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Sample records for brassica napus roots

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Brassica napus Root and Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Drought Stress

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    Chunqing Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major abiotic factors affecting Brassica napus (B. napus productivity. In order to identify genes of potential importance to drought stress and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding the responses of B. napus to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of B. napus plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. In this work, a relatively drought tolerant B. napus line, Q2, identified in our previous study, was used. Four cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of control and dehydration-treated root and leaf were sequenced by Illumina technology. A total of 6018 and 5377 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in root and leaf. In addition, 1745 genes exhibited a coordinated expression profile between the two tissues under drought stress, 1289 (approximately 74% of which showed an inverse relationship, demonstrating different regulation patterns between the root and leaf. The gene ontology (GO enrichment test indicated that up-regulated genes in root were mostly involved in “stimulus” “stress” biological process, and activated genes in leaf mainly functioned in “cell” “cell part” components. Furthermore, a comparative network related to plant hormone signal transduction and AREB/ABF, AP2/EREBP, NAC, WRKY and MYC/MYB transcription factors (TFs provided a view of different stress tolerance mechanisms between root and leaf. Some of the DEGs identified may be candidates for future research aimed at detecting drought-responsive genes and will be useful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in root and leaf of B. napus.

  2. Scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol removal from aqueous solutions using Brassica napus hairy roots

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    Angelini, Vanina A. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Orejas, Joaquin [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Medina, Maria I. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina); Agostini, Elizabeth, E-mail: eagostini@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, FCEFQN, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto, 5800 Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields}B. napus hairy roots were effectively used for a large scale removal of 2,4-DCP. {yields} High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). {yields} Roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles with high efficiency. {yields} Post removal solutions showed no toxicity. {yields} This method could be used for continuous and safe treatment of phenolic effluents. - Abstract: Chlorophenols are harmful pollutants, frequently found in the effluents of several industries. For this reason, many environmental friendly technologies are being explored for their removal from industrial wastewaters. The aim of the present work was to study the scale up of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) removal from synthetic wastewater, using Brassica napus hairy roots and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in a discontinuous stirred tank reactor. We have analyzed some operational conditions, because the scale up of such process was poorly studied. High removal efficiencies were obtained (98%) in a short time (30 min). When roots were re-used for six consecutive cycles, 2,4-DCP removal efficiency decreased from 98 to 86%, in the last cycle. After the removal process, the solutions obtained from the reactor were assessed for their toxicity using an acute test with Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Results suggested that the treated solution was less toxic than the parent solution, because neither inhibition of lettuce germination nor effects in root and hypocotyl lengths were observed. Therefore, we provide evidence that Brassica napus hairy roots could be effectively used to detoxify solutions containing 2,4-DCP and they have considerable potential for a large scale removal of this pollutant. Thus, this study could help to design a method for continuous and safe treatment of effluents containing chlorophenols.

  3. Graphene oxide modulates root growth of Brassica napus L. and regulates ABA and IAA concentration.

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    Cheng, Fan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Lu, Guang-Yuan; Zhang, Xue-Kun; Xie, Ling-Li; Yuan, Cheng-Fei; Xu, Ben-Bo

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have proven that nanomaterials have a significant effect on plant growth and development. To better understand the effects of nanomaterials on plants, Zhongshuang 11 was treated with different concentrations of graphene oxide. The results indicated that 25-100mg/l graphene oxide treatment resulted in shorter seminal root length compared with the control samples. The fresh root weight decreased when treated with 50-100mg/l graphene oxide. The graphene oxide treatment had no significant effect on the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Treatment with 50mg/l graphene oxide increased the transcript abundance of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (NCED, AAO, and ZEP) and some genes involved in IAA biosynthesis (ARF2, ARF8, IAA2, and IAA3), but inhibited the transcript levels of IAA4 and IAA7. The graphene oxide treatment also resulted in a higher ABA content, but a lower IAA content compared with the control samples. The results indicated that graphene oxide modulated the root growth of Brassica napus L. and affected ABA and IAA biosynthesis and concentration.

  4. Effect of arabinogalactan proteins from the root caps of pea and Brassica napus on Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore chemotaxis and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannesan, Marc Antoine; Durand, Caroline; Burel, Carole; Gangneux, Christophe; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Laval, Karine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Driouich, Azeddine; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2012-08-01

    Root tips of many plant species release a number of border, or border-like, cells that are thought to play a major role in the protection of root meristem. However, little is currently known on the structure and function of the cell wall components of such root cells. Here, we investigate the sugar composition of the cell wall of the root cap in two species: pea (Pisum sativum), which makes border cells, and Brassica napus, which makes border-like cells. We find that the cell walls are highly enriched in arabinose and galactose, two major residues of arabinogalactan proteins. We confirm the presence of arabinogalactan protein epitopes on root cap cell walls using immunofluorescence microscopy. We then focused on these proteoglycans by analyzing their carbohydrate moieties, linkages, and electrophoretic characteristics. The data reveal (1) significant structural differences between B. napus and pea root cap arabinogalactan proteins and (2) a cross-link between these proteoglycans and pectic polysaccharides. Finally, we assessed the impact of root cap arabinogalactan proteins on the behavior of zoospores of Aphanomyces euteiches, an oomycetous pathogen of pea roots. We find that although the arabinogalactan proteins of both species induce encystment and prevent germination, the effects of both species are similar. However, the arabinogalactan protein fraction from pea attracts zoospores far more effectively than that from B. napus. This suggests that root arabinogalactan proteins are involved in the control of early infection of roots and highlights a novel role for these proteoglycans in root-microbe interactions.

  5. Improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and high efficiency of root formation from hypocotyl meristem of spring Brassica napus 'Precocity' cultivar.

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    Liu, X X; Lang, S R; Su, L Q; Liu, X; Wang, X F

    2015-12-14

    Rape seed (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil seed crops in the world. Genetic manipulation of rapeseed requires a suitable tissue culture system and an efficient method for plant regeneration, as well as an efficient transformation procedure. However, development of transgenic B. napus has been problematic, and current studies are limited to cultivated varieties. In this study, we report a protocol for regeneration of transgenic rape after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyls from the spring B. napus 'Precocity' cultivar. We analyzed the effects of plant growth regulators in the medium on regeneration. Additionally, factors affecting the transformation efficiency, including seedling age, Agrobacterium concentration, infection time, and co-cultivation time, were assessed by monitoring GUS expression. Results from these experiments revealed that transformation was optimized when the meristematic parts of the hypocotyls were taken from 8 day-old seedlings, cultured on Murashinge and Skoog basal media containing 0.1 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid and 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine, and incubated in Agrobacterium suspension (OD600 = 0.5) for 3 to 5 min, followed by 2 days of co-cultivation. Integration of T-DNA into the plant genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), b-glucuronidase histochemical staining, and quantitative real-time PCR. The protocols developed for regeneration, transformation, and rooting described in this study could help to accelerate the development of transgenic spring rape varieties with novel features.

  6. Nitrogen Use Efficiency Is Mediated by Vacuolar Nitrate Sequestration Capacity in Roots of Brassica napus[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Liang; Song, Hai-Xing; Liao, Qiong; Yu, Yin; Lepo, Joe Eugene; Liu, Qiang; Rong, Xiang-Min; Tian, Chang; Zeng, Jing; Guan, Chun-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in crop plants is an important breeding target to reduce excessive use of chemical fertilizers, with substantial benefits to farmers and the environment. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), allocation of more NO3− to shoots was associated with higher NUE; however, the commonality of this process across plant species have not been sufficiently studied. Two Brassica napus genotypes were identified with high and low NUE. We found that activities of V-ATPase and V-PPase, the two tonoplast proton-pumps, were significantly lower in roots of the high-NUE genotype (Xiangyou15) than in the low-NUE genotype (814); and consequently, less vacuolar NO3− was retained in roots of Xiangyou15. Moreover, NO3− concentration in xylem sap, [15N] shoot:root (S:R) and [NO3−] S:R ratios were significantly higher in Xiangyou15. BnNRT1.5 expression was higher in roots of Xiangyou15 compared with 814, while BnNRT1.8 expression was lower. In both B. napus treated with proton pump inhibitors or Arabidopsis mutants impaired in proton pump activity, vacuolar sequestration capacity (VSC) of NO3− in roots substantially decreased. Expression of NRT1.5 was up-regulated, but NRT1.8 was down-regulated, driving greater NO3− long-distance transport from roots to shoots. NUE in Arabidopsis mutants impaired in proton pumps was also significantly higher than in the wild type col-0. Taken together, these data suggest that decrease in VSC of NO3− in roots will enhance transport to shoot and essentially contribute to higher NUE by promoting NO3− allocation to aerial parts, likely through coordinated regulation of NRT1.5 and NRT1.8. PMID:26757990

  7. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

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    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  8. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of copper by Brassica napus L.

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    Zaheer, Ihsan Elahi; Ali, Shafaqat; Rizwan, Muhammad; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Gill, Rafaqa Ali; Najeeb, Ullah; Iqbal, Naeem; Ahmad, Rehan

    2015-10-01

    Use of organic acids for promoting heavy metals phytoextraction is gaining worldwide attention. The present study investigated the influence of citric acid (CA) in enhancing copper (Cu) uptake by Brassica napus L. seedlings. 6 Weeks old B. napus seedlings were exposed to different levels of copper (Cu, 0, 50 and 100µM) alone or with CA (2.5mM) in a nutrient medium for 40 days. Exposure to elevated Cu levels (50 and 100µM) significantly reduced the growth, biomass production, chlorophyll content, gas exchange attributes and soluble proteins of B. napus seedlings. In addition, Cu toxicity increased the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) and electrolyte leakage (EL) in leaf and root tissues of B. napus. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) in root and shoot tissues of B. napus were increased in response to lower Cu concentration (50µM) but increased under higher Cu concentration (100µM). Addition of CA into nutrient medium significantly alleviated Cu toxicity effects on B. napus seedlings by improving photosynthetic capacity and ultimately plant growth. Increased activities of antioxidant enzymes in CA-treated plants seems to play a role in capturing of stress-induced reactive oxygen species as was evident from lower level of H2O2, MDA and EL in CA-treated plants. Increasing Cu concentration in the nutrient medium significantly increased Cu concentration in in B. napus tissues. Cu uptake was further increased by CA application. These results suggested that CA might be a useful strategy for increasing phytoextraction of Cu from contaminated soils.

  9. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

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    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  10. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) identifies seedling root traits linked to variation in seed yield and nutrient capture in field-grown oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

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    Thomas, C. L.; Graham, N. S.; Hayden, R.; Meacham, M. C.; Neugebauer, K.; Nightingale, M.; Dupuy, L. X.; Hammond, J. P.; White, P. J.; Broadley, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Root traits can be selected for crop improvement. Techniques such as soil excavations can be used to screen root traits in the field, but are limited to genotypes that are well-adapted to field conditions. The aim of this study was to compare a low-cost, high-throughput root phenotyping (HTP) technique in a controlled environment with field performance, using oilseed rape (OSR; Brassica napus) varieties. Methods Primary root length (PRL), lateral root length and lateral root density (LRD) were measured on 14-d-old seedlings of elite OSR varieties (n = 32) using a ‘pouch and wick’ HTP system (∼40 replicates). Six field experiments were conducted using the same varieties at two UK sites each year for 3 years. Plants were excavated at the 6- to 8-leaf stage for general vigour assessments of roots and shoots in all six experiments, and final seed yield was determined. Leaves were sampled for mineral composition from one of the field experiments. Key Results Seedling PRL in the HTP system correlated with seed yield in four out of six (r = 0·50, 0·50, 0·33, 0·49; P root traits might therefore be of limited additional selection value, given that vigour can be measured easily on shoots/canopies. In contrast, LRD cannot be assessed easily in the field and, if LRD can improve nutrient uptake, then it may be possible to use HTP systems to screen this trait in both elite and more genetically diverse, non-field-adapted OSR. PMID:27052342

  11. Oil Body Biogenesis during Brassica napus Embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing He; Yan Wu

    2009-01-01

    Although the oil body is known to be an important membrane enclosed compartment for oil storage in seeds, we have little understanding about its biogenesis during embryogenesis. In the present study we investigated the oil body emergence and variations in Brassica napus cv. Topas. The results demonstrate that the oil bodies could be detected already at the heart stage, at the same time as the embryos began to tum green, and the starch grains accumulated in the chloroplast stroma. In comparison, we have studied the development of oil bodies between Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col) and the low-seed-oil mutant wrinkled1-3. We observed that the oil body development in the embryos of Col is similar to that of B. napus cv. Topas, and that the size of the oil bodies was obviously smaller in the embryos of wrinkled1-3. Our results suggest that the oil body biogenesis might be coupled with the embryo chloroplast.

  12. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Brassica napus and Brassica oleracea.

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    Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used for gene delivery in plants. However, commercial cultivars of crop plants are often recalcitrant to transformation because the protocols established for model varieties are not directly applicable to them. The genus Brassica includes the oil seed crop, canola (B. napus), and vegetable crop varieties of Brassica oleracea, including cauliflower, broccoli and cabbage. Here, we describe an efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using seedling explants that is applicable to various Brassica varieties; this protocol has been used to genetically engineer commercial cultivars of canola and cauliflower in our laboratory. Young seedling explants are inoculated with Agrobacterium on the day of explant preparation. Explants are grown for 1 week in the absence of a selective agent before being transferred to a selective medium to recover transgenic shoots. Transgenic shoots are subjected to an additional round of selection on medium containing higher levels of the selective agent and a low-carbohydrate source; this helps to eliminate false-positive plants. Use of seedling explants offers flexible experiment planning and a convenient explant source. Using this protocol, transgenic plants can be obtained in 2.5 to 3.5 months.

  13. Transgene directionally integrated into C-genome of Brassica napus

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    FANG Xiaoping; WANG Zhuan; LI Jun; LUO Lixia; HU Qiong

    2006-01-01

    Integration of a transgene into a C-genome chromosome plays an important role in reducing ecological risk of transgenic Brassica napus.To obtain C-genome transgenic B. napus, herbicide-resistant bar gene was firstly transferred into B.oleracea var. a/bog/abra mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Then using the transgenic B. oleracea as paternal plants and 8 nontransgenic varieties of B. rapa as maternal plants, Cgenome transgenic B. napus with bar gene was artificially resynthesized by means of ovary culture and chromosome doubling. Among 67 lines of the resynthesized B. napus, 31 were positive, and 36 were negative according to PCR test for bar gene. At least 2 plants from each line were kept for PPT spray confirmation. The result was in consistence with the PCR test. Genomic Southern blotting of three randomly chosen lines also showed that bar gene had been integrated into the genome of resynthesized B. napus lines.

  14. Inheritance of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) RAPD markers in a backcross progeny with Brassica campestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, T.R.; Jensen, J.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1996-01-01

    Different cultivars/transgenic lines of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) were crossed (as females) with different cultivars/populations of Brassica campestris. All cross combinations produced seed, with an average seed set per pollination of 9.8. Backcrossing of selected interspecific hybrids (as...

  15. Distribution, Transportation and Cytolocalization of Neodymium in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏幼璋

    2001-01-01

    Observation with the transmission electronic microscopy shows that Nd can not enter into the cytoplasm of oilseed rape (brassica napus L.) in solution culture. It combines with the cell wall or amasses in the intercellular space. Nd accumulates in root tip after it enters into the plants, while only a small amount of Nd is transferred to the stem and leaf via apoplasm, and the leaf contains the least of Nd. Such observations are consistent with the analytical results of Nd distribution in rape tissues in soil culture experiment. It suggests that the physiological effects of Nd in plants might mainly function on plasmalemma of root system.

  16. Citric acid assisted phytoremediation of cadmium by Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Sana; Ali, Shafaqat; Noureen, Shamaila; Mahmood, Khalid; Farid, Mujahid; Ishaque, Wajid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad

    2014-08-01

    Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and cost-effective technique for removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids from contaminated soils by the roots of high biomass producing plant species with subsequent transport to aerial parts. Lower metal bioavailability often limits the phytoextraction. Organic chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd by the application of citric acid. For this purpose, plants were grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. Results indicated that Cd supply significantly decreased the plant growth, biomass, pigments, photosynthetic characteristics and protein contents which were accompanied by a significant increase in Cd concentration, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and decrease in antioxidant capacity. The effects were dose dependent with obvious effects at higher Cd concentration. Application of CA significantly enhanced Cd uptake and its accumulation in plant roots, stems and leaves. Citric acid alleviated Cd toxicity by increasing plant biomass and photosynthetic and growth parameters alone and in combination with Cd and by reducing oxidative stress as observed by reduction in MDA and H₂O₂ production and decreased electrolyte leakage induced by Cd stress. Application of CA also enhanced the antioxidant enzymes activity alone and under Cd stress. Thus, the data indicate that exogenous CA application can increase Cd uptake and minimize Cd stress in plants and may be beneficial in accelerating the phytoextraction of Cd through hyper-accumulating plants such as Brassica napus L.

  17. RAPESEED (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris) A NEW OILSEED CROP FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KURAL, Aynur

    1995-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus and Brassica campestris L.) is an important oil crop in many parts of the world. Rapeseed is well-adapted to cool, moist growing conditions and requires fewer heat units than either soybean or sunflower for maturity. Rapeseed oil can be used for human consumption (Canola) and ındustrial purposes. Oil from Canola cultivars must contain less than 2% erucic acid compared with 40-45% in industrial use rape varieties. The meal remaining after oil extraction of Canola seed ...

  18. Effects of the endophyte Acremonium alternatum on oilseed rape (Brassica napus development and clubroot progression

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    SUSANN AUER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae infects economically important Brassica crops such as oilseed rape and vegetable brassicas. Clubroot results in abnormally growing roots and restricts the flow of water and nutrients to the upper plant parts, thereby inducing wilting. Yield loss affects about half the percentage of infected plants. Due to its complex and well-adapted life cycle the pathogen is difficult to control by chemical and cultural means and therefore continues to spread around the globe. Infested fields can no longer be used effectively for cultivation of crop plants for at least the next ten years. Despite costly breeding of resistant cultivars, recent research leans towards alternative, low-impact and environmentally friendly methods to control clubroot. To this end we have previously identified the endophyte Acremonium alternatum, a known biological control agent in several countries, to show promising antagonistic effects in clubroot-infected A. thaliana and Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa. Here, we will describe its effect on the growth, development and clubroot control of oilseed rape (Brassica napus. While the clubroot symptoms were not clearly reduced after co-inoculation with A. alternatum and P. brassicae on oilseed rape roots, the aboveground plant parts were delayed in senescence and produced more seeds, which is indicative of an increase in yield after A. alternatum treatment. The long-term goal of this work is to contribute to a fundamental understanding of endophyte-plant interactions and an effective reduction of clubroot to be used in integrated pest management for oilseed rape and other cabbage varieties.

  19. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

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    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  20. Valor nutricional e potencial nutracêutico de inflorescências de couve-nabo (Brassica napus var napus) e couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleraceae var costata).

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Carvalho, Ana Maria; FERREIRA, ISABEL C.F.R.

    2012-01-01

    Na Península Ibérica as verduras (silvestres ou tradicionalmente cultivadas) têm sido alimentos importantes na dieta humana. O valor nutricional de verduras e os seus benefícios para a saúde têm sido reconhecidos como importantes alvos de investigação. Os grelos, inflorescências da couve-nabo (Brassica napus L. var. napus) e os espigos, inflorescências da couve-tronchuda (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC.) são exemplos de espécies tradicionalmente cultivadas e amplamente consumidas nas re...

  1. Response of Nitrate Metabolism in Seedlings of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) to Low Oxygen Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chang-bing; XIE Yu-yun; HOU Jia-jia; FU You-qiang; SHEN Hong; LIAO Xing

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the response of nitrate metabolism in seedlings of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to low oxygen stress (LOS), two cultivars were studied at different light, LOS time and exogenous nitrate concentrations under hydroponic stress. Results show that N-uptake and dry matter of rape seedlings were decreased after LOS stress while nitrate accumulation (NA) under LOS was induced by darkness. Nitrate accumulation peaked at 3 d while root activity (RA, deifned as dehydrogenase activity) decreased with prolonged waterlogging exposure. Exogenous nitrate signiifcantly elevated NA and RA. Tungstate (TS) and LOS inhibited nitrate reductase (NR) activity while NR transcription and activity were enhanced by exogenous nitrate. Low oxygen stress stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) slightly, but inhibited that of catalase (CAT). B. napus L. Zhongshuang 10 (ZS10), a LOS tolerant cultivar, displayed smaller decrease upon dry matter under LOS, higher NA in darkness and lower NA in light than B. napus L. Ganlan CC (GAC), a LOS sensitive variety. ZS10 had lower NA and higher RA after waterlogging and exogenous nitrate treatment, and higher NR activity under TS inhibition than GAC, but the activity of antioxidant enzymes did not change under LOS. The results indicate that nitrate metabolism involved tolerance of rape seedlings to LOS, with lower accumulation and higher reduction of nitrate being related to higher LOS tolerance of rape seedlings exposed to waterlogging.

  2. Molecular regulation and genetic improvement of seed oil content in Brassica napus L.

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    Wei HUA,Jing LIU,Hanzhong WANG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As an important oil crop and a potential bioenergy crop, Brassica napus L. is becoming a model plant for basic research on seed lipid biosynthesis as well as seed oil content, which has always been the key breeding objective. In this review, we present current progress in understanding of the regulation of oil content in B. napus, including genetics, biosynthesis pathway, transcriptional regulation, maternal effects and QTL analysis. Furthermore, the history of breeding for high oil content in B. napus is summarized and the progress in breeding ultra-high oil content lines is described. Finally, prospects for breeding high oil content B. napus cultivars are outlined.

  3. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Yang, Zhi Min, E-mail: zmyang@njau.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus.

  4. Indications of selenium protection against cadmium and lead toxicity in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the beneficial role of selenium (Se in protecting oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. plants from cadmium (Cd+2 and lead (Pb+2 toxicity. Exogenous Se markedly reduced Cd and Pb concentration in both roots and shoots. Supplementation of the medium with Se (5, 10 and 15 mg kg-1 alleviated the negative effect of Cd and Pb on growth and led to a decrease in oxidative damages caused by Cd and Pb. Furthermore, Se enhanced superoxide free radicals (O2-, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation, but decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Meanwhile, the presence of Cd and Pb in the medium affected Se speciation in shoots. The results suggest that Se could alleviate Cd and Pb toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in oilseed rape plant.

  5. [Somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuanli; Yang, Zhixin; Gui, Xuemei; Liu, Yating; Mao, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Guoyin; Lin, Liangbin

    2008-05-01

    In order to expand gene resources and improve Brassica napus cultivars, protoplasts isolated from hypocotyls of Brassica napus cv. Huayou No. 3 and Eruca sativa were fused by PEG-high Ca2+-high pH. Fusion frequency was up to 18.2% when fusion system contained 5 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL, and when PEG concentration of fusion agents were 35% and when fusion time was 25 min. Then the fused protoplasts were cultured by the method of thin liquid layer at the density of 1 x 10(5) protoplasts/mL in improved KM8p medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L 6-BA, 200 mg/L inositol, 300 mg/L protein hydrolysate, and the combinations of 0.1 mol/L sucrose and 0.2 mol/L glucose and 0.2 mol/L mannitol for osmotic regulator, the frequency of callus regeneration was up to 6.8%. When the micro-calli transferred to the proliferation medium that contained B5 salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.2 mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.2 mg/L 6-BA and 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8, have grown up to 3-5 mm of diameter, the calli were transferred to the differentiation medium that contained MS salts, 0.087 mol/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L IAA, 0.8 mg/L 6-BA, 0.8% Agar, pH5.8, the shoots were regenerated in 4 weeks and its frequency was up to 32.8%. Then 2-3 cm shoots were transferred to 1/2 MS medium with 0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2mg/L 6-BA, plantlets were obtained in 14 days and the plantlet frequency was up to 88%. When the protoplasts of Eruca sativa were treated with UV radiation for 2 minutes calli and plantlets have been regenerated, treated for 4 min only calli have been regenerated, and treated for more than 5 min calli have not been regenerated. The callus regeneration and callus proliferation and plant regeneration from symmetric fusion were more than from asymmetric fusion. 16 hybrid plantlets have been regenerated on 21 piece of hybrid calli identified by cytology method.

  6. Characterization of heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape (Brassica napus) roots and their potential in promoting the growth and lead accumulation of rape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Xiafang [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: xfsheng604@sohu.com; Xia Juanjuan; Jiang Chunyu; He Linyan; Qian Meng [MOA Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2008-12-15

    Two lead (Pb)-resistant endophytic bacteria were isolated from rape roots grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils and characterized. A pot experiment was conducted for investigating the capability of the two isolates to promote the growth and Pb uptake of rape from Pb-amended soil. The two isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens G10 and Microbacterium sp. G16 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Strains G10 and G16 exhibited different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics and increased water-soluble Pb in solution and in Pb-added soil. Root elongation assays demonstrated increases in root elongation of inoculated rape seedlings compared to the control plants. Strain G16 produced indole acetic acid, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Increases in biomass production and total Pb uptake in the bacteria-inoculated plants were obtained compared to the control. The two strains could colonize the root interior and rhizosphere soil of rape after root inoculation. - Heavy metal-resistant endophytic bacteria from rape have the potential of promoting the growth and lead uptake of rape.

  7. Transcriptomic basis for drought-resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Cuiling; Chen, Hao; Song, Chunpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Daojie

    2017-01-01

    Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were fairly uniformly distributed on different chromosomes and their expression patterns are variety specific. Except commonly enriched in response to various stimuli or stresses, different categories of DEGs show specific enrichment in certain biological processes or pathways, which indicated the possibility of functional differences among the three categories. Network analysis revealed relationships among the 169 DEGs, annotated biological processes and pathways. The 169 DEGs can be classified into different functional categories via preferred pathways or biological processes. Some pathways might simultaneously involve a large number of shared DEGs, and these pathways are likely to cross-talk and have overlapping biological functions. Several members of the identified DEGs fit to drought stress signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR validations confirmed the reproducibility of the RNA-seq data. These investigations are profitable for the improvement of crop varieties through transgenic engineering. PMID:28091614

  8. Storage oil breakdown during embryo development of Brassica napus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Tansy Y P; Pike, Marilyn J; Rawsthorne, Stephen

    2005-05-01

    In this study it is shown that at least 10% of the major storage product of developing embryos of Brassica napus (L.), triacylglycerol, is lost during the desiccation phase of seed development. The metabolism of this lipid was studied by measurements of the fate of label from [1-(14)C]decanoate supplied to isolated embryos, and by measurements of the activities of enzymes of fatty acid catabolism. Measurements on desiccating embryos have been compared with those made on embryos during lipid accumulation and on germinating seedlings. Enzymes of beta-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were present in embryos during oil accumulation, and increased in activity and abundance as the seeds matured and became desiccated. Although the activities were less than those measured during germination, they were at least comparable to the in vivo rate of fatty acid synthesis in the embryo during development. The pattern of labelling, following metabolism of decanoate by isolated embryos, indicated a much greater involvement of the glyoxylate cycle during desiccation than earlier in oil accumulation, and showed that much of the (14)C-label from decanoate was released as CO(2) at both stages. Sucrose was not a product of decanoate metabolism during embryo development, and therefore lipid degradation was not associated with net gluconeogenic activity. These observations are discussed in the context of seed development, oil yield, and the synthesis of novel fatty acids in plants.

  9. Transcriptomic basis for drought-resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Yang, Cuiling; Chen, Hao; Song, Chunpeng; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Daojie

    2017-01-01

    Based on transcriptomic data from four experimental settings with drought-resistant and drought-sensitive cultivars under drought and well-watered conditions, statistical analysis revealed three categories encompassing 169 highly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to drought in Brassica napus L., including 37 drought-resistant cultivar-related genes, 35 drought-sensitive cultivar-related genes and 97 cultivar non-specific ones. We provide evidence that the identified DEGs were fairly uniformly distributed on different chromosomes and their expression patterns are variety specific. Except commonly enriched in response to various stimuli or stresses, different categories of DEGs show specific enrichment in certain biological processes or pathways, which indicated the possibility of functional differences among the three categories. Network analysis revealed relationships among the 169 DEGs, annotated biological processes and pathways. The 169 DEGs can be classified into different functional categories via preferred pathways or biological processes. Some pathways might simultaneously involve a large number of shared DEGs, and these pathways are likely to cross-talk and have overlapping biological functions. Several members of the identified DEGs fit to drought stress signal transduction pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Finally, quantitative real-time PCR validations confirmed the reproducibility of the RNA-seq data. These investigations are profitable for the improvement of crop varieties through transgenic engineering.

  10. Transfer of hygromycin resistance into Brassica napus using total DNA of a transgenic B. nigra line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, C; Köhler, F; Schieder, O

    1990-09-01

    The successful transfer of a marker gene (hpt gene) from Brassica nigra into B. napus via direct gene transfer was demonstrated. Total DNA was isolated from a hygromycin-resistant callus line, which contained three to five copies of the hpt gene. This line had been produced via direct gene transfer with the hygromycin resistance-conferring plasmid pGL2. The treatment of B. napus protoplasts with genomic DNA of B. nigra (HygR) resulted in relative transformation frequencies of 0.1-0.4%. Similar transformation rates were obtained in direct gene transfer experiments using B. napus protoplasts and plasmid pGL2.

  11. Identification of Polymorphisms Associated with Drought Adaptation QTL in Brassica napus by Resequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S. Fletcher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus is a globally important oilseed for which little is known about the genetics of drought adaptation. We previously mapped twelve quantitative trait loci (QTL underlying drought-related traits in a biparental mapping population created from a cross between winter and spring B. napus cultivars. Here we resequence the genomes of the mapping population parents to identify genetic diversity across the genome and within QTL regions. We sequenced each parental cultivar on the Illumina HiSeq platform to a minimum depth of 23 × and performed a reference based assembly in order to describe the molecular variation differentiating them at the scale of the genome, QTL and gene. Genome-wide patterns of variation were characterized by an overall higher single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP density in the A genome and a higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in the C genome. Nonsynonymous substitutions were used to categorize gene ontology terms differentiating the parent genomes along with a list of putative functional variants contained within each QTL. Marker assays were developed for several of the discovered polymorphisms within a pleiotropic QTL on chromosome A10. QTL analysis with the new, denser map showed the most associated marker to be that developed from an insertion/deletion polymorphism located in the candidate gene Bna.FLC.A10, and it was the only candidate within the QTL interval with observed polymorphism. Together, these results provide a glimpse of genome-wide variation differentiating annual and biennial B. napus ecotypes as well as a better understanding of the genetic basis of root and drought phenotypes.

  12. Growth temperature affects sensory quality and contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and sugars in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Tor J; Hagen, Sidsel F; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Mølmann, Jørgen A B

    2016-04-01

    Swede is a root vegetable grown under a range of growth conditions that may influence the product quality. The objective of this controlled climate study was to find the effect of growth temperature on sensory quality and the contents of glucosinolates, vitamin C and soluble sugars. High temperature (21 °C) enhanced the intensities of sensory attributes like pungent odour, bitterness, astringency and fibrousness, while low temperature (9 °C) was associated with acidic odour, sweet taste, crispiness and juiciness. Ten glucosinolates were quantified, with progoitrin as the dominant component followed by glucoberteroin, both with highest content at 21 °C. Vitamin C also had its highest content at 21 °C, while the total sugar content was lowest at this temperature. In conclusion, the study demonstrated clear effects of growth temperature on sensory quality and some chemical properties of swede and indicated a good eating quality of swedes grown at low temperatures.

  13. Induction and purification of chitinase in Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera infected with Phoma lingam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Giese, H.; Dalgaard Mikkelsen, J.

    1992-01-01

    A pathogen-induced chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) was isolated from cotyledons of oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Bienvenu) 8 d after inoculation with Phoma lingam. The purified chitinase has a molecular weight of 30 kDa, and an isoelectric point of approx. 9.1. A partial amino-acid sequence obtained...

  14. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  15. Cloning and characterization of a pathogen-induced chitinase in Brassica napus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.; Bojsen, K.; Collinge, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    A chitinase cDNA clone from rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera) was isolated. The cDNA clone, ChB4, represents a previously purified and characterized basic chitinase isozyme. The longest open reading frame in ChB4 encodes a polypeptide of 268 amino acids. This polypeptide consists of a 24...

  16. Origins of the amphiploid species Brassica napus L. investigated by chloroplast and nuclear molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allender Charlotte J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amphiploid species Brassica napus (oilseed rape, Canola is a globally important oil crop yielding food, biofuels and industrial compounds such as lubricants and surfactants. Identification of the likely ancestors of each of the two genomes (designated A and C found in B. napus would facilitate incorporation of novel alleles from the wider Brassica genepool in oilseed rape crop genetic improvement programmes. Knowledge of the closest extant relatives of the genotypes involved in the initial formation of B. napus would also allow further investigation of the genetic factors required for the formation of a stable amphiploid and permit the more efficient creation of fully fertile re-synthesised B. napus. We have used a combination of chloroplast and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the closest extant relatives of the original maternal progenitors of B. napus. This was based on a comprehensive sampling of the relevant genepools, including 83 accessions of A genome B. rapa L. (both wild and cultivated types, 94 accessions of B. napus and 181 accessions of C genome wild and cultivated B. oleracea L. and related species. Results Three chloroplast haplotypes occurred in B. napus. The most prevalent haplotype (found in 79% of accessions was not present within the C genome accessions but was found at low frequencies in B. rapa. Chloroplast haplotypes characteristic of B. napus were found in a small number of wild and weedy B. rapa populations, and also in two accessions of cultivated B. rapa 'brocoletto'. Whilst introgression of the B. napus chloroplast type in the wild and weedy B. rapa populations has been proposed by other studies, the presence of this haplotype within the two brocoletto accessions is unexplained. Conclusions The distribution of chloroplast haplotypes eliminate any of the C genome species as being the maternal ancestor of the majority of the B. napus accessions. The presence of multiple chloroplast

  17. Genome-wide identification of Brassica napus microRNAs and their targets in response to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhao Sheng; Song, Jian Bo; Yang, Zhi Min

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a distinct class of small RNAs in plants that not only regulate biological processes but also regulate response to environmental stresses. The toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) induces expression of several miRNAs in rapeseed (Brassica napus), but it is not known on a genome-wide scale how the expression of miRNAs and their target genes, is regulated by Cd. In this study, four small RNA libraries and four degradome libraries were constructed from Cd-treated and non-Cd-treated roots and shoots of B. napus seedlings. Using high-throughput sequencing, the study identified 84 conserved and non-conserved miRNAs (belonging to 37 miRNA families) from Cd-treated and non-treated B. napus, including 19 miRNA members that were not identified before. Some of the miRNAs were validated by RNA gel blotting. Most of the identified miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in roots/shoots or regulated by Cd exposure. The study simultaneously identified 802 targets for the 37 (24 conserved and 13 non-conserved) miRNA families, from which there are 200, 537, and 65 targets, belonging to categories I, II, and III, respectively. In category I alone, many novel targets for miRNAs were identified and shown to be involved in plant response to Cd.

  18. Effect of microwave treatment on the efficacy of expeller pressing of Brassica napus rapeseed and Brassica juncea mustard seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanxing; Rogiewicz, Anna; Wan, Chuyun; Guo, Mian; Huang, Fenghong; Slominski, Bogdan A

    2015-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of microwave heating on the efficacy of expeller pressing of rapeseed and mustard seed and the composition of expeller meals in two types of Brassica napus rapeseed (intermediate- and low-glucosinolate) and in Brassica juncea mustard (high-glucosinolate). Following microwave treatment, the microstructure of rapeseed using transmission electron microscopy showed a significant disappearance of oil bodies and myrosin cells. After 6 min of microwave heating (400 g, 800 W), the oil content of rapeseed expeller meal decreased from 44.9 to 13.5% for intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, from 42.6 to 11.3% for low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, and from 44.4 to 14.1% for B. juncea mustard. The latter values were much lower than the oil contents of the corresponding expeller meals derived from the unheated seeds (i.e., 26.6, 22.6, and 29.8%, respectively). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents showed no differences except for the expeller meal from the intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed, which increased from 22.7 to 29.2% after 6 min of microwave heating. Microwave treatment for 4 and 5 min effectively inactivated myrosinase enzyme of intermediate-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed and B. juncea mustard seed, respectively. In low-glucosinolate B. napus rapeseed the enzyme appeared to be more heat stable, with some activity being present after 6 min of microwave heating. Myrosinase enzyme inactivation had a profound effect on the glucosinolate content of expeller meals and prevented their hydrolysis to toxic breakdown products during the expelling process. It appeared evident from this study that microwave heating for 6 min was an effective method of producing expeller meal without toxic glucosinolate breakdown products while at the same time facilitating high yield of oil during the expelling process.

  19. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski,Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B....

  20. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  1. Multiple Evolutionary Events Involved in Maintaining Homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Li, Jing; Sun, Jin-Long; Ma, Xian-Feng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Berkey, Robert; Yang, Hui; Niu, Ying-Ze; Fan, Jing; Li, Yan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Wen-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8) locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs) in Brassica rapa and three in Brassica oleracea (BoHRs). Brassica napus (Bn) is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs). It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here, we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion, and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants. PMID:27493652

  2. Analysis of plants regenerated from protoplast fusions between Brassica napus and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahleson, J; Råhlén, L; Glimelius, K

    1988-10-01

    Protoplasts from etiolated hypocotyls of Brassica napus stained with carboxyfluorescein were fused with mesophyll protoplasts from Eruca sativa. Hybrid cells could be identified under the light microscope by (1) fully developed chloroplasts derived from E. sativa and (2) the cytoplasmic strands of the B. napus hypocotyl protoplasts, or (3) by the presence of both red and green fluorescence when investigated under UV light. The heterokaryons were selected using either a micro-manipulator or a flow sorter. On average, 5.4% of the calli obtained after selection differentiated into shoots. Regenerated shoots were subjected to isozyme analysis for verification of their hybrid character. Of the 23 hybrids successfully transferred to the greenhouse, 11 were asymmetric according to isozyme analysis. The nuclear DNA content of the hybrids was determined by flow cytometry, which gives an estimate of chromosome number. Most of the hybrids had a DNA content, and thus a chromosome number, that deviated from the expected sum of the parents. Almost all of the hybrids had some degree of fertility and produced seeds. Seed set, expressed as seeds per pollinated flower, was on average 7% of that of B. napus in the case of self-pollination and 26% of that of B. napus when backcrossed to B. napus. The chloroplast genotype was investigated in 13 hybrids. Of these, 11 had chloroplasts derived from B. napus, while only 2 had chloroplasts of E. sativa origin.

  3. Integration of linkage maps for the Amphidiploid Brassica napus and comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delourme Régine

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large number of genetic linkage maps representing Brassica chromosomes constitute a potential platform for studying crop traits and genome evolution within Brassicaceae. However, the alignment of existing maps remains a major challenge. The integration of these genetic maps will enhance genetic resolution, and provide a means to navigate between sequence-tagged loci, and with contiguous genome sequences as these become available. Results We report the first genome-wide integration of Brassica maps based on an automated pipeline which involved collation of genome-wide genotype data for sequence-tagged markers scored on three extensively used amphidiploid Brassica napus (2n = 38 populations. Representative markers were selected from consolidated maps for each population, and skeleton bin maps were generated. The skeleton maps for the three populations were then combined to generate an integrated map for each LG, comparing two different approaches, one encapsulated in JoinMap and the other in MergeMap. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a integrated genetic map was generated using JoinMap, and includes 5,162 genetic markers mapped onto 2,196 loci, with a total genetic length of 1,792 cM. The map density of one locus every 0.82 cM, corresponding to 515 Kbp, increases by at least three-fold the locus and marker density within the original maps. Within the B. napus integrated map we identified 103 conserved collinearity blocks relative to Arabidopsis, including five previously unreported blocks. The BnaWAIT_01_2010a map was used to investigate the integrity and conservation of order proposed for genome sequence scaffolds generated from the constituent A genome of Brassica rapa. Conclusions Our results provide a comprehensive genetic integration of the B. napus genome from a range of sources, which we anticipate will provide valuable information for rapeseed and Canola research.

  4. Over-Expression of BnMAPK1 in Brassica napus Enhances Tolerance to Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Chang-mei; LU Jun-xing; WAN Hua-fang; WANG Shu-wen; WANG Zhen; LU Kun; LIANG Ying

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of Ser/Thr protein kinases widely conserved in all eukaryotes and involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, two over-expressing BnMAPK1 oilseed rape lines, ov3 and ov11, were used to study the drought-resistant mechanism of BnMAPK1 under natural drought and simulation drought through spraying 10%PEG 8000 in seedlings. Zhongyou 821 (WT) was used as control. Compared with wild type, transgenic seedlings had higher leaf water content, higher root activity, slightly higher peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, higher proline content and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The expression of drought-resistant related genes, including P5CSB, PLC, LEA4 and SCE1, have been up-regulated in some degree and the expressed time of transgenic lines were earlier than that of wild type. These results suggested that over-expression of BnMAPK1 can enhance the resistance to drought in oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

  5. Protein pattern of canola (Brassica napus L. changes in response to salt and salicylic acid in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavizadeh Roya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salicylic acid (SA on the salt (NaCl tolerance mechanism was studied in canola plants (oilseed rape, Brassica napus L. by molecular and physiological experiments in plant tissue culture. Seeds of B. napus ‘Ocapy’ were germinated at 0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing different levels (0, 2, and 5 μM of SA for 4 weeks. Total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and flavonoid content increased in response to interactive effects of SA and NaCl treatments at some concentrations. Proline content was increased under salt and SA treatments in shoot and root tissues. Salt alone and in combination with SA increased the total soluble protein content of shoots only, while the different concentrations of SA in the culture media affected variously the total soluble protein content. Protein patterns of shoots and roots showed some remarkable differences, based on gel electrophoresis and the consequent analysis of bands by ImageJ program. The relative expression of 15 and 12 protein bands in shoots and roots, respectively, differed under the applied treatments. In addition, the protein profile indicated that salinity and SA regulate the expression of salt-stress-inducible proteins as well as induced de novo synthesis of specific polypeptides. The findings may help to explain the salt tolerance mechanisms and to produce salt-tolerant canola plants.

  6. Analysis of the contribution of acid phosphatase to P efficiency in Brassica napus under low phosphorus conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To understand whether genotypic variation in acid phosphatase (APase) activity in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) induced by phosphorus (P) deficiency has impact on P efficiency,soil APase activity in the rhizosphere for rapeseed P-efficient genotype 102 and P-inefficient genotype 105 was measured against organic and inorganic P sources in the pot experiment,and the activities of root-secreted APase and leaf intracellular APase were investigated in different P-starvation periods in the nutrient solution.Higher activity of root-secreted APase in B.napus was induced under low P conditions.However,P nutrition and P uptake efficiency of the plants supplied with organic P were not directly related to the activity of root-secreted APase due to several confounding factors affecting APase availability.The higher activity of leaf APase improved P remobilization in plants and played important roles in enhancing P use efficiency,shown by the significant correlation between leaf APase activity and P use efficiency in a rapeseed recombinant inbred population of 135 lines.

  7. A Simplified Seed Transformation Method for Obtaining Transgenic Brassica napus Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li; ZHAO De-gang; WU Yong-jun; TIAN Xiao-e

    2009-01-01

    We report here a seed transformation of sonication-assisted,no-tissue culture to rapidly produce transgenic Brassica napus plants.This method comprises the steps of treating seeds by ultrasonic wave,inoculating Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a recombinant ChlFN-a gene and germinating directly of treatment seed on wet filter papers.The obtained transformants were verified by GUS histochemical assay and nested PCR amplification.It suggests that seed transformation has a potential use in genetic transformation of rape.

  8. Activation of rape (Brassica napus L. embryo during seed germination. III. Ultrastructure of dry embryo axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Kuraś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mature dry winter rape (Brassica napus L., var. oleifera, cv. Górczański embryos were studied in the light and the electron microscope. Considerable modifications and regression of the cell ultrastructure were noted in the resting embryo as compared with the metabolically active cells. The degree of regression of the ultrastructure differed in the particular organs and tissues of the embryo. Of most regressed character are the cells of the storage organs - the hypocotyl and cotyledones. They are almost completely filled with protein and lipid bodies. The small spaces between them are filled with dense cytoplasm with a lobular nucleus and not numerous, difficult to identify, plastids and mitochondria. The cells of the shoot primordium and radicle, particularly of the protoderm at the boundary of the hypocotyl and root and columella of root cap have a less regressed ultrastructure. They contain less storage material, a less dense cytoplasm and nearly all cell organelles with a normal appearance. The mitochondria are quite numerous with rather large cristae. Plastids are large with characteristic infolds filled with cytoplasm and some lamellae and a few agglomerations of plastoglobules. The nucleus is lobular with distinctly double and porous nuclear envelope and uniformly dense nucleolus. These cells do not contain dictyosomes and the ER is reduced to short, mostly rough cisternae and vesicles. Cells within the columella itself are also differentiated. The least regression of ultrastructure is seen in the cells of external layers containing the most numerous and most active looking mitochondria and more ER structures. The promeristem cells are similar to those of the deeper columella layers but their mitochondria are more regressed. The cells of the lateral parts of the cap and radicle cells, distant from the promeristem are more similar to the hypocotyl cells.

  9. Agronomic and seed quality traits dissected by genome-wide association mapping in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas eKörber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brassica napus breeding, traits related to commercial success are of highest importance for plant breeders. However, such traits can only be assessed in an advanced developmental stage. % as well as require high experimental effort due to their quantitative inheritance and the importance of genotype*environment interaction. Molecular markers genetically linked to such traits have the potential to accelerate the breeding process of B. napus by marker-assisted selection. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii candidate genes for the revealed associations. The diversity set used in this study consisted of 405 Brassica napus inbred lines which were genotyped using a 6K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and phenotyped for agronomic and seed quality traits in field trials. In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as 46 SNP-trait associations for the agronomic traits with a P-value 100 and a sequence identity of > 70 % to A. thaliana or B. rapa could be found for the agronomic SNP-trait associations and 187 hits of potential candidate genes for the seed quality SNP-trait associations.

  10. Diversity array technology markers: genetic diversity analyses and linkage map construction in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N; Aslam, M N; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A; Kilian, A; Sharpe, Andrew G; Schondelmaier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines 'Lynx-037DH' and 'Monty-028DH'. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed.

  11. Multiple evolutionary events involved in maintaining homologs of Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Resistance to Powdery Mildew 8 (RPW8 locus confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana. There are four Homologous to RPW8s (BrHRs in Brassica rapa and three in B. oleracea (BoHRs. B. napus (Bn is derived from diploidization of a hybrid between B. rapa and B. oleracea, thus should have seven homologs of RPW8 (BnHRs. It is unclear whether these genes are still maintained or lost in B. napus after diploidization and how they might have been evolved. Here we reported the identification and sequence polymorphisms of BnHRs from a set of B. napus accessions. Our data indicated that while the BoHR copy from B. oleracea is highly conserved, the BrHR copy from B. rapa is relatively variable in the B. napus genome owing to multiple evolutionary events, such as gene loss, point mutation, insertion, deletion and intragenic recombination. Given the overall high sequence homology of BnHR genes, it is not surprising that both intragenic recombination between two orthologs and two paralogs were detected in B. napus, which may explain the loss of BoHR genes in some B. napus accessions. When ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis, a C-terminally truncated version of BnHRa and BnHRb, as well as the full length BnHRd fused with YFP at their C-termini could trigger cell death in the absence of pathogens and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew disease. Moreover, subcellular localization analysis showed that both BnHRa-YFP and BnHRb-YFP were mainly localized to the extra-haustorial membrane (EHM encasing the haustorium of powdery mildew. Taken together, our data suggest that the duplicated BnHR genes might have been subjected to differential selection and at least some may play a role in defense and could serve as resistance resource in engineering disease-resistant plants.

  12. A large-scale introgression of genomic components of Brassica rapa into B. napus by the bridge of hexaploid derived from hybridization between B. napus and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinfei; Mei, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yongjing; Li, Jiana; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun; Qian, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Brassica rapa (AA) has been used to widen the genetic basis of B. napus (AACC), which is a new but important oilseed crop worldwide. In the present study, we have proposed a strategy to develop new type B. napus carrying genomic components of B. rapa by crossing B. rapa with hexaploid (AACCCC) derived from B. napus and B. oleracea (CC). The hexaploid exhibited large flowers and high frequency of normal chromosome segregation, resulting in good seed set (average of 4.48 and 12.53 seeds per pod by self and open pollination, respectively) and high pollen fertility (average of 87.05 %). It was easy to develop new type B. napus by crossing the hexaploid with 142 lines of B. rapa from three ecotype groups, with the average crossability of 9.24 seeds per pod. The genetic variation of new type B. napus was diverse from that of current B. napus, especially in the A subgenome, revealed by genome-specific simple sequence repeat markers. Our data suggest that the strategy proposed here is a large-scale and highly efficient method to introgress genomic components of B. rapa into B. napus.

