and pods of the oilseed rape were used in the study. The environmental samples were digested in HNO3, 60%, using the Microwave Digestion System. Metal concentrations have been dermined through the FAAS method. Three heavy metals - zinc, copper and lead – have been analyzed. The content of zinc was higher than the content of copper in all samples (plants and soils. In the roots of the oilseed rape higher concentration of metals compared to other parts of the plant was observed. In the soil samples, there was no correlation between the concentration of pollution and the distance from the power plant. Permissible concentrations of heavy metals relative to the standard according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016, have not been exceeded. The permissible pollution indexes (Wn in soils were exceeded compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland. The bioaccumulation coefficients of heavy metals indicate lower metal concentrations in plants than in soils

  4. Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola(Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, Pakistan, during winter 2003~2004 and 2004~2005 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur levels and methods of nitrogen application on canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98) under rainfed conditions. Four levels of S (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg/ha) and three levels of N (40, 60,and 80 kg/ha) and a control treatment with both nutrients at zero level were included in the experiments. Sulfur levels were applied at sowing while N levels were applied by three methods (100% soil application, 90% soil+10% foliar application, and 80% soil +20% foliar application). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design having four replications. Oil content increased significantly up to 20 kg S/ha but further increase in S level did not enhance oil content. Glucosinolate content increased from 13.6 to 24.6 μmol/g as S rate was increased from 0 to 30 kg/ha. Protein content increased from 22.4% to 23.2% as S rate was increased from 0 to 20 kg/ha. Oil content responded negatively to the increasing N levels. The highest N level resulted in the highest values for protein (23.5%) and glucosinolate (19.9 μmol/g) contents. Methods of N application had no significant impact on any parameters under study.

  5. Critical period of weed control in winter canola (Brassica napus L.) in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaalikhani, M; Yaghoobi, S R

    2008-03-01

    In order to determine the critical period of weed control in winter canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Okapi) an experiment was carried out at research field of Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran on 2004-2005 growing season. Fourteen experimental treatments which divided into two sets were arranged in Randomized complete blocks design with four replications. In the first set, the crop was kept weed-free from emergence time to two-leaf stage (V2), four-leaf stage (V4), six-leaf stage (V6), eight-leaf stage (V8), early flowering (IF), 50% of silique set (50% SS) and final harvest (H). In the second set, weeds where permitted to grow with the crop until above mentioned stages. In this study critical period of weed control was determined according to evaluate seed bank emerged weed biomass effect on canola grain yield loss using Gompertz and logistic equations. Result showed a critical time of weed control about 25 days after emergence (between four to six-leaf stages) with 5% accepted yield loss. Therefore, weed control in this time could provide the best result and avoid yield loss and damage to agroecosystem.

  6. Proteomic and biochemical responses of canola (Brassica napus L.) exposed to salinity stress and exogenous lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Akçalı, Nermin; Terzi, Hakan

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the mitigating effects of exogenous lipoic acid (LA) on NaCl toxicity, proteomic, biochemical and physiological changes were investigated in the leaves of canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Salinity stress decreased the growth parameters and contents of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH), and increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, cysteine and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The foliar application of LA alleviated the toxic effects of salinity stress on canola seedlings and notably decreased MDA content and increased growth parameters, cysteine content, and activities of CAT and POD. In the proteomic analyses, total proteins from the leaves of control, LA, NaCl and NaCl+LA treated-seedlings were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 28 proteins were differentially expressed. Of these, 21 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins had functions related to photosynthesis, stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, protein folding and stabilization indicating that LA might play important roles in salinity through the regulation of photosynthesis, stress defense and signal transduction related proteins. The proteomic findings have provided new insight to reveal the effect of LA on salinity stress for the first time.

  7. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  8. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  9. Predictive modeling of biomass component tradeoffs in Brassica napus developing oilseeds based on in silico manipulation of storage metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hay, Jordan O

    2012-11-01

    Seed oil content is a key agronomical trait, while the control of carbon allocation into different seed storage compounds is still poorly understood and hard to manipulate. Using bna572, a large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oilseeds, we present an in silico approach for the analysis of carbon allocation into seed storage products. Optimal metabolic flux states were obtained by flux variability analysis based on minimization of the uptakes of substrates in the natural environment of the embryo. For a typical embryo biomass composition, flux sensitivities to changes in different storage components were derived. Upper and lower flux bounds of each reaction were categorized as oil or protein responsive. Among the most oil-responsive reactions were glycolytic reactions, while reactions related to mitochondrial ATP production were most protein responsive. To assess different biomass compositions, a tradeoff between the fractions of oil and protein was simulated. Based on flux-bound discontinuities and shadow prices along the tradeoff, three main metabolic phases with distinct pathway usage were identified. Transitions between the phases can be related to changing modes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, reorganizing the usage of organic carbon and nitrogen sources for protein synthesis and acetyl-coenzyme A for cytosol-localized fatty acid elongation. The phase close to equal oil and protein fractions included an unexpected pathway bypassing α-ketoglutarate-oxidizing steps in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The in vivo relevance of the findings is discussed based on literature on seed storage metabolism.

  10. FEASIBILITY OF HYGROMYCIN AS A SELECTION AGENT IN AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the feasibility of the antibiotic hygromycin as a selection agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was evaluated. For this, two economically important commercial varieties Haydn and Hunter and tobacco as a model plant were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The 5-6 days-old oilseed rape hypocotyls and 4-6 weeks-old tobacco leaf segments were transformed with the binary vector pCambia1304. The T-DNA contained the reporter gfp:gus and the selectable marker htp genes. Regeneration of transformed cells was conducted under selection of 10 mg.l-1 (oilseed rape and 30 mg.l-1 (tobacco hygromycin. Putative transgenic plantlets were analysed by the mean of the histochemical GUS and PCR analyses. Transformation efficiency ranged from 1.0% (cv. Haydn to 40.4% (tobacco. No transgenic shoots were detected for the cv. Hunter. It points out the oilseed rape cultivar specificity plays significant role in choice of suitable selection agent.

  11. Aberrant Meiotic Prophase I Leads to Genic Male Sterility in the Novel TE5A Mutant of Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Wang, Shasha; Li, Keqi; Yuan, Rong; Gao, Hongfei; Luo, Junling; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Genic male sterility (GMS) has already been extensively utilized for hybrid rapeseed production. TE5A is a novel thermo-sensitive dominant GMS line in Brassica napus, however, its mechanisms of GMS remain largely unclear. Histological and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of anthers showed that the male gamete development of TE5A was arrested at meiosis prophase I. EdU uptake of S-phase meiocytes revealed that the TE5A mutant could accomplish DNA replication, however, chromosomal and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of TE5A showed that homologous chromosomes could not pair, synapse, condense and form bivalents. We then analyzed the transcriptome differences between young floral buds of sterile plants and its near-isogenic fertile plants through RNA-Seq. A total of 3,841 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, some of which were associated with homologous chromosome behavior and cell cycle control during meiosis. Dynamic expression changes of selected candidate DEGs were then analyzed at different anther developmental stages. The present study not only demonstrated that the TE5A mutant had defects in meiotic prophase I via detailed cytological analysis, but also provided a global insight into GMS-associated DEGs and elucidated the mechanisms of GMS in TE5A through RNA-Seq. PMID:27670217

  12. Fine mapping of the epistatic suppressor gene (esp) of a recessive genic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenghua; Xie, Yanzhou; Hong, Dengfeng; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

    2009-09-01

    9012AB, a recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line derived from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus, has been playing an important role in rapeseed hybrid production in China. The male sterility of 9012AB is controlled by two recessive genes (ms3 and ms4) interacting with one recessive epistatic suppressor gene (esp). The objective of this study was to develop PCR-based markers tightly linked to the esp gene and construct a high-resolution map surrounding the esp gene. From the survey of 512 AFLP primer combinations, 3 tightly linked AFLP markers were obtained and successfully converted to codominant or dominant SCAR markers. Furthermore, a codominant SSR marker (Ra2G08) associated with the esp gene was identified through genetic map integration. For fine mapping of the esp gene, these PCR-based markers were analyzed in a large BC1 population of 2545 plants. The esp gene was then genetically restricted to a region of 1.03 cM, 0.35 cM from SSR marker Ra2G08 and 0.68 cM from SCAR marker WSC6. The SCAR marker WSC5 co-segregated with the target gene. These results lay a solid foundation for map-based cloning of esp and will facilitate the selection of RGMS lines and their temporary maintainers.

  13. Expression of a GALACTINOL SYNTHASE gene is positively associated with desiccation tolerance of Brassica napus seeds during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xu; Zhuo, Jiajin; Jing, Yin; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2011-10-15

    Desiccation tolerance of seeds is positively correlated with raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs). However, RFOs' role in desiccation tolerance is still a matter of controversy. The aim of this work was to monitor the accumulation of RFO during acquisition of desiccation tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Rapeseeds become desiccation tolerant at 21-24d after flowering (DAF), and the time was coincident with an accumulation of raffinose and stachyose. A gene encoding galactinol synthase (GolS; EC2.4.1.123), involved in RFO biosynthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized. Enzymatic properties of recombinant galactinol synthase were also determined. Accumulation of BnGOLS-1 mRNA in developing rapeseeds was concomitant with dry weight deposition and the acquisition of desiccation tolerance, and was concurrent with the formation of raffinose and stachyose. The physiological implications of BnGOLS-1 expression patterns in developing seeds are discussed in light of the hypothesized role of RFOs in seed desiccation tolerance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  15. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  16. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of an anthocyanin-rich gene, BnaA.PL1, conferring purple leaves in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zhu, Lixia; Yuan, Gaigai; Heng, Shuangping; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Because of the advantages of anthocyanins, the genetics and breeding of crops rich in anthocyanins has become a hot research topic. However, due to the lack of anthocyanin-related mutants, no regulatory genes have been mapped in Brassica napus. In this study, we first report the characterization of a B. napus line with purple leaves and the fine mapping and candidate screening of the BnaA.PL1 gene. The amount of anthocyanins in the purple leaf line was six times higher than that in a green leaf line. A genetic analysis indicated that the purple character was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. Through map-based cloning, we localized the BnaA.PL1 gene to a 99-kb region at the end of B. napus chromosome A03. Transcriptional analysis of 11 genes located in the target region revealed that the expression level of only the BnAPR2 gene in seedling leaves decreased from purple to reddish green to green individuals, a finding that was consistent with the measured anthocyanin accumulation levels. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of BnAPR2 showed that the purple individual-derived allele contained 17 variants. Markers co-segregating with BnaA.PL1 were developed from the sequence of BnAPR2 and were validated in the BC4P2 population. These results suggested that BnAPR2, which encodes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is likely to be a valuable candidate gene. This work may lay the foundation for the marker-assisted selection of B. napus vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins and for an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling anthocyanin accumulation in Brassica.

  17. Spontaneous capture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) chloroplasts by wild B. rapa: implications for the use of chloroplast transformation for biocontainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Nadia; Allainguillaume, Joel; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concerns over the cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) crops largely centre on the ecological consequences following gene flow to wild relatives. One attractive solution is to deploy biocontainment measures that prevent hybridization. Chloroplast transformation is the most advanced biocontainment method but is compromised by chloroplast capture (hybridization through the maternal lineage). To date, however, there is a paucity of information on the frequency of chloroplast capture in the wild. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) frequently hybridises with wild Brassica rapa (AA, as paternal parent) and yields B. rapa-like introgressed individuals after only two generations. In this study we used chloroplast CAPS markers that differentiate between the two species to survey wild and weedy populations of B. rapa for the capture of B. napus chloroplasts. A total of 464 B. rapa plants belonging to 14 populations growing either in close proximity to B. napus (i.e. sympatric 1 km) were assessed for chloroplast capture using PCR (trnL-F) and CAPS (trnT-L-Xba I) markers. The screen revealed that two sympatric B. rapa populations included 53 plants that possessed the chloroplast of B. napus. In order to discount these B. rapa plants as F(1) crop-wild hybrids, we used a C-genome-specific marker and found that 45 out of 53 plants lacked the C-genome and so were at least second generation introgressants. The most plausible explanation is that these individuals represent multiple cases of chloroplast capture following introgressive hybridisation through the female germ line from the crop. The abundance of such plants in sympatric sites thereby questions whether the use of chloroplast transformation would provide a sufficient biocontainment for GM oilseed rape in the United Kingdom.

  18. The fusion of genomes leads to more options: A comparative investigation on the desulfo-glucosinolate sulfotransferases of Brassica napus and homologous proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Felix; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-06-01

    Sulfotransferases (SOTs) (EC 2.8.2.-) play a crucial role in the glucosinolate (Gl) biosynthesis, by catalyzing the final step of the core glucosinolate formation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the three desulfo (ds)-Gl SOTs AtSOT16, AtSOT17 and AtSOT18 were previously characterized, showing different affinities to ds-Gls. But can the knowledge about these SOTs be generally transferred to other Gl-synthesizing plants? It was investigated how many SOTs are present in the economically relevant crop plant Brassica napus L., and if it is possible to predict their characteristics by sequence analysis. The recently sequenced B. napus is a hybrid of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. By database research, 71 putative functional BnSOT family members were identified and at least eleven of those are putative ds-Gl SOTs. Besides the homologs of AtSOT16 - 18, phylogenetic analyses revealed new subfamilies of ds-Gl SOTs, which are not present in A. thaliana. Three of the B. napus ds-Gl SOT proteins were expressed and purified, and characterized by determining the substrate affinities to different ds-Gls. Two of them, BnSOT16-a and BnSOT16-b, showed a significantly higher affinity to an indolic ds-Gl, similarly to AtSOT16. Additionally, BnSOT17-a was characterized and showed a higher affinity to long chained aliphatic Gls, similarly to AtSOT17. Identification of homologs to AtSOT18 was less reliable, because putative SOT18 sequences are more heterogeneous and confirmation of similar characteristics was not possible.

  19. Preliminary Studies on Isozymes and Protein of Hybrid from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜(Eru CMS)与甘蓝种间杂种的同工酶和蛋白质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    经胚抢救获得甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)(Eru CMS)与甘蓝(Brassica oleracea L.var.capitata L.)种间杂种,前期经过流式细胞仪、柱头染色体数目、花粉活力等分析获得一些真杂种.利用电泳法,对真杂种植株的3种同工酶(SOD、EST、COD)和蛋白质进行详细分析,了解了杂种与亲本的同工酶和蛋白质的特性差异.结果表明,杂种与亲本之间的同工酶和蛋白质存在较明显的差异:杂种的SOD、COD的酶带表现为偏父本甘蓝型;杂种的EST的酶带表现为偏母本油菜型;杂种的蛋白质电泳表现为不仅具有双亲的特征蛋白带,也有其自身特征蛋白带.%Brassica napus x Brassica oleracea hybrids were obtained by embryo rescue technology and identified by flow cytometry analysis, chromosome count of stigma cells, and pollen viability tests. Patterns of isozyme and protein of the real hybrids were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, isozyme (SOD, EST, and COD) and protein patterns were compared with those of the parents, with obvious variations observed. Results also showed that the SOD and COD patterns of the hybrids were similar to Brassica oleracea, while the EST pattern was similar to the female parent. The protein pattern mainly showed parental complements, with new bonds also possessing their own characters.

  20. Cloning the Promoter of BcNA1 from Brassica napus and Fad2 Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and Construction of the Plant Expression Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The upstream regulatory region of a seed-specific gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Brassica napus by PCR amplification. The cloned fragment contained 1755 nucleotides, and shared a sequence homology of 99.6% with the reported data. The coding region of oleic acid desaturase gene was then cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana. The sequencing analysis indicated that the sequence of the PCR product was just the same as reported before. In addition, the plant expression vector harboring the seed-specific promoter and trans-Fad2 gene was constructed.

  1. Effects on Brassica napus L. Yield and Yield Components of Super Absorbent Polymer under Different Irrigation Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza PIRZAD; Mousa JAMALI; Fahime SHOKRANI

    2014-01-01

    For evaluation of the effects of super absorbent polymer under different irrigation regimes on the yield and yield components of Brassica napus L., a factorial experiment was carried out, based on randomized complete block design with four replicas. Treatments included super absorbent polymer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg soil) and induced drought stress (irrigation at 25, 50 and 75 mm evaporation from class A pan). The experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil. Data analysis of variance...

  2. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisong eMa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localised cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR. However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1. Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1 compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signalling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain.

  3. BnSIP1-1, a Trihelix Family Gene, Mediates Abiotic Stress Tolerance and ABA Signaling in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junling; Tang, Shaohua; Mei, Fengling; Peng, Xiaojue; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaofei; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The trihelix family genes have important functions in light-relevant and other developmental processes, but their roles in response to adverse environment are largely unclear. In this study, we identified a new gene, BnSIP1-1, which fell in the SIP1 (6b INTERACTING PROTEIN1) clade of the trihelix family with two trihelix DNA binding domains and a fourth amphipathic α-helix. BnSIP1-1 protein specifically targeted to the nucleus, and its expression can be induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and different stresses. Overexpression of BnSIP1-1 improved seed germination under osmotic pressure, salt, and ABA treatments. Moreover, BnSIP1-1 decreased the susceptibility of transgenic seedlings to osmotic pressure and ABA treatments, whereas there was no difference under salt stress between the transgenic and wild-type seedlings. ABA level in the transgenic seedlings leaves was higher than those in the control plants under normal condition. Under exogenous ABA treatment and mannitol stress, the accumulation of ABA in the transgenic plants was higher than that in the control plants; while under salt stress, the difference of ABA content before treatment was gradually smaller with the prolongation of salt treatment time, then after 24 h of treatment the ABA level was similar in transgenic and wild-type plants. The transcription levels of several general stress marker genes (BnRD29A, BnERD15, and BnLEA1) were higher in the transgenic plants than the wild-type plants, whereas salt-responsive genes (BnSOS1, BnNHX1, and BnHKT) were not significantly different or even reduced compared with the wild-type plants, which indicated that BnSIP1-1 specifically exerted different regulatory mechanisms on the osmotic- and salt-response pathways in seedling period. Overall, these findings suggested that BnSIP1-1 played roles in ABA synthesis and signaling, salt and osmotic stress response. To date, information about the involvement of the Brassica napus trihelix gene in abiotic response is scarce

  4. Analysis on Combining Ability for Characters of Male Sterile Lines in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)%Analysis on Combining Ability for Characters of Male Sterile Lines in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ze-su; Laosuwan Paisan; Machikowa Thitipom; Chen Ze-hui; Dai Wen-dong; Tang Rong; Li De-zhen

    2012-01-01

    The male sterile line is very important in the hybrid breeding program of rapeseed. This study was conducted to evaluate the combining ability of many characters of male sterile lines in Brassica napus L. Ten recessive genetic male sterile (RGMS) lines were used as parents to produce 45 single cross hybrids by using a half diallel cross method. These 45 crosses and their 10 parents were evaluated at Guiyang during 2007-2008. The results showed that both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combiing ability (SCA) effects were important for all characters, but additive gene effects were more predominant than non-additive gene effects. Qianyou 8AB and You 2894AB gave respective highly significant GCA effects of 230.94 and 127.65 kg-hm-2 for seed yield. Lines You 2894AB, QH303-4AB, You 157AB and You 2341AB gave highly significant GCA effects for oil content of 0.99, 1.62, 1.20 and 1.53%, respectively. The crosses among lines Qianyou 3AxQianyou 8B, Qianyou 8AxYou 2894B, You 2894AxQianyou 6B, Qianyou 8AxQH303-4B and Qianyou 8Ax Qianyou 6B gave high SCA effects of 616.29, 398.71,356.48, 394.24 and 303.79 kg hm-2 for seed yield, respectively. All these crosses also gave high seed yield indicating that these crosses could be used in the breeding program.

  5. Strigolactones Improve Plant Growth, Photosynthesis, and Alleviate Oxidative Stress under Salinity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by Regulating Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Ma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a very important edible oil crop in the world, and the production is inhibited by abiotic stresses, such as salinity. Plant hormones can alleviate the stress by regulating the physiological processes and gene expression. To study the plant responses to salinity in combination with GR24, a synthesized strigolactone, the oilseed rape variety (Zhongshuang 11 replications were grown in the pots in a controlled growth chamber under three levels of salinity (0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl and 0.18 μM GR24 treatments at the seedling stage for 7 days. The results showed that salinity depressed the shoots and roots growth, whereas GR24 improved the growth under salt stress. Leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters (net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate were also reduced significantly with increasing salinity, and these effects could be partially reversed by GR24 application. Additionally, GR24 treatment significantly increased and decreased the photosystem II quantum yield and non-photochemical quenching, respectively, under salinity stress conditions. The activities of peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased, and lipid peroxidation measured by the level of malondialdehyde reduced due to GR24 application. The transcriptome analysis of root and shoot was conducted. Three hundred and forty-two common differentially expressed genes (DEGs after GR24 treatment and 166 special DEGs after GR24 treatment under salinity stress were identified in root and shoot. The DEGs in root were significantly more than that in shoot. Quantitative PCR validated that the stress alleviation was mainly related to the gene expression of tryptophan metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, and photosynthesis.

  6. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  7. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin Tan

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld, phloem-peeling (Pe, and selective silique darkening (Sd. Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA, organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms

  8. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Xie, Qingjun; Xiang, Xiaoe; Li, Jianqiao; Zheng, Suning; Xu, Xinying; Guo, Haolun; Ye, Wenxue

    2015-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld), phloem-peeling (Pe), and selective silique darkening (Sd). Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA), organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms of the oil

  9. Brassica napus L. Homeodomain Leucine-Zipper Gene BnHB6 Responds to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Wu YU; Li-Da ZHANG; Kai-Jing ZUO; Dong-Qin TANG; Xiao-Fen SUN; Ke-Xuan TANG

    2005-01-01

    Ahomeodomain leucine-zipper(HD-Zip) gene BnHB6 (GenBank accession No. AY336103) was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) following drought treatment through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of BnHB6 was 1 611 bp and contained a 936-bp open reading frame encoding 311 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that BnHB6 belonged to the HD-Zip I subfamily.High-stringency Southern boltting analysis showed that BnHB6 appeared in rape as a single copy but had homologous genes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed in several tissues tested under control conditions, but that expression was significantly upregulated in shoots by mannitol, NaCl, cold treatment, anaerobic culture, wounding, H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA) treatments, but not by ultraviolet treatment. Further RTPCR analysis revealed that BnHB6 was a late-responsive gene, the expression of which was not activated by NaCl, cold treatment, H2O2, ABA, and SA at an early time point (20 min) of treatment in the shoot. However, after a certain period of treatment, the induced expression culminated and then declined until the next peak occurred. Tissue-specific analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed at certain levels in the roots, shoots, and flowers, and the roots were found to respond to the osmotic stimuli more rapidly than shoots to increase the expression of BnHB6. The present study implies that BnHB6 plays a positive role as a regulator of biotic and abiotic stresses on growth during seedling establishment.

  10. Auxin Biosynthesis, Accumulation, Action and Transport are Involved in Stress-Induced Microspore Embryogenesis Initiation and Progression in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Héctor; Solís, María-Teresa; López, María-Fernanda; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Risueño, María C; Testillano, Pilar S

    2015-07-01

    Isolated microspores are reprogrammed in vitro by stress, becoming totipotent cells and producing embryos and plants via a process known as microspore embryogenesis. Despite the abundance of data on auxin involvement in plant development and embryogenesis, no data are available regarding the dynamics of auxin concentration, cellular localization and the expression of biosynthesis genes during microspore embryogenesis. This work involved the analysis of auxin concentration and cellular accumulation; expression of TAA1 and NIT2 encoding enzymes of two auxin biosynthetic pathways; expression of the PIN1-like efflux carrier; and the effects of inhibition of auxin transport and action by N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and α-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid (PCIB) during Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis. The results indicated de novo auxin synthesis after stress-induced microspore reprogramming and embryogenesis initiation, accompanying the first cell divisions. The progressive increase of auxin concentration during progression of embryogenesis correlated with the expression patterns of TAA1 and NIT2 genes of auxin biosynthetic pathways. Auxin was evenly distributed in early embryos, whereas in heart/torpedo embryos auxin was accumulated in apical and basal embryo regions. Auxin efflux carrier PIN1-like gene expression was induced in early multicellular embryos and increased at the globular/torpedo embryo stages. Inhibition of polar auxin transport (PAT) and action, by NPA and PCIB, impaired embryo development, indicating that PAT and auxin action are required for microspore embryo progression. NPA also modified auxin embryo accumulation patterns. These findings indicate that endogenous auxin biosynthesis, action and polar transport are required in stress-induced microspore reprogramming, embryogenesis initiation and progression.

  11. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  12. Combining Ability Analysis and Genetic-Effects Studies for Some Important Quality Characters in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamar Shehzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis has an important position in rapeseed breeding. To evaluate genetic and combining ability effects, three Brassica napus L. testers “Punjab Sarson, Legend and Durre-NIFA” and five lines “Duncled, K-258, ZN-R-1, ZN-R-8, ZN-M-6” were crossed using line × tester design in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. Mean sum of squares of the analysis of variances (ANOVA for genotypes was highly significant for all of the traits. Most of the lines and testers exhibited significant results of mean sum of squares for combining ability. Line ‘Duncled’ was proved good general combiner for oil (8.8, protein (3.7, erucic acid (33.0, oleic acid (13.0 and glucosinolate (-19.3 over other lines and tester ‘Durree-NIFA’ for protein (6.6, erucic acid (-23.4, and linolenic acid (-5.3 over other testers. Significant specific combining ability effects were also observed. The best hybrid combinations were Legend × ZN-R-1 for oil (9.6, Punjab Sarson × Duncled for minimum erucic acid (-14.0 and linolenic acid contents (-6.0, and Legend × ZN-M-6 for maximum protein (8.2 and minimum glucosinolate contents (-11.1. The maximum oil contents were observed in ‘Legend × ZN-R-1’ (52.4%. The cross ‘Punjab Sarson × Duncled’ expressed maximum values of protein (26.5% and oleic acid (62.5% while minimum for erucic acid (2.3%, linolenic acid (5.4% and glucosinolate contents (19.3µmol/g. This research discloses the significance of non-additive genetic effects for most of the studied traits except oil contents. These studies will also help to improve nutritional values of rapeseed crop by selecting noble crosses.

  13. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  14. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  15. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  16. Agronomic evaluation of Rapessed varieties (Brassica napus L. in Response to Late-Season Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Shirani Rad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide spread limiting problem seriously influencing rapeseed (Brassica napus L. growth, production and quality, mostly in dryland regions. However, identification and development of resistant varieties is prohibited by destitute of effective selection criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevention possibility of rapeseed varieties against terminal-season water deficit stress through selecting suitable varieties. Thirty-four rapeseed varieties were tested in a split plot design based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications for two years (2005- 2006 and 2006-2007 at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. Two irrigation levels consisting of irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class “A” pan during full growing season as normal irrigation (I and water deficit stress (S by restricting watering from the flowering phase until full maturity were established in main plots, and subplots were devoted to split application of varieties. Water deficit stress caused noticeable decrease in plant height, silique plant-1, seed silique-1, 1000-kernel weight, seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and harvest index. There were significant positive correlations between seed yield and yield-related components. Meanwhile, the highest correlation was recorded for number of seeds per siliqua (r= 0.64; P -1 and oil yield (2317 kg ha-1 in normal irrigation, and ‘ORW20-3002’ had the highest seed yield (2348 kg ha-1 and oil yield (1000 kg ha-1 in water deficit stress conditions. Accordingly, ‘ORW20-3002’ and ‘Sunday’ can be reported as varieties with sustainable productivity in stress and non-stress conditions.

  17. Rising CO2 from historical concentrations enhances the physiological performance of Brassica napus seedlings under optimal water supply but not under reduced water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faralli, Michele; Grove, Ivan G; Hare, Martin C; Kettlewell, Peter S; Fiorani, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    The productivity of many important crops is significantly threatened by water shortage, and the elevated atmospheric CO2 can significantly interact with physiological processes and crop responses to drought. We examined the effects of three different CO2 concentrations (historical ~300 ppm, ambient ~400 ppm and elevated ~700 ppm) on physiological traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings subjected to well-watered and reduced water availability. Our data show (1) that, as expected, increasing CO2 level positively modulates leaf photosynthetic traits, leaf water-use efficiency and growth under non-stressed conditions, although a pronounced acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 occurred; (2) that the predicted elevated CO2 concentration does not reduce total evapotranspiration under drought when compared with present (400 ppm) and historical (300 ppm) concentrations because of a larger leaf area that does not buffer transpiration; and (3) that accordingly, the physiological traits analysed decreased similarly under stress for all CO2 concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that increasing CO2 concentrations may not significantly counteract the negative effect of increasing drought intensity on Brassica napus performance.

  18. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  19. Identification and Analysis of MS5(d): A Gene That Affects Double-Strand Break (DSB) Repair during Meiosis I in Brassica napus Microsporocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xinhua; Yan, Xiaohong; Yuan, Rong; Li, Keqi; Wu, Yuhua; Liu, Fang; Luo, Junling; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the identification of the Brassica-specific gene MS5(d), which is responsible for male sterility in Brassica napus. The MS5(d) gene is highly expressed in the microsporocyte and encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus. Light microscopy analyses have demonstrated that the MS5(d) gene affects microsporocyte meiosis in the thermosensitive genic male sterility line TE5A. Sequence comparisons and genetic complementation revealed a C-to-T transition in MS5(d), encoding a Leu-to-Phe (L281F) substitution and causing abnormal male meiosis in TE5A. These findings suggest arrested meiotic chromosome dynamics at pachytene. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analyses showed that double-strand break (DSB) formation and axial elements were normal but that DSB repair and spindle behavior were aberrant in TE5A meiocytes. Collectively, our results indicate that MS5(d) likely encodes a protein required for chromosomal DSB repair at early stages of meiosis in B. napus.