  13. Proteomic Dissection of Seed Germination and Seedling Establishment in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Gan, Lu; Guo, Liangxing; Zhang, Kai; Li, Yonghong; Wang, Hao; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Li, Maoteng

    2016-01-01

    The success of seed germination and establishment of a normal seedling are key determinants of plant species propagation. At present, only a few studies have focused on the genetic control of seed germination by using a proteomic approach in Brassica napus. In the present study, the protein expression pattern of seed germination was investigated using differential fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in B. napus. One hundred and thirteen differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) that were mainly involved in storage (23.4%), energy metabolism (18.9%), protein metabolism (16.2%), defense/disease (12.6%), seed maturation (11.7%), carbohydrate metabolism (4.5%), lipid metabolism (4.5%), amino acids metabolism (3.6%), cell growth/division (3.6%), and some unclear functions (2.7%) were observed by proteomic analysis. Seventeen genes corresponding to 11 DEPs were identified within or near the associated linkage disequilibrium regions related to seed germination and vigor quantitative traits reported in B. napus in previous studies. The expression pattern of proteins showed that heterotrophic metabolism could be activated in the process of seed germination and that the onset of defense mechanisms might start during seed germination. These findings will help generate a more in-depth understanding of the mobilization of seed storage reserves and regulation mechanisms of the germination process in B. napus.

  14. Methyl jasmonate regulates antioxidant defense and suppresses arsenic uptake in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A Farooq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyl jasmonate (MJ is an important plant growth regulator, involved in plant defense against abiotic stresses, however its possible function in response to metal stress is poorly understood. In the present study, the effect of MJ on physiological and biochemical changes of the plants exposed to arsenic (As stress were investigated in two Brassica napus L. cultivars (ZS 758 – a black seed type, and Zheda 622 – a yellow seed type. The As treatment at 200 µM was more phytotoxic, however its combined application with MJ resulted in significant increase in leaf chlorophyll fluorescence, biomass production and reduced malondialdehyde content compared with As stressed plants. The application of MJ minimized the oxidative stress, as revealed via a lower level of reactive oxygen species (ROS synthesis (H2O2 and OH- in leaves and the maintenance of high redox states of glutathione and ascorbate. Enhanced enzymatic activities and gene expression of important antioxidants (SOD, APX, CAT, POD, secondary metabolites (PAL, PPO, CAD and induction of lypoxygenase gene suggest that MJ plays an effective role in the regulation of multiple transcriptional pathways which were involved in oxidative stress responses. The content of As was higher in yellow seeded plants (cv. Zheda 622 as compared to black seeded plants (ZS 758. The application of MJ significantly reduced the As content in leaves and roots of both cultivars. Findings of the present study reveal that MJ improves ROS scavenging through enhanced antioxidant defense system, secondary metabolite and reduced As contents in both the cultivars.

  15. Response of Brassica napus L grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salarizdah Mohammadreza

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a serious environmental problem that has negative effect on plant growth, production and photosynthesis. Fresh and dry plant weights decreases with salinity treatments. The very important role of salicylic acid (SA in response to different stress and modification and decline damages due to stresses has established in different studies. In this research, effect of grain soaking presowing in (0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 5 mM of salicylic acid (SA and NaCl (0, 4, 8 and 12 dsm-1 on canola (Brassica napus L was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage(GP, Average velocity of germination (AVG and growth parameters of 15-day old seedlings in compared to control plants. pretreated of SA in content 1mM significantly increased the germination percentage, and in contents more than of 1mM reduced the germination percentage in seeds under salinity stress. SA in content 1mM increased RWC, root and shoot of fresh weight in the stressed seedlings. Increasing of NaCl level increased Electrolyte leakage and MDA content in the stress seedling. electrolyte leakage and MDA content were markedly reduced under salt stress with SA 1mM than without. It was concluded that SA could be used as a potential growth regulator to improve salt tolerance in canola. Our observations indicate that, although SA is not essential for germination under normal growth conditions, it plays a promotive role in seed germination under high salinity by reducing oxidative damage.

  16. Field tolerance to fungal pathogens of Brassica napus constitutively expressing a chimeric chitinase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, R.; Grezes-Besset, B.; Lucante, N. [Rustica Prograin Genetique, Mondonville (France)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Constitutive overexpression of a protein involved in plant defense mechanisms to disease is one of the strategies proposed to increase plant tolerance to fungal pathogens. A hybrid endochitinase gene under a constitutive promoter was introduced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation into a winter-type oilseed rape (Brassica napus var. oleifera) inbred line. Progeny from transformed plants was challenged using three different fungal pathogens (Cylindrosporium concentricum, Phoma lingam, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in field trials at two different geographical locations. These plants exhibited an increased tolerance to disease as compared with the nontransgenic parental plants. 31 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. [Gene flow and its ecological risks of transgenic oilseed rape ( Brassica napus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guixiang; Song, Wenjian; Zhou, Weijun

    2005-12-01

    Transgenic oilseed rape Brassica napus, one of the first genetically modified crops, has now been released to commercial use in Canada and Australia. As a cross-pollinating crop, its natural crossing rate is 30%, and it is liable to cross with other Brassica species. The ecological risk of transgenic oilseed rape has been concerned by the scientists all over the world. There are two ways for the pollens flow of transgenic oilseed rape, one takes place between transgenic oilseed rape and other related wild species, and the other occurs between transgenic and nontransgenic oilseed rape. The gene may flow to other related wild species, but it is unlikely to get hybrids in field. Because the gene can really flow to the conventional oilseed rape, it is necessary to have a sufficient isolation distance in cultivating transgenic oilseed rape.

  18. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. Var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. Var. costata) inflorescences

    OpenAIRE

    Batista, Cátia Emanuela Oliveira; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of -carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as “grelos” (rap...

  19. Microtubule configurations and nuclear DNA synthesis during initiation of suspensor-bearing embryos from Brassica napus cv. Topas microspores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, E.; Custers, J.B.M.; Kieft, H.; Wedzony, M.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In the new Brassica napus microspore culture system, wherein embryos with suspensors are formed, ab initio mimics zygotic embryogenesis. The system provides a powerful in vitro tool for studying the diverse developmental processes that take place during early stages of plant embryogenesis. Here, we

  20. Effects of Salinity on Yield and Component Characters in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivars �Okapi�, �SLM046�, �Elite�, �Fornax� and �Licord� Brassica napus were tested for yield and component characters under different levels of salinity. The variations due to salinity levels, cultivars and cultivarxsalinity (interaction were significant for different characters. The variable degrees of increase and decrease of regression coefficient estimate mates (curve estimation showed the performance as influenced by different salinity levels. The performance of Brassica napus variety in plant height and days to first flowering was the best for �SLM046�, �Okapi� �SLM046� and �Okapi� cultivars. �SLM046� showed the best performance in days to maturity, followed by �Licord� and �Elite�. �Okapi� performed better than others regarding the increased number of seeds per plant and seed yield per plant, followed by �Fornax�. Considering all characters, the most tolerance ability was found in �SLM046� and �Okapi�, against different levels of salinity.

  1. QTL Analysis of the Oil Content and the Hull Content in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Meng-yang; LI Jia-na; FU Fu-you; ZHANG Zheng-sheng; ZHANG Xue-kun; LIU Lie-zhao

    2007-01-01

    The QTLs of the oil content and the hull content were analyzed in Brassica napus L. By constructing the linkage map. The F2:6 RIL population with 188 lines, derived from the cross of GH06 × P147, was used as the mapping population. The SRAP, SSR, AFLP, and TRAP markers were used to construct the linkage map, and the composite interval mapping (CIM) to identify the quantitative trait loci associated with the oil content and the hull content. 300 markers were integrated into 19 linkage groups, covering 1 248.5 cM in total. Seven QTLs were found to be responsible for the oil content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 3.73 to 10.46%; four QTLs were found for the hull content with the single contribution to phenotypic variance ranging from 4.89 to 6.84%. The yellow-seeded Brassica napus L. Has the advantage of higher oil content and the hull content has a significant effect on the oil content. In addition, the SRAP marker is good for detecting QTL.

  2. Purification and protein composition of oil bodies from Brassica napus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolivet Pascale

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil bodies are intracellular particles to store lipids as food reserves in oleaginous plants. Description of oil body-associated proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana has been recently reported whereas only few data are available in the case of rapeseed. Oil bodies have been prepared from two double-low varieties of Brassica napus seeds, a standard variety (Explus and an oleic variety (Cabriolet. Oil bodies have been purified using floatation technique in the successive presence of high salt concentration, detergent or urea in order to remove non-specifically trapped proteins. The integrity of the oil bodies has been verified and their size estimated. Their protein and fatty acid contents have been determined. The proteins composing these organelles were extracted, separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, digested by trypsin and their peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed using Arabidopsis thaliana protein sequence database and a collection of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST of Brassica napus generated from the framework of the French plant genomics programme “Genoplante”. This led to the identification of a limited number of proteins: eight oleosins showing a high similarity each other and representing up to 75% of oil body proteins, a 11 β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein highly homologous to the same protein from A. thaliana, and only few contaminating proteins associated with myrosinase activity.

  3. Relationship Between Hybrid Performance and Genetic Diversity Based on SSRs and ISSRs in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jin-xiong; FU Ting-dong; YANG Guang-sheng

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between genetic distance (GD) and hybrid performance, twotypes of molecular markers, microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) and intro-simple sequence repeats(ISSRs), were employed to detect the genetic diversity of 3 double low self-incompatible lines and 22 male pa-rental varieties of Brassica napus from different geographical origins. Hybrids were produced in a NC Ⅱ mat-ing design by hand-pollination. The result indicated that 25 parental varieties (lines) could be divided into sixgroups by Un-weighted Pair Group Mathematics Average (UPGMA) clustering based on GDs. SI-1300 and SI-1320 could be singly clustered into one group, respectively. Varieties from China could be separated into an-other group, SI-1310 and varieties from foreign countries could be separated into other three groups. Thegrouping was generally consistent with parental pedigrees and geographical origins. Significant differences inyield, quality and phenological period traits were observed among these parent groups. Although hybrid yield/plant showed significantly positive correlation with genetic distance based on SSR and ISSR markers, but thedetermination coefficient was iow. It appeared to be unsuitable for using the genetic distance based on SSR andISSR markers to predict heterosis and hybrid performance in Brassica napus.

  4. Heme oxygenase 1 defects lead to reduced chlorophyll in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lixia; Yang, Zonghui; Zeng, Xinhua; Gao, Jie; Liu, Jie; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2017-04-01

    We previously described a Brassica napus chlorophyll-deficient mutant (ygl) with yellow-green seedling leaves and mapped the related gene, BnaC.YGL, to a 0.35 cM region. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this chlorophyll defect are still unknown. In this study, the BnaC07.HO1 gene (equivalent to BnaC.YGL) was isolated by the candidate gene approach, and its function was confirmed by genetic complementation. Comparative sequencing analysis suggested that BnaC07.HO1 was lost in the mutant, while a long noncoding-RNA was inserted into the promoter of the homologous gene BnaA07.HO1. This insert was widely present in B. napus cultivars and down-regulated BnaA07.HO1 expression. BnaC07.HO1 was highly expressed in the seedling leaves and encoded heme oxygenase 1, which was localized in the chloroplast. Biochemical analysis showed that BnaC07.HO1 can catalyze heme conversion to form biliverdin IXα. RNA-seq analysis revealed that the loss of BnaC07.HO1 impaired tetrapyrrole metabolism, especially chlorophyll biosynthesis. According, the levels of chlorophyll intermediates were reduced in the ygl mutant. In addition, gene expression in multiple pathways was affected in ygl. These findings provide molecular evidences for the basis of the yellow-green leaf phenotype and further insights into the crucial role of HO1 in B. napus.

  5. Chelate-assisted phytoextraction: effect of EDTA and EDDS on copper uptake by Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIJANA M. ZEREMSKI-ŠKORIĆ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chelate-assisted phytoextraction is proposed as an effective approach for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil through the use of high biomass plants. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficiency of the two chelators: EDTA and biodegradable EDDS in enhancing Cu uptake and translocation by Brassica napus L. grown on moderately contaminated soil and treated with increasing concentrations of EDTA or EDDS. Increasing amounts of EDDS caused serious growth suppression of B. napus and an increase in shoot metal concentrations. Growth suppression limited the actual amount of phytoextracted Cu at high concentrations of EDDS. The maximum amount of extracted Cu was achieved by the application of 8.0 and 4.0+4.0 mmol kg-1 EDDS. The shoot Cu concentrations after EDTA application were much lower than with EDDS at the same doses. According to these experiments, EDTA does not appear to be an efficient amendment if Cu phytoextraction with B. napus is considered but EDDS is.

  6. Complete sequence of heterogenous-composition mitochondrial genome (Brassica napus and its exogenous source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Juan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unlike maternal inheritance of mitochondria in sexual reproduction, somatic hybrids follow no obvious pattern. The introgressed segment orf138 from the mitochondrial genome of radish (Raphanus sativus to its counterpart in rapeseed (Brassica napus demonstrates that this inheritance mode derives from the cytoplasm of both parents. Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of five species from Brassica family allowed the prediction of other extraneous sources of the cybrids from the radish parent, and the determination of their mitochondrial rearrangement. Results We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of Ogura-cms-cybrid (oguC rapeseed. To date, this is the first time that a heterogeneously composed mitochondrial genome was sequenced. The 258,473 bp master circle constituted of 33 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA sequences, and 23 tRNA sequences. This mitotype noticeably holds two copies of atp9 and is devoid of cox2-2. Relative to nap mitochondrial genome, 40 point mutations were scattered in the 23 protein-coding genes. atp6 even has an abnormal start locus whereas tatC has an abnormal end locus. The rearrangement of the 22 syntenic regions that comprised 80.11% of the genome was influenced by short repeats. A pair of large repeats (9731 bp was responsible for the multipartite structure. Nine unique regions were detected when compared with other published Brassica mitochondrial genome sequences. We also found six homologous chloroplast segments (Brassica napus. Conclusions The mitochondrial genome of oguC is quite divergent from nap and pol, which are more similar with each other. We analyzed the unique regions of every genome of the Brassica family, and found that very few segments were specific for these six mitotypes, especially cam, jun, and ole, which have no specific segments at all. Therefore, we conclude that the most specific regions of oguC possibly came from radish. Compared with the chloroplast genome

  7. Effect of CaCl2 treatment on the changing of drought related physiological and biochemical indexes of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun XIANG; Zhaobo CHEN; Pei WANG; Longjiang YU; Maoteng LI

    2008-01-01

    Some experiments revealed that the Ca2+ has a relationship with drought resistance. In this paper, some physiological and biochemical indices were studied in order to analyze the effect of Ca2+ treatment on the drought resistance of Brassica napus. The physiological and biochemical experiments revealed that the proline content and the soluble sugar contents in the Ca2+-treated B. napus were much higher than those of water-treated B. napus. However, the content of malonaldehyde in the Ca2+ treated B. napus was lower than that of control. The tran-spiration and stomatal conductance analysis show that the transpiration and stomatal conductance in the Ca2+-treated materials were lower than those of water-treated materials. Further research revealed that the stomata hatch of Ca2+-treated materials was markedly less than that of water-treated materials, which indicated that the closure of the stomata was the main reason for the decrease of transpiration and stomatal conductance.

  8. Disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus by mutations causing severe seed hormonal imbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung eNguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brassica napus (oilseed rape accession 1012-98 shows a disturbed germination phenotype that was thought to be associated with its lack of testa pigmentation and thin seed coat. Here we demonstrate that the disturbed germination and seedling development are actually due to independent mutations that disrupt the balance of hormone metabolites and their regulators in the seeds. High-throughput UPLC-MS/MS hormone profiling of seeds and seedlings before and after germination revealed that 1012-98 has a severely disturbed hormone balance with extremely atypical, excessive quantities of auxin and ABA metabolites. The resulting hypersensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA and a corresponding increase in dormancy often results in death of the embryo after imbibition or high frequencies of disturbed, often lethal developmental phenotypes, resembling Arabidopsis mutants for the auxin regulatory factor gene ARF10 or the auxin-overproducing transgenic line iaaM-OX. Molecular cloning of Brassica ARF10 orthologues revealed four loci in normal B. napus, two derived from the Brassica A genome and two from the C genome. On the other hand, the phenotypic mutant 1012-98 exhibited amplification of C-genome BnaC.ARF10 copy number along with a chimeric allele originating from recombination between homoeologous A and C genome loci which lead to minor increase of Bna.ARF10 transcription on the critical timepoint for seed germination, the indirect regulator of ABI3, the germinative inhibitor. Bna.GH3.5 expression was upregulated to conjugate free auxin to IAA-asp between 2-6 DAS. Functional amino acid changes were also found in important DNA binding domains of one BnaC.ARF10 locus, suggesting that regulatory changes in Bna.ARF10 are collectively responsible for the observed phenotpyes in 1012-98. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report disruption of germination and seedling development in Brassica napus caused by the crosstalk of auxin-ABA and the

  9. Dissecting quantitative trait loci for boron efficiency across multiple environments in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunkang Zhao

    Full Text Available High yield is the most important goal in crop breeding, and boron (B is an essential micronutrient for plants. However, B deficiency, leading to yield decreases, is an agricultural problem worldwide. Brassica napus is one of the most sensitive crops to B deficiency, and considerable genotypic variation exists among different cultivars in response to B deficiency. To dissect the genetic basis of tolerance to B deficiency in B. napus, we carried out QTL analysis for seed yield and yield-related traits under low and normal B conditions using the double haploid population (TNDH by two-year and the BQDH population by three-year field trials. In total, 80 putative QTLs and 42 epistatic interactions for seed yield, plant height, branch number, pod number, seed number, seed weight and B efficiency coefficient (BEC were identified under low and normal B conditions, singly explaining 4.15-23.16% and 0.53-14.38% of the phenotypic variation. An additive effect of putative QTLs was a more important controlling factor than the additive-additive effect of epistatic interactions. Four QTL-by-environment interactions and 7 interactions between epistatic interactions and the environment contributed to 1.27-4.95% and 1.17-3.68% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The chromosome region on A2 of SYLB-A2 for seed yield under low B condition and BEC-A2 for BEC in the two populations was equivalent to the region of a reported major QTL, BE1. The B. napus homologous genes of Bra020592 and Bra020595 mapped to the A2 region and were speculated to be candidate genes for B efficiency. These findings reveal the complex genetic basis of B efficiency in B. napus. They provide a basis for the fine mapping and cloning of the B efficiency genes and for breeding B-efficient cultivars by marker-assisted selection (MAS.

  10. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

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    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  11. Karyotyping of Brassica napus L. Based on C0t-1 DNA Banding by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hui WEI; Wan-Peng ZHAO; Li-Jun WANG; Bo CHEN; Yun-Chang LI; Yun-Chun SONG

    2005-01-01

    In order to precisely recognize and karyotype Brassica napus L. chromosomes, C0t- 1 DNA was extracted from its genomic DNA, labeled with biotin- 11-dUTP and in situ hybridized. The hybridized locations were detected by Cy3-conjugated streptavidin. Specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)signal bands were detected on all individual chromosome pairs. Each chromosome pair showed specific banding patterns. The B. napus karyotype has been constructed, for the first time, on the basis of both C0t-1 DNA FISH banding patterns and chromosome morphology.

  12. Nutritional and nutraceutical potential of rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus) and "tronchuda" cabbage (Brassica oleraceae L. var. costata) inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Cátia; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-06-01

    Two traditional cultivated vegetables highly consumed among Northern Portuguese regions were tested for their chemical composition, nutritional profile and in vitro antioxidant properties using four assays: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of β-carotene bleaching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay. The studied varieties of two Brassica species, locally known as "grelos" (rape) and "espigos" ("tronchuda" cabbage) are nutritionally well-balanced vegetables; particularly "tronchuda" cabbage revealed the highest levels of moisture, proteins, fat, energy, β-carotene and vitamin C; rape gave the highest contents of ash, carbohydrates, sugars (including fructose, glucose, sucrose and raffinose), essential n-3 fatty acid α-linolenic acid, and the best ratios of PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols, lycopene, chlorophylls, phenolics, flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant properties. The health benefits associated to the antioxidant properties reinforce their contribution to a healthy and balanced diet, highlight the interest of their consumption, validate the empirical use and add new values to traditional/regional products which have been used for a long time.

  13. Tissue-specific distribution of secondary metabolites in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

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    Jingjing Fang

    Full Text Available Four different parts, hypocotyl and radicle (HR, inner cotyledon (IC, outer cotyledon (OC, seed coat and endosperm (SE, were sampled from mature rapeseed (Brassica napus L. by laser microdissection. Subsequently, major secondary metabolites, glucosinolates and sinapine, as well as three minor ones, a cyclic spermidine conjugate and two flavonoids, representing different compound categories, were qualified and quantified in dissected samples by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and mass spectrometry. No qualitative and quantitative difference of glucosinolates and sinapine was detected in embryo tissues (HR, IC and OC. On the other hand, the three minor compounds were observed to be distributed unevenly in different rapeseed tissues. The hypothetic biological functions of the distribution patterns of different secondary metabolites in rapeseed are discussed.

  14. Effects of Partially N-acetylated Chitosans to Elicit Resistance Reaction on Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; TANG Zhang-lin; CHEN Li; GUO Yi-hong; CHEN Yun-ping; LI Jia-na

    2002-01-01

    The effects to elicit resistance reaction on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv Xinongchangjiao )by four partially N-acetylated chitosan 7B, 8B, 9B and 10B (Degree of acetylation (D. A. ) is 30%, 20%,10%, 0%, respectively) and Glycol chitosan (GC, D.A. is 0%) were investigated and compared. Results showed that chitosan were similar to salicylic acid (SA), and could induce resistance reaction, but the reaction was influenced by the degree of acetylation of chitosan. Fully deacetylated chitosans, 10B and GC, elicited chitinase activity, but partially acetylated chitosan, 7B, 8B and 9B, inhibited chitinase activity. Phenyalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was also elicited. Elicitor activity increased with on increasing degree of acetylation, 7B induced highest PAL activity among all chitosans. All chitosans induced peroxidase (POD) in a similar level.After elicited by glycol chitosan, like SA treatment, the seedlings increased disease resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum significantly.

  15. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  16. The use of protein patterns in genetic diversity analysis in some Brassica napus cultivars

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    Roya Razavizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, protein variations of seeds and five-day old cotyledonal leaves of four selected Brassica napus cultivars including Elite, Ocapy, Tasilo and Zarfam were analyzed by SDS-PAGE to identify protein markers. The amount of total soluble protein of seed storage proteins did not show significant differences in all cultivars whereas it was different in cotyledonal leaves. Protein patterns of seeds and cotyledonal leaves showed significant differences using SDS-PAGE and consequence analysis of bands by ImageJ program. Relative expression of six protein bands in seeds and five-day old cotyledonal leaves were significantly different. Three protein markers were identified by protein patterns of seed and cotyledonal leaves. The results of relationship analysis based on presence and absence of the specific protein bands in protein pattern of seed storage proteins showed that Tasilo and Elite cultivars had the highest similarities.

  17. Substoichiometrically different mitotypes coexist in mitochondrial genomes of Brassica napus L.

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    Jianmei Chen

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS has been identified in numerous plant species. Brassica napus CMS plants, such as Polima (pol, MI, and Shaan 2A, have been identified independently by different researchers with different materials in conventional breeding processes. How this kind of CMS emerges is unclear. Here, we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the prevalent mitotype in the most widely used pol-CMS line, which has a length of 223,412 bp and encodes 34 proteins, 3 ribosomal RNAs, and 18 tRNAs, including two near identical copies of trnH. Of these 55 genes, 48 were found to be identical to their equivalents in the "nap" cytoplasm. The nap mitotype carries only one copy of trnH, and the sequences of five of the six remaining genes are highly similar to their equivalents in the pol mitotype. Forty-four open reading frames (ORFs with unknown function were detected, including two unique to the pol mitotype (orf122 and orf132. At least five rearrangement events are required to account for the structural differences between the pol and nap sequences. The CMS-related orf224 neighboring region (∼5 kb rearranged twice. PCR profiling based on mitotype-specific primer pairs showed that both mitotypes are present in B. napus cultivars. Quantitative PCR showed that the pol cytoplasm consists mainly of the pol mitotype, and the nap mitotype is the main genome of nap cytoplasm. Large variation in the copy number ratio of mitotypes was found, even among cultivars sharing the same cytoplasm. The coexistence of mitochondrial mitotypes and substoichiometric shifting can explain the emergence of CMS in B. napus.

  18. A candidate gene-based association study of tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus

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    Steffi eFritsche

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is the most important oil crop of temperate climates. Rapeseed oil contains tocopherols, also known as vitamin E, which is an indispensable nutrient for humans and animals due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, tocopherols are also important for the oxidative stability of vegetable oils. Therefore, seed oil with increased tocopherol content or altered tocopherol composition is a target for breeding. We investigated the role of nucleotide variations within candidate genes from the tocopherol biosynthesis pathway. Field trials were carried out with 229 accessions from a worldwide B. napus collection which was divided into two panels of 96 and 133 accessions. Seed tocopherol content and composition were measured by HPLC. High heritabilities were found for both traits, ranging from 0.62 to 0.94. We identified polymorphisms by sequencing selected regions of the tocopherol genes from the 96 accession panel. Subsequently, we determined the population structure (Q and relative kinship (K as detected by genotyping with genome-wide distributed SSR markers. Association studies were performed using two models, the structure-based GLM+Q and the PK mixed model. Between 26 and 12 polymorphisms within two genes (BnaX.VTE3.a, BnaA.PDS1.c were significantly associated with tocopherol traits. The SNPs explained up to 16.93 % of the genetic variance for tocopherol composition and up to 10.48 % for total tocopherol content. Based on the sequence information we designed CAPS markers for genotyping the 133 accessions from the 2nd panel. Significant associations with various tocopherol traits confirmed the results from the first experiment. We demonstrate that the polymorphisms within the tocopherol genes clearly impact tocopherol content and composition in B. napus seeds. We suggest that these nucleotide variations may be used as selectable markers for breeding rapeseed with enhanced tocopherol quality.

  19. Cytogenetic and Molecular Characterization of B-Genome Introgression Lines of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Inderpreet; Mason, Annaliese S.; Banga, Shashi; Bharti, Sakshi; Kaur, Beerpal; Gurung, Allison Mary; Salisbury, Phillip Anthony; Batley, Jacqueline; Banga, Surinder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Brassica napus introgression lines (ILs), having B-genome segments from B. carinata, were assessed genetically for extent of introgression and phenotypically for siliqua shatter resistance. Introgression lines had 7–9% higher DNA content, were meiotically stable, and had almost normal pollen fertility/seed set. Segment introgressions were confirmed by fluorescent genomic in situ hybridization (fl-GISH), SSR analyses, and SNP studies. Genotyping with 48 B-genome specific SSRs detected substitutions from B3, B4, B6, and B7 chromosomes on 39 of the 69 ILs whereas SNP genotyping detected a total of 23 B-segments (≥3 Mb) from B4, B6, and B7 introgressed into 10 of the 19 (C1, C2, C3, C5, C6, C8, C9, A3, A9, A10) chromosomes in 17 ILs. The size of substitutions varied from 3.0 Mb on chromosome A9 (IL59) to 42.44 Mb on chromosome C2 (IL54), ranging from 7 to 83% of the recipient chromosome. Average siliqua strength in ILs was observed to be higher than that of B. napus parents (2.2–6.0 vs. 1.9–4.0 mJ) while siliqua strength in some of the lines was almost equal to that of the donor parent B. carinata (6.0 vs.7.2 mJ). These ILs, with large chunks of substituted B-genome, can prove to be a useful prebreeding resource for germplasm enhancement in B. napus, especially for siliqua shatter resistance. PMID:27821632

  20. A developmentally regulated Cre-lox system to generate marker-free transgenic Brassica napus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopertekh, Lilya; Broer, Inge; Schiemann, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, a strategy for engineering marker-free Brassica napus plants is described. It is based on the Cre-lox site-specific recombination system and includes three essential steps. At first, the binary vector pLH-nap-lx-cre-35S-bar-lx-vst has been designed. In this vector, the cre gene and the bar expression cassette are flanked by two lox sites in direct orientation. The lox-flanked sequence is placed between a seed-specific napin promoter and a coding region for the vstI gene. At the second step, the cre-bar vector was transferred into B. napus hypocotyl explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Finally, T1 progeny was tested for excision of the marker gene at phenotypic and molecular levels. PCR, sequencing, and Southern blot analysis confirmed complete and precise deletion of the lox-flanked DNA region. This developmentally regulated Cre-lox system can be applied to remove undesirable DNA in transgenic plants propagated by seeds.

  1. Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization Between Brassica napus L. And Sinapis alba L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ping WANG; Karin SONNTAG; Eicke RUDLOFF; Jian-Min CHEN

    2005-01-01

    Electrically induced protoplast fusion was used to produce somatic hybrids between Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L. Seven hybrids were obtained and verified by the simple sequence repeat and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence analysis of the genefael, indicating that the characteristic bands from S. alba were present in the hybrids. The hybridity was also confirmed by chromosome number counting because the hybrids possessed 62 chromosomes, corresponding to the sum of fusion-parent chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at meiosis was predominantly normal, which led to high pollen fertility,ranging from 66% to 77%. All hybrids were grown to full maturity and could be fertilized and set seed after self-pollination or back-crosses with B. napus. The morphology of the hybrids resembled characteristics from both parental species. An analysis of the fatty acid composition in the seeds of F1 plants was conducted and the seeds were found to contain different amounts of erucic acid, ranging from 11.0% to 52.1%.

  2. Cloning of Lactate dehydrogenase Gene and Effect on the Waterlogging Tolerance of Brassica napus L.

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    Ben-bo Xu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism on waterlogging tolerance in Brassica napus, 12 B. napus cultivars with different waterlogging tolerance were used in the research and Waterlogging Tolerance Index (WTI was calculated by multiplying relative percentage germination and the relative seedling height. The results indicated that Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH enzyme activity rapidly increased at 24 h after waterlogging treatment and reached peak between 48-72 h. WTI was correlated with LDH enzyme activity at 24 h after water logging treatment and the correlation coefficient between them was 0.84. Transcription level of the BnLDH had significant difference in the 12 lines after waterlogging treatment. BnLDH expression level was very low before waterlogging treatment and induced by waterlogging treatment and arrived at peak at 48 h. Correlation analysis indicated correlation coefficient between WTI and BnLDH expression at 24 and 48 h after waterlogging treatment was 0.56 and 0.72, respectively. An LDH gene, denoted BnLDH-1, was cloned from oilseeds by the Rapid Amplification of CDNA Ends (RACE from 12 materials and the results indicated all of them had same protein sequence.

  3. Non-lethal freezing effects on seed degreening in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham-Smith, P C; Gilmer, S; Zhou, R; Galka, M; Abrams, S R

    2006-06-01

    The effects of a non-lethal freezing stress on chlorophyll content, moisture level and distribution, and abscisic acid (ABA) levels were examined in siliques and seeds of Brassica napus (canola). A non-lethal freezing stress resulted in the retention of chlorophyll in seed at harvest that was most pronounced for seeds 28, 32 and 36 days after flowering (DAF). This increase was primarily due to an increased retention of chlorophyll a relative to chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll retention in seeds exposed to a non-lethal freezing stress correlated with an increased ABA catabolism, as measured 1, 3 or 7 days after the stress treatment. Although the non-lethal freezing stress had no significant effect on moisture content in seeds of siliques stressed at 28-44 DAF, moisture distribution, as viewed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed an uneven drying of 32 and 40 DAF siliques after exposure to the non-lethal freezing stress. Moisture was initially lost more rapidly from the silique wall between seeds, than in control non-stressed siliques. Increased moisture loss was not due to structural changes in the vasculature of the silique/seed of stressed tissues. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a non-lethal freezing stress-induced decrease in ABA level, during seed maturation, effects an inhibition of normal chlorophyll a catabolism resulting in mature but green B. napus seed.

  4. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae on rapeseed, Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MOHAMMAD REZA LASHKARI; AHAD SAHRAGARD; MOHAMMAD GHADAMYARI

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Homoptera: Aphididae) was determined using demographic toxicology by leaf dip method. At first, bioassay tests were performed. The LC50 value and confidence limit for imidacloprid and pymetrozine were 1.61×10-5 mol/L (0.74×10-5-2.66×10-5) and 2.14×10-4 mol/L (1.24×10-4-3.40×10-4), respectively. To evaluate the sublethal effect of two insecticides on population growth parameters of cabbage aphid, LC30 concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine were used at 5 mol/L and 30 mol/L. The experiments were carried out in a incubator at 20 +-1℃, 60% +-5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) photoperiod on canola seedlings, Brassica napus L. var.' PF'. Net fecundity rate decreased in both insecticide-treated populations. Intrinsic rates of increase (rm) were lower in imidacloprid and pymetrozine treatments than in controls. Intrinsic birth rates also decreased in treated populations. There was a relative increase in intrinsic death rates of treated populations. The mean generation times and doubling time were also lower in populations treated with insecticides than in controls. There was a considerable reduction in the average numbers of nymphs reproduced per female as compared with the control. The average longevity of female adults in the control was significantly different from those treated with imidacloprid and pymetrozine. However, there was no significant differences in aphid life-table parameters between the two insecticide-treated populations (P > 0.01).

  5. Differential regulation of gene products in newly synthesized Brassica napus allotetraploids is not related to protein function nor subcellular localization

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    Valot Benoît

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allopolyploidy is a preeminent process in plant evolution that results from the merger of distinct genomes in a common nucleus via inter-specific hybridization. Allopolyploid formation is usually related to genome-wide structural and functional changes though the underlying mechanisms operating during this "genomic shock" still remain poorly known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modifications occurring at the proteomic level following an allopolyploidization event and to determine whether these changes are related to functional properties of the proteins. In a previous report, we applied comparative proteomics to synthetic amphiploids of Brassica napus and to its diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Although several hundred polypeptides displayed additivity (i.e. mid-parent values in the amphiploids, many of them showed non-additivity. Here, we report the in silico functional characterization of the "non-additive" proteins (the ones with a non-additive pattern of regulation in synthetic B. napus. Results The complete set of non-additive proteins (335 in the stem and 205 in the root, as well as a subset of additive polypeptides (200 per organ, was identified by mass spectrometry. Several protein isoforms were found, and most of them (~55% displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the amphiploids, i.e. isoforms of the same protein showing both up-regulation and down-regulation in the synthetic B. napus compared to the mid-parent value. Components of protein complexes were identified of which ~50% also displayed "different" or "opposite" patterns of regulation in the allotetraploids. In silico functional categorization of the identified proteins was carried out, and showed that neither functional category nor metabolic pathway were systematically affected by non-additivity in the synthetic amphiploids. In addition, no subcellular compartment was found to be over- or under

  6. Cloning and functions analysis of a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Jun; Hu, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Zhan, Gao-Miao; Wang, Han-Zhong; Hua, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is a negative regulator of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (mtPDC), which plays a key role in intermediary metabolism. In this study, a 1,490-bp PDK in Brassica napus (BnPDK1) was isolated and cloned from Brassica cDNA library. BnPDK1 has an 1,104 open reading frame encoding 367 amino acids. Genomic DNA gel blot analysis result indicated that BnPDK1 is a multi-copy gene. RNA gel blot analysis and RNA in situ hybridization were used to determine the expression of BnPDK1 in different organs. BnPDK1 gene was ubiquitously expressed in almost all the tissues tested, having the highest expression in the stamen and the young silique. Over-expression of BnPDK1 in transgenic Arabidopsis lines would repress the PDC activity, and resulted in the decrease of seed oil content and leaf photosynthesis. These results implied that BnPDK1 was involved in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in developing seeds.

  7. Genome-wide association mapping unravels the genetic control of seed germination and vigor in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzig, Sarah V; Frisch, Matthias; Breuer, Frank; Nesi, Nathalie; Ducournau, Sylvie; Wagner, Marie-Helene; Leckband, Gunhild; Abbadi, Amine; Snowdon, Rod J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination is a crucial prerequisite for crop establishment and high yield levels in crop production. A disclosure of genetic factors contributing to adequate seed vigor would help to further increase yield potential and stability. Here we carried out a genome-wide association study in order to define genomic regions influencing seed germination and early seedling growth in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). A population of 248 genetically diverse winter-type B. napus accessions was genotyped with the Brassica 60k SNP Illumina genotyping array. Automated high-throughput in vitro phenotyping provided extensive data for multiple traits related to germination and early vigor, such as germination speed, absolute germination rate and radicle elongation. The data obtained indicate that seed germination and radicle growth are strongly environmentally dependent, but could nevertheless be substantially improved by genomic-based breeding. Conditions during seed production and storage were shown to have a profound effect on seed vigor, and a variable manifestation of seed dormancy appears to contribute to differences in germination performance in B. napus. Several promising positional and functional candidate genes could be identified within the genomic regions associated with germination speed, absolute germination rate, radicle growth and thousand seed weight. These include B. napus orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes SNOWY COTYLEDON 1 (SCO1), ARABIDOPSIS TWO-COMPONENT RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR4), and ARGINYL-t-RNA PROTEIN TRANSFERASE 1 (ATE1), which have been shown previously to play a role in seed germination and seedling growth in A. thaliana.

  8. DNA Methylation Alterations at 5'-CCGG Sites in the Interspecific and Intraspecific Hybridizations Derived from Brassica rapa and B. napus.

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    Wanshan Xiong

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is an important regulatory mechanism for gene expression that involved in the biological processes of development and differentiation in plants. To investigate the association of DNA methylation with heterosis in Brassica, a set of intraspecific hybrids in Brassica rapa and B. napus and interspecific hybrids between B. rapa and B. napus, together with parental lines, were used to monitor alterations in cytosine methylation at 5'-CCGG sites in seedlings and buds by methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis. The methylation status of approximately a quarter of the methylation sites changed between seedlings and buds. These alterations were related closely to the genomic structure and heterozygous status among accessions. The methylation status in the majority of DNA methylation sites detected in hybrids was the same as that in at least one of the parental lines in both seedlings and buds. However, the association between patterns of cytosine methylation and heterosis varied among different traits and between tissues in hybrids of Brassica, although a few methylation loci were associated with heterosis. Our data suggest that changes in DNA methylation at 5'-CCGG sites are not associated simply with heterosis in the interspecific and intraspecific hybridizations derived from B. rapa and B. napus.

  9. Transpiration flow controls Zn transport in Brassica napus and Lolium multiflorum under toxic levels as evidenced from isotopic fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couder, Eléonore; Mattielli, Nadine; Drouet, Thomas; Smolders, Erik; Delvaux, Bruno; Iserentant, Anne; Meeus, Coralie; Maerschalk, Claude; Opfergelt, Sophie; Houben, David

    2015-11-01

    Stable zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation between soil and plant has been used to suggest the mechanisms affecting Zn uptake under toxic conditions. Here, changes in Zn isotope composition in soil, soil solution, root and shoot were studied for ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) and rape (Brassica napus L.) grown on three distinct metal-contaminated soils collected near Zn smelters (total Zn 0.7-7.5%, pH 4.8-7.3). The Zn concentrations in plants reflected a toxic Zn supply. The Zn isotopic fingerprint of total soil Zn varied from -0.05‰ to +0.26 ± 0.02‰ (δ66Zn values relative to the JMC 3-0749L standard) among soils, but the soil solution Zn was depleted in 66Zn, with a constant Zn isotope fractionation of about -0.1‰ δ66Zn unit compared to the bulk soil. Roots were enriched with 66Zn relative to soil solution (δ66Znroot - δ66Znsoil solution = Δ66Znroot-soil solution = +0.05 to +0.2 ‰) and shoots were strongly depleted in 66Zn relative to roots (Δ66Znshoot-root = -0.40 to -0.04 ‰). The overall δ66Zn values in shoots reflected that of the bulk soil, but were lowered by 0.1-0.3 ‰ units as compared to the latter. The isotope fractionation between root and shoot exhibited a markedly strong negative correlation (R2 = 0.83) with transpiration per unit of plant weight. Thus, the enrichment with light Zn isotopes in shoot progressed with increasing water flux per unit plant biomass dry weight, showing a passive mode of Zn transport by transpiration. Besides, the light isotope enrichment in shoots compared to roots was larger for rape than for rye grass, which may be related to the higher Zn retention in rape roots. This in turn may be related to the higher cation exchange capacity of rape roots. Our finding can be of use to trace the biogeochemical cycles of Zn and evidence the tolerance strategies developed by plants in Zn-excess conditions.

  10. Global Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles in Brassica napus Developing Seeds Reveals a Conserved Lipid Metabolism Regulation with Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya Niu; Guo-Zhang Wu; Rui Ye; Wen-Hui Lin; Qiu-Ming Shi; Liang-Jiao Xue; Xiao-Dong Xu; Yao Li; Yu-Guang; Hong-Wei Xue

    2009-01-01

    In order to study Brassica napus fatty acid (FA) metabolism and relevant regulatory networks, a systematic identification of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis-related genes was conducted. Following gene identification, gene expression profiles during B. napus seed development and FA metabolism were performed by cDNA chip hybridization (>8000 EST clones from seed). The results showed that FA biosynthesis and regulation, and carbon flux, were conserved between B. napus and Arabidopsis. However, a more critical role of starch metabolism was detected for B. napus seed FA metabolism and storage-component accumulation when compared with Arabidopsis. In addition, a crucial stage for the transition of seed-to-sink tissue was 17-21 d after flowering (DAF), whereas FA biosynthesis-related genes were highly expressed pri-marily at 21 DAF. Hormone (auxin and jasmonate) signaling is found to be important for FA metabolism. This study helps to reveal the global regulatory network of FA metabolism in developing B. napus seeds.

  11. Genetic and epigenetic changes in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. extracted from intergeneric allopolyploid and additions with Orychophragmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank eGautam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n=38, genomes AACC was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n=62, genomes AACCOO with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n=24, genome OO, by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SSAP, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.

  12. Genome-Wide Association and Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Candidate Genes Underlying Yield-determining Traits in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Peng, Liu; Zhang, Chao; Lu, Junhua; Yang, Bo; Xiao, Zhongchun; Liang, Ying; Xu, Xingfu; Qu, Cunmin; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Liezhao; Zhu, Qinlong; Fu, Minglian; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiana

    2017-01-01

    Yield is one of the most important yet complex crop traits. To improve our understanding of the genetic basis of yield establishment, and to identify candidate genes responsible for yield improvement in Brassica napus, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for seven yield-determining traits [main inflorescence pod number (MIPN), branch pod number (BPN), pod number per plant (PNP), seed number per pod (SPP), thousand seed weight, main inflorescence yield (MIY), and branch yield], using data from 520 diverse B. napus accessions from two different yield environments. In total, we detected 128 significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 93 of which were revealed as novel by integrative analysis. A combination of GWAS and transcriptome sequencing on 21 haplotype blocks from samples pooled by four extremely high-yielding or low-yielding accessions revealed the differential expression of 14 crucial candiate genes (such as Bna.MYB83, Bna.SPL5, and Bna.ROP3) associated with multiple traits or containing multiple SNPs associated with the same trait. Functional annotation and expression pattern analyses further demonstrated that these 14 candiate genes might be important in developmental processes and biomass accumulation, thus affecting the yield establishment of B. napus. These results provide valuable information for understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying the establishment of high yield in B. napus, and lay the foundation for developing high-yielding B. napus varieties. PMID:28261256

  13. Population Genomic Analysis Reveals Differential Evolutionary Histories and Patterns of Diversity across Subgenomes and Subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazave, Elodie; Tassone, Erica E; Ilut, Daniel C; Wingerson, Megan; Datema, Erwin; Witsenboer, Hanneke M A; Davis, James B; Grant, David; Dyer, John M; Jenks, Matthew A; Brown, Jack; Gore, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed) and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this species. We used sequence-based genotyping to identify and genotype 30,881 SNPs in a diversity panel of 782 B. napus accessions, representing samples of winter and spring growth habits originating from 33 countries across Europe, Asia, and America. We detected strong population structure broadly concordant with growth habit and geography, and identified three major genetic groups: spring (SP), winter Europe (WE), and winter Asia (WA). Subpopulation-specific polymorphism patterns suggest enriched genetic diversity within the WA group and a smaller effective breeding population for the SP group compared to WE. Interestingly, the two subgenomes of B. napus appear to have different geographic origins, with phylogenetic analysis placing WE and WA as basal clades for the other subpopulations in the C and A subgenomes, respectively. Finally, we identified 16 genomic regions where the patterns of diversity differed markedly from the genome-wide average, several of which are suggestive of genomic inversions. The results obtained in this study constitute a valuable resource for worldwide breeding efforts and the genetic dissection and prediction of complex B. napus traits.

  14. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Extracted from Intergeneric Allopolyploid and Additions with Orychophragmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Mayank; Dang, Yanwei; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    Allopolyploidization with the merger of the genomes from different species has been shown to be associated with genetic and epigenetic changes. But the maintenance of such alterations related to one parental species after the genome is extracted from the allopolyploid remains to be detected. In this study, the genome of Brassica napus L. (2n = 38, genomes AACC) was extracted from its intergeneric allohexaploid (2n = 62, genomes AACCOO) with another crucifer Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24, genome OO), by backcrossing and development of alien addition lines. B. napus-type plants identified in the self-pollinated progenies of nine monosomic additions were analyzed by the methods of amplified fragment length polymorphism, sequence-specific amplified polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism. They showed modifications to certain extents in genomic components (loss and gain of DNA segments and transposons, introgression of alien DNA segments) and DNA methylation, compared with B. napus donor. The significant differences in the changes between the B. napus types extracted from these additions likely resulted from the different effects of individual alien chromosomes. Particularly, the additions which harbored the O. violaceus chromosome carrying dominant rRNA genes over those of B. napus tended to result in the development of plants which showed fewer changes, suggesting a role of the expression levels of alien rRNA genes in genomic stability. These results provided new cues for the genetic alterations in one parental genome that are maintained even after the genome becomes independent.

  15. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  16. Brassica napus L. Homeodomain Leucine-Zipper Gene BnHB6 Responds to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun-Wu YU; Li-Da ZHANG; Kai-Jing ZUO; Dong-Qin TANG; Xiao-Fen SUN; Ke-Xuan TANG

    2005-01-01

    Ahomeodomain leucine-zipper(HD-Zip) gene BnHB6 (GenBank accession No. AY336103) was isolated from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) following drought treatment through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of BnHB6 was 1 611 bp and contained a 936-bp open reading frame encoding 311 amino acids. Sequence analysis indicated that BnHB6 belonged to the HD-Zip I subfamily.High-stringency Southern boltting analysis showed that BnHB6 appeared in rape as a single copy but had homologous genes. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed in several tissues tested under control conditions, but that expression was significantly upregulated in shoots by mannitol, NaCl, cold treatment, anaerobic culture, wounding, H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA) treatments, but not by ultraviolet treatment. Further RTPCR analysis revealed that BnHB6 was a late-responsive gene, the expression of which was not activated by NaCl, cold treatment, H2O2, ABA, and SA at an early time point (20 min) of treatment in the shoot. However, after a certain period of treatment, the induced expression culminated and then declined until the next peak occurred. Tissue-specific analysis revealed that BnHB6 was expressed at certain levels in the roots, shoots, and flowers, and the roots were found to respond to the osmotic stimuli more rapidly than shoots to increase the expression of BnHB6. The present study implies that BnHB6 plays a positive role as a regulator of biotic and abiotic stresses on growth during seedling establishment.

  17. Inheritance and expression patterns of BN28, a low temperature induced gene in Brassica napus, throughout the Brassicaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, G P; Nykiforuk, C L; Johnson-Flanagan, A M; Boothe, J G

    1996-08-01

    Molecular genetics is becoming an important tool in the breeding and selection of agronomically important traits. BN28 is a low temperature induced gene in Brassicaceae species. PCR and Southern blot analysis indicate that BN28 is polymorphic in the three diploid genomes: Brassica rapa (AA), Brassica nigra (BB), and Brassica oleracea (CC). Of the allotetraploids, Brassica napus (AACC) is the only species to have inherited homologous genes from both parental genomes. Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have inherited homologues from the AA and CC genomes, respectively, while Sinapsis arvensis (SS) contains a single homologue from the BB genome and Sinapsis alba (dd) appears to be different from all the diploid parents. All species show message induction when exposed to low temperature. However, differences in expression were noticed at the protein level, with silencing occurring in the BB genome at the level of translation. Results suggest that silencing is occurring in diploid species where duplication may not have occurred. Molecular characterization and inheritance of BN28 homologues in the Brassicaceae may play an important role in determining their quantitative function during exposure to low temperature. Key words : Brassicaceae, BN28, inheritance, polymorphism.

  18. Physical, biochemical and physiological effects of ultraviolet radiation on Brassica napus and Phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen Yan-Ping

    1993-12-31

    In order to follow some of the changes induced by ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation in Phaseolus vulgaris and Brassica napus, experiments were designed to localize sites of changes in leaves and to correlate some of the physiological and biochemical changes with penetration of UV-B radiation. B.napus was exposed to 8.9 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-B{sub BE}). The penetration of UV-B radiation into the leaf was followed using a quartz fibre optic microprobe. Monochromatic radiation at 310 nm was decreased by ca 50 and 34% in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, respectively, in plants not exposed to UV-B, whereas the radiation was decreased by ca 70 and 42%, respectively, in the same region in UV-treated plants. Polychromatic radiation showed a wavelength dependent change mainly for the collimated radiation. The results correlated with the distribution of phenolic compounds analysed from 40 {mu}m paradermal leaf sections. The first adaxial section (40{mu}m) contained 35% of the whole leaf sample flavonoid glycosides in control plants, and 66% in UV-treated plants. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives increased by 26% in UV-treated plants relative to controls. The ratio of quercetin to kaempferol derivatives increased from 0.11 in controls to 0.91 in leaves of UV-treated plants. The leaf epidermis protected the inner leaf tissue where most of the photosynthetic apparatus is located. P. vulgaris was subjected to 6.17 kJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1} UV-B{sub BE} with different levels of visible light. The largest UV-induced changes in photosynthesis, chlorophyll, carotenoids, UV-screening pigments, and surface leaf reflectance occurred under growth conditions of low levels of visible light together with UV radiation.