  20. Analysis of Differential Gene Expression Pattern in Brassica napus Hybrid Huayouza 6 and Its Parents Using Arabidopsis cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jun-ru; WU Jian-yong; ZHANG Jian; LIU Ping-wu; YANG Guang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Huayouza 6, a new semi-winter Brassica napus variety with high-yield, good quality, prematurity and extensive adaptability, was derived from the cross between the female parent 8086A and male parent 7-5. Two cDNA-based Arabidopisis microarray were used to analyze gene differential expression in bud of an elite B. napus hybrid Huayouza6 and its parents,in which there were 83 over-expression transcripts and 331 under-expression transcripts between Huayouza 6 and its female parent 8086A and 94 over-expression transcripts, and 423 under-expression transcripts were demonstrated betweenHuayouza 6 and its male parent 7-5. Further analysis showed that there were significant number of genes responsible for photosynthesis, and its implication for heterosis was discussed. Northern analysis of phosphoribulokinase coincided with its expression pattern derived from hybridization of Arabidopsis cDNA microarray and B. napus mRNA, this system of heterologous hybridization analysis should be applicable to other close relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  1. Alteration of mitochondrial genomes containing atpA genes in the sexual progeny of cybrids between Raphanus sativus cms line and Brassica napus cv. Westar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Imamura, J

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated the fate of the mitochondrial genomes of cybrids derived from "donor-recipient" protoplast fusion between X-irradiated Raphanus sativus (cms line) and iodoacetamide-treated Brassica napus cv. Westar. Two out of ten fusion products were male-sterile with the diploid chromosome number of B. napus. The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the cybrids and their progeny were further analyzed by DNA-DNA hybridizaion using the pea mitochondrial ATPase subunit gene (atpA) as a probe. One cybrid, 18-3, had a 3.0 kb fragment characteristic of B. napus and a 2.0 kb non-parental fragment when the BamHI-digested DNA was hybridized with the probe. In the first-backcrossed progeny of this cybrid, the hybridization pattern was not stably inherited. A 4.0 kb radish fragment, not detectable in the cybrid, appeared in one of the BC1 generation siblings, and the 2.0 kb non-parental fragment was lost in another. The hybridization patterns in BC1 progeny siblings of cybrid 12-9 were also varied. The alteration of mtDNA in the cybrid progeny continued to the BC2 generation. There was no clear evidence of a heteroplasmic state or of sub-stoichiometric molecules in the mt genome of cybrid 18-3. A possible cause of the observed alteration in the mt genome is discussed.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Testa Pigments and RAPD Marker of Yellow-Seeded Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; CHEN Li; YIN Jia-ming; TANG Zhang-lin; LI Jia-na

    2003-01-01

    14 yellow-seeded rapeseed lines (Brassia napus L. ) from different genetic sources were used toanalyze diversity of testa pigments content, oil and protein content, and RAPD markers. The results showedthat the anthocyanin and melanin were the most important pigments in testa and their content were responsiblefor the variation in seed color ranging from orange to black yellow, 14 yellow-seeded lines could be classifiedinto 3 groups., high anthocyanin content group with anthocyanin content over 2.54 mg g-1 DW, the seed colorwas light yellow or orange; low pigments content group with low content of anthocyanin and melanin, the testawas transparent and the seed color was light yellow, greenish yellow or twany; high melanin content groupwith melanin content over 178.4U(A290nm), the testa was black, the seed color was black yellow. Oil eantentchanged from 36.2% to 45.5%, protein content from 21.1% to 27.7%, and the correlation analysis revealedthat the oil content is highly significantly negatively correlated with the protein content. The cluster analysisshowed that the extensive genetic variation existed among 14 yellow-seeded lines by using unweighted pairedgroup method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) based on RAPD markers which were amplified with decamerprimers, the genetic similarity among them ranged from 0.25 to 0. 909, and 14 yellow-seeded lines could putinto 2 clusters corresponding to genome difference.

  3. Origination, expansion, evolutionary trajectory, and expression bias of AP2/ERF superfamily in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the most important transcription factor families, plays crucial roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far, a comprehensive evolutionary inference of its origination and expansion has not been available. Here, we identified 515 AP2/ERF genes in B. napus, a neo-tetraploid forming ~7500 years ago, and found that 82.14% of them were duplicated in the tetraploidization. A prominent subgenome bias was revealed in gene expression, tissue-specific, and gene conversion. Moreover, a large-scale analysis across plants and alga suggested that this superfamily could have been originated from AP2 family, expanding to form other families (ERF, and RAV. This process was accompanied by duplicating and/or alternative deleting AP2 domain, intragenic domain sequence conversion, and/or by acquiring other domains, resulting in copy number variations, alternatively contributing to functional innovation. We found that significant positive selection occurred at certain critical nodes during the evolution of land plants, possibly responding to changing environment. In conclusion, the present research revealed origination, functional innovation, and evolutionary trajectory of the AP2/ERF superfamily, contributing to understanding their roles in plant stress tolerance.

  4. Effects of B, Mo, Zn, and Their Interactions on Seed Yield of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; SHI Lei; XU Fang-Sen; LU Jian-Wei; WANG Yun-Hua

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn) and their interactions on seed yield and yield formation of rapeseed (Brassiea napus L. war. Huashuang 4). Application of B fertilizer to a sandy soil increased the seed yield by 46.1% compared to the control and also created a considerably higher seed yield than the two treatments solely applying Mo and Zn fertilizers, which suggested that B was a main constraint for the seed yield of Huashuang 4 in this experiment. The effect of B fertilizer on the seed yield was attributed to an increase in the number of seeds per silique and siliques per plant. The combined application of B with Mo or Zn resulted in higher seed yield than the application of B, Mo or Zn alone, and the seed yield of the B+Mo+Zn treatment was the highest in all treatments, 68.1% above the control. Dry matter accumulation of seed followed a typical S-shaped curve and it was higher in plants supplied with B than in plants without B. A small but significant increase in the seed oil content and an improvement in the oil quality were also observed in all treatments compared with the control. These results suggested that optimal micronutrient application could provide both yield and quality advantages for rapeseed in poor soil.

  5. Origination, Expansion, Evolutionary Trajectory, and Expression Bias of AP2/ERF Superfamily in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoming; Wang, Jinpeng; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yuxian; Lei, Tianyu; Wang, Li; Ge, Weina; Guo, Di; Wang, Zhenyi; Li, Chunjin; Zhao, Jianjun; Wang, Xiyin

    2016-01-01

    The AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the most important transcription factor families, plays crucial roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far, a comprehensive evolutionary inference of its origination and expansion has not been available. Here, we identified 515 AP2/ERF genes in B. napus, a neo-tetraploid forming ~7500 years ago, and found that 82.14% of them were duplicated in the tetraploidization. A prominent subgenome bias was revealed in gene expression, tissue-specific, and gene conversion. Moreover, a large-scale analysis across plants and alga suggested that this superfamily could have been originated from AP2 family, expanding to form other families (ERF, and RAV). This process was accompanied by duplicating and/or alternative deleting AP2 domain, intragenic domain sequence conversion, and/or by acquiring other domains, resulting in copy number variations, alternatively contributing to functional innovation. We found that significant positive selection occurred at certain critical nodes during the evolution of land plants, possibly responding to changing environment. In conclusion, the present research revealed origination, functional innovation, and evolutionary trajectory of the AP2/ERF superfamily, contributing to understanding their roles in plant stress tolerance. PMID:27570529

  6. Lead and Cadmium Contamination in Seeds and Oils of Brassica napus L and Carthamus tinctorius Grown in Isfahan Province/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Palizban

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead and cadmium are toxic heavy metals found as major contaminants in food products and edible oils. The aims of this study were to investigate the lead and cadmium contaminations in seeds and extracted oils from Brassica napus L and Carthamus tinctorius grown in the vicinity of industrial sites (Isfahan Zobe Ahan near Isfahan province/Iran. Methods: In this study, the seeds of B. napus and C. tinctorius were randomly sampled from the farms. The oils of seeds were provided by factory and extracted as well in our laboratory. The two series of washed and unwashed seeds digested with nitric acid and the amount of elements in seeds and oils were measured using GF-AA spectrometer equipped with Zeeman Effect. Results: Cadmium was found in all samples below the Method Detection Limit (MDL, 0.04 μg/L. Lead contaminations were found in all seeds and oils except washed B. napus seeds. The highest levels of lead contaminations were observed in oils of C. tinctorius and B. napus with the amount of 24.74 μg/L and 11.85 μg/L, respectively. The level of lead in unwashed seed oils were significantly higher than washed seed oils (P<0.05. Conclusions: The contamination rate of cadmium compared with lead was very low. The higher lead contaminations in unwashed seeds oils compared with washed seeds oils indicated that the contaminant should have been be transferred through the air. Although these observations suggest that the levels of contaminations in edible oils are below the toxic level, long-term exposure may lead to potential health risks.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmin Qu

    Full Text Available The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1 up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2 down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3 down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  8. Formation and excretion of autophagic plastids (plastolysomes in Brassica napus embryogenic microspores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eParra-Vega

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change in developmental fate of microspores reprogrammed towards embryogenesis is a complex but fascinating experimental system where microspores undergo dramatic changes derived from the developmental switch. After 40 years of study of the ultrastructural changes undergone by the induced microspores, many questions are still open. In this work, we analyzed the architecture of DNA-containing organelles such as plastids and mitochondria in samples of B. napus isolated microspore cultures covering the different stages before, during and after the developmental switch. Mitochondria presented a conventional oval or sausage-like morphology for all cell types studied, similar to that found in vivo in other cell types from vegetative parts. Similarly, plastids of microspores before induction and of non-induced cells showed conventional architectures. However, approximately 40% of the plastids of embryogenic microspores presented atypical features such as curved profiles, protrusions, and internal compartments filled with cytoplasm. Three-dimensional reconstructions confirmed that these plastids actually engulf cytoplasm regions, isolating them from the rest of the cell. Acid phosphatase activity was found in them, confirming the lytic activity of these organelles. In addition, digested plastid-like structures were found excreted to the apoplast. All these phenomena seemed transient, since microspore-derived embryos showed conventional plastids. Together, these results strongly suggested that under special circumstances, such as those of the androgenic switch, plastids of embryogenic microspores behave as autophagic plastids (plastolysomes, engulfing cytoplasm for digestion, and then are excreted out of the cytoplasm as part of a cleaning program necessary for microspores to become embryos.

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  10. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïs Génard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L. to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. using the split-root 15N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low 15N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant 15N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and 15N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant−1, respectively, which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  11. Breeding response of transcript profiling in developing seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaodan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upgrading of rapeseed cultivars has resulted in a substantial improvement in yield and quality in China over the past 30 years. With the selective pressure against fatty acid composition and oil content, high erucic acid- and low oil-content cultivars have been replaced by low erucic acid- and high oil-content cultivars. The high erucic acid cultivar Zhongyou 821 and its descendent, low erucic acid cultivar Zhongshuang 9, are representatives of two generations of the most outstanding Chinese rapeseed cultivars (B. napus developed the past 2 decades. This paper compares the transcriptional profiles of Zhongshuang 9 and Zhongyou 821 for 32 genes that are principally involved in lipid biosynthesis during seed development in order to elucidate how the transcriptional profiles of these genes responded to quality improvement over the past 20 years. Results Comparison of the cultivar Zhongyou 821 with its descendent, Zhongshuang 9, shows that the transcriptional levels of seven of the 32 genes were upregulated by 30% to 109%, including FAD3, ACCase, FAE1, GKTP, Caleosin, GAPDH, and PEPC. Of the 32 genes, 10 (KAS3, β-CT, BcRK6, P450, FatA, Oleosin, FAD6, FatB, α-CT and SUC1 were downregulated by at least 20% and most by 50%. The Napin gene alone accounted for over 75% of total transcription from all 32 genes assessed in both cultivars. Most of the genes showed significant correlation with fatty acid accumulation, but the correlation in ZS9 was significantly different from that in ZY821. Higher KCR2 activity is associated with higher C16:0, C18:0, and C18:2 in both cultivars, lower C22:1 and total fatty acid content in ZY821, and lower 18:1 in ZS9. Conclusion This paper illustrates the response of the transcription levels of 32 genes to breeding in developing rapeseed seeds. Both cultivars showed similar transcription profiles, with the Napin gene predominantly transcribed. Selective pressure for zero erucic acid, low

  12. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    122 examined cases. Field trials with B. napus and B. rapa coexisting in different proportions and densities elucidated how these factors affect the F1-hybridproduction on B. napus. Higher plant density reduced the fitness of mother plants and the abundance of F1-hybrids (at the 1:1 proportion...... weed. The next step in the introgression process wasinvestigated in field trials with F1-hybrids coexisting with B. napus and B. rapa in different proportions and densities. With the highest abundance of F1-hybrids, B. napus was the predominant father and the sirering success of the three possible...... fathersdepended on the density. Progenies from F1-hybrid mother plants grown at the other two proportions were screened merely for individuals sired by B. rapa (BC1rs). The density affected on the production of BC1rs significantly but the effect differed amongproportions with both the highest and lowest...

  13. Timing of gene expression from different genetic systems in shaping leucine and isoleucine contents of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Lin Chen; Jian Guo Wu; Murali-Tottekkaad Variath; Chun Hai Shi

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using a diallel design with nine parents: Youcai 601, Double 20-4, Huashuang 3, Gaoyou 605, Zhongyou 821, Eyouchangjia, Zhong R-888, Tower and Zheshuang 72. The seed developmental process was divided into five stages, namely initial (days 1–15 after flowering), early (days 16–22 after flowering), middle (days 23–29), late (days 30–36), and maturing (days 37–43) developmental stages. The variation of dynamic genetic effects for leucine and isoleucine contents of rapeseed meal was analysed at five developmental stages, across different environments using the genetic models with time-dependent measures. The results from unconditional and conditional analyses indicated that the expression of diploid embryo, cytoplasmic and diploid maternal plant genes were important for leucine and isoleucine contents at different developmental stages of rapeseed, particularly at the initial and early developmental stages. Among different genetic systems, nutrition quality traits were mainly controlled by the accumulative or net maternal main effects and their GE interaction effects, except at maturity when the net diploid embryo effects were larger. The expression of genes was affected by the environmental conditions on 15, 22, 29 or 36 days after flowering, but was more stable at mature stage. For the isoleucine content the narrow-sense heritabilities on 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 days after flowering were 43.0, 65.7, 60.1, 65.5 and 78.2%, respectively, while for the leucine content the corresponding narrow-sense heritabilities were relatively smaller. The interaction heritabilities were more important than the general heritabilities at the first three developmental times. The improvement for isoleucine content could be achieved by selection based on the higher narrow-sense heritabilities. Various genetic systems exhibited genetic correlations among the developmental times or leucine and isoleucine contents. A

  14. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  15. Glyphosate-resistant and -susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandula, Vijay K; Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Poston, Daniel H

    2007-05-02

    Experiments were conducted to determine (1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, (2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism for differential resistance to glyphosate among GR soybean varieties, and (3) the extent of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR canola and to correlate metabolism to injury from AMPA. GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant dry weight) values for GR (Asgrow 4603RR) and non-GR (HBKC 5025) soybean were 22.8 kg ae ha-1 and 0.47 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR soybean exhibiting a 49-fold level of resistance to glyphosate as compared to non-GR soybean. Differential reduction in chlorophyll by glyphosate was observed between GR soybean varieties, but there were no differences in shoot fresh weight reduction. No significant differences were found between GR varieties in metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA, and in shikimate levels. These results indicate that GR soybean varieties were able to outgrow the initial injury from glyphosate, which was previously caused at least in part by AMPA. GR50 values for GR (Hyola 514RR) and non-GR (Hyola 440) canola were 14.1 and 0.30 kg ha-1, respectively, with GR canola exhibiting a 47-fold level of resistance to glyphosate when compared to non-GR canola. Glyphosate did not cause reduction in chlorophyll content and shoot fresh weight in GR canola, unlike GR soybean. Less glyphosate (per unit leaf weight) was recovered in glyphosate-treated GR canola as compared to glyphosate-treated GR soybean. External application of AMPA caused similar injury in both GR and non-GR canola. The presence of a bacterial glyphosate oxidoreductase gene in GR canola contributes to breakdown of glyphosate to AMPA. However, the AMPA from glyphosate breakdown could have been metabolized to nonphytotoxic metabolites before causing injury

  16. Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Several Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOSSEINI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress considered as one of the most important limiting factors for oil seed canola (Brassica napus L. growth and productivity in Iran. To evaluate the effects of water deficit stress on some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of canola cultivars, this experiment in a greenhouse trial carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz (Iran. Canola cultivars, including ‘Hyola 308’, ‘Hyola 401’ and ‘RGS 003’ as first factor, and the second one was three levels of water deficit stress, including stress at early stem elongation stage to early flowering (D1, early flowering stage to early emergence of sacs (D2, beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs (D3 and normal irrigation (C, as check. Results showed that the interaction between water deficit stress and cultivars affected biological yield, seed oil yields and harvest index (p≤0.01, dry matter and economic yield (p≤0.05. Water deficit stress reduced grain oil yields. ‘Hyola 308’ under stress at beginning stem elongation stage to early flowering had the lowest oil yields (1.1 g plants-1 and ‘Hyola 401’ under non-stress conditions showed highest oil yields (4.3 g plants-1. The decrease of oil yields at the flowering stage to stem elongation stage was more than the other stages. In addition, water deficit stress reduced harvest index in the three stress levels due to reduced economic yield and reduced biological yield. Stress susceptibility index for ‘Hyola 401’ at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs was 0.914 and the ‘Hyola 308’ showed 1.12 at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs respectively, which it can implies that ‘Hyola 308’ is more sensitive than ‘Hyola 401’ to water deficit stress.

  17. TRANSGENIC PLANTS OF RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L. WITH GENE OSMYB4 HAVE INCREASED RESISTANCE TO SALTS OF HEAVY METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raldugina G.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the response of the transgenic spring rape plants (Brassica napus L. var. ‘Westar’ with the rice transfactor-encoding gene Osmyb4 to treatment with salts of heavy metals (HM CuSO4 or ZnSO4 and accumulation in the leaves of biomass, metals, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant compounds: total phenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant enzyme activity superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were determined. Vegetatively propagated transgenic plants and wild-type plants were grown on Hoagland-Snyder medium at 24°C, then at the 5-6th leaves-stage, CuSO4 (in concentration 25-150 mM or ZnSO4 (500 - 5000 mM were added to the growth medium, and plants were exposed to the salts for 15 days. Under the action of small concentrations of salts, the results obtained for the transgenic and untransformed plants did not differ, but at high concentrations strong differences between transgenic and untransformed plants were observed. In transgenic plants, accumulation of biomass was greater. Carotene and xanthophyll were destroyed in transgenic plants less than in the untransformed plants. They have accumulated in their leaves more metal, especially Zn, reaching almost to the accumulation of 7 mg per g of dry biomass, bringing these plants to the hyperaccumulation of Zn. In the tissues of transgenic plants exposed to high concentrations of salts, the content of total phenols, anthocyanins, and low molecular weight compounds, that are responsible for protection against ROS, increased significantly. All these results indicate a greater stability of the transgenic plants to the action of heavy metals, as evidenced also by less activity of lipid peroxidases in their tissue: at high salt concentrations, malondialdehyde (MDA accumulated significantly less in transgenic plants than in non-transformed plant tissues. The greater stability of transgenic plants to stressful effect of HM is also evidenced by the

  18. Comparative study of the floral biology and of the response of productivity to insect visitation in two rapeseed cultivars (Brassica napus L. in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Blochtein

    Full Text Available Planning the artificial pollination of agricultural crops requires knowledge of the floral biology and reproductive system of the crop in question. Many studies have shown that rapeseed (Brassica napus Linnaeus is self-compatible and self-pollinated, but its productivity may be increased by insect visitation. In the present study, the floral biology and the response of productivity to insect visitation of two rapeseed cultivars (Hyola 420 and Hyola 61 were analyzed and compared in three regions of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The rapeseed flowers presented three stages during anthesis, with the time periods varying between the cultivars. Both cultivars are self-compatible, but free visitation of insects increased productivity by 17% in the Hyola 420 cultivar and by approximately 30% in the Hyola 61 cultivar. Therefore, it is concluded that the cultivar Hyola 61 is more dependent on insect pollination than Hyola 420.

  19. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Andrea J; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D George; Glick, Bernard R

    2007-06-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors.

  20. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two...... different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated...... [CO2] led to higher quantities of reproductive output over the range of investigated generations independent of the applied temperature regime. The increase in seed yield caused an increase in aboveground biomass. This suggests quantitative changes in the functions of carbon sequestration of plants...

  1. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

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    M Jugulam

    Full Text Available Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18 and B. napus (2n = 38 were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH. This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  2. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  3. Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals.

  4. IrrE, a global regulator of extreme radiation resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans, enhances salt tolerance in Escherichia coli and Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, about 20% of cultivated land is now affected by salinity. Salt tolerance is a trait of importance to all crops in saline soils. Previous efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants have met with only limited success. Bacteria of the genus Deinococcus are known for their ability to survive highly stressful conditions, and therefore possess a unique pool of genes conferring extreme resistance. In Deinococcus radiodurans, the irrE gene encodes a global regulator responsible for extreme radioresistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using plate assays, we showed that IrrE protected E. coli cells against salt shock and other abiotic stresses such as oxidative, osmotic and thermal shocks. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that IrrE functions as a switch to regulate different sets of proteins such as stress responsive proteins, protein kinases, glycerol-degrading enzymes, detoxification proteins, and growth-related proteins in E. coli. We also used quantitative RT-PCR to investigate expression of nine selected stress-responsive genes in transgenic and wild-type Brassica napus plants. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing the IrrE protein can tolerate 350 mM NaCl, a concentration that inhibits the growth of almost all crop plants. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of IrrE, a global regulator for extreme radiation resistance in D. radiodurans, confers significantly enhanced salt tolerance in both E. coli and B. napus. We thus propose that the irrE gene might be used as a potentially promising transgene to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crop plants.

  5. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research over the past years, regeneration from protoplasts has been observed in only a limited number of plant species. Protoplasts undergo complex metabolic modification during their isolation. The isolation of protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Brassica napus leaf protoplasts. The present study was conducted to provide new insight into the mechanism of ROS generation in B. napus leaf protoplasts. In vivo localization of H(2)O(2) and enzymes involved in H(2)O(2) generation and detoxification, molecular antioxidant-ascorbate and its redox state and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the leaf and isolated protoplasts. Incubating leaf strips in the macerating enzyme (ME) for different duration (3, 6, and 12 h) induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation, an index of membrane damage) in protoplasts. The level of H(2)O(2) was highest just after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX)-like activity was enhanced, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Diaminobenzidine peroxidase (DAB-POD) activity was also lower in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Total ascorbate content, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio (redox state), were enhanced in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Higher activity of NOX-like enzyme and weakening in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and DAB-POD) in protoplasts resulted in excessive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts of protoplasts. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity mediated perpetual H(2)O(2) generation probably induced apoptotic-like cell death of B. napus leaf protoplasts as indicated by parallel DNA laddering and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential.

  6. Identification of the Relationship between Oil Body Morphology and Oil Content by Microstructure Comparison Combining with QTL Analysis in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Wang, Hao; Li, Yonghong; Li, Dianrong; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Long, Yan; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Oil bodies (OBs) are relatively simple but very important organelles comprising a matrix of triacylglycerol (TAG) surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded and covered with unique proteins. The OB structure in Brassica napus with different oil content and the relationship between the oil content and the OB structure needs to be better understood. In this paper, the characteristics of OBs in the embryo of a series of B. napus materials with different oil content ranging from 34% to over 60% were studied. The results indicated that the OB size was significantly positively correlated with the oil content but was significantly negatively correlated with the glucosinolates and the protein content. Many genes associated with TAG synthesis, OB-membrane proteins, and the cell progress regulatory pathway were identified in the confidence interval of co-located QTLs for oil content, fatty acid (FA) compositions, and protein content. Our results suggested that the morphology of OBs might be directly controlled by the genes associated with OB-membrane proteins and indirectly controlled by the genes associated with TAG synthesis and cell progress regulatory pathway. PMID:28111582

  7. Identification and cloning of GOLDEN2-LIKE1 (GLK1), a transcription factor associated with chloroplast development in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y L; Pan, Y; Qu, C M; Su, C G; Li, J H; Zhang, X G

    2017-02-16

    Photosynthesis is the process by which dry matter accumulates, which affects rapeseed yield. In this study, we identified GOLDEN2-LIKE1 (GLK1), located on chromosome A07 and 59.2 kb away from the single nucleotide polymorphism marker SNP16353A07, which encodes a transcription factor associated with the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. We then identified 96 GLK1 family members from 53 species using a hidden Markov model (HMM) search and found 24 of these genes, which were derived from 17 Brassicaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 24 Brassicaceae proteins were classified into three subgroups, named the Brassica family, Adenium arabicum, and Arabidopsis. Using homologous cloning methods, we identified four BnaGLK1 copies; however, the coding sequences were shorter than the putative sequences from the reference genome, probably due to splicing errors among the reference genome sequence or different gene copies being present in the different B. napus lines. In addition, we found that BnaGLK1 genes were expressed at higher levels in leaves with more chloroplasts than were present in other leaves. Overexpression of BnaGLK1a resulted in darker leaves and siliques than observed in the control, suggesting that BnaGLK1 might promote chloroplast development to affect the rate of photosynthesis in leaves. These results will help to elucidate the mechanism of chloroplast biogenesis by GLK1 in B. napus.

  8. of integrated application of farmyard manure, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and chemical fertilizers on production of canola (Brassica napus L. in saline soil of Qum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sabahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil seed crops. In order to evaluate the effects of integrated fertilization (chemical, manure and biofertilizers on canola (B. napus variety Hyola 401 yield and uptake of mineral nutrients in saline soil and water, a field experiment was conducted in randomized complete blocks (RCBD arrangement with eight treatments in three replications in Qum Province, Iran. Treatments were: (1 Control, P%100 (Phosphorus %100, (2 P%75B1 (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar biofertilizer, (3 P%75B2 (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin biofertilizer, (4 P%75M (Phosphorus %75+ farmyard manure, (5 P%75B1M (Phosphorus %75+ Barvar + Farmyard manure, (6 P%75B2M (Phosphorus %75+ Nitroxin+ Farmyard manure, (7 P%100B1 (Phosphorus %100 + Barvar and (8 P%125B2 (Phosphorus %125+ Nitroxin. The results showed that the highest yield was obtained from P%75B1M. Difference between integrated fertilization of farmyard manure and other treatments was significant. Farmyard manure increased canola yield which was attributed to increase in availability of mineral nutrients, decreasing effects of salinity and toxic ions. Integrated application of 5 t. ha-1 of farmyard manure and %75 recommended chemical P increased yield and decreased fertilizer consumption. The results revealed that integrated applications of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizer and after that integrated use of bio- and chemical fertilizer are the best strategies to increase nutrient availability and improving canola yield in saline soil.

  9. A Tourist-like MITE insertion in the upstream region of the BnFLC.A10 gene is associated with vernalization requirement in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

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    Hou Jinna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has spring and winter genotypes adapted to different growing seasons. Winter genotypes do not flower before the onset of winter, thus leading to a longer vegetative growth period that promotes the accumulation and allocation of more resources to seed production. The development of winter genotypes enabled the rapeseed to spread rapidly from southern to northern Europe and other temperate regions of the world. The molecular basis underlying the evolutionary transition from spring- to winter- type rapeseed is not known, however, and needs to be elucidated. Results We fine-mapped the spring environment specific quantitative trait locus (QTL for flowering time, qFT10-4,in a doubled haploid (DH mapping population of rapeseed derived from a cross between Tapidor (winter-type and Ningyou7 (semi-winter and delimited the qFT10-4 to an 80-kb region on chromosome A10 of B. napus. The BnFLC.A10 gene, an ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC in Arabidopsis, was cloned from the QTL. We identified 12 polymorphic sites between BnFLC.A10 parental alleles of the TN-DH population in the upstream region and in intron 1. Expression of both BnFLC.A10 alleles decreased during vernalization, but decreased more slowly in the winter parent Tapidor. Haplotyping and association analysis showed that one of the polymorphic sites upstream of BnFLC.A10 is strongly associated with the vernalization requirement of rapeseed (r2 = 0.93, χ2 = 0.50. This polymorphic site is derived from a Tourist-like miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE insertion/deletion in the upstream region of BnFLC.A10. The MITE sequence was not present in the BnFLC.A10 gene in spring-type rapeseed, nor in ancestral ‘A’ genome species B. rapa genotypes. Our results suggest that the insertion may have occurred in winter rapeseed after B. napus speciation. Conclusions Our findings strongly suggest that (i BnFLC.A10 is the gene underlying qFT10

  10. A novel procedure for the quantitative analysis of metabolites, storage products and transcripts of laser microdissected seed tissues of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchuk Ruslana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biology of the seed is complicated by the extensive non-homogeneity (spatial gradients in gene expression, metabolic conversions and storage product accumulation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying seed growth and storage therefore requires the development of means to obtain tissue-specific analyses. This approach also represents an important priority in the context of seed biotechnology. Results We provide a guideline and detailed procedures towards the quantitative analysis of laser micro-dissected (LM tissues in oilseed rape (Brassica napus. This includes protocols for laser microdissection of the seed, and the subsequent extraction and quantitative analysis of lipids, starch and metabolites (sugars, sugar phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, intermediates of glycolysis and citric acid cycle. We have also developed a protocol allowing the parallel analysis of the transcriptome using Brassica-specific microarrays. Some data are presented regarding the compartmentation of metabolites within the oilseed rape embryo. Conclusion The described methodology allows for the rapid, combined analysis of metabolic intermediates, major storage products and transcripts in a tissue-specific manner. The protocols are robust for oilseed rape, and should be readily adjustable for other crop species. The suite of methods applied to LM tissues represents an important step in the context of both the systems biology and the biotechnology of oilseeds.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Two Brassica napus Differing in the Oil Contents and Map Alignment between the DEPs with Arabidopsis and B. rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maoteng Li; Lu Gan; Xiaodong Wang; Dianrong Li; Hao Wang; Chunhua Fu; Longjiang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world.Improve the oil content is the main object for breeders at present.Oil contents is an important and complex metabolic trait of B.napus,in our previous studies,about 50 materials with oil content over 50% were obtained.Lots of studies revealed that some factors,such as seed coat,embryo,and endosperm that were all correlated with oil conten,but the studies focus on the proteomic studies on seed oil content were few reported.It is generally considered that the protein content is negatively correlated with oil content,which was further verified with QTL analysis for protein and oil content,Total and oil body protein in mature seeds of two B.napus cultivars with the oil content of 36.49% and 55.19% were analsized by using 2-DE technique.154 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) have been successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF-MS method.The DEPs were mainly involved in Storage protein,Carbohydrate pathway protein,Cell Growth/Division protein,and Defense/Disease protein.Significant difference of cell growth/division protein both detected in total and oil body protein may be correlated to the size of oil body in B.napus with different oil content.The genome alignment analysis showed that among the 378 key genes,24 genes were underlying the N block,36 genes were underlying the U block and 17 genes were belong to the C block,then the 77 genes were used as candidate genes to do in silico mapping in A4 and C3 chromosomes of TN linkage map.For example,compared with the QTL mapping results and candidate genes,6 of the 24 genes underlying N block of A4 chromosome were mapped on the QTL qA4-1 confidence interval,including AT3G56350,AT3G57620,PGL34,AT3G58450,BGLU27 and BGLU30,and 5 genes were mapped on the QTL qOCDA-2 confidence interval,including AT3G52470,ATELP,MDAR1,FBA8 and AT3G53040.