  19. Unraveling the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingxing Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tocopherols are important antioxidants in vegetable oils; when present as vitamin E, tocopherols are an essential nutrient for humans and livestock. Rapeseed (Brassica napus L, AACC, 2 n = 38 is one of the most important oil crops and a major source of tocopherols. Although the tocopherol biosynthetic pathway has been well elucidated in the model photosynthetic organisms Arabidopsis thaliana and Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, knowledge about the genetic basis of tocopherol biosynthesis in seeds of rapeseed is scant. This project was carried out to dissect the genetic basis of seed tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed through quantitative trait loci (QTL detection, genome-wide association analysis, and homologous gene mapping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a segregating Tapidor × Ningyou7 doubled haploid (TNDH population, its reconstructed F(2 (RC-F(2 population, and a panel of 142 rapeseed accessions (association panel. Genetic effects mainly contributed to phenotypic variations in tocopherol content and composition; environmental effects were also identified. Thirty-three unique QTL were detected for tocopherol content and composition in TNDH and RC-F(2 populations. Of these, seven QTL co-localized with candidate sequences associated with tocopherol biosynthesis through in silico and linkage mapping. Several near-isogenic lines carrying introgressions from the parent with higher tocopherol content showed highly increased tocopherol content compared with the recurrent parent. Genome-wide association analysis was performed with 142 B. napus accessions. Sixty-one loci were significantly associated with tocopherol content and composition, 11 of which were localized within the confidence intervals of tocopherol QTL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This joint QTL, candidate gene, and association mapping study sheds light on the genetic basis of seed tocopherol biosynthesis in rapeseed. The sequences presented here may be used

  20. Analysis of gene expression in resynthesized Brassica napus Allopolyploids using arabidopsis 70mer oligo microarrays.

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    Robert T Gaeta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids indicate that homoeologous chromosome exchanges in advanced generations (S(5ratio6 alter gene expression through the loss and doubling of homoeologous genes within the rearrangements. Rearrangements may also indirectly affect global gene expression if homoeologous copies of gene regulators within rearrangements have differential affects on the transcription of genes in networks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We utilized Arabidopsis 70mer oligonucleotide microarrays for exploring gene expression in three resynthesized B. napus lineages at the S(0ratio1 and S(5ratio6 generations as well as their diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea. Differential gene expression between the progenitors and additive (midparent expression in the allopolyploids were tested. The S(5ratio6 lines differed in the number of genetic rearrangements, allowing us to test if the number of genes displaying nonadditive expression was related to the number of rearrangements. Estimates using per-gene and common variance ANOVA models indicated that 6-15% of 26,107 genes were differentially expressed between the progenitors. Individual allopolyploids showed nonadditive expression for 1.6-32% of all genes. Less than 0.3% of genes displayed nonadditive expression in all S(0ratio1 lines and 0.1-0.2% were nonadditive among all S(5ratio6 lines. Differentially expressed genes in the polyploids were over-represented by genes differential between the progenitors. The total number of differentially expressed genes was correlated with the number of genetic changes in S(5ratio6 lines under the common variance model; however, there was no relationship using a per-gene variance model, and many genes showed nonadditive expression in S(0ratio1 lines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Few genes reproducibly demonstrated nonadditive expression among lineages, suggesting few changes resulted from a general response to polyploidization

  1. Capturing sequence variation among flowering-time regulatory gene homologues in the allopolyploid crop species Brassica napus

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    Sarah eSchiessl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Flowering, the transition from the vegetative to the generative phase, is a decisive time point in the lifecycle of a plant. Flowering is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors, photoreceptors, enzymes and miRNAs. In recent years, several studies gave rise to the hypothesis that this network is also strongly involved in the regulation of other important lifecycle processes ranging from germination and seed development through to fundamental developmental and yield-related traits. In the allopolyploid crop species Brassica napus, (genome AACC, homoeologous copies of flowering time regulatory genes are implicated in major phenological variation within the species, however the extent and control of intraspecific and intergenomic variation among flowering-time regulators is still unclear. To investigate differences among B. napus morphotypes in relation to flowering-time gene variation, we performed targeted deep sequencing of 29 regulatory flowering-time genes in four genetically and phenologically diverse B. napus accessions. The genotype panel included a winter-type oilseed rape, a winter fodder rape, a spring-type oilseed rape (all B. napus ssp. napus and a swede (B. napus ssp. napobrassica, which show extreme differences in winter-hardiness, vernalization requirement and flowering behaviour. A broad range of genetic variation was detected in the targeted genes for the different morphotypes, including non-synonymous SNPs, copy number variation and presence-absence variation. The results suggest that this broad variation in vernalisation, clock and signaling genes could be a key driver of morphological differentiation for flowering-related traits in this recent allopolyploid crop species.

  2. Expression of Brassica napus L. γ-Glutamylcysteine Synthetase and Low-and High-Affinity Sulfate Transporters in Response to Excess Cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin SUN; Xue-Mei SUN; Zhi-Min YANG; Shao-Qiong LI; Jin WANG; Song-Hua WANG

    2005-01-01

    In both the roots and leaves ofBrassica napus L. cv. Youyan No. 8 under treatment with 30 μmol/L Cd, massive production of non-protein thiols (NPT; mainly containing glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs)) was induced, together with an increase in γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS)mRNA transcripts. Because γ-ECS is the key enzyme catalyzing the first step in GSH biosynthesis, which, in turn, is converted to PCs, the Cd-induced increase in γ-ECS expression may be responsible for the observed increase in the production of NPT. Using a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach, the expression of genes encoding a putative low-affinity sulfate transporter (LAST) and a putative high-affinity sulfate transporter (HAST) was determined at the transcriptional level. The RT-PCR analysis of relative transcript amounts indicates that the LAST gene in B. napus leaves showed a constitutive expression, which was hardly affected by Cd treatment. However, treatment with 30 μmol/L Cd for 2 or 3 d induced a marked increase in the expression of LAST in roots. Transcriptional expression of the HAST gene occurred in roots, but not in leaves. The expression of HAST only in the roots suggests that it has a specific function in sulfate uptake from soil and that the putative LAST may be responsible for the transport of sulfate from the roots to the shoots, as well as for the uptake of sulfate from soil. These results indicate that changes in transcriptional expression for sulfate transporters were required for the increased demand for sulfate during Cd stress.

  3. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

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    King Graham J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola. Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats (SSRs from 536 sequenced BACs. 890 SSR markers (designated as BrGMS were developed and used for the construction of an integrated linkage map for the A genome in B. rapa and B. napus. Two hundred and nineteen BrGMS markers were integrated to an existing B. napus linkage map (BnaNZDH. Among these mapped BrGMS markers, 168 were only distributed on the A genome linkage groups (LGs, 18 distrubuted both on the A and C genome LGs, and 33 only distributed on the C genome LGs. Most of the A genome LGs in B. napus were collinear with the homoeologous LGs in B. rapa, although minor inversions or rearrangements occurred on A2 and A9. The mapping of these BAC-specific SSR markers enabled assignment of 161 sequenced B. rapa BACs, as well as the associated BAC contigs to the A genome LGs of B. napus. Conclusion The genetic mapping of SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa enabled direct links to be established between the B. napus linkage map and a B. rapa physical map, and thus the assignment of B. rapa BACs and the associated BAC contigs to the B. napus linkage map. This integrated genetic linkage map will facilitate exploitation of the B. rapa annotated genomic resources for gene tagging and map-based cloning in B. napus, and for comparative analysis of the A genome within Brassica species.

  4. Correlation, Stepwise Regressionand Path Analysis of Traits Affecting Grain Yield of canola (Brassica napus L

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    Mehdi Soltani Hoveize

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between yield and its components and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to seed yield. This study was conducted to analysis the correlation among seed yield and some important traits in seventhin spring canola (Brassica napus L. cultivars at the farm in safi abad, from 2014 to 2015. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Results analysis of variance showed that highly significant differences were detected among cultivars for all studied traits. The correlation coefficients among the seed yield and 1000-seed weight, number of seed per pod, duration of flowering, and days to physiological maturity were positive and significant (0.61**, 0.72**, 0.66** and 0.65**, respectively. According to stepwise regression seed yield trait is cosidered by dependent variable and other traits by independent variables. Model determination coefficient is R2=0.897. The most of determination coefficients there were for duration of flowering, number of seed per pod and days to physiological maturity (0.51, 0.54 and 0.38, respectively. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the number of seed per pod, duration of flowering and days to physiological maturity had the largest direct effects on the seed yield, its seams possible to use there traits as a selection criteria in breeding programs for improve seed yield of spring rapeseed cultivars.

  5. Breeding double low super hybrids with dominant genic male sterility three lines in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Maolin; Zhao Yun

    2005-01-01

    A double low homozygous two-type sterile line ZY-2AB, its near-isogenic temporary maintainer line ZY-4, and the full sterile line ZY-3 derived from the cross of ZY-2A with ZY-4, were developed to breed three-line dominant GMS hybrid in Brassica napus. Three years data showed that the ratios of sterile and fertile plants fit the expected 1:1 ratio in ZY-2AB, and the 1:0 ratio in ZY-3, respectively. Some double low super hybrid combinations were screened out when the full sterile line ZY-3 was used as female parent, among which the combination 01Z24 increased 36.88 percent more yield than control and the combination 98Z131 has been passed through the Sichuan Provincial Regional Test and registered in Sichuan Province. Two years data showed that the agronomic performance of the two-line hybrids derived from crosses of ZY-2A with restorer lines versus that of the three-line hybrids produced by ZY-3 was not different for any of the nine most important agronomic characteristics, revealing that near-isogenic line of homozygous two-type line was used as temporary maintainer could effectively avoid the disadvantage of three-way cross hybrid in breeding three-line dominant GMS hybrid.

  6. Sequential light programs shape kale (Brassica napus) sprout appearance and alter metabolic and nutrient content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Folta, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Different light wavelengths have specific effects on plant growth and development. Narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode (LED) lighting may be used to directionally manipulate size, color and metabolites in high-value fruits and vegetables. In this report, Red Russian kale (Brassica napus) seedlings were grown under specific light conditions and analyzed for photomorphogenic responses, pigment accumulation and nutraceutical content. The results showed that this genotype responds predictably to darkness, blue and red light, with suppression of hypocotyl elongation, development of pigments and changes in specific metabolites. However, these seedlings were relatively hypersensitive to far-red light, leading to uncharacteristically short hypocotyls and high pigment accumulation, even after growth under very low fluence rates (<1 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). General antioxidant levels and aliphatic glucosinolates are elevated by far-red light treatments. Sequential treatments of darkness, blue light, red light and far-red light were applied throughout sprout development to alter final product quality. These results indicate that sequential treatment with narrow-bandwidth light may be used to affect key economically important traits in high-value crops.

  7. Frying stability of rapeseed Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil in comparison with canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Kui; Zhang, Han; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Akiyama, Yoshinobu; Chen, Jie-Yu

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the frying performance of Kizakinonatane (Brassica napus) oil during deep-fat frying of frozen French fries with/without replenishment. Commercial regular canola oil was used for comparison. The frying oils were used during intermittent frying of frozen French fries at 180, 200, and 220 ℃ for 7 h daily over four consecutive days. The Kizakinonatane oil exhibited lower levels of total polar compounds, carbonyl value, and viscosity as well as comparable color (optical density) values to that of the canola oil. The monounsaturated fatty acid/polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios were lower than that of canola oil, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid ratios are higher than that of canola oil after heating. Results showed that fresh Kizakinonatane oil contains higher levels of acid value, viscosity, optical density values, tocopherols, and total phenolics contents than that of canola oil. Replenishment with fresh oil had significant effects on all chemical and physical parameters, except the acid value of the Kizakinonatane oil during frying processes. Based on the results, the Kizakinonatane oil is inherently suitable for preparing deep-fried foods at high temperatures.

  8. Early biochemical responses of Brassica napus var Exagone seed germination at salt treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapeseed is the third most important edible oil source in the world, after soybean and palm. This plant is very sensitive to salt stress throughout the growth and development cycle. Salt stress reduces plant growth and productivity and can affected several physiological and biochemical process. For this reason, this study was carried out to determine early the effects of NaCl treatment on the protein content, amylase (EC 3.2.1.1, acide phosphatase (E.C. 3.1.3.2, peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7 and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6 in young rape plant (Brassica napus L. var Exagone. The rape seed were treated four hour with three NaCl solutions (50mM, 100mM, 150mM comparatively with a control who wasn’t exposed at treatment. Amylase activity was inhibited by all used salts concentrations at both time intervals studied. Salinity stimulated the acid phosphatase activity, more intense at 4 days and moderately at 7 days after treatment. The activity of the two assayed antioxidant enzymes (except peroxidase in the second period increase in salinity conditions with increasing salt concentration. Soluble protein content is reduced compared to the control at both studied intervals.

  9. QTL analysis of leaf photosynthesis rate and related physiological traits in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xing-ying; QU Cun-min; LI Jia-na; CHEN Li; LIU Lie-zhao

    2015-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oil is the crucial source of edible oil in China. In addition, it can become a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. It is known that photosynthesis products are the primary sources for dry matter accumulation in rapeseed. Therefore, increasing the photosynthetic efifciency is desirable for the raise of rapeseed yield. The objective of the present study was to identify the genetic mechanism of photosynthesis based on the description of relationships between different photosynthetic traits and their quantitative trait loci (QTL) by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 172 lines. Speciifcal y, correlation analysis in this study showed that internal CO2 concentration has negative correlations with other three physiological traits under two different stages. Total y, 11 and 12 QTLs of the four physiological traits measured at the stages 1 and 2 were detected by using a high-density single nu-cleotidepolymorphism (SNP) markers linkage map with composite interval mapping (CIM), respectively. Three co-localized QTLs on A03 were detected at stage 1 with 5, 5, and 10%of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Other two co-localized QTLs were located on A05 at stage 2, which explained up to 12 and 5%of the phenotypic variation, respectively. The results are beneifcial for our understanding of genetic control of photosynthetic physiological characterizations and improvement of rapeseed yield in the future.

  10. Effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of Brassica napus phloem sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Albacete, Alfonso; Rios, Juan José; Kehr, Julia; Abadía, Anunciación; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of Fe deficiency on the protein profile of phloem sap exudates from Brassica napus using 2DE (IEF-SDS-PAGE). The experiment was repeated thrice and two technical replicates per treatment were done. Phloem sap purity was assessed by measuring sugar concentrations. Two hundred sixty-three spots were consistently detected and 15.6% (41) of them showed significant changes in relative abundance (22 decreasing and 19 increasing) as a result of Fe deficiency. Among them, 85% (35 spots), were unambiguously identified. Functional categories containing the largest number of protein species showing changes as a consequence of Fe deficiency were signaling and regulation (32%), and stress and redox homeostasis (17%). The Phloem sap showed a higher oxidative stress and significant changes in the hormonal profile as a result of Fe deficiency. Results indicate that Fe deficiency elicits major changes in signaling pathways involving Ca and hormones, which are generally associated with flowering and developmental processes, causes an alteration in ROS homeostasis processes, and induces decreases in the abundances of proteins involved in sieve element repair, suggesting that Fe-deficient plants may have an impaired capacity to heal sieve elements upon injury.

  11. Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, G; Jan, A; Arif, M; Jan, M T; Khattak, R A

    2007-10-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, Pakistan, during winter 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur levels and methods of nitrogen application on canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98) under rainfed conditions. Four levels of S (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg/ha) and three levels of N (40, 60, and 80 kg/ha) and a control treatment with both nutrients at zero level were included in the experiments. Sulfur levels were applied at sowing while N levels were applied by three methods (100% soil application, 90% soil+10% foliar application, and 80% soil +20% foliar application). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design having four replications. Oil content increased significantly up to 20 kg S/ha but further increase in S level did not enhance oil content. Glucosinolate content increased from 13.6 to 24.6 micromol/g as S rate was increased from 0 to 30 kg/ha. Protein content increased from 22.4% to 23.2% as S rate was increased from 0 to 20 kg/ha. Oil content responded negatively to the increasing N levels. The highest N level resulted in the highest values for protein (23.5%) and glucosinolate (19.9 micromol/g) contents. Methods of N application had no significant impact on any parameters under study.

  12. Gene flow from transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to cruciferous weeds under mentor pollen inducement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The alien gene flow between genetically modified glyphosate-resistant rapeseed variety Q3 ( Brassica napus L. ) and four cruciferous weeds was studied under mentor pollen inducement. The results showed that when Thlaspi arvense L., Capsella bursapastoris (L.) Medic, Cardamine hirsuta L. and Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser were pollinated with mentor pollen, the mixed Q3 and the weed, pollen grains aggregated largely and germinated quickly, and the numbers of pollen tubes penetrating into the style and the ovary were greatly increased as compared with corresponding self-pollination groups. Twenty four to forty eight hours after pollination, several pollen tubes were observed to penetrate into the ovule via micropyle in each mentor combination. However, when the mentor progenies were analyzed by PCR, all of them showed negative for the Q3 herbicide-resistant gene. Collectively, these results indicated that crossing between T. arvense, C. bursa-pastoris, C. hirsuta, R. palustris (as female) and Q3 (as male) was highly incompatible and the herbicide-resistant gene could not flow from Q3 to these four weeds.

  13. Changes in Protein Synthesis in Rapeseed (Brassica napus) Seedlings during a Low Temperature Treatment 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Basso, Luis; Alberdi, Miren; Raynal, Monique; Ferrero-Cadinanos, Maria-Luz; Delseny, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Changes induced by cold treatment in young rapeseed (Brassica napus) seedlings were investigated at the molecular level. Following germination at 18°C for 48 hours, one half of the seedlings was transferred to 0°C for another 48 hour period, the other half being kept at 18°C as a control. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled for the last 6 hours of incubation with [35S]methionine. The different polypeptides were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Newly synthesized proteins were revealed by fluorography. Protein synthesis clearly continues at 0°C and some polypeptides preferentially accumulate at this temperature. On the other hand, synthesis of several others is repressed while many are insensitive to cold treatment. Similar changes are also observed when mRNA is prepared from cold treated seedlings, translated in vitro in a reticulocyte cell free system and compared with the products of mRNA extracted from control samples. Among the genes which are repressed we identified the small subunit of ribulose 1,6-bisphosphate carboxylase. These changes are also detectable after shorter treatments. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665102

  14. Sulfate resupply accentuates protein synthesis in coordination with nitrogen metabolism in sulfur deprived Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lee, Bok-Rye; Park, Sang-Hyun; Zaman, Rashed; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Ourry, Alain; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the regulatory interactions between S assimilation and N metabolism in Brassica napus, de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins was quantified by (15)N and (34)S tracing, and the responses of transporter genes, assimilatory enzymes and metabolites pool involving in nitrate and sulfate metabolism were assessed under continuous sulfur supply, sulfur deprivation and sulfate resupply after 3 days of sulfur (S) deprivation. S-deprived plants were characterized by a strong induction of sulfate transporter genes, ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase (APR), and by a repressed activity of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS). Sulfate resupply to the S-deprived plants strongly increased cysteine, amino acids and proteins concentration. The increase in sulfate and cysteine concentration caused by sulfate resupply was not matched with the expression of sulfate transporters and the activity of ATPS and APR which were rapidly decreased by sulfate resupply. A strong induction of O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL), NR and GS upon sulfate resupply was accompanied with the increase in cysteine, amino acids and proteins pool. Sulfate resupply resulted in a strong increase in de novo synthesis of amino acids and proteins, as evidenced by the increases in N and S incorporation into amino acids (1.8- and 2.4-fold increase) and proteins (2.2-and 6.3-fold increase) when compared to S-deprived plants. The results thus indicate that sulfate resupply followed by S-deprivation accelerates nitrate assimilation for protein synthesis.

  15. Intraspecific chromosomal and genetic polymorphism in Brassica napus L. detected by cytogenetic and molecular markers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexandra V. Amosova; Lyudmila V. Zemtsova; Zoya E. Grushetskaya; Tatiana E. Samatadze; Galina V. Mozgova; Yadviga E. Pilyuk; Valentina T. Volovik; Natalia V. Melnikova; Alexandr V. Zelenin; Valentina A. Lemesh; Olga V. Muravenko

    2014-04-01

    The application of DNA intercalator 9-aminoacridine allowed us to increase the resolution of chromosome C-banding and DAPI-banding patterns and to investigate chromosomal polymorphism in karyotypes of seven spring and six winter rape varieties. It was shown that the pericentromeric and intercalary C-bands of most of the chromosomes in spring rape were smaller in size and less polymorphic than those of winter rape. More 26S and 5S rDNA sites were found in the winter rape karyotypes than the spring varieties. Separate or colocalized 26S and 5S rDNA sites were revealed on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16 and 18. Intervarietal and intravarietal polymorphism of the number and chromosomal localization of rDNA sites were detected. The generalized idiogram of chromosomes of 13 Brassica napus varieties with account of all possibilities of C-banding patterns as well as localization of 26S and 5S rDNA sites were constructed. Polymorphism of the examined molecular and cytogenetic markers as well as the heterozygosis level of FAE1.1 gene controlling erucic acid synthesis in rapeseed was higher in the winter varieties than in the spring ones. The obtained data were in a satisfactory agreement with increased tolerance to environmental stress conditions of winter rape.

  16. Detection of Fungus Infection on Petals of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Using NIR Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Li, Xiaoli; He, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Infected petals are often regarded as the source for the spread of fungi Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in all growing process of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plants. This research aimed to detect fungal infection of rapeseed petals by applying hyperspectral imaging in the spectral region of 874–1734 nm coupled with chemometrics. Reflectance was extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral image of each sample. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to conduct a cluster analysis with the first several principal components (PCs). Then, two methods including X-loadings of PCA and random frog (RF) algorithm were used and compared for optimizing wavebands selection. Least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) methodology was employed to establish discriminative models based on the optimal and full wavebands. Finally, area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was utilized to evaluate classification performance of these LS-SVM models. It was found that LS-SVM based on the combination of all optimal wavebands had the best performance with AUC of 0.929. These results were promising and demonstrated the potential of applying hyperspectral imaging in fungus infection detection on rapeseed petals.

  17. Divergent patterns of allelic diversity from similar origins: the case of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in China and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S; Nelson, M N; Ghamkhar, K; Fu, T; Cowling, W A

    2008-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Australia and China have similar origins, with introductions from Europe, Canada, and Japan in the mid 20th century, and there has been some interchange of germplasm between China and Australia since that time. Allelic diversity of 72 B. napus genotypes representing contemporary germplasm in Australia and China, including samples from India, Europe, and Canada, was characterized by 55 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the entire B. napus genome. Hierarchical clustering and two-dimensional multidimensional scaling identified a Chinese group (China-1) that was separated from "mixed group" of Australian, Chinese (China-2), European, and Canadian lines. A small group from India was distinctly separated from all other B. napus genotypes. Chinese genotypes, especially in the China-1 group, have inherited unique alleles from interspecific crossing, primarily with B. rapa, and the China-2 group has many alleles in common with Australian genotypes. The concept of "private alleles" is introduced to describe both the greater genetic diversity and the genetic distinctiveness of Chinese germplasm, compared with Australian germplasm, after 50 years of breeding from similar origins.

  18. MorphologiCal and Cytogenetic Analysis on the Advanced Generations of Generic Hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang ZHAO; Dezhi DU; Zaiyun LI

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to reveal the genetic changes of advanced generation hybrids between Brassica napus and Orychophragmus violaceus. [Method] The morphological characteristics such as the plant shape, branching sites, leaf shape, leaf color, primary branches and secondary branches, as well as the cytolog- ical characteristics of the advanced generation hybrids (Fs-F10) between B. napus and O. violaceus were observed. [Result] The morphology analysis revealed that the hybrid progeny was more like B. rapa in leaf shape, leaf color, plant shape and ear- ly flowering phenotype, whereas more like B. napus in number of secondary branch- es, silique length and 1 000-seed weight. Analysis on the cytogenetics characteristics showed that these advanced inbred progenies were hypoploids with less than 38 chromosomes; moreover, all the chromosomes from O. violaceus had been lost. Chromosome pairings at meiotic diakinesis of hybrids between the advanced inbred progenies and B. rapa revealed that chromosomes lost in hypoploids possibly be- longed to the C genome of B. oleracea. With generations developing, chromosomes number of plants from two populations gradually increased and developed into the number of B. napus (2n=38). [Conclusion] This study will provide reference to reveal the source of chromosome lost in hypoploids and the morphological change of hybrids.

  19. A genome-wide association study reveals new loci for resistance to clubroot disease in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, the yield and quality of rapeseed were largely decreased by clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. Therefore, it is of great importance for screening more resistant germplasms or genes and improving the resistance to P. brassicae in rapeseed breeding. In this study, a massive resistant identification for a natural global population was conducted in two environments with race/pathotype 4 of P. brassicae which was the most predominant in China, and a wide range of phenotypic variation was found in the population. In addition, a genome-wide association study of 472 accessions for clubroot resistance (CR was performed with 60K Brassica Infinium SNP arrays for the first time. In total, 9 QTLs were detected, 7 of which were novel through integrative analysis. Furthermore, additive effects in genetic control of CR in rapeseed among the above loci were found. By bioinformatic analyses, the candidate genes of these loci were predicted, which indicated that TIR-NBS gene family might play an important role in CR. It is believable that the results presented in our study could provide valuable information for understanding the genetic mechanism and molecular regulation of CR.

  20. Adventitious presence of other varieties in oilseed rape (¤Brassica napus¤) from seed banks and certified seed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    To obtain information on possible sources of contamination of the seed harvest of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., spp. napus) by other varieties (adventitious presence), we investigated the purity of certified seed lots; the abundance and origin of volunteers; and longevity and origin of seeds...... in the soil seed-bank. This information was acquired through DNA analysis of volunteers collected in the field and seedlings derived from the soil seed-bank. DNA profiles of the volunteers and seedlings were obtained using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers, and the profiles were compared with ISSR...... profiles from an assortment of 14 of the most commonly cultivated oilseed rape varieties from 1985 to 2004. This comparison was performed using the assignment program, AFLPOP. The age of the seed bank germinating to become volunteers was assumed from information on previously cultivated oilseed rape...

  1. Data for iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis of Brassica napus leaves in response to chlorophyll deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Chu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential pigment chlorophyll (Chl plays important roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis. Here we present the data from a comparative proteomic analysis of chlorophyll-deficient Brassica napus mutant cde1 and its corresponding wild-type using the iTRAQ approach (Pu Chu et al., 2014 [1]. The distribution of length and number of peptides, mass and sequence coverage of proteins identified was calculated, and the repeatability of the replicates was analyzed. A total of 443 differentially expressed proteins were identified in B. napus leaves, including 228 down-accumulated proteins mainly involved in photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, carbon fixation and 215 up-accumulated proteins that enriched in the spliceosome, mRNA surveillance and RNA degradation.

  2. Genome-wide association mapping unravels the genetic control of seed germination and vigour in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vanessa Hatzig

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination is a crucial prerequisite for crop establishment and high yield levels in crop production. A disclosure of genetic factors contributing to adequate seed vigour would help to further increase yield potential and stability. Here we carried out a genome-wide association study in order to define genomic regions influencing seed germination and early seedling growth in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.. A population of 248 genetically diverse winter-type B. napus accessions was genotyped with the Brassica 60kSNP Illumina genotyping array. Automated high-throughput in vitro phenotyping provided extensive data for multiple traits related to germination and early vigour, such as germination speed, absolute germination rate and radicle elongation. The data obtained indicate that seed germination and radicle growth are strongly environmentally dependent, but could nevertheless be substantially improved by genomic-based breeding,. Conditions during seed production and storage were shown to have a profound effect on seed vigour, and a variable manifestation of seed dormancy appears to contribute to differences in germination performance in B. napus. Several promising positional and functional candidate genes could be identified within the genomic regions associated with germination speed, absolute germination rate, radicle growth and thousand seed weight. These include B. napus orthologues of the Arabidopsis thaliana genes SNOWY COTYLEDON 1 (SCO1, ARABIDOPSIS TWO-COMPONENT RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR4 and ARGINYL-t-RNA PROTEIN TRANSFERASE 1 (ATE1, which have been shown previously to play a role in seed germination and seedling growth in A. thaliana.

  3. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eHay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using Brassica napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA. Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two Brassica napus genotypes contrasting in starch and

  4. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19 % of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Ca...

  5. Identification of a Novel Proline-Rich Antimicrobial Peptide from Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Cao

    Full Text Available Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PR-AMPs are a group of cationic host defense peptides that are characterized by a high content of proline residues. Up to now, they have been reported in some insects, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, but are not found in plants. In this study, we performed an in silico screening of antimicrobial peptides, which led to discovery of a Brassica napus gene encoding a novel PR-AMP. This gene encodes a 35-amino acid peptide with 13 proline residues, designated BnPRP1. BnPRP1 has 40.5% identity with a known proline-rich antimicrobial peptide SP-B from the pig. BnPRP1 was artificially synthetized and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET30a/His-EDDIE-GFP. Recombinant BnPRP1 was produced in Escherichia coli and has a predicted molecular mass of 3.8 kDa. Analysis of its activity demonstrated that BnPRP1 exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacterium, Gram-negative bacterium, yeast and also had strong antifungal activity against several pathogenic fungi, such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Mucor sp., Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea. Circular dichroism (CD revealed the main secondary structure of BnPRP1 was the random coil. BnPRP1 gene expression detected by qRT-PCR is responsive to pathogen inoculation. At 48 hours after S. sclerotiorum inoculation, the expression of BnPRP1 increased significantly in the susceptible lines while slight decrease occurred in resistant lines. These suggested that BnPRP1 might play a role in the plant defense response against S. sclerotiorum. BnPRP1 isolated from B. napus was the first PR-AMP member that was characterized in plants, and its homology sequences were found in some other Brassicaceae plants by the genome sequences analysis. Compared with the known PR-AMPs, BnPRP1 has the different primary sequences and antimicrobial activity. Above all, this study gives a chance to cast a new light on further understanding about the AMPs' mechanism

  6. Genome-Wide Gene Expressions Respond Differently to A-subgenome Origins in Brassica napus Synthetic Hybrids and Natural Allotetraploid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Tan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    The young allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) is one of models to study genomic responses to allopolyploidization. The extraction of AA component from natural B. napus and then restitution of progenitor B. rapa should provide a unique opportunity to reveal the genome interplay for gene expressions during the evolution. Herein, B. napus hybrids (2n = 19, AC) between the extracted and extant B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and the same B. oleracea genotype (2n = 18, CC) were studied by RNA-seq and compared with natural B. napus donor, to reveal the gene expression changes from hybridization and domestication and the effects of A genome with different origins. Upon the initial merger of two diploid genomes, additive gene expression was prevalent in these two hybrids, for non-additively expressed genes only represented a small portion of total expressed genes. A high proportion of genes exhibited expression level dominance, with no preference to either of the parental genomes. Comparison of homoeolog expressions also showed no bias toward any genomes and the parental expression patterns were often maintained in the hybrids and natural allotetraploids. Although, the overall patterns of gene expression were highly conserved between two hybrids, the extracted B. rapa responded less and appeared more compatible for hybridization than the extant B. rapa. Our results suggested that expression level dominance and homoeolog expressions bias were balanced at the initial stage of genome merger, and such balance were largely maintained during the domestication of B. napus, despite the increased extent over time. PMID:27790227

  7. Identification of a potential structural marker for embryogenic competency in the Brassica napus spp. oleifera embryogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Parameswari; Skepper, Jeremy; Hanke, David

    2006-09-01

    The Brassica napus secondary embryogenesis system requires no exogenous growth regulator to stimulate embryo development. It is stable embryogenically over a long period of culture and has a distinct pre-embryogenic stage. This system was used to investigate the morphological and cellular changes occurring in the embryogenic tissue compared to non-embryogenic tissue using various microscopy techniques. A unique ultrastructural feature designated the extracellular matrix (ECM) was observed on the surface of pre-embryogenic embryoids but not on the non-embryogenic individuals. The ECM layer was found to be dominant in the pre-embryogenic stage and reduced to fragments during embryo growth and development in mature embryogenic tissue. This is a novel aspect of the phenotype previously unreported in the Brassica system. This structure might be linked to acquisition of embryogenic competence.

  8. Identification and characterization of orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6 in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Andrew Ford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving crop species by breeding for salt tolerance or introducing salt tolerant traits is one method of increasing crop yields in saline affected areas. The model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has been extensively studied and there is substantial information available about the function and importance of many genes and proteins involved in salt tolerance. The identification and characterization of A. thaliana orthologs in species such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape can prove difficult due to the significant genomic changes that have occurred since their divergence approximately 20 million years ago. The recently released B. rapa genome provides an excellent resource for comparative studies of Arabidopsis and the cultivated Brassica species, and facilitates the identification of Brassica species orthologs which may be of agronomic importance. Sodium hydrogen antiporter (NHX proteins transport a sodium or potassium ion in exchange for a hydrogen ion in the other direction across a membrane. In A. thaliana there are eight members of the NHX family designated AtNHX1-8 that can be sub-divided into three clades (plasma membrane (PM, intracellular class I (IC-I and intracellular class II (IC-II based on their subcellular localization. In plants, many NHX proteins are primary determinants of salt tolerance and act by transporting Na+ out of the cytosol where it would otherwise accumulate to toxic levels. Significant work has been done analyzing both PM and IC-I clade members role in salt tolerance in a variety of plant species but relatively little analysis has been described for the IC-II clade. Here we describe the identification of B. napus orthologs of AtNHX5 and AtNHX6, using the Brassica rapa genome sequence, macro- and micro-synteny analysis, comparative expression and promoter motif analysis, and highlight the value of these multiple approaches for identifying true orthologs in closely related species with multiple paralogs.

  9. Introduction of beet cyst nematode resistance from Sinapsis alba L. and Raphanus sativus L. into Brassica napus L. (oil-seed rape) through sexual and somatic hybridization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelivelt, C.L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to select for beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm., abbrev. BCN) resistant genotypes of Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape), and to introduce BCN-resistance from the related species Raphanus sativus L. (oil-radish) and Sinapis alba L. (white mustard) into oil-seed r

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of the Beneficial Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569, a Natural Isolate of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Thuermer, Andrea; Daniel, Rolf; Braus, Gerhard H

    2015-03-26

    Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 8569 represents a natural isolate of the rhizosphere of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in Germany and possesses antagonistic potential toward the fungal pathogen Verticillium. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain DSM 8569, which comprises 5,914 protein-coding sequences.

  11. Seeding date affects fall growth of winter canola (Brassica napus L. ‘Baldur’) and its performance as a winter cover crop in central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, interest has increased in finding non-grass cover crop species that could be planted after soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) and before corn (Zea mays L.) in Iowa crop rotations. In this study, we investigate the use of winter canola (Brassica napus L.) as an alternative cover crop fo...

  12. Yield reduction in Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and Sinapis alba caused by flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)) infestation in northern Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack; McCaffrey, Joseph P; Brown, Donna A; Harmon, Bradley L; Davis, James B

    2004-10-01

    Phyllotreta cruciferae is an important insect pest of spring-planted Brassica crops, especially during the seedling stage. To determine the effect of early season P. cruciferae infestation on seed yield, 10 genotypes from each of two canola species (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) and two mustard species (Brassica juncea L. and Sinapis alba L.) were grown in 2 yr under three different P. cruciferae treatments: (1) no insecticide control; (2) foliar applications of endosulfan; and (3) carbofuran with seed at planting plus foliar application of carbaryl. Averaged over 10 genotypes, B. rapa showed most visible P. cruciferae injury and showed greatest yield reduction without insecticide application. Mustard species (S. alba and B. juncea) showed least visible injury and higher yield without insecticide compared with canola species (B. napus and B. rapa). Indeed, average seed yield of S. alba without insecticide was higher than either B. napus or B. rapa with most effective P. cruciferae control. Significant variation occurred within each species. A number of lines from B. napus, B. juncea, anid S. alba showed less feeding injury and yield reduction as a result of P. cruciferae infestation compared with other lines from the same species examined, thus having potential genetic background for developing resistant cultivars.

  13. Seed losses during the harvesting of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. at on-farm scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian environments, the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is subjected, at ripening, to a seed shattering causing significant losses that reduce the yield and increase the oilseed rape seedbank in the soil. Meteorological events and mechanical harvesting are the main factors affecting the extent of seed dispersal. Lacking the availability of works investigating the actual losses during the harvest at large scale, the Consiglio per la sperimentazione e la ricerca in agricoltura, Unità di ricerca per l’ingegneria agraria (CRA-ING has conducted a study in order to determine the effective seed losses at on-farm scale. The amount of losses of two combine headers, traditional for wheat and specific for oilseed rape harvest, was compared. The rapeseed header had a hydraulic sliding cut-bar and two vertical electric blade on both sides in order to reduce the pulling and tearing action between the cut-off plants and those still standing. The seed losses were evaluated before and during the harvesting by using plastic trays placed on the ground within the crop rows. The trays were arranged in a layout allowing the estimation of the seed losses of three different sectors of the combine headers. The results have demonstrated that, at farm level, the use of a specific oilseed rape header adapted and optimized for the crop requirements allows to obtain a level of seed losses (0,97% of total production, below the values reported in literature. For rapeseed, the higher losses are localized at the final parts of the head, where the plants are strictly intertwined.

  14. Yield and Yield Components of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L. Affected by

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M AghaAlikhani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the critical period of weed control and investigation the effect of periodical control and interference of weeds natural population on yield and yield components of winter canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Okapi in west region of Tehran an experiment was carried out at research field of Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran on 2004-5 growing season. Fourteen experimental treatments which divided into two sets were arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. In the first set, the crop was kept weedfree from canola emergence time to two-leaf stage (V2, four-leaf stage (V4, six-leaf stage (V6, eight-leaf stage (V8, initiation of flowering (If, %50 of pod set (%50Ps and final harvest (H. In the second set of treatments, weeds were permitted to grow with the crop until above mentioned stages and then related plots kept weed free till end of season. Furthermore two additional treatments known as whole season control and whole season weed infested were established. At mentioned phonological stages in interference treatments weeds were removed, separated to species and measured for dry weight. Also during canola growth season trend of plant height and dry matter distribution were studied. At the end of season canola grain yield and yield components were determined. Results showed that extending interference duration and limiting weed control duration significantly decreased all canola yield components except 1000 grain weight .Furthermore extended weed interference duration up to canola 4-leaf stage decreased %20-70 of grain yield in compare to whole season control. Delayed weed control up to early rosette stage creates decreasing trend in canola grain yield. According to Gompertz and Logistic equations, critical period of weed control in canola was estimated between 25-70 days after emergence of canola.

  15. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  16. Detection of DNA methylation changes during seed germination in rapeseed (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guangyuan; WU Xiaoming; CHEN Biyun; GAO Guizhen; XU Kun; LI Xiangzhi

    2006-01-01

    DNA methylation is known to play a crucial role in regulating plant development and organ or tissue differentiation. In this study, we assessed the extent and pattern of cytosine methylation during rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seed germination, and compared the methylation level of various tissues in seedling, using the techniques of methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) and HPLC separation and quantification of nucleosides. In all, 484 bands, each representing a recognition site cleaved by either or both of the isoschizomers, were amplified by 12 pairs of selective primers in DNA obtained from dry seeds. A total of 76 sites were found to be differentially digested by the isoschizomers, indicating that approximately 15.7% of 5(-CCGG-3( sites in the genome were cytosine methylated. Four classes of patterns were observed in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation in the dry and germinating seeds; a small number of hypermethylation events occurred at 5(-CCGG-3( sites in germinating seeds compared with dry seeds, while many more hypomethylation events were detected after seed germination. Differences in DNA methylation level in various tissues were also detected; radicel was less methylated than hypocotyl and cotyledon. These observations were further confirmed by HPLC analysis. In addition, sequencing of eleven differentially methylated fragments and the subsequent blast search revealed that cytosine methylated 5(-CCGG- 3( sequences were equally distributed between coding and non-coding regions. These results clearly demonstrate the power of MSAP technique for large-scale DNA methylation detection in rapeseed genome, and the complexity of DNA methylation change during seed germination. DNA Hypomethylation going with seed germination appears to be a necessary step toward transcriptional activation in gene expression, and 5 well contribute to the developmental gene regulation.

  17. Overproduction of stromal ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase in H2O 2-accumulating Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Mishina, Kohei; Anma, Misato; Enami, Kazuhiko; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Masami

    2014-12-01

    The isolation of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species generation and accumulation in the chloroplasts. An activated isoform of NADPH oxidase-like protein was detected in the protoplasts and the protoplast chloroplasts. The purpose of this study is to define the NADH oxidase-like activities in the H2O2-accumulating protoplast chloroplasts. Proteomic analysis of this protein revealed an isoform of ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR1). While leaves highly expressed the LFNR1 transcript, protoplasts decreased the expression significantly. The protoplast chloroplasts predominantly expressed soluble FNR1 proteins. While the albino leaves of white kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala f. tricolor cv. white pigeon) expressed FNR1 protein at the same level as B. napus leaves, the protoplasts of albino leaves displayed reduced FNR1 expression. The albino leaf protoplasts of white kale generated and accumulated H2O2 in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane. Intracellular pH showed that the chloroplasts were acidic, which suggest that excess H(+) was generated in chloroplast stroma. NADPH content of the protoplast chloroplasts increased by over sixfold during the isolation of protoplasts. This study reports a possibility of mediating electrons to oxygen by an overproduced soluble FNR, and suggests that the FNR has a function in utilizing any excess reducing power of NADPH.

  18. Incorporation of hygromycin resistance in Brassica nigra and its transfer to B. napus through asymmetric protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, M D; Gerdemann-Knörck, M; Schieder, O

    1989-08-01

    With the idea to develop a selection system for asymmetric somatic hybrids between oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and black mustard (B. nigra), the marker gene hygromycin resistance was introduced in this last species by protoplast transformation with the disarmed Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 pGV 3850 HPT. The B. nigra lines used for transformation had been previously selected for resistance to two important rape pathogens (Phoma lingam, Plasmodiophora brassicae). Asymmetric somatic hybrids were obtained through fusion of X-ray irradiated (mitotically inactivated) B. nigra protoplasts from transformed lines as donor with intact protoplasts of B. napus, using the hygromycin resistance as selection marker for fusion products. The somatic hybrids hitherto obtained expressed both hygromycin phosphotransferase and nopaline synthase genes. Previous experience with other plant species had demonstrated that besides the T-DNA, other genes of the donor genome can be co-transferred. In this way, the produced hybrids constitute a valuable material for studying the possibility to transfer agronomically relevant characters - in our case, diseases resistances - through asymmetric protoplast fusion.

  19. Determination of Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Mutant Lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Raza; Aquil Siddique; Imtiaz Ahmad Khan; Muhammed Yasin Ashraf; Abdullah Khatri

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), γ-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17)of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95116, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. 'Westar' (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3-41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1-28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.

  20. Phenolic Composition Analysis and Gene Expression in Developing Seeds of Yellow-and Black-seeded Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinjin Jiang; Yanlin Shao; Aimin Li; Chunliang Lu; Yongtai Zhang; Youping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Breeders have focused on yellow-seeded Brassica napus (rapeseed) for its better quality compared with the black-seeded variety.Moreover,flavonoids have been associated with this kind of rapeseed.In this study,we applied lipid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MSn) to compare flavonoids in developing seeds of natural black-seeded B.napus and yellow-seeded introgression lines selected from progenies of B.napus-Sinapis alba somatic hybrids.Aside from the most abundant phenolic compounds (sinapine and sinapic acid) and 1,2-disinapoylglucose,16 different flavonoids were identified and quantified,including (-)-epicatechin,five monocharged oligomers of (-)-epicatechin ([DP 2]-,[DP 3]-,[DP 4] [DP 2]-B2 and [DP 2]-B5),quercetin,kaempferol,isorhamnetin-dihexoside,kaempferol-sinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetinsinapoyl-trihexoside,isorhamnetin-hexoside-sulfate,and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside.Most of the flavonoids accumulated with seed development,whereas some rapidly decreased during maturation.The content of these flavonoids was lower in the yellow-seeded materials than in the black seeds.In addition,variations of insoluble procyanidin oligomers and soluble phenolic acids were observed among both rapeseed varieties.Transcriptome changes of genes participating in the flavonoid pathway were discovered by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis.Consistent with flavonoid changes identified by high performance liquid chromatography analysis,the expression of most genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was also downregulated.

  1. Development of new restorer lines for CMS ogura system with the use of resynthesized oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szała, Laurencja; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Popławska, Wiesława; Liersch, Alina; Olejnik, Anna; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Bocianowski, Jan; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Resynthesized (RS) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is potentially of great interest for hybrid breeding. However, a major problem with the direct use of RS B. napus is the quality of seed oil (high level of erucic acid) and seed meal (high glucosinolate content), which does not comply with double-low quality oilseed rape. Thus, additional developments are needed before RS B. napus can be introduced into breeding practice. In this study, RS oilseed rape was obtained through crosses between B. rapa ssp. chinensis var. chinensis and B. oleracea ssp. acephala var. sabellica. RS plant was then crossed with double-low (00) winter oilseed rape lines containing the Rfo gene for Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS ogu) system. Populations of doubled haploids (DH) were developed from these F1 hybrids using the microspore in vitro culture method. The seeds of semi-RS DH lines were analyzed for erucic acid and glucosinolate content. Among the populations of semi-RS DHs four 00-quality lines with the Rfo gene were selected. Using 344 AFLP markers to estimate genetic relatedness, we showed that the RS lines and semi-RS lines formed clusters that were clearly distinct from 96 winter oilseed rape parental lines of F1 hybrids.

  2. Characterization of interploid hybrids from crosses between Brassica juncea and B. oleracea and the production of yellow-seeded B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Zhu, Lixia; Qi, Liping; Ke, Hongmei; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Ma, Chaozhi; Fu, Tingdong

    2012-06-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica napus was for the first time developed from interspecific crosses using yellow-seeded B. juncea (AABB), yellow-seeded B. oleracea (CC), and black-seeded artificial B. napus (AACC). Three different mating approaches were undertaken to eliminate B-genome chromosomes after trigenomic hexaploids (AABBCC) were generated. Hybrids (AABCC, ABCC) from crosses AABBCC × AACC, AABBCC × CC and ABCC × AACC were advanced by continuous selfing in approach 1, 2 and 3, respectively. To provide more insight into Brassica genome evolution and the cytological basis for B. napus resynthesis in each approach, B-genome chromosome pairing and segregation were intensively analyzed in AABCC and ABCC plants using genomic in situ hybridization methods. The frequencies at which B-genome chromosomes underwent autosyndesis and allosyndesis were generally higher in ABCC than in AABCC plants. The difference was statistically significant for allosyndesis but not autosyndesis. Abnormal distributions of B-genome chromosomes were encountered at anaphase I, including chromosome lagging and precocious sister centromere separation of univalents. These abnormalities were observed at a significantly higher frequency in AABCC than in ABCC plants, which resulted in more rapid B-genome chromosome elimination in the AABCC derivatives. Yellow or yellow-brown seeds were obtained in all approaches, although true-breeding yellow-seeded B. napus was developed only in approaches 2 and 3. The efficiency of the B. napus construction approaches was in the order 1 > 3 > 2 whereas this order was 3 > 2 > 1 with respect to the construction of yellow-seeded B. napus. The results are discussed in relation to Brassica genome evolution and the development and utilization of the yellow-seeded B. napus obtained here.

  3. Genomic DNA enrichment using sequence capture microarrays: a novel approach to discover sequence nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E Clarke

    Full Text Available Targeted genomic selection methodologies, or sequence capture, allow for DNA enrichment and large-scale resequencing and characterization of natural genetic variation in species with complex genomes, such as rapeseed canola (Brassica napus L., AACC, 2n=38. The main goal of this project was to combine sequence capture with next generation sequencing (NGS to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in specific areas of the B. napus genome historically associated (via quantitative trait loci -QTL- analysis to traits of agronomical and nutritional importance. A 2.1 million feature sequence capture platform was designed to interrogate DNA sequence variation across 47 specific genomic regions, representing 51.2 Mb of the Brassica A and C genomes, in ten diverse rapeseed genotypes. All ten genotypes were sequenced using the 454 Life Sciences chemistry and to assess the effect of increased sequence depth, two genotypes were also sequenced using Illumina HiSeq chemistry. As a result, 589,367 potentially useful SNPs were identified. Analysis of sequence coverage indicated a four-fold increased representation of target regions, with 57% of the filtered SNPs falling within these regions. Sixty percent of discovered SNPs corresponded to transitions while 40% were transversions. Interestingly, fifty eight percent of the SNPs were found in genic regions while 42% were found in intergenic regions. Further, a high percentage of genic SNPs was found in exons (65% and 64% for the A and C genomes, respectively. Two different genotyping assays were used to validate the discovered SNPs. Validation rates ranged from 61.5% to 84% of tested SNPs, underpinning the effectiveness of this SNP discovery approach. Most importantly, the discovered SNPs were associated with agronomically important regions of the B. napus genome generating a novel data resource for research and breeding this crop species.