  12. A- or C-chromosomes, does it matter for the transfer of transgenes from ¤Brassica napus¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomiuk, J.; Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2000-01-01

    with a very low probability of transfer to backcross generations with B. rapa has been proposed. Recently, the progeny of four backcross generations between transgenic herbicide-tolerant B. napus and B. rapa was studied in selection experiments (Metz et al. 1997). The rapid decrease in the frequency...... of herbicide-tolerant plants was explained by selection against the C-chromosomes of B. napus in favor of the homeologous ii-chromosomes. Obviously, such C-chromosomes could be potential candidates as safe integration sites for transgenes. We considered these safety aspects using a simple population genetic...

  13. Cytogenetics of lnterspecific Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Brassica nigra%甘蓝型油菜与黑芥种间杂种的细胞遗传学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纪鹏; 于恩厂; 吴昊; 熊桃园

    2014-01-01

    为将黑芥(Brassica nigra )抗病基因引入甘蓝型油菜(B .napus ),通过有性杂交合成甘蓝型油菜与黑芥的三倍体杂种,经基因组加倍获得相应的六倍体,并观察三倍体和六倍体花粉母细胞减数分裂行为。结果表明:三倍体表现为花粉完全不育,而六倍体雌配子育性得到较好恢复,雄配子育性较低(10%~20%)。三倍体减数分裂终变期染色体主要以单价体形式存在,每个细胞平均形成3.8~5.9个二价体,也有极少数三价体出现。六倍体减数分裂染色体主要形成二价体,并以较低频率形成单价体和四价体。六倍体减数分裂后期 I 均等分离的细胞仅占65%~85%。落后染色体、非四分孢子等异常减数分裂行为也有发生。%To introduce resistance gene of B .nigra to B .napus ,Triploids between B .napus and B.nigra were synthesized via sexual cross and hexaploids were obtained by genome doubling to transfer resistance genes from B.nigra to B.napus.Meiosis of triploids and hexaploids was also investigated by microscope.Results:Triploids were sterility at al.Majority of female gametes were fertile and minority (10%~20%)of male gametes were fertile in hexaploids.Majority of chromosomes were univalents and 3.8~5.9 bivalents were formed and a few of trivalents were observed in diakinesis pollen mother cells (PMCs)of triploids.Majority of chromosomes formed bivalents and univalents and tetravalents were formed in very low frequency in hexaploids.Equal segregation happened in 65%~85% anaphase I PMCs. Laggard chromosomes and non-tetragametes were observed.

  14. (Brassica napus L.) genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... The genetic diversity and relationships among rapeseed genotypes were ... dent of environment and plant growth stage, unlimited ..... interactions that lead to the expression of particular traits .... thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad. ... in the U.S. hard red winter wheat cultivars as reveled by.

  15. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: Flux variability analysis in relation to 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior 13C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH4+ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO2 efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the 13C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  16. Expression of Brassica napus L. γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase and Low-and High-Affinity Sulfate Transporters in Response to Excess Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin SUN; Xue-Mei SUN; Zhi-Min YANG; Shao-Qiong LI; Jin WANG; Song-Hua WANG

    2005-01-01

    In both the roots and leaves ofBrassica napus L. cv. Youyan No. 8 under treatment with 30 μmol/L Cd, massive production of non-protein thiols (NPT; mainly containing glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs)) was induced, together with an increase in γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS)mRNA transcripts. Because γ-ECS is the key enzyme catalyzing the first step in GSH biosynthesis, which, in turn, is converted to PCs, the Cd-induced increase in γ-ECS expression may be responsible for the observed increase in the production of NPT. Using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach, the expression of genes encoding a putative low-affinity sulfate transporter (LAST) and a putative high-affinity sulfate transporter (HAST) was determined at the transcriptional level. The RT-PCR analysis of relative transcript amounts indicates that the LAST gene in B. napus leaves showed a constitutive expression, which was hardly affected by Cd treatment. However, treatment with 30 μmol/L Cd for 2 or 3 d induced a marked increase in the expression of LAST in roots. Transcriptional expression of the HAST gene occurred in roots, but not in leaves. The expression of HAST only in the roots suggests that it has a specific function in sulfate uptake from soil and that the putative LAST may be responsible for the transport of sulfate from the roots to the shoots, as well as for the uptake of sulfate from soil. These results indicate that changes in transcriptional expression for sulfate transporters were required for the increased demand for sulfate during Cd stress.

  17. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: flux variability analysis in relation to ¹³C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan; Schwender, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior ¹³C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH₄⁺ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO₂ efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the ¹³C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  18. Production Potential Prediction and Quantitative Land Suitability Evaluation for Irrigated Cultivation of Canola (Brassica napus, North of Shahrekord District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Givi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Land suitability evaluation and land production potential estimation are considered as prerequisites for land use planning. In quantitative land suitability evaluation, land suitability is evaluated based on production per surface area unit. In this kind of evaluation, first, radiation thermal production potential is calculated, using different models such as FAO model. This potential is a genetical one which is not under influence of water, soil and management limitations. If soil limitations are exerted in the radiation thermal production potential, land production potential is resulted. The difference between the land production potential and the farmer yield is that the first one is not under influence of management limitation but the second one is under influence of management. Management level is determined based on management index. Canola (Brassica napus is one of the oil crops which is cultivated in Iran and provides more than 90% of the required oil of the country. This crop is effective in the control of pests, diseases and weeds. Oil of the edible varieties of canola has good quality. After extraction of the oil, the remained meal is full of protein and is appropriate for animal nutrition. The aims of this research have been land production potential prediction and quantitative land suitability evaluation for irrigated canola in the north of Shahrekord. In the present research, for the first time, canola growth requirements were rated for different suitability classes. Materials and Methods: The studied land with a total surface area of 25 hectares is located north of Shahrekord, in the vicinity of the previous Saman industrial district. The average annual precipitation in the studied area is 370 mm and the mean annual temperature is 13.1 OC. 19 soil profiles were dug and described. Leaf area index, harvest index and canola grain moisture percentage were measured. Farmer yield was also measured for each profile and

  19. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  20. Changes in fitness-associated traits due to the stacking of transgenic glyphosate resistance and insect resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londo, J P; Bollman, M A; Sagers, C L; Lee, E H; Watrud, L S

    2011-10-01

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple 'stacked' traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and tolerance to environmental stresses. The release of crops that express multiple traits could result in ecological changes in weedy environments if feral crop plants or hybrids formed with compatible weeds results in more competitive plants outside of agriculture. To examine the effects of combining transgenes, we developed a stacked line of canola (Brassica napus L.) from a segregating F(2) population that expresses both transgenic glyphosate resistance (CP4 EPSPS) and lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac). Fitness-associated traits were evaluated between this stacked genotype and five other Brassica genotypes in constructed mesocosm plant communities exposed to insect herbivores (Plutella xylostella L.) or glyphosate-drift. Vegetative biomass, seed production and relative fecundity were all reduced in stacked trait plants when compared with non-transgenic plants in control treatments, indicating potential costs of expressing multiple transgenes without selection pressure. Although costs of the transgenes were offset by selective treatment, the stacked genotype continued to produce fewer seeds than either single transgenic line. However, the increase in fitness of the stacked genotype under selective pressure contributed to an increased number of seeds within the mesocosm community carrying unselected, hitchhiking transgenes. These results demonstrate that the stacking of these transgenes in canola results in fitness costs and benefits that are dependent on the type and strength of selection pressure, and could also contribute to changes in plant communities through hitchhiking of unselected traits.

  1. Characterization of bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens and their potential in promoting growth and Cd, Pb, Zn uptake by Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan Xiao; Yan, Jun Lan; He, Huai Dong; Yang, Dan Jing; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Yuan, Ming; Cai, Xin De; Li, Shu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-enhanced phytoremediation has been considered as a promising measure for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, two bacterial strains JYX7 and JYX10 were isolated from rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens grown in metal-polluted soil and identified as of Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequences, respectively. JYX7 and JYX10 showed high Cd, Pb and Zn tolerance and increased water-soluble Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in culture solution and metal-added soils. Two isolates produced plant growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase, and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Based upon their ability in metal tolerance and solubilization, two isolates were further studied for their effects on growth and accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Zn in Brassica napus (rape) by pot experiments. Rapes inoculated with JYX7 and JYX10 had significantly higher dry weights, concentrations and uptakes of Cd, Pb, Zn in both above-ground and root tissues than those without inoculation grown in soils amended with Cd (25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (200 mg kg(-1)) or Zn (200 mg kg(-1)). The present results demonstrated that JYX7 and JYX10 are valuable microorganism, which can improve the efficiency of phytoremediation in soils polluted by Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  2. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumlow, Annekathrin; Keunen, Els; Klein, Jan; Pallmann, Philip; Riemenschneider, Anja; Cuypers, Ann; Papenbrock, Jutta

    Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

  3. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Yoko; Jinkawa, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hidenori; Gondo, Takahiro; Zaita, Norihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    Environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops is implemented under the Cartagena Protocol domestic law in accordance with guidelines for implementing the assessment established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Japan. Environmental risk assessments of transgenic crops are implemented based on the concept of 'substantial equivalence' to conventional crops. A unique requirement in Japan to monitor the production of harmful substances, or allelochemicals, is unparalleled in other countries. The potential for allelochemicals to be secreted from the roots of transgenic crops to affect other plants or soil microflora or for substances in the plant body to affect other plants after dying out must be evaluated. We evaluated the allelopathic potential of seven transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines that express glufosinate tolerance in terms of substantial equivalence to conventional oilseed rape lines, and established evaluation methods. Our results indicate no potential production of allelochemicals for any of the seven transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with conventional oilseed rape lines.

  4. Senescence-specific Alteration of Hydrogen Peroxide Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oilseed Rape Spring Variety Brassica napus L.cv.Mozart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Bieker; Lena Riester; Mark Stahl; Jürgen Franzaring; Ulrike Zentgraf

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in senescence in more detail,we manipulated intracellular H2O2 levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogenperoxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR,which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes.H2O2 levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines,but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm.To transfer this knowledge to crop plants,we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L.cv.Mozart for H2O2 and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development.H2O2 levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time,but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence.With increasing H2O2 levels,CAT and APX activities declined,so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H2O2 levels.Under elevated CO2 conditions,oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H2O2 levels,indicating that H2O2 may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae.

  5. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C L; Graham, N S; Hayden, R; Meacham, M C; Neugebauer, K; Nightingale, M; Dupuy, L X; Hammond, J P; White, P J; Broadley, M R

    2016-04-06

    Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR;Brassica napus) varieties. Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a 'pouch and wick' HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49;P HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  6. Effects on Brassica napus L. Yield and Yield Components of Super Absorbent Polymer under Different Irrigation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For evaluation of the effects of super absorbent polymer under different irrigation regimes on the yield and yield components of Brassica napus L., a factorial experiment was carried out, based on randomized complete block design with four replicas. Treatments included super absorbent polymer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg soil and induced drought stress (irrigation at 25, 50 and 75 mm evaporation from class A pan. The experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil. Data analysis of variance showed the significant interaction effect between polymer and irrigation on the stem length, width and weight, the number of seeds per sheath, number of seeds per plant, the number of sterile and fertile sheath per plant, fertile sheath percentage (fertile sheath/ total sheath ×100, 1000 seeds weight, seed weight per plant, sheath weight per plant and the number of total sheath. The present study revealed that indifferent from the applied amounts of the super absorbent polymer, in all cases the measured characters have been more affected by induced drought stress.

  7. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  8. S-deficiency responsive accumulation of amino acids is mainly due to hydrolysis of the previously synthesized proteins - not to de novo synthesis in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bok-Rye; Muneer, Sowbiya; Kim, Kil-Yong; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2013-03-01

    To characterize the mechanisms of amino acid accumulation under sulphur (S)-deficiency and its physiological significance in Brassica napus, stable isotopes (15) N and (34) S were employed. The plants were exposed for 9 days to S-deficient conditions (0.05 mM vs 1.5 mM sulphate). After 9 days of S-deficiency, leaf-osmotic potential and total chlorophyll content significantly decreased. S uptake decreased by 94%, whereas N uptake and biomass were not significantly changed. Using (15) N and (34) S labelling, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins derived from newly absorbed NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2) (-) and the content of N and S in the previously synthesized amino acids and proteins were quantified. At the whole plant level, S-deficiency increased the pool of amino acids but resulted in strong decrease of incorporation of newly absorbed NO(3) (-) and SO(4) (2) (-) into amino acids by 22.2 and 76.6%, respectively, compared to the controls. Total amount of N and S incorporated into proteins also decreased by 28.8 and 62.1%, respectively. The levels of (14) N- and (32) S-proteins (previously synthesized proteins) strongly decreased, mainly in mature leaves. The data thus indicate that amino acid accumulation under short-term S-deficiency results from the degradation of previously synthesized proteins rather than from de novo synthesis. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  9. Effect of Varying Amounts of Biological Phosphorus on the Morphological Characteristics, Yield and Yield Components of Brassica napus L. under End Season Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of irrigation (irrigation disruption at beginning of flowering, end of flowering, grain filling and control and biological phosphorus (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/ha on the yield of Brassica napus L. cv. ‘Hyola 401’, a split plot experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with four replications in 2010. The maximum (4.55 g and minimum (3.25 g 1000 seed weight belonged to irrigation disruption at the beginning of flowering with 150 and 50 g/ha of biological phosphorus application, respectively. The highest yield of seed (777.58 kg/ha was obtained from irrigation disruption at the end of flowering with 50 g/ha biological phosphorus, and the lowest yield of seed (120.87 kg/ha was obtained from irrigation disruption at the beginning of flowering without biological phosphorus. The maximum number of complete pods (17.38 was observed in 150 g/ha of biological phosphorus application by normal irrigation, and the lowest number of complete pods (5.49 belonged to no phosphorus application with irrigation disruption at the beginning of flowering stage. The highest percent of infertile pods (55.29% was obtained from no phosphorus application with irrigation disruption at the beginning of flowering. And the lowest infertile pod percent (20.67% belonged to 150 g/ha biological phosphorus application at normal irrigation.

  10. Physiological Differences Between Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) with Different Testa Characteristics During Artificial Ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; YANG Gui-tang; CHEN Li; LI Jia-na; TANG Zhang-lin

    2005-01-01

    Yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a new kind of breeding resources with yellow color, increased oil and protein content and less unwanted crude fiber content due to the thinner and transparent testa compared with traditional black or brown-seeded rapeseed. To analyze the longevity of the yellow-seeded rapeseed during storage, the physiological differences between the yellow and black-seeded near-isogenic lines were studied by artificial ageing method. The testa rate, anthocyanin content and melanin content of yellow-seeded rapeseeds decreased by 20.1, 25.2, and 80.4% respectively than black-seeded rapeseed. During artificial ageing, the yellow-seeded rapeseed showed significantly different effect of ageing compared with the black-seeded, as demonstrated by faster deterioration with lower germination percentage, seed vigour index, reducing sugar and soluble protein contents than the black-seeded, as well as a drastic increase in electrical conductivity, malnodialdehyde (MDA) content and a rapid decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT)and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results suggested that the transparent testa of the yellow-seeded rapeseed lost some abilities to protect the embryo against adverse environmental conditions and thus led to a poor storability.

  11. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae. © 2012 Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Optimization of Culture Techniques for DH Line in Brassica napus L.%甘蓝型油菜DH系培养技术优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 林茂; 杨斌; 肖华贵; 李加纳; 饶勇

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to reveal the disinfectants and disinfection methods, medium components, and embryoid culture method on dissociative microspore culture. [Method] B5 as basic medium appended with different concentrations of sucrose, agar and different hormone combinations was used to optimize the culture technique for DH line in Brassica napus L. [Result] Both the 15 min disinfection of NaClO containing 5% Cl- and 10 min disinfection of 0.1% HgCl2 performed well in disinfection and subsequent embryo production; in the extraction process of dissociative microspores, B5 medium containing 2% sucrose could achieve a good embryo production effect; under dark condition microspores were firstly incubated at 32 ℃ 5-7 d, then at 25 ℃ 12-15 d, and finally transferred to 25 ℃ oscillator(60-65 r/min) for 3-7d, when the embryoid would become full ripeness; 1/2MS medium appended with 1.2% agar, 0.02% NAA, 2.0 mg/L 6-BA, 3.4 mg/L AgNO3 and 2% sucrose was helpful for embryoid differentiation and plantlet generation, presenting low degree of browning and slight vitrification. [Conclusion] The results may facilitate DH Line in rape production in large scale and high efficient transformation system.

  13. Male fitness of oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤), weedy ¤B-rapa¤ and their F1 hybrids when pollinating ¤B-rapa¤ seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertl, M.; Hauser, T.P.; Damgaard, C.

    2002-01-01

    The likelihood that two species hybridise and backcross may depend strongly on environmental conditions, and possibly on competitive interactions between parents and hybrids. We studied the paternity of seeds produced by weedy Brassica rapa growing in mixtures with oilseed rape (B. napus...... is strongly influenced by their local frequencies, and that male fitness of F(1)hybrids, when pollinating B. rapa seeds, is low even when their female fitness (seed set) is high.......), respectively. F(1) and backcross offspring were produced mainly by a few B. rapa mother plants. The observed hybridisation and backcrossing frequencies were much lower than expected from our compilation of fitness components. Our results show that the male fitness of B. rapa, B. napus, and F(1) hybrids...

  14. 甘蓝型油菜与红菜薹的杂种及其后代遗传变异分析%Genetic Variation Analyses on Brassica napus×Purple-Caitai Hybrids and Their Backcross Progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亭亭; 徐跃进; 万正杰; 张艳

    2011-01-01

    Distant hybridization of a new kind of cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica napus (2n =4× =38) and Purple-Caitai was carried out. Purple-Caitai was used as the recurrent parent to continue backcross. Agronomic and quality traits of the hybrids and backcross progenies of Brassica napus × Purple-Caitai were analyzed. The results showed that the donor parent and the recipient parent e×hibited nucleus replacement,the values of agronomic traits and quality traits of hybridization and backcross progenies had a certain fluctuation and the higher the generation of material, the more similar to the recurrent parent, while the variation range of lower generation was wide.%本研究采用一种新型甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系(Eru CMS)(Brassica napus 2n=4x=38)与红菜薹(B.campestris L.ssp.chinensis L.var.utilis Tsen et Lee.2n=2x=20)进行远缘杂交,并以红菜薹为轮回亲本连续回交,对甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系与红菜薹的杂种一代及其回交后代进行植物学性状及品质性状调查测定.结果表明,供体亲本和受体亲本在回交转育过程中发生明显的核置换,其杂交及回交后代的农艺性状及品质性状出现波动,并且随着回交次数的增多,世代越高的材料越相似于轮回亲本红菜薹,而世代越低材料遗传变异范围更大.

  15. Construction of plant seed-specific expression vectors pSCB and pSCAB and the obtainment of transgenic Brassica napus H165 expressing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate synthetic genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The seed-specific promoter and transit peptide were amplified and fused to the three genes phbA, phbB and phbC encoding PHB synthetic enzymes, respectively. Seed-specific expression vectors pSCB containing phbC and phbB, and pSCAB containing phbC, phbB and phbA, were constructed by introducing the genes with promoter and peptide into the binary vector pBI101. Transgenic Brassica napus H165 were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with these vectors. They were confirmed by PCR, Southern and RT-PCR analyses.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals carbohydrate and lipid metabolism blocks in Brassica napus L. male sterility induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulfuron ester sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhang, Peipei; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2015-03-17

    Chemical hybridization agents (CHAs) are often used to induce male sterility for the production of hybrid seeds. We previously discovered that monosulfuron ester sodium (MES), an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor of the herbicide sulfonylurea family, can induce rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) male sterility at approximately 1% concentration required for its herbicidal activity. To find some clues to the mechanism of MES inducing male sterility, the ultrastructural cytology observations, comparative transcriptome analysis, and physiological analysis on carbohydrate content were carried out in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages between the MES-treated and mock-treated rapeseed plants. Cytological analysis revealed that the plastid ultrastructure was abnormal in pollen mother cells and tapetal cells in male sterility anthers induced by MES treatment, with less material accumulation in it. However, starch granules were observed in chloroplastids of the epidermis cells in male sterility anthers. Comparative transcriptome analysis identified 1501 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) in leaves and anthers at different developmental stages, most of these DETs being localized in plastid and mitochondrion. Transcripts involved in metabolism, especially in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and cellular transport were differentially expressed. Pathway visualization showed that the tightly regulated gene network for metabolism was reprogrammed to respond to MES treatment. The results of cytological observation and transcriptome analysis in the MES-treated rapeseed plants were mirrored by carbohydrate content analysis. MES treatment led to decrease in soluble sugars content in leaves and early stage buds, but increase in soluble sugars content and decrease in starch content in middle stage buds. Our integrative results suggested that carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were influenced by CHA-MES treatment during rapeseed anther development, which might

  17. Screening of Candidate Leaf Morphology Genes by Integration of QTL Mapping and RNA Sequencing Technologies in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hongju; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Aoxiang; Zhang, Li; Xu, Xinfu; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2017-01-01

    Leaf size and shape play important roles in agronomic traits, such as yield, quality and stress responses. Wide variations in leaf morphological traits exist in cultivated varieties of many plant species. By now, the genetics of leaf shape and size have not been characterized in Brassica napus. In this study, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of leaf morphology traits. Furthermore, fresh young leaves of extreme lines with more leaf lobes (referred to as ‘A’) and extreme lines with fewer lobes (referred to as ‘B’) selected from the RIL population and leaves of dissected lines (referred to as ‘P’) were used for transcriptional analysis. A total of 31 QTLs for the leaf morphological traits tested in this study were identified on 12 chromosomes, explaining 5.32–39.34% of the phenotypic variation. There were 8, 6, 2, 5, 8, and 2 QTLs for PL (petiole length), PN (lobe number), LW (lamina width), LL (Lamina length), LL/LTL (the lamina size ratio) and LTL (leaf total length), respectively. In addition, 74, 1,166 and 1,272 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in ‘A vs B’, ‘A vs P’ and ‘B vs P’ comparisons, respectively. The Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases were used to predict the functions of these DEGs. Gene regulators of leaf shape and size, such as ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2, gibberellin 20-oxidase 3, genes encoding gibberellin-regulated family protein, genes encoding growth-regulating factor and KNOTTED1-like homeobox were also detected in DEGs. After integrating the QTL mapping and RNA sequencing data, 33 genes, including a gene encoding auxin-responsive GH3 family protein and a gene encoding sphere organelles protein-related gene, were selected as candidates that may control leaf shape. Our findings should be valuable for studies of the genetic control of leaf morphological trait regulation in B. napus. PMID

  18. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factor genes in canola (Brassica napus L. in response to fungal pathogens and hormone treatments

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    Deyholos Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of plant WRKY transcription factor families are widely implicated in defense responses and various other physiological processes. For canola (Brassica napus L., no WRKY genes have been described in detail. Because of the economic importance of this crop, and its evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana, we sought to characterize a subset of canola WRKY genes in the context of pathogen and hormone responses. Results In this study, we identified 46 WRKY genes from canola by mining the expressed sequence tag (EST database and cloned cDNA sequences of 38 BnWRKYs. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the conserved WRKY domain amino acid sequences, which demonstrated that BnWRKYs can be divided into three major groups. We further compared BnWRKYs to the 72 WRKY genes from Arabidopsis and 91 WRKY from rice, and we identified 46 presumptive orthologs of AtWRKY genes. We examined the subcellular localization of four BnWRKY proteins using green fluorescent protein (GFP and we observed the fluorescent green signals in the nucleus only. The responses of 16 selected BnWRKY genes to two fungal pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria brassicae, were analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR. Transcript abundance of 13 BnWRKY genes changed significantly following pathogen challenge: transcripts of 10 WRKYs increased in abundance, two WRKY transcripts decreased after infection, and one decreased at 12 h post-infection but increased later on (72 h. We also observed that transcript abundance of 13/16 BnWRKY genes was responsive to one or more hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine, BAP and the defense signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET. We compared these transcript expression patterns to those previously described for presumptive orthologs of these genes in Arabidopsis and rice, and observed both similarities and differences in

  19. Brassica napus genome possesses extraordinary high number of CAMTA genes and CAMTA3 contributes to PAMP triggered immunity and resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

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    Hafizur eRahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs play important roles in various plant biological processes including disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil-producing crops worldwide. To date, compositon of CAMTAs in genomes of Brassica species and role of CAMTAs in resistance to the devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are still unknown. In this study, 18 CAMTA genes were identified in oilseed rape genome through bioinformatics analyses, which were inherited from the nine copies each in its progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea and represented the highest number of CAMTAs in a given plant species identified so far. Gene structure, protein domain organization and phylogentic analyses showed that the oilseed rape CAMTAs were structurally similar and clustered into three major groups as other plant CAMTAs, but had expanded subgroups CAMTA3 and CAMTA4 genes uniquely in rosids species occurring before formation of oilseed rape. A large number of stress response-related cis-elements existed in the 1.5 kb promoter regions of the BnCAMTA genes. BnCAMTA genes were expressed differentially in various organs and in response to treatments with plant hormones and the toxin oxalic acid (OA secreted by S. sclerotiorum as well as the pathogen inoculation. Remarkably, the expression of BnCAMTA3A1 and BnCAMTA3C1 was drastically induced in early phase of S. sclerotiorum infection, indicating their potential role in the interactions between oilseed rape and S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, inoculation analyses using Arabidopsis camta mutants demonstrated that Atcamta3 mutant plants exhibited significantly smaller disease lesions than wild-type and other Atcamta mutant plants. In addition, compared with wild-type plants, Atcamta3 plants accumulated obviously more hydrogen peroxide in response to the PAMP chitin and exhibited much higher expression of the CGCG

  20. Differences in biochemical responses to cold stress in two contrasting varieties of rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Wang-hao; Chen Yu-zhen; Lu Cun-fu

    2007-01-01

    Changes in isozymes of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase and activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in two annual Brassica varieties (AS-3 and CON, cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive, respectively) after 4℃ treatment were assayed. After the low temperature treatment, PAGE patterns of isozymes of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase showed that the expressions and activities of these enzymes in the AS-3 variety were higher than the CON variety. Under normal and cold conditions, peroxidase and esterase activities of AS-3 were higher than those of CON. The relative freezing tolerance of these two cultivars was discussed.

  1. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

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    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  2. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR application, nitrogen and zinc sulphate fertilizer on yield and nitrogen uptake in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jafari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of simultaneous application of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer, Azotobacter chroococcum and Azospirillum brasilense, on grain yield and nitrogen uptake efficiency in rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Hyola308, a field experiment was conducted as split plot factorial based on randomized complete block design at research field of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Iran, during growing season of 2007-2008. Results showed that urea fertilizer, ZnSO4 fertilizer and biological fertilizer had significant effects on nitrogen uptake and accumulation. Maximum grain yield (2568 kg.ha-1 were obtained in 150kgN + ZnSO4+ bio treatment. Maximum accumulation of nitrogen in rosette stage (4.9% and nitrogen content of grain (3.6% was obtained in 150 kg N.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. Maximum Nitrogen uptake efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency (0.86 and 29.56 kg.kg-1, respectively were obtained in 50 kgN.ha-1N + ZnSO4 + bio. In regard to significant effects of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer with lower N rate and high nitrogen uptake efficiency of rapeseed, it seems that the ability of uptake and use of nitrogen fertilizers was greater for seed formation in the presence of ZnSO4 and biological fertilizer in rapeseed, cv. Hyola308. The most important of mechanisms of PGPRs is increase the bioavailability of mineral nutrients with biological nitrogen fixation and soluble phosphorus and potassium that lead to economize nitrogen fertilizer in rapeseed production and minimizing environmental pollution risk.

  3. Cloning, Sequence Analysis and Expression Patterns during Seed Germination of a Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. G-x-S-x-G-motif Lipase Gene

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    Imen GLAIED GHRAM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in triacylglycerides, generating glycerol and free fatty acids. These enzymes are encoded by extremely complex gene families, and appear to fulfil many different biological functions. Although they are present in all types of organisms, available information on plant lipases is still very limited, as compared to their bacterial and animal counterparts. A full-length clone, BnLIP, encoding a putative lipase, has been isolated by PCR amplification of Brassica napus genomic DNA, with oligonucleotide primers derived from the sequence of an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue. The clone included an open reading frame of 1581 bp encoding a polypeptide of 526 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 59.5 kDa. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence, sequence alignment with homologous proteins from related plant species, and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that the BnLIP protein belongs to the ‘classical’ GxSxG-motif lipase family. RT-PCR assays indicated that the BnLIP gene is expressed specifically, but only transiently, during seed germination: the lipase mRNA was not present at detectable levels in ungerminated seeds, was detected only three days after seed imbibition, but its levels decreased rapidly afterwards. No expression was observed in roots, stems or leaves of adult plants. This expression pattern suggests that BnLIP is one of the lipases involved in the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides stored in rapeseed seeds, ultimately providing nutrients and energy to sustain seedling growth until photosynthesis is activated.

  4. Proteomic analysis of chromium stress and sulfur deficiency responses in leaves of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars differing in Cr(VI) tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Terzi, Hakan

    2016-02-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development, and it plays an essential role in response to environmental stresses. Plants suffer with combined stress of S deficiency and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in the rhizosphere. Little is known about the impact of S deficiency on leaf metabolism of canola (Brassica napus L.) under Cr(VI) stress. Therefore, this study is the first to examine the effects of Cr(VI) stress and S deficiency in canola at a molecular level. A comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the differences in protein abundance between Cr-tolerant NK Petrol and Cr-sensitive Sary cultivars. The germinated seeds were grown hydroponically in S-sufficient (+S) nutrient solution for 7 days and then subjected to S-deficiency (-S) for 7 days. S-deficient and +S seedlings were then exposed to 100μM Cr(VI) for 3 days. Protein patterns analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed that 58 protein spots were differentially regulated by Cr(VI) stress (+S/+Cr), S-deficiency (-S/-Cr) and combined stress (-S/+Cr). Of these, 39 protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Differentially regulated proteins predominantly had functions not only in photosynthesis, but also in energy metabolism, stress defense, protein folding and stabilization, signal transduction, redox regulation and sulfur metabolism. Six stress defense related proteins including 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1, glutathione S-transferase, ferritin-1, l-ascorbate peroxidase, thiazole biosynthetic enzyme and myrosinase-binding protein-like At3g16470 exhibited a greater increase in NK Petrol. The stress-related proteins play an important role in the detoxification of Cr(VI) and maintaining cellular homeostasis under variable S nutrition.

  5. Analysis of the Lignin Contents and Related Enzymes Activities in Seed Coat Between Black-Seeded and Yellow-Seeded Rapes (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Xiu-zhi; LIANG Ying; LI Jia-na

    2005-01-01

    One pair of near isonegic yellow/black seeded rape (Brassica napus L) were used as experimental materials to study the changes of lignin contents and enzymes activities of 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) in seedcoats during the stage of seed development. The variation analysis showed that the changes of lignin contents and enzyme activities of 4CL, CAD and F5H in seed coat had significant differences between black- and yellow-seeded rapes, and also between different development stages. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the lignin contents were positively correlative to the activities of all three enzymes investigated in the study, and the interactions between them in the seed coat of the two lines. For yellow-seeded rape, the correlation coefficient (0.7262018) of lignin content and the interaction between 4CL and F5H was significant, the lignin contents were highly positively correlative to the activities of CAD and F5H, the interaction between 4CL and CAD, and the interaction between CAD and F5H. For the black-seeded rape, only the lignin content was highly positively correlative to the activity of F5H (the correlation coefficient was 0.772949), the other correlation coefficients, i. e. lignin contents to 4CL, CAD activities, the interactions between the three enzymes were not significant although all the correlation coefficients were above 0.5000. The results suggested that 4CL, CAD and F5H regulated the biosynthesis of lignin in seedcoat of rapes,leading to the lignin contents in the seedcoats of the yellow-seeded rape much lower than that of the black-seeded line,and affecting the thickness of the developing seedcoats in rapes. Therefore, it was likely to change the seedcoat ratio by overexpressing or suppressing the activities of one of the enzymes, both of them or all of them.

  6. Predictive Modeling of Biomass Component Tradeoffs in Brassica napus Developing Oilseeds Based on in Silico Manipulation of Storage Metabolism1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwender, Jörg; Hay, Jordan O.

    2012-01-01

    Seed oil content is a key agronomical trait, while the control of carbon allocation into different seed storage compounds is still poorly understood and hard to manipulate. Using bna572, a large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oilseeds, we present an in silico approach for the analysis of carbon allocation into seed storage products. Optimal metabolic flux states were obtained by flux variability analysis based on minimization of the uptakes of substrates in the natural environment of the embryo. For a typical embryo biomass composition, flux sensitivities to changes in different storage components were derived. Upper and lower flux bounds of each reaction were categorized as oil or protein responsive. Among the most oil-responsive reactions were glycolytic reactions, while reactions related to mitochondrial ATP production were most protein responsive. To assess different biomass compositions, a tradeoff between the fractions of oil and protein was simulated. Based on flux-bound discontinuities and shadow prices along the tradeoff, three main metabolic phases with distinct pathway usage were identified. Transitions between the phases can be related to changing modes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, reorganizing the usage of organic carbon and nitrogen sources for protein synthesis and acetyl-coenzyme A for cytosol-localized fatty acid elongation. The phase close to equal oil and protein fractions included an unexpected pathway bypassing α-ketoglutarate-oxidizing steps in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The in vivo relevance of the findings is discussed based on literature on seed storage metabolism. PMID:22984123

  7. Effect of different methods of soil fertility increasing via application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different resource of fertilizers had an effect on grain yield, oil and grain quality. Information regarding the effect of simultaneous application of organic, chemical and biological fertilizers on canola (Brassica napus L. traits is not available. In order to study the effect of different systems of soil fertility on grain yield and quality of canola (Talayeh cultivar, an experiment was conducted at experimental farm of Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj, Iran, during two growing seasons of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. The experimental units were arranged as split plots based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Main plots consisted of five methods for obtaining the basal fertilizers requirement including (N1: farm yard manure; (N2: compost; (N3: chemical fertilizers; (N4: farm yard manure + compost and (N5: farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers; and control (N6. Sub plots consisted four levels of biofertilizers were (B1: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2: Trichoderma harzianum; (B3: Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida and Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4: control, (without biofertilizers. Results showed that basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield was obtained from N5 treatment in which organic and chemical fertilizers were applied simultaneously applied. Basal fertilizers, biofertilizers have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. The highest nitrogen content (42.85 mg.g-1 and least amount of (N/S were obtained from N5 treatment. The highest oil percent was obtained from N1 and N2 treatments and highest oil yield was obtained from N5 treatment. Finally, application of organic manure and biofertilizers with chemical fertilizer led to an increase in yield and quality of canola grain.

  8. Effects of the nitrogen and zinc fertilizers and salinity irrigation on yield, quality traits and nutrient uptake of canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Okapi

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    Elnaz Ebrahimian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil or water salinity is one of the major problems of agriculture in the arid and semiarid regions of the world, especially in Iran. Beside the Salinity, reasonable canola production depends on nutrient supply so that increase in quantitative and qualitative yield is highly correlated with nutrients availability, especially nitrogen and Zinc. In order to investigate the effects of the nitrogen, zinc fertilizer and irrigation salinity on yield quality characteristic and nutrient uptake of canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Okapi, a field experiment was conducted in Agriculture Research Centre of East Azarbaijan, Iran in 2009-2010. The experiment was arranged by using a completely randomized block design based on factorial fashion with three replications. The experimental treatments included the nitrogen levels (0, 50 and 100 kg. ha-1, different zinc levels (0, 5 and 10 kg. ha-1 and irrigation salinity levels (8 and 16 dS.m-1. Based on results, nitrogen and zinc application had a significant effect of increasing plant height, number of pod per plant and grain yield of canola. However, mentioned traits of canola were decreased as result to increasing irrigation salinity levels (from 8 to 16 dS. m-1. Irrigation salinity at rate of 16 dS. m-1 had a significant effect on increasing glucosinolate percentage in seed. In addition, effect of irrigation salinity levels on decreasing the N, P, Ka and Ca uptake and increasing the Na and Cl accumulation in seed canola were significant. In sum, it seems that nutrient supply, especially nitrogen, can be considered as effective solution to diminish negative effects of salinity.

  9. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the SUC and SWEET gene families of sucrose transporters in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    JIAN Hongju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported. In our study, 22 and 68 members of the SUT/SUCs and SWEET gene families, respectively, were identified in the oilseed rape (Brassica napus genome through homology searches. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, motifs and the cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoters of BnSUC and BnSWEET genes were analysed. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 18 BnSUC and 16 BnSWEET genes in different tissues of ‘ZS11’ and the expression of 9 BnSUC and 7 BnSWEET genes in ‘ZS11’ under various conditions, including biotic stress (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, abiotic stresses (drought, salt and heat, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, brassinolide, gibberellin and salicylic acid. In conclusion, our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the oilseed rape SUC and SWEET gene families. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression profiles of the SUC and SWEET genes in the different tissues of oilseed rape helps to identify candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes. Our study advances our understanding of the important roles of sucrose transport in oilseed rape.

  10. SuMoToRI, an ecophysiological model to predict growth and sulfur allocation and partitioning in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. until the onset of pod formation

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    Sophie eBrunel-Muguet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur (S nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, predicting plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant’s compartments and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non mobile-S fractions until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Towards Rapeseed Improvement, was developed up to the onset of pod formation. The key features rely on (i the determination of the S requirements used for growth (structural and metabolic functions through critical S dilution curves and (ii the estimation of a mobile pool of S that is regenerated by daily S uptake and remobilization from senescing leaves. This study describes the functioning of the model and presents the model’s calibration and evaluation. SuMoToRI was calibrated and evaluated with independent datasets from greenhouse experiments under contrasting S supply conditions. It is run with a small number of parameters with generic values, except in the case of the Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE, which was shown to be modulated by S supply. The model gave satisfying predictions of the dynamics of growth, S allocation between compartments and S partitioning, such as the mobile-S fraction in the leaves, which is an indicator of the remobilization potential towards growing sinks. The mechanistic features of SuMoToRI provide a process-based framework that has enabled the description of the S remobilizing process in a species characterized by senescence during the vegetative phase. We believe that this model structure could be useful for modelling S dynamics in other arable crops that have similar senescence-related characteristics.

  11. Comparison of sugars, iridoid glycosides and amino acids in nectar and phloem sap of Maurandya barclayana, Lophospermum erubescens, and Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohaus, Gertrud; Schwerdtfeger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Floral nectar contains sugars and amino acids to attract pollinators. In addition, nectar also contains different secondary compounds, but little is understood about their origin or function. Does nectar composition reflect phloem composition, or is nectar synthesized and/or modified in nectaries? Studies where both, the nectar as well as the phloem sap taken from the same plant species were analyzed in parallel are rare. Therefore, phloem sap and nectar from different plant species (Maurandya barclayana, Lophospermum erubescens, and Brassica napus) were compared. Nectar was collected with microcapillary tubes and phloem sap with the laser-aphid-stylet technique. The nectar of all three plant species contained high amounts of sugars with different percentages of glucose, fructose, and sucrose, whereas phloem sap sugars consisted almost exclusively of sucrose. One possible reason for this could be the activity of invertases in the nectaries. The total concentration of amino acids was much lower in nectars than in phloem sap, indicating selective retention of nitrogenous solutes during nectar formation. Nectar amino acid concentrations were negatively correlated with the nectar volumes per flower of the different plant species. Both members of the tribe Antirrhineae (Plantaginaceae) M. barclayana and L. erubescens synthesized the iridoid glycoside antirrhinoside. High amounts of antirrhinoside were found in the phloem sap and lower amounts in the nectar of both plant species. The parallel analyses of nectar and phloem sap have shown that all metabolites which were found in nectar were also detectable in phloem sap with the exception of hexoses. Otherwise, the composition of both aqueous solutions was not the same. The concentration of several metabolites was lower in nectar than in phloem sap indicating selective retention of some metabolites. Furthermore, the existence of antirrhinoside in nectar could be based on passive secretion from the phloem.

  12. Enhanced expression of the proline synthesis gene P5CSA in relation to seed osmopriming improvement of Brassica napus germination under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Szymon; Wojtyla, Łukasz; Quinet, Muriel; Lechowska, Katarzyna; Lutts, Stanley; Garnczarska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    Osmopriming is a pre-sowing treatment that enhances germination performance and stress tolerance of germinating seeds. Brassica napus seeds showed osmopriming-improved germination and seedling growth under salinity stress. To understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of osmopriming-induced salinity tolerance, the accumulation of proline, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in proline metabolism and the level of endogenous hydrogen peroxide were investigated in rape seeds during osmopriming and post-priming germination under control (H2O) and stress conditions (100 mM NaCl). The relationship between gene expression and enzymatic activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) was determined. The improved germination performance of osmoprimed seeds was accompanied by a significant increase in proline content. The accumulation of proline during priming and post-priming germination was associated with strong up-regulation of the P5CSA gene, down-regulation of the PDH gene and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The up-regulated transcript level of P5CSA was consistent with the increase in P5CS activity. This study shows, for the first time, the role of priming-induced modulation of activities of particular genes and enzymes of proline turnover, and its relationship with higher content of hydrogen peroxide, in improving seed germination under salinity stress. Following initial stress-exposure, the primed seeds acquired stronger salinity stress tolerance during post-priming germination, a feature likely linked to a 'priming memory'.

  13. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C. L.; Graham, N. S.; Hayden, R.; Meacham, M. C.; Neugebauer, K.; Nightingale, M.; Dupuy, L. X.; Hammond, J. P.; White, P. J.; Broadley, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus) varieties. Methods Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a ‘pouch and wick’ HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Key Results Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49; P root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. PMID:27052342

  14. Identification of microRNAs actively involved in fatty acid biosynthesis in developing Brassica napus seeds using high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed development has a critical role during the spermatophyte life cycle. In Brassica napus, a major oil crop, fatty acids are synthesized and stored in specific tissues during embryogenesis, and understanding the molecular mechanism underlying fatty acid biosynthesis during seed development is an important research goal. In this study, we constructed three small RNA libraries from early seeds at 14, 21 and 28 days after flowering (DAF and used high-throughput sequencing to examine microRNA (miRNA expression. A total of 85 known miRNAs from 30 families and 1,160 novel miRNAs were identified, of which 24, including 5 known and 19 novel miRNAs, were found to be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. bna-miR156b, bna-miR156c, bna-miR156g, novel_mir_1706, novel_mir_1407, novel_mir_173, and novel_mir_104 were significantly down-regulated at 21 DAF and 28 DAF, whereas bna-miR159, novel_mir_1081, novel_mir_19 and novel_mir_555 were significantly up-regulated. In addition, we found that some miRNAs regulate functional genes that are directly involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and that other miRNAs regulate the process of fatty acid biosynthesis by acting on a large number of transcription factors. The miRNAs and their corresponding predicted targets were partially validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Our data suggest that diverse and complex miRNAs are involved in the seed development process and that miRNAs play important roles in fatty acid biosynthesis during seed development.

  15. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  16. Ethylene response factor BnERF2-like (ERF2.4) from Brassica napus L. enhances submergence tolerance and alleviates oxidative damage caused by submergence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyan Lv; Sanxiong Fu; Song Chen; Wei Zhang; Cunkou Qi

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene response factor proteins play an important role in regulating a variety of stress responses in plants, but their exact functions in submergence stress are not well understood. In this study, we isolated BnERF2.4 from Brassica napus L. to study its function in submergence tolerance. The expression of the BnERF2.4 gene in B. napus and the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in transgenic Arabidopsis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of BnERF2.4 was induced by submergence in B. napus and the overexpression of BnERF2.4 in Arabidopsis increased the level of tolerance to submergence and oxidative stress. A histochemical method detected lower levels of H2O2, O2•− and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic Arabidopsis. Compared to the wild type, transgenic lines also had higher soluble sugar content and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, which helped to protect plants against the oxidative damage caused by submergence. It was concluded that BnERF2.4 increased the tolerance of plants to submergence stress and may be involved in regulating soluble sugar content and the antioxidant system in defense against submergence stress.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Swedish Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ) Analyzed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; Stine Tuevesson; Bo Gertsson

    2003-01-01

    We have compared genetic diversity of 24 Chinese weak-winter, Swedish winter and spring B.napus accessions by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). By cluster analysis (UPGMA) based on 125 polymorphism bands amplified with 20 primers, the 24 accessions were divided into three groups. Six Swedish winter lines and eight Chinese weak-winter lines were in the group Ⅰ and the group Ⅱ were two Chinese weakwinter lines Xiangyou15 and Bao81. The third group contained eight Swedish spring lines. Principal co-ordinates analysis (PCO) showed similar groupings to cluster analysis. Results from cluster analysis and PCO analysis showed very clearly that Chinese weak-winter, Swedish spring and winter accessions were distinguished from each other and Chinese weak-winter accessions in this study were genetically closer to Swedish winter accessions than to Swedish spring accessions. The Chinese weak-winter accessions had larger diversity than Swedish spring or winter accessions did. This study indicated that ISSR is a suitable and effective tool to evaluate genetic diversity among rapeseed germplasm.

  18. [Effects of simulated acid rain on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Han, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Hai-Dong

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different acidity simulated acid rain on the physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield of oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Qinyou 9). Comparing with the control (pH 6.0), weak acidity (pH = 4.0-5.0) simulated acid rain stimulated the rape growth to some extent, but had less effects on the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. With the further increase of acid rain acidity, the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, antioxidative enzyme activities, and non-enzyme antioxidant contents all decreased gradually, while the leaf malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity increased significantly. As the results, the pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight, and actual yield decreased. However, different yield components showed different sensitivity to simulated acid rain. With the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the pod number per plant and the seed number per pod decreased significantly, while the seed weight was less affected.

  19. Identification and characterization of interspecific hybrids from Brassica napus (Eru CMS) ×Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜与甘蓝种间杂种的鉴定及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    Hybrids from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea were obtained by embryo rescue techniques,which is an effective approach for increasing the resources of male sterility of Brassica oleracea.Both the DNA content and chromosome number of hybrids were the mid-parent values.Characteristics of the hybrid were investigated.The results showed that hybrids were morphologically similar to parents during the growing periods, while inclined to the female parent during flowering.But hybrids had strong heterosis of growth.The leaf structure, chloroplast number in stomata guard cell, the floral organ, and the early flowering periods of hybrids were mid-parent, except the mutated leaf structure of mosaic hybrid.Hybrids had their own unique peroxidase isozymes bands.Test of the pollen viability showed that hybrids bore only non-viability pollens with 100% sterility.Backcross generation could be obtained only through embryo rescue techniques to overcome barriers of hybridization.%采用新型甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育源(Eru CMS)为材料,通过杂交与胚抢救技术,获得甘蓝型油菜与甘蓝的种问杂种,对杂种进行鉴定并对杂种性状进行研究.用流式细胞仪和染色体计数鉴定后发现,真杂种的DNA含量为两亲本的中间值,并且染色体数目均为28条.通过对真杂种特性进行研究,结果表明:杂种植株幼苗形态都介于亲本之间,生长后期则偏向甘蓝型油菜,具有超亲本的杂种优势;花叶杂种的叶片结构出现了变异,而绿叶杂种的叶片结构介于亲本之间;杂种的气孔保卫细胞叶绿体数量、初花期和花器官形态也都介于亲本之间;杂种具有自身特异的过氧化物同工酶酶带;杂种不育株率和不育度均为100%,花粉无活力,以甘蓝为轮回亲本与杂种回交仍存在杂交障碍,需借助胚抢救技术获得回交1代.

  20. Growth of Verticillium longisporum in Xylem Sap of Brassica napus is Independent from Cultivar Resistance but Promoted by Plant Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    late maturity stages of plants in the field. While falsifying the presence of antifungal activity in xylem sap of resistant cultivars, this study strengthens previous findings that indicated a significant role of physical cell wall bound resistance factors involved in quantitative, cultivar-related resistance of B. napus to V. longisporum.

  1. BnPME is progressively induced after microspore reprogramming to embryogenesis, correlating with pectin de-esterification and cell differentiation in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, María-Teresa; Berenguer, Eduardo; Risueño, María C; Testillano, Pilar S

    2016-08-11

    Pectins are one of the main components of plant cell walls. They are secreted to the wall as highly methylesterified forms that can be de-esterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs). The degree of methylesterification of pectins changes during development, PMEs are involved in the cell wall remodeling that occurs during diverse plant developmental processes. Nevertheless, the functional meaning of pectin-related wall remodeling in different cell types and processes remains unclear. In vivo, the microspore follows the gametophytic pathway and differentiates to form the pollen grain. In vitro, the microspore can be reprogrammed by stress treatments becoming a totipotent cell that starts to proliferate and follows the embryogenic pathway, a process known as microspore embryogenesis. To investigate if the change of developmental programme of the microspore towards embryogenesis involves changes in pectin esterification levels, which would cause the cell wall remodeling during the process, in the present study, dynamics of PME expression and degrees of pectin esterification have been analysed during microspore embryogenesis and compared with the gametophytic development, in Brassica napus. A multidisciplinary approach has been adopted including BnPME gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immuno-dot-blot and immunofluorescence with JIM5 and JIM7 antibodies to reveal low and highly-methylesterified pectins. The results showed that cell differentiation at advanced developmental stages involved induction of BnPME expression and pectin de-esterification, processes that were also detected in zygotic embryos, providing additional evidence that microspore embryogenesis mimics zygotic embryogenesis. By contrast, early microspore embryogenesis, totipotency and proliferation were associated with low expression of BnPME and high levels of esterified pectins. The results show that the change of developmental programme of the microspore

  2. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  3. Floral Initiation in Response to Planting Date Reveals the Key Role of Floral Meristem Differentiation Prior to Budding in Canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaofeng; Zhang, Dongqing; Yu, Huasheng; Lin, Baogang; Fu, Ying; Hua, Shuijin

    2016-01-01

    In Brassica napus, floral development is a decisive factor in silique formation, and it is influenced by many cultivation practices including planting date. However, the effect of planting date on floral initiation in canola is poorly understood at present. A field experiment was conducted using a split plot design, in which three planting dates (early, 15 September, middle, 1 October, and late, 15 October) served as main plot and five varieties differing in maturity (1358, J22, Zhongshuang 11, Zheshuang 8, and Zheyou 50) employed as subplot. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the process of floral meristem (FM) differentiation, the influence of planting date on growth period (GP) and floral initiation, and silique formation. The main stages of FM developments can be divided into four stages: first, the transition from shoot apical meristem to FM; second, flower initiation; third, gynoecium and androecium differentiation; and fourth, bud formation. Our results showed that all genotypes had increased GPs from sowing to FM differentiation as planting date was delayed while the GPs from FM differentiation to budding varied year by year except the very early variety, 1358. Based on the number of flowers present at the different reproductive stages, the flowers produced from FM differentiation to budding closely approximated the final silique even though the FM differentiated continuously after budding and peaked generally at the middle flowering stage. The ratio of siliques to maximum flower number ranged from 48 to 80%. These results suggest that (1) the period from FM differentiation to budding is vital for effective flower and silique formation although there was no significant correlation between the length of the period and effective flowers and siliques, and (2) the increased number of flowers from budding were generally ineffective. Therefore, maximizing flower numbers prior to budding will improve silique numbers, and reducing FM degeneration should

  4. Floral initiation in response to planting date reveals the key role of floral meristem differentiation prior to budding in canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaofeng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brassica napus, floral development is a decisive factor in silique formation, and it is influenced by many cultivation practices including planting date. However, the effect of planting date on floral initiation in canola is poorly understood at present. A field experiment was conducted using a split plot design, in which three planting dates (early, 15 Sep, middle, 1 Oct, and late, 15 Oct served as main plot and five varieties differing in maturity (1358, J22, Zhongshuang 11, Zheshuang 8, and Zheyou 50 employed as subplot. The purpose of this study was to shed light on the process of floral meristem (FM differentiation, the influence of planting date on growth period (GP and floral initiation, and silique formation. The main stages of FM developments can be divided into four stages: first, the transition from shoot apical meristem to FM; second, flower initiation; third, gynoecium and androecium differentiation; and fourth, bud formation. Our results showed that all genotypes had increased GPs from sowing to FM differentiation as planting date was delayed while the GPs from FM differentiation to budding varied year by year except the very early variety, 1358. Based on the number of flowers present at the different reproductive stages, the flowers produced from FM differentiation to budding closely approximated the final silique even though the FM differentiated continuously after budding and peaked generally at the middle flowering stage. The ratio of siliques to maximum flower number ranged from 48% to 80%. These results suggest that (1 the period from FM differentiation to budding is vital for effective flower and silique formation although there was no significant correlation between the length of the period and effective flowers and siliques, and (2 the increased number of flowers from budding were generally ineffective. Therefore, maximizing flower numbers prior to budding will improve silique numbers, and reducing FM degeneration

  5. Insect Resistance Analysis on the Transgenic Bt Gene Brassica napus L.%转Bt基因油菜的抗虫性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽丽; 王转茸; 辛强; 董发明; 洪登峰; 杨光圣

    2016-01-01

    利用农杆菌介导的遗传转化分别将Cry1C和Cry2A的2个单价Bt基因转入油菜(Brassica napusL.),以两个纯合的转基因抗虫油菜为亲本,通过有性杂交的方法将不同Bt基因聚合,培育双价Bt抗虫油菜,并对其抗虫性和种子品质性状进行评价.结果表明,Cry1C、Cry2A在聚合后均能稳定表达,和单价Cry1C转基因植株相比,双价株系中蛋白质含量明显降低,以Cry2A为母本的聚合株系蛋白质含量降低更多,Cry1C在遗传上存在母本效应.室内接种小菜蛾二龄幼虫结果显示,转化单价和双价聚合Bt基因的抗虫性增强,其中转化单价Cry1C的抗虫性优于双价聚合Bt基因和单价Cry2A基因的转基因植株.玻璃温室栽培转基因植株,单价Bt和双价聚合Bt基因的转基因植株能生存而非转基因植株受到严重虫害而死亡.对抗性优良的单价和双价聚合的转基因植株种子品质测定发现,与未受到虫害的受体材料双低优良恢复系7-5的含油量和硫苷含量差异不显著,从而达到抗性改良的目的.

  6. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  7. 油菜开花时间调控基因SVP的克隆与表达特性分析%Molecular Cloning and Expression Pattern of SVP Gene Influencing Flowering Time in Brassica napus and Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丹丹; 毛群飞; 张金顺; 杨丹; 赵福永

    2013-01-01

    应用同源克隆法和RT-PCR技术分别从异源四倍体油菜湘油15号和四川黄籽花序组织中克隆了Short vegetative phase(SV)基因的同源基因,分别命名为BnSVP-1、BnSVP-2、BnSVP-3、BnSVP-4、BnSVP-5和BjSVP-1、BjSVP-2、BjSVP-3,GenBank登录号分别为JQ906717、JQ906718、JQ906719、JQ906720、JQ316471和JQ906715、JQ906716、JQ316472.序列分析结果表明,这些SVP同源基因编码区长726 bp,编码241个氨基酸残基,具有典型的MIKC结构域,是一类MADS-box调控基因.表达结果分析表明,光周期和GA3处理会使SVP基因的表达模式发生改变,而春化处理后的表达模式与对照相似,其表达模式的改变会导致开花时间提早;在开花前,SVP基因在根、茎、叶组织中均有表达,花期,在花器官的雄蕊、雌蕊和萼片中均有表达,在花瓣中无表达;幼角果的角果皮中该基因的表达水平要高于幼嫩种子.%Mutiple homologs of short vegetative phase (SVP) were isolated from inflorescences of allotetraploid rapeseed cultivars Xiangyou No. 15 (Brassica napus L. ) and Sichuan Yellow-seeded (Brassica juncea L. ) by using homologous cloning and reverse transcription PCR technology, which was designated BnSVP-1 ,BnSVP-2 ,BnSVP-3, BnSVP-4,BnSVP-5 and BjSVP-1 ,BjSVP-2 ,BjSVP-3, respectively. All these sequences have been deposited in Gen-Bank with accession number JQ906717 , JQ906718 , JQ906719, JQ906720, JQ316471 and JQ906715 , JQ906716, JQ316472 respectively. Results of sequence analysis showed that each homolog was 726 bp and encoded 241 amino acids with typical M,I,K and C domain of MADS-box gene. The SVP expression pattern of Xiangyou No. 15 after been treated with photoperiod, GA3 spraying and vernalization was studied, the results demonstrated that different photoperiods and GA3 spraying could change its expression in the stem or root,but vernalization did not. The expression change would result in early flowering. In rapeseed, SVP expressed in root, stem

  8. 甘蓝型油菜MYB4基因反义植物表达载体的构建%Construction of Antisense Plant Expressing Vector of MYB4 Gene of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹锐; 柴友荣

    2013-01-01

    将甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napusL.)MYB4基因家族共保守的467 bp反义片段构建到中间栽体pCambia2301G中,替换GUS基因,由CaMV35S启动子驱动,形成了反义植物表达载体,命名为pCambi-a2301G-MYB4A,并转化到根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)LBA4404中形成工程菌株,为进一步研究甘蓝型油菜MY B4基因家族的功能奠定基础.

  9. 化学杀雄剂EXP对油菜膜脂过氧化及保护酶活性的影响%Effect of Chemical Gametocide EXP on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Protective Enzyme Activity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文智; 程科; 严静; 李昌珍; 于澄宇

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanism of chemical emasculation in rapeseed and to provide the theoretical basis for development and utilization of new chemical gametocides. [Method] The activity of peroxidase, catalase and the content of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde in leaves and flower buds of Brassica napus cultivars Qinyou No.3 and L89 induced by the chemical gametocide EXP in the course of male sterility were studied. [Result] Protective enzyme activity and the content of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde in rapeseed treated with EXP changed significantly, which indicated that active oxygen metabolism was abnormal. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the reaction degree of different cultivars and organs treated by EXP. [Conclusion] There was a correlation between the disturbance of active oxygen metabolism and the male sterility induced by chemical gametocide EXP.