  4. Selection of reference genes for quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction normalization in Brassica napus under various stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Chen, Yu; Fang, Hedi; Shi, Haifeng; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-10-01

    Data normalization is essential for reliable output of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, as the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s), whose expression might be influenced by exogenous treatments in plant tissues, could cause misinterpretation of results. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in stressed Brassica napus. In this study, we investigated the expression variations of nine candidate reference genes in 40 samples of B. napus leaves subjected to various exogenous treatments. Parallel analyses by geNorm and NormFinder revealed that optimal reference genes differed across the different sets of samples. The best-ranked reference genes were PP2A and TIP41 for salt stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for heavy metal (Cr(6+)) stress, PP2A and UBC21 for drought stress, F-box and SAND for cold stress, F-box and ZNF for salicylic acid stress, TIP41, ACT7, and PP2A for methyl jasmonate stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for abscisic acid stress, and TIP41, UBC21, and PP2A for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. Two newly employed reference genes, TIP41 and PP2A, showed better performances, suggesting their suitability in multiple conditions. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes, the expression patterns of BnWRKY40 and BnMKS1 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR normalization in B. napus, an agriculturally important crop, under different stress conditions. The results will contribute toward more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in gene analysis of the genus Brassica.

  5. Identiifcation of the Regulator of G-Protein Signaling Protein Responsive to Plant Hormones and Abiotic Stresses in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; ZHU Xia; ZHU Xiao-bin; YU Yi-fan; GE Hui-min; GAO Yong; LIANG Jian-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling proteins (RGS) accelerate the rate of GTP hydrolysis by Gαproteins, thus acting as negative regulators of G-protein signaling. Studies on Arabidopsis and soybean have proven that RGS proteins are physiologically important in plants and contribute to the signaling pathways regulated by different stimuli. Brassica napus is an important agriculturally relevant plant, the wildly planted oilseed rape in the world, which possesses an identiifed Gα, Gβand Gγsubunits. In the present study, we identiifed and characterized a Brassica napus RGS gene, BnRGS1, which contained an open reading frame of 1 380 bp encoding a putative 52.6 kDa polypeptide of 459 amino acids, within seven putative transmembrane domains in the N-terminal and RGS box in the C-terminal. BnRGS1 is located on the membrane in onion epidermal cells and tobacco leaves, and interacts with BnGA1 in the mating-based split-ubiquitin system. The expression levels of BnRGS1 were quite different in different tissues and developmental stages, and induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The effects of gibberellin (GA3) and brassinolide (BR) on the expression of BnRGS1 were irregular under the concentrations tested. Moreover, the transcript level of BnRGS1 was also induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), whereas remained little changed by 200 mmol L-1 NaCl. These results suggested that the BnRGS1 may be involved in B. napus response to plant hormone signaling and abiotic stresses.

  6. Overexpression of Three Glucosinolate Biosynthesis Genes in Brassica napus Identifies Enhanced Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea are notorious plant pathogenic fungi with an extensive host range including Brassica crops. Glucosinolates (GSLs are an important group of secondary metabolites characteristic of the Brassicales order, whose degradation products are proving to be increasingly important in plant protection. Enhancing the defense effect of GSL and their associated degradation products is an attractive strategy to strengthen the resistance of plants by transgenic approaches. We generated the lines of Brassica napus with three biosynthesis genes involved in GSL metabolic pathway (BnMAM1, BnCYP83A1 and BnUGT74B1, respectively. We then measured the foliar GSLs of each transgenic lines and inoculated them with S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea. Compared with the wild type control, over-expressing BnUGT74B1 in B. napus increased the aliphatic and indolic GSL levels by 1.7 and 1.5 folds in leaves respectively; while over-expressing BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1 resulted in an approximate 1.5-fold higher only in the aliphatic GSL level in leaves. The results of plant inoculation demonstrated that BnUGT74B1-overexpressing lines showed less severe disease symptoms and tissue damage compared with the wild type control, but BnMAM1 or BnCYP83A1-overexpressing lines showed no significant difference in comparison to the controls. These results suggest that the resistance to S. sclerotiorum and B. cinerea in B. napus could be enhanced through tailoring the GSL profiles by transgenic approaches or molecular breeding, which provides useful information to assist plant breeders to design improved breeding strategies.

  7. Comparative mapping reveals similar linkage of functional genes to QTL of yield-related traits between Brassica napus and Oryza sativa

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fupeng Li; Chaozhi Ma; Qingfang Chen; Touming Liu; Jinxiong Shen; Jinxing Tu; Yongzhong Xing; Tingdong Fu

    2012-08-01

    Oryza sativa and Brassica napus—two important crops for food and oil, respectively—share high seed yield as a common breeding goal. As a model plant, O. sativa genomics have been intensively investigated and its agronomic traits have been advanced. In the present study, we used the available information on O. sativa to conduct comparative mapping between O. sativa and B. napus, with the aim of advancing research on seed-yield and yield-related traits in B. napus. Firstly, functional markers (from 55 differentially expressed genes between a hybrid and its parents) were used to detect B. napus genes that co-localized with yield-related traits in an F2∶3 population. Referring to publicly available sequences of 55 B. napus genes, 53 homologous O. sativa genes were subsequently detected by screening, and their chromosomal locations were determined using silico mapping. Comparative location of yield-related QTL between the two species showed that a total of 37 O. sativa and B. napus homologues were located in similar yield-related QTL between species. Our results indicate that homologous genes between O. sativa and B. napus may have consistent function and control similar traits, which may be helpful for agronomic gene characterization in B. napus based on what is known in O. sativa.

  8. Development of a protocol for frost-tolerance evaluation in rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danielle Fiebelkorn; Mukhlesur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost can severely damage or even kill rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. A protocol for large scale screening of rapeseed germplasm under frost-simulating conditions has not yet been developed. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to develop a protocol for screening rapeseed germplasm under artificial frost-simulation conditions in a plant growth chamber and in a greenhouse. Nine rapeseed varieties, including three commercial hybrids, three spring types, and three winter types were used. Cold acclimation at 4 °C was applied for 0, 7, or 14 days to two-week old seedlings. The seedlings were treated with four freezing temperatures (−4 °C, −8 °C, −12 °C, and −16 °C). The length of the freezing period was 16 h, including the ramping of temperature down from 4 °C and up from the respective freezing temperature to 4 °C. Plants were allowed to recover at 4 °C for 24 h before they were moved back to the greenhouse. Frost damage was scored on a 0–5 scale, where 0 denotes completely dead and 5 denotes no damage. Seedling survival from the freezing treatment increased from the non-acclimation to the cold acclimation treatment. However, no significant differences (P<0.05) were found between 7 and 14 days of acclimation. Frost treatment at −4 °C resulted in significant differences in seedling damage relative to the other three temperatures, with the −16 °C treatment resulting in the highest overall seedling damage. Significant differences were found between the spring type and the other two types (hybrid and winter). However, no significant differences were found between the hybrid and winter types. The suggested protocol for the assessment of frost tolerance is acclimation of two-week old seedlings for 7 days at 4 °C followed by frost treatment at−4 °C for 16 h.

  9. Members of the germin-like protein family in Brassica napus are candidates for the initiation of an oxidative burst that impedes pathogenesis of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietz, Steffen; Bernsdorff, Friederike E M; Cai, Daguang

    2012-09-01

    Germin-like proteins (GLPs) are defined by their sequence homology to germins from barley and are present ubiquitously in plants. Analyses of corresponding genes have revealed diverse functions of GLPs in plant development and biotic and abiotic stresses. This study describes the identification of a family of 14 germin-like genes from Brassica napus (BnGLP) designated BnGLP1-BnGLP14 and investigated potential functions of BnGLPs in plant defense against the necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses classify the 14 BnGLPs into four groups, which were clearly distinguished from known germin oxalic acid oxidases. Transcriptional responses of the BnGLP genes to S. sclerotiorum infection was determined by comparing cultivars of susceptible B. napus 'Falcon' and partially resistant B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9'. Of the 14 BnGLP genes tested, BnGLP3 was transcriptionally upregulated in both B. napus cultivars at 6h after S. sclerotiorum infection, while upregulation of BnGLP12 was restricted to resistant B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9'. Biochemical analysis of five representative BnGLP members identified a H(2)O(2)-generating superoxide dismutase activity only for higher molecular weight complexes of BnGLP3 and BnGLP12. By analogy, H(2)O(2) formation at infected leaf sites increased after 6h, with even higher H(2)O(2) production in B. napus 'Zhongshuang 9' compared with B. napus 'Falcon'. Conversely, exogenous application of H(2)O(2) significantly reduced the susceptibility of B. napus 'Falcon'. These data suggest that early induction of BnGLP3 and BnGLP12 participates in an oxidative burst that may play a pivotal role in defence of B. napus against S. sclerotiorum.

  10. Systemic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) by Trichoderma harzianum TH12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkooranee, Jawadayn Talib; Yin, Yongtai; Aledan, Tamarah Raad; Jiang, Yingfen; Lu, Guangyuan; Wu, Jiangsheng; Li, Maoteng

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants.

  11. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasmic and maternal genetic correlations for seven essential amino acids in rapeseed meal (Brassica napus L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Lin Chen; Jian Guo Wu; Murali-Tottekkaad Variath; Zhong Wei Yang; Chun Hai Shi

    2011-04-01

    Genetic correlations of nutrient quality traits including lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine and threonine contents in rapeseed meal were analysed by the genetic model for quantitative traits of diploid plants using a diallel design with nine parents of Brassica napus L. These results indicated that the genetic correlations of embryo, cytoplasm and/or maternal plant havemade different contribution to total genetic correlations of most pairwise nutrient quality traits. The genetic correlations among the amino acids in rapeseed meal were simultaneously controlled by genetic main correlations and genotype × environment (GE) interaction correlations, especially for the maternal dominance correlations. Most components of genetic main correlations and GE interaction correlations for the pairwise traits studied were significantly positive. Some of the pairwise traits had negative genetic correlations, especially between valine and other amino acid contents. Indirect selection for improving the quality traits of rapeseed meal could be expected in rape breeding according to the magnitude and direction of genetic correlation components.

  12. Altered Fruit and Seed Development of Transgenic Rapeseed (Brassica napus Over-Expressing MicroRNA394.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Bo Song

    Full Text Available Fruit and seed development in plants is a complex biological process mainly involved in input and biosynthesis of many storage compounds such as proteins and oils. Although the basic biochemical pathways for production of the storage metabolites in plants are well characterized, their regulatory mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we functionally identified rapeseed (Brassica napus miR394 with its target gene Brassica napus leaf curling responsiveness (BnLCR to dissect a role of miR394 during the fruit and seed development. Transgenic rapeseed plants over-expressing miR394 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. miR394 over-expression plants exhibited a delayed flowering time and enlarged size of plants, leaf blade, pods and seed body, but developed seeds with higher contents of protein and glucosinolates (GLS and lower levels of oil accumulation as compared to wild-type. Over-expression of miR394 altered the fatty acid (FA composition by increasing several FA species such as C16:0 and C18:0 and unsaturated species of C20:1 and C22:1 but lowering C18:3. This change was accompanied by induction of genes coding for transcription factors of FA synthesis including leafy cotyledon1 (BnLEC1, BnLEC2, and FUSCA3 (FUS3. Because the phytohormone auxin plays a crucial role in fruit development and seed patterning, the DR5-GUS reporter was used for monitoring the auxin response in Arabidopsis siliques and demonstrated that the DR5 gene was strongly expressed. These results suggest that BnmiR394 is involved in rapeseed fruit and seed development.

  13. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with (13)C-metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan O; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from (13)C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch and oil content.

  14. Comparative genomic analysis of duplicated homoeologous regions involved in the resistance of Brassica napus to stem canker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berline eFopa Fomeju

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available All crop species are current or ancient polyploids. Following whole genome duplication, structural and functional modifications result in differential gene content or regulation in the duplicated regions, which can play a fundamental role in the diversification of genes underlying complex traits. We have investigated this issue in Brassica napus, a species with a highly duplicated genome, with the aim of studying the structural and functional organization of duplicated regions involved in quantitative resistance to stem canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Genome-wide association analysis on two oilseed rape panels confirmed that duplicated regions of ancestral blocks E, J, R, U and W were involved in resistance to stem canker. The structural analysis of the duplicated genomic regions showed a higher gene density on the A genome than on the C genome and a better collinearity between homoeologous regions than paralogous regions, as overall in the whole B. napus genome. The three ancestral sub-genomes were involved in the resistance to stem canker and the fractionation profile of the duplicated regions corresponded to what was expected from results on the B. napus progenitors. About 60% of the genes identified in these duplicated regions were single-copy genes while less than 5% were retained in all the duplicated copies of a given ancestral block. Genes retained in several copies were mainly involved in response to stress, signaling or transcription regulation. Genes with resistance-associated markers were mainly retained in more than two copies. These results suggested that some genes underlying quantitative resistance to stem canker might be duplicated genes. Genes with a hydrolase activity that were retained in one copy or R-like genes might also account for resistance in some regions. Further analyses need to be conducted to indicate to what extent duplicated genes contribute to the expression of the

  15. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Gene Involved in Fatty Acid Synthesis in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Gang; ZHANG Zhen-qian; LIU Rui-yang; YIN Chang-fa; WU Xian-meng; TAN Tai-long; GUAN Chun-yun

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sequence of a novel expressed sequence tag (EST), the full-length cDNA of 1 017 nucleotides was cloned from Brassica napus cv. Xiangyou 15 through rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The gene was designated as Bnhol34 (HQ585980), encoding a protein of 338 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed no high degree of sequence identity to any known gene. The calculated molecular weight of the Bnhol34 protein was 36.23 kDa, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 8.74. The Bnhol34 was also cloned from a high oleic acid mutant 854-1 through homologous cloning. There was no difference between the two Bnhol34 genes. Bnhol34 was localized in a tissue-specific manner in B. napus, and its expression level was about eight-fold greater in Xiangyou 15 seeds than in 854-1. The promoter region sequences of Bnhol34 were then isolated from Xiangyou 15 and 854-1, and a 93-bp deletion was found to occur in the Bnhol34 promoter region of 854-1. Three abscisic acid-responsive cis-elements (ABRE) were identified in the promoter region of Xiangyou 15. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that exogenous abscisic acid increased Bnhol34 expression by about four-fold in Xiangyou 15 seeds, yet did not change Bnhol34 expression in 854-1. It appeared that Bnhol34 might be abscisic acid insensitive in 854-1.

  16. Molecular cloning of a Brassica napus thiohydroximate S-glucosyltransferase gene and its expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marillia, Elizabeth-France; MacPherson, Jim M.; Tsang, Edward W. T.; Van Audenhove, Katrien; Keller, Wilf A.; GrootWassink, Jan W. D.

    2001-10-01

    A genomic clone encoding a thiohydroximate S-glucosyltransferase (S-GT) was isolated from Brassica napus by library screening with probes generated by PCR using degenerated primers. Its corresponding cDNA was amplified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR and also cloned by cDNA library screening. The genomic clone was 5 896 bp long and contained a 173-bp intron. At least two copies of the S-GT gene were present in B. napus. The full-length cDNA clone was 1.5 kb long and contained an open reading frame encoding a 51-kDa polypeptide. The deduced amino acid sequence shared a significant degree of homology with other glucosyltransferases characterized in other species, including a highly conserved motif within this family of enzymes corresponding to the glucose-binding domain. The recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzyme activity was tested by a biochemical assay based on the measure of glucose incorporation. The high thiohydroximate S-GT activity detected from the recombinant protein confirmed that this clone was indeed a S-glucosyltransferase.

  17. Alteration of chromosome behavior and synchronization of parental chromosomes after successive generations in Brassica napus x Orychophragmus violaceus hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Ma, Ni; Li, Zaiyun

    2007-02-01

    In an earlier study, the progenies of intergeneric hybrids Brassica napus (2n = 38) x Orychophragmus violaceus (2n = 24) were investigated in successive generations (F1-F4) for the cytological phenomenon of parental genome separation during mitotic and meiotic division. In the present study, inbred lines (F5-F8) derived from 1 such hybrid were characterized for morphology, chromosome pairing behaviour, and genome composition. One F5 plant (2n = 31) with slightly yellow petals and 12:19 and 15:16 segregation ratios in its pollen mother cells (PMCs) produced F6 plants with distinct morphological characteristics and wide variations in fertility and chromosome numbers (2n = 25-38). F7 and F8 lines with distinctive morphology and wide ranges in chromsome numbers were established. In PMCs of F7 plants from 4 F6 plants, 0-12 labelled chromosomes from O. violaceus, which predominantly appeared as bivalents, were identified by genomic in situ hybridization. They behaved synchronously with B. napus chromosomes during meiotic division. The results provide molecular cytogenetic evidence of the inclusion of O. violaceus chromosomes in the original hybrids and the cytology in the hybrids documented earlier. They also show that chromosome behaviour was altered and the parental chromosomes became synchronized after successive generations.

  18. Analysis of yield and plant traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivated in temperate region in light of the possibilities of sowing in arid areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is a review of selected literature on the species of Brassica with the greatest economic significance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera currently ranks third worldwide among oilseed crops used for oil production and is the most important in the temperate zone. The manifold uses of rape include not only human consumption of oil, but also the use of post-extraction meal to feed livestock as well as industrial applications as a source of bioenergy or cellulose. The improvement in the economic position of rape among crop plants is also due to the doubling of its yield between 1970 and 2009; the average annual increase in seed yield worldwide was 27 kg ha−1 yr−1. The yield level in Europe exceeds the average yields achieved in the world, particularly in Asia. Recently, the cultivation of oilseed rape was started on a relatively large acreage in Iran where the yield amounted 2.1 t ha−1, exceeding the yields of China and India. In Poland, the acreage of oilseed rape cultivation between 1965 and 2013 increased 3–4 times, and during this period the annual increase in seed yield was 29 kg ha−1 yr−1. Under the field conditions of the temperate climate zone, winter oilseed rape yield is mainly determined by agro-climatic conditions during the growing period, the level of nitrogen fertilization, and the production potential of varieties, which is currently highest in hybrids. There is a noticeable tendency of hybrids towards formation of more siliques by individual oilseed plants. Different production categories of plants appear in a rape crop. Semi-dwarf varieties of winter rapeseed are distinguished by greater silique density, particularly on the main shoot. Moreover, these hybrids are characterized by faster growth of the root system, which enables them to take up nitrogen from the soil more efficiently.

  19. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Yoko; Jinkawa, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hidenori; Gondo, Takahiro; Zaita, Norihiro; Akashi, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    Environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops is implemented under the Cartagena Protocol domestic law in accordance with guidelines for implementing the assessment established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Ministry of Environment (MOE) in Japan. Environmental risk assessments of transgenic crops are implemented based on the concept of 'substantial equivalence' to conventional crops. A unique requirement in Japan to monitor the production of harmful substances, or allelochemicals, is unparalleled in other countries. The potential for allelochemicals to be secreted from the roots of transgenic crops to affect other plants or soil microflora or for substances in the plant body to affect other plants after dying out must be evaluated. We evaluated the allelopathic potential of seven transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) lines that express glufosinate tolerance in terms of substantial equivalence to conventional oilseed rape lines, and established evaluation methods. Our results indicate no potential production of allelochemicals for any of the seven transgenic oilseed rape lines compared with conventional oilseed rape lines.

  20. Characterization of bacteria in the rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens and their potential in promoting growth and Cd, Pb, Zn uptake by Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan Xiao; Yan, Jun Lan; He, Huai Dong; Yang, Dan Jing; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Yuan, Ming; Cai, Xin De; Li, Shu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-enhanced phytoremediation has been considered as a promising measure for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this study, two bacterial strains JYX7 and JYX10 were isolated from rhizosphere soils of Polygonum pubescens grown in metal-polluted soil and identified as of Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequences, respectively. JYX7 and JYX10 showed high Cd, Pb and Zn tolerance and increased water-soluble Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in culture solution and metal-added soils. Two isolates produced plant growth-promoting substances such as indole acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase, and solubilized inorganic phosphate. Based upon their ability in metal tolerance and solubilization, two isolates were further studied for their effects on growth and accumulation of Cd, Pb, and Zn in Brassica napus (rape) by pot experiments. Rapes inoculated with JYX7 and JYX10 had significantly higher dry weights, concentrations and uptakes of Cd, Pb, Zn in both above-ground and root tissues than those without inoculation grown in soils amended with Cd (25 mg kg(-1)), Pb (200 mg kg(-1)) or Zn (200 mg kg(-1)). The present results demonstrated that JYX7 and JYX10 are valuable microorganism, which can improve the efficiency of phytoremediation in soils polluted by Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  1. Effect of Super Absorbent Application on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Canola (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars under Water Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    H. R. Tohidi-Moghadam; A. H. Shirani-Rad; G. Nour-Mohammadi; D. Habibi; M. Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Drought stress significantly limits Canola (Brassica napus L.) growth and crop productivity. Hence, efficient management of soil moisture and study metabolic changes which occur in response to drought is important for agricultural production of this Crop. Approach: For a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improving soil water content management strategies, an experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block des...

  2. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg;

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized. Worldwide Brassica napus, rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil and the predominant oil crop in Europe. We found si...... significant changes in oil quality and quantity of cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O3], temperature and combinations hereof (~RCP8.5, IPCC 2013)....

  3. Gene expression profiling via LongSAGE in a non-model plant species: a case study in seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serial analysis of gene expression (LongSAGE was applied for gene expression profiling in seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. napus. The usefulness of this technique for detailed expression profiling in a non-model organism was demonstrated for the highly complex, neither fully sequenced nor annotated genome of B. napus by applying a tag-to-gene matching strategy based on Brassica ESTs and the annotated proteome of the closely related model crucifer A. thaliana. Results Transcripts from 3,094 genes were detected at two time-points of seed development, 23 days and 35 days after pollination (DAP. Differential expression showed a shift from gene expression involved in diverse developmental processes including cell proliferation and seed coat formation at 23 DAP to more focussed metabolic processes including storage protein accumulation and lipid deposition at 35 DAP. The most abundant transcripts at 23 DAP were coding for diverse protease inhibitor proteins and proteases, including cysteine proteases involved in seed coat formation and a number of lipid transfer proteins involved in embryo pattern formation. At 35 DAP, transcripts encoding napin, cruciferin and oleosin storage proteins were most abundant. Over both time-points, 18.6% of the detected genes were matched by Brassica ESTs identified by LongSAGE tags in antisense orientation. This suggests a strong involvement of antisense transcript expression in regulatory processes during B. napus seed development. Conclusion This study underlines the potential of transcript tagging approaches for gene expression profiling in Brassica crop species via EST matching to annotated A. thaliana genes. Limits of tag detection for low-abundance transcripts can today be overcome by ultra-high throughput sequencing approaches, so that tag-based gene expression profiling may soon become the method of choice for global expression profiling in non-model species.

  4. Using the Proteomic Method to Research the Interaction between Brassica napus and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wen; Ying Chen; Jiabin Shu; Tailong Tan; Qiuping Zhang; Mingzhi Yin; Chunyun Guan

    2012-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is an economically important oilseed crop that is cultivated worldwide,especially in China.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious disease in agronomically important crop species.S.sclerotiorum is a generalist parasite capable of infecting approximately 400 plant species,including canola,sunflower etc.The infection of S.sclerotiorum can cause the wilt even death of the plant and serious diseases affecting canola and has the potential to significantly limit yields and qualities.The biochemical and molecular events occurring in host plant tissues during disease progression are not clear and the molecular basis of plant defense to this pathogen is poorly understood.In this paper,we investigated protein expression changes associated with S.sclerotiorum and a susceptible and a resistant genotype of oilseed respectively using a proteomic method.we describe the changes in the leaf proteome of two lines of B.napus accompanying infection by S.sclerotiorum,which was investigated using two dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and tandem MS.We have identified 42 proteins having levels that were modulated significantly at various time points after pathogen challenge,and the roles of these proteins are discussed within the context of the stem rot pathosystem.To investigate the mechanism of the resistance of S.sclerotiorum in oil rape,comparatively proteomic analysis was used to study the changes of proteins after infected by S.sclerotiorum,and the susceptible and the disease-resistant near-isogenic lines were used as the materials.Plants were selected for inoculation and sampling using a randomized design with three biological replicates for each cultivar.Each replicate consisted of 60 plants for three time points (24,48 and 72 hpi) and two treatments (inoculated and mock-inoculated controls).The tissues harvested from one biological replicate at each time point were pooled as one sample.Harvested tissues were frozen

  5. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar

  6. Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide resistant B. napus has become a model system for examining the risks of escape of transgenes from cultivation and for evaluating potential ecological consequences of novel genes in wild species. 2. We exam...

  7. Discovery of clubroot-resistant genes in Brassica napus by transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S W; Liu, T; Gao, Y; Zhang, C; Peng, S D; Bai, M B; Li, S J; Xu, L; Zhou, X Y; Lin, L B

    2016-01-01

    Clubroot significantly affects plants of the Brassicaceae family and is one of the main diseases causing serious losses in B. napus yield. Few studies have investigated the clubroot-resistance mechanism in B. napus. Identification of clubroot-resistant genes may be used in clubroot-resistant breeding, as well as to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind B. napus clubroot-resistance. We used three B. napus transcriptome samples to construct a transcriptome sequencing library by using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. In total, 171 million high-quality reads were obtained, containing 96,149 unigenes of N50-value. We aligned the obtained unigenes with the Nr, Swiss-Prot, clusters of orthologous groups, and gene ontology databases and annotated their functions. In the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes database, 25,033 unigenes (26.04%) were assigned to 124 pathways. Many genes, including broad-spectrum disease-resistance genes, specific clubroot-resistant genes, and genes related to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signal transduction, cytokinin synthesis, and myrosinase synthesis in the Huashuang 3 variety of B. napus were found to be related to clubroot-resistance. The effective clubroot-resistance observed in this variety may be due to the induced increased expression of these disease-resistant genes and strong inhibition of the IAA signal transduction, cytokinin synthesis, and myrosinase synthesis. The homology observed between unigenes 0048482, 0061770 and the Crr1 gene shared 94% nucleotide similarity. Furthermore, unigene 0061770 could have originated from an inversion of the Crr1 5'-end sequence.

  8. Hydroponics versus field lysimeter studies of urea, ammonium and nitrate uptake by oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Mustapha; Sarda, Xavier; Jannin, Laëtitia; Laîné, Philippe; Etienne, Philippe; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2012-09-01

    N-fertilizer use efficiencies are affected by their chemical composition and suffer from potential N-losses by volatilization. In a field lysimeter experiment, (15)N-labelled fertilizers were used to follow N uptake by Brassica napus L. and assess N-losses by volatilization. Use of urea with NBPT (urease inhibitor) showed the best efficiency with the lowest N losses (8% of N applied compared with 25% with urea alone). Plants receiving ammonium sulphate, had similar yield achieved through a better N mobilization from vegetative tissues to the seeds, despite a lower N uptake resulting from a higher volatilization (43% of applied N). Amounts of (15)N in the plant were also higher when plants were fertilized with ammonium nitrate but N-losses reached 23% of applied N. In parallel, hydroponic experiments showed a deleterious effect of ammonium and urea on the growth of oilseed rape. This was alleviated by the nitrate supply, which was preferentially taken up. B. napus was also characterized by a very low potential for urea uptake. BnDUR3 and BnAMT1, encoding urea and ammonium transporters, were up-regulated by urea, suggesting that urea-grown plants suffered from nitrogen deficiency. The results also suggested a role for nitrate as a signal for the expression of BnDUR3, in addition to its role as a major nutrient. Overall, the results of the hydroponic study showed that urea itself does not contribute significantly to the N nutrition of oilseed rape. Moreover, it may contribute indirectly since a better use efficiency for urea fertilizer, which was further increased by the application of a urease inhibitor, was observed in the lysimeter study.

  9. Evaluation of Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Four Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars in drought condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jamshidi zinab

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is one of the major crops cultivated mainly for oil, human consumption and renewable fuel all over the world. Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic factors which adversely affect growth, metabolism and yield of crops in semiarid and arid area. Drought stress during any particular growth stage of crops causes yield reduction. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on yield, physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics of rapeseed in flowering stage, this field experiment was carried out in Yazd agricultural research institute during 2011-2012. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in split-plot design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications imposed. Irrigation was considered as the main plot at two levels including control (irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class A pan and stress in the anthesis stage (irrigation after 160 mm evaporation from class A pan and cultivars (Oise, Triangle, Karun and SLM046 were considered as sub plots. Sampling was carried out 7, 12 and 26 days after drought stress imposed. In each plot, 7, 12 and 26 days after stop irrigation from flowering stage (drought stress treatment, 4-5 expanded leaves from above of canopy were harvested. Relative water content of leaves and stomatal conductance were recorded. Soluble carbohydrate and proline content were measured. The lipid peroxidation level of the leaves was determined by measuring the content of malondealdehyde. Yield and yield components (number of grains per pod, number of pod per plant and weight of 1000 grains were recorded at maturity. Results and Discussion The results showed that drought and cultivar interaction on SPAD value was not significant after stress. The interaction of the drought on leaf relative water content was significant at 26 days after the stress. The results revealed that, drought stress led to a significant decrease in relative

  10. The tolerant responses to NaCl Stress in IrrE-transgenic Brassica napus%转IrrE基因甘蓝型油菜对NaCl胁迫的耐受性应答

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉斌; 代其林; 刘婷婷; 田霞; 龚元亚; 孙英坤; 杜世章; 王劲

    2011-01-01

    The tolerant responses to NaC1 stress in IrrE-transgenic Brassica napus were studied. The results showed that the activity of peroxidas (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in transgenic Brassica napus was gradually increased under 200 mmol/L NaCl during 0~48 h, but the activity of POD, SOD and CAT in non-transgenic Brassica napus was increased during 0~24 h and subsequently decreased after 24 h. The content of proline and the dissoluble proein in transgenic Brassica hapus was higher than non-transgenic Brassica napus, but the content of malonaldehyde(MDA) in transgenie Brassica napus was lower than non-transgenic Brassica napus. Therefore, IrrE gene enhanced the activities of three antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Brassica napus, and then enhanced the tolerance of Brassica napus against NaCl stress.%以转IrrE基因甘蓝型油菜为材料,研究了转IrrE基因甘蓝型油菜幼苗对NaCl胁迫的耐受性应答情况.在200mmol/L NaCl胁迫下,随着胁迫时间的延长,转IrrE基因和野生型油菜的POD、SOD和CAT三种抗氧化酶活性均增加,其中野生型油菜的三种抗氧化酶在24h后达到峰值,随后逐渐下降,而转IrrE基因油菜的三种抗氧化酶活性却持续增加,并在相同的胁迫时间内均高于野生型油菜的酶活性;同时转IrrE基因油菜的脯氨酸和可溶性蛋白质含量均比野生型油菜的高,但其丙二醛(MDA)的含量比野生型油菜的低.结果表明,IrrE基因作为一种转录因子可能广泛参与了油菜幼苗对NaCl胁迫的耐受性应答过程,从而提高了植物对NaCl胁迫的耐受能力.

  11. Flowering Without Vernalization in Winter Canola (Brassica napus: use of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS to accelerate genetic gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Álvarez-Venegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciclos de reproducción cortos y la oportunidad de incrementar la ganancia genética, junto con el estudio de las bases moleculares de la vernalización, son áreas esenciales de investigación dentro de la biología de plantas. Varios métodos se han empleado para lograr el silenciamiento génico en plantas, pero ninguno reportado a la fecha para canola (Brassica napus, y en particular para inducir la floración sin vernalización en líneas de invierno a través del uso de secuencias sentido de DNA en vectores diseñados para el silenciamiento génico inducido por virus (VIGS. La presente investigación provee los métodos para transitoriamente regular a la baja, por medio de VIGS, genes de la vernalización en plantas anuales de invierno, específicamente la familia de genes de Flowering Locus C (FLC en canola de invierno (BnFLC1 a BnFLC5. La regulación a la baja de estos genes permite a las plantas anuales de invierno florecer sin vernalización y, consecuentemente, provee los medios para acelerar la ganancia genética. El sistema de silenciamiento propuesto puede ser utilizado para regular a la baja familias de genes, para determinar la función génica, y para inducir la floración sin la vernalización en líneas de invierno tanto del género Brassica como de muchos cultivos importantes de invierno.

  12. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Two Brassica napus Near-Isogenic Lines Reveals a Network of Genes That Influences Seed Oil Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingxue; Singh, Sanjay K.; Du, Chunfang; Li, Chen; Fan, Jianchun; Pattanaik, Sitakanta; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs). The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates significantly higher (∼10%) seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1), LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3), ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl-lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  14. Fine mapping of the epistatic suppressor gene (esp) of a recessive genic male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenghua; Xie, Yanzhou; Hong, Dengfeng; Liu, Pingwu; Yang, Guangsheng

    2009-09-01

    9012AB, a recessive genic male sterility (RGMS) line derived from spontaneous mutation in Brassica napus, has been playing an important role in rapeseed hybrid production in China. The male sterility of 9012AB is controlled by two recessive genes (ms3 and ms4) interacting with one recessive epistatic suppressor gene (esp). The objective of this study was to develop PCR-based markers tightly linked to the esp gene and construct a high-resolution map surrounding the esp gene. From the survey of 512 AFLP primer combinations, 3 tightly linked AFLP markers were obtained and successfully converted to codominant or dominant SCAR markers. Furthermore, a codominant SSR marker (Ra2G08) associated with the esp gene was identified through genetic map integration. For fine mapping of the esp gene, these PCR-based markers were analyzed in a large BC1 population of 2545 plants. The esp gene was then genetically restricted to a region of 1.03 cM, 0.35 cM from SSR marker Ra2G08 and 0.68 cM from SCAR marker WSC6. The SCAR marker WSC5 co-segregated with the target gene. These results lay a solid foundation for map-based cloning of esp and will facilitate the selection of RGMS lines and their temporary maintainers.

  15. FEASIBILITY OF HYGROMYCIN AS A SELECTION AGENT IN AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF OILSEED RAPE (BRASSICA NAPUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the feasibility of the antibiotic hygromycin as a selection agent in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. was evaluated. For this, two economically important commercial varieties Haydn and Hunter and tobacco as a model plant were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The 5-6 days-old oilseed rape hypocotyls and 4-6 weeks-old tobacco leaf segments were transformed with the binary vector pCambia1304. The T-DNA contained the reporter gfp:gus and the selectable marker htp genes. Regeneration of transformed cells was conducted under selection of 10 mg.l-1 (oilseed rape and 30 mg.l-1 (tobacco hygromycin. Putative transgenic plantlets were analysed by the mean of the histochemical GUS and PCR analyses. Transformation efficiency ranged from 1.0% (cv. Haydn to 40.4% (tobacco. No transgenic shoots were detected for the cv. Hunter. It points out the oilseed rape cultivar specificity plays significant role in choice of suitable selection agent.

  16. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  17. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  18. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phytochemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed, Amal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1 ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2 from 10.52% to 13.74%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1 from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate c ontents (5.97 μmol/g dw. Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L.La colza (Brassica napus L. es hoy en día el tercer cultivo más importante de aceites comestibles en el mundo tras el aceite de soja y de palma. En este estudio semillas de cinco cultivos diferentes de colza

  19. Aberrant Meiotic Prophase I Leads to Genic Male Sterility in the Novel TE5A Mutant of Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Wang, Shasha; Li, Keqi; Yuan, Rong; Gao, Hongfei; Luo, Junling; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Genic male sterility (GMS) has already been extensively utilized for hybrid rapeseed production. TE5A is a novel thermo-sensitive dominant GMS line in Brassica napus, however, its mechanisms of GMS remain largely unclear. Histological and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of anthers showed that the male gamete development of TE5A was arrested at meiosis prophase I. EdU uptake of S-phase meiocytes revealed that the TE5A mutant could accomplish DNA replication, however, chromosomal and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of TE5A showed that homologous chromosomes could not pair, synapse, condense and form bivalents. We then analyzed the transcriptome differences between young floral buds of sterile plants and its near-isogenic fertile plants through RNA-Seq. A total of 3,841 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained, some of which were associated with homologous chromosome behavior and cell cycle control during meiosis. Dynamic expression changes of selected candidate DEGs were then analyzed at different anther developmental stages. The present study not only demonstrated that the TE5A mutant had defects in meiotic prophase I via detailed cytological analysis, but also provided a global insight into GMS-associated DEGs and elucidated the mechanisms of GMS in TE5A through RNA-Seq. PMID:27670217

  20. Critical period of weed control in winter canola (Brassica napus L.) in a semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaalikhani, M; Yaghoobi, S R

    2008-03-01

    In order to determine the critical period of weed control in winter canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Okapi) an experiment was carried out at research field of Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran on 2004-2005 growing season. Fourteen experimental treatments which divided into two sets were arranged in Randomized complete blocks design with four replications. In the first set, the crop was kept weed-free from emergence time to two-leaf stage (V2), four-leaf stage (V4), six-leaf stage (V6), eight-leaf stage (V8), early flowering (IF), 50% of silique set (50% SS) and final harvest (H). In the second set, weeds where permitted to grow with the crop until above mentioned stages. In this study critical period of weed control was determined according to evaluate seed bank emerged weed biomass effect on canola grain yield loss using Gompertz and logistic equations. Result showed a critical time of weed control about 25 days after emergence (between four to six-leaf stages) with 5% accepted yield loss. Therefore, weed control in this time could provide the best result and avoid yield loss and damage to agroecosystem.

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF COMPOUNDS OF PEPTIDE NATURE CONTAINED IN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BRASSICA NAPUS SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM AND TETRAGONIA TETRAGONIOIDES LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Neubauerová

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of infections caused by pathogenic bacteria is still harder. Due to increasing number of microbial species resistant against so far invented antibiotics. This presents great problem for public health. One of the potential solutions seems to be antimicrobial peptides. Those peptides are synthetized in all organisms as a part of innate immunity with rapid mode of antimicrobial action. Lot of them have been isolated from bacteria, plants, insects and mammals as well. Our project was aimed on finding such peptides in plant extracts, respectively in leaves of Brassica napus (canola, Solanum lycopersicum (tomato and Tetragonia tetragonioides (New Zealand spinach. We used several separation techniques to obtain fractions containing compounds of peptide nature with hydrophobic character. Antimicrobial activity of these fractions was tested against several gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial active fractions proved presence of low molecular peptides with molecular masses 1.9 - 4.9 kDa and a partial amino acid sequence in hydrophobic part of Tetragonia extract. In hydrophilic fraction of the Solanum extract with proved antibacterial activity two patogenesis-related proteins with antifungal activity NP24 and TPM-1 were detected.

  2. Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola(Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute, Pirsabak, Nowshera, Pakistan, during winter 2003~2004 and 2004~2005 to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and sulfur levels and methods of nitrogen application on canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98) under rainfed conditions. Four levels of S (0, 10, 20, and 30 kg/ha) and three levels of N (40, 60,and 80 kg/ha) and a control treatment with both nutrients at zero level were included in the experiments. Sulfur levels were applied at sowing while N levels were applied by three methods (100% soil application, 90% soil+10% foliar application, and 80% soil +20% foliar application). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block (RCB) design having four replications. Oil content increased significantly up to 20 kg S/ha but further increase in S level did not enhance oil content. Glucosinolate content increased from 13.6 to 24.6 μmol/g as S rate was increased from 0 to 30 kg/ha. Protein content increased from 22.4% to 23.2% as S rate was increased from 0 to 20 kg/ha. Oil content responded negatively to the increasing N levels. The highest N level resulted in the highest values for protein (23.5%) and glucosinolate (19.9 μmol/g) contents. Methods of N application had no significant impact on any parameters under study.

  3. Characterization of rapeseed (Brassica napus) oils by bulk C, O, H, and fatty acid C stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Eva Katharina; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2010-07-14

    Rapeseed ( Brassica napus ) oils differing in cultivar, sites of growth, and harvest year were characterized by fatty acid concentrations and carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope analyses of bulk oils (delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), delta(18)O(bulk) values) and individual fatty acids (delta(13)C(FA)). The delta(13)C(bulk), delta(2)H(bulk), and delta(18)O(bulk) values were determined by continuous flow combustion and high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS, TC-EA/IRMS). The delta(13)C(FA) values were determined using gas chromatography--combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). For comparison, other C(3) vegetable oils rich in linolenic acid (flax and false flax oils) and rich in linoleic acid (poppy, sunflower, and safflower oils) were submitted to the same chemical and isotopic analyses. The bulk and molecular delta(13)C values were typical for C(3) plants. The delta(13)C value of palmitic acid (delta(13)C(16:0)) and n-3 alpha-linolenic acid (delta(13)C(18:3n-3)) differed (p oils. Also within species, significant differences of delta(13)C(FA) were observed (p oil differed between cultivars (p oil and specific fatty acid stable isotope analysis might be useful in tracing dietary lipids differing in their origin.

  4. Rapid Identification of Candidate Genes for Seed Weight Using the SLAF-Seq Method in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Geng

    Full Text Available Seed weight is a critical and direct trait for oilseed crop seed yield. Understanding its genetic mechanism is of great importance for yield improvement in Brassica napus breeding. Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines derived by microspore culture were developed from a cross between a large-seed line G-42 and a small-seed line 7-9. According to the 1000-seed weight (TSW data, the individual DNA of the heaviest 46 lines and the lightest 47 lines were respectively selected to establish two bulked DNA pools. A new high-throughput sequencing technology, Specific Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq, was used to identify candidate genes of TSW in association analysis combined with bulked segregant analysis (BSA. A total of 1,933 high quality polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and 4 associated markers of TSW were procured. A hot region of ~0.58 Mb at nucleotides 25,401,885-25,985,931 on ChrA09 containing 91 candidate genes was identified as tightly associated with the TSW trait. From annotation information, four genes (GSBRNA2T00037136001, GSBRNA2T00037157001, GSBRNA2T00037129001 and GSBRNA2T00069389001 might be interesting candidate genes that are highly related to seed weight.

  5. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  6. Transgenic glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape (Brassica napus) as an invasive weed in Argentina: detection, characterization, and control alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfo, Claudio E; Presotto, Alejandro; Carbonell, Francisco Torres; Ureta, Soledad; Poverene, Mónica; Cantamutto, Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The presence of glyphosate-resistant oilseed rape populations in Argentina was detected and characterized. The resistant plants were found as weeds in RR soybeans and other fields. The immunological and molecular analysis showed that the accessions presented the GT73 transgenic event. The origin of this event was uncertain, as the cultivation of transgenic oilseed rape cultivars is prohibited in Argentina. This finding might suggest that glyphosate resistance could come from unauthorized transgenic oilseed rape crops cultivated in the country or as seed contaminants in imported oilseed rape cultivars or other seed imports. Experimentation showed that there are alternative herbicides for controlling resistant Brassica napus populations in various situations and crops. AHAS-inhibiting herbicides (imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam), glufosinate, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr and saflufenacil proved to be very effective in controlling these plants. Herbicides evaluated in this research were employed by farmers in one of the fields invaded with this biotype and monitoring of this field showed no evidence of its presence in the following years.

  7. Isolation and characterization of ACC deaminase-producing fluorescent pseudomonads, to alleviate salinity stress on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Farzad; Khavazi, Kazem; Pazira, Ebrahim; Nejati, Alireza; Rahmani, Hadi Asadi; Sadaghiani, Hasan Rasuli; Miransari, Mohammad

    2009-04-01

    Salinity stress is of great importance in arid and semi-arid areas of the world due to its impact in reducing crop yield. Under salinity stress, the amount of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), a precursor for ethylene production in plants, increases. Here, we conducted research under the hypothesis that isolated ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida can alleviate the stressful effects of salinity on canola (Brassica napus L.) growth. The experiments were conducted in the Soil and Water Research Institute, Tehran, Iran. Seven experimental stages were conducted to isolate and characterize ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and to determine factors enhancing their growth and, consequently, their effects on the germination of canola seeds. Under salinity stress, in 14% of the isolates, ACC deaminase activity was observed, indicating that they were able to utilize ACC as the sole N-source. Bacterial strains differed in their ability to synthesize auxin and hydrogen cyanide compounds, as well as in their ACC deaminase activity. Under salinity stress, the rate of germinating seeds inoculated with the strains of ACC deaminase-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida, and seedling growth was significantly higher. These results indicate the significance of soil biological activities, including the activities of plant growth-promoting bacteria, in the alleviation of soil stresses such as salinity on plant growth.

  8. Proteomic and biochemical responses of canola (Brassica napus L.) exposed to salinity stress and exogenous lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Akçalı, Nermin; Terzi, Hakan

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the mitigating effects of exogenous lipoic acid (LA) on NaCl toxicity, proteomic, biochemical and physiological changes were investigated in the leaves of canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Salinity stress decreased the growth parameters and contents of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH), and increased the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), proline, cysteine and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The foliar application of LA alleviated the toxic effects of salinity stress on canola seedlings and notably decreased MDA content and increased growth parameters, cysteine content, and activities of CAT and POD. In the proteomic analyses, total proteins from the leaves of control, LA, NaCl and NaCl+LA treated-seedlings were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). A total of 28 proteins were differentially expressed. Of these, 21 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins had functions related to photosynthesis, stress defense, energy metabolism, signal transduction, protein folding and stabilization indicating that LA might play important roles in salinity through the regulation of photosynthesis, stress defense and signal transduction related proteins. The proteomic findings have provided new insight to reveal the effect of LA on salinity stress for the first time.

  9. Comparison of Leptosphaeria biglobosa-induced and chemically induced systemic resistance to L. maculans in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU ShengYi; LIU RenHu; Akinwunmi O. LATUNDE-DADA; Hans J. COOLS; Simon J. FOSTER; HUANG YongJu; Bruce D. L. FITT

    2007-01-01

    Brassica napus (cv. Madrigal) seedlings pre-treated with ascospores of Leptosphaeria biglobosa or foliar sprays of either acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) or menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB) were challenge inoculated with L. Maculans ascospores and assessed for phoma leaf spot development and tissue morphology and gene expression responses to infection. Rates of increase in phoma leaf spot area 8-21 d after challenge inoculation were significantly greater on water pre-treated plants than on plants pre-treated with L. Biglobosa, ASM or MSB on both pre-treated leaves (local effect) and younger leaves without pre-treatment (systemic effect). Ninety-six h after challenge inoculation, the invasive hyphae of L. Maculans were encircled by rings of necrotic mesophyll cells on leaves pre-treated with L.biglobosa, ASM or MSB but not those pre-treated with water. Quantification of transcript levels of genes commonly used as markers of the major defence signalling pathways (PDF1.2, PR-1, NPR1, APX,CHB4) 0-96 h after L. Maculans challenge inoculation showed expression patterns indicating preferential activation of the jasmonate/ethylene pathway and involved induction of NPR1 locally and systemically in leaves of plants pre-treated with L. Biglobosa ascospores.

  10. Abortive Process of a Novel Rapeseed Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line Derived from Somatic Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; GAO Ya-nan; KONG Yue-qin; JIANG Jin-jin; LI Ai-min; ZHANG Yong-tai; WANG You-ping

    2014-01-01

    Somatic hybridization is performed to obtain significant cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines, whose CMS genes are derived either from the transfer of sterile genes from the mitochondrial genome of donor parent to the counterpart of receptor or production of new sterile genes caused by mitochondrial genome recombination of the biparent during protoplast fusion. In this study, a novel male sterile line, SaNa-1A, was obtained from the somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis alba. The normal anther development of the maintainer line, SaNa-1B, and the abortive process of SaNa-1A were described through phenotypic observations and microtome sections. The lforal organ of the sterile line SaNa-1A was sterile with a shortened iflament and delfated anther. No detectable pollen grains were found on the surface of the sterile anthers. Semi-thin sections indicated that SaNa-1A aborted in the pollen mother cell (PMC) stage when vacuolization of the tapetum and PMCs began. The tapetum radically elongated and became highly vacuolated, occupying the entire locule together with the vacuolated microspores. Therefore, SaNa-1A is different from other CMS lines, such as ogu CMS, pol CMS and nap CMS as shown by the abortive process of the anther.

  11. The Relationship of Color Formation with Related Enzymes and Protein Contents in the Seedcoat of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ying; LI Jia-na

    2004-01-01

    Three pairs of near-isogenic lines with different genetic backgrounds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape (Brassica napus L.) were used as experiment materials to study the relationship of color formation in the seedcoat with enzyme activity and protein content in it. The results showed that with similar genetic backgrounds, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activities in the black-seeded lines were much higher than in their yellow-seeded counterparts and maximum PAL activity in the seedcoat occurred comparatively late while no significant difference was present in glutamine synthetase (GS) between the two types of rape. The plants were treated with red light,blue light, p-hydroxybenzoic acid (a PAL inhibitor), polyvinylpyridoxal (a PPO inhibitor),urea (a protein synthesis promoter) or chloramphenicol (CM, a plastid protein synthesis inhibitor) during seed development. It is speculated that PAL may be primarily responsible for coloration in the yellow seed; PPO may be the main factor contributing to the darkness of the testa of the black genotypes; and nitrogen assimilation is, probably, not directly related to the difference in protein content observed between yellow- and black-seeded genotypes, which may be induced mainly by PAL.

  12. Cloning, Sequence Analysis and Expression Patterns during Seed Germination of a Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. G-x-S-x-G-motif Lipase Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen GLAIED GHRAM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipases catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in triacylglycerides, generating glycerol and free fatty acids. These enzymes are encoded by extremely complex gene families, and appear to fulfil many different biological functions. Although they are present in all types of organisms, available information on plant lipases is still very limited, as compared to their bacterial and animal counterparts. A full-length clone, BnLIP, encoding a putative lipase, has been isolated by PCR amplification of Brassica napus genomic DNA, with oligonucleotide primers derived from the sequence of an Arabidopsis thaliana homologue. The clone included an open reading frame of 1581 bp encoding a polypeptide of 526 amino acids, with a calculated molecular mass of 59.5 kDa. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence, sequence alignment with homologous proteins from related plant species, and a phylogenetic analysis revealed that the BnLIP protein belongs to the ‘classical’ GxSxG-motif lipase family. RT-PCR assays indicated that the BnLIP gene is expressed specifically, but only transiently, during seed germination: the lipase mRNA was not present at detectable levels in ungerminated seeds, was detected only three days after seed imbibition, but its levels decreased rapidly afterwards. No expression was observed in roots, stems or leaves of adult plants. This expression pattern suggests that BnLIP is one of the lipases involved in the hydrolysis of triacylglycerides stored in rapeseed seeds, ultimately providing nutrients and energy to sustain seedling growth until photosynthesis is activated.

  13. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of an anthocyanin-rich gene, BnaA.PL1, conferring purple leaves in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Zhu, Lixia; Yuan, Gaigai; Heng, Shuangping; Yi, Bin; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong; Wen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Because of the advantages of anthocyanins, the genetics and breeding of crops rich in anthocyanins has become a hot research topic. However, due to the lack of anthocyanin-related mutants, no regulatory genes have been mapped in Brassica napus. In this study, we first report the characterization of a B. napus line with purple leaves and the fine mapping and candidate screening of the BnaA.PL1 gene. The amount of anthocyanins in the purple leaf line was six times higher than that in a green leaf line. A genetic analysis indicated that the purple character was controlled by an incomplete dominant gene. Through map-based cloning, we localized the BnaA.PL1 gene to a 99-kb region at the end of B. napus chromosome A03. Transcriptional analysis of 11 genes located in the target region revealed that the expression level of only the BnAPR2 gene in seedling leaves decreased from purple to reddish green to green individuals, a finding that was consistent with the measured anthocyanin accumulation levels. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of BnAPR2 showed that the purple individual-derived allele contained 17 variants. Markers co-segregating with BnaA.PL1 were developed from the sequence of BnAPR2 and were validated in the BC4P2 population. These results suggested that BnAPR2, which encodes adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase, is likely to be a valuable candidate gene. This work may lay the foundation for the marker-assisted selection of B. napus vegetables that are rich in anthocyanins and for an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling anthocyanin accumulation in Brassica.

  14. Spontaneous capture of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) chloroplasts by wild B. rapa: implications for the use of chloroplast transformation for biocontainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Nadia; Allainguillaume, Joel; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2009-04-01

    Environmental concerns over the cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) crops largely centre on the ecological consequences following gene flow to wild relatives. One attractive solution is to deploy biocontainment measures that prevent hybridization. Chloroplast transformation is the most advanced biocontainment method but is compromised by chloroplast capture (hybridization through the maternal lineage). To date, however, there is a paucity of information on the frequency of chloroplast capture in the wild. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC) frequently hybridises with wild Brassica rapa (AA, as paternal parent) and yields B. rapa-like introgressed individuals after only two generations. In this study we used chloroplast CAPS markers that differentiate between the two species to survey wild and weedy populations of B. rapa for the capture of B. napus chloroplasts. A total of 464 B. rapa plants belonging to 14 populations growing either in close proximity to B. napus (i.e. sympatric 1 km) were assessed for chloroplast capture using PCR (trnL-F) and CAPS (trnT-L-Xba I) markers. The screen revealed that two sympatric B. rapa populations included 53 plants that possessed the chloroplast of B. napus. In order to discount these B. rapa plants as F(1) crop-wild hybrids, we used a C-genome-specific marker and found that 45 out of 53 plants lacked the C-genome and so were at least second generation introgressants. The most plausible explanation is that these individuals represent multiple cases of chloroplast capture following introgressive hybridisation through the female germ line from the crop. The abundance of such plants in sympatric sites thereby questions whether the use of chloroplast transformation would provide a sufficient biocontainment for GM oilseed rape in the United Kingdom.

  15. The fusion of genomes leads to more options: A comparative investigation on the desulfo-glucosinolate sulfotransferases of Brassica napus and homologous proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Felix; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2015-06-01

    Sulfotransferases (SOTs) (EC 2.8.2.-) play a crucial role in the glucosinolate (Gl) biosynthesis, by catalyzing the final step of the core glucosinolate formation. In Arabidopsis thaliana the three desulfo (ds)-Gl SOTs AtSOT16, AtSOT17 and AtSOT18 were previously characterized, showing different affinities to ds-Gls. But can the knowledge about these SOTs be generally transferred to other Gl-synthesizing plants? It was investigated how many SOTs are present in the economically relevant crop plant Brassica napus L., and if it is possible to predict their characteristics by sequence analysis. The recently sequenced B. napus is a hybrid of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. By database research, 71 putative functional BnSOT family members were identified and at least eleven of those are putative ds-Gl SOTs. Besides the homologs of AtSOT16 - 18, phylogenetic analyses revealed new subfamilies of ds-Gl SOTs, which are not present in A. thaliana. Three of the B. napus ds-Gl SOT proteins were expressed and purified, and characterized by determining the substrate affinities to different ds-Gls. Two of them, BnSOT16-a and BnSOT16-b, showed a significantly higher affinity to an indolic ds-Gl, similarly to AtSOT16. Additionally, BnSOT17-a was characterized and showed a higher affinity to long chained aliphatic Gls, similarly to AtSOT17. Identification of homologs to AtSOT18 was less reliable, because putative SOT18 sequences are more heterogeneous and confirmation of similar characteristics was not possible.

  16. Preliminary Studies on Isozymes and Protein of Hybrid from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜(Eru CMS)与甘蓝种间杂种的同工酶和蛋白质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    经胚抢救获得甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)(Eru CMS)与甘蓝(Brassica oleracea L.var.capitata L.)种间杂种,前期经过流式细胞仪、柱头染色体数目、花粉活力等分析获得一些真杂种.利用电泳法,对真杂种植株的3种同工酶(SOD、EST、COD)和蛋白质进行详细分析,了解了杂种与亲本的同工酶和蛋白质的特性差异.结果表明,杂种与亲本之间的同工酶和蛋白质存在较明显的差异:杂种的SOD、COD的酶带表现为偏父本甘蓝型;杂种的EST的酶带表现为偏母本油菜型;杂种的蛋白质电泳表现为不仅具有双亲的特征蛋白带,也有其自身特征蛋白带.%Brassica napus x Brassica oleracea hybrids were obtained by embryo rescue technology and identified by flow cytometry analysis, chromosome count of stigma cells, and pollen viability tests. Patterns of isozyme and protein of the real hybrids were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, isozyme (SOD, EST, and COD) and protein patterns were compared with those of the parents, with obvious variations observed. Results also showed that the SOD and COD patterns of the hybrids were similar to Brassica oleracea, while the EST pattern was similar to the female parent. The protein pattern mainly showed parental complements, with new bonds also possessing their own characters.

  17. Effects on Brassica napus L. Yield and Yield Components of Super Absorbent Polymer under Different Irrigation Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza PIRZAD; Mousa JAMALI; Fahime SHOKRANI

    2014-01-01

    For evaluation of the effects of super absorbent polymer under different irrigation regimes on the yield and yield components of Brassica napus L., a factorial experiment was carried out, based on randomized complete block design with four replicas. Treatments included super absorbent polymer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg soil) and induced drought stress (irrigation at 25, 50 and 75 mm evaporation from class A pan). The experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil. Data analysis of variance...

  18. Cloning the Promoter of BcNA1 from Brassica napus and Fad2 Gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and Construction of the Plant Expression Vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The upstream regulatory region of a seed-specific gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Brassica napus by PCR amplification. The cloned fragment contained 1755 nucleotides, and shared a sequence homology of 99.6% with the reported data. The coding region of oleic acid desaturase gene was then cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana. The sequencing analysis indicated that the sequence of the PCR product was just the same as reported before. In addition, the plant expression vector harboring the seed-specific promoter and trans-Fad2 gene was constructed.

  19. BnSIP1-1, a Trihelix Family Gene, Mediates Abiotic Stress Tolerance and ABA Signaling in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junling; Tang, Shaohua; Mei, Fengling; Peng, Xiaojue; Li, Jun; Li, Xiaofei; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Xinhua; Liu, Fang; Wu, Yuhua; Wu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The trihelix family genes have important functions in light-relevant and other developmental processes, but their roles in response to adverse environment are largely unclear. In this study, we identified a new gene, BnSIP1-1, which fell in the SIP1 (6b INTERACTING PROTEIN1) clade of the trihelix family with two trihelix DNA binding domains and a fourth amphipathic α-helix. BnSIP1-1 protein specifically targeted to the nucleus, and its expression can be induced by abscisic acid (ABA) and different stresses. Overexpression of BnSIP1-1 improved seed germination under osmotic pressure, salt, and ABA treatments. Moreover, BnSIP1-1 decreased the susceptibility of transgenic seedlings to osmotic pressure and ABA treatments, whereas there was no difference under salt stress between the transgenic and wild-type seedlings. ABA level in the transgenic seedlings leaves was higher than those in the control plants under normal condition. Under exogenous ABA treatment and mannitol stress, the accumulation of ABA in the transgenic plants was higher than that in the control plants; while under salt stress, the difference of ABA content before treatment was gradually smaller with the prolongation of salt treatment time, then after 24 h of treatment the ABA level was similar in transgenic and wild-type plants. The transcription levels of several general stress marker genes (BnRD29A, BnERD15, and BnLEA1) were higher in the transgenic plants than the wild-type plants, whereas salt-responsive genes (BnSOS1, BnNHX1, and BnHKT) were not significantly different or even reduced compared with the wild-type plants, which indicated that BnSIP1-1 specifically exerted different regulatory mechanisms on the osmotic- and salt-response pathways in seedling period. Overall, these findings suggested that BnSIP1-1 played roles in ABA synthesis and signaling, salt and osmotic stress response. To date, information about the involvement of the Brassica napus trihelix gene in abiotic response is scarce

  20. The receptor-like kinase SOBIR1 interacts with Brassica napus LepR3 and is required for Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm1-triggered immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisong eMa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe fungus Leptosphaeria maculans (L. maculans is the causal agent of blackleg disease of canola/oilseed rape (Brassica napus worldwide. We previously reported cloning of the B. napus blackleg resistance gene, LepR3, which encodes a receptor-like protein. LepR3 triggers localised cell death upon recognition of its cognate Avr protein, AvrLm1. Here, we exploited the Nicotiana benthamiana model plant to investigate the recognition mechanism of AvrLm1 by LepR3. Co-expression of the LepR3/AvrLm1 gene pair in N. benthamiana resulted in development of a hypersensitive response (HR. However, a truncated AvrLm1 lacking its indigenous signal peptide was compromised in its ability to induce LepR3-mediated HR, indicating that AvrLm1 is perceived by LepR3 extracellularly. Structure-function analysis of the AvrLm1 protein revealed that the C-terminal region of AvrLm1 was required for LepR3-mediated HR in N. benthamiana and for resistance to L. maculans in B. napus. LepR3 was shown to be physically interacting with the B. napus receptor like kinase, SOBIR1 (BnSOBIR1. Silencing of NbSOBIR1 or NbSERK3 (BAK1 compromised LepR3-AvrLm1-dependent HR in N. benthamiana, suggesting that LepR3-mediated resistance to L. maculans in B. napus requires SOBIR1 and BAK1/SERK3. Using this model system, we determined that BnSOBIR1 and SERK3/BAK1 are essential partners in the LepR3 signalling complex and were able to define the AvrLm1 effector domain.

  1. Analysis on Combining Ability for Characters of Male Sterile Lines in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)%Analysis on Combining Ability for Characters of Male Sterile Lines in Rapeseed ( Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ze-su; Laosuwan Paisan; Machikowa Thitipom; Chen Ze-hui; Dai Wen-dong; Tang Rong; Li De-zhen

    2012-01-01

    The male sterile line is very important in the hybrid breeding program of rapeseed. This study was conducted to evaluate the combining ability of many characters of male sterile lines in Brassica napus L. Ten recessive genetic male sterile (RGMS) lines were used as parents to produce 45 single cross hybrids by using a half diallel cross method. These 45 crosses and their 10 parents were evaluated at Guiyang during 2007-2008. The results showed that both general combining ability (GCA) and specific combiing ability (SCA) effects were important for all characters, but additive gene effects were more predominant than non-additive gene effects. Qianyou 8AB and You 2894AB gave respective highly significant GCA effects of 230.94 and 127.65 kg-hm-2 for seed yield. Lines You 2894AB, QH303-4AB, You 157AB and You 2341AB gave highly significant GCA effects for oil content of 0.99, 1.62, 1.20 and 1.53%, respectively. The crosses among lines Qianyou 3AxQianyou 8B, Qianyou 8AxYou 2894B, You 2894AxQianyou 6B, Qianyou 8AxQH303-4B and Qianyou 8Ax Qianyou 6B gave high SCA effects of 616.29, 398.71,356.48, 394.24 and 303.79 kg hm-2 for seed yield, respectively. All these crosses also gave high seed yield indicating that these crosses could be used in the breeding program.

  2. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  3. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two differ...

  4. Combining Ability Analysis and Genetic-Effects Studies for Some Important Quality Characters in Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamar Shehzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis has an important position in rapeseed breeding. To evaluate genetic and combining ability effects, three Brassica napus L. testers “Punjab Sarson, Legend and Durre-NIFA” and five lines “Duncled, K-258, ZN-R-1, ZN-R-8, ZN-M-6” were crossed using line × tester design in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. Mean sum of squares of the analysis of variances (ANOVA for genotypes was highly significant for all of the traits. Most of the lines and testers exhibited significant results of mean sum of squares for combining ability. Line ‘Duncled’ was proved good general combiner for oil (8.8, protein (3.7, erucic acid (33.0, oleic acid (13.0 and glucosinolate (-19.3 over other lines and tester ‘Durree-NIFA’ for protein (6.6, erucic acid (-23.4, and linolenic acid (-5.3 over other testers. Significant specific combining ability effects were also observed. The best hybrid combinations were Legend × ZN-R-1 for oil (9.6, Punjab Sarson × Duncled for minimum erucic acid (-14.0 and linolenic acid contents (-6.0, and Legend × ZN-M-6 for maximum protein (8.2 and minimum glucosinolate contents (-11.1. The maximum oil contents were observed in ‘Legend × ZN-R-1’ (52.4%. The cross ‘Punjab Sarson × Duncled’ expressed maximum values of protein (26.5% and oleic acid (62.5% while minimum for erucic acid (2.3%, linolenic acid (5.4% and glucosinolate contents (19.3µmol/g. This research discloses the significance of non-additive genetic effects for most of the studied traits except oil contents. These studies will also help to improve nutritional values of rapeseed crop by selecting noble crosses.

  5. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Frauenknecht, Tina; Brodmann, Peter; Bagutti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  6. Agronomic evaluation of Rapessed varieties (Brassica napus L. in Response to Late-Season Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Shirani Rad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide spread limiting problem seriously influencing rapeseed (Brassica napus L. growth, production and quality, mostly in dryland regions. However, identification and development of resistant varieties is prohibited by destitute of effective selection criteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevention possibility of rapeseed varieties against terminal-season water deficit stress through selecting suitable varieties. Thirty-four rapeseed varieties were tested in a split plot design based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with four replications for two years (2005- 2006 and 2006-2007 at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute of Karaj, Iran. Two irrigation levels consisting of irrigation after 80 mm evaporation from class “A” pan during full growing season as normal irrigation (I and water deficit stress (S by restricting watering from the flowering phase until full maturity were established in main plots, and subplots were devoted to split application of varieties. Water deficit stress caused noticeable decrease in plant height, silique plant-1, seed silique-1, 1000-kernel weight, seed yield, oil percentage, oil yield and harvest index. There were significant positive correlations between seed yield and yield-related components. Meanwhile, the highest correlation was recorded for number of seeds per siliqua (r= 0.64; P -1 and oil yield (2317 kg ha-1 in normal irrigation, and ‘ORW20-3002’ had the highest seed yield (2348 kg ha-1 and oil yield (1000 kg ha-1 in water deficit stress conditions. Accordingly, ‘ORW20-3002’ and ‘Sunday’ can be reported as varieties with sustainable productivity in stress and non-stress conditions.

  7. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin Tan

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld, phloem-peeling (Pe, and selective silique darkening (Sd. Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA, organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms

  8. Feeding by flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae; Phyllotreta spp.) is decreased on canola (Brassica napus) seedlings with increased trichome density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana J; Holowachuk, Jennifer M; Gruber, Margaret Y; Grenkow, Larry F

    2011-02-01

    Laboratory and field studies were undertaken to determine the effects of increased numbers of trichomes on seedling stems, petioles, and first true leaves of Brassica napus L., canola, on the feeding and behavior of the crucifer flea beetle Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Seedlings of 'Westar' canola with genes inserted from Arabidopsis thaliana L. for increased trichome production, called Hairyl, were tested against Westar seedlings in no-choice and choice laboratory tests, and against parental plants and other cultivars grown from seed with and without insecticide in field trials at Saskatoon and Lethbridge, Canada. Analyses ofprefeeding and feeding behavior in no-choice tests of first true leaves found that flea beetles interacted with their host while off Hairyl leaves more so than beetles presented with leaves of Westar. Beetles required twice as much time to reach satiation when feeding on leaves with increased pubescence than on Westar leaves. In laboratory choice tests, flea beetles fed more on cotyledons and second true leaves of Westar than on comparable tissues of the transgenic line. In field trials, variations in feeding patterns were seen over time on cotyledons of the line with elevated trichomes. However, all four young true leaves of Hairyl seedlings were fed upon less than were the parental lines. Feeding on Hairyl plants frequently occurred at levels equal to or less than on cultivars grown from insecticide-treated seed. This study highlights the first host plant resistance trait developed in canola, dense pubescence, with a strong potential to deter feeding by crucifer flea beetles.

  9. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  10. Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Schulze

    Full Text Available Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto. The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

  11. Low level impurities in imported wheat are a likely source of feral transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Juerg; Brodmann, Peter; Oehen, Bernadette; Bagutti, Claudia

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, the cultivation of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and the use of its seeds for food and feed are not permitted. Nevertheless, the GM oilseed rape events GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 have recently been found in the Rhine port of Basel, Switzerland. The sources of GM oilseed rape seeds have been unknown. The main agricultural good being imported at the Rhine port of Basel is wheat and from 2010 to 2013, 19% of all Swiss wheat imports originated from Canada. As over 90% of all oilseed rape grown in Canada is GM, we hypothesised that imports of Canadian wheat may contain low level impurities of GM oilseed rape. Therefore, waste fraction samples gathered during the mechanical cleaning of Canadian wheat from two Swiss grain mills were analysed by separating oilseed rape seeds from waste fraction samples and testing DNA of pooled seeds for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Furthermore, oilseed rape seeds from each grain mill were sown in a germination experiment, and seedling DNA was tested for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. GT73, MS8×RF3, MS8 and RF3 oilseed rape was detected among seed samples and seedlings of both grain mills. Based on this data, we projected a mean proportion of 0.005% of oilseed rape in wheat imported from Canada. Besides Canadian wheat, the Rhine port of Basel does not import any other significant amounts of agricultural products from GM oilseed rape producing countries. We therefore conclude that Canadian wheat is the major source of unintended introduction of GM oilseed rape seeds into Switzerland.

  12. Auxin Biosynthesis, Accumulation, Action and Transport are Involved in Stress-Induced Microspore Embryogenesis Initiation and Progression in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sanz, Héctor; Solís, María-Teresa; López, María-Fernanda; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Risueño, María C; Testillano, Pilar S

    2015-07-01

    Isolated microspores are reprogrammed in vitro by stress, becoming totipotent cells and producing embryos and plants via a process known as microspore embryogenesis. Despite the abundance of data on auxin involvement in plant development and embryogenesis, no data are available regarding the dynamics of auxin concentration, cellular localization and the expression of biosynthesis genes during microspore embryogenesis. This work involved the analysis of auxin concentration and cellular accumulation; expression of TAA1 and NIT2 encoding enzymes of two auxin biosynthetic pathways; expression of the PIN1-like efflux carrier; and the effects of inhibition of auxin transport and action by N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and α-(p-chlorophenoxy) isobutyric acid (PCIB) during Brassica napus microspore embryogenesis. The results indicated de novo auxin synthesis after stress-induced microspore reprogramming and embryogenesis initiation, accompanying the first cell divisions. The progressive increase of auxin concentration during progression of embryogenesis correlated with the expression patterns of TAA1 and NIT2 genes of auxin biosynthetic pathways. Auxin was evenly distributed in early embryos, whereas in heart/torpedo embryos auxin was accumulated in apical and basal embryo regions. Auxin efflux carrier PIN1-like gene expression was induced in early multicellular embryos and increased at the globular/torpedo embryo stages. Inhibition of polar auxin transport (PAT) and action, by NPA and PCIB, impaired embryo development, indicating that PAT and auxin action are required for microspore embryo progression. NPA also modified auxin embryo accumulation patterns. These findings indicate that endogenous auxin biosynthesis, action and polar transport are required in stress-induced microspore reprogramming, embryogenesis initiation and progression.

  13. Rising CO2 from historical concentrations enhances the physiological performance of Brassica napus seedlings under optimal water supply but not under reduced water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faralli, Michele; Grove, Ivan G; Hare, Martin C; Kettlewell, Peter S; Fiorani, Fabio

    2017-02-01

    The productivity of many important crops is significantly threatened by water shortage, and the elevated atmospheric CO2 can significantly interact with physiological processes and crop responses to drought. We examined the effects of three different CO2 concentrations (historical ~300 ppm, ambient ~400 ppm and elevated ~700 ppm) on physiological traits of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings subjected to well-watered and reduced water availability. Our data show (1) that, as expected, increasing CO2 level positively modulates leaf photosynthetic traits, leaf water-use efficiency and growth under non-stressed conditions, although a pronounced acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO2 occurred; (2) that the predicted elevated CO2 concentration does not reduce total evapotranspiration under drought when compared with present (400 ppm) and historical (300 ppm) concentrations because of a larger leaf area that does not buffer transpiration; and (3) that accordingly, the physiological traits analysed decreased similarly under stress for all CO2 concentrations. Our data support the hypothesis that increasing CO2 concentrations may not significantly counteract the negative effect of increasing drought intensity on Brassica napus performance.

  14. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  15. Identification and Analysis of MS5(d): A Gene That Affects Double-Strand Break (DSB) Repair during Meiosis I in Brassica napus Microsporocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xinhua; Yan, Xiaohong; Yuan, Rong; Li, Keqi; Wu, Yuhua; Liu, Fang; Luo, Junling; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the identification of the Brassica-specific gene MS5(d), which is responsible for male sterility in Brassica napus. The MS5(d) gene is highly expressed in the microsporocyte and encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus. Light microscopy analyses have demonstrated that the MS5(d) gene affects microsporocyte meiosis in the thermosensitive genic male sterility line TE5A. Sequence comparisons and genetic complementation revealed a C-to-T transition in MS5(d), encoding a Leu-to-Phe (L281F) substitution and causing abnormal male meiosis in TE5A. These findings suggest arrested meiotic chromosome dynamics at pachytene. Furthermore, immunofluorescence analyses showed that double-strand break (DSB) formation and axial elements were normal but that DSB repair and spindle behavior were aberrant in TE5A meiocytes. Collectively, our results indicate that MS5(d) likely encodes a protein required for chromosomal DSB repair at early stages of meiosis in B. napus.

  16. Alteration of mitochondrial genomes containing atpA genes in the sexual progeny of cybrids between Raphanus sativus cms line and Brassica napus cv. Westar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Imamura, J

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated the fate of the mitochondrial genomes of cybrids derived from "donor-recipient" protoplast fusion between X-irradiated Raphanus sativus (cms line) and iodoacetamide-treated Brassica napus cv. Westar. Two out of ten fusion products were male-sterile with the diploid chromosome number of B. napus. The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the cybrids and their progeny were further analyzed by DNA-DNA hybridizaion using the pea mitochondrial ATPase subunit gene (atpA) as a probe. One cybrid, 18-3, had a 3.0 kb fragment characteristic of B. napus and a 2.0 kb non-parental fragment when the BamHI-digested DNA was hybridized with the probe. In the first-backcrossed progeny of this cybrid, the hybridization pattern was not stably inherited. A 4.0 kb radish fragment, not detectable in the cybrid, appeared in one of the BC1 generation siblings, and the 2.0 kb non-parental fragment was lost in another. The hybridization patterns in BC1 progeny siblings of cybrid 12-9 were also varied. The alteration of mtDNA in the cybrid progeny continued to the BC2 generation. There was no clear evidence of a heteroplasmic state or of sub-stoichiometric molecules in the mt genome of cybrid 18-3. A possible cause of the observed alteration in the mt genome is discussed.

  17. Analysis of Differential Gene Expression Pattern in Brassica napus Hybrid Huayouza 6 and Its Parents Using Arabidopsis cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jun-ru; WU Jian-yong; ZHANG Jian; LIU Ping-wu; YANG Guang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    Huayouza 6, a new semi-winter Brassica napus variety with high-yield, good quality, prematurity and extensive adaptability, was derived from the cross between the female parent 8086A and male parent 7-5. Two cDNA-based Arabidopisis microarray were used to analyze gene differential expression in bud of an elite B. napus hybrid Huayouza6 and its parents,in which there were 83 over-expression transcripts and 331 under-expression transcripts between Huayouza 6 and its female parent 8086A and 94 over-expression transcripts, and 423 under-expression transcripts were demonstrated betweenHuayouza 6 and its male parent 7-5. Further analysis showed that there were significant number of genes responsible for photosynthesis, and its implication for heterosis was discussed. Northern analysis of phosphoribulokinase coincided with its expression pattern derived from hybridization of Arabidopsis cDNA microarray and B. napus mRNA, this system of heterologous hybridization analysis should be applicable to other close relatives of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  18. Genetic Diversity of Testa Pigments and RAPD Marker of Yellow-Seeded Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; CHEN Li; YIN Jia-ming; TANG Zhang-lin; LI Jia-na

    2003-01-01

    14 yellow-seeded rapeseed lines (Brassia napus L. ) from different genetic sources were used toanalyze diversity of testa pigments content, oil and protein content, and RAPD markers. The results showedthat the anthocyanin and melanin were the most important pigments in testa and their content were responsiblefor the variation in seed color ranging from orange to black yellow, 14 yellow-seeded lines could be classifiedinto 3 groups., high anthocyanin content group with anthocyanin content over 2.54 mg g-1 DW, the seed colorwas light yellow or orange; low pigments content group with low content of anthocyanin and melanin, the testawas transparent and the seed color was light yellow, greenish yellow or twany; high melanin content groupwith melanin content over 178.4U(A290nm), the testa was black, the seed color was black yellow. Oil eantentchanged from 36.2% to 45.5%, protein content from 21.1% to 27.7%, and the correlation analysis revealedthat the oil content is highly significantly negatively correlated with the protein content. The cluster analysisshowed that the extensive genetic variation existed among 14 yellow-seeded lines by using unweighted pairedgroup method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) based on RAPD markers which were amplified with decamerprimers, the genetic similarity among them ranged from 0.25 to 0. 909, and 14 yellow-seeded lines could putinto 2 clusters corresponding to genome difference.

  19. Origination, expansion, evolutionary trajectory, and expression bias of AP2/ERF superfamily in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the most important transcription factor families, plays crucial roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far, a comprehensive evolutionary inference of its origination and expansion has not been available. Here, we identified 515 AP2/ERF genes in B. napus, a neo-tetraploid forming ~7500 years ago, and found that 82.14% of them were duplicated in the tetraploidization. A prominent subgenome bias was revealed in gene expression, tissue-specific, and gene conversion. Moreover, a large-scale analysis across plants and alga suggested that this superfamily could have been originated from AP2 family, expanding to form other families (ERF, and RAV. This process was accompanied by duplicating and/or alternative deleting AP2 domain, intragenic domain sequence conversion, and/or by acquiring other domains, resulting in copy number variations, alternatively contributing to functional innovation. We found that significant positive selection occurred at certain critical nodes during the evolution of land plants, possibly responding to changing environment. In conclusion, the present research revealed origination, functional innovation, and evolutionary trajectory of the AP2/ERF superfamily, contributing to understanding their roles in plant stress tolerance.

  20. Effects of B, Mo, Zn, and Their Interactions on Seed Yield of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; SHI Lei; XU Fang-Sen; LU Jian-Wei; WANG Yun-Hua

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of boron (B), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn) and their interactions on seed yield and yield formation of rapeseed (Brassiea napus L. war. Huashuang 4). Application of B fertilizer to a sandy soil increased the seed yield by 46.1% compared to the control and also created a considerably higher seed yield than the two treatments solely applying Mo and Zn fertilizers, which suggested that B was a main constraint for the seed yield of Huashuang 4 in this experiment. The effect of B fertilizer on the seed yield was attributed to an increase in the number of seeds per silique and siliques per plant. The combined application of B with Mo or Zn resulted in higher seed yield than the application of B, Mo or Zn alone, and the seed yield of the B+Mo+Zn treatment was the highest in all treatments, 68.1% above the control. Dry matter accumulation of seed followed a typical S-shaped curve and it was higher in plants supplied with B than in plants without B. A small but significant increase in the seed oil content and an improvement in the oil quality were also observed in all treatments compared with the control. These results suggested that optimal micronutrient application could provide both yield and quality advantages for rapeseed in poor soil.

  1. Origination, Expansion, Evolutionary Trajectory, and Expression Bias of AP2/ERF Superfamily in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoming; Wang, Jinpeng; Ma, Xiao; Li, Yuxian; Lei, Tianyu; Wang, Li; Ge, Weina; Guo, Di; Wang, Zhenyi; Li, Chunjin; Zhao, Jianjun; Wang, Xiyin

    2016-01-01

    The AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the most important transcription factor families, plays crucial roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far, a comprehensive evolutionary inference of its origination and expansion has not been available. Here, we identified 515 AP2/ERF genes in B. napus, a neo-tetraploid forming ~7500 years ago, and found that 82.14% of them were duplicated in the tetraploidization. A prominent subgenome bias was revealed in gene expression, tissue-specific, and gene conversion. Moreover, a large-scale analysis across plants and alga suggested that this superfamily could have been originated from AP2 family, expanding to form other families (ERF, and RAV). This process was accompanied by duplicating and/or alternative deleting AP2 domain, intragenic domain sequence conversion, and/or by acquiring other domains, resulting in copy number variations, alternatively contributing to functional innovation. We found that significant positive selection occurred at certain critical nodes during the evolution of land plants, possibly responding to changing environment. In conclusion, the present research revealed origination, functional innovation, and evolutionary trajectory of the AP2/ERF superfamily, contributing to understanding their roles in plant stress tolerance. PMID:27570529

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS) in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Liu, Miao; Zhao, Huiyan; Liu, Chuan; Li, Jiana; Tang, Zhanglin; Xu, Xinfu; Qiu, Xiao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS) system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1) up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2) down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3) down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Recessive Male Sterility (RGMS in Sterile and Fertile Brassica napus Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunmin Qu

    Full Text Available The recessive genetic male sterility (RGMS system plays a key role in the production of hybrid varieties in self-pollinating B. napus plants, and prevents negative cytoplasmic effects. However, the complete molecular mechanism of the male sterility during male-gametogenesis in RGMS remains to be determined. To identify transcriptomic changes that occur during the transition to male sterility in RGMS, we examined the male sterile line WSLA and male fertile line WSLB, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs differing only in the fertility trait. We evaluated the phenotypic features and sterility stage using anatomical analysis. Comparative RNA sequencing analysis revealed that 3,199 genes were differentially expressed between WSLA and WSLB. Many of these genes are mainly involved in biological processes related to flowering, including pollen tube development and growth, pollen wall assembly and modification, and pollen exine formation and pollination. The transcript profiles of 93 genes associated with pollen wall and anther development were determined by quantitative RT-PCR in different flower parts, and classified into the following three major clades: (1 up-regulated in WSLA plants; (2 down-regulated in WSLA plants; and 3 down-regulated in buds, but have a higher expression in stigmas of WSLA than in WSLB. A subset of genes associated with sporopollenin accumulation were all up-regulated in WSLA. An excess of sporopollenin results in defective pollen wall formation, which leads to male sterility in WSLA. Some of the genes identified in this study are candidates for future research, as they could provide important insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying RGMS in WSLA.

  4. Formation and excretion of autophagic plastids (plastolysomes in Brassica napus embryogenic microspores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica eParra-Vega

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change in developmental fate of microspores reprogrammed towards embryogenesis is a complex but fascinating experimental system where microspores undergo dramatic changes derived from the developmental switch. After 40 years of study of the ultrastructural changes undergone by the induced microspores, many questions are still open. In this work, we analyzed the architecture of DNA-containing organelles such as plastids and mitochondria in samples of B. napus isolated microspore cultures covering the different stages before, during and after the developmental switch. Mitochondria presented a conventional oval or sausage-like morphology for all cell types studied, similar to that found in vivo in other cell types from vegetative parts. Similarly, plastids of microspores before induction and of non-induced cells showed conventional architectures. However, approximately 40% of the plastids of embryogenic microspores presented atypical features such as curved profiles, protrusions, and internal compartments filled with cytoplasm. Three-dimensional reconstructions confirmed that these plastids actually engulf cytoplasm regions, isolating them from the rest of the cell. Acid phosphatase activity was found in them, confirming the lytic activity of these organelles. In addition, digested plastid-like structures were found excreted to the apoplast. All these phenomena seemed transient, since microspore-derived embryos showed conventional plastids. Together, these results strongly suggested that under special circumstances, such as those of the androgenic switch, plastids of embryogenic microspores behave as autophagic plastids (plastolysomes, engulfing cytoplasm for digestion, and then are excreted out of the cytoplasm as part of a cleaning program necessary for microspores to become embryos.

  5. Lead and Cadmium Contamination in Seeds and Oils of Brassica napus L and Carthamus tinctorius Grown in Isfahan Province/Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Palizban

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead and cadmium are toxic heavy metals found as major contaminants in food products and edible oils. The aims of this study were to investigate the lead and cadmium contaminations in seeds and extracted oils from Brassica napus L and Carthamus tinctorius grown in the vicinity of industrial sites (Isfahan Zobe Ahan near Isfahan province/Iran. Methods: In this study, the seeds of B. napus and C. tinctorius were randomly sampled from the farms. The oils of seeds were provided by factory and extracted as well in our laboratory. The two series of washed and unwashed seeds digested with nitric acid and the amount of elements in seeds and oils were measured using GF-AA spectrometer equipped with Zeeman Effect. Results: Cadmium was found in all samples below the Method Detection Limit (MDL, 0.04 μg/L. Lead contaminations were found in all seeds and oils except washed B. napus seeds. The highest levels of lead contaminations were observed in oils of C. tinctorius and B. napus with the amount of 24.74 μg/L and 11.85 μg/L, respectively. The level of lead in unwashed seed oils were significantly higher than washed seed oils (P<0.05. Conclusions: The contamination rate of cadmium compared with lead was very low. The higher lead contaminations in unwashed seeds oils compared with washed seeds oils indicated that the contaminant should have been be transferred through the air. Although these observations suggest that the levels of contaminations in edible oils are below the toxic level, long-term exposure may lead to potential health risks.

  6. Effects of Boron Nutrition on 45Ca Retranslocation and Distribution in Rape (Brassica napus L. ) Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huo-yan; WANG Yun-hua; WU Li-shu; DU Chang-wen; XU Fang-sun

    2003-01-01

    Using tracer techniques with the radioisotope 45Ca, the effects of boron supply from soil andnutrient solution on the retranslocation of 45 Ca from leaves to other parts of rape plants were studied. Resultsindicated that only a small portion of foliar-applied 45Ca could be retranslocated to other parts of the rapeplant. There was no pronounced effect of boron level in the soil on 45 Ca retranslocation. Increasing boron con-centrations in the nutrient solution significantly reduced 45 Ca radioactivity in root and stem, but increased 45 Cauptake and 45 Ca translocation to the upper leaves of rape plants. It was suggested that 45 Ca absorbed by newlydeveloped roots was easily distributed to upper leaves of rape plants. Boron may alter distribution of calciumvia its effect on root development or growth of newly developed roots.

  7. Breeding response of transcript profiling in developing seeds of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaodan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upgrading of rapeseed cultivars has resulted in a substantial improvement in yield and quality in China over the past 30 years. With the selective pressure against fatty acid composition and oil content, high erucic acid- and low oil-content cultivars have been replaced by low erucic acid- and high oil-content cultivars. The high erucic acid cultivar Zhongyou 821 and its descendent, low erucic acid cultivar Zhongshuang 9, are representatives of two generations of the most outstanding Chinese rapeseed cultivars (B. napus developed the past 2 decades. This paper compares the transcriptional profiles of Zhongshuang 9 and Zhongyou 821 for 32 genes that are principally involved in lipid biosynthesis during seed development in order to elucidate how the transcriptional profiles of these genes responded to quality improvement over the past 20 years. Results Comparison of the cultivar Zhongyou 821 with its descendent, Zhongshuang 9, shows that the transcriptional levels of seven of the 32 genes were upregulated by 30% to 109%, including FAD3, ACCase, FAE1, GKTP, Caleosin, GAPDH, and PEPC. Of the 32 genes, 10 (KAS3, β-CT, BcRK6, P450, FatA, Oleosin, FAD6, FatB, α-CT and SUC1 were downregulated by at least 20% and most by 50%. The Napin gene alone accounted for over 75% of total transcription from all 32 genes assessed in both cultivars. Most of the genes showed significant correlation with fatty acid accumulation, but the correlation in ZS9 was significantly different from that in ZY821. Higher KCR2 activity is associated with higher C16:0, C18:0, and C18:2 in both cultivars, lower C22:1 and total fatty acid content in ZY821, and lower 18:1 in ZS9. Conclusion This paper illustrates the response of the transcription levels of 32 genes to breeding in developing rapeseed seeds. Both cultivars showed similar transcription profiles, with the Napin gene predominantly transcribed. Selective pressure for zero erucic acid, low

  8. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W; Komives, Elizabeth A; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I

    2008-04-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC-Cd and glutathione-Cd complexes.

  9. Do competitive conditions affect introgression of transgenes from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to weedy Brassica rapa? AS case study with special reference to transplastomic oilseed rape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Marina

    122 examined cases. Field trials with B. napus and B. rapa coexisting in different proportions and densities elucidated how these factors affect the F1-hybridproduction on B. napus. Higher plant density reduced the fitness of mother plants and the abundance of F1-hybrids (at the 1:1 proportion...... weed. The next step in the introgression process wasinvestigated in field trials with F1-hybrids coexisting with B. napus and B. rapa in different proportions and densities. With the highest abundance of F1-hybrids, B. napus was the predominant father and the sirering success of the three possible...... fathersdepended on the density. Progenies from F1-hybrid mother plants grown at the other two proportions were screened merely for individuals sired by B. rapa (BC1rs). The density affected on the production of BC1rs significantly but the effect differed amongproportions with both the highest and lowest...

  10. Timing of gene expression from different genetic systems in shaping leucine and isoleucine contents of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guo Lin Chen; Jian Guo Wu; Murali-Tottekkaad Variath; Chun Hai Shi

    2011-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using a diallel design with nine parents: Youcai 601, Double 20-4, Huashuang 3, Gaoyou 605, Zhongyou 821, Eyouchangjia, Zhong R-888, Tower and Zheshuang 72. The seed developmental process was divided into five stages, namely initial (days 1–15 after flowering), early (days 16–22 after flowering), middle (days 23–29), late (days 30–36), and maturing (days 37–43) developmental stages. The variation of dynamic genetic effects for leucine and isoleucine contents of rapeseed meal was analysed at five developmental stages, across different environments using the genetic models with time-dependent measures. The results from unconditional and conditional analyses indicated that the expression of diploid embryo, cytoplasmic and diploid maternal plant genes were important for leucine and isoleucine contents at different developmental stages of rapeseed, particularly at the initial and early developmental stages. Among different genetic systems, nutrition quality traits were mainly controlled by the accumulative or net maternal main effects and their GE interaction effects, except at maturity when the net diploid embryo effects were larger. The expression of genes was affected by the environmental conditions on 15, 22, 29 or 36 days after flowering, but was more stable at mature stage. For the isoleucine content the narrow-sense heritabilities on 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 days after flowering were 43.0, 65.7, 60.1, 65.5 and 78.2%, respectively, while for the leucine content the corresponding narrow-sense heritabilities were relatively smaller. The interaction heritabilities were more important than the general heritabilities at the first three developmental times. The improvement for isoleucine content could be achieved by selection based on the higher narrow-sense heritabilities. Various genetic systems exhibited genetic correlations among the developmental times or leucine and isoleucine contents. A

  11. 油菜开花时间调控基因SVP的克隆与表达特性分析%Molecular Cloning and Expression Pattern of SVP Gene Influencing Flowering Time in Brassica napus and Brassica juncea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丹丹; 毛群飞; 张金顺; 杨丹; 赵福永

    2013-01-01

    应用同源克隆法和RT-PCR技术分别从异源四倍体油菜湘油15号和四川黄籽花序组织中克隆了Short vegetative phase(SV)基因的同源基因,分别命名为BnSVP-1、BnSVP-2、BnSVP-3、BnSVP-4、BnSVP-5和BjSVP-1、BjSVP-2、BjSVP-3,GenBank登录号分别为JQ906717、JQ906718、JQ906719、JQ906720、JQ316471和JQ906715、JQ906716、JQ316472.序列分析结果表明,这些SVP同源基因编码区长726 bp,编码241个氨基酸残基,具有典型的MIKC结构域,是一类MADS-box调控基因.表达结果分析表明,光周期和GA3处理会使SVP基因的表达模式发生改变,而春化处理后的表达模式与对照相似,其表达模式的改变会导致开花时间提早;在开花前,SVP基因在根、茎、叶组织中均有表达,花期,在花器官的雄蕊、雌蕊和萼片中均有表达,在花瓣中无表达;幼角果的角果皮中该基因的表达水平要高于幼嫩种子.%Mutiple homologs of short vegetative phase (SVP) were isolated from inflorescences of allotetraploid rapeseed cultivars Xiangyou No. 15 (Brassica napus L. ) and Sichuan Yellow-seeded (Brassica juncea L. ) by using homologous cloning and reverse transcription PCR technology, which was designated BnSVP-1 ,BnSVP-2 ,BnSVP-3, BnSVP-4,BnSVP-5 and BjSVP-1 ,BjSVP-2 ,BjSVP-3, respectively. All these sequences have been deposited in Gen-Bank with accession number JQ906717 , JQ906718 , JQ906719, JQ906720, JQ316471 and JQ906715 , JQ906716, JQ316472 respectively. Results of sequence analysis showed that each homolog was 726 bp and encoded 241 amino acids with typical M,I,K and C domain of MADS-box gene. The SVP expression pattern of Xiangyou No. 15 after been treated with photoperiod, GA3 spraying and vernalization was studied, the results demonstrated that different photoperiods and GA3 spraying could change its expression in the stem or root,but vernalization did not. The expression change would result in early flowering. In rapeseed, SVP expressed in root, stem

  12. Vacuolar iron transporter BnMEB2 is involved in enhancing iron tolerance of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Iron toxicity is a major nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D was identified. BnMEB2 is a homolog to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290 and acts as a detoxifier in vacuolar sequestration of divalent metal. Transient expression analysis revealed that BnMEB2 was localized to the vacuolar membrane. Q-PCR detection showed a high expression of BnMEB2 in mature (60-day-old leaves and could be obviously induced by exogenous iron stress in both roots and leaves. Over-expressed BnMEB2 in both Arabidopsis wild type and meb2 mutant seedlings resulted in greatly improved iron tolerability with no significant changes in the expression level of other vacuolar iron transporter genes. The mutant meb2 grew slowly and its root hair elongation was inhibited under high iron concentration condition while BnMEB2 over-expressed transgenic plants of the mutant restored the phenotypes with apparently higher iron storage in roots and dramatically increased iron content in the whole plant. Taken together, these results suggested that BnMEB2 was a VIT gene in rapeseed which was necessary for safe storage and vacuole detoxification function of excess iron to enhance the tolerance of iron toxicity. This research sheds light on a potentially new strategy for attenuating hazardous metal stress from environment and improving iron biofortification in Brassicaceae crops.

  13. Response to multi-generational selection under elevated [CO2] in two temperature regimes suggests enhanced carbon assimilation and increased reproductive output in Brassica napus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard;

    2013-01-01

    Functional plant traits are likely to adapt under the sustained pressure imposed by environmental changes through natural selection. Employing Brassica napus as a model, a multi-generational study was performed to investigate the potential trajectories of selection at elevated [CO2] in two...... different temperature regimes. To reveal phenotypic divergence at the manipulated [CO2] and temperature conditions, a full-factorial natural selection regime was established in a phytotron environment over the range of four generations. It is demonstrated that a directional response to selection at elevated...... [CO2] led to higher quantities of reproductive output over the range of investigated generations independent of the applied temperature regime. The increase in seed yield caused an increase in aboveground biomass. This suggests quantitative changes in the functions of carbon sequestration of plants...

  14. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwell, Andrea J; Vesely, Susanne; Nero, Vincent; Rodriguez, Hilda; McCormack, Kimberley; Shah, Saleh; Dixon, D George; Glick, Bernard R

    2007-06-01

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors.

  15. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jugulam

    Full Text Available Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18 and B. napus (2n = 38 were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH. This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  16. Variations in fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile and some phyto chemical contents in selected oil seed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Din Saad El-Beltag, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is now the third most important source of edible oil in the world after soybean and palm oil. In this study seeds of five different rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were evaluated for their fatty acid composition, glucosinolate profile, amino acids, total tocopherols and phenolic content. Among all cultivars significant variability in fatty acids were observed. The oleic acid (C18:1) ranged from 56.31% to 58.67%, linoleic acid (C18:2) from 10.52% to 13.74%, {alpha}-linolenic acid (C18:3) from 8.83% to 10.32% and erucic acid (22:1) from 0.15% to 0.91%. The glucosinolate profile of rapeseed was also separated and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography. Small variations in the glucosinolate profile were observed among all tested cultivars; however, progoitrin and gluconapin were the major glucosinolate found. Additionally, silvo cultivar showed the highest total glucosinolate contents (5.97 {mu}mol/g dw). Generally, the contents of aspartic, glutamic, arginine and leucine were high, while the contents of tyrosine and isoleucine were low among all cultivars. For total tocopherols, the results indicated that both serw 6 and pactol cultivars had the highest total tocopherol contents (138.3 and 102.8 mg/100 g oil, respectively). Total phenolic contents varied from 28.0 to 35.4 mg/g dw. The highest total phenolic content was found in topas while the lowest value was detected in serw 6. These parameters; fatty acid contents, glucosinolate profile and amino acids together with total tocopherols and phenolic contents, could be taken into consideration by oilseed rape breeders as selection criteria for developing genotypes with modified seed quality traits in Brassica napus L. (Author)

  17. Overexpression of phyA and appA genes improves soil organic phosphorus utilisation and seed phytase activity in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Phytate is the major storage form of organic phosphorus in soils and plant seeds, and phosphorus (P in this form is unavailable to plants or monogastric animals. In the present study, the phytase genes phyA and appA were introduced into Brassica napus cv Westar with a signal peptide sequence and CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Three independent transgenic lines, P3 and P11 from phyA and a18 from appA, were selected. The three transgenic lines exhibited significantly higher exuded phytase activity when compared to wild-type (WT controls. A quartz sand culture experiment demonstrated that transgenic Brassica napus had significantly improved P uptake and plant biomass. A soil culture experiment revealed that seed yields of transgenic lines P11 and a18 increased by 20.9% and 59.9%, respectively, when compared to WT. When phytate was used as the sole P source, P accumulation in seeds increased by 20.6% and 46.9% with respect to WT in P11 and a18, respectively. The P3 line accumulated markedly more P in seeds than WT, while no significant difference was observed in seed yields when phytate was used as the sole P source. Phytase activities in transgenic canola seeds ranged from 1,138 to 1,605 U kg(-1 seeds, while no phytase activity was detected in WT seeds. Moreover, phytic acid content in P11 and a18 seeds was significantly lower than in WT. These results introduce an opportunity for improvement of soil and seed phytate-P bioavailability through genetic manipulation of oilseed rape, thereby increasing plant production and P nutrition for monogastric animals.