  10. Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Efecto de la Fuente y Dosis de Fertilizantes Nitrogenados en el Rendimiento, Componentes de Rendimiento y Calidad de Semilla de Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Öztürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1. The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly effects on seed yield, oil and protein content, and other yield components due to N sources and rates. In general, ammonium sulfate and urea gave higher seed yield than ammonium nitrate. Mean values of both seasons indicated that 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 rate increased significantly yield and quality traits with regard to other N treatments. The present results highlight the practical importance of adequate N fertilization and true N source in seed yield in winter rapeseed and suggest that ammonium sulfate at 150 kg N ha-1 will be about adequate to meet crop N requirements.El raps (Brassica napus L. tiene potencial para convertirse en un cultivo oleaginoso alternativo para producción de aceite comestible y agricultura energética (producción de biodiesel en Turquía. Este estudio fue conducido para determinar el efecto del año, fuente y dosis de N en las características de rendimiento y calidad de raps en un sistema cerealero en suelos calcáreos en dos temporadas, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, en Anatolia Central. Se aplicaron al voleo tres fuentes de N (sulfato de amonio, nitrato de amonio y urea en cinco dosis (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg N ha-1. Las características investigadas fueron altura de planta, n

  11. 甘蓝型油菜COI1的调控功能分析%Functional Analysis of COI1 Genes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文静; 张洪博; 杨小川; 丁永强; 尹国英; 马浩然; 张洁; 石小于; 张鼎宇; 李加纳

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is a critical component of jasmonate (JA) receptor complex. The objective of this study is to investigate the spatial expression pattern and regulatory roles of COI1 gene in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), a staple oil crop in the world. [Method] The COI1 genes in oilseed rape (B. napus) and its parental species B. rapa and B. oleracea were analyzed based on the genomic data. The spatial transcription pattern of COI1 in oilseed rape was analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primers according to the conserved region of COI1 gene homologs. Then, a cDNA fragment of the conserved region was cloned into vector pTRV2 of the tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) system. And, VIGS techniques were applied to silence COI1 genes in oilseed rape. The rape plants shown to have COI1 genes silenced were used to investigate male fertility and aphid resistance.[Result]Analysis of the genomic data of B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus revealed that the genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea contained 7 highly homologous COI1 genes, which could be classified into 4 subgroups, i.e., COI1a, COI1b.1, COI1b.2, and COI1c, while 8 COI1 genes were presented in the genome of B. napus. Transcriptional assay revealed that the expression of COI1 in oilseed rape is tissue specific. A 505bp fragment of the conserved region of COI1 was introduced into the VIGS vector pTRV2 to develop COI1-silenced plants via VIGS techniques. Twenty-five plants with the transcripts of COI1 down-regulated by over 70% were identified by transcriptional analyses, from which the ten plants with the lowest expression level of COI1 were selected to investigate male fertility and aphid resistance. The results showed that the fertility of COI1-silenced plants was extremely impaired, with no seeds in their siliques. Furthermore, the filaments of COI1-silenced plants were shorter than those of control plants, and over 80%pollens of the COI1-silenced plants were

  12. Morphological Structure and Transcriptome Comparison of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line in Brassica napus (SaNa-1A) Derived from Somatic Hybridization and Its Maintainer Line SaNa-1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kun; Liu, Qier; Wu, Xinyue; Jiang, Jinjin; Wu, Jian; Fang, Yujie; Li, Aimin; Wang, Youping

    2016-01-01

    SaNa-1A is a novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line in Brassica napus derived from progenies of somatic hybrids between B.napus and Sinapis alba, and SaNa-1B is the corresponding maintainer line. In this study, phenotypic differences of floral organs between CMS and the maintainer lines were observed. By microscope observation in different anther developmental stages of two lines, we found the anther development in SaNa-1A was abnormal since the tetrad stage, and microspore development was ceased during the uninucleate stage. Transcriptomic sequencing for floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were conducted to elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from S. alba. Clean tags obtained were assembled into 195,568 unigenes, and 7811 unigenes distributed in the metabolic and protein synthesis pathways were identified with significant expression differences between two libraries. We also observed that genes participating in carbon metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation–reduction system, pentatricopeptide repeat, and anther development were downregulated in the sterile line. Some of them are candidates for researches on the sterility mechanism in the CMS material, fertility restoration, and improvement of economic traits in the maintainer line. Further research on the tags with expressional specificity in the fertile line would be helpful to explore desirable agronomic traits from wild species of rapeseed. PMID:27656189

  13. Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatment Mitigates Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Brassica napus L.: An Intrinsic Study on Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Alharby, Hesham F.; Razafindrabe, Bam H. N.; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is considered as one of the most toxic metals for plant growth and development. In the present study, we investigated the role of externally applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in regulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in conferring Cd-induced oxidative stress tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Seedlings were pretreated with 50 μM H2O2 for 24 h. These pretreated seedlings as well as non-pretreated seedlings were grown for another 48 h at two concentrations of CdCl2 (0.5 and 1.0 mM). Both the levels of Cd increased MDA and H2O2 levels and lipoxygenase activity while ascorbate (AsA) declined significantly. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) content showed an increase at 0.5 mM CdCl2, but glutathione disulfide (GSSG) increased at any level of Cd with a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) upregulated due to Cd treatment in dose-dependent manners, while glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased only at 0.5 mM CdCl2 and decreased at higher dose. The activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II) decreased under Cd stress. On the other hand, H2O2 pretreated seedlings, when exposed to Cd, AsA and GSH contents and GSH/GSSG ratio increased noticeably. H2O2 pretreatment increased the activities of APX, MDHAR, DHAR, GR, GST, GPX, and CAT of Cd affected seedlings. Thus enhancement of both the non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants helped to decrease the oxidative damage as indicated by decreased levels of H2O2 and MDA. The seedlings which were pretreated with H2O2 also showed enhanced glyoxalase system. The activities of Gly I, and Gly II and the content of GSH increased significantly due to H2O2 pretreatment in Cd affected seedlings, compared to the Cd-stressed plants without H2O2 pretreatment which were vital for methylglyoxal

  14. 甘蓝型油菜与芝麻菜体的细胞杂交%Somatic Hybridization between Brassica napus and Erucasativa Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传利; 杨志新; 桂雪梅; 刘雅婷; 毛孝强; 厦国银; 林良斌

    2008-01-01

    为拓宽油菜育种的基因资源库, 改良油菜品种, 以甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus)花油3号下胚轴和芝麻菜(Eruca sativa)下胚轴为材料分离制备原生质体; 然后采用PEG-高Ca2+-高pH法进行原生质体融合, 当PEG浓度为35%, 原生质体融合密度为5×105个/mL时, 融合25 min时, 融合率可达18.2%.融合后在培养密度为1×105个/mL时, 以附加1.0 mg/L 2,4-D +0.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.5 mg/L NAA+ 200 mg/L肌醇+300 mg/L水解酪蛋白的改良的KM8p为融合体培养基, 以0.1 mol/L 蔗糖+0.2 mol/L葡萄糖+0.2 mol/L甘露醇作渗透稳定剂进行液体浅层培养, 效果较好, 愈伤组织再生率最高为6.8%.将融合体再生的小愈伤组织转移至培养基(B5无机盐+0.087 mol/L蔗糖+0.2 mg/L 2, 4-D+0.5 mg/L NAA+0.2 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8)上增殖培养, 待愈伤组织长至直径为3~5 mm时, 及时将其转至分化培养基(MS无机盐+0.087 mol/L 蔗糖+0.1 mg/L IAA+0.8 mg/L 6-BA+0.8% Agar, pH 5.8)中诱导不定芽再生, 芽分化率为35.7%.当不定芽长为2~3 cm时, 将其切下转入附加0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2 mg/L 6-BA的1/2MS生根培养基中诱导生根, 14 d左右即可形成再生植株, 生根率可达88%.同时, 以紫外线(60 μW/cm2)照射芝麻菜原生质体, 进行不对称融合, 照射2 min的获得了愈伤组织和再生植株, 照射4 min的只获得愈伤组织, 而照射5 min以上的没有获得愈伤组织, 但其愈伤组织再生、增殖及植株再生均不如对称融合.从细胞学鉴定的21块杂种愈伤组织上再生出16株杂种植株.

  15. A Comparative Study on the Quality Components Between Self Pollinated Seeds and Naturally Pollinated Seeds in Brassica napus L. in Sichuan Ecological Region%四川生态区甘蓝型油菜自交种和自然种品质成分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦芳; 蒲晓斌; 李浩杰; 黄驰; 李蒲; 张谦; 蒋梁材

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to reveal the differences in crude fat and glucosinolates between self pollinated seeds and naturally pollinated seeds in Brassica napus in sichuan ecological region. [Method] Near-infrared spectroscopy method (NIRS) was employed to measure the quality components in self pollinated seeds and naturally pollinated seeds of 861 shares of Brassica napus from Sichuan ecological region. And correlation analysis and regression analysis were conducted based on the experimental data via SPSS (statistics package for social science). [Result] The contents of crude fat in the self pollinated seeds were commonly a higher than that in the naturally pollinated seeds at 0.01 significant level; while the contents of glucosinolates in the self pollinated seeds and the naturally pollinated seeds were insignificantly different. Both the correlation relationship and linear regression for the crude fat between the self pollinated seeds and naturally pollinated seeds reached the significant level. The regression equations for the contents of crude fat(y1) and glucosinolates(y2) in the naturally pollinated seeds and of crude fat(x1) and glucosinolates(x2) in self pollinated seeds were respectively determined to be y1=16.844+0.614x1 and y2=-0.620+1.017x2. [Conclusion] In Brassica napus breeding, crude fat in naturally pollinated seeds should be emphatically taken into account, meanwhile concurrently considering that in self pollinated seeds; while glucosinolates in both the self pollinated seeds and the naturally pollinated seeds must be simultaneously concerned.

  16. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  17. Cytology of Brassica allohexaploids and BC2 progenies from B.napus and B.Maurorum%甘蓝型油菜与Brassica maurorum的异源六倍体后代及BC2细胞学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚行成; 葛贤宏; 李再云

    2012-01-01

    将甘蓝型油菜品种中油821(2n =38,AACC)与芸薹属野生资源Brassica maurorum( 2n=16,MM)的三倍体杂种进行染色体加倍,得到异源六倍体(2n =54,AACCMM).该多倍体雄性高度不育,雌性育性极低.在其花粉母细胞的减数分裂终变期,染色体平均配对构型为1.17 Ⅰ+20.71Ⅱ+0.56Ⅲ+2.25Ⅳ+0.08Ⅴ+0.06Ⅵ.用甘蓝型油菜与该多倍体连续回交2次,均需借助幼胚培养才得到后代植株,BC1、BC2植株均雄性不育,雌性育性很低.BC2植株的形态特征接近甘蓝型油菜,但各植株形态有明显差异.基因组原位杂交分析表明,BC2植株含有2~5条M基因组的染色体,甘蓝型油菜染色体多配对形成二价体,附加的染色体多以单价体形式存在,或与甘蓝型油菜染色体发生联会配对.%Allohexaploids (2n = 54, AACCMM) plants from Brassica napus cv. Zhongyou 821 (2n =38, AACC) and wild species B. Maurorum (2n = 16, MM) were produced by hybrids chromosome doubling. The poly-ploids were totally male sterile and extremely low female fertile. In polyploids pollen mother cells at diakinesis, the mean chromosome pairing configuration was 1. 17 I + 20. 71 II + 0. 56 1 + 2. 25IV + 0. 08 V + 0. 06 VI. Bci and BC2 from polyploids and Zhongyou 821 were only obtained by embryo rescue,and they were both male sterile and low fertility for female. The BC2 plants were morphologically diverse but similar to B. Napus. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis showed that BC2 plants remained 2 ~5 M - genome chromosomes from B. Maurorum, and chromosomes from B. Napus mainly formed bivalents. In BC2 populations, the additional chromosomes frequently appeared as univalents or paired with B, napus chromosomes.

  18. Characterization of polarity development through 2- and 3-D imaging during the initial phase of microspore embryogenesis in Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, E.; Custers, J.; Kieft, H.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated microspores of B. napus in culture change their developmental pathway from gametophytic to sporophytic and form embryo-like structures (ELS) upon prolonged heat shock treatment (5 days at 32 °C). ELS express polarity during the initial days of endosporic development. In this study, we focus

  19. Preliminary Study on Mechanisms of Drought Resistance in Brassica napus L.Conferred by Piriformospora indica%印度梨形孢诱导油菜抗旱性机理的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佑源; 楼兵干; 高其康; 林福呈

    2013-01-01

    study preliminary confirms the role and partly mechanism of drought resistance of B. napus conferred by P. indka, and lays the foundation for further research on the role and related mechanisms of stresses resistance in B. napus conferred by P. indka.%印度梨形孢(Piriformospora indica)是一种根部内生真菌,能够促进许多植物的生长,提高作物的产量,而且还能诱导植物产生对生物或非生物胁迫的抗性.为了研究印度梨形孢对油菜(Brassica napus L.)抗旱性的影响,本研究用20%的聚乙二醇6000(PEG)对有印度梨形孢定殖和无印度梨形孢定殖的油菜植株进行模拟干旱胁迫处理,分析两者在受干旱胁迫后丙二醛(MDA)含量、相对电导率大小、脯氨酸(Pro)含量、抗氧化酶(超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT))活性以及干旱相关基因表达水平的差异.结果表明,接种印度梨形孢的油菜植株叶片中MDA含量和相对电导率均显著低于未接种印度梨形孢的油菜植株;Pro含量显著高于未接种印度梨形孢的油菜植株,在PEG处理后的第72小时,接种印度梨形孢的油菜叶片中Pro含量是未接种印度梨形孢的油菜的1.3倍;SOD、POD和CAT活性明显高于未接种印度梨形孢的油菜植株,PEG处理后的第24小时SOD、POD和CAT活性分别是对照油菜的1.17、1.38和1.27倍.RT-PCR分析表明,干旱胁迫下有印度梨形孢定殖的油菜叶片中编码合成脂质转运蛋白的基因575表达上调,PEG处理后的第9小时其表达量是对照的3.2倍.本研究研究结果表明印度梨形孢提高油菜对干旱胁迫的抗性与MDA含量、质膜透性、Pro含量、抗氧化酶活性和干旱相关基因的表达相关,印度梨形孢可能是通过提高油菜整体抗氧化能力、维持细胞生物膜完整性和细胞内渗透压以及降低膜脂的过氧化水平,从而增强了油菜对干旱胁迫的抗性.本研究初步明确了印度梨形孢

  20. Interactive effects of molybdenum and phosphorus fertilizers on grain yield and quality of Brassica napus%钼磷配合施用对甘蓝型油菜产量和子粒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红恩; 胡承孝; 聂兆君; 孙学成; 谭启玲

    2012-01-01

    Two years' (2006-2007 and 2007-2008 ) pot experiments with yellow-brown soil were conducted to investigate the interactive effects of molybdenum(Mo) and phosphorus(P) fertilizers on grain yield and oil content, oil yield, protein content, eucic acid and sulfuric glucoside contents and fatty acid composition of oil of Brassica napus seed. Both Mo and P fertilizers were applied at three levels ( Mo 0, O. 15,0. 30 mg/kg and P:O5 0, 0. 20, 0. 40 g/kg) and nine treatments were formed. The results indicate that the grain yield and biomass, oil content, oil yield, oleic and linoleic acid contents of grains of Brassica napus seed are increased significantly under the application of Mo fertilizer, while the contents of stearic acid, sulfuric glucoside and stearic acid are decreased remarkably. The grain and oil yields, biomass and linoleic acid contents are significantly increased under the application of P, while the stearic acid, sulfuric glucoside and eicosenoic acid contents are markedly decreased. The Mo fertilizer and P fertilizer applications have remarkable synergistic effects on the improvement of grain yield, oil yield and oleic acid content, and the reduction of eucic acid content of rapeseeds. These results obtained in this study suggest that both Mo fertilizer and P fertilizer are conducive for the improvement of grain yield and quality of Brassica napus seeds, and co-application of Mo and P fertilizers has a better effect.%利用酸性黄棕壤进行连续2年的盆栽试验,研究了钼肥和磷肥配合施用对甘蓝型油菜产量和子粒含油量、油产量、蛋白质含量、硫甙和芥酸含量以及脂肪酸组分等品质指标的影响。钼肥和磷肥各设置3个水平,分别为Mo0、0.15、0.30 mg/kg土和P2O50、0.20、0.40 g/kg土,共9个处理。结果表明,施钼能够显著(P〈0.05)提高油菜子粒产量和生物学产量,显著增加油菜子粒含油量、油产量及油酸、亚油酸含量,降低子粒硫

  1. 甘蓝型油菜BnFAD8基因编码序列的克隆和表达谱分析%Cloning and expression characteristics of fatty acid desaturase 8 gene from rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绵学; 王茂华; 向俊蓓; 杨毅; 李旭锋

    2011-01-01

    通过比对拟南芥等同源基因,克隆了甘蓝型油菜FAD8基因中的保守序列.以得到的FAD8(Fatty Acid Desaturase 8)保守序列片段为信息探针,在GenBank的EST数据库中检索高度同源的EST,并通过人工拼接及RT-PCR得到油菜该基因的全长为1299 bp的cDNA序列,命名为BnFAD8.序列分析结果中发现该基因符合质体定位的ω3脂肪酸脱饱和酶序列特征.通过比较22℃和8℃处理的甘蓝型油菜的BnFAD8基因表达谱,发现该基因在常温下仅存在痕量表达;而在低温条件下在叶中表达出现较大幅度的升高.推测BnFAD8基因和油菜的低温调控存在联系.%Brassica napus fatty acid desaturase 8 (FAD8) belongs to cold-induced omega 3 fatty acid desaturase.By aligning Arabidopsis FAD8 and other homologous FAD8 genes, one highly conserved sequence of FAD8 from rape was cloned in study.Using the FAD8 conserved sequence as a querying probe, highly homologous EST were obtained from database of GenBank and a putative complete ORF of 1299 bp (named: BnFAD8) was assembled according to the rape clone.Furthermore, the full length cDNA of Brassica napus FAD8 was cloned by RT-PCR with two primers designed based on this assembled cDNA sequence.Features of plasmid-located o3 fatty acid desaturase were found in sequence analysis of cDNA cloned.As shown in expression profile result, BnFAD8 was highly expressed in leaves at 8 ℃, but only trace-level expression in leaves at 22 ℃, which suggested that BnFAD8 involved in the process of rape cold acclimation.

  2. 甘蓝型黄子白花油菜恢复系RW16的选育与应用%Breeding and Application of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Restorer RW16 with Yellow Seed and White Petal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊生; 范小芳; 李成伟; 谭光轩

    2012-01-01

    以显性白花油菜W62为母本与显性黄子油菜H440杂交、回交,经多代连续定向选择育成了甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)双低恢复系RW16,具有黄子和白花的特性.该恢复系具有较好的抗性和良好的品质性状,其芥酸含量平均为0.84%,硫甙含量平均为26.71μmol/g,含油量平均为46.78%,符合国家优质标准,属于高含油量油菜品种.该恢复系产量一般配合力良好,配制的杂种F1代子粒暗黄色,植株花色乳白,含油量和产油量杂种优势明显,普遍高于对照秦优7号.%RW16,a restorer of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) with yellow-seed, white-petal and double-low quality (low eru-cic acid and low glucosinolate) was successfully developed by the successive and directional selections of multi-generations from a hybridization between F1(W62/H440) as female and H440 with yellow seed as male. RW16 had good cold-resistance, disease-resistance and quality characters. The average erucic acid content in oil, glucosinolate content in meal and oil content was 0.84%, 26.71 |xmol/g and 46.78%, respectively. Based on the national standard, it belonged to a double-low restorer with high oil content. It also had better general combining ability in yield, the Fi hybrids from combinations of RW16 with other varieties showed better heterosis in oil yields per unit area and oil content, black-yellow seed coat and milky white petal, while the oil content of them was remarkably higher than that of Qinyou 7.

  3. A proteomic profiling approach to reveal a novel role of Brassica napus drought 22 kD/water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein in young leaves during nitrogen remobilization induced by stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclos, Marie; Dubousset, Lucie; Etienne, Philippe; Le Caherec, Françoise; Satoh, Hiroyushi; Bonnefoy, Josette; Ourry, Alain; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2008-08-01

    Despite its water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) function, the putative trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity of the Brassica napus drought 22 kD (BnD22) protein and its physiological function in young leaves during leaf nitrogen (N) remobilization promoted by stressful conditions remains an enigma. Therefore, our objectives were to determine (1) if BnD22 is related to the 19-kD TI previously detected in B. napus young leaves, and (2) if the levels of BnD22 transcripts, BnD22 protein, and TI activity in young leaves are associated with plant responses to stress conditions (N starvation and methyl jasmonate [MeJA] treatments) that are able to modulate leaf senescence. Compared to control, N starvation delayed initiation of senescence and induced 19-kD TI activity in the young leaves. After 3 d with MeJA, the 19-kD TI activity was 7-fold higher than the control. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis gel, TI activity, and electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, it was demonstrated that two 19-kD proteins with isoelectric points 5.0 and 5.1 harboring TI activity correspond to BnD22 perfectly. BnD22 gene expression, TI activities, and BnD22 protein presented similar patterns. Using polyclonal anti-WSCP antibodies of Brassica oleracea, six polypeptides separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis were detected in young leaves treated with MeJA. Electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of six polypeptides confirms their homologies with WSCP. Results suggest that BnD22 possesses dual functions (WSCP and TI) that lead to the protection of younger tissues from adverse conditions by maintaining metabolism (protein integrity and photosynthesis). By sustaining sink growth of stressed plants, BnD22 may contribute to a better utilization of recycling N from sources, a physiological trait that improves N-use efficiency.

  4. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content in a high-oil Brassica napus cultivar and construction of a high-density consensus map for QTLs comparison in B. napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    Full Text Available Increasing seed oil content is one of the most important goals in breeding of rapeseed (B. napus L.. To dissect the genetic basis of oil content in B. napus, a large and new double haploid (DH population containing 348 lines was obtained from a cross between 'KenC-8' and 'N53-2', two varieties with >10% difference in seed oil content, and this population was named the KN DH population. A genetic linkage map consisting of 403 markers was constructed, which covered a total length of 1783.9 cM with an average marker interval of 4.4 cM. The KN DH population was phenotyped in eight natural environments and subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for oil content. A total of 63 identified QTLs explaining 2.64-17.88% of the phenotypic variation were identified, and these QTLs were further integrated into 24 consensus QTLs located on 11 chromosomes using meta-analysis. A high-density consensus map with 1335 marker loci was constructed by combining the KN DH map with seven other published maps based on the common markers. Of the 24 consensus QTLs in the KN DH population, 14 were new QTLs including five new QTLs in A genome and nine in C genome. The analysis revealed that a larger population with significant differences in oil content gave a higher power detecting new QTLs for oil content, and the construction of the consensus map provided a new clue for comparing the QTLs detected in different populations. These findings enriched our knowledge of QTLs for oil content and should be a potential in marker-assisted breeding of B. napus.

  5. 甘蓝型油菜硫苷组分的双标图分析%GGE Biplot Analysis of Glucosinolate Components of Rapeseed Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 王耐红; 李施蒙; 吴国超; 徐新福; 王瑞

    2015-01-01

    采用GGE双标图法 ,对11份硫苷组分不同甘蓝型油菜进行4 × 7不完全双列杂交试验 ,旨在对各杂交组合的硫苷组分进行分析 ,从而筛选出其配合力较低的亲本组合来满足降低后代硫苷质量摩尔浓度的要求 .结果显示 :① 对于2-羟-3-丁烯基而言 ,亲本一般配合力(GCA )较低的是父本D21R ,D1R和母本D3AB ,特殊配合力(SCA )较低的是父本91R ,56R和母本D3AB ,SCA较低的组合有S3 × R3 ,S3 × R7和S1 × R3等 ;② 对于3 丁烯基而言 ,亲本GCA较低的是父本15R ,91R和母本Gd1AB ,D3AB ,SCA较低的是父本D1R ,D21R和母本D3AB ,SCA较低的组合有S3 × R3 ,S3 × R7和S1 × R7等;③ 对父本GCA而言 ,3-丁烯基、4-羟-3-吲哚甲基、苯乙基、4-戊烯基与2-羟-3-丁烯基呈正相关 ,苯乙基、4-戊烯基与4-羟-3-吲哚甲基呈负相关 .对母本GCA而言 ,3-丁烯基、4戊烯基与2-羟-3-丁烯基呈正相关 ,苯乙基、4-羟-3-吲哚甲基与2-羟-3-丁烯基呈负相关 ;④ 各杂交组合硫苷组分的表型关系中 ,亲本针对各组分GCA的相关性与母本配合力效应双标图中所显示出来的结果基本一致 .利用GGE双标图分析表明 ,选用D3AB作母本、D21R及D1R作为父本有利于降低杂种后代油菜籽中硫代葡糖苷的质量摩尔浓度 .%This paper reports an analysis of a 4 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of Brassica napus L. using GGE biplot .The following patterns were visualized from the biplots .(1) Across the desulfoprogoitrin ,male parents D21R and D1R had low general combining ability (GCA) ,and 91R and 56R had low specific com-bining ability (SCA) ,female parent D3AB had low GCA and low SCA ,and the combinations with low SCA included S3 × R3 ,S3 × R7 and S1 × R3 .(2) Across the desulfogluconapin ,male parents 15R and 91R had low GCA ,w hile D1R and D21R had low SCA ,female parents Gd1AB and D3AB had low GCA ,w hile D3AB had low SCA ,the combinations with low SCA included S 3 × R3 ,S3 × R7 and

  6. Brassica napus responses to short-term excessive copper treatment with decrease of photosynthetic pigments, differential expression of heavy metal homeostasis genes including activation of gene NRAMP4 involved in photosystem II stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, I E; Kholodova, V P; Rakhmankulova, Z F; Kuznetsov, Vl V

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of 50 and 100 µM CuSO4 was investigated starting from 3 h till 72 h treatment of 4-weeks Brassica napus plants. High CuSO4 concentrations in nutrient medium resulted in the rapid copper accumulation in plants, especially in roots, much slower and to lower degree in leaves. Copper excess induced early decrease in the leaf water content and temporary leaf wilting. The decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments became significant to 24 h of excessive copper treatments and reached 35 % decrease to 72 h, but there were no significant changes in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The copper excess affected the expression of ten genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis and copper detoxification. The results showed the differential and organ-specific expression of most genes. The potential roles of copper-activated genes encoding heavy metal transporters (ZIP5, NRAMP4, YSL2, and MRP1), metallothioneins (MT1a and MT2b), low-molecular chelator synthesis enzymes (PCS1 and NAS2), and metallochaperones (CCS and HIPP06) in heavy metal homeostasis and copper ion detoxification were discussed. The highest increase in gene expression was shown for NRAMP4 in leaves in spite of relatively moderate Cu accumulation there. The opinion was advanced that the NRAMP4 activation can be considered among the early reactions in the defense of the photosystem II against copper excess.

  7. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W; Komives, Elizabeth A; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I

    2008-04-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC-Cd and glutathione-Cd complexes.

  8. Analysis of DNA Methylation Patterns in Resynthesized Brassica napus and Diploid Parents%人工合成甘蓝型油菜及其亲本的甲基化变异模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 戎浩; 蒋金金; 孔月琴; 冉丽萍; 吴健; 王幼平

    2016-01-01

    The genetic background of Brassica napus, one of the most important oil crops in China, is relatively narrow due to the short history of its polyploid origin. Resynthesized B. napus provides an optimal model for researches on plant polyploidization. In the present study, we compared the DNA methylation levels in synthesized B. napus (F1 generation) and diploid parents using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. HPLC analysis indicated methylation rates of 8.33%and 15.88%in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. While the methylation rate of two hybrids was 10.29%and 12.83%, which were in-between of the parents’ values. MSAP analysis proved the different methylation levels in F1 generation and diploids, with the lowest and highest methylation levels identified in B. rapa and B. ole-racea, respectively. Variance of the DNA methylation in F1 was 23.71%, among which 6.60%and 10.16%were inherited from A and C genome, respectively. Sequence analysis of MSAP polymorphic fragments indicated genes involved in multiple molecular functions were changed during polyploidization. Expression analysis of these genes agreed to the corresponding methylation changes. This study provides preliminary basis for understanding epigenetic variations during B. napus polyploidization.%甘蓝型油菜作为多倍体起源和发生的历史较短,遗传背景较为狭窄,人工合成甘蓝型油菜可作为植物多倍化研究的优选模型,本文以人工合成的甘蓝型油菜为材料,通过 HPLC 分析发现白菜型油菜和甘蓝的甲基化率分别为8.33%和15.88%,2个杂种株系的全基因组甲基化水平介于双亲之间,分别为10.29%和12.83%。MSAP分析发现杂种F1代及其亲本的甲基化水平存在明显差异(白菜型油菜<杂种F1<甘蓝),杂种F1代的甲基化变异(23.71%)中来自A、C 基因组的变异分别占6.60%和10.16%。MSAP 差异性条带的序列分析发现

  9. Establishment of Transformation System Using Inbred Line of Yellow-Seeded Brassica napus%甘蓝型黄籽油菜自交系转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林呐; 刘列钊; 殷家明; 王瑞; 柴友荣; 李加纳

    2012-01-01

    利用黄籽甘蓝型油菜自交系建立和优化了遗传转化系统.首先构建了由质粒pCNR与△6-脂肪酸脱氢酶基因插入到植物的高效表达载体pCAMBIA2301G.利用在Murashige和Skoog培养基(含有200 μmol L-1乙酰丁香酮)培养5~7 d的下胚轴外植体与农杆菌株LBA4404共培养63~69 h (pCNR),再于芽诱导培养基上培养3个月诱导芽再生.在最佳条件下,平均转化效率约为1.3%.转化植株的GUS分析和PCR分析结果表明,外源基因成功导入甘蓝型油菜.Southern杂交表明,这些转化子含有目标基因1~2个拷贝.用气相色谱分析转基因植物种子的脂肪酸,γ-亚麻酸含量达8.2%.%In this study, we established a transformation system using an inbred line of yellow-seeded Brassica napus. Hypocotyl explants precultured for 5-7 d on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 20μmol L-1 acetosyringone were cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pCNR) for 63-69 hours. The plasmid pCNR was constructed by inserting △6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus stolonifer into plant high-efficient expression vector pCAMBIA2301G. Kanamycin-tolerant shoots were regenerated on shoot induction medium for three months after Agrobacterium inoculation. The average transformation efficiency was about 1.3% under optimal conditions. Results from GUS assay and PCR analysis of transformed plants indicated that the introduced gene was integrated into B. Napus genomes. The result of Southern blot revealed that those transformants carried one or two copies of the goal gene. The fatty acids of the transgenic plant seeds were analyzed by GC, and the γ-linolenic content was 8.2%.