  18. IrrE, a global regulator of extreme radiation resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans, enhances salt tolerance in Escherichia coli and Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, about 20% of cultivated land is now affected by salinity. Salt tolerance is a trait of importance to all crops in saline soils. Previous efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants have met with only limited success. Bacteria of the genus Deinococcus are known for their ability to survive highly stressful conditions, and therefore possess a unique pool of genes conferring extreme resistance. In Deinococcus radiodurans, the irrE gene encodes a global regulator responsible for extreme radioresistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using plate assays, we showed that IrrE protected E. coli cells against salt shock and other abiotic stresses such as oxidative, osmotic and thermal shocks. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed that IrrE functions as a switch to regulate different sets of proteins such as stress responsive proteins, protein kinases, glycerol-degrading enzymes, detoxification proteins, and growth-related proteins in E. coli. We also used quantitative RT-PCR to investigate expression of nine selected stress-responsive genes in transgenic and wild-type Brassica napus plants. Transgenic B. napus plants expressing the IrrE protein can tolerate 350 mM NaCl, a concentration that inhibits the growth of almost all crop plants. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of IrrE, a global regulator for extreme radiation resistance in D. radiodurans, confers significantly enhanced salt tolerance in both E. coli and B. napus. We thus propose that the irrE gene might be used as a potentially promising transgene to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crop plants.

  19. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity-mediated perpetual hydrogen peroxide generation in the chloroplast induces apoptotic-like death of Brassica napus leaf protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajesh Kumar; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Despite extensive research over the past years, regeneration from protoplasts has been observed in only a limited number of plant species. Protoplasts undergo complex metabolic modification during their isolation. The isolation of protoplasts induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in Brassica napus leaf protoplasts. The present study was conducted to provide new insight into the mechanism of ROS generation in B. napus leaf protoplasts. In vivo localization of H(2)O(2) and enzymes involved in H(2)O(2) generation and detoxification, molecular antioxidant-ascorbate and its redox state and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the leaf and isolated protoplasts. Incubating leaf strips in the macerating enzyme (ME) for different duration (3, 6, and 12 h) induced accumulation of H(2)O(2) and malondialdehyde (lipid peroxidation, an index of membrane damage) in protoplasts. The level of H(2)O(2) was highest just after protoplast isolation and subsequently decreased during culture. Superoxide generating NADPH oxidase (NOX)-like activity was enhanced, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decreased in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Diaminobenzidine peroxidase (DAB-POD) activity was also lower in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Total ascorbate content, ascorbate to dehydroascorbate ratio (redox state), were enhanced in the protoplasts compared to leaves. Higher activity of NOX-like enzyme and weakening in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, and DAB-POD) in protoplasts resulted in excessive accumulation of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts of protoplasts. Chloroplastic NADPH oxidase-like activity mediated perpetual H(2)O(2) generation probably induced apoptotic-like cell death of B. napus leaf protoplasts as indicated by parallel DNA laddering and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential.

  20. Identification of the Relationship between Oil Body Morphology and Oil Content by Microstructure Comparison Combining with QTL Analysis in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianwei; Chao, Hongbo; Wang, Hao; Li, Yonghong; Li, Dianrong; Xiang, Jun; Gan, Jianping; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Xuekun; Long, Yan; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Oil bodies (OBs) are relatively simple but very important organelles comprising a matrix of triacylglycerol (TAG) surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded and covered with unique proteins. The OB structure in Brassica napus with different oil content and the relationship between the oil content and the OB structure needs to be better understood. In this paper, the characteristics of OBs in the embryo of a series of B. napus materials with different oil content ranging from 34% to over 60% were studied. The results indicated that the OB size was significantly positively correlated with the oil content but was significantly negatively correlated with the glucosinolates and the protein content. Many genes associated with TAG synthesis, OB-membrane proteins, and the cell progress regulatory pathway were identified in the confidence interval of co-located QTLs for oil content, fatty acid (FA) compositions, and protein content. Our results suggested that the morphology of OBs might be directly controlled by the genes associated with OB-membrane proteins and indirectly controlled by the genes associated with TAG synthesis and cell progress regulatory pathway. PMID:28111582

  1. Preliminary Study on Mechanisms of Drought Resistance in Brassica napus L.Conferred by Piriformospora indica%印度梨形孢诱导油菜抗旱性机理的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佑源; 楼兵干; 高其康; 林福呈

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root endophytic fungus, which can promote the growth of many plants, enhance crop yield, and also confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to its host plants. In this study, in order to confirm the influence of P. indica on drought resistance of Bras sic a napus, the differences of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, the relative conductance, proline (Pro) content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT)) activity and expression level of drought-related genes between B. napus colonized and un-colonized by P. indica were analysed after treating by 20% polyethylene glycol-6000(PEG) solution. The results showed that the concentration of MDA and the relative conductance in the leaves of B. napus colonized by P. indka was significantly lower than that in un-colonized ones. The Pro content in the leaves of B. napus colonized by P. indica were significantly higher than that in un-colonized ones, and it was 1.3 folds of that after PEG treatment for 72 h. The activity of SOD, POD and CAT in the leaves of B. napus colonized by P. indica were significantly higher than that in un-colonized plants, they were 1.17, 1.38 and 1.27 folds of the control ones after PEG treatment for 24 h, respectively. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of drought-related gene 575 which codes lipid-transfer protein was upregulated in leaves of B. rwpus colonized by P. indica, and the expression level was 3.2 folds of control plants after PEG treatment for 9 h. This study indicated that the drought resistance improvement of 6. napus conferred by P. indka was related to MDA and Pro contents, plasmamembrane permeability, antioxidant enzymes activity and the expression level of drought-related genes. P. indka may enhance drought resistance of B. napus through improving total antioxidant ability, maintaining cell biomembrane integrity and cell osmotic pressure, and reducing the level of membrane lipid peroxidation of plants. This

  2. Brassica napus responses to short-term excessive copper treatment with decrease of photosynthetic pigments, differential expression of heavy metal homeostasis genes including activation of gene NRAMP4 involved in photosystem II stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, I E; Kholodova, V P; Rakhmankulova, Z F; Kuznetsov, Vl V

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the influence of 50 and 100 µM CuSO4 was investigated starting from 3 h till 72 h treatment of 4-weeks Brassica napus plants. High CuSO4 concentrations in nutrient medium resulted in the rapid copper accumulation in plants, especially in roots, much slower and to lower degree in leaves. Copper excess induced early decrease in the leaf water content and temporary leaf wilting. The decrease in content of photosynthetic pigments became significant to 24 h of excessive copper treatments and reached 35 % decrease to 72 h, but there were no significant changes in maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry. The copper excess affected the expression of ten genes involved in heavy metal homeostasis and copper detoxification. The results showed the differential and organ-specific expression of most genes. The potential roles of copper-activated genes encoding heavy metal transporters (ZIP5, NRAMP4, YSL2, and MRP1), metallothioneins (MT1a and MT2b), low-molecular chelator synthesis enzymes (PCS1 and NAS2), and metallochaperones (CCS and HIPP06) in heavy metal homeostasis and copper ion detoxification were discussed. The highest increase in gene expression was shown for NRAMP4 in leaves in spite of relatively moderate Cu accumulation there. The opinion was advanced that the NRAMP4 activation can be considered among the early reactions in the defense of the photosystem II against copper excess.

  3. A novel procedure for the quantitative analysis of metabolites, storage products and transcripts of laser microdissected seed tissues of Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchuk Ruslana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biology of the seed is complicated by the extensive non-homogeneity (spatial gradients in gene expression, metabolic conversions and storage product accumulation. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms underlying seed growth and storage therefore requires the development of means to obtain tissue-specific analyses. This approach also represents an important priority in the context of seed biotechnology. Results We provide a guideline and detailed procedures towards the quantitative analysis of laser micro-dissected (LM tissues in oilseed rape (Brassica napus. This includes protocols for laser microdissection of the seed, and the subsequent extraction and quantitative analysis of lipids, starch and metabolites (sugars, sugar phosphates, nucleotides, amino acids, intermediates of glycolysis and citric acid cycle. We have also developed a protocol allowing the parallel analysis of the transcriptome using Brassica-specific microarrays. Some data are presented regarding the compartmentation of metabolites within the oilseed rape embryo. Conclusion The described methodology allows for the rapid, combined analysis of metabolic intermediates, major storage products and transcripts in a tissue-specific manner. The protocols are robust for oilseed rape, and should be readily adjustable for other crop species. The suite of methods applied to LM tissues represents an important step in the context of both the systems biology and the biotechnology of oilseeds.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Two Brassica napus Differing in the Oil Contents and Map Alignment between the DEPs with Arabidopsis and B. rapa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maoteng Li; Lu Gan; Xiaodong Wang; Dianrong Li; Hao Wang; Chunhua Fu; Longjiang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world.Improve the oil content is the main object for breeders at present.Oil contents is an important and complex metabolic trait of B.napus,in our previous studies,about 50 materials with oil content over 50% were obtained.Lots of studies revealed that some factors,such as seed coat,embryo,and endosperm that were all correlated with oil conten,but the studies focus on the proteomic studies on seed oil content were few reported.It is generally considered that the protein content is negatively correlated with oil content,which was further verified with QTL analysis for protein and oil content,Total and oil body protein in mature seeds of two B.napus cultivars with the oil content of 36.49% and 55.19% were analsized by using 2-DE technique.154 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) have been successfully identified by using MALDI-TOF-MS method.The DEPs were mainly involved in Storage protein,Carbohydrate pathway protein,Cell Growth/Division protein,and Defense/Disease protein.Significant difference of cell growth/division protein both detected in total and oil body protein may be correlated to the size of oil body in B.napus with different oil content.The genome alignment analysis showed that among the 378 key genes,24 genes were underlying the N block,36 genes were underlying the U block and 17 genes were belong to the C block,then the 77 genes were used as candidate genes to do in silico mapping in A4 and C3 chromosomes of TN linkage map.For example,compared with the QTL mapping results and candidate genes,6 of the 24 genes underlying N block of A4 chromosome were mapped on the QTL qA4-1 confidence interval,including AT3G56350,AT3G57620,PGL34,AT3G58450,BGLU27 and BGLU30,and 5 genes were mapped on the QTL qOCDA-2 confidence interval,including AT3G52470,ATELP,MDAR1,FBA8 and AT3G53040.

  5. A- or C-chromosomes, does it matter for the transfer of transgenes from ¤Brassica napus¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomiuk, J.; Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2000-01-01

    with a very low probability of transfer to backcross generations with B. rapa has been proposed. Recently, the progeny of four backcross generations between transgenic herbicide-tolerant B. napus and B. rapa was studied in selection experiments (Metz et al. 1997). The rapid decrease in the frequency...... of herbicide-tolerant plants was explained by selection against the C-chromosomes of B. napus in favor of the homeologous ii-chromosomes. Obviously, such C-chromosomes could be potential candidates as safe integration sites for transgenes. We considered these safety aspects using a simple population genetic...

  6. Cytogenetics of lnterspecific Hybrids Between Brassica napus and Brassica nigra%甘蓝型油菜与黑芥种间杂种的细胞遗传学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈纪鹏; 于恩厂; 吴昊; 熊桃园

    2014-01-01

    为将黑芥(Brassica nigra )抗病基因引入甘蓝型油菜(B .napus ),通过有性杂交合成甘蓝型油菜与黑芥的三倍体杂种,经基因组加倍获得相应的六倍体,并观察三倍体和六倍体花粉母细胞减数分裂行为。结果表明:三倍体表现为花粉完全不育,而六倍体雌配子育性得到较好恢复,雄配子育性较低(10%~20%)。三倍体减数分裂终变期染色体主要以单价体形式存在,每个细胞平均形成3.8~5.9个二价体,也有极少数三价体出现。六倍体减数分裂染色体主要形成二价体,并以较低频率形成单价体和四价体。六倍体减数分裂后期 I 均等分离的细胞仅占65%~85%。落后染色体、非四分孢子等异常减数分裂行为也有发生。%To introduce resistance gene of B .nigra to B .napus ,Triploids between B .napus and B.nigra were synthesized via sexual cross and hexaploids were obtained by genome doubling to transfer resistance genes from B.nigra to B.napus.Meiosis of triploids and hexaploids was also investigated by microscope.Results:Triploids were sterility at al.Majority of female gametes were fertile and minority (10%~20%)of male gametes were fertile in hexaploids.Majority of chromosomes were univalents and 3.8~5.9 bivalents were formed and a few of trivalents were observed in diakinesis pollen mother cells (PMCs)of triploids.Majority of chromosomes formed bivalents and univalents and tetravalents were formed in very low frequency in hexaploids.Equal segregation happened in 65%~85% anaphase I PMCs. Laggard chromosomes and non-tetragametes were observed.

  7. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: Flux variability analysis in relation to 13C-metabolic flux analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, J.; Schwender, J.

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior 13C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH4+ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO2 efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the 13C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  8. Computational analysis of storage synthesis in developing Brassica napus L. (oilseed rape) embryos: flux variability analysis in relation to ¹³C metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan; Schwender, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    Plant oils are an important renewable resource, and seed oil content is a key agronomical trait that is in part controlled by the metabolic processes within developing seeds. A large-scale model of cellular metabolism in developing embryos of Brassica napus (bna572) was used to predict biomass formation and to analyze metabolic steady states by flux variability analysis under different physiological conditions. Predicted flux patterns are highly correlated with results from prior ¹³C metabolic flux analysis of B. napus developing embryos. Minor differences from the experimental results arose because bna572 always selected only one sugar and one nitrogen source from the available alternatives, and failed to predict the use of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Flux variability, indicative of alternative optimal solutions, revealed alternative pathways that can provide pyruvate and NADPH to plastidic fatty acid synthesis. The nutritional values of different medium substrates were compared based on the overall carbon conversion efficiency (CCE) for the biosynthesis of biomass. Although bna572 has a functional nitrogen assimilation pathway via glutamate synthase, the simulations predict an unexpected role of glycine decarboxylase operating in the direction of NH₄⁺ assimilation. Analysis of the light-dependent improvement of carbon economy predicted two metabolic phases. At very low light levels small reductions in CO₂ efflux can be attributed to enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase) and glycine decarboxylase. At higher light levels relevant to the ¹³C flux studies, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity is predicted to account fully for the light-dependent changes in carbon balance.

  9. Changes in fitness-associated traits due to the stacking of transgenic glyphosate resistance and insect resistance in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londo, J P; Bollman, M A; Sagers, C L; Lee, E H; Watrud, L S

    2011-10-01

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple 'stacked' traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and tolerance to environmental stresses. The release of crops that express multiple traits could result in ecological changes in weedy environments if feral crop plants or hybrids formed with compatible weeds results in more competitive plants outside of agriculture. To examine the effects of combining transgenes, we developed a stacked line of canola (Brassica napus L.) from a segregating F(2) population that expresses both transgenic glyphosate resistance (CP4 EPSPS) and lepidopteran insect resistance (Cry1Ac). Fitness-associated traits were evaluated between this stacked genotype and five other Brassica genotypes in constructed mesocosm plant communities exposed to insect herbivores (Plutella xylostella L.) or glyphosate-drift. Vegetative biomass, seed production and relative fecundity were all reduced in stacked trait plants when compared with non-transgenic plants in control treatments, indicating potential costs of expressing multiple transgenes without selection pressure. Although costs of the transgenes were offset by selective treatment, the stacked genotype continued to produce fewer seeds than either single transgenic line. However, the increase in fitness of the stacked genotype under selective pressure contributed to an increased number of seeds within the mesocosm community carrying unselected, hitchhiking transgenes. These results demonstrate that the stacking of these transgenes in canola results in fitness costs and benefits that are dependent on the type and strength of selection pressure, and could also contribute to changes in plant communities through hitchhiking of unselected traits.

  10. Effects on Brassica napus L. Yield and Yield Components of Super Absorbent Polymer under Different Irrigation Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza PIRZAD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For evaluation of the effects of super absorbent polymer under different irrigation regimes on the yield and yield components of Brassica napus L., a factorial experiment was carried out, based on randomized complete block design with four replicas. Treatments included super absorbent polymer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 g/kg soil and induced drought stress (irrigation at 25, 50 and 75 mm evaporation from class A pan. The experiment was conducted in pots with 5 kg of soil. Data analysis of variance showed the significant interaction effect between polymer and irrigation on the stem length, width and weight, the number of seeds per sheath, number of seeds per plant, the number of sterile and fertile sheath per plant, fertile sheath percentage (fertile sheath/ total sheath ×100, 1000 seeds weight, seed weight per plant, sheath weight per plant and the number of total sheath. The present study revealed that indifferent from the applied amounts of the super absorbent polymer, in all cases the measured characters have been more affected by induced drought stress.

  11. Physiological Differences Between Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L.) with Different Testa Characteristics During Artificial Ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; YANG Gui-tang; CHEN Li; LI Jia-na; TANG Zhang-lin

    2005-01-01

    Yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is a new kind of breeding resources with yellow color, increased oil and protein content and less unwanted crude fiber content due to the thinner and transparent testa compared with traditional black or brown-seeded rapeseed. To analyze the longevity of the yellow-seeded rapeseed during storage, the physiological differences between the yellow and black-seeded near-isogenic lines were studied by artificial ageing method. The testa rate, anthocyanin content and melanin content of yellow-seeded rapeseeds decreased by 20.1, 25.2, and 80.4% respectively than black-seeded rapeseed. During artificial ageing, the yellow-seeded rapeseed showed significantly different effect of ageing compared with the black-seeded, as demonstrated by faster deterioration with lower germination percentage, seed vigour index, reducing sugar and soluble protein contents than the black-seeded, as well as a drastic increase in electrical conductivity, malnodialdehyde (MDA) content and a rapid decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT)and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results suggested that the transparent testa of the yellow-seeded rapeseed lost some abilities to protect the embryo against adverse environmental conditions and thus led to a poor storability.

  12. Senescence-specific Alteration of Hydrogen Peroxide Levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oilseed Rape Spring Variety Brassica napus L.cv.Mozart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefan Bieker; Lena Riester; Mark Stahl; Jürgen Franzaring; Ulrike Zentgraf

    2012-01-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production in senescence in more detail,we manipulated intracellular H2O2 levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogenperoxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR,which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes.H2O2 levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines,but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm.To transfer this knowledge to crop plants,we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L.cv.Mozart for H2O2 and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development.H2O2 levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time,but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence.With increasing H2O2 levels,CAT and APX activities declined,so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H2O2 levels.Under elevated CO2 conditions,oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H2O2 levels,indicating that H2O2 may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae.

  13. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  14. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumlow, Annekathrin; Keunen, Els; Klein, Jan; Pallmann, Philip; Riemenschneider, Anja; Cuypers, Ann; Papenbrock, Jutta

    Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

  15. Optimization of Culture Techniques for DH Line in Brassica napus L.%甘蓝型油菜DH系培养技术优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 林茂; 杨斌; 肖华贵; 李加纳; 饶勇

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to reveal the disinfectants and disinfection methods, medium components, and embryoid culture method on dissociative microspore culture. [Method] B5 as basic medium appended with different concentrations of sucrose, agar and different hormone combinations was used to optimize the culture technique for DH line in Brassica napus L. [Result] Both the 15 min disinfection of NaClO containing 5% Cl- and 10 min disinfection of 0.1% HgCl2 performed well in disinfection and subsequent embryo production; in the extraction process of dissociative microspores, B5 medium containing 2% sucrose could achieve a good embryo production effect; under dark condition microspores were firstly incubated at 32 ℃ 5-7 d, then at 25 ℃ 12-15 d, and finally transferred to 25 ℃ oscillator(60-65 r/min) for 3-7d, when the embryoid would become full ripeness; 1/2MS medium appended with 1.2% agar, 0.02% NAA, 2.0 mg/L 6-BA, 3.4 mg/L AgNO3 and 2% sucrose was helpful for embryoid differentiation and plantlet generation, presenting low degree of browning and slight vitrification. [Conclusion] The results may facilitate DH Line in rape production in large scale and high efficient transformation system.

  16. Senescence-specific alteration of hydrogen peroxide levels in Arabidopsis thaliana and oilseed rape spring variety Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieker, Stefan; Riester, Lena; Stahl, Mark; Franzaring, Jürgen; Zentgraf, Ulrike

    2012-08-01

    In order to analyze the signaling function of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in senescence in more detail, we manipulated intracellular H(2)O(2) levels in Arabidopsis thaliala (L.) Heynh by using the hydrogen-peroxide-sensitive part of the Escherichia coli transcription regulator OxyR, which was directed to the cytoplasm as well as into the peroxisomes. H(2)O(2) levels were lowered and senescence was delayed in both transgenic lines, but OxyR was found to be more effective in the cytoplasm. To transfer this knowledge to crop plants, we analyzed oilseed rape plants Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart for H(2)O(2) and its scavenging enzymes catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) during leaf and plant development. H(2)O(2) levels were found to increase during bolting and flowering time, but no increase could be observed in the very late stages of senescence. With increasing H(2)O(2) levels, CAT and APX activities declined, so it is likely that similar mechanisms are used in oilseed rape and Arabidopsis to control H(2)O(2) levels. Under elevated CO(2) conditions, oilseed rape senescence was accelerated and coincided with an earlier increase in H(2)O(2) levels, indicating that H(2)O(2) may be one of the signals to inducing senescence in a broader range of Brassicaceae.

  17. An Efficient Method for Adventitious Root Induction from Stem Segments of Brassica Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sandhya; Choong, Tsui Wei; Yan, An; He, Jie; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Plant propagation via in vitro culture is a very laborious and time-consuming process. The growth cycle of some of the crop species is slow even in the field and the consistent commercial production is hard to maintain. Enhanced methods of reduced cost, materials and labor significantly impact the research and commercial production of field crops. In our studies, stem-segment explants of Brassica species were found to generate adventitious roots (AR) in aeroponic systems in less than a week. As such, the efficiency of rooting from stem explants of six cultivar varieties of Brassica spp was tested without using any plant hormones. New roots and shoots were developed from Brassica alboglabra (Kai Lan), B. oleracea var. acephala (purple kale), B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis L (Pai Tsai, Nai Bai C, and Nai Bai T) explants after 3 to 5 days of growing under 20 ± 2°C cool root zone temperature (C-RZT) and 4 to 7 days in 30 ± 2°C ambient root zone temperature (A-RZT). At the base of cut end, anticlinal and periclinal divisions of the cambial cells resulted in secondary xylem toward pith and secondary phloem toward cortex. The continuing mitotic activity of phloem parenchyma cells led to a ring of conspicuous white callus. Root initials formed from the callus which in turn developed into ARs. However, B. rapa var. nipposinica (Mizuna) explants were only able to root in C-RZT. All rooted explants were able to develop into whole plants, with higher biomass obtained from plants that grown in C-RZT. Moreover, explants from both RZTs produced higher biomass than plants grown from seeds (control plants). Rooting efficiency was affected by RZTs and explant cuttings of donor plants. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation rate (Asat ) and stomatal conductance (gssat ) were significantly differentiated between plants derived from seeds and explants at both RZTs. All plants in A-RZT had highest transpiration rates.

  18. 甘蓝型油菜与红菜薹的杂种及其后代遗传变异分析%Genetic Variation Analyses on Brassica napus×Purple-Caitai Hybrids and Their Backcross Progenies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亭亭; 徐跃进; 万正杰; 张艳

    2011-01-01

    Distant hybridization of a new kind of cytoplasmic male sterility of Brassica napus (2n =4× =38) and Purple-Caitai was carried out. Purple-Caitai was used as the recurrent parent to continue backcross. Agronomic and quality traits of the hybrids and backcross progenies of Brassica napus × Purple-Caitai were analyzed. The results showed that the donor parent and the recipient parent e×hibited nucleus replacement,the values of agronomic traits and quality traits of hybridization and backcross progenies had a certain fluctuation and the higher the generation of material, the more similar to the recurrent parent, while the variation range of lower generation was wide.%本研究采用一种新型甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系(Eru CMS)(Brassica napus 2n=4x=38)与红菜薹(B.campestris L.ssp.chinensis L.var.utilis Tsen et Lee.2n=2x=20)进行远缘杂交,并以红菜薹为轮回亲本连续回交,对甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育系与红菜薹的杂种一代及其回交后代进行植物学性状及品质性状调查测定.结果表明,供体亲本和受体亲本在回交转育过程中发生明显的核置换,其杂交及回交后代的农艺性状及品质性状出现波动,并且随着回交次数的增多,世代越高的材料越相似于轮回亲本红菜薹,而世代越低材料遗传变异范围更大.

  19. Construction of plant seed-specific expression vectors pSCB and pSCAB and the obtainment of transgenic Brassica napus H165 expressing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate synthetic genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The seed-specific promoter and transit peptide were amplified and fused to the three genes phbA, phbB and phbC encoding PHB synthetic enzymes, respectively. Seed-specific expression vectors pSCB containing phbC and phbB, and pSCAB containing phbC, phbB and phbA, were constructed by introducing the genes with promoter and peptide into the binary vector pBI101. Transgenic Brassica napus H165 were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with these vectors. They were confirmed by PCR, Southern and RT-PCR analyses.

  20. Screening of Candidate Leaf Morphology Genes by Integration of QTL Mapping and RNA Sequencing Technologies in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hongju; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Aoxiang; Zhang, Li; Xu, Xinfu; Li, Jiana; Liu, Liezhao

    2017-01-01

    Leaf size and shape play important roles in agronomic traits, such as yield, quality and stress responses. Wide variations in leaf morphological traits exist in cultivated varieties of many plant species. By now, the genetics of leaf shape and size have not been characterized in Brassica napus. In this study, a population of 172 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of leaf morphology traits. Furthermore, fresh young leaves of extreme lines with more leaf lobes (referred to as ‘A’) and extreme lines with fewer lobes (referred to as ‘B’) selected from the RIL population and leaves of dissected lines (referred to as ‘P’) were used for transcriptional analysis. A total of 31 QTLs for the leaf morphological traits tested in this study were identified on 12 chromosomes, explaining 5.32–39.34% of the phenotypic variation. There were 8, 6, 2, 5, 8, and 2 QTLs for PL (petiole length), PN (lobe number), LW (lamina width), LL (Lamina length), LL/LTL (the lamina size ratio) and LTL (leaf total length), respectively. In addition, 74, 1,166 and 1,272 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in ‘A vs B’, ‘A vs P’ and ‘B vs P’ comparisons, respectively. The Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases were used to predict the functions of these DEGs. Gene regulators of leaf shape and size, such as ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2, gibberellin 20-oxidase 3, genes encoding gibberellin-regulated family protein, genes encoding growth-regulating factor and KNOTTED1-like homeobox were also detected in DEGs. After integrating the QTL mapping and RNA sequencing data, 33 genes, including a gene encoding auxin-responsive GH3 family protein and a gene encoding sphere organelles protein-related gene, were selected as candidates that may control leaf shape. Our findings should be valuable for studies of the genetic control of leaf morphological trait regulation in B. napus. PMID

  1. Differences in biochemical responses to cold stress in two contrasting varieties of rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Wang-hao; Chen Yu-zhen; Lu Cun-fu

    2007-01-01

    Changes in isozymes of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase and activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase in two annual Brassica varieties (AS-3 and CON, cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive, respectively) after 4℃ treatment were assayed. After the low temperature treatment, PAGE patterns of isozymes of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, polyphenol oxidase, and esterase showed that the expressions and activities of these enzymes in the AS-3 variety were higher than the CON variety. Under normal and cold conditions, peroxidase and esterase activities of AS-3 were higher than those of CON. The relative freezing tolerance of these two cultivars was discussed.

  2. 低温胁迫下内源ABA、GA及比值对白菜型和甘蓝型冬油菜抗寒性的响应%Response of endogenous ABA and GA to cold resistance ofBrassica rapa L. andBrassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海卿; 赵艳宁; 董小云; 曾秀存; 许耀照; 方园; 武军艳; 陈奇; 孙万仓; 刘自刚; 方彦; 米超; 蒲媛媛

    2016-01-01

    为阐明低温胁迫下激素含量对冬油菜枯叶期的调控和对抗寒性的响应,为冬油菜抗寒性研究提供依据,以8份不同抗寒等级的白菜型和甘蓝型冬油菜为材料,利用盆栽试验,待幼苗长至5~6片真叶时在人工气候箱中进行低温处理(25℃、10℃、2℃、-5℃),分析低温胁迫后冬油菜内源 ABA、GA 含量和叶绿素的变化。回归分析表明温度与ABA含量存在显著的负相关,回归方程符合y=-ax+b,随着温度的降低,内源ABA含量呈先缓慢(10℃)后迅速上升(2℃、-5℃)的趋势,且温度处理间、温度与品种互作间差异极显著;由于激素间的拮抗作用GA含量变化则恰好相反。当在0℃以上低温时,品种间ABA含量无明显差异,当温度降到-5℃,白菜型冬油菜ABA含量明显高于甘蓝型,抗寒性强的品种高于抗寒性弱的品种。ABA含量的升高导致叶绿素含量的变化,随着温度降低,叶绿素含量呈先降低后增加的趋势,但总体呈下降趋势,且白菜型冬油菜和甘蓝型冬油菜之间存在不同的响应机制,这种作用使白菜型冬油菜叶绿素含量低于甘蓝型冬油菜,导致白菜型冬油菜枯叶期提前,提早进入越冬期,增加了对低温冻害的御性和避性。因此,随着温度的降低冬油菜叶片 ABA 含量上升,叶绿素降解,白菜型冬油菜更早进入枯叶期,枯叶期较早和降温后ABA含量高是白菜型冬油菜抗寒性较强的主要原因。%AbstractCold resistance is critical in winter rapeseed production in northern China. The abscisic acid (ABA) plant hormone, also known as “stress hormone” is an important signal molecule for the regulation of plant cold resistance. Study of possible regulatory mechanisms of endogenous ABA and GA is needed to develop a valuable insight into the mechanism of cold resistance both in winter rapeseedBrassica rapa L. andBrassica napus L. Thus we investigated the regulation of endogenous hormones in cold

  3. Brassica napus genome possesses extraordinary high number of CAMTA genes and CAMTA3 contributes to PAMP triggered immunity and resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizur eRahman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs play important roles in various plant biological processes including disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. is one of the most important oil-producing crops worldwide. To date, compositon of CAMTAs in genomes of Brassica species and role of CAMTAs in resistance to the devastating necrotrophic fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are still unknown. In this study, 18 CAMTA genes were identified in oilseed rape genome through bioinformatics analyses, which were inherited from the nine copies each in its progenitors B. rapa and B. oleracea and represented the highest number of CAMTAs in a given plant species identified so far. Gene structure, protein domain organization and phylogentic analyses showed that the oilseed rape CAMTAs were structurally similar and clustered into three major groups as other plant CAMTAs, but had expanded subgroups CAMTA3 and CAMTA4 genes uniquely in rosids species occurring before formation of oilseed rape. A large number of stress response-related cis-elements existed in the 1.5 kb promoter regions of the BnCAMTA genes. BnCAMTA genes were expressed differentially in various organs and in response to treatments with plant hormones and the toxin oxalic acid (OA secreted by S. sclerotiorum as well as the pathogen inoculation. Remarkably, the expression of BnCAMTA3A1 and BnCAMTA3C1 was drastically induced in early phase of S. sclerotiorum infection, indicating their potential role in the interactions between oilseed rape and S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, inoculation analyses using Arabidopsis camta mutants demonstrated that Atcamta3 mutant plants exhibited significantly smaller disease lesions than wild-type and other Atcamta mutant plants. In addition, compared with wild-type plants, Atcamta3 plants accumulated obviously more hydrogen peroxide in response to the PAMP chitin and exhibited much higher expression of the CGCG

  4. Analysis of the Lignin Contents and Related Enzymes Activities in Seed Coat Between Black-Seeded and Yellow-Seeded Rapes (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Xiu-zhi; LIANG Ying; LI Jia-na

    2005-01-01

    One pair of near isonegic yellow/black seeded rape (Brassica napus L) were used as experimental materials to study the changes of lignin contents and enzymes activities of 4-coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL), Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and ferulate 5-hydroxylase (F5H) in seedcoats during the stage of seed development. The variation analysis showed that the changes of lignin contents and enzyme activities of 4CL, CAD and F5H in seed coat had significant differences between black- and yellow-seeded rapes, and also between different development stages. The correlation analysis demonstrated that the lignin contents were positively correlative to the activities of all three enzymes investigated in the study, and the interactions between them in the seed coat of the two lines. For yellow-seeded rape, the correlation coefficient (0.7262018) of lignin content and the interaction between 4CL and F5H was significant, the lignin contents were highly positively correlative to the activities of CAD and F5H, the interaction between 4CL and CAD, and the interaction between CAD and F5H. For the black-seeded rape, only the lignin content was highly positively correlative to the activity of F5H (the correlation coefficient was 0.772949), the other correlation coefficients, i. e. lignin contents to 4CL, CAD activities, the interactions between the three enzymes were not significant although all the correlation coefficients were above 0.5000. The results suggested that 4CL, CAD and F5H regulated the biosynthesis of lignin in seedcoat of rapes,leading to the lignin contents in the seedcoats of the yellow-seeded rape much lower than that of the black-seeded line,and affecting the thickness of the developing seedcoats in rapes. Therefore, it was likely to change the seedcoat ratio by overexpressing or suppressing the activities of one of the enzymes, both of them or all of them.

  5. Proteomic analysis of chromium stress and sulfur deficiency responses in leaves of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars differing in Cr(VI) tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Terzi, Hakan

    2016-02-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development, and it plays an essential role in response to environmental stresses. Plants suffer with combined stress of S deficiency and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in the rhizosphere. Little is known about the impact of S deficiency on leaf metabolism of canola (Brassica napus L.) under Cr(VI) stress. Therefore, this study is the first to examine the effects of Cr(VI) stress and S deficiency in canola at a molecular level. A comparative proteomic approach was used to investigate the differences in protein abundance between Cr-tolerant NK Petrol and Cr-sensitive Sary cultivars. The germinated seeds were grown hydroponically in S-sufficient (+S) nutrient solution for 7 days and then subjected to S-deficiency (-S) for 7 days. S-deficient and +S seedlings were then exposed to 100μM Cr(VI) for 3 days. Protein patterns analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed that 58 protein spots were differentially regulated by Cr(VI) stress (+S/+Cr), S-deficiency (-S/-Cr) and combined stress (-S/+Cr). Of these, 39 protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Differentially regulated proteins predominantly had functions not only in photosynthesis, but also in energy metabolism, stress defense, protein folding and stabilization, signal transduction, redox regulation and sulfur metabolism. Six stress defense related proteins including 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1, glutathione S-transferase, ferritin-1, l-ascorbate peroxidase, thiazole biosynthetic enzyme and myrosinase-binding protein-like At3g16470 exhibited a greater increase in NK Petrol. The stress-related proteins play an important role in the detoxification of Cr(VI) and maintaining cellular homeostasis under variable S nutrition.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  7. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Cheng

    Full Text Available Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES, a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility.

  8. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the SUC and SWEET gene families of sucrose transporters in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAN Hongju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported. In our study, 22 and 68 members of the SUT/SUCs and SWEET gene families, respectively, were identified in the oilseed rape (Brassica napus genome through homology searches. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, motifs and the cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoters of BnSUC and BnSWEET genes were analysed. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 18 BnSUC and 16 BnSWEET genes in different tissues of ‘ZS11’ and the expression of 9 BnSUC and 7 BnSWEET genes in ‘ZS11’ under various conditions, including biotic stress (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, abiotic stresses (drought, salt and heat, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, brassinolide, gibberellin and salicylic acid. In conclusion, our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the oilseed rape SUC and SWEET gene families. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression profiles of the SUC and SWEET genes in the different tissues of oilseed rape helps to identify candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes. Our study advances our understanding of the important roles of sucrose transport in oilseed rape.

  9. SuMoToRI, an ecophysiological model to predict growth and sulfur allocation and partitioning in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. until the onset of pod formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eBrunel-Muguet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur (S nutrition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. is a major concern for this high S-demanding crop, especially in the context of soil S oligotrophy. Therefore, predicting plant growth, S plant allocation (between the plant’s compartments and S pool partitioning (repartition of the mobile-S vs. non mobile-S fractions until the onset of reproductive phase could help in the diagnosis of S deficiencies during the early stages. For this purpose, a process-based model, SuMoToRI (Sulfur Model Towards Rapeseed Improvement, was developed up to the onset of pod formation. The key features rely on (i the determination of the S requirements used for growth (structural and metabolic functions through critical S dilution curves and (ii the estimation of a mobile pool of S that is regenerated by daily S uptake and remobilization from senescing leaves. This study describes the functioning of the model and presents the model’s calibration and evaluation. SuMoToRI was calibrated and evaluated with independent datasets from greenhouse experiments under contrasting S supply conditions. It is run with a small number of parameters with generic values, except in the case of the Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE, which was shown to be modulated by S supply. The model gave satisfying predictions of the dynamics of growth, S allocation between compartments and S partitioning, such as the mobile-S fraction in the leaves, which is an indicator of the remobilization potential towards growing sinks. The mechanistic features of SuMoToRI provide a process-based framework that has enabled the description of the S remobilizing process in a species characterized by senescence during the vegetative phase. We believe that this model structure could be useful for modelling S dynamics in other arable crops that have similar senescence-related characteristics.

  10. Identification of microRNAs actively involved in fatty acid biosynthesis in developing Brassica napus seeds using high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed development has a critical role during the spermatophyte life cycle. In Brassica napus, a major oil crop, fatty acids are synthesized and stored in specific tissues during embryogenesis, and understanding the molecular mechanism underlying fatty acid biosynthesis during seed development is an important research goal. In this study, we constructed three small RNA libraries from early seeds at 14, 21 and 28 days after flowering (DAF and used high-throughput sequencing to examine microRNA (miRNA expression. A total of 85 known miRNAs from 30 families and 1,160 novel miRNAs were identified, of which 24, including 5 known and 19 novel miRNAs, were found to be involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. bna-miR156b, bna-miR156c, bna-miR156g, novel_mir_1706, novel_mir_1407, novel_mir_173, and novel_mir_104 were significantly down-regulated at 21 DAF and 28 DAF, whereas bna-miR159, novel_mir_1081, novel_mir_19 and novel_mir_555 were significantly up-regulated. In addition, we found that some miRNAs regulate functional genes that are directly involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and that other miRNAs regulate the process of fatty acid biosynthesis by acting on a large number of transcription factors. The miRNAs and their corresponding predicted targets were partially validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Our data suggest that diverse and complex miRNAs are involved in the seed development process and that miRNAs play important roles in fatty acid biosynthesis during seed development.

  11. Enhanced expression of the proline synthesis gene P5CSA in relation to seed osmopriming improvement of Brassica napus germination under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, Szymon; Wojtyla, Łukasz; Quinet, Muriel; Lechowska, Katarzyna; Lutts, Stanley; Garnczarska, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    Osmopriming is a pre-sowing treatment that enhances germination performance and stress tolerance of germinating seeds. Brassica napus seeds showed osmopriming-improved germination and seedling growth under salinity stress. To understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms of osmopriming-induced salinity tolerance, the accumulation of proline, gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in proline metabolism and the level of endogenous hydrogen peroxide were investigated in rape seeds during osmopriming and post-priming germination under control (H2O) and stress conditions (100 mM NaCl). The relationship between gene expression and enzymatic activity of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (OAT) and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) was determined. The improved germination performance of osmoprimed seeds was accompanied by a significant increase in proline content. The accumulation of proline during priming and post-priming germination was associated with strong up-regulation of the P5CSA gene, down-regulation of the PDH gene and accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The up-regulated transcript level of P5CSA was consistent with the increase in P5CS activity. This study shows, for the first time, the role of priming-induced modulation of activities of particular genes and enzymes of proline turnover, and its relationship with higher content of hydrogen peroxide, in improving seed germination under salinity stress. Following initial stress-exposure, the primed seeds acquired stronger salinity stress tolerance during post-priming germination, a feature likely linked to a 'priming memory'.

  12. 表达雪花莲外源凝集素基因的油菜转基因植株的获得%Production of Transgenic Rape ( Brassica napus L.) Plants Expressing Snowdrop Lectin ( Galanthus nivalis Agglutinin) Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐克轩; 徐亚男; 李旭峰; 孙小芬

    2001-01-01

    利用农杆菌系LBA4404(pCAMBIA3300RG)转化优良甘蓝型油菜恢复系W723的下胚轴节段.pCAM-BIA3300RG含有RRss1启动子引导的雪花莲外源凝集素基因(gna)和CaMV-35S启动子引导的除草剂抗性基因(bar).经过两轮除草剂(2.5 mg/L bialaphos)筛选(两周/轮),除草剂抗性再生芽被转入生根培养基中生根.对根系旺盛生长的植株中所含gna基因进行PCR分析.PCR分析证实了这些植株确为转基因植株.利用Western印迹法对随机选择的5株含gna基因的转基因植株的分析发现,其中4株表达了gna基因.目前正对这些表达gna基因的转基因植株进行后代遗传分离分析.%Hypocotyl segments of an elite rape ( Brassica napus L. ) restorer line, W723, were transformed with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pCAMBIA3300RG). pCAMBIA3300RG contained the snowdrop lectin gene (gna) driven by the Rice Sucrose Synthase 1 (Rss1) promoter and the herbicide-resistance gene (bar)under the control of the CaMV-35S promoter. After 2 rounds of herbicide (2.5 ng/L bialaphos) selection (2 weeks/round), the regenerated herbicide-resistant shoots were transferred to rooting medium. Plants with vigorously growing roots were subjected to PCR analysis for the presence of the gna gene. PCR analysis confirmed their transgenic status. Western blot analysis revealed that 4 out of 5 randomly selected gna-containing tranegenic plants expressing the GNA. These GNA-expressing transgenic plants are undergoing segregation analysis for the transgenes in the following generations.

  13. Ethylene response factor BnERF2-like (ERF2.4) from Brassica napus L. enhances submergence tolerance and alleviates oxidative damage caused by submergence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanyan Lv; Sanxiong Fu; Song Chen; Wei Zhang; Cunkou Qi

    2016-01-01

    Ethylene response factor proteins play an important role in regulating a variety of stress responses in plants, but their exact functions in submergence stress are not well understood. In this study, we isolated BnERF2.4 from Brassica napus L. to study its function in submergence tolerance. The expression of the BnERF2.4 gene in B. napus and the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in transgenic Arabidopsis were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression of BnERF2.4 was induced by submergence in B. napus and the overexpression of BnERF2.4 in Arabidopsis increased the level of tolerance to submergence and oxidative stress. A histochemical method detected lower levels of H2O2, O2•− and malondialdehyde (MDA) in transgenic Arabidopsis. Compared to the wild type, transgenic lines also had higher soluble sugar content and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, which helped to protect plants against the oxidative damage caused by submergence. It was concluded that BnERF2.4 increased the tolerance of plants to submergence stress and may be involved in regulating soluble sugar content and the antioxidant system in defense against submergence stress.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Chinese and Swedish Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. ) Analyzed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; Stine Tuevesson; Bo Gertsson

    2003-01-01

    We have compared genetic diversity of 24 Chinese weak-winter, Swedish winter and spring B.napus accessions by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs). By cluster analysis (UPGMA) based on 125 polymorphism bands amplified with 20 primers, the 24 accessions were divided into three groups. Six Swedish winter lines and eight Chinese weak-winter lines were in the group Ⅰ and the group Ⅱ were two Chinese weakwinter lines Xiangyou15 and Bao81. The third group contained eight Swedish spring lines. Principal co-ordinates analysis (PCO) showed similar groupings to cluster analysis. Results from cluster analysis and PCO analysis showed very clearly that Chinese weak-winter, Swedish spring and winter accessions were distinguished from each other and Chinese weak-winter accessions in this study were genetically closer to Swedish winter accessions than to Swedish spring accessions. The Chinese weak-winter accessions had larger diversity than Swedish spring or winter accessions did. This study indicated that ISSR is a suitable and effective tool to evaluate genetic diversity among rapeseed germplasm.

  15. [Effects of simulated acid rain on oilseed rape (Brassica napus) physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chun-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Han, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Hai-Dong

    2010-08-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of different acidity simulated acid rain on the physiological characteristics at flowering stage and yield of oilseed rape (B. napus cv. Qinyou 9). Comparing with the control (pH 6.0), weak acidity (pH = 4.0-5.0) simulated acid rain stimulated the rape growth to some extent, but had less effects on the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic characteristics, and yield. With the further increase of acid rain acidity, the plant biomass, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, antioxidative enzyme activities, and non-enzyme antioxidant contents all decreased gradually, while the leaf malonyldialdehyde (MDA) content and relative conductivity increased significantly. As the results, the pod number per plant, seed number per pod, seed weight, and actual yield decreased. However, different yield components showed different sensitivity to simulated acid rain. With the increasing acidity of simulated acid rain, the pod number per plant and the seed number per pod decreased significantly, while the seed weight was less affected.

  16. Identification of QTLs for resistance to sclerotinia stem rot and BnaC.IGMT5.a as a candidate gene of the major resistant QTL SRC6 in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    Full Text Available Stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in many important dicotyledonous crops, including oilseed rape (Brassica napus, is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and imposes huge yield loss each year worldwide. Currently, breeding for Sclerotinia resistance in B. napus, as in other crops, can only rely on germplasms with quantitative resistance genes. Thus, the identification of quantitative trait locus (QTL for S. sclerotiorum resistance/tolerance in this crop holds immediate promise for the genetic improvement of the disease resistance. In this study, ten QTLs for stem resistance (SR at the mature plant stage and three QTLs for leaf resistance (LR at the seedling stage in multiple environments were mapped on nine linkage groups (LGs of a whole genome map for B. napus constructed with SSR markers. Two major QTLs, LRA9 on LG A9 and SRC6 on LG C6, were repeatedly detected across all environments and explained 8.54-15.86% and 29.01%-32.61% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Genotypes containing resistant SRC6 or LRA9 allele showed a significant reduction in disease lesion after pathogen infection. Comparative mapping with Arabidopsis and data mining from previous gene profiling experiments identified that the Arabidopsis homologous gene of IGMT5 (At1g76790 was related to the SRC6 locus. Four copies of the IGMT5 gene in B. napus were isolated through homologous cloning, among which, only BnaC.IGMT5.a showed a polymorphism between parental lines and can be associated with the SRC6. Furthermore, two parental lines exhibited a differential expression pattern of the BnaC.IGMT5.a gene in responding to pathogen inoculation. Thus, our data suggested that BnaC.IGMT5.a was very likely a candidate gene of this major resistance QTL.

  17. Identification and characterization of interspecific hybrids from Brassica napus (Eru CMS) ×Brassica oleracea%甘蓝型油菜与甘蓝种间杂种的鉴定及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红美; 徐跃进; 万正杰

    2011-01-01

    Hybrids from Brassica napus × Brassica oleracea were obtained by embryo rescue techniques,which is an effective approach for increasing the resources of male sterility of Brassica oleracea.Both the DNA content and chromosome number of hybrids were the mid-parent values.Characteristics of the hybrid were investigated.The results showed that hybrids were morphologically similar to parents during the growing periods, while inclined to the female parent during flowering.But hybrids had strong heterosis of growth.The leaf structure, chloroplast number in stomata guard cell, the floral organ, and the early flowering periods of hybrids were mid-parent, except the mutated leaf structure of mosaic hybrid.Hybrids had their own unique peroxidase isozymes bands.Test of the pollen viability showed that hybrids bore only non-viability pollens with 100% sterility.Backcross generation could be obtained only through embryo rescue techniques to overcome barriers of hybridization.%采用新型甘蓝型油菜细胞质雄性不育源(Eru CMS)为材料,通过杂交与胚抢救技术,获得甘蓝型油菜与甘蓝的种问杂种,对杂种进行鉴定并对杂种性状进行研究.用流式细胞仪和染色体计数鉴定后发现,真杂种的DNA含量为两亲本的中间值,并且染色体数目均为28条.通过对真杂种特性进行研究,结果表明:杂种植株幼苗形态都介于亲本之间,生长后期则偏向甘蓝型油菜,具有超亲本的杂种优势;花叶杂种的叶片结构出现了变异,而绿叶杂种的叶片结构介于亲本之间;杂种的气孔保卫细胞叶绿体数量、初花期和花器官形态也都介于亲本之间;杂种具有自身特异的过氧化物同工酶酶带;杂种不育株率和不育度均为100%,花粉无活力,以甘蓝为轮回亲本与杂种回交仍存在杂交障碍,需借助胚抢救技术获得回交1代.

  18. Insect Resistance Analysis on the Transgenic Bt Gene Brassica napus L.%转Bt基因油菜的抗虫性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丽丽; 王转茸; 辛强; 董发明; 洪登峰; 杨光圣

    2016-01-01

    利用农杆菌介导的遗传转化分别将Cry1C和Cry2A的2个单价Bt基因转入油菜(Brassica napusL.),以两个纯合的转基因抗虫油菜为亲本,通过有性杂交的方法将不同Bt基因聚合,培育双价Bt抗虫油菜,并对其抗虫性和种子品质性状进行评价.结果表明,Cry1C、Cry2A在聚合后均能稳定表达,和单价Cry1C转基因植株相比,双价株系中蛋白质含量明显降低,以Cry2A为母本的聚合株系蛋白质含量降低更多,Cry1C在遗传上存在母本效应.室内接种小菜蛾二龄幼虫结果显示,转化单价和双价聚合Bt基因的抗虫性增强,其中转化单价Cry1C的抗虫性优于双价聚合Bt基因和单价Cry2A基因的转基因植株.玻璃温室栽培转基因植株,单价Bt和双价聚合Bt基因的转基因植株能生存而非转基因植株受到严重虫害而死亡.对抗性优良的单价和双价聚合的转基因植株种子品质测定发现,与未受到虫害的受体材料双低优良恢复系7-5的含油量和硫苷含量差异不显著,从而达到抗性改良的目的.

  19. Genetic analyses of agronomic and seed quality traits of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guoqing Zhang; Weijun Zhou

    2006-04-01

    The heritability, the number of segregating genes and the type of gene interaction of nine agronomic traits were analysed based on F2 populations of synthetic oilseed Brassica napus produced from interspecific hybridization of B. campestris and B. oleracea through ovary culture. The nine traits—plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, length of pod, seed weight per plant and 1000-seed weight—had heritabilities of 0.927, 0.215, 0.172, 0.381, 0.360, 0.972, 0.952, 0.516 and 0.987 respectively, while the mean numbers of controlling genes for these characters were 7.4, 10.4, 9.9, 12.9, 11.5, 21.7, 20.5, 19.8 and 6.4 respectively. According to estimated coefficients of skewness and kurtosis of the traits tested, no significant gene interaction was found for plant height, stem width, number of branches, length of main raceme, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight. Seed yield per plant is an important target for oilseed production. In partial correlation analysis, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight were positively correlated with seed yield per plant. On the other hand, length of pod was negatively correlated ($r = -0.69$) with seed yield per plant. Other agronomic characters had no significant correlation to seed yield per plant. In this experiment, the linear regressions of seed yield per plant and other agronomic traits were also analysed. The linear regression equation was $y = 0.074x_{8} + 1.819x_{9} + 6.72x_{12} - 60.78 (R^{2} = 0.993)$, where $x_{8}$, $x_{9}$ and $x_{12}$ represent number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod and 1000-seed weight respectively. The experiment also showed that erucic acid and oil contents of seeds from F2 plants were lower than those of their maternal parents. However, glucosinolate content was higher than that of the maternal plants. As for protein content, similar results were found in the F2 plants and

  20. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance.

  1. Deep roots of Brassica oleracea have high uptake of 15N-nitrate to 2 meters soil depth

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, H.L.; Thorup-Kristensen, K

    2006-01-01

    • Deep roots may be important for uptake of NO3- by annual crops. A field experiment with the deep rooted crop curly kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef. var. sabellica L.) was performed to investigate root distribution and N uptake in deep soil layers. • Root distribution was investigated by use of minirhizotrons and root extractions to 2.4 m depth. The capacity for crop N uptake was studied by deep 15NO3- placement followed by analysis of plant 15N content after 3-30 d...

  2. Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield, Yield Components and Quality of Winter Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. Efecto de la Fuente y Dosis de Fertilizantes Nitrogenados en el Rendimiento, Componentes de Rendimiento y Calidad de Semilla de Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özden Öztürk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L. has potential to become an alternate oilseed crop both for edible oil production and energy agriculture (biofuel production for Turkey. This study was conducted to determine the effect of year, N sources and doses on the yield and quality traits of winter rapeseed in a cereal system in calcareous soils over two seasons, 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, in Central Anatolia. Three N sources, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate and urea, were applied as hand broadcast on the soil surface at five doses (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha-1. The traits investigated were plant height, number of branches and pods per plant, number of seed per pod, thousand seed weight, seed yield, oil and protein content. There were significantly effects on seed yield, oil and protein content, and other yield components due to N sources and rates. In general, ammonium sulfate and urea gave higher seed yield than ammonium nitrate. Mean values of both seasons indicated that 100 and 150 kg N ha-1 rate increased significantly yield and quality traits with regard to other N treatments. The present results highlight the practical importance of adequate N fertilization and true N source in seed yield in winter rapeseed and suggest that ammonium sulfate at 150 kg N ha-1 will be about adequate to meet crop N requirements.El raps (Brassica napus L. tiene potencial para convertirse en un cultivo oleaginoso alternativo para producción de aceite comestible y agricultura energética (producción de biodiesel en Turquía. Este estudio fue conducido para determinar el efecto del año, fuente y dosis de N en las características de rendimiento y calidad de raps en un sistema cerealero en suelos calcáreos en dos temporadas, 2000-2001 y 2001-2002, en Anatolia Central. Se aplicaron al voleo tres fuentes de N (sulfato de amonio, nitrato de amonio y urea en cinco dosis (0, 50, 100, 150 y 200 kg N ha-1. Las características investigadas fueron altura de planta, n

  3. 甘蓝型油菜MYB4基因反义植物表达载体的构建%Construction of Antisense Plant Expressing Vector of MYB4 Gene of Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹锐; 柴友荣

    2013-01-01

    将甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napusL.)MYB4基因家族共保守的467 bp反义片段构建到中间栽体pCambia2301G中,替换GUS基因,由CaMV35S启动子驱动,形成了反义植物表达载体,命名为pCambi-a2301G-MYB4A,并转化到根癌农杆菌(Agrobacterium tumefaciens)LBA4404中形成工程菌株,为进一步研究甘蓝型油菜MY B4基因家族的功能奠定基础.

  4. 化学杀雄剂EXP对油菜膜脂过氧化及保护酶活性的影响%Effect of Chemical Gametocide EXP on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Protective Enzyme Activity in Rapeseed (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文智; 程科; 严静; 李昌珍; 于澄宇

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and mechanism of chemical emasculation in rapeseed and to provide the theoretical basis for development and utilization of new chemical gametocides. [Method] The activity of peroxidase, catalase and the content of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde in leaves and flower buds of Brassica napus cultivars Qinyou No.3 and L89 induced by the chemical gametocide EXP in the course of male sterility were studied. [Result] Protective enzyme activity and the content of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde in rapeseed treated with EXP changed significantly, which indicated that active oxygen metabolism was abnormal. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the reaction degree of different cultivars and organs treated by EXP. [Conclusion] There was a correlation between the disturbance of active oxygen metabolism and the male sterility induced by chemical gametocide EXP.

  5. Major Crop Species Show Differential Balance between Root Morphological and Physiological Responses to Variable Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yang; Tang, Hongliang; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R.; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production. PMID:28066491

  6. 甘蓝型油菜COI1的调控功能分析%Functional Analysis of COI1 Genes in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文静; 张洪博; 杨小川; 丁永强; 尹国英; 马浩然; 张洁; 石小于; 张鼎宇; 李加纳

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) is a critical component of jasmonate (JA) receptor complex. The objective of this study is to investigate the spatial expression pattern and regulatory roles of COI1 gene in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), a staple oil crop in the world. [Method] The COI1 genes in oilseed rape (B. napus) and its parental species B. rapa and B. oleracea were analyzed based on the genomic data. The spatial transcription pattern of COI1 in oilseed rape was analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primers according to the conserved region of COI1 gene homologs. Then, a cDNA fragment of the conserved region was cloned into vector pTRV2 of the tobacco rattle virus-based VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) system. And, VIGS techniques were applied to silence COI1 genes in oilseed rape. The rape plants shown to have COI1 genes silenced were used to investigate male fertility and aphid resistance.[Result]Analysis of the genomic data of B. rapa, B. oleracea, and B. napus revealed that the genomes of B. rapa and B. oleracea contained 7 highly homologous COI1 genes, which could be classified into 4 subgroups, i.e., COI1a, COI1b.1, COI1b.2, and COI1c, while 8 COI1 genes were presented in the genome of B. napus. Transcriptional assay revealed that the expression of COI1 in oilseed rape is tissue specific. A 505bp fragment of the conserved region of COI1 was introduced into the VIGS vector pTRV2 to develop COI1-silenced plants via VIGS techniques. Twenty-five plants with the transcripts of COI1 down-regulated by over 70% were identified by transcriptional analyses, from which the ten plants with the lowest expression level of COI1 were selected to investigate male fertility and aphid resistance. The results showed that the fertility of COI1-silenced plants was extremely impaired, with no seeds in their siliques. Furthermore, the filaments of COI1-silenced plants were shorter than those of control plants, and over 80%pollens of the COI1-silenced plants were

  7. Morphological Structure and Transcriptome Comparison of the Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Line in Brassica napus (SaNa-1A) Derived from Somatic Hybridization and Its Maintainer Line SaNa-1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Kun; Liu, Qier; Wu, Xinyue; Jiang, Jinjin; Wu, Jian; Fang, Yujie; Li, Aimin; Wang, Youping

    2016-01-01

    SaNa-1A is a novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) line in Brassica napus derived from progenies of somatic hybrids between B.napus and Sinapis alba, and SaNa-1B is the corresponding maintainer line. In this study, phenotypic differences of floral organs between CMS and the maintainer lines were observed. By microscope observation in different anther developmental stages of two lines, we found the anther development in SaNa-1A was abnormal since the tetrad stage, and microspore development was ceased during the uninucleate stage. Transcriptomic sequencing for floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were conducted to elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from S. alba. Clean tags obtained were assembled into 195,568 unigenes, and 7811 unigenes distributed in the metabolic and protein synthesis pathways were identified with significant expression differences between two libraries. We also observed that genes participating in carbon metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, oxidation–reduction system, pentatricopeptide repeat, and anther development were downregulated in the sterile line. Some of them are candidates for researches on the sterility mechanism in the CMS material, fertility restoration, and improvement of economic traits in the maintainer line. Further research on the tags with expressional specificity in the fertile line would be helpful to explore desirable agronomic traits from wild species of rapeseed. PMID:27656189

  8. Activation of rape (Brassica napus L. embryo during seed germination. V. The first zones of ultrastructural changes and their expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Karaś

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the germinating rape embryo the columella and basal part of hypocotyl undergo earliest activation. Its first ultrastructural symptom is the appearance of numerous ER vesicles after 3-6 h of seed swelling. Their number is the highest in the external layers of the columella and decreases in basipetal direction. Dermatogen cells in the basal zone of the hypocotyl contain the greatest amount of ER structures, whereas decreasing amounts are found in both directions along the embryo axis and centripetally. Further changes in the ER spread in a similar order. The vesicles merge and form a tubular and plate-like ER. Then, they disappear and are replaced by tubular and vesicular forms. The changes in the ER are gradually followed by ultrastructural symptoms of activation of mitochondria, plastids and dictyosomes. The highest number of ER structures and other organelles accumulate in root cells shortly before piercing of the seed coat. After germination their amount decreases and remains almost stable.

  9. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  10. 甘蓝型油菜与芝麻菜体的细胞杂交%Somatic Hybridization between Brassica napus and Erucasativa Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传利; 杨志新; 桂雪梅; 刘雅婷; 毛孝强; 厦国银; 林良斌

    2008-01-01

    为拓宽油菜育种的基因资源库, 改良油菜品种, 以甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus)花油3号下胚轴和芝麻菜(Eruca sativa)下胚轴为材料分离制备原生质体; 然后采用PEG-高Ca2+-高pH法进行原生质体融合, 当PEG浓度为35%, 原生质体融合密度为5×105个/mL时, 融合25 min时, 融合率可达18.2%.融合后在培养密度为1×105个/mL时, 以附加1.0 mg/L 2,4-D +0.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.5 mg/L NAA+ 200 mg/L肌醇+300 mg/L水解酪蛋白的改良的KM8p为融合体培养基, 以0.1 mol/L 蔗糖+0.2 mol/L葡萄糖+0.2 mol/L甘露醇作渗透稳定剂进行液体浅层培养, 效果较好, 愈伤组织再生率最高为6.8%.将融合体再生的小愈伤组织转移至培养基(B5无机盐+0.087 mol/L蔗糖+0.2 mg/L 2, 4-D+0.5 mg/L NAA+0.2 mg/L 6-BA+ 0.5% Agar, pH 5.8)上增殖培养, 待愈伤组织长至直径为3~5 mm时, 及时将其转至分化培养基(MS无机盐+0.087 mol/L 蔗糖+0.1 mg/L IAA+0.8 mg/L 6-BA+0.8% Agar, pH 5.8)中诱导不定芽再生, 芽分化率为35.7%.当不定芽长为2~3 cm时, 将其切下转入附加0.5 mg/L IBA+0.2 mg/L 6-BA的1/2MS生根培养基中诱导生根, 14 d左右即可形成再生植株, 生根率可达88%.同时, 以紫外线(60 μW/cm2)照射芝麻菜原生质体, 进行不对称融合, 照射2 min的获得了愈伤组织和再生植株, 照射4 min的只获得愈伤组织, 而照射5 min以上的没有获得愈伤组织, 但其愈伤组织再生、增殖及植株再生均不如对称融合.从细胞学鉴定的21块杂种愈伤组织上再生出16株杂种植株.

  11. Hydrogen Peroxide Pretreatment Mitigates Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Brassica napus L.: An Intrinsic Study on Antioxidant Defense and Glyoxalase Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Gill, Sarvajeet S.; Alharby, Hesham F.; Razafindrabe, Bam H. N.; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is considered as one of the most toxic metals for plant growth and development. In the present study, we investigated the role of externally applied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in regulating the antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems in conferring Cd-induced oxidative stress tolerance in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Seedlings were pretreated with 50 μM H2O2 for 24 h. These pretreated seedlings as well as non-pretreated seedlings were grown for another 48 h at two concentrations of CdCl2 (0.5 and 1.0 mM). Both the levels of Cd increased MDA and H2O2 levels and lipoxygenase activity while ascorbate (AsA) declined significantly. However, reduced glutathione (GSH) content showed an increase at 0.5 mM CdCl2, but glutathione disulfide (GSSG) increased at any level of Cd with a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio. The activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) upregulated due to Cd treatment in dose-dependent manners, while glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) increased only at 0.5 mM CdCl2 and decreased at higher dose. The activity of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), catalase (CAT), glyoxalase I (Gly I), and glyoxalase II (Gly II) decreased under Cd stress. On the other hand, H2O2 pretreated seedlings, when exposed to Cd, AsA and GSH contents and GSH/GSSG ratio increased noticeably. H2O2 pretreatment increased the activities of APX, MDHAR, DHAR, GR, GST, GPX, and CAT of Cd affected seedlings. Thus enhancement of both the non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants helped to decrease the oxidative damage as indicated by decreased levels of H2O2 and MDA. The seedlings which were pretreated with H2O2 also showed enhanced glyoxalase system. The activities of Gly I, and Gly II and the content of GSH increased significantly due to H2O2 pretreatment in Cd affected seedlings, compared to the Cd-stressed plants without H2O2 pretreatment which were vital for methylglyoxal

  12. A Comparative Study on the Quality Components Between Self Pollinated Seeds and Naturally Pollinated Seeds in Brassica napus L. in Sichuan Ecological Region%四川生态区甘蓝型油菜自交种和自然种品质成分的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦芳; 蒲晓斌; 李浩杰; 黄驰; 李蒲; 张谦; 蒋梁材

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] This study was to reveal the differences in crude fat and glucosinolates between self pollinated seeds and naturally pollinated seeds in Brassica napus in sichuan ecological region. [Method] Near-infrared spectroscopy method (NIRS) was employed to measure the quality components in self pollinated seeds and naturally pollinated seeds of 861 shares of Brassica napus from Sichuan ecological region. And correlation analysis and regression analysis were conducted based on the experimental data via SPSS (statistics package for social science). [Result] The contents of crude fat in the self pollinated seeds were commonly a higher than that in the naturally pollinated seeds at 0.01 significant level; while the contents of glucosinolates in the self pollinated seeds and the naturally pollinated seeds were insignificantly different. Both the correlation relationship and linear regression for the crude fat between the self pollinated seeds and naturally pollinated seeds reached the significant level. The regression equations for the contents of crude fat(y1) and glucosinolates(y2) in the naturally pollinated seeds and of crude fat(x1) and glucosinolates(x2) in self pollinated seeds were respectively determined to be y1=16.844+0.614x1 and y2=-0.620+1.017x2. [Conclusion] In Brassica napus breeding, crude fat in naturally pollinated seeds should be emphatically taken into account, meanwhile concurrently considering that in self pollinated seeds; while glucosinolates in both the self pollinated seeds and the naturally pollinated seeds must be simultaneously concerned.

  13. Transcriptome profile analysis of young floral buds of fertile and sterile plants from the self-pollinated offspring of the hybrid between novel restorer line NR1 and Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fertile and sterile plants were derived from the self-pollinated offspring of the F1 hybrid between the novel restorer line NR1 and the Nsa CMS line in Brassica napus. To elucidate gene expression and regulation caused by the A and C subgenomes of B. napus, as well as the alien chromosome and cytoplasm from Sinapis arvensis during the development of young floral buds, we performed a genome-wide high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing for young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Results In this study, equal amounts of total RNAs taken from young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants were sequenced using the Illumina/Solexa platform. After filtered out low quality data, a total of 2,760,574 and 2,714,441 clean tags were remained in the two libraries, from which 242,163 (Ste and 253,507 (Fer distinct tags were obtained. All distinct sequencing tags were annotated using all possible CATG+17-nt sequences of the genome and transcriptome of Brassica rapa and those of Brassica oleracea as the reference sequences, respectively. In total, 3231 genes of B. rapa and 3371 genes of B. oleracea were detected with significant differential expression levels. GO and pathway-based analyses were performed to determine and further to understand the biological functions of those differentially expressed genes (DEGs. In addition, there were 1089 specially expressed unknown tags in Fer, which were neither mapped to B. oleracea nor to B. rapa, and these unique tags were presumed to arise basically from the added alien chromosome of S. arvensis. Fifteen genes were randomly selected and their expression levels were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, and fourteen of them showed consistent expression patterns with the digital gene expression (DGE data. Conclusions A number of genes were differentially expressed between the young floral buds of sterile and fertile plants. Some of these genes may be candidates for future research on CMS in

  14. Cytology of Brassica allohexaploids and BC2 progenies from B.napus and B.Maurorum%甘蓝型油菜与Brassica maurorum的异源六倍体后代及BC2细胞学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚行成; 葛贤宏; 李再云

    2012-01-01

    将甘蓝型油菜品种中油821(2n =38,AACC)与芸薹属野生资源Brassica maurorum( 2n=16,MM)的三倍体杂种进行染色体加倍,得到异源六倍体(2n =54,AACCMM).该多倍体雄性高度不育,雌性育性极低.在其花粉母细胞的减数分裂终变期,染色体平均配对构型为1.17 Ⅰ+20.71Ⅱ+0.56Ⅲ+2.25Ⅳ+0.08Ⅴ+0.06Ⅵ.用甘蓝型油菜与该多倍体连续回交2次,均需借助幼胚培养才得到后代植株,BC1、BC2植株均雄性不育,雌性育性很低.BC2植株的形态特征接近甘蓝型油菜,但各植株形态有明显差异.基因组原位杂交分析表明,BC2植株含有2~5条M基因组的染色体,甘蓝型油菜染色体多配对形成二价体,附加的染色体多以单价体形式存在,或与甘蓝型油菜染色体发生联会配对.%Allohexaploids (2n = 54, AACCMM) plants from Brassica napus cv. Zhongyou 821 (2n =38, AACC) and wild species B. Maurorum (2n = 16, MM) were produced by hybrids chromosome doubling. The poly-ploids were totally male sterile and extremely low female fertile. In polyploids pollen mother cells at diakinesis, the mean chromosome pairing configuration was 1. 17 I + 20. 71 II + 0. 56 1 + 2. 25IV + 0. 08 V + 0. 06 VI. Bci and BC2 from polyploids and Zhongyou 821 were only obtained by embryo rescue,and they were both male sterile and low fertility for female. The BC2 plants were morphologically diverse but similar to B. Napus. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis showed that BC2 plants remained 2 ~5 M - genome chromosomes from B. Maurorum, and chromosomes from B. Napus mainly formed bivalents. In BC2 populations, the additional chromosomes frequently appeared as univalents or paired with B, napus chromosomes.

  15. Interactive effects of molybdenum and phosphorus fertilizers on grain yield and quality of Brassica napus%钼磷配合施用对甘蓝型油菜产量和子粒品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红恩; 胡承孝; 聂兆君; 孙学成; 谭启玲

    2012-01-01

    Two years' (2006-2007 and 2007-2008 ) pot experiments with yellow-brown soil were conducted to investigate the interactive effects of molybdenum(Mo) and phosphorus(P) fertilizers on grain yield and oil content, oil yield, protein content, eucic acid and sulfuric glucoside contents and fatty acid composition of oil of Brassica napus seed. Both Mo and P fertilizers were applied at three levels ( Mo 0, O. 15,0. 30 mg/kg and P:O5 0, 0. 20, 0. 40 g/kg) and nine treatments were formed. The results indicate that the grain yield and biomass, oil content, oil yield, oleic and linoleic acid contents of grains of Brassica napus seed are increased significantly under the application of Mo fertilizer, while the contents of stearic acid, sulfuric glucoside and stearic acid are decreased remarkably. The grain and oil yields, biomass and linoleic acid contents are significantly increased under the application of P, while the stearic acid, sulfuric glucoside and eicosenoic acid contents are markedly decreased. The Mo fertilizer and P fertilizer applications have remarkable synergistic effects on the improvement of grain yield, oil yield and oleic acid content, and the reduction of eucic acid content of rapeseeds. These results obtained in this study suggest that both Mo fertilizer and P fertilizer are conducive for the improvement of grain yield and quality of Brassica napus seeds, and co-application of Mo and P fertilizers has a better effect.%利用酸性黄棕壤进行连续2年的盆栽试验,研究了钼肥和磷肥配合施用对甘蓝型油菜产量和子粒含油量、油产量、蛋白质含量、硫甙和芥酸含量以及脂肪酸组分等品质指标的影响。钼肥和磷肥各设置3个水平,分别为Mo0、0.15、0.30 mg/kg土和P2O50、0.20、0.40 g/kg土,共9个处理。结果表明,施钼能够显著(P〈0.05)提高油菜子粒产量和生物学产量,显著增加油菜子粒含油量、油产量及油酸、亚油酸含量,降低子粒硫

  16. Identification of QTLs associated with oil content in a high-oil Brassica napus cultivar and construction of a high-density consensus map for QTLs comparison in B. napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    Full Text Available Increasing seed oil content is one of the most important goals in breeding of rapeseed (B. napus L.. To dissect the genetic basis of oil content in B. napus, a large and new double haploid (DH population containing 348 lines was obtained from a cross between 'KenC-8' and 'N53-2', two varieties with >10% difference in seed oil content, and this population was named the KN DH population. A genetic linkage map consisting of 403 markers was constructed, which covered a total length of 1783.9 cM with an average marker interval of 4.4 cM. The KN DH population was phenotyped in eight natural environments and subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for oil content. A total of 63 identified QTLs explaining 2.64-17.88% of the phenotypic variation were identified, and these QTLs were further integrated into 24 consensus QTLs located on 11 chromosomes using meta-analysis. A high-density consensus map with 1335 marker loci was constructed by combining the KN DH map with seven other published maps based on the common markers. Of the 24 consensus QTLs in the KN DH population, 14 were new QTLs including five new QTLs in A genome and nine in C genome. The analysis revealed that a larger population with significant differences in oil content gave a higher power detecting new QTLs for oil content, and the construction of the consensus map provided a new clue for comparing the QTLs detected in different populations. These findings enriched our knowledge of QTLs for oil content and should be a potential in marker-assisted breeding of B. napus.

  17. 甘蓝型油菜BnFAD8基因编码序列的克隆和表达谱分析%Cloning and expression characteristics of fatty acid desaturase 8 gene from rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘绵学; 王茂华; 向俊蓓; 杨毅; 李旭锋

    2011-01-01

    通过比对拟南芥等同源基因,克隆了甘蓝型油菜FAD8基因中的保守序列.以得到的FAD8(Fatty Acid Desaturase 8)保守序列片段为信息探针,在GenBank的EST数据库中检索高度同源的EST,并通过人工拼接及RT-PCR得到油菜该基因的全长为1299 bp的cDNA序列,命名为BnFAD8.序列分析结果中发现该基因符合质体定位的ω3脂肪酸脱饱和酶序列特征.通过比较22℃和8℃处理的甘蓝型油菜的BnFAD8基因表达谱,发现该基因在常温下仅存在痕量表达;而在低温条件下在叶中表达出现较大幅度的升高.推测BnFAD8基因和油菜的低温调控存在联系.%Brassica napus fatty acid desaturase 8 (FAD8) belongs to cold-induced omega 3 fatty acid desaturase.By aligning Arabidopsis FAD8 and other homologous FAD8 genes, one highly conserved sequence of FAD8 from rape was cloned in study.Using the FAD8 conserved sequence as a querying probe, highly homologous EST were obtained from database of GenBank and a putative complete ORF of 1299 bp (named: BnFAD8) was assembled according to the rape clone.Furthermore, the full length cDNA of Brassica napus FAD8 was cloned by RT-PCR with two primers designed based on this assembled cDNA sequence.Features of plasmid-located o3 fatty acid desaturase were found in sequence analysis of cDNA cloned.As shown in expression profile result, BnFAD8 was highly expressed in leaves at 8 ℃, but only trace-level expression in leaves at 22 ℃, which suggested that BnFAD8 involved in the process of rape cold acclimation.

  18. A proteomic profiling approach to reveal a novel role of Brassica napus drought 22 kD/water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein in young leaves during nitrogen remobilization induced by stressful conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclos, Marie; Dubousset, Lucie; Etienne, Philippe; Le Caherec, Françoise; Satoh, Hiroyushi; Bonnefoy, Josette; Ourry, Alain; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2008-08-01

    Despite its water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein (WSCP) function, the putative trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity of the Brassica napus drought 22 kD (BnD22) protein and its physiological function in young leaves during leaf nitrogen (N) remobilization promoted by stressful conditions remains an enigma. Therefore, our objectives were to determine (1) if BnD22 is related to the 19-kD TI previously detected in B. napus young leaves, and (2) if the levels of BnD22 transcripts, BnD22 protein, and TI activity in young leaves are associated with plant responses to stress conditions (N starvation and methyl jasmonate [MeJA] treatments) that are able to modulate leaf senescence. Compared to control, N starvation delayed initiation of senescence and induced 19-kD TI activity in the young leaves. After 3 d with MeJA, the 19-kD TI activity was 7-fold higher than the control. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis gel, TI activity, and electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis, it was demonstrated that two 19-kD proteins with isoelectric points 5.0 and 5.1 harboring TI activity correspond to BnD22 perfectly. BnD22 gene expression, TI activities, and BnD22 protein presented similar patterns. Using polyclonal anti-WSCP antibodies of Brassica oleracea, six polypeptides separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis were detected in young leaves treated with MeJA. Electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of six polypeptides confirms their homologies with WSCP. Results suggest that BnD22 possesses dual functions (WSCP and TI) that lead to the protection of younger tissues from adverse conditions by maintaining metabolism (protein integrity and photosynthesis). By sustaining sink growth of stressed plants, BnD22 may contribute to a better utilization of recycling N from sources, a physiological trait that improves N-use efficiency.

  19. 甘蓝型黄子白花油菜恢复系RW16的选育与应用%Breeding and Application of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Restorer RW16 with Yellow Seed and White Petal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊生; 范小芳; 李成伟; 谭光轩

    2012-01-01

    以显性白花油菜W62为母本与显性黄子油菜H440杂交、回交,经多代连续定向选择育成了甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus L.)双低恢复系RW16,具有黄子和白花的特性.该恢复系具有较好的抗性和良好的品质性状,其芥酸含量平均为0.84%,硫甙含量平均为26.71μmol/g,含油量平均为46.78%,符合国家优质标准,属于高含油量油菜品种.该恢复系产量一般配合力良好,配制的杂种F1代子粒暗黄色,植株花色乳白,含油量和产油量杂种优势明显,普遍高于对照秦优7号.%RW16,a restorer of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) with yellow-seed, white-petal and double-low quality (low eru-cic acid and low glucosinolate) was successfully developed by the successive and directional selections of multi-generations from a hybridization between F1(W62/H440) as female and H440 with yellow seed as male. RW16 had good cold-resistance, disease-resistance and quality characters. The average erucic acid content in oil, glucosinolate content in meal and oil content was 0.84%, 26.71 |xmol/g and 46.78%, respectively. Based on the national standard, it belonged to a double-low restorer with high oil content. It also had better general combining ability in yield, the Fi hybrids from combinations of RW16 with other varieties showed better heterosis in oil yields per unit area and oil content, black-yellow seed coat and milky white petal, while the oil content of them was remarkably higher than that of Qinyou 7.

  20. 甘蓝型油菜硫苷组分的双标图分析%GGE Biplot Analysis of Glucosinolate Components of Rapeseed Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 王耐红; 李施蒙; 吴国超; 徐新福; 王瑞

    2015-01-01

    采用GGE双标图法 ,对11份硫苷组分不同甘蓝型油菜进行4 × 7不完全双列杂交试验 ,旨在对各杂交组合的硫苷组分进行分析 ,从而筛选出其配合力较低的亲本组合来满足降低后代硫苷质量摩尔浓度的要求 .结果显示 :① 对于2-羟-3-丁烯基而言 ,亲本一般配合力(GCA )较低的是父本D21R ,D1R和母本D3AB ,特殊配合力(SCA )较低的是父本91R ,56R和母本D3AB ,SCA较低的组合有S3 × R3 ,S3 × R7和S1 × R3等 ;② 对于3 丁烯基而言 ,亲本GCA较低的是父本15R ,91R和母本Gd1AB ,D3AB ,SCA较低的是父本D1R ,D21R和母本D3AB ,SCA较低的组合有S3 × R3 ,S3 × R7和S1 × R7等;③ 对父本GCA而言 ,3-丁烯基、4-羟-3-吲哚甲基、苯乙基、4-戊烯基与2-羟-3-丁烯基呈正相关 ,苯乙基、4-戊烯基与4-羟-3-吲哚甲基呈负相关 .对母本GCA而言 ,3-丁烯基、4戊烯基与2-羟-3-丁烯基呈正相关 ,苯乙基、4-羟-3-吲哚甲基与2-羟-3-丁烯基呈负相关 ;④ 各杂交组合硫苷组分的表型关系中 ,亲本针对各组分GCA的相关性与母本配合力效应双标图中所显示出来的结果基本一致 .利用GGE双标图分析表明 ,选用D3AB作母本、D21R及D1R作为父本有利于降低杂种后代油菜籽中硫代葡糖苷的质量摩尔浓度 .%This paper reports an analysis of a 4 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of Brassica napus L. using GGE biplot .The following patterns were visualized from the biplots .(1) Across the desulfoprogoitrin ,male parents D21R and D1R had low general combining ability (GCA) ,and 91R and 56R had low specific com-bining ability (SCA) ,female parent D3AB had low GCA and low SCA ,and the combinations with low SCA included S3 × R3 ,S3 × R7 and S1 × R3 .(2) Across the desulfogluconapin ,male parents 15R and 91R had low GCA ,w hile D1R and D21R had low SCA ,female parents Gd1AB and D3AB had low GCA ,w hile D3AB had low SCA ,the combinations with low SCA included S 3 × R3 ,S3 × R7 and

  1. Root traits and microbial community interactions in relation to phosphorus availability and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul John Hunter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brassicas are among the most widely grown and important crops worldwide. Phosphorus (P is a key mineral element in the growth of all plants and is largely supplied as inorganic rock-phosphate, a dwindling resource, which is likely to be an increasingly significant factor in global agriculture. In order to develop crops which can abstract P from the soil, utilize it more efficiently, require less of it or obtain more from other sources such as soil organic P reservoirs, a detailed understanding the factors that influence P metabolism and cycling in plants and associated soil is required. This review focuses on the current state of understanding of root trait, rhizodeposition and rhizosphere community interaction as it applies to P solubilization and acquisition, with particular reference to Brassica species. Physical root characteristics, exudation of organic acids (particularly malate and citrate and phosphatase enzymes are considered and the potential mechanisms of control of these responses to P deficiency examined. The influence of rhizodeposits on the development of the rhizosphere microbial community is discussed and the specific features of this community in response to P deficiency are considered; specifically production of phosphatases, phytases and phosphonate hydrolases. Finally various potential approaches for improving overall P use efficiency in Brassica production are discussed.

  2. Analysis of DNA Methylation Patterns in Resynthesized Brassica napus and Diploid Parents%人工合成甘蓝型油菜及其亲本的甲基化变异模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 戎浩; 蒋金金; 孔月琴; 冉丽萍; 吴健; 王幼平

    2016-01-01

    The genetic background of Brassica napus, one of the most important oil crops in China, is relatively narrow due to the short history of its polyploid origin. Resynthesized B. napus provides an optimal model for researches on plant polyploidization. In the present study, we compared the DNA methylation levels in synthesized B. napus (F1 generation) and diploid parents using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DNA methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis. HPLC analysis indicated methylation rates of 8.33%and 15.88%in B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively. While the methylation rate of two hybrids was 10.29%and 12.83%, which were in-between of the parents’ values. MSAP analysis proved the different methylation levels in F1 generation and diploids, with the lowest and highest methylation levels identified in B. rapa and B. ole-racea, respectively. Variance of the DNA methylation in F1 was 23.71%, among which 6.60%and 10.16%were inherited from A and C genome, respectively. Sequence analysis of MSAP polymorphic fragments indicated genes involved in multiple molecular functions were changed during polyploidization. Expression analysis of these genes agreed to the corresponding methylation changes. This study provides preliminary basis for understanding epigenetic variations during B. napus polyploidization.%甘蓝型油菜作为多倍体起源和发生的历史较短,遗传背景较为狭窄,人工合成甘蓝型油菜可作为植物多倍化研究的优选模型,本文以人工合成的甘蓝型油菜为材料,通过 HPLC 分析发现白菜型油菜和甘蓝的甲基化率分别为8.33%和15.88%,2个杂种株系的全基因组甲基化水平介于双亲之间,分别为10.29%和12.83%。MSAP分析发现杂种F1代及其亲本的甲基化水平存在明显差异(白菜型油菜<杂种F1<甘蓝),杂种F1代的甲基化变异(23.71%)中来自A、C 基因组的变异分别占6.60%和10.16%。MSAP 差异性条带的序列分析发现

  3. Early osmotic, antioxidant, ionic, and redox responses to salinity in leaves and roots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Singh Laxmi; Manish, Pandey; Penna, Suprasanna

    2016-01-01

    Salt-stress-induced alterations in osmotic, ionic, and redox responses were studied in the early period of treatment (30 min to 5 days) in seedlings of Brassica juncea L. Roots and shoots under mild (50 mM) and severe (250 mM) NaCl stress were analyzed for growth, oxidative stress, osmolyte accumulation, antioxidant defense, and redox state. Growth reduction was less pronounced in the early time period of salt stress while oxidative damage increased linearly and in a sustained manner under severe stress up to 6 h. An early and transient reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, as evidenced by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide level was observed, followed by activation of enzymatic antioxidant system (GPX, SOD, CAT, and GR) in both root and shoot. The enzymatic activity was not affected much under mild stress particularly at early phase; however, severe stress induced a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Root ascorbate was progressively accumulated, and its redox state maintained in the early time phase of treatment under mild stress while increase in root and shoot glutathione content was recorded under mild stress at 5 days when the active ascorbate pool decreased. While early period of salt stress showed significant Na(+) accumulation over control, plants subjected to mild stress measured less Na(+) accumulation up to 5 days compared to severely stressed plants. The results showed an early induction of differential responses to salt stress in roots and shoots of Brassica which include growth limitations, reduced relative water content, increased osmolytes, redox state, and antioxidant system, and a significant Na(+) increase. The results also indicate that roots and shoots may have distinct mechanisms of responses to salt stress.

  4. Establishment of Transformation System Using Inbred Line of Yellow-Seeded Brassica napus%甘蓝型黄籽油菜自交系转化体系的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林呐; 刘列钊; 殷家明; 王瑞; 柴友荣; 李加纳

    2012-01-01

    利用黄籽甘蓝型油菜自交系建立和优化了遗传转化系统.首先构建了由质粒pCNR与△6-脂肪酸脱氢酶基因插入到植物的高效表达载体pCAMBIA2301G.利用在Murashige和Skoog培养基(含有200 μmol L-1乙酰丁香酮)培养5~7 d的下胚轴外植体与农杆菌株LBA4404共培养63~69 h (pCNR),再于芽诱导培养基上培养3个月诱导芽再生.在最佳条件下,平均转化效率约为1.3%.转化植株的GUS分析和PCR分析结果表明,外源基因成功导入甘蓝型油菜.Southern杂交表明,这些转化子含有目标基因1~2个拷贝.用气相色谱分析转基因植物种子的脂肪酸,γ-亚麻酸含量达8.2%.%In this study, we established a transformation system using an inbred line of yellow-seeded Brassica napus. Hypocotyl explants precultured for 5-7 d on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 20μmol L-1 acetosyringone were cocultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 (pCNR) for 63-69 hours. The plasmid pCNR was constructed by inserting △6-fatty acid desaturase gene from Rhizopus stolonifer into plant high-efficient expression vector pCAMBIA2301G. Kanamycin-tolerant shoots were regenerated on shoot induction medium for three months after Agrobacterium inoculation. The average transformation efficiency was about 1.3% under optimal conditions. Results from GUS assay and PCR analysis of transformed plants indicated that the introduced gene was integrated into B. Napus genomes. The result of Southern blot revealed that those transformants carried one or two copies of the goal gene. The fatty acids of the transgenic plant seeds were analyzed by GC, and the γ-linolenic content was 8.2%.

  5. Study on the Protoplast Fusion and Plant Regeneration System between Brassica napus and Isatis tinctoria%甘蓝型油菜与菘蓝原生质体融合及植株再生体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪竹; 李再云

    2012-01-01

    Protoplast was isolated from leaves of Brassira napus and hatis linctoria and fused by PEG-high pH and high calcium method. Callus was then induced by solid-liquid double layer culture method. Effects of factors including enzyme type and concentration on protoplast isolation, type and dose of hormone on callus induction and differentiation were studied to improve the plant regeneration efficiency. The results suggested that the enzyme combination suitable for protoplast isolation was 5 mg/L cellulase+3 mg/L macerozyme. The concentration of hormone for protoplasts induction, proliferation and differentiation were 1.0 mg/L 6-BA+l.0mg/L NAA+0.25 mg/L 2,4-D, 2.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.4 mg/L NAA+0.1 mg/L 2,4-D and 2.0 mg/L 6-BA +0.1 mg/L NAA +0.02 mg/L 2,4-D. A total of 15 somatic hybrids were obtained. The leaves of the hybrids seedling was dark green and thick, covered with wax layer. The adult plants were shorter and flowered later than B. Napus. Their stamens were ateleiosis; and the chromosomes number was 48-66 in somatic cells.%以甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus)和菘蓝(Isatis tinctoria)叶片为材料提取原生质体,采用PEG-高钙高pH法融合亲本原生质体,采用固液双层培养法诱导愈伤组织的形成.研究适宜原生质体分离的酶种类及浓度,并考察了激素种类和用量对愈伤组织诱导和分化的影响.结果表明,5 mg/L纤维素酶+3 mg/L离析酶适合甘蓝型油菜和菘蓝的酶解.各培养基中适宜的激素浓度分别为,诱导培养基PellB 1.0 mg/L6-BA+1.0 mg/L NAA+0.25 mg/L 2,4-D;增殖培养基PellC 2.0 mg/L 6-BA+0.1 mg/L NAA+0.1 mg/L2,4-D;分化培养基PellE 2.0 mg/L 6-BA +0.1 mg/L NAA+0.02 mg/L 2,4-D.获得了15株再生植株,杂种幼苗叶片均呈深绿色,叶表面覆有厚的蜡质,叶片肥厚,植株在成熟期时株高比甘蓝型油菜矮,开花较晚,雄蕊发育不完全,杂种体细胞染色体数目为48~66.

  6. Genome-wide identification of QTL for seed yield and yield-related traits and construction of a high-density consensus map for QTL comparison in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo eZhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed yield (SY is the most important trait in rapeseed, which was determined by multiple seed yield-related traits (SYRTs and also easily subject to environmental influence. Lots of quantitative trait loci (QTL for SY and SYRTs were reported in Brassica napus. However, no studies have focused on SY and seven agronomic traits affecting SY simultaneous. Genome-wide QTL analysis for SY and seven SYRTs in eight environments was conducted in a doubled haploid population containing 348 lines. Totally, 18 and 208 QTLs for SY and SYRTs were observed, respectively, and then these QTLs were integrated into 144 consensus QTLs by a meta-analysis. Three major QTLs for SY were observed, including cqSY-C6-2 and cqSY-C6-3 that expressed stably in winter cultivation area for three years and cqSY-A2-2 only expressed in spring rapeseed area. Trait-by-trait meta-analysis revealed that the 144 consensus QTLs were integrated into 72 pleiotropic unique QTLs. Among them, all the unique QTLs affected SY, except for uq-A6-1, including uq.A2-3, uq.C1-2, uq.C1-3, uq.C6-1, uq.C6-5 and uq.C6-6 could also affect more than two SYRTs. According to high density consensus map construction and QTL comparison from literature, 36 QTLs from five populations were co-localized with QTLs identified in this study. In addition, 13 orthologs genes were observed, including five each genes for SY and SW, one each gene for BY, BH and PH, respectively. The genomic information of these QTLs would be valuable in hybrid cultivar breeding, and be helpful to analyze QTL expression in different environments.

  7. Plants know where it hurts: root and shoot jasmonic acid induction elicit differential responses in Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom O G Tytgat

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore attack by rapidly inducing defenses that are mainly regulated by jasmonic acid (JA. Due to the systemic nature of induced defenses, attack by root herbivores can also result in a shoot response and vice versa, causing interactions between above- and belowground herbivores. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. We investigated whether plants respond differently when roots or shoots are induced. We mimicked herbivore attack by applying JA to the roots or shoots of Brassica oleracea and analyzed molecular and chemical responses in both organs. In shoots, an immediate and massive change in primary and secondary metabolism was observed. In roots, the JA-induced response was less extensive and qualitatively different from that in the shoots. Strikingly, in both roots and shoots we also observed differential responses in primary metabolism, development as well as defense specific traits depending on whether the JA induction had been below- or aboveground. We conclude that the JA response is not only tissue-specific but also dependent on the organ that was induced. Already very early in the JA signaling pathway the differential response was observed. This indicates that both organs have a different JA signaling cascade, and that the signal eliciting systemic responses contains information about the site of induction, thus providing plants with a mechanism to tailor their responses specifically to the organ that is damaged.

  8. Tiered tests to assess the environmental risk of fitness changes in hybrids between transgenic crops and wild relatives: the example of virus resistant Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Cooper, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, there has been much research aimed at improving environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops. Despite large amounts of data, decisions to allow or prohibit the release of transgenic crops remain confused and controversial. We argue that part of the reason for confusion is the lack of clear definitions of components of the environment that should be protected, and, as a consequence, there is no way to judge the relevance of data collected under the auspices of 'environmental risk assessment'. Although this criticism applies to most aspects of environmental risk assessment of transgenic crops, it is most pertinent to effects that might result from an increase in plant fitness, often referred to as increased weediness. Environmental risk assessment of weediness is regarded as complicated: an increase in the fitness of a transgenic plant compared with non-transgenic counterparts will be the result of an interaction between the altered plant phenotype and an enormous number of environmental variables. This has led to the idea that risk assessment of weediness needs to "understand" these interactions, with the implication that exhaustive data are required. Here we argue that environmental risk assessment of the weediness of transgenic plants need not be complicated. Analysis of the conditions that must be met for increased weediness to occur suggests a series of studies that starts with simple tests in the laboratory under "worst case" assumptions, and becomes increasingly complex and realistic should the simpler studies not indicate negligible risk with sufficient certainty. We illustrate how the approach might work for assessing the risks of increased weediness using the example of possible introgression of a gene for Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) resistance from oilseed rape to certain wild Brassica species.

  9. 土壤高砷污染对冬小麦和油菜生长影响的比较研究%Effects of high arsenic pollution in soil on growth of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全吉; 郑床木; 谭启玲; 孙学成; 胡承孝

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of high soil arsenic pollution on the growth, bio-mass accumulation and productivity in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ) and rape (Brassica napus) . The accumulation pattern of phosphorus and arsenic in different parts of plant was also studied in the two species. The results indicated that arsenic significantly inhibited wheat height, root biomass, shoot biomass and yield compared with the control, with reductions of 17% , 52. 2% , 60. 6% and 46. 8% , respectively. However, arsenic did not affect the growth and biomass in rape, and the yield was only decreased by 15. 4% compared with the control. Arsenic concentration in different parts of wheat and rape showed the same pattern; roots > shoots > husk (legumen) > seeds. Arsenic in roots of wheat and rape were 74. 86 mg· kg-1 and 57. 76 mg·kg-1 , respectively when soil arsenic concentration was 200 mg·kg-1 . However, there was no difference of arsenic content in the shoot between wheat and rape. Seeds of winter wheat contained more arsenic than rape seed, however, arsenic contents of both seeds did not exceed the maximum levels of contaminants in foods (0. 7 mg·kg-1 total arsenic). Arsenic did not significantly affect P concentration of roots and shoots in both wheat and rape, but significantly decreased P concentration of husk or pod peel.Therefore, winter wheat was more sensitive to arsenic compared with rape and it is more suitable for rape growth inarsenic contaminated soil in winter.%采用盆栽试验研究了土壤高浓度砷污染对冬小麦和油菜生长、生物量、产最的影响及磷、砷在此2种作物各个部位的累积规律.结果表明,200 mg? kg-1土壤砷污染显著抑制了冬小麦的生长,收获时冬小麦株高较对照降低17%;冬小麦地上部分、根系的生物量和产量较对照分别降低了52.2%,60.6%和46.8%.但土壤砷污染对油菜株高、生物量影响均不

  10. 利用SSCP技术分析甘蓝型油菜10个功能基因序列差异%Polymorphism Analysis of Ten Functional Genes in Brassica napus Using SSCP Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媛媛; 陈庆芳; 傅廷栋; 马朝芝

    2012-01-01

    以甘蓝型油菜SI-1300和Eagle为材料,利用DNA单链构象多态性(single-strand conformation polymorphism,SSCP)技术,对10对功能基因特异性引物进行多态性分析,每对引物均检测到1个多态性位点.随后随机挑选10个多态性片段进行测序,并利用bl2seq软件比较测序序列与基因原始序列.结果显示测序序列与所对应的基因原始序列之间相似程度平均高达98%,差异碱基数平均仅为2.3个.进一步选取5对引物比较分析两个材料间的差异扩增片 段序列,发现差异扩增片段在2个材料中高度保守,平均相似度达97%;在所测序的5对引物扩增序列中,共存在39个单核苷酸多态性(single-nucleotide polymorphisms,SNPs)和5个插入/缺失突变(insertion-deletions,INDELs),SNP和INDEL的发生频率分别为1 SNP/30 bp和1 INDEL/233 bp.结果表明,SSCP标记能够真实代表原始功能基因,甘蓝型油菜功能基因序列在不同材料间高度保守,其遗传变异类型主要来源于SNP.%A sensitive technology is very necessary to detect the polymorphisms of functional genes in different cultivars, for the coding sequences of functional genes tend to be conserved even between species. Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) is a desirable method for DNA polymorphism analysis because of its high sensitivity and cost effectiveness. In previous publications, we developed 177 functional markers corresponding to 111 differentially expressed genes between the parents of a Brassica napus hybrid. And, 45 functional markers involved in 39 genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were linked to the QTLs of 12 yield-related traits in the F2 population from SI-1300xEagle using SSCP analysis. In the present research, we sequenced some polymorphic bands detected by SSCP analysis to confirm the high sensitivity of SSCP analysis. Firstly, a total of ten primer pairs, which were designed according to ten B. Napus functional genes or ESTs, were used to

  11. The effect of endo- and exogenous factors on growth and maturation of oilseed rape (Brassica napus cv. Jet Neuf siliques cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Drozdowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of developmental stage of siliques, growth regulators, agar and sucrose concentrations in the medium was investigated on the morphogenesis of the silliques and seed maturation. Regeneration of shoots, roots and callus occurred at the base of siliques during their growth. The developmental stage of the incubated siliques was the most important factor affecting the number of seeds, while the conditions of culture (agar and growth regulators constituted a secondary factor. The reasons for the insignificant number of seeds produced could be the lack of fertilization of some of the ovules, limited ability of siliques to take up nutrients and the unspecific composition of the medium.

  12. Molecular Markers and Agronomic Traits of a New Kind of Genic Male Sterile Material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus L.%新型甘蓝型油菜核不育材料绵7AB-4-2农艺性状鉴定及分子检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩杰; 汤天泽; 袁代斌; 蒙大庆; 蒲晓斌; 张锦芳; 蒋梁材

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to investigate the agronomic traits and breeding characteristics of genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus. [Method] The differences in agronomic traits and polymorphisms in SSR markers, between the genic male sterile material Mian 7AB-4-2 in Brassica napus and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were investigated by hybridization and molecular identification; and the percentage of sterile individuals of Mian 7AB-4-2 and of the hybrids with its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 from test cross and back cross were also studied. [Result] Mian 7AB-4-2 was not significantly different in agronomic traits from its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 at 0.05 probability level. The percentages of sterile individuals in the pollinated fertile Mian 7AB-4-2 plants were over 60%, and that in its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 was about 25%. In test crosses with other nine sterile lines, Mian 7AB-4-1 kept the percentage of sterile individuals of sterile lines over 90%, and the percentage of sterile individuals from back cross over 80%. With regard to molecular markers, Mian 7AB-4-2 and its sisterly line Mian 7AB-4-1 were different in the band number from SSR primers a2 and E10. [Conclusion] The results indicate that Mian 7AB-4-2 is helpful for rapeseed breeding, quickening the application of new materials in field breeding.

  13. Effect of salinity and priming on seedling growth in rapeseed (Brassica napus var oleifera Del. - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i4.17655

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed to examine the effect of salt stress and GA3-priming on initial growth of two rapeseed cultivars, one tolerant and one sensitive to salt stress during germination. Seedlings from seeds germinated in salty (as NaCl and non salty substrate were grown in salty and non salty hydroponics. Salt stress reduced seedling growth of the two genotypes consistently with their degree of stress tolerance during germination. Seedlings from stress sensitive seeds germinated under high salinity showed a rapid recover of growth in non stressing conditions. The effect of salt stress on shoot/root ratio was controversial, increased for lab and decreased for greenhouse experiments, probably due to different timing of stress application and additional experimental conditions. Salt stress decreased leaf photosynthesis and increased thermal dissipation in sensitive seedlings (decrease of ΦPSII and qP, increase of NPQ. The GA3-priming did not affect seedling growth of the stress sensitive cultivar subjected to stress, while it greatly improved the performance of the stress tolerant cultivar.

  14. Effect of Main Cultivation Factors on Quality Combination Parameters of High-quality Brassica napus Hybrids%主要栽培因素对甘蓝型优质杂交油菜品质性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵继献; 王仙平; 高志宏

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to analyze the influence of five cultivation factors including sowing date,plant density,nitrogen fertilizer amount,phosphate fertilizer amount and potash fertilizer amount on the quality parameters of Brassica napus hybrids.[Method] Statistical analysis on the data from previous studies and our work was carried out [Result] The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,oil,oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with the sowing date,while the contents of seed protein,palmitic acid,stearic acid and linolenic acid were positively correlated with the sowing date The total amount of fat and protein,the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA),the fatty acid (FA) of erucic acid chain,the total amount of oleic acid and linoleic acid were negatively correlated with the sowing date; the UFA content,the unsaturation index,the SEA content,the 18-C FA content,and the ratio of UFA to FA in erucic acid chain were positively correlated with the sowing date.The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,seed protein,oleic acid,linolenic acid and eicosenoic acid were negatively correlated with the plant density,while the contents of oil,palmitic acid,stearic acid and linoleic acid were positively correlated with the plant density.The total amount of fat and protein (F & P),and the ratio of UFA to FA in erucic acid chain were negatively correlated with the plant density,while the UFA content,the unsaturation index,the SFA content,the ratio of UFA to SFA,the 18-C FA content,the FA in erucic acid chain,and the total amount of oleic acid and linoleic acid were positively correlated with the plant density.The contents of erucic acid,thioglycoside,oil,protein in milled rapeseed,palmitic acid and eicosenoic acid were negatively correlated with the nitrogen fertilizer amount,while the contents of seed protein,oleic acid,stearic acid,linoleic acid and linolenic acid were positively correlated with the nitrogen fertilizer

  15. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  16. Fine Mapping of a Recessive Genic Male Sterility Gene (Ms 1) in Rapeseed (Brassica napus )%甘蓝型油菜隐性上位互作核不育基因(Ms1)精细定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江莹芬; 陈凤祥; 李强生; 胡宝成; 吴新杰; 侯树敏; 范志雄; 费维新; 荣松柏

    2011-01-01

    Genie male sterility is one of the most valuable resources for heterosis utilization in Brassica napus. The recessive epistatic genic male sterile line 9012A has been playing an increasing role in hybrid cultivar development in China. That sterility is controlled by two pairs of recessive duplicated sterile genes (msl and msl) and one pair of recessive epistatic inhibitor gene {rf). Homozygosity at the rf locus (rfrf) inhibits the expression of the two recessive malt sterility genes in homozygous ms lmslms2ms2 plants and results in a male fertile phenotype (TAM line, mslmslms2ms2rfrf). In this study, 884 pairs of AFLP and 506 pairs of SRAP maker system were used for investigating the genotype of Ms lms lms2ms2rfrfand mslmslms2ms2rfrf segregated in a NIL population of 304 individuals. As a result, we obtained 14 makers tightly linked with the Msl gene, of which 4 markers co-segregated. The AFLP marker E-ACA/P-CTG reported by Ke et al. Has a genetic distance of 0.1 cM in our research population. BLAST analysis with sequences of tightly linked makers shows that, some of the sequences have high similarities with those genomic DNA sequences from Arabidopsis chromosome 5. Most notably, these sequences generated from the most tightly linked markers with Msl gene were perfectly anchored to one of the terminal of chromosome C9 of Brassica olerecea. All of these results of this study will benefit for map-based cloning and maker assistant selection of Ms 1 gene. Additionally, the segregation of the markers link with Msl gene which has been reported by other authors was investigated and compared in our segregated population in this paper.%甘蓝型油菜细胞核雄性不育是杂种优势利用的重要途径.隐性上位互作核不育系9012A已经广泛用于杂交种子生产,其不育性受两对隐性重叠不育基因(ms1和ms2)与一对隐性上位抑制基因(rf互作控制.ms1和ms2同时纯合(ms1ms1ms2ms2)表现不育,但隐性纯合rf(rfrf)对ms1ms1ms2ms2的表

  17. 人工合成甘蓝型油菜中花色与芥酸含量的遗传连锁分析%Identification of the Linkage Relationship Between the Flower Colour and the Content of Erucic Acid in the Resynthesized Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪平; 涂金星; 陈宝元; 傅廷栋

    2004-01-01

    利用人工合成的甘蓝型油菜品系No.2127-17(白花、有芥酸)与加拿大双低甘蓝型油菜品种Quantum(黄花、低芥酸)配制杂交组合.对亲本、F1、BC1、F2和DH(doubled haploid)5个世代的花色及芥酸含量进行分析,结果表明:花色受单基因控制,且白花对黄花为显性;芥酸含量仅表现出一对基因的差异且具有加性效应的遗传模式.花色和芥酸含量的连锁分析表明:白花与高芥酸紧密连锁,在DH群体中重组频率为5.8%.采用集团分离分析法(Bulked Segregant Analysis,BSA),从685条10个碱基的随机引物筛选到一个与黄花和低芥酸含量紧密连锁的RAPD标记S921400o在遗传图谱上黄花基因和低芥酸基因距离S92-1400标记的图距分别为2.2 cM和5.4 cM.%Brassica napus variety Quantum (yellow flower and low erucic content) as the female parent was crossed with a resynthesized Brassica napus line No. 2127-17 ( white flower and high erucic content). The segregation ratios of the flower colour and the erucic acid content were analyzed in the F1, BC1, F2, and DH (doubled haploid) populations. The results indicated that the white flower was dominant over yellow and the erucic acid content was additively inherited. Both traits fit with a monogenic inheritance model,respectively. There were strong evidences to support the linkage relationship between the flower colour and the erucic acid content in the C-genome of B. napus with a recombination frequency of 5.8% in the DH population. The BSA ( bulked segregant analysis) strategy was employed to identify random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker linked to the genes for the flower colour and erucic acid content in the DH population. Of 685 arbitrary 10-base pair(bp) primers, one primer S92 generated a RAPD marker S92 _ 1400 that was tightly linked to the genes for the yellow flower and the low erucic acid content in the C-genome of B. napus L. The genetic distance of the genes for yellow flower and the low

  18. Biochemical characterization of laccase from hairy root culture of Brassica juncea L. and role of redox mediators to enhance its potential for the decolorization of textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telke, Amar A; Kagalkar, Anuradha N; Jagtap, Umesh B; Desai, Neetin S; Bapat, Vishwas A; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2011-12-01

    In vitro transgenic hairy root cultures provide a rapid system for physiological, biochemical studies and screening of plants for their phytoremediation potential. The hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L. showed 92% decolorization of Methyl orange within 4 days. Out of the different redox mediators that were used to achieve enhanced decolorization, 2, 2'-Azinobis, 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) was found to be the most efficient. Laccase activity of 4.5 U mg(-1) of protein was observed in hairy root cultures of Brassica juncea L., after the decolorization of Methyl orange. Intracellular laccase produced by B. juncea root cultures grown in MS basal medium was purified up to 2.0 fold with 6.62 U mg(-1) specific activity using anion-exchange chromatography. Molecular weight of the purified laccase was estimated to be 148 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme efficiently oxidized ABTS which was also required for oxidation of the other tested substrates. The pH and temperature optimum for laccase activity were 4.0 and 40°C, respectively. The purified enzyme was stable up to 50°C and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-6.0. Laccase activity was strongly inhibited by sodium azide, EDTA, dithiothreitol and L: -cysteine. The purified enzyme decolorized various textile dyes in the presence of ABTS as an efficient redox mediator. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the enzymatic process involved in phytoremediation of textile dyes by using hairy roots.

  19. Genetic Analysis of Yield-Associated Traits by Unconditional and Conditional QTL inBrassica napus%利用非条件和条件QTL解析油菜产量相关性状的遗传关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦聪聪; 黄吉祥; 汪义龙; 张晓玉; 熊化鑫; 倪西源; 赵坚义

    2015-01-01

    yield breeding purpose inBrassica napus.%基于前期研究中构建的Sollux/Gaoyou DH群体在9个环境中的表型数据和新版遗传图谱,对油菜角果长度进行QTL定位,估测 QTL的加性、上位性和环境互作效应。并通过条件 QTL方法,解析角果长度与角果粒数和粒重之间的遗传关系,以期利用标记辅助,探讨通过选择角果长度基因型以增加角果粒数、提高千粒重,最终达到增加产量的可能性。结果共检测到在3个环境以上稳定表达的控制角果长度QTL 8个,加性效应值在0.09~0.26 cm之间,效应总和解释群体遗传总变异的60%。8对上位性QTL效应值在0.035~0.075 cm之间,效应总和为加性总效应的38%。QTL与环境互作效应只在少数位点和个别环境中显著。条件QTL研究表明, qSLA2、qSLC1-2和qSLC8-1位点,角果长度的变化对角果粒数影响较大;而通过选择 qSLA7、qSLC1-2、qSLC8-1和 qSLC8-2长角果标记基因型,可望同时提高角果粒数和千粒重。6个主效QTL 11个连锁标记基因型和表现型的关联分析,验证了条件QTL分析结果,表明通过对qSLA2、qSLA7、qSLC8-1和qSLC8-2位点6个连锁标记(ZAAS423、SUC1-3、ZAAS12a、ZAASA7-28、ZAAS433和ZAAS437)长角果基因型的聚合,可增长角果约2 cm,间接增加角果粒数2粒,同时提高千粒重0.4 g,从而可望实质性地提高油菜产量水平。

  20. Cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the sexual intergeneric hybrids between the cultivated Brassica species and Orychophragmus violaceus, both complete separation and partial separation of the parental genomes were found to occur during mitosis and meiosis under genetic control. The cytogenetics of these hybrids was species-specific for Brassica parents. The different chromosome behavior of hybrids with three Brassica diploids ( B. campestris , B. nigra and B. oleracea ) might contribute to the different cytogenetics of hybrids with three tetraploids ( B. napus, B. juncea and B. carinata). Owing to the parental genome separation, Brassica homozygous plants and aneuploids with various chromosome constitutions were identifiable in the progenies of these hybrids, which were valuable for the study of the structure and evolution of Brassica genome and for the breeding of Brassica crops.

  1. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  2. 新型油菜化学杂交剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜制种亲本相关性状的影响研究%Study on Influence of a New Chemical Hybridization Agents (CHA) SX-1 to Parents’Traits in Hybrid Seed Production of Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建厂; 李永红; 王灏; 郭徐鹏; 田建华

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the influence of CHA SX-1 to parents, traits in Brassica napus.L, and explore the standardized scientific method of using CHA SX-1 in hybrids production in B. napus L. the two tested varieties of B. napus in the field was sprayed SX-1 with 5.5 mg/L on leaves for the first time,when the height of female parent stem was about 20 cm, and the biggest bud of 80% plants reached to about 2 mm, and pollen development was in uninucleate stage to the late uninucleate stage. After 7 days to 10 days, SX-1 with 6.5 mg/L was sprayed for the second time with 2.5 mL per plant. After spraying SX-1, sterility of the two female parents was completely, and the sterility rate reached to 99%, and self-cross of the two female parents could not obtain seeds, but outcrossing might set seeds normally, and plants did not show obvious phytotoxicity. However, parts of organ morphology and agronomic traits changed significantly. For example, plant height of female parents and effective branch position lowered, and main inflorescences shortened, buds, sepals and petals became smaller, filaments shortened and its weight lightened, and pistil elongated and its weight increased, and pods and 1000-seeds weight increased, seeds per silique reduced, but the yield of hybrids production just reduced 9.07% and 15.27% than CK, and correlated traits and yield traits of the two male parents did not been influenced significantly. SX-1 was a kind of efficient CHA for rape, and it was also safe and feasible in hybrids production of B. napus L.%研究化杀剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜品种制种双亲的影响,探讨规范科学标准化的油菜化杀杂交制种技术。油菜母本苔高20 cm左右,80%植株最大花蕾达到2 mm,花粉发育在单核期到单核靠边期第一次喷施5.5 mg/L的SX-1,7~10天后第二次喷施6.5 mg/L,每次每株着药量2.5 mL左右。SX-1对两油菜品种母本的育性影响一致,杀雄彻底,雄性不育株率可达99%以上,

  3. MALDI-TOF characterization of hGH1 produced by hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica grown in an airlift with mesh bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Edgar García; Ramírez, Emma Gloria Ramos; Gúzman, Octavio Gómez; Calva, Graciano Calva; Ariza-Castolo, Armando; Pérez-Vargas, Josefina; Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Expression systems based on plant cells, tissue, and organ cultures have been investigated as an alternative for production of human therapeutic proteins in bioreactors. In this work, hairy root cultures of Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) were established in an airlift with mesh bioreactor to produce isoform 1 of the human growth hormone (hGH1) as a model therapeutic protein. The hGH1 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA1105.1 binary vector to induce hairy roots in hypocotyls of broccoli plantlets via Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Most of the infected plantlets (90%) developed hairy roots when inoculated before the appearance of true leaves, and keeping the emerging roots attached to hypocotyl explants during transfer to solid Schenk and Hildebrandt medium. The incorporation of the cDNA into the hairy root genome was confirmed by PCR amplification from genomic DNA. The expression and structure of the transgenic hGH1 was assessed by ELISA, western blot, and MALDITOF-MS analysis of the purified protein extracted from the biomass of hairy roots cultivated in bioreactor for 24 days. Production of hGH1 was 5.1 ± 0.42 µg/g dry weight (DW) for flask cultures, and 7.8 ± 0.3 µg/g DW for bioreactor, with productivity of 0.68 ± 0.05 and 1.5 ± 0.06 µg/g DW*days, respectively, indicating that the production of hGH1 was not affected by the growth rate, but might be affected by the culture system. These results demonstrate that hairy root cultures of broccoli have potential as an alternative expression system for production of hGH1, and might also be useful for production of other therapeutic proteins.

  4. Cadmium Disrupts the Balance between Hydrogen Peroxide and Superoxide Radical by Regulating Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in the Root Tip of Brassica rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenjing; Yang, Lifei; Xu, Cunfa; Shi, Zhiqi; Shao, Jinsong; Xian, Ming; Chen, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Cd (cadmium) stress always alters the homeostasis of ROS (reactive oxygen species) including H2O2 (hydrogen sulfide) and O2•– (superoxide radical), leading to the oxidative injury and growth inhibition in plants. In addition to triggering oxidative injury, ROS has been suggested as important regulators modulating root elongation. However, whether and how Cd stress induces the inhibition of root elongation by differentially regulating endogenous H2O2 and O2•–, rather than by inducing oxidative injury, remains elusive. To address these gaps, histochemical, physiological, and biochemical approaches were applied to investigate the mechanism for Cd to fine-tune the balance between H2O2 and O2•– in the root tip of Brassica rapa. Treatment with Cd at 4 and 16 μM significantly inhibited root elongation, while only 16 μM but not 4 μM of Cd induced oxidative injury and cell death in root tip. Fluorescent and pharmaceutical tests suggested that H2O2 and O2•– played negative and positive roles, respectively, in the regulation of root elongation in the presence of Cd (4 μM) or not. Treatment with Cd at 4 μM led to the increase in H2O2 and the decrease in O2•– in root tip, which may be attributed to the up-regulation of Br_UPB1s and the down-regulation of their predicted targets (four peroxidase genes). Cd at 4 μM resulted in the increase in endogenous H2S in root tip by inducing the up-regulation of LCDs and DCDs. Treatment with H2S biosynthesis inhibitor or H2S scavenger significantly blocked Cd (4 μM)-induced increase in endogenous H2S level, coinciding with the recovery of root elongation, the altered balance between H2O2 and O2•–, and the expression of Br_UPB1s and two peroxidase genes. Taken together, it can be proposed that endogenous H2S mediated the phytotoxicity of Cd at low concentration by regulating Br_UPB1s-modulated balance between H2O2 and O2•– in root tip. Such findings shed new light on the regulatory role of endogenous H2S in

  5. Screening Brassica species for glucosinolate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Bomford, Michael; Vincelli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs), a group of compounds found in Brassica plants, are toxic to some soil-borne plant pathogens because of the toxicity of their hydrolysis products, isothiocyanates. Other phytochemicals found in Brassica plants, such as phenols and ascorbic acid, may compliment the activity of GSLs. A survey of Brassica accessions from the national germplasm repository was conducted to identify potential cover crops that could be soil-incorporated for use as biofumigants. Ten Brassica accessions that demonstrated relative cold tolerance, rapid maturity, and superior biomass production were selected. The selected accessions were grown under three climatic conditions (fall greenhouse, winter high tunnel, and spring field) to investigate whether growing conditions affect their GSL, phenol, and ascorbic acid content. The selected accessions included seven accessions of Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), one of Brassica napus (oil seed rape), one of Brassica campestris (field mustard), and one of Eruca sativa (arugula). Separation of GSLs from the selected Brassica accessions was achieved using ion-exchange sephadex in disposable pipette tips. Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of the endogenous thioglucosidase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSL molecule by addition of standardized thioglucosidase (myrosinase) and colorimetry. GSL concentration of greenhouse, high tunnel, and field-grown shoots (leaves and stems) averaged 24, 40 and 76 micromoles g(-1) fresh weight, respectively. Accessions of B. juncea generally had the highest GSL content. A comparison of accessions revealed that Ames 8887 of B. juncea contained the greatest GSL concentration, but had the lowest biomass yield and ascorbic acid concentration, in part because phytochemical concentration tended to be negatively correlated with biomass yield. More promising was B. juncea accession 'Pacific Gold' which coupled high biomass yield with above-average GSL production, but

  6. Evaluation on Genetic Diversity of Hybrid Parents Developed in Brassic napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ping-wu; ZHOU Guo-ling; YANG Guang-sheng; FU Ting-dong

    2003-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 50 Brassic napus varieties including 21 sterile lines, 16 restorer lines and 13 check cultivars was estimated by SSR and ISSR. The UPGMA results showed that 50 Brassica napus varieties were divided into 4 groups. The restorer lines tested were classified into groupsⅠ-Ⅲ respectively. The sterile lines tested were classified into groupⅣ. In addition, the sterile lines could be further divided into two subgroups: except 1471AB, all genic male sterile lines were in subgroupⅠ, 1471AB and all cytoplasmic male sterile lines were in the subgroupⅡ. The UPGMA results also indicated that the restorer lines had more genetic diversity than the sterile lines.

  7. The complete chloroplast genome of two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and B. Oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Young-Joo; Kim, Kyunghee; Kang, Sang-Ho; Perumal, Sampath; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Chang-Kug

    2017-03-01

    The two Brassica species, Brassica nigra and Brassica oleracea, are important agronomic crops. The chloroplast genome sequences were generated by de novo assembly using whole genome next-generation sequences. The chloroplast genomes of B. nigra and B. oleracea were 153 633 bp and 153 366 bp in size, respectively, and showed conserved typical chloroplast structure. The both chloroplast genomes contained a total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that B. oleracea is closely related to B. rapa and B. napus but B. nigra is more diverse than the neighbor species Raphanus sativus.

  8. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel P. Mourato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd-) induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots—this effect was more pronounced at 5 μM NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5 μM NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage. PMID:26078819

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Cadmium-Induced Cell Death through Restraining ROS Accumulation in Roots of Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a cell signal molecule produced endogenously and involved in regulation of tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants. In this work, we used molecular biology, physiology, and histochemical methods to investigate the effects of H2S on cadmium- (Cd- induced cell death in Chinese cabbage roots. Cd stress stimulated a rapid increase of endogenous H2S in roots. Additionally, root length was closely related to the cell death rate. Pretreatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a H2S donor, alleviated the growth inhibition caused by Cd in roots—this effect was more pronounced at 5 μM NaHS. Cd-induced cell death in roots was significantly reduced by 5 μM NaHS treatment. Under Cd stress, activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly enhanced in roots. NaHS + Cd treatment made their activities increase further compared with Cd exposure alone. Enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity led to a decline in reactive oxygen species accumulation and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, these effects were reversed by hydroxylamine, a H2S inhibitor. These results suggested that H2S alleviated the cell death caused by Cd via upregulation of antioxidant enzyme activities to remove excessive reactive oxygen species and reduce cell oxidative damage.

  11. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis and Localization of Exo70A1 Related to Self Incompatibility in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li; GE Ting-ting; PENG Hai-tao; WANG Cheng; LIU Tong-kun; HOU Xi-lin; LI Ying

    2013-01-01

    The exocyst is a conserved protein complex, and required for vesicles tethering, fusion and polarized exocytosis. Exo70A1, the exocyst subunit, is essential for assembly of the exocyst complex. To better understand potential roles of Exo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestrisssp. chinensis), we obtained the full-length cDNA ofExo70A1 gene, which consisted of 1917 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids. BlastX showed BcExo70A1 shared 94.9% identity with Brassica oleraceavar. acephala (AEI26267.1), and clustered into a same group with other homologues inB. oleracea var. acephala andBrassica napus. Subcellular localization analysis showed BcExo70A1 was localized to punctate structures in cytosol of onion epithelial cells. Results showed that BcExo70A1 was widely presented in stamens, young stems, petals, unpollinated pistils, roots and leaves of self compatible and incompatible plants. The transcripts ofBcExo70A1 in non-heading Chinese cabbage declined during initial 1.5 h after incompatible pollination, while an opposite trend was presented after compatible pollination. Our study reveals that BcExo70A1 could play essential roles in plant growth and development, and is related to the rejection of self pollen in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

  12. Production and cytogenetics of Brassica campestris-alboglabra chromosome addition lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B.Y.; Cheng, B.F.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke;

    1997-01-01

    Four different Brassica campestris-alboglabra monosomic addition lines (AA + 1 chromosome from C, 2n = 21) were obtained after consecutive backcrosses between resynthesized B. napus (AACC, 2n = 38) and the parental B. campestris (AA, 2n = 20) accession. The alien chromosomes of B. alboglabra (CC,...

  13. 模拟硫酸型、硝酸型及其混合型酸雨对油菜生理特性、生长和产量的影响%Effects of simulated sulfur-rich, nitric-rich and mixed acid rain on the physiology, growth and yield of rape (Brassica napus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麦博儒; 郑有飞; 吴荣军; 梁骏; 刘霞

    2010-01-01

    为了了解我国酸雨污染由硫酸型向硫-硝酸复合型转变所引起的环境效应,以油菜(Brassica napus)为供试材料,在大田试验条件下,系统研究了模拟硫酸型(SAR)、硝酸型(NAR)及其混合型(MAR)酸雨对农作物生理特性、生长和产量的影响.结果表明,3种酸雨胁迫均能抑制油菜生理、生长和产量形成,但不同类型的酸雨间的抑制效应存在差异.当pH≤4.1时,SAR、NAR、MAR能破坏油菜叶质膜系统、降低光合色素含量及光合速率,从而抑制作物的光合作用;当pH≤3.1时,油菜叶面积减小,叶受害百分率明显增加.pH=4.1可作为酸雨对油菜产量的影响阈值.在pH=7.0-1.5的酸度范围内,油菜叶片膜透性、丙二醛含量、叶受害百分率表现为NAR>MAR>SAR,光合速率、光合色素含量、叶面积及产量则表现出SAR>MAR>NAR的变化特征.当pH>4.1时,3种酸雨处理间差异均不明显,pH≤3.1时,3种酸雨间的胁迫效应差异显著增加(pMAR>SAR.说明NAR和MAR胁迫对油菜生理、生长及产量的抑制较大.

  14. Breeding and Appl ication of Restorer 2350C with pol CMS and Double-low in Brassica napus%甘蓝型油菜双低 pol CMS 恢复系2350C 的选育与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 李大雄; 罗莉斯; 曾兵

    2014-01-01

    Restorer 2350C with pol CMS,good comprehensive character,high quality and higher oil content was bred from the combination of restorer 5900C with pol CMS and double-low restorer Q16C with single-low and pol CMS by emasculation hybridization and subsequent orientation selection methods in 2009 to provide excellent restorers for three-line hybridization in Brassica napus L.The erucic acid, glucosinolate and oil contents of restorer 2350C with early maturity,strong resistance to diseases and higher combining ability are (0.50±0.12)%,(33.23±2.34)μmol/g and (42.36±0.67)% respectively. The three-line hybrid rape combinations with restorer 2350C were entered in National regional test and provincial regional tests successively,which indicates that restorer 2350C has good application prospect.%为了给三系杂交油菜新品种的选育提供优良恢复系,以双低 pol CMS 恢复系5900C 为母本、单低 pol CMS 恢复系 Q16C 为父本,采用去雄杂交和连续定向选择方法,于2009年成功转育成综合性状好、品质优、含油率较高的 pol CMS 恢复系2350C。该恢复系具有成熟期早、抗病能力强,较易配出强优组合的特点,其芥酸含量为(0.50±0.12)%,硫代葡萄糖甙含量为(33.23±2.34)μmol/g,含油率为(42.36±0.67)%,利用5900C 恢复系组配的三系杂交油菜组合已先后进入国家和贵州省油菜区域试验。

  15. Cloning and Characterization of Phospholipids:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase (BnPDAT1) cDNA from Brassica napus L.%甘蓝型油菜磷脂二酰甘油酰基转移酶(BnPDAT1)cDNA的克隆和功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭太龙; 冯韬; 罗海燕; 彭烨; 刘睿洋; 官春云

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipids:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT1) is a key enzyme in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis of plants. In this study, three novel PDAT1 coding sequences (CDSs) were isolated from cDNA of Brassica napus L. cv. Xiangyou 15 seeds, which were mapped to the chromosomes A02, A10, and C09, and designated as BnPDAT1-A02,BnPDAT1-A10, and BnPDAT1-C09, respectively. Three BnPDAT1 CDSs were 1998, 2002, and 2005 bp in length and encoded predicted proteins with 665, 666, and 667 amino acid residues, respectively. BnPDAT1 proteins were predicted to be located on the cell membrane and have a typical PDAT1 conserved domain. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of BnPDAT1 were highly homologous to previously reported PDAT1 inBrassica oleracea,Arabidopsis thalian, and Eruca sativa. Furthermore, the catalytic enzyme activity of the cloned BnPDAT1 genes was confirmed by the yeast comple-mentary experiment. The expression level of BnPDAT1s increased gradually in seed development and reached the maximum from 25 to 30 days after flowering. However, three BnPDAT1 copies were also found to be different in expression pattern.%磷脂二酰甘油酰基转移酶(phospholipids:diacylglycerol acyltransferase,PDAT1)是植物三酰甘油(triacylgly-cerol,TAG)合成的关键酶.本文在甘蓝型油菜湘油15号cDNA中克隆到3个PDAT1全长编码序列(coding sequence,CDS),经比对分别定位于A02、A10、C09染色体,分别命名为BnPDAT1-A02、BnPDAT1-A10和BnPDAT1-C09,其序列长分别为1998、2002和2005 bp,各自编码665、666、667个氨基酸.预测BnPDAT1基因编码蛋白定位于细胞质膜,具有典型的PDAT1保守结构域.多序列比对和进化分析表明,BnPDAT1基因编码蛋白与甘蓝、拟南芥、亚麻芥PDAT1蛋白具有较高的同源性.酵母互补实验证实,该基因编码蛋白具有PDAT1酶活性.BnPDAT1基因在湘油15号中的表达现先上升后降低趋势,在开花后25

  16. Genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in the sequenced Brassica crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiaqin; Huang, Shunmou; Zhan, Jiepeng; Yu, Jingyin; Wang, Xinfa; Hua, Wei; Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Although much research has been conducted, the pattern of microsatellite distribution has remained ambiguous, and the development/utilization of microsatellite markers has still been limited/inefficient in Brassica, due to the lack of genome sequences. In view of this, we conducted genome-wide microsatellite characterization and marker development in three recently sequenced Brassica crops: Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and Brassica napus. The analysed microsatellite characteristics of these Brassica species were highly similar or almost identical, which suggests that the pattern of microsatellite distribution is likely conservative in Brassica. The genomic distribution of microsatellites was highly non-uniform and positively or negatively correlated with genes or transposable elements, respectively. Of the total of 115 869, 185 662 and 356 522 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed with high frequencies (408.2, 343.8 and 356.2 per Mb or one every 2.45, 2.91 and 2.81 kb, respectively), most represented new SSR markers, the majority had determined physical positions, and a large number were genic or putative single-locus SSR markers. We also constructed a comprehensive database for the newly developed SSR markers, which was integrated with public Brassica SSR markers and annotated genome components. The genome-wide SSR markers developed in this study provide a useful tool to extend the annotated genome resources of sequenced Brassica species to genetic study/breeding in different Brassica species.

  17. Infestation of Polish Agricultural Soils by Plasmodiophora Brassicae Along The Polish-Ukrainian Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędryczka Małgorzata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid, worldwide increase in oilseed rape production that has resulted in enormous intensification of oilseed rape cultivation, leading to tight rotations. This in turn, has caused an accumulation of pests as well as foliar and soil-borne diseases. Recently, clubroot has become one of the biggest concerns of oilseed rape growers. Clubroot is caused by the soil-borne protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin. The pathogen may be present in groundwater, lakes, and irrigation water used in sprinkling systems. It can be easily transmitted from one field to another not only by water, but also by soil particles and dust transmitted by wind and on machinery. The aim of our overall study was to check for P. brassicae infestation of Polish agricultural soils. This paper presents the 2012 results of a study performed along the Polish-Ukrainian border in two provinces: Lublin (Lubelskie Voivodeship and the Carpathian Foothills (Podkarpackie Voivodeship, in south-east Poland. Monitoring was done in 11 counties, including nine rural and two municipal ones. In total, 40 samples were collected, out of which 36 were collected from fields located in rural areas and four from municipal areas, with two per municipal region. Each sample was collected at 8-10 sites per field, using a soil auger. The biotest to detect the presence of P. brassicae was done under greenhouse conditions using seedlings of the susceptible Brassicas: B. rapa ssp. pekinensis and the Polish variety of oilseed rape B. napus cv. Monolit. Susceptible plants grown in heavily infested soils produced galls on their roots. A county was regarded as free from the pathogen, if none of the bait plants became infected. The pathogen was found in three out of 40 fields monitored (7.5% in the Carpathian Foothill region. The fields were located in two rural counties. The pathogen was not found in Lublin province, and was also not detected in any of the municipal counties. The detection with

  18. A Phylogenetic Analysis of Chloroplast Genomes Elucidates the Relationships of the Six Economically Important Brassica Species Comprising the Triangle of U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peirong; Zhang, Shujiang; Li, Fei; Zhang, Shifan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Sun, Rifei; Bonnema, Guusje; Borm, Theo J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The Brassica genus comprises many economically important worldwide cultivated crops. The well-established model of the Brassica genus, U’s triangle, consists of three basic diploid plant species (Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea, and Brassica nigra) and three amphidiploid species (Brassica napus, Brassica juncea, and Brassica carinata) that arose through interspecific hybridizations. Despite being extensively studied because of its commercial relevance, several aspects of the origin of the Brassica species and the relationships within and among these six species still remain open questions. Here, we successfully de novo assembled 60 complete chloroplast genomes of Brassica genotypes of all six species. A complete map of the single nucleotide variants and insertions and deletions in the chloroplast genomes of different Brassica species was produced. The chloroplast genome consists of a Large and a Small Single Copy (LSC and SSC) region between two inverted repeats, and while these regions of chloroplast genomes have very different molecular evolutionary rates, phylogenetic analyses of different regions yielded no contradicting topologies and separated the Brassica genus into four clades. B. carinata and B. juncea share their chloroplast genome with one of their hybridization donors B. nigra and B. rapa, respectively, which fits the U model. B. rapa, surprisingly, shows evidence of two types of chloroplast genomes, with one type specific to some Italian broccoletto accessions. B. napus clearly has evidence for two independent hybridization events, as it contains either B. rapa chloroplast genomes. The divergence estimation suggests that B. nigra and B. carinata diverged from the main Brassica clade 13.7 million years ago (Mya), while B. rapa and B. oleracea diverged at 2.18 Mya. The use of the complete chloroplast DNA sequence not only provides insights into comparative genome analysis but also paves the way for a better understanding of the phylogenetic

  19. Modeling of Biomass-Based Leaf Morphological Parameters on Main Stem for Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)%基于生物量的油菜主茎叶片形态参数模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文宇; 张伟欣; 葛道阔; 曹宏鑫; 刘岩; 宣守丽; 傅坤亚; 冯春焕; 陈魏涛

    2015-01-01

    为了定量油菜主茎叶片形态参数与生物量间的关系,本研究基于2011—2012年和2012—2013年不同品种、移栽密度及施肥水平油菜田间试验,通过观测不同品种和处理油菜叶片长、最大叶宽和叶柄长等形态参数,并分析了上述参数与叶片生物量的关系,构建了基于生物量的油菜叶长、最大叶宽和叶柄长模型。结果表明,在全生育期,不同品种和处理下油菜主茎叶长和最大叶宽均与叶片生物量的平方根成正比,而叶柄长与叶长成正比。所建模型利用截距为0的线性函数描述叶长和最大叶宽随生物量平方根的变化,用直线式描述叶柄长随叶长的变化。经独立试验资料检验,除宁油16叶柄长模型误差较大外,所建模型对其余形态参数均具有较好预测性,为通过生物量将油菜生长模型与形态结构模型结合提供了机理性较强的方法,为建立油菜功能-结构模型奠定了基础。%To quantify the relationships between main stem leaf morphological parameters for rapeseed and the corresponding leaf biomass, we conducted field experiments on varieties, transplanting densities, and fertilizer in 2011 to 2012, and 2012 to 2013 seasons. The biomass-based leaf morphological parameter models for rapeseed on main stem were constructed through observing leaf length, maximum leaf width, and leaf petiole length under various treatments, and analyzing the relationships between leaf morphological parameters and the corresponding leaf biomass. Because both of the leaf length and leaf width were positively proportional to the square root of the corresponding leaf biomass, meanwhile the leaf petiole length was positively proportional to the corresponding leaf length, the changes in the leaf length, the maximum leaf width, and the leaf petiole length with the changed of square root of the corresponding leaf biomass for different treatments could be described with linear

  20. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  1. 甘蓝型油菜小孢子培养影响因素研究及再生苗早期倍性鉴定%Factors Affecting Microspore Embryogenesis and Early Ploidy Level Determination of Regenerated Plants in Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米哲; 李云昌; 梅德圣; 李英德; 徐育松; 陈玉峰; 胡琼

    2011-01-01

    The breeding materials of Brassica napus grown in different ecological regions and years were used to determine their microspore embryogenesis capacity. The microspores of 11 genotypes grown in field condition of Wuhan, Hubei Province, were isolated at different flowering stages and cultured. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of genotype, ecological condition and sampling time on microspore embryogenesis, as well as the colchi-cine treatment on chromosome doubling of regenerated seedlings. Ploidy level of regenerated plants was determined according to DNA content measured by flow cytometric analysis and confirmed by field observation. The results showed that the microspore embryogenesis was significantly different among the genotypes and in different ecological conditions. The plants sown in the summer in Xining,Qinghai Province,had significantly higher microspore embryogenesis than those sown in the spring in Wuhan, Hubei Province. The microspores isolated at early flowering stage (1-3 days) gave rise to significantly higher embryogenesis than those isolated at full flowering stage (12 -15 days after flowering). The treatment of 50 mg/L colchicine directly on isolated microspores for 24 h could significantly increase the number of diploids in regenerated plants. The spontaneous chromosome doubling rate of regenerated plants ranged from 8. 62% to 20. 88% for different genotypes, whereas the colchicine treatment could raise the chromosome doubling rate to 60% -11.59% . The ploidy level of regenerated plants determined by flow cytometry was consistent with the result observed in the field, so the flow cytometry provided a useful means for early dihaploid discrimination of microspore-derived plants.%对不同年份、不同地点种植的油菜育种材料进行小孢子产胚率鉴定,并以11种不同基因型的甘蓝型油菜品系为供体材料,在武汉田间,分别于初花期和盛花期分离培养小孢子,研究基因型、生态条件

  2. Root Uptake of Lipophilic Zinc−Rhamnolipid Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, Samuel P.; McLaughlin, Michael J.; Cakmak, Ismail; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Karkkainen, Michael (Sabanci); (EPA); (CSIRO/LW); (Adelaide)

    2009-06-16

    This study investigated the formation and plant uptake of lipophilic metal-rhamnolipid complexes. Monorhamnosyl and dirhamnosyl rhamnolipids formed lipophilic complexes with copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). Rhamnolipids significantly increased Zn absorption by Brassica napus var. Pinnacle roots in {sup 65}Zn-spiked ice-cold solutions, compared with ZnSO{sub 4} alone. Therefore, rhamnolipid appeared to facilitate Zn absorption via a nonmetabolically mediated pathway. Synchrotron XRF and XAS showed that Zn was present in roots as Zn-phytate-like compounds when roots were treated with Zn-free solutions, ZnSO{sub 4}, or Zn-EDTA. With rhamnolipid application, Zn was predominantly found in roots as the Zn-rhamnolipid complex. When applied to a calcareous soil, rhamnolipids increased dry matter production and Zn concentrations in durum (Triticum durum L. cv. Balcali-2000) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. BDME-10) shoots. Rhamnolipids either increased total plant uptake of Zn from the soil or increased Zn translocation by reducing the prevalence of insoluble Zn-phytate-like compounds in roots.

  3. Nano titania aided clustering and adhesion of beneficial bacteria to plant roots to enhance crop growth and stress management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmqvist, N. G. M.; Bejai, S.; Meijer, J.; Seisenbaeva, G. A.; Kessler, V. G.

    2015-05-01

    A novel use of Titania nanoparticles as agents in the nano interface interaction between a beneficial plant growth promoting bacterium (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113) and oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) for protection against the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicae is presented. Two different TiO2 nanoparticle material were produced by the Sol-Gel approach, one using the patented Captigel method and the other one applying TiBALDH precursor. The particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering and nano particle tracking analysis. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacterium was living in clusters on the roots and the combined energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that titanium was present in these cluster formations. Confocal laser scanning microscopy further demonstrated an increased bacterial colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and a semi-quantitative microscopic assay confirmed an increased bacterial adhesion to the roots. An increased amount of adhered bacteria was further confirmed by quantitative fluorescence measurements. The degree of infection by the fungus was measured and quantified by real-time-qPCR. Results showed that Titania nanoparticles increased adhesion of beneficial bacteria on to the roots of oilseed rape and protected the plants against infection.

  4. Nano titania aided clustering and adhesion of beneficial bacteria to plant roots to enhance crop growth and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmqvist, N G M; Bejai, S; Meijer, J; Seisenbaeva, G A; Kessler, V G

    2015-01-01

    A novel use of Titania nanoparticles as agents in the nano interface interaction between a beneficial plant growth promoting bacterium (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113) and oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) for protection against the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicae is presented. Two different TiO2 nanoparticle material were produced by the Sol-Gel approach, one using the patented Captigel method and the other one applying TiBALDH precursor. The particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering and nano particle tracking analysis. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacterium was living in clusters on the roots and the combined energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed that titanium was present in these cluster formations. Confocal laser scanning microscopy further demonstrated an increased bacterial colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots and a semi-quantitative microscopic assay confirmed an increased bacterial adhesion to the roots. An increased amount of adhered bacteria was further confirmed by quantitative fluorescence measurements. The degree of infection by the fungus was measured and quantified by real-time-qPCR. Results showed that Titania nanoparticles increased adhesion of beneficial bacteria on to the roots of oilseed rape and protected the plants against infection.

  5. Mobilization and Acquisition of Sparingly Soluble P-Sources by Brassica Cultivars under P-Starved Environment Ⅱ. Rhizospheric pH changes, Redesigned Root Architecture and Pi-Uptake Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Shahbaz Akhtar; Yoko Oki; Tadashi Adachi

    2009-01-01

    Non-mycorrhizal Brassica does not produce specialized root structures such as cluster or dauciform roots but is an effective user of P compared with other crops. In addition to P-uptake, utilization and remobilization activity, acquisition of orthophosphate (Pi) from extracellular sparingly P-sources or unavailable bound P-forms can be enhanced by biochemical rescue mechanisms such copious H~+-efflux and/or carboxylates exudation into rhizosphere by roots via plasmalemma H~+ ATPase and anion channels triggered by P-starvation. To visualize the dissolution of sparingly soluble Ca-phosphate (Ca-P), newly formed Ca-P was suspended in agar containing other essential nutrients. With NH_4~+ applied as the N source, the precipitate dissolved in the root vicinity can be ascribed to rhizosphere acidification, whereas no dissolution occurred with nitrate nutrition. To observe in situ rhizospheric pH changes, images were recorded after embedding the roots in agar containing bromocresol purple as a pH indicator. P-tolerant cultivar showed a greater decrease in pH than the sensitive cultivar in the culture media (the appearance of typical patterns of various colors of pH indicator in the root vicinity), and at stress P-level this acidification was more prominent. In experiment 2, low P-tolerant class-Ⅰ cultivars (Oscar and Con-Ⅱ) showed a greater decrease in solution media pH than low P-sensitive class-Ⅱ (Gold Rush and RL-18) cultivars, and P-contents of the cultivars was inversely related to decrease in culture media pH. To elucidate P-stressinduced remodeling and redesigning in a root architectural system, cultivars were grown in rhizoboxes in experiment 3.The elongation rates of primary roots increased as P-supply increased, but the elongation rates of the branched zones of primary roots decreased. The length of the lateral roots and topological index values increased when cultivars were exposed to a P-stress environment. To elucidate Pi-uptake kinetics, parameters

  6. Bee assemblage in habitats associated with Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Halinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAssessments in agricultural crops indicate that alterations in the landscape adjacent to the crops can result in reduced productivity due to loss or low abundance of pollinating agents. In the canola crop, production is partially dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, knowledge of the faunal diversity within and near crop fields is key for the management of these insects and consequently for the increase in productivity. This study aimed to determine and compare the diversity of bees in habitats associated with canola fields in southern Brazil. Bees were captured in four agricultural areas using pan traps in three habitat classes: (1 flowering canola crop, (2 forest remnant, and (3 grassland vegetation. The highest abundance of bees was observed in the grassland vegetation (50% and in the flowering canola field (47%. Eight species common to the three habitat classes were recorded, four of which are represented by native social bees. In addition, a single or a few individuals represented species that were exclusive to a specific habitat class; eight species were collected exclusively in the interior of the canola field, 51 in the grassland vegetation, and six in the forest remnant. The majority of the rare species recorded exhibits subsocial or solitary behaviour and inhabit open places. The composition of bee groups differed between the habitats showing the importance of maintaining habitat mosaics with friendly areas for pollinators, which promote the pollination service for canola flowers.

  7. 3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, P S; Kekwick, R G; Smith, C G; Sidebottom, C; Slabas, A R

    1992-04-01

    3-Oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase (E.C. 1.1.1.100, alternatively known as beta-ketoacyl-[ACP] reductase), a component of fatty acid synthetase has been purified from seeds of rape by ammonium sulphate fractionation, Procion Red H-E3B chromatography, FPLC gel filtration and high performance hydroxyapatite chromatography. The purified enzyme appears on SDS-PAGE as a number of 20-30 kDa components and has a strong tendency to exist in a dimeric form, particularly when dithiothreitol is not present to reduce disulphide bonds. Cleveland mapping and cross-reactivity with antiserum raised against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase both indicate that the multiple components have similar primary structures. On gel filtration the enzyme appears to have a molecular mass of 120 kDa suggesting that the native structure is tetrameric. The enzyme has a strong preference for the acetoacetyl ester of acyl carrier protein (Km = 3 microM) over the corresponding esters of the model substrates N-acetyl cysteamine (Km = 35 mM) and CoA (Km = 261 microM). It is inactivated by dilution but this can be partly prevented by the inclusion of NADPH. Using an antiserum prepared against avocado 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase, the enzyme has been visualised inside the plastids of rape embryo and leaf tissues by immunoelectron microscopy. Amino acid sequencing of two peptides prepared by digestion of the purified enzyme with trypsin showed strong similarities with 3-oxoacyl-[ACP] reductase from avocado pear and the Nod G gene product from Rhizobium meliloti.

  8. Rhizosphere competent Mesorhizobiumloti MP6 induces root hair curling, inhibits Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and enhances growth of Indian mustard (Brassica campestris Mesorhizobium loti MP6 rizosférico competente induz encurvamento do pelo daraiz, inibe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e estimula o crescimento de mostarda indiana (Brassica campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Chandra

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial strain Mesorhizobium loti MP6, isolated from root nodules of Mimosa pudica induced growth and yield of Brassica campestris. The isolate MP6 secreted hydroxamate type siderophore in Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS agar medium. Production of hydrocyanic acid (HCN, indole acetic acid (IAA and phosphate solubilizing ability was also recorded under normal growth conditions. Root hair curling was observed through simple glass-slide technique. In vitro study showed a significant increase in population of M. loti MP6 in rhizosphere due to root exudates of B. campestris. In dual culture technique the strain showed a strong antagonistic effect against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a white rot pathogen of Brassica campestris. The growth of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 75% after prolonged incubation. Efficient root colonization of mustard seedlings was confirmed by using a streptomycin-resistant marker M. loti MP6strep+. The M. loti MP6 coated seeds proved enhanced seed germination, early vegetative growth and grain yield as compared to control. Also, a drastic decline (99% in the incidence of white rot was observed due to application of M. loti MP6.A cepa bacteriana Mesorhizobium loti MP6 isolada de nódulos de raiz de Mimosa pudica induziu o crescimento e o rendimento de Brassica campestris. A cepa MP6 secretou sideróforo do tipo hidroxamato em meio sólido Chrom-Azurol Siderophore (CAS. Em condições normais de crescimento, a cepa foi também capaz de produzir de ácido cianídrico (HCN e acido indolacético (AIA e solubilizar fosfato. O encurvamento do pelo da raiz foi observado usando a simples técnica de lâmina e lamínula. Estudos in vitro mostraram um aumento significativo na população de M. loti MP6 na rizosfera devido aos exsudatos de B. campestris. Empregando-se técnica de co-cultura, a cepa mostrou um grande efeito antagônico contra o fungo Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, o patógeno da podridão branca de Brassica campestris. Ap

  9. Cytoplasmic male sterility and inter and intra subgenomic heterosis studies in Brassica species: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameeh Valiollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Brassica comprise a remarkably diverse group of crops and encompass varieties that are grown as oilseeds, vegetables, condiment mustards and forages. One of the basic requirements for developing hybrid varieties in oilseed Brassica is the availability of proven heterosis. The development of hybrid cultivars has been successful in many Brassica spp. Midparent heterosis and high-parent heterosis (heterobeltiosis have extensively been explored and utilized for boosting various quantity and quality traits in rapeseed. Heterosis is commercially exploited in rapeseed and its potential use has been demonstrated in turnip rape (B. rapa L. and Indian mustard (B. juncea L. for seed yield and most of the agronomic traits. The oilseed rape plant, B. napus, possesses two endogenous male sterile cytoplasms, nap and pol. Ogura type of cytoplasmic male sterility was first discovered in Japanese wild radish and other male-sterile Brassicas (Ogura bearing cytoplasm derived from interspecific crosses. Information concerning the allelic frequencies of restorers can be useful in trying to understand their evolutionary origins. The ogu, pol and nap cytoplasms of B. napus induce sterility in all, some, and only a few cultivars, respectively. In this study, different kinds of male sterility, combining ability and heterosis of qualitative and quantitative traits in different Brassica species will be reviеwed.

  10. Correlation Analysis Between Heterosis and Genetic Distance Evaluated by Genome-Wide SNP Chip inBrassica napus%利用全基因组SNP芯片分析油菜