  10. Study on the Protoplast Fusion and Plant Regeneration System between Brassica napus and Isatis tinctoria%甘蓝型油菜与菘蓝原生质体融合及植株再生体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪竹; 李再云

    2012-01-01

    Protoplast was isolated from leaves of Brassira napus and hatis linctoria and fused by PEG-high pH and high calcium method. Callus was then induced by solid-liquid double layer culture method. Effects of factors including enzyme type and concentration on protoplast isolation, type and dose of hormone on callus induction and differentiation were studied to improve the plant regeneration efficiency. The results suggested that the enzyme combination suitable for protoplast isolation was 5 mg/L cellulase+3 mg/L macerozyme. The concentration of hormone for protoplasts induction, proliferation and differentiation were 1.0 mg/L 6-BA+l.0mg/L NAA+0.25 mg/L 2,4-D, 2.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.4 mg/L NAA+0.1 mg/L 2,4-D and 2.0 mg/L 6-BA +0.1 mg/L NAA +0.02 mg/L 2,4-D. A total of 15 somatic hybrids were obtained. The leaves of the hybrids seedling was dark green and thick, covered with wax layer. The adult plants were shorter and flowered later than B. Napus. Their stamens were ateleiosis; and the chromosomes number was 48-66 in somatic cells.%以甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus)和菘蓝(Isatis tinctoria)叶片为材料提取原生质体,采用PEG-高钙高pH法融合亲本原生质体,采用固液双层培养法诱导愈伤组织的形成.研究适宜原生质体分离的酶种类及浓度,并考察了激素种类和用量对愈伤组织诱导和分化的影响.结果表明,5 mg/L纤维素酶+3 mg/L离析酶适合甘蓝型油菜和菘蓝的酶解.各培养基中适宜的激素浓度分别为,诱导培养基PellB 1.0 mg/L6-BA+1.0 mg/L NAA+0.25 mg/L 2,4-D;增殖培养基PellC 2.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA+0.1 mg/L2,4-D;分化培养基PellE 2.0 mg/L 6-BA +0.1 mg/L NAA+0.02 mg/L 2,4-D.获得了15株再生植株,杂种幼苗叶片均呈深绿色,叶表面覆有厚的蜡质,叶片肥厚,植株在成熟期时株高比甘蓝型油菜矮,开花较晚,雄蕊发育不完全,杂种体细胞染色体数目为48~66.

  11. Genome-wide identification of QTL for seed yield and yield-related traits and construction of a high-density consensus map for QTL comparison in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eZhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed yield (SY is the most important trait in rapeseed, which was determined by multiple seed yield-related traits (SYRTs and also easily subject to environmental influence. Lots of quantitative trait loci (QTL for SY and SYRTs were reported in Brassica napus. However, no studies have focused on SY and seven agronomic traits affecting SY simultaneous. Genome-wide QTL analysis for SY and seven SYRTs in eight environments was conducted in a doubled haploid population containing 348 lines. Totally, 18 and 208 QTLs for SY and SYRTs were observed, respectively, and then these QTLs were integrated into 144 consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Three major QTLs for SY were observed, including cqSY-C6-2 and cqSY-C6-3 that expressed stably in winter cultivation area for three years and cqSY-A2-2 only expressed in spring rapeseed area. Trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed that the 144 consensus QTLs were integrated into 72 pleiotropic unique QTLs. Among them, all the unique QTLs affected SY, except for uq-A6-1, including uq.A2-3, uq.C1-2, uq.C1-3, uq.C6-1, uq.C6-5 and uq.C6-6 could also affect more than two SYRTs. According to high density consensus map construction and QTL comparison from literature, 36 QTLs from five populations were co-localized with QTLs identified in this study. In addition, 13 orthologs genes were observed, including five each genes for SY and SW, one each gene for BY, BH and PH, respectively. The genomic information of these QTLs would be valuable in hybrid cultivar breeding, and be helpful to analyze QTL expression in different environments.

  12. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be Hepato-and/or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are generally regarded as “safe” feed for cattle during late summer and fall in New Zealand. However, when Pithomyces chartarum spore counts are high there are epidemics of sporidesmin toxicity (...

  13. 低温胁迫下内源ABA、GA及比值对白菜型和甘蓝型冬油菜抗寒性的响应%Response of endogenous ABA and GA to cold resistance ofBrassica rapa L. andBrassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海卿; 赵艳宁; 董小云; 曾秀存; 许耀照; 方园; 武军艳; 陈奇; 孙万仓; 刘自刚; 方彦; 米超; 蒲媛媛

    2016-01-01

    为阐明低温胁迫下激素含量对冬油菜枯叶期的调控和对抗寒性的响应,为冬油菜抗寒性研究提供依据,以8份不同抗寒等级的白菜型和甘蓝型冬油菜为材料,利用盆栽试验,待幼苗长至5~6片真叶时在人工气候箱中进行低温处理(25℃、10℃、2℃、-5℃),分析低温胁迫后冬油菜内源 ABA、GA 含量和叶绿素的变化。回归分析表明温度与ABA含量存在显著的负相关,回归方程符合y=-ax+b,随着温度的降低,内源ABA含量呈先缓慢(10℃)后迅速上升(2℃、-5℃)的趋势,且温度处理间、温度与品种互作间差异极显著;由于激素间的拮抗作用GA含量变化则恰好相反。当在0℃以上低温时,品种间ABA含量无明显差异,当温度降到-5℃,白菜型冬油菜ABA含量明显高于甘蓝型,抗寒性强的品种高于抗寒性弱的品种。ABA含量的升高导致叶绿素含量的变化,随着温度降低,叶绿素含量呈先降低后增加的趋势,但总体呈下降趋势,且白菜型冬油菜和甘蓝型冬油菜之间存在不同的响应机制,这种作用使白菜型冬油菜叶绿素含量低于甘蓝型冬油菜,导致白菜型冬油菜枯叶期提前,提早进入越冬期,增加了对低温冻害的御性和避性。因此,随着温度的降低冬油菜叶片 ABA 含量上升,叶绿素降解,白菜型冬油菜更早进入枯叶期,枯叶期较早和降温后ABA含量高是白菜型冬油菜抗寒性较强的主要原因。%AbstractCold resistance is critical in winter rapeseed production in northern China. The abscisic acid (ABA) plant hormone, also known as “stress hormone” is an important signal molecule for the regulation of plant cold resistance. Study of possible regulatory mechanisms of endogenous ABA and GA is needed to develop a valuable insight into the mechanism of cold resistance both in winter rapeseedBrassica rapa L. andBrassica napus L. Thus we investigated the regulation of endogenous hormones in cold

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Candidate Genes for Control of Plant Height, Branch Initiation Height and Branch Number in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant architecture is crucial for rapeseed yield and is determined by plant height (PH, branch initiation height (BIH, branch number (BN and leaf and inflorescence morphology. In this study, we measured three major factors (PH, BIH, and BN in a panel of 333 rapeseed accessions across 4 years. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed via Q + K model and the panel was genotyped using the 60 k Brassica Infinium SNP array. We identified seven loci for PH, four for BIH, and five for BN. Subsequently, by determining linkage disequilibrium (LD decay associated with 38 significant SNPs, we gained 31, 15, and 17 candidate genes for these traits, respectively. We also showed that PH is significantly correlated with BIH, while no other correlation was revealed. Notably, a GA signaling gene (BnRGA and a flowering gene (BnFT located on chromosome A02 were identified as the most likely candidate genes associated with PH regulation. Furthermore, a meristem initiation gene (BnLOF2 and a NAC domain transcriptional factor (BnCUC3 that may be associated with BN were identified on the chromosome A07. This study reveals novel insight into the genetic control of plant architecture and may facilitate marker-based breeding for rapeseed.

  15. 表达雪花莲外源凝集素基因的油菜转基因植株的获得%Production of Transgenic Rape ( Brassica napus L.) Plants Expressing Snowdrop Lectin ( Galanthus nivalis Agglutinin) Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 徐亚男; 李旭峰; 孙小芬

    2001-01-01

    利用农杆菌系LBA4404(pCAMBIA3300RG)转化优良甘蓝型油菜恢复系W723的下胚轴节段.pCAM-BIA3300RG含有RRss1启动子引导的雪花莲外源凝集素基因(gna)和CaMV-35S启动子引导的除草剂抗性基因(bar).经过两轮除草剂(2.5 mg/L bialaphos)筛选(两周/轮),除草剂抗性再生芽被转入生根培养基中生根.对根系旺盛生长的植株中所含gna基因进行PCR分析.PCR分析证实了这些植株确为转基因植株.利用Western印迹法对随机选择的5株含gna基因的转基因植株的分析发现,其中4株表达了gna基因.目前正对这些表达gna基因的转基因植株进行后代遗传分离分析.%Hypocotyl segments of an elite rape ( Brassica napus L. ) restorer line, W723, were transformed with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pCAMBIA3300RG). pCAMBIA3300RG contained the snowdrop lectin gene (gna) driven by the Rice Sucrose Synthase 1 (Rss1) promoter and the herbicide-resistance gene (bar)under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter. After 2 rounds of herbicide (2.5 ng/L bialaphos) selection (2 weeks/round), the regenerated herbicide-resistant shoots were transferred to rooting medium. Plants with vigorously growing roots were subjected to PCR analysis for the presence of the gna gene. PCR analysis confirmed their transgenic status. Western blot analysis revealed that 4 out of 5 randomly selected gna-containing tranegenic plants expressing the GNA. These GNA-expressing transgenic plants are undergoing segregation analysis for the transgenes in the following generations.

  16. Tiered tests to assess the environmental risk of fitness changes in hybrids between transgenic crops and wild relatives: the example of virus resistant Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Cooper, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been much research aimed at improving environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops. Despite large amounts of data, decisions to allow or prohibit the release of transgenic crops remain confused and controversial. We argue that part of the reason for confusion is the lack of clear definitions of components of the environment that should be protected, and, as a consequence, there is no way to judge the relevance of data collected under the auspices of 'environmental risk assessment'. Although this criticism applies to most aspects of environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops, it is most pertinent to effects that might result from an increase in plant fitness, often referred to as increased weediness. Environmental risk assessment of weediness is regarded as complicated: an increase in the fitness of a transgenic plant compared with non-transgenic counterparts will be the result of an interaction between the altered plant phenotype and an enormous number of environmental variables. This has led to the idea that risk assessment of weediness needs to "understand" these interactions, with the implication that exhaustive data are required. Here we argue that environmental risk assessment of the weediness of transgenic plants need not be complicated. Analysis of the conditions that must be met for increased weediness to occur suggests a series of studies that starts with simple tests in the laboratory under "worst case" assumptions, and becomes increasingly complex and realistic should the simpler studies not indicate negligible risk with sufficient certainty. We illustrate how the approach might work for assessing the risks of increased weediness using the example of possible introgression of a gene for Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance from oilseed rape to certain wild Brassica species.

  17. 利用SSCP技术分析甘蓝型油菜10个功能基因序列差异%Polymorphism Analysis of Ten Functional Genes in Brassica napus Using SSCP Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 陈庆芳; 傅廷栋; 马朝芝

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝型油菜SI-1300和Eagle为材料,利用DNA单链构象多态性(single-strand conformation polymorphism,SSCP)技术,对10对功能基因特异性引物进行多态性分析,每对引物均检测到1个多态性位点.随后随机挑选10个多态性片段进行测序,并利用bl2seq软件比较测序序列与基因原始序列.结果显示测序序列与所对应的基因原始序列之间相似程度平均高达98%,差异碱基数平均仅为2.3个.进一步选取5对引物比较分析两个材料间的差异扩增片 段序列,发现差异扩增片段在2个材料中高度保守,平均相似度达97%;在所测序的5对引物扩增序列中,共存在39个单核苷酸多态性(single-nucleotide polymorphisms,SNPs)和5个插入/缺失突变(insertion-deletions,INDELs),SNP和INDEL的发生频率分别为1 SNP/30 bp和1 INDEL/233 bp.结果表明,SSCP标记能够真实代表原始功能基因,甘蓝型油菜功能基因序列在不同材料间高度保守,其遗传变异类型主要来源于SNP.%A sensitive technology is very necessary to detect the polymorphisms of functional genes in different cultivars, for the coding sequences of functional genes tend to be conserved even between species. Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) is a desirable method for DNA polymorphism analysis because of its high sensitivity and cost effectiveness. In previous publications, we developed 177 functional markers corresponding to 111 differentially expressed genes between the parents of a Brassica napus hybrid. And, 45 functional markers involved in 39 genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were linked to the QTLs of 12 yield-related traits in the F2 population from SI-1300xEagle using SSCP analysis. In the present research, we sequenced some polymorphic bands detected by SSCP analysis to confirm the high sensitivity of SSCP analysis. Firstly, a total of ten primer pairs, which were designed according to ten B. Napus functional genes or ESTs, were used to

  18. Molecular Markers and Agronomic Traits of a New Kind of Genic Male Sterile Material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus L.%新型甘蓝型油菜核不育材料绵7AB-4-2农艺性状鉴定及分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩杰; 汤天泽; 袁代斌; 蒙大庆; 蒲晓斌; 张锦芳; 蒋梁材

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to investigate the agronomic traits and breeding characteristics of genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus. [Method] The differences in agronomic traits and polymorphisms in SSR markers, between the genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were investigated by hybridization and molecular identification; and the percentage of sterile individuals of Mian 7AB-4-2 and of the hybrids with its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 from test cross and back cross were also studied. [Result] Mian 7AB-4-2 was not significantly different in agronomic traits from its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 at 0.05 probability level. The percentages of sterile individuals in the pollinated fertile Mian 7AB-4-2 plants were over 60%, and that in its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 was about 25%. In test crosses with other nine sterile lines, Mian 7AB-4-1 kept the percentage of sterile individuals of sterile lines over 90%, and the percentage of sterile individuals from back cross over 80%. With regard to molecular markers, Mian 7AB-4-2 and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were different in the band number from SSR primers a2 and E10. [Conclusion] The results indicate that Mian 7AB-4-2 is helpful for rapeseed breeding, quickening the application of new materials in field breeding.

  19. Optimization of Oil Body Extraction and Exploration of Oil Bodies’ Stability in Brassica napus%油菜油体的提取方法优化及其稳定性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 梁丛敏; 臧新; 徐静; 杨冬之; 田保明; 张绵绵

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the extraction method of oil bodiesand obtain higher purity oil bodies,the seeds of Brassica napus L.(Dingyouza 4) was used as the experiment materials,on the basis of the origi-nal method of extracting oil bodies,such as flotation centrifugation,detergent washing and ion eluting,two-steps elution through 9 mol/ L urea and extraction through n-hexane were increased to optimize the method. The effects of physical and chemical factors on the oil bodies’ stability were explored. The results showed that:the stable and high purity of oil bodies were obtained by the optimization method. The stabili-ty of oil bodies decreased with the increase of NaCl concentration;the oil bodies stably distributed in pH≤3 and pH≥7 and the oil bodies’ stability decreased obviously when pH value was between 4 and 6. The temperature almost had no effects on the oil bodies’ stability,and the oil bodies were quite stable un-der different temperatures. On this basis,polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to separate the oil body protein,and obtained a clearer protein band.%为了优化油体提取方法,获得较高纯度的油体,以甘蓝型油菜鼎油杂4号种子为试验材料,在漂浮离心、去污剂洗涤、离子洗脱液洗脱等程序的基础上,增加9 mol/ L 尿素洗脱、正己烷萃取等步骤进行优化,并探讨了理化因素对油体稳定性的影响。结果表明:优化后的方法提高了离体油体的完整性,获得的油体纯度较高。随着 NaCl 浓度的增加,油体的稳定性下降;pH 值≤3及 pH 值≥7时油体稳定分布,pH 值为4~6时油体稳定性明显下降;温度对油体的影响较小,不同温度下油体分布相对稳定。在此基础上,利用 SDS - PAGE 对油体蛋白进行分离,获得了较清晰的蛋白质条带。

  20. Effect of Main Cultivation Factors on Quality Combination Parameters of High-quality Brassica napus Hybrids%主要栽培因素对甘蓝型优质杂交油菜品质性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继献; 王仙平; 高志宏

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the influence of five cultivation factors including sowing date,plant density,nitrogen fertilizer amount,phosphate fertilizer amount and potash fertilizer amount on the quality parameters of Brassica napus hybrids.[Method] Statistical analysis on the data from previous studies and our work was carried out [Result] The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,oil,oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with the sowing date,while the contents of seed protein,palmitic acid,stearic acid and linolenic acid were positively correlated with the sowing date The total amount of fat and protein,the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA),the fatty acid (FA) of erucic acid chain,the total amount of oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with the sowing date; the UFA content,the unsaturation index,the SEA content,the 18-C FA content,and the ratio of UFA to FA in erucic acid chain were positively correlated with the sowing date.The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,seed protein,oleic acid,linolenic acid and eicosenoic acid were negatively correlated with the plant density,while the contents of oil,palmitic acid,stearic acid and linoleic acid were positively correlated with the plant density.The total amount of fat and protein (F & P),and the ratio of UFA to FA in erucic acid chain were negatively correlated with the plant density,while the UFA content,the unsaturation index,the SFA content,the ratio of UFA to SFA,the 18-C FA content,the FA in erucic acid chain,and the total amount of oleic acid and linoleic acid were positively correlated with the plant density.The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,oil,protein in milled rapeseed,palmitic acid and eicosenoic acid were negatively correlated with the nitrogen fertilizer amount,while the contents of seed protein,oleic acid,stearic acid,linoleic acid and linolenic acid were positively correlated with the nitrogen fertilizer

  1. Fine Mapping of a Recessive Genic Male Sterility Gene (Ms 1) in Rapeseed (Brassica napus )%甘蓝型油菜隐性上位互作核不育基因(Ms1)精细定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江莹芬; 陈凤祥; 李强生; 胡宝成; 吴新杰; 侯树敏; 范志雄; 费维新; 荣松柏

    2011-01-01

    Genie male sterility is one of the most valuable resources for heterosis utilization in Brassica napus. The recessive epistatic genic male sterile line 9012A has been playing an increasing role in hybrid cultivar development in China. That sterility is controlled by two pairs of recessive duplicated sterile genes (msl and msl) and one pair of recessive epistatic inhibitor gene {rf). Homozygosity at the rf locus (rfrf) inhibits the expression of the two recessive malt sterility genes in homozygous ms lmslms2ms2 plants and results in a male fertile phenotype (TAM line, mslmslms2ms2rfrf). In this study, 884 pairs of AFLP and 506 pairs of SRAP maker system were used for investigating the genotype of Ms lms lms2ms2rfrfand mslmslms2ms2rfrf segregated in a NIL population of 304 individuals. As a result, we obtained 14 makers tightly linked with the Msl gene, of which 4 markers co-segregated. The AFLP marker E-ACA/P-CTG reported by Ke et al. Has a genetic distance of 0.1 cM in our research population. BLAST analysis with sequences of tightly linked makers shows that, some of the sequences have high similarities with those genomic DNA sequences from Arabidopsis chromosome 5. Most notably, these sequences generated from the most tightly linked markers with Msl gene were perfectly anchored to one of the terminal of chromosome C9 of Brassica olerecea. All of these results of this study will benefit for map-based cloning and maker assistant selection of Ms 1 gene. Additionally, the segregation of the markers link with Msl gene which has been reported by other authors was investigated and compared in our segregated population in this paper.%甘蓝型油菜细胞核雄性不育是杂种优势利用的重要途径.隐性上位互作核不育系9012A已经广泛用于杂交种子生产,其不育性受两对隐性重叠不育基因(ms1和ms2)与一对隐性上位抑制基因(rf互作控制.ms1和ms2同时纯合(ms1ms1ms2ms2)表现不育,但隐性纯合rf(rfrf)对ms1ms1ms2ms2的表

  2. SSR marker variations in Brassica species provide insight into the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Kunwar Harendra; Singh, Lal; Nanjundan, Joghee; Khan, Yasin Jeshima; Singh, Dhiraj

    2018-01-01

    Oilseed Brassica represents an important group of oilseed crops with a long history of evolution and cultivation. To understand the origin and evolution of Brassica amphidiploids, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to unravel genetic variations in three diploids and three amphidiploid Brassica species of U's triangle along with Eruca sativa as an outlier. Of 124 Brassica-derived SSR loci assayed, 100% cross-transferability was obtained for B. juncea and three subspecies of B. rapa, while lowest cross-transferability (91.93%) was obtained for Eruca sativa. The average % age of cross-transferability across all the seven species was 98.15%. The number of alleles detected at each locus ranged from one to six with an average of 3.41 alleles per primer pair. Neighbor-Joining-based dendrogram divided all the 40 accessions into two main groups composed of B. juncea/B. nigra/B. rapa and B. carinata/B. napus/B. oleracea. C-genome of oilseed Brassica species remained relatively more conserved than A- and B-genome. A- genome present in B. juncea and B. napus seems distinct from each other and hence provides great opportunity for generating diversity through synthesizing amphidiploids from different sources of A- genome. B. juncea had least intra-specific distance indicating narrow genetic base. B. rapa appears to be more primitive species from which other two diploid species might have evolved. The SSR marker set developed in this study will assist in DNA fingerprinting of various Brassica species cultivars, evaluating the genetic diversity in Brassica germplasm, genome mapping and construction of linkage maps, gene tagging and various other genomics-related studies in Brassica species. Further, the evolutionary relationship established among various Brassica species would assist in formulating suitable breeding strategies for widening the genetic base of Brassica amphidiploids by exploiting the genetic diversity present in diploid progenitor gene pools.

  3. 人工合成甘蓝型油菜中花色与芥酸含量的遗传连锁分析%Identification of the Linkage Relationship Between the Flower Colour and the Content of Erucic Acid in the Resynthesized Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪平; 涂金星; 陈宝元; 傅廷栋

    2004-01-01

    利用人工合成的甘蓝型油菜品系No.2127-17(白花、有芥酸)与加拿大双低甘蓝型油菜品种Quantum(黄花、低芥酸)配制杂交组合.对亲本、F1、BC1、F2和DH(doubled haploid)5个世代的花色及芥酸含量进行分析,结果表明:花色受单基因控制,且白花对黄花为显性;芥酸含量仅表现出一对基因的差异且具有加性效应的遗传模式.花色和芥酸含量的连锁分析表明:白花与高芥酸紧密连锁,在DH群体中重组频率为5.8%.采用集团分离分析法(Bulked Segregant Analysis,BSA),从685条10个碱基的随机引物筛选到一个与黄花和低芥酸含量紧密连锁的RAPD标记S921400o在遗传图谱上黄花基因和低芥酸基因距离S92-1400标记的图距分别为2.2 cM和5.4 cM.%Brassica napus variety Quantum (yellow flower and low erucic content) as the female parent was crossed with a resynthesized Brassica napus line No. 2127-17 ( white flower and high erucic content). The segregation ratios of the flower colour and the erucic acid content were analyzed in the F1, BC1, F2, and DH (doubled haploid) populations. The results indicated that the white flower was dominant over yellow and the erucic acid content was additively inherited. Both traits fit with a monogenic inheritance model,respectively. There were strong evidences to support the linkage relationship between the flower colour and the erucic acid content in the C-genome of B. napus with a recombination frequency of 5.8% in the DH population. The BSA ( bulked segregant analysis) strategy was employed to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker linked to the genes for the flower colour and erucic acid content in the DH population. Of 685 arbitrary 10-base pair(bp) primers, one primer S92 generated a RAPD marker S92 _ 1400 that was tightly linked to the genes for the yellow flower and the low erucic acid content in the C-genome of B. napus L. The genetic distance of the genes for yellow flower and the low

  4. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  5. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  6. 新型油菜化学杂交剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜制种亲本相关性状的影响研究%Study on Influence of a New Chemical Hybridization Agents (CHA) SX-1 to Parents’Traits in Hybrid Seed Production of Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建厂; 李永红; 王灏; 郭徐鹏; 田建华

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the influence of CHA SX-1 to parents, traits in Brassica napus.L, and explore the standardized scientific method of using CHA SX-1 in hybrids production in B. napus L. the two tested varieties of B. napus in the field was sprayed SX-1 with 5.5 mg/L on leaves for the first time,when the height of female parent stem was about 20 cm, and the biggest bud of 80% plants reached to about 2 mm, and pollen development was in uninucleate stage to the late uninucleate stage. After 7 days to 10 days, SX-1 with 6.5 mg/L was sprayed for the second time with 2.5 mL per plant. After spraying SX-1, sterility of the two female parents was completely, and the sterility rate reached to 99%, and self-cross of the two female parents could not obtain seeds, but outcrossing might set seeds normally, and plants did not show obvious phytotoxicity. However, parts of organ morphology and agronomic traits changed significantly. For example, plant height of female parents and effective branch position lowered, and main inflorescences shortened, buds, sepals and petals became smaller, filaments shortened and its weight lightened, and pistil elongated and its weight increased, and pods and 1000-seeds weight increased, seeds per silique reduced, but the yield of hybrids production just reduced 9.07% and 15.27% than CK, and correlated traits and yield traits of the two male parents did not been influenced significantly. SX-1 was a kind of efficient CHA for rape, and it was also safe and feasible in hybrids production of B. napus L.%研究化杀剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜品种制种双亲的影响,探讨规范科学标准化的油菜化杀杂交制种技术。油菜母本苔高20 cm左右,80%植株最大花蕾达到2 mm,花粉发育在单核期到单核靠边期第一次喷施5.5 mg/L的SX-1,7~10天后第二次喷施6.5 mg/L,每次每株着药量2.5 mL左右。SX-1对两油菜品种母本的育性影响一致,杀雄彻底,雄性不育株率可达99%以上,

  7. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  8. Evaluation on Genetic Diversity of Hybrid Parents Developed in Brassic napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping-wu; ZHOU Guo-ling; YANG Guang-sheng; FU Ting-dong

    2003-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 50 Brassic napus varieties including 21 sterile lines, 16 restorer lines and 13 check cultivars was estimated by SSR and ISSR. The UPGMA results showed that 50 Brassica napus varieties were divided into 4 groups. The restorer lines tested were classified into groupsⅠ-Ⅲ respectively. The sterile lines tested were classified into groupⅣ. In addition, the sterile lines could be further divided into two subgroups: except 1471AB, all genic male sterile lines were in subgroupⅠ, 1471AB and all cytoplasmic male sterile lines were in the subgroupⅡ. The UPGMA results also indicated that the restorer lines had more genetic diversity than the sterile lines.

  9. The complete chloroplast genome of two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and B. Oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2017-03-01

    The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.

  10. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  11. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  12. Breeding and Appl ication of Restorer 2350C with pol CMS and Double-low in Brassica napus%甘蓝型油菜双低 pol CMS 恢复系2350C 的选育与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 李大雄; 罗莉斯; 曾兵

    2014-01-01

    Restorer 2350C with pol CMS,good comprehensive character,high quality and higher oil content was bred from the combination of restorer 5900C with pol CMS and double-low restorer Q16C with single-low and pol CMS by emasculation hybridization and subsequent orientation selection methods in 2009 to provide excellent restorers for three-line hybridization in Brassica napus L.The erucic acid, glucosinolate and oil contents of restorer 2350C with early maturity,strong resistance to diseases and higher combining ability are (0.50±0.12)%,(33.23±2.34)μmol/g and (42.36±0.67)% respectively. The three-line hybrid rape combinations with restorer 2350C were entered in National regional test and provincial regional tests successively,which indicates that restorer 2350C has good application prospect.%为了给三系杂交油菜新品种的选育提供优良恢复系,以双低 pol CMS 恢复系5900C 为母本、单低 pol CMS 恢复系 Q16C 为父本,采用去雄杂交和连续定向选择方法,于2009年成功转育成综合性状好、品质优、含油率较高的 pol CMS 恢复系2350C。该恢复系具有成熟期早、抗病能力强,较易配出强优组合的特点,其芥酸含量为(0.50±0.12)%,硫代葡萄糖甙含量为(33.23±2.34)μmol/g,含油率为(42.36±0.67)%,利用5900C 恢复系组配的三系杂交油菜组合已先后进入国家和贵州省油菜区域试验。

  13. 模拟硫酸型、硝酸型及其混合型酸雨对油菜生理特性、生长和产量的影响%Effects of simulated sulfur-rich, nitric-rich and mixed acid rain on the physiology, growth and yield of rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦博儒; 郑有飞; 吴荣军; 梁骏; 刘霞

    2010-01-01

    为了了解我国酸雨污染由硫酸型向硫-硝酸复合型转变所引起的环境效应,以油菜(Brassica napus)为供试材料,在大田试验条件下,系统研究了模拟硫酸型(SAR)、硝酸型(NAR)及其混合型(MAR)酸雨对农作物生理特性、生长和产量的影响.结果表明,3种酸雨胁迫均能抑制油菜生理、生长和产量形成,但不同类型的酸雨间的抑制效应存在差异.当pH≤4.1时,SAR、NAR、MAR能破坏油菜叶质膜系统、降低光合色素含量及光合速率,从而抑制作物的光合作用;当pH≤3.1时,油菜叶面积减小,叶受害百分率明显增加.pH=4.1可作为酸雨对油菜产量的影响阈值.在pH=7.0-1.5的酸度范围内,油菜叶片膜透性、丙二醛含量、叶受害百分率表现为NAR>MAR>SAR,光合速率、光合色素含量、叶面积及产量则表现出SAR>MAR>NAR的变化特征.当pH>4.1时,3种酸雨处理间差异均不明显,pH≤3.1时,3种酸雨间的胁迫效应差异显著增加(pMAR>SAR.说明NAR和MAR胁迫对油菜生理、生长及产量的抑制较大.

  14. Cloning and Characterization of Phospholipids:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (BnPDAT1) cDNA from Brassica napus L.%甘蓝型油菜磷脂二酰甘油酰基转移酶(BnPDAT1)cDNA的克隆和功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭太龙; 冯韬; 罗海燕; 彭烨; 刘睿洋; 官春云

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipids:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT1) is a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis of plants. In this study, three novel PDAT1 coding sequences (CDSs) were isolated from cDNA of Brassica napus L. cv. Xiangyou 15 seeds, which were mapped to the chromosomes A02, A10, and C09, and designated as BnPDAT1-A02,BnPDAT1-A10, and BnPDAT1-C09, respectively. Three BnPDAT1 CDSs were 1998, 2002, and 2005 bp in length and encoded predicted proteins with 665, 666, and 667 amino acid residues, respectively. BnPDAT1 proteins were predicted to be located on the cell membrane and have a typical PDAT1 conserved domain. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of BnPDAT1 were highly homologous to previously reported PDAT1 inBrassica oleracea,Arabidopsis thalian, and Eruca sativa. Furthermore, the catalytic enzyme activity of the cloned BnPDAT1 genes was confirmed by the yeast comple-mentary experiment. The expression level of BnPDAT1s increased gradually in seed development and reached the maximum from 25 to 30 days after flowering. However, three BnPDAT1 copies were also found to be different in expression pattern.%磷脂二酰甘油酰基转移酶(phospholipids:diacylglycerol acyltransferase,PDAT1)是植物三酰甘油(triacylgly-cerol,TAG)合成的关键酶.本文在甘蓝型油菜湘油15号cDNA中克隆到3个PDAT1全长编码序列(coding sequence,CDS),经比对分别定位于A02、A10、C09染色体,分别命名为BnPDAT1-A02、BnPDAT1-A10和BnPDAT1-C09,其序列长分别为1998、2002和2005 bp,各自编码665、666、667个氨基酸.预测BnPDAT1基因编码蛋白定位于细胞质膜,具有典型的PDAT1保守结构域.多序列比对和进化分析表明,BnPDAT1基因编码蛋白与甘蓝、拟南芥、亚麻芥PDAT1蛋白具有较高的同源性.酵母互补实验证实,该基因编码蛋白具有PDAT1酶活性.BnPDAT1基因在湘油15号中的表达现先上升后降低趋势,在开花后25

  15. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  16. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, and Brassica carinata) that arose through interspecific hybridizations. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, several aspects of the origin of the Brassica species and the relationships within and among these six species still remain open questions. Here, we successfully de novo assembled 60 complete chloroplast genomes of Brassica genotypes of all six species. A complete map of the single nucleotide variants and insertions and deletions in the chloroplast genomes of different Brassica species was produced. The chloroplast genome consists of a Large and a Small Single Copy (LSC and SSC) region between two inverted repeats, and while these regions of chloroplast genomes have very different molecular evolutionary rates, phylogenetic analyses of different regions yielded no contradicting topologies and separated the Brassica genus into four clades. B. carinata and B. juncea share their chloroplast genome with one of their hybridization donors B. nigra and B. rapa, respectively, which fits the U model. B. rapa, surprisingly, shows evidence of two types of chloroplast genomes, with one type specific to some Italian broccoletto accessions. B. napus clearly has evidence for two independent hybridization events, as it contains either B. rapa chloroplast genomes. The divergence estimation suggests that B. nigra and B. carinata diverged from the main Brassica clade 13.7 million years ago (Mya), while B. rapa and B. oleracea diverged at 2.18 Mya. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA sequence not only provides insights into comparative genome analysis but also paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic

  17. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  18. 土壤高砷污染对冬小麦和油菜生长影响的比较研究%Effects of high arsenic pollution in soil on growth of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全吉; 郑床木; 谭启玲; 孙学成; 胡承孝

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of high soil arsenic pollution on the growth, bio-mass accumulation and productivity in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) and rape (Brassica napus) . The accumulation pattern of phosphorus and arsenic in different parts of plant was also studied in the two species. The results indicated that arsenic significantly inhibited wheat height, root biomass, shoot biomass and yield compared with the control, with reductions of 17% , 52. 2% , 60. 6% and 46. 8% , respectively. However, arsenic did not affect the growth and biomass in rape, and the yield was only decreased by 15. 4% compared with the control. Arsenic concentration in different parts of wheat and rape showed the same pattern; roots > shoots > husk (legumen) > seeds. Arsenic in roots of wheat and rape were 74. 86 mg· kg-1 and 57. 76 mg·kg-1 , respectively when soil arsenic concentration was 200 mg·kg-1 . However, there was no difference of arsenic content in the shoot between wheat and rape. Seeds of winter wheat contained more arsenic than rape seed, however, arsenic contents of both seeds did not exceed the maximum levels of contaminants in foods (0. 7 mg·kg-1 total arsenic). Arsenic did not significantly affect P concentration of roots and shoots in both wheat and rape, but significantly decreased P concentration of husk or pod peel.Therefore, winter wheat was more sensitive to arsenic compared with rape and it is more suitable for rape growth inarsenic contaminated soil in winter.%采用盆栽试验研究了土壤高浓度砷污染对冬小麦和油菜生长、生物量、产最的影响及磷、砷在此2种作物各个部位的累积规律.结果表明,200 mg? kg-1土壤砷污染显著抑制了冬小麦的生长,收获时冬小麦株高较对照降低17%;冬小麦地上部分、根系的生物量和产量较对照分别降低了52.2%,60.6%和46.8%.但土壤砷污染对油菜株高、生物量影响均不

  19. 甘蓝型油菜小孢子培养影响因素研究及再生苗早期倍性鉴定%Factors Affecting Microspore Embryogenesis and Early Ploidy Level Determination of Regenerated Plants in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米哲; 李云昌; 梅德圣; 李英德; 徐育松; 陈玉峰; 胡琼

    2011-01-01

    The breeding materials of Brassica napus grown in different ecological regions and years were used to determine their microspore embryogenesis capacity. The microspores of 11 genotypes grown in field condition of Wuhan, Hubei Province, were isolated at different flowering stages and cultured. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of genotype, ecological condition and sampling time on microspore embryogenesis, as well as the colchi-cine treatment on chromosome doubling of regenerated seedlings. Ploidy level of regenerated plants was determined according to DNA content measured by flow cytometric analysis and confirmed by field observation. The results showed that the microspore embryogenesis was significantly different among the genotypes and in different ecological conditions. The plants sown in the summer in Xining,Qinghai Province,had significantly higher microspore embryogenesis than those sown in the spring in Wuhan, Hubei Province. The microspores isolated at early flowering stage (1-3 days) gave rise to significantly higher embryogenesis than those isolated at full flowering stage (12 -15 days after flowering). The treatment of 50 mg/L colchicine directly on isolated microspores for 24 h could significantly increase the number of diploids in regenerated plants. The spontaneous chromosome doubling rate of regenerated plants ranged from 8. 62% to 20. 88% for different genotypes, whereas the colchicine treatment could raise the chromosome doubling rate to 60% -11.59% . The ploidy level of regenerated plants determined by flow cytometry was consistent with the result observed in the field, so the flow cytometry provided a useful means for early dihaploid discrimination of microspore-derived plants.%对不同年份、不同地点种植的油菜育种材料进行小孢子产胚率鉴定,并以11种不同基因型的甘蓝型油菜品系为供体材料,在武汉田间,分别于初花期和盛花期分离培养小孢子,研究基因型、生态条件

  20. Epidemiology of light leaf spot (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) = De epidemiologie van 'light leaf spot' (Pyrenopeziza brassicae) in winterkoolzaad (Brassica napus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilles, T.

    2000-01-01

    Forecasts of the severity of light leaf spot of winter oilseed rape are needed to help growers with their decisions on fungicide applications at times when sprays are needed to control light leaf spot, but the disease is difficult to diagnose. A thorough understanding of stages in

  1. Bee assemblage in habitats associated with Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Halinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAssessments in agricultural crops indicate that alterations in the landscape adjacent to the crops can result in reduced productivity due to loss or low abundance of pollinating agents. In the canola crop, production is partially dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, knowledge of the faunal diversity within and near crop fields is key for the management of these insects and consequently for the increase in productivity. This study aimed to determine and compare the diversity of bees in habitats associated with canola fields in southern Brazil. Bees were captured in four agricultural areas using pan traps in three habitat classes: (1 flowering canola crop, (2 forest remnant, and (3 grassland vegetation. The highest abundance of bees was observed in the grassland vegetation (50% and in the flowering canola field (47%. Eight species common to the three habitat classes were recorded, four of which are represented by native social bees. In addition, a single or a few individuals represented species that were exclusive to a specific habitat class; eight species were collected exclusively in the interior of the canola field, 51 in the grassland vegetation, and six in the forest remnant. The majority of the rare species recorded exhibits subsocial or solitary behaviour and inhabit open places. The composition of bee groups differed between the habitats showing the importance of maintaining habitat mosaics with friendly areas for pollinators, which promote the pollination service for canola flowers.

  2. A new time-saving transformation system for Brassica napus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... third only to soybean and palm in global oil production. (De Block, 1989 ... modification of oil composition (Knutzon, 1992), herbicide tolerance (De Block ... of DNA and the integration of single/low copy numbers of gene (McCormac ..... containing a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ac gene. Plant. Physiol.

  3. 3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P S; Kekwick, R G; Smith, C G; Sidebottom, C; Slabas, A R

    1992-04-01

    3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase (E.C. 1.1.1.100, alternatively known as beta-ketoacyl-[ACP] reductase), a component of fatty acid synthetase has been purified from seeds of rape by ammonium sulphate fractionation, Procion Red H-E3B chromatography, FPLC gel filtration and high performance hydroxyapatite chromatography. The purified enzyme appears on SDS-PAGE as a number of 20-30 kDa components and has a strong tendency to exist in a dimeric form, particularly when dithiothreitol is not present to reduce disulphide bonds. Cleveland mapping and cross-reactivity with antiserum raised against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase both indicate that the multiple components have similar primary structures. On gel filtration the enzyme appears to have a molecular mass of 120 kDa suggesting that the native structure is tetrameric. The enzyme has a strong preference for the acetoacetyl ester of acyl carrier protein (Km = 3 microM) over the corresponding esters of the model substrates N-acetyl cysteamine (Km = 35 mM) and CoA (Km = 261 microM). It is inactivated by dilution but this can be partly prevented by the inclusion of NADPH. Using an antiserum prepared against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase, the enzyme has been visualised inside the plastids of rape embryo and leaf tissues by immunoelectron microscopy. Amino acid sequencing of two peptides prepared by digestion of the purified enzyme with trypsin showed strong similarities with 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from avocado pear and the Nod G gene product from Rhizobium meliloti.

  4. Carbon and nitrogen stoichiometry in Brassica napus L. seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... supplementation before drought positively affected fresh biomass by stimulating N uptake and C assimilation. ... Water is known to be one of the main limiting factors ..... accumulation by inhibiting the rate of photosynthesis, as.

  5. Endogenous Gibberellins and Shoot Growth and Development in Brassica napus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart B. Rood; Roger Mandel; Richard P. Pharis

    1989-01-01

    ...), and rose 300-fold by the time of floral initiation. After floral initiation the concentration of GA-like substances fell, then rose again during bolting to maximal levels during the early pod-fill stage...

  6. Genomic Prediction of Testcross Performance in Canola (Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib U Jan

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a modern breeding approach where genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP marker profiles are simultaneously used to estimate performance of untested genotypes. In this study, the potential of genomic selection methods to predict testcross performance for hybrid canola breeding was applied for various agronomic traits based on genome-wide marker profiles. A total of 475 genetically diverse spring-type canola pollinator lines were genotyped at 24,403 single-copy, genome-wide SNP loci. In parallel, the 950 F1 testcross combinations between the pollinators and two representative testers were evaluated for a number of important agronomic traits including seedling emergence, days to flowering, lodging, oil yield and seed yield along with essential seed quality characters including seed oil content and seed glucosinolate content. A ridge-regression best linear unbiased prediction (RR-BLUP model was applied in combination with 500 cross-validations for each trait to predict testcross performance, both across the whole population as well as within individual subpopulations or clusters, based solely on SNP profiles. Subpopulations were determined using multidimensional scaling and K-means clustering. Genomic prediction accuracy across the whole population was highest for seed oil content (0.81 followed by oil yield (0.75 and lowest for seedling emergence (0.29. For seed yieId, seed glucosinolate, lodging resistance and days to onset of flowering (DTF, prediction accuracies were 0.45, 0.61, 0.39 and 0.56, respectively. Prediction accuracies could be increased for some traits by treating subpopulations separately; a strategy which only led to moderate improvements for some traits with low heritability, like seedling emergence. No useful or consistent increase in accuracy was obtained by inclusion of a population substructure covariate in the model. Testcross performance prediction using genome-wide SNP markers shows considerable potential for pre-selection of promising hybrid combinations prior to resource-intensive field testing over multiple locations and years.

  7. Expression of human interferon gamma in Brassica napus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... Accepted 8 June, 2010. Expressions of heterologous proteins in suitable plant tissues and targeting it into subcellular ... in plant and animal cells (Fischer et al., 2000). ..... Comparison of dot blot results in transgenic and wild-.

  8. Cytoplasmic male sterility and inter and intra subgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Brassica comprise a remarkably diverse group of crops and encompass varieties that are grown as oilseeds, vegetables, condiment mustards and forages. One of the basic requirements for developing hybrid varieties in oilseed Brassica is the availability of proven heterosis. The development of hybrid cultivars has been successful in many Brassica spp. Midparent heterosis and high-parent heterosis (heterobeltiosis have extensively been explored and utilized for boosting various quantity and quality traits in rapeseed. Heterosis is commercially exploited in rapeseed and its potential use has been demonstrated in turnip rape (B. rapa L. and Indian mustard (B. juncea L. for seed yield and most of the agronomic traits. The oilseed rape plant, B. napus, possesses two endogenous male sterile cytoplasms, nap and pol. Ogura type of cytoplasmic male sterility was first discovered in Japanese wild radish and other male-sterile Brassicas (Ogura bearing cytoplasm derived from interspecific crosses. Information concerning the allelic frequencies of restorers can be useful in trying to understand their evolutionary origins. The ogu, pol and nap cytoplasms of B. napus induce sterility in all, some, and only a few cultivars, respectively. In this study, different kinds of male sterility, combining ability and heterosis of qualitative and quantitative traits in different Brassica species will be reviеwed.

  9. Correlation Analysis Between Heterosis and Genetic Distance Evaluated by Genome-Wide SNP Chip inBrassica napus%利用全基因组SNP芯片分析油菜遗传距离与杂种优势的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑世飞; 王会; 梅德圣; 刘佳; 付丽; 王军; 汪文祥; 胡琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective] To investigate the feasibility of heterosis prediction by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in rapeseed, the 60K SNP chip covering the whole genome ofBrassica napus was used to estimate the genetic distance (GD) of elite parental lines ofB. napus, and the correlation between GD and heterosis was analyzed for the guidance of hybrid development of rapeseed.[Method] Forty-six F1 hybrids were produced using six maintainer lines (1019B, 1055B, 6098B, 8908B, 6019B and ZS11B) and eight restorer lines (R1, R2, R3, R6, R9, R10, R11 and OR1) of Polima cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in an incomplete diallel cross design. All the parents and F1s were grown in three different ecological conditions which are located in Wuhan, Guiyang, and Chaohu. Ten yield-related traits including plant height (PH), branch height (BH), number of effective primary branches (NEPB), silique density (SD), effective length of main inflorescence (ELMI), number of effective siliques on main inflorescence (ESMI), number of effective siliques per plant (ESPP), seed per silique (SPS), 1 000-seed weight (TSW) and yield per plant (YPP) were investigated for mid-parent heterosis and high-parent heterosis. The 14 parental lines were genotyped by 60K SNP chip ofBrassicas. GD based on SNP genotyping was estimated with MEGA5.0 software, and cluster analysis was carried out using unweighted pair group method arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method. Correlation analysis between GD and heterosis was conducted by SAS9.1 statistical analysis software.[Result]There were 40 201 loci selected from 52 157 SNP loci as being effective for genetic distance calculation and cluster analysis after quality determination. GDs of the 14 parental lines ranged from 0.1883 to 0.8811, with an average of 0.5217. The GD between 6098B and 6019B was the smallest and that between ZS11B and R6 was the largest. The parental lines were divided into four groups, with six maintainers in one big group, four restorer lines R2

  10. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Acquisition and Expression Analysis of Polygalacturonase Gene MF6 Related to the Fertility ofBrassica napus L.%油菜育性相关多聚半乳糖醛酸酶基因MF6的获得及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣仙; 唐志康; 郭世星; 牛应泽

    2012-01-01

    本研究目的在于利用化学杀雄剂“化杀灵WP1”锈导甘蓝型油菜R121产生雄性不育,并对花蕾中的差异表达基因进行分离、筛选及定量表达分析.首先,通过抑制消减杂交技术(SSH)和反向Northern斑点杂交技术,分离和筛选出在雄性不育花蕾中差异表达的基因片段.然后,将差异片段测序后在NCBI数据库中进行同源性比对及功能分析.最后,对差异表达基因进行反转录荧光定量表达(RT-QPCR)分析.本研究从筛选出来的6个阳性克隆中获得一个与多聚半乳糖醛酸酶基因(MF6) 100%同源的基因片段,该基因被认为与花粉生长发育及花粉成熟密切相关.对MF6基因在不同长度及不同育性花蕾中的表达量进行了定量分析,结果显示,MF6基因在雄性可育花蕾中的表达量均高于雄性不育花蕾,且在蕾长1.00 mm~1.50 mm和3.50 mm~4.00mm时分别达到了18.53倍和43.15倍的差异.因此,我们推测“化杀灵WP1”主要通过抑制花粉母细胞减数分裂时期中MF6基因的表达,使花粉产生败育:同时,MF6基因的表达可能也与花丝的伸长生长有关.%The purpose of this study is to analyze the differentially expressed genes in the buds of male sterile plants which were induced by a male sterilizing chemical" Hua-Sha-Ling WP1" in Brassica napus L. Rl 21. First, we isolated the differentially expressed gene fragments from the male sterile buds through the suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) and the reverse northern dot blotting. Then, homology comparisons and functional analysis were conducted through online database NCBI. Finally, the differentially expressed gene was further analyzed through reverse transcription quantitative PCR. In the results, we obtained a gene fragment which is 100% homologous to the gene of polygalacturonase (MF6) in Arabidopsis from the 6 positive clones. It has been reported that the polygalacturonase gene (MF6) is closely related to the development

  12. The effect of new chemical hybridizing agent SX-1 on Brassica napus L. in two ecological regions%化学杂交剂SX-1对不同生态区甘蓝型油菜的杀雄效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦世豪; 田建华; 李永红; 张耀文; 李殿荣; 董育红; 任军荣; 姚雪雁

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The effect of new chemical hybridizing Agent SX-1 on Brassica napus L.was studied in two different ecological regions.【Method】 In order to study the influence of SX-1 on the rapeseed growth,inducing male sterility,agronomic traits and yield in the different ecological regions and the different mass concentrations,pure water selected was as control,chemical hybridizing agent SX-1 with four different mass concentrations were sprayed two times on rapeseed lines YD66A and Cn10 in winter rapeseed region and spring rapeseed region.The first spraying occured when pollen mother cell of maximum bud blossom entered monocyte stage,and the second spraying was done 10-15 days later.【Result】 Treated with A2(6.0 mg/L+7.0 mg/L)and B2(6.5 mg/L+7 mg/L)of SX-1 in two ecological regions,YD66A and Cn10 have the sterile rates of 98.11%,100%,100% and 100%,respectively.Moreover,the sterile plants have some good characteristics,such as no negative reaction to SX-1,leaf color becomes weaker,stem color is light purple,little inhibition for plant growth,plant height and the length of main inflorescence are reduced,the number of silique and yield per plant increase a little,and so on.【Conclusion】 With the concentration of(6.0 mg/L+7.0 mg/L)in rapeseed spring region and the concentration of(6.5 mg/L+7 mg/L)in rapeseed winter region,both spayings of SX-1 have good effect on inducing male sterility.%【目的】研究在不同生态区化学杂交剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜的杀雄效果。【方法】在冬油菜区和春油菜区分别采用4个不同质量浓度的化学杂交剂SX-1,对YD66A和Cn10 2个甘蓝型油菜品种(系)进行2次喷施杀雄处理,第1次喷施在油菜最大花蕾的花粉母细胞进入单核期时进行,第2次喷施在第1次喷施后10~15d内进行,以喷施等量清水为对照,研究在不同生态区喷施SX-1的杀雄效果,并探讨其对油菜生长发育、农艺性状和产量的影响。

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Application on Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization of Direct Sowing Rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) in Paddy Rice Field%施氮对稻茬直播油菜扬油6号氮素吸收与利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐瑶; 左青松; 冷锁虎; 刘荣; 葛云龙; 徐波; 李苗苗; 胡宇杰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究施氨量对油菜(Brassica napus L)氮素吸收与利用的影响,为稻茬直播油菜精确定量施用氮肥提供理论和实践依据.[方法]以甘蓝型双低油菜品种扬油6号为材料,测定不同施氮处理(0、45、90、135、180、225、270、315和360 kg/hm2)初花期和成熟期各器官干重和氮素含量.[结果]油菜氮素吸收量和氮素利用率随施氮量的增加均呈先增加后减少的趋势,满足二次曲线关系.当施氮量低于110 kg/hm2时,随着施氮量的增加油菜对氮素的吸收量和利用率都呈增加的趋势;当施氮量在110~315 kg/hm2时,随着施氮量的增加氮吸收量仍呈增加的趋势,但氮素利用率已呈下降的趋势;当氮施用量超过315 kg/hm2时,随施氮量的增加二者均呈下降趋势.籽粒产量与施氮量之间呈二次曲线关系,获得最高产量的施氮量为278 kg/hm2.施氮量为278 kg/hm2时的氮素吸收量和利用率分别为209.90 kg/hm2和20.01g(籽粒)/g(N),与最大氮素吸收量211.78 kg/hm2和最高氮素利用率20.88 g(籽粒)/g(N)相比,获得最高产量时的氮素吸收量和氮素利用率分别下降0.8%和4.17%.[结论]油菜达到最大氮素吸收量和最大氮素利用率的施氮量分别为315和110 kg/hm2.施氮量为278 kg/hm2能较好地协调油菜对氮素吸收和利用的关系并取得最高的籽粒产量.%[Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of nitrogen application amount on nitrogen absorption and utilization of rapeseed,and provide a theoretical and practical basis for the precise and quantitative nitrogen fertilization of direct sowing rapeseed in paddy rice field. [ Method ] The dry weight and nitrogen content of double low rapeseed variety Yangyou No. 6 were measured at beginning flower and maturity stage under different nitrogen application treatmems(0,45,90,135,180,225,270,315 and 360 kg/hm2). [Result] With nitrogen application amount increasing, nitrogen absorption amount and

  14. Effect of different boron fertilizers on seed yield and seed quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and their residual effectiveness for rotated rice%不同硼肥对油菜产量和品质的影响及其在油稻轮作中的后效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣; 石桃雄; 武际; 鲁剑巍; 石磊; 徐芳森

    2011-01-01

    通过盆栽土培和田间试验,研究两种具有缓释特性的硼肥Etibor-48(Na2B4O7·5H2O,EB)和Colemanite (Ca2B6O11·5H2O,CB)对油菜产量和品质的影响及其在油稻轮作中的后效.盆栽试验结果表明,EB和CB各处理第一季油菜产量显著高于不施硼处理(-B),与硼砂处理(B)比较也有较大提高;安徽广德田间试验结果与盆栽试验结果一致.第二季水稻,盆栽试验各施硼处理产量均有不同程度的增加,但田间试验点,安徽广德和湖北荆州各施硼处理水稻产量与不施硼处理没有显著差异.盆栽试验第三季油菜各处理产量较第一季显著降低;各施硼处理产量无显著差异,但均显著高于不施硼处理.安徽田间试验EB和CB处理第三季油菜子产量仍显著高于不施硼处理,其中CB处理产量最高;而裂区试验,第三季各施硼处理产量没有显著差异,较相对应的不施硼处理油菜子产量均有增加.湖北和安徽田间试验结果并不完全一致,与湖北荆州试验点土壤有效硼含量较高有关.缺硼土壤施硼能够提高油菜产量并改善油菜品质,但对水稻品质影响不大.研究结果能够为长江中下游地区油稻轮作系统中不同硼肥的合理高效施用提供依据.%The effects of two kinds of boron (B) slow-release fertilizers, Etibor-48 (EB; Na2B4O7 · 5H2O) and Colemanite (CB; Ca2B6O11 · 5H2O), on seed yield and seed quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and their residual effectiveness for rotated rice were investigated in pot culture experiments and field trials, respectively.Seed yield of oilseed rape in the EB and CB treatments was significantly higher than that in the absence of boron (-B), and higher than that of borax treatment (B) for the first crop. Field trial results of the first crop ( oilseed rape) in Anhui province, China, were consistent with those of the pot culture experiments. Grain yield of the second crop (rice) in all B fertilizer treatments was

  15. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  16. The variability of processes involved in transgene dispersal - case studies from Brassica and related genera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; D'Hertefeldt, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope We strive to predict consequences of genetically modified plants (GMPs) being cultivated openly in the environment, as human and animal health, biodiversity, agricultural practise and farmers’ economy could be affected. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the risk...... of fitness parameters. Monitoring of the extent of spontaneous introgression in natural populations was also performed. Modelling was used as an additional tool to identify key parameters in gene flow. Results The GM plant may affect the environment directly or indirectly by dispersal of the transgene....... In the present review, this is illustrated through a bunch of examples mostly from our own research on oilseed rape, Brassica napus. In the Brassica cases, the variability affected all five main steps in the process of gene dispersal. The modelling performed suggests that in Brassica, differences in fitness...

  17. Sub-lethal glyphosate exposure alters flowering phenology and causes transient male-sterility in Brassica spp

    OpenAIRE

    Londo, Jason Paul; McKinney, John; Schwartz, Matthew; Bollman, Mike; Sagers, Cynthia; Watrud, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Background Herbicide resistance in weedy plant populations can develop through different mechanisms such as gene flow of herbicide resistance transgenes from crop species into compatible weedy species or by natural evolution of herbicide resistance or tolerance following selection pressure. Results from our previous studies suggest that sub-lethal levels of the herbicide glyphosate can alter the pattern of gene flow between glyphosate resistant Canola®, Brassica napus, and glyphosate sensitiv...

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis on SLG and SRK Genes in Brassica and Raphanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-tang; MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; TU Jin-xing

    2005-01-01

    S-locus genes were cloned from three Brassica napus and three B. campestris lines by using PCR walking and homologue sequence methods. A phylogenetic gene tree was constructed based on the six cloned genes and fifty-one previously reported SLG/SRK genes of Brassica and Raphanus. The SLGs from R. sativus were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree intermingling with SLG/SRKs from B. oleracea, B. napus and B. campestris. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅱ clustered independently in one group. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅰ showed to be more divergent than class Ⅱ genes. These results suggested that the divergence of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ should have occurred before the differentiation of the genera Brassica and Raphanus. In addition, SLG and SRK of the same S haplotypes belonged to the same class. It suggested that class-Ⅰ and class-Ⅱ group divergence occurred first, and then SLG and SRK diverged. The three SC SRK genes from B. napus and B. campestris were grouped into one cluster, displaying difference from the SC SLG of B.oleracea. These three SC SRK genes were close to SI SRK of SI1300, SI271 and guanyou in phylogenetic relationships.These results indicated that SC and SI genes diverged more recently. It is not clear yet whether the differentiation of SC and SI genes was earlier than the differentiation of Brassica and Raphanus. Studies based on more genes are necessary for a comprehensive elucidation of the phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae.

  19. Effects of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu-resistant endophytic Enterobacter sr CBSB1 and Rhodotorula sp. CBSB79 on the growth and phytoextraction of Brassica plants in multimetal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Deng, Zujun; Tan, Hongming; Cao, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    To survey the effects of endophytic Enterobacter sp. CBSB1 and Rhodotorula sp. CBSB79 resistant to Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ on the growth and phytoextraction of Brassica, the endophytes were isolated by surface- sterilized methods and characterized. The CBSB1 significantly increased 44.2% of the dry weight of Brassica napus in the multimetal contaminated soil (P Enterobacter sp. CBSB1, the yeast Rhodotorula sp CBSB79 showed higher potentials to improve extraction efficacy of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu by Brassica seedlings in the field.

  20. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  1. The effect of Ni on concentration of the most abundant essential cations in several Brassica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some plants from the genus Brassica have the ability to tolerate excessive concentrations of heavy metals, including Ni. Considering the fact that Ni is a very toxic element for living beings we wanted to examine its influence on some species from genus Brassicaceae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ni on distribution and accumulation of essential macronutrients from the standpoint of food quality and phytoremediation potential. Experiments were performed using winter (W and spring (S varieties of rapeseed (Brassica napus, L., white mustard (Brassica alba, L., black mustard (Brassica nigra, L. and turnip (Brassica rapa, L.. The seeds were exposed to 10 μM Ni from the beginning of germination. Plants were grown in water cultures, in semi-controlled conditions of a greenhouse, on ½ strength Hoagland solution to which was added Ni in the same concentration as during germination. Concentrations and distribution of Ca, Mg, K in leaf and stem were altered in the presence of increased concentration of Ni. Significant differences were found between the control and Ni-treated plants as well as among the genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31036 i br. TR 31016

  2. Enhancing the Heterosis of Spring Rapeseed Varieties (Brassica napus L.) by Using Semi-Winter Rapeseed Varieties as Parents%以半冬性甘蓝型油菜为亲本增强春性甘蓝型油菜杂种优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳梅; 柳海东; 徐亮; 杜德志

    2013-01-01

    Several B. napus varieties (lines) including two semi-winter rapeseed varieties, two spring restorer lines, two spring male-sterile lines and 16 spring restorer lines (derived from the spring restorer lines and semi-winter rapeseed varieties) were ana-lyzed using SSR, SRAP, and AFLP. Twenty-six combinations were produced according to the North Carolina mating design (NCII) by hand-pollinating 12 new restorer lines and one parental restorer line (Ag-5) with two spring male-sterile lines. The hy-brid performance values were also determined. Among the 16 restorer lines, except for 931 and Zhang 23, the genetic distances were greater between the new restorer lines and two male-sterile lines than between the corresponding parental restorer line (Ag-5) and the two male-sterile lines, showing that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could increase the genetic distance between spring restorer lines and spring male-sterile lines. The yield per plant for the maintainer lines of 15 combinations, which corresponded to the sterile lines showed high-parent values in 26 combinations, and 13 combinations showed stronger high-parent heterosis of yield per plant compared to combinations produced by the corresponding male-sterile and parental re-storer lines (CMSL×Ag-5), suggesting that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could enhance the hetero-sis of spring B. napus varieties. Eighteen hybrids among the 24 combinations showed higher yield per plant compared to the com-binations of CMSL×Ag-5, indicating introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines might improve the spring B. napus hybrids yield. The results also showed that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could improve the resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of spring B. napus hybrids. This study indicates that semi-winter B. napus rapeseed may be a%  以春性恢复系与半冬性品种(系)杂交后选育的16

  3. Hypersensitivity to pollen of four different species of Brassica: a clinico-immunologic evaluation in patients of respiratory allergy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shipra; Katiyar, Raj Kishore; Gaur, Shailendra; Jain, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of edible oil in India. Several species of Brassica are grown in different parts of country for its oilseeds. Objective The objective was to investigate allergenicity to antigenic extracts of pollen of 4 species of Brassica. Methods Brassica campestris, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, and Brassica napus were selected for the detailed investigation. Pollen samples from each of the four species were collected from the polliniferous materials. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of these extracts were evaluated by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Skin prick test, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay and Western blot on atopic individuals. Results Out of the 159 atopic subjects tested, 21.38% were positive to at least one or other species of Brassica pollen, with highest skin positivity (13.20%) to B. campestris extract. Raised IgE with significant linear correlation with intensity of skin reactions was obtained. Protein fractions of 20, 25, 32, 37, 56, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. campestris and B. juncea whereas 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. nigra and B. napus as major IgE binding protein fractions. The patients also showed positivity to other inhalant pollen allergens tested. Conclusion IgE mediated hypersensitivity varied from 4.40% to 13.20% in Indian atopic subjects to pollen of one or the other species of Brassica. Protein fractions of 47, 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were identified as IgE binding by all the four species, however individual heterogeneity exists. Thus a local species may be more pertinent for immunotherapy. The major allergen needs to be further characterized. PMID:25379479

  4. Recurring Challenges from a Necrotrophic Fungal Plant Pathogen: a Case Study with Leptosphaeria maculans (Causal Agent of Blackleg Disease in Brassicas) in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; BARBETTI, MARTIN J.; Li, Hua

    2005-01-01

    • Background Blackleg disease of Brassica napus, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, causes severe yield losses in Australia, Europe and Canada. In Western Australia, it nearly destroyed the oilseed rape industry in 1972 when host genotypes and conducive environmental conditions favoured severe epidemics. The introduction of cultivars with polygenic resistance and the adoption of sound cultural practices two decades later helped to manage the disease. These were abandone...

  5. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  6. Developmentally regulated site-specific marker gene excision in transgenic B. napus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopertekh, Lilya; Broer, Inge; Schiemann, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    We have developed a self-excision Cre-vector to remove marker genes from Brassica napus. In this vector cre recombinase gene and bar expression cassette were inserted between two lox sites in direct orientation. These lox-flanked sequences were placed between the seed-specific napin promoter and the gene of interest (vstI). Tissue-specific cre activation resulted in simultaneous excision of the recombinase and marker genes. The vector was introduced into B. napus by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. F1 progeny of seven lines with single and multiple transgene insertions was subjected to segregation and molecular analysis. Marker-free plants could be detected and confirmed by PCR and Southern blot in all transgenic lines tested. The recombination efficiency expressed as a ratio of plants with complete gene excision to the total number of investigated plants varied from 13 to 81% dependent on the transgene copy number. Potential application of this system would be the establishment of marker-free transgenic plants in generatively propagated species.

  7. Correlation between the stomatal guard cell size and the ploidy level in haploid and diploid of Brassica napus%气孔保卫细胞大小与油菜单倍体及二倍体倍性的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婷; 刘成洪; 杜志钊; 高润红; 徐红卫; 邹磊; 王亦菲

    2012-01-01

    The width, length and perimeter of stomatal guard cells were measured in different leaves from seed-germinated diploid plants and microspore-derived haploid plants of B. napus Strain 2105,and the correlation between the stomatal guard cell size and the ploidy level of plants was studied. The results indicated that the width, length and perimeter of stomatal guard cells were significantly different between the haploid and diploid plants. The calculated perimeter of stomatal guard cell was 43 - 59 μm for haploid plants and 75 - 94μm for diploid plants. Compared with a single observed index of the width or the length, the stomatal guard cell perimeter calculated by the length and width had a wider range to distinguish the haploid from the diploid and could be used to rapidly identify the plant ploidy in the construction of double haploid population.%对甘蓝型油菜2105品系种子萌发的二倍体植株和小孢子来源再生单倍体植株的不同叶位叶片气孔保卫细胞大小进行了测定,考察了不同叶片的保卫细胞长轴长、短轴长以及其周长差异,并对气孔保卫细胞大小与植株倍性的相关性进行了研究.结果表明:油菜单倍体与二倍体叶片气孔保卫细胞的长轴长、短轴长以及其周长存在显著差异;单倍体和二倍体气孔保卫细胞的周长计算值范围分别为43~59 μm和75~94 μm;相对于单一的长轴长或短轴长观测指标,利用长轴与短轴长度计算的周长值指标对单倍体与二倍体鉴定具有更宽的区分窗口,可用于油菜双单倍体群体构建中植株倍性的快速鉴定.

  8. 甘蓝型油菜黄化突变体的叶绿体超微结构、气孔特征参数及光合特性%Analysis of Chloroplast Ultrastructure, Stomatal Characteristic Parameters and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Chlorophyll-Reduced Mutant in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华贵; 杨焕文; 饶勇; 杨斌; 朱英; 张文龙

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] In order to discuss the yellowing mechanism and provide a theoretical basis in rape breeding practice,the relationship between chloroplast ultrastructure,stomatal characteristic parameters,photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic characteristics of the spontaneous chlorophyll-reduced mutant NY in B.napus L.were studied.[Method] Taking the rape mutant NY,wild type NG,F1 (NY×NG) and rF1(NG×NY) as research materials,the heart-leaf and the flatten-leaf at five-leaf stage were used for chloroplast ultrastructure observation,stomatal characteristic parameters investigation,photosynthetic pigment content determination,photosynthetic characteristics measurement and agronomic traits investigation.[Result] In general,the chloroplast development degree in yellow heart-leaf and yellow-green flatten-leaf from mutant NY was worse than that of wild type NG,F1 (NY×NG) and rF1(NG×NY) from chloroplast ultrastructure; the chloroplast numbers of heart-leaf in a lower epidermis stoma guard cell from mutant NY was decreased about 40%,whereas the number in yellow-green flatten-leaf was close to that of the wild-type NG in stomatal characteristic parameters; the Chla,Chlb,Chl(a+b),carotenoids and the net photosynthetic rate of mutant were significantly lower than those of the same period of wild-type and F1,rF1 in content and composition of photosynthetic pigment as well as photosynthetic characteristics.Correspondingly,the growth period delayed,economic traits deteriorated and grain yieldper plant decreased,which happened in the mutant,but the above agronomic traits and photosynthetic characteristics from F1 and rF1 were restored to normal levels.[Conclusion] The mutant NY is one of total chlorophyll deficiency type caused by chloroplast structure developmental defects.Abnormal chloroplast structure,less grana and grana lamella and lower chlorophyll content are main reasons for mutant lower net photosynthetic rates and worst agronomic traits.%[目的]揭示甘

  9. Enzymatic Characteristics of Acetolactate Synthase Mutant S638N inBrassica napus and Its Resistance to ALS Inhibitor Herbicides%油菜乙酰乳酸合酶突变体S638N的酶学特性及其对ALS类除草剂的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂龙; 浦惠明; 龙卫华; 高建芹; 戚存扣; 张洁夫; 陈松

    2015-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids and is the target of several classes of herbicides. ABnALS1R gene from herbicide-resistant mutant line M9 inB. napus, was previously isolated and demonstrated to be resistant to the imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides. This research was to reveal the differences of enzymatic characteristics and its resistance to ALS inhibitor herbicides between the mutant S638N and the wild-type enzyme. The BnALS1R gene was constructed and expressed inEscherichia coli along with the wild-type. The target recombinant proteins with the pre-dicted molecular weight (74 kD) were successively expressed inEscherichia coliand purified by SDS-PAGE. The enzymatic activity of the purified S638N and wild-type was then measured in enzyme reaction systems under different temperatures and pH values. Results showed that the S638N resembled the wild-type in their enzymatic activity, showing maximum activity at 37°C and pH 7.0, and no significant difference in theKm andVmax between the S638N and wild-type. The activation of the S638N by cofactors (FAD, Mg2+ and thiamine diphosphate) was examined and generated similar results to that of the wild-type. The mutant enzyme was inactive when one of three cofactors was omitted. However, the S638N was more resistant to IMI herbicides than the wild-type in contrast to Su herbicides that inhibited the S638N as well as the wild-type. Therefore, the S638N has resistance spe-cific to IMI herbicides with unalteration of the enzymatic reaction characteristics.%在对油菜抗咪唑啉酮类除草剂基因BnALS1R克隆与功能验证基础上,为比较抗性基因编码的乙酰乳酸合酶突变体 S638N 酶学特性及其对 ALS 类除草剂抗性与野生型的差异,构建基因原核表达载体,在大肠杆菌中表达S638N和野生型的重组融合蛋白。SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析表明, S638N和野生型均能表达出约74 kD的特异性重组

  10. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhong- shuan No. 9 with low erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1 genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1 sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at po- sition 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An AvrII cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with AvrII confirmed that the FAE1 genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by AvrII cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and be- tween the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  11. The Influence of pH on Microspore Embryogenesis of White Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Oana CRISTEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In vitro microspore culture is one of the top techniques utilised now-a-days for the obtaining of double haploid plants in many plant species, including Brassica. The pH of the medium is a critical factor for the success of In vitro microspore culture as it influences the invertase enzyme activity, translated at cellular level through an acceleration or reduction of sucrose cleavage. The results published until now shows rather contradictory findings, as the response of microspores have been proved to be highly depending on genotypes, most of them being focused on Brassica napus. Thus, in the present study, the effect of different NLN liquid medium pH, ranging between 5.0 to 7.0 were tested in order to establish the most suitable pH for the expression of embryogenic competences of microspores cultivated on medium In vitro and ultimately for the obtaining of microspore-derived embryos. Among the 11 values of pH tested, the best results were obtained on variants with pH 5.8 and 6.0, both in what concern the maintaining of microspores viability and the number of microspore-derived embryos. The findings of the present study provide a strong base for the establishment of an efficient protocol for the In vitro culture of microspore at Brassica oleracea L. genotypes with Romanian origin.

  12. Could nitrile derivatives of turnip (Brassica rapa) glucosinolates be hepato- or cholangiotoxic in cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Mark G; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Tapper, Brian A

    2014-07-30

    Turnip (Brassica rapa ssp. rapa) and rape (Brassica napus ssp. biennis) and other brassica forage crops are regarded as "safe" feed for cattle during late summer and fall in the North Island of New Zealand when high Pithomyces chartarum spore counts in pastures frequently lead to sporidesmin toxicity (facial eczema). Sporadic acute severe cases of turnip photosensitization in dairy cows characteristically exhibit high γ-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase serum enzyme activities that mimic those seen in facial eczema. The two diseases can, however, be distinguished by histopathology of the liver, where lesions, in particular those affecting small bile ducts, differ. To date, the hepato-/cholangiotoxic phytochemical causing liver damage in turnip photosensitization in cattle is unknown. Of the hydrolysis products of the various glucosinolate secondary compounds found in high concentrations in turnip and rape, work has shown that nitriles and epithionitriles can be hepatotoxic (and nephro- or pancreatotoxic) in rats. These derivatives include β-hydroxy-thiiranepropanenitrile and 3-hydroxy-4-pentenenitrile from progoitrin; thiiranepropanenitrile and 4-pentenenitrile from gluconapin; thiiranebutanenitrile and 5-hexenenitrile from glucobrassicanapin; phenyl-3-propanenitrile from gluconasturtiin; and indole-3-acetonitrile from glucobrassicin. This perspective explores the possibility of the preferential formation of such derivatives, especially the epithionitriles, in acidic conditions in the bovine rumen, followed by absorption, hepatotoxicity, and secondary photosensitization.

  13. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds.

  14. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  15. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  16. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  17. IMI resistance associated to crop-weed hybridization in a natural Brassica rapa population: characterization and fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureta, M S; Torres Carbonell, F; Pandolfo, C; Presotto, A D; Cantamutto, M A; Poverene, M

    2017-03-01

    Wild turnip (Brassica rapa) is a common weed and a close relative to oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The Clearfield® production system is a highly adopted tool which provides an alternative solution for weed management, but its efficiency is threatened by gene transfer from crop to weed relatives. Crop-weed hybrids with herbicide resistance were found in the progeny of a B. rapa population gathered from a weedy stand on the borders of an oilseed rape (B. napus) imidazolinone (IMI)-resistant crop. Interspecific hybrids were confirmed by morphological traits in the greenhouse and experimental field, survival after imazethapyr applications, DNA content through flow cytometry, and pollen viability. The transference of herbicide resistance was demonstrated even in a particular situation of pollen competition between both an herbicide-resistant crop and a non-resistant crop. However, IMI resistance was not found in further generations collected at the same location. These results verify gene transmission from oilseed rape to B. rapa in the main crop area in Argentina where resistant and susceptible varieties are found and seed loss and crop volunteers are common. Hybridization, introgression, and herbicide selection would be associated with the loss of effectiveness of IMI technology.

  18. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of relative humidity (RH while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40±2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  19. Role of relative humidity in processing and storage of seeds and assessment of variability in storage behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, A; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A K; Radhamani, J

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  20. Influence of Meteorological Factors on Oil Content and Major Fatty Acids of Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weijun; Zhao Desheng; Shen Huicong

    1998-01-01

    A study on the influence of meteorological factors on oil content and major fatty acids of rapeseeds was conducted based on latitudinal location experiments and years of varietal investigations. Negative correlation was found between the latitudes and erucic acid content, and positive correlations were found between the latitudes and oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid contents of rapeseeds. No significant correlation was observed between the latitudes and lionlenic acid content of rapeseeds. The oil content of rapeseeds varied from 34.00 % to 44.90 % and was concentrated within 39.00 %~40.90% in the Yangtze River lower basin. The difference of oil content between years was observed to be 3. 00% ~5.00%. The regional variation of the same varieties had ravealed a 0. 4432 % increase of oil content per 1 increase of the latitudes.The seed formation was the key growth stage in which the oil content and stagemajor fatty acid contents of rapeseeds were influenced by the meteorological factors. The following correlations were observed:( 1 )positive correlation between oil content and the daylength; (2) negative correlations between erucic acid content and daily mean temperature, ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature, and the daylength; (3)positive correlation between oleic acid content and the daylength; (4) negative correlation between linoleic acid content and daily mean temperature, and positive one between linoleic acid content and ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature;(5) no significant correlation between linolenic acid content and these meteorological factors. The experiments also estimated the key meteorological factors which affected oil content and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds, and established the stepwise regression equations between the key meteorological factors and oil content, and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds. The experimental results formed important bases for the selection of low erucic acid rape breeding area and for the development and expansion of high quality rape.

  1. Effect of microwave on the dynamics of some oxidoreductase enzymes in Brassica napus germination seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of microwaves on the catalase and peroxidase activity in rape germinating seeds. Two experimental lots were projected: one in which the non germinated seeds were exposed 1 hour, respectively, 5 hours, to microwave rays, and the second in which the germinated seeds (after 24 hours) were exposed to microwave action for the some interval. We used a microwave generator with a horn antenna, at the 10.75 GHz and a power density under 1 mWcm-1. For a period...

  2. Induction of embryogenesis in microspores and pollen of Brassica napus L. cv. Topas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hause, B.; Hause, G.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial systems to produce plant embryos are important tools for basic research as well as for plant breeding. It is possible to produce large amounts of embryos by methods like somatic embryogenesis or embryogenic microspore cultures. Such high amounts of embryos, which are easier to handle than

  3. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed vigor on field performance of two oilseed rape cultivars (Licord and Okapi was investigated in 2008 at the Research Farm of the University Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on RCB design with three replications. A sub-sample of seeds of each cultivar was kept as control. The other two sub-samples of each cultivar with about 15% moisture content were artificially deteriorated at 40C for 9 and 12 days (Licord and 7 and 10 days (Okapi. Consequently, three seed lots for each cultivar with different levels of vigor were provided. The results showed that the mean emergence time increased with decreasing seed vigor. However, the highest percentage of seedling emergence was obtained for the high quality seed lot and decreased with decreasing seed lot vigor. Decreasing seed vigor led to significant reduction in ground cover of both cultivars; mainly due to poor stand establishment. Ground cover of Licord was higher than that of Okapi. Plants from high vigor seed lots of both cultivars had higher leaf chlorophyll content index at early stages of growth, compared with those from low quality seed lots. Grains per plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant for plants from deteriorated seed lots were higher than those from high-vigor seed lot. However, these advantages in individual plant performance were not sufficient to compensate for low stand establishment. Consequently, grain yield per unit area significantly improved with increasing seed vigor of oilseed rape cultivars, even within the range of acceptable germination.

  4. Effects of Boron Nutrition on 45Ca Retranslocation and Distribution in Rape (Brassica napus L. ) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huo-yan; WANG Yun-hua; WU Li-shu; DU Chang-wen; XU Fang-sun

    2003-01-01

    Using tracer techniques with the radioisotope 45Ca, the effects of boron supply from soil andnutrient solution on the retranslocation of 45 Ca from leaves to other parts of rape plants were studied. Resultsindicated that only a small portion of foliar-applied 45Ca could be retranslocated to other parts of the rapeplant. There was no pronounced effect of boron level in the soil on 45 Ca retranslocation. Increasing boron con-centrations in the nutrient solution significantly reduced 45 Ca radioactivity in root and stem, but increased 45 Cauptake and 45 Ca translocation to the upper leaves of rape plants. It was suggested that 45 Ca absorbed by newlydeveloped roots was easily distributed to upper leaves of rape plants. Boron may alter distribution of calciumvia its effect on root development or growth of newly developed roots.

  5. Isparta Koşullarında Kanola (Brassica napus L. Çeşitlerinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Baydar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kanola (kolza, tohumlarında %40-50 arasında yağ bulunan, oleik asitçe zengin değerli bir yağ bitkisidir. Bu araştırmada; 00 tipi (yağında %2'den az erusik asit ve 1 gram kuru küspesinde 30 μmol'ün altında glukosinolat içeren 15 kanola çeşidinin (Bienvenue, Bristol, Cascade, Colombus, Eurol, Honk, Liborius, Ninetta, Lirawell, Monitta, Quinta, Semu-86/225 Na, Synergy, Tarok ve Westar Isparta koşullarında verim ve kalite özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Tarla denemesi, 2000/2001 yetiştirme sezonunda Süleyman Demirel Üniveristesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü deneme tarlasında Tesadüf Blokları Deneme Deseni'nde 3 tekerrürlü olarak kurulmuştur. Araştırmada, soxhlet ve GC teknikleri yardımıyla yağ oranları ve yağ asitleri kompozisyonları (palmitik asit, stearik asit, oleik asit, linoleik asit ve linolenik asit saptanmıştır. En yüksek tohum verimi Tarok (287.2 kg/da çeşidinden ve en düşük tohum verimi Bienvenue (218.0 kg/da çeşidinden elde edilmiştir. Kanola çeşitlerinin yağ oranı değerleri %35.4-44.4 arasında değişmiştir. Kanola yağında %5.3-7.0 arasında palmitik asit, %1.0-4.3 arasında stearik asit, %66.6-74.4 arasında oleik asit, %14.1-19.7 linoleik asit ve %1.8-6.0 arasında linolenik asit bulunduğu saptanmıştır. Hiçbir çeşidin yağında erusik asit varlığına rastlanmamıştır.

  6. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR and cotton–rapeseed (CR rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg− 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha− 1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR. In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha− 1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  7. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMERSON D. CHAMBÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  8. Intraspecific variability of floral nectar volume and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBertazzini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous angiosperms rely on pollinators to ensure efficient flower fertilization, offering a reward consisting of nourishing nectars produced by specialized floral cells, known as nectaries. Nectar components are believed to derive from phloem sap that is enzymatically processed and transformed within nectaries. An increasing body of evidence suggests that nectar composition, mainly amino acids, may influence pollinator attraction and fidelity. This notwithstanding, little is known about the range of natural variability in nectar content for crop species. Sugar and amino acid composition of nectar harvested from field-grown plants at the 63 to 65 phenological stage was determined for a set of 44 winter genotypes of rapeseed, a bee-pollinated crop. Significant differences were found for solute concentrations, and an even higher variability was evident for nectar volumes, resulting in striking differences when results were expressed on a single flower basis. The comparison of nectar and phloem sap from a subset of 8 varieties pointed out qualitative and quantitative diversities with respect to both sugars and amino acids. Notably, amino acid concentration in phloem sap was up to one hundred times higher than in nectar. Phloem sap showed a much more uniform composition, suggesting that nectar variability depends mainly on nectary metabolism. A better understanding of the basis of nectar production would allow an improvement of seed set efficiency, as well as hive management and honey production.

  9. Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hongli; Guo, Tingting; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-10-01

    Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops.

  10. Heterosis of Double Low Self-incompatibility in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jin-xiong; FU Ting-dong; YANG Guang-sheng

    2002-01-01

    66 F1 hybrids, produced by 3 double low self-incompatible lines and 22 varieties with a North Carolina Ⅱ (NCⅡ) crossing design, were tested for their heterosis in Wuhan, China during two growing seasons from 1999- 2001. The results showed that significant differences were found between F1s and their parents for yield per plant and seed oil content. Mid-parent heterosis of these two characters ranged from 5.50%-64.11% and from 1.55% -7.44% respectively. Heterosis for seed yield per plant was greater than that of seed oil content. For yield components, heterosis of total number of siliques per plant was the highest, followed by seed number per silique and 1 000 seeds weight. Significant genotype-by-year interaction was found for seed yield per plant. Results from correlation and combining ability analysis indicated that parental effects on its F1 hybrid depended on characters, seed yield per plant was affected by both additive and non-additive effects, and seed oil content was affected mainly by additive effect. When designing hybrid programme, parents might be selected by GCAs and variances of SCAs of parents for the characters affected by both additive and non-additive effects, and by the sum of GCAs of female and male parents for the characters mainly affected by additive effects.

  11. Pollination of rapeseed (Brassica napus) by Africanized honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on two sowing dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambó, Emerson D; De Oliveira, Newton T E; Garcia, Regina C; Duarte-Júnior, José B; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia C; Toledo, Vagner A

    2014-12-01

    In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433), three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees) and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011). The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  12. Critical Period of Weed Control in Three Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    HAMZEI, Javad; NASAB, Adel Dabbagh Mohammady; KHOIE, Farrokh Rahimzadeh; JAVANSHIR, Aziz

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. Three winter oilseed rape cultivars (Okapi, Licord, and SLM046) with 12 weed interference durations were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The experiments consisted of 2 sets of treatments. In the first set, the crop was kept weed-free until the growth stages of 4-leaf, 8-leaf, stem...

  13. Nutrient and heavy metal content of rapeseed (Brassica napus irrigated with treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Lateef E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted in winter season in two sites located about 20km north east of Cairo; Gabal Asfar farm (fertile soil and Berka site (virgin soil.The trials aimed to evaluate the impact of rapeseed irrigation methods with secondary treated wastewater on yield ,quality trace elements and heavy metal content. The results clearly showed that rapeseed crop was not suited to the virgin soil as the crop produced 10% of the seed yield achieved at the fertile soil. There were significant increases in seed yield, straw and biological yields due to NPK application .Oil yields were 0.312 and 2.304 t ha-1 on virgin and fertile soils, respectively. Treated wastewater supplied rapeseed with 35,43and 156% of the recommended requirements of N, P and K, respectively in the virgin soil while the corresponding values in the fertile soil were 79,96 and191% for N,P and K, respectively. Trace elements and heavy metal additions from wastewater were very small Seed analysis indicated that the ranges of heavy metals were within the normal ranges expected and were far below levels that would be of concern due to the high pH of both sites.

  14. Amplification of the active site of BnLIP3 gene of Brassica napus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisateur

    important role in plant growth. In this study, we ... germination and increase concomitantly with the disap- pearance of ... production of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, leathers, .... Roche Applied Science, Barcelona, Spain) and a 2.5 µl reverse.

  15. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Ren; Hui; Li; Jianwei; Lu; Rongyan; Bu; Xiaokun; Li; Rihuan; Cong; Mingxing; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed(RR) and cotton–rapeseed(CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization,seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen(N)fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg- 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha- 1was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate(EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha- 1lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  16. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ren; Hui Li; Jianwei Lu; Rongyan Bu; Xiaokun Li; Rihuan Cong; Mingxing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR) and cotton–rapeseed (CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N) fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg−1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha−1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha−1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  17. Evaluation of Genetic and Epigenetic Modification in Rapeseed(Brassica napus) Induced by Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Salinity is an important limiting environmental factor for rapeseed production worldwide.In this study,we assessed the extent and pattern of DNA damages caused by salt stress in rapeseed plants.Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)analysis revealed dose-related increases in sequence alterations in plantlets exposed to 10-1 000 mmol/L sodium chloride.In addition.Individual plantlets exposed to the same salt concentration showed different AFLP and selected region amplified polymorphism banding patterns.These observations suggested that DNA mutation in response to salt stress was random In the genome and the effect was dose-dependant.DNA methylation changes in response to salt stress were also evaluated by methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP).Three types of MSAP bands were recovered.Type Ⅰ bands were observed with both isoschizomers Hpa Ⅱ and Msp Ⅰ, while type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ bands were observed only with Hpa Ⅱ and Msp Ⅰ,respectively.Extensive changes in types of MSAP bands after NaCl treatments were observed,including appearance and disappearance of type Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ bands,as well as exchanges between either type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ or type Ⅰand type Ⅲ bands.An Increase of 0.2-17.6% cytosine methylated CCGG sites were detected in plantlets exposed to 10-200 mmol/L salt compared to the control,and these changes included both de novo methylation and demethylation events Nine methylation related fragments were also recovered and sequenced,and one sharing a high sequence homology with the ethylene responsive element binding factor was identified.These results demonstrated clear DNA genetic and epigenetic alterations in plantlets as a response to salt stress,and these changes may suggest a mechanism for plants adaptation under salt stress.

  18. Researches of Optimum Leaf Area Index Dynamicmodels for Rape(brassica Napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhao, Suolao; Wang, Baoqing; Jin, Zhiqing; Zhu, Dawei; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Xiufang

    The objectives of developing optimum leaf area index dynamic models for rape (OLAIDM) was to develop Rape Cultivation Simulation-Optimization- Decision Making System(Rape-CSODS) , to design its planting , to regulate and control its growth and development, and to fulfill its high yield, good quality, high benefits and standard production eventually. The OLAIDM were developed based on field experiments with 3 cultivars, 6 sowing dates, 2 types of plant pattern and 4 sites from 2002 to 2007 in middle and lower valley of Yangtze river in China and relative data from references of rape researches, employed ideas of R/WCSODS (Rice/Wheat Cultivation Simulation- Optimization-Decision Making System), and in the same time, the OLAIMR and its parameters also were assessed, calibrated and tested. The average absolute deviation(de), correlation coefficients(r) and the standard errors of their absolute deviation(Sde) of between the observed and simulated values for LAI of two cultivars in Wuhan and Nanjing were -0.03~0.1533, 0.9707~0.9997 and0.1332~0.4032, respectively. 1:1 line of them were in Fig. 1 to 4. Multi-factors such as the ramification types, cultivars, and light et al. were taken into account in this study, therefore, the OLAIDM with general adaptability, clear yield aim, mechanism, and dynamic characteristic can simulate optimum LAI dynamic for rape under different sites, cultivars and ramification types, and yielding levels.

  19. Identification of cytoplasm types in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) accessions by a multiplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H X; Li, Z J; Hu, S W; Sun, G L; Chang, J J; Zhang, Z H

    2010-08-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has widely been used as an efficient pollination control system in rapeseed hybrid production. Identification of cytoplasm type of rapeseed accessions is becoming the most important basic work for hybrid-rapeseed breeding. In this study, we report a simple multiplex PCR method to distinguish the existing common cytoplasm resources, Pol, Nap, Cam, Ogu and Ogu-NWSUAF cytoplasm, in rapeseed. Cytoplasm type of 35 F(1) hybrids and 140 rapeseed open pollinated varieties or breeding lines in our rapeseed breeding programme were tested by this method. The results indicated that 10 of 35 F(1) hybrids are the Nap, and 25 the Pol cytoplasm type, which is consistent with the information provided by the breeders. Out of 140 accessions tested, 100 (71.4%), 21 (15%) and 19 (13.6%) accessions possess Nap, Cam and Pol cytoplasm, respectively. All 19 accessions with Pol cytoplasm are from China. Pedigree analysis indicated that these accessions with Pol cytoplasm were either restorers for Pol CMS, including Shaan 2C, Huiyehui, 220, etc. or derived from hybrids with Pol CMS as female parent. Our molecular results are consistent with those of the classical testcross, suggesting the reliability of this method. The multiplex PCR assay method can be applied to CMS "three-line" breeding, selection and validation of hybrid rapeseed.

  20. Use of differential scanning calorimetry to detect canola oil (Brassica napus L.) adulterated with lard stearin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohammed Nazrim; Rana, Sohel

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to detect and quantify lard stearin (LS) content in canola oil (CaO) using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Authentic samples of CaO were obtained from a reliable supplier and the adulterant LS were obtained through a fractional crystallization procedure as reported previously. Pure CaO samples spiked with LS in levels ranging from 5 to 15% (w/w) were analyzed using DSC to obtain their cooling and heating profiles. The results showed that samples contaminated with LS at 5% (w/w) level can be detected using characteristic contaminant peaks appearing in the higher temperature regions (0 to 70°C) of the cooling and heating curves. Pearson correlation analysis of LS content against individual DSC parameters of the adulterant peak namely peak temperature, peak area, peak onset temperature indicated that there were strong correlations between these with the LS content of the CaO admixtures. When these three parameters were engaged as variables in the execution of the stepwise regression procedure, predictive models for determination of LS content in CaO were obtained. The predictive models obtained with single DSC parameter had relatively lower coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and higher standard error than the models obtained using two DSC parameters in combination. This study concluded that the predictive models obtained with peak area and peak onset temperature of the adulteration peak would be more accurate for prediction of LS content in CaO based on the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) value) and smallest standard error.

  1. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic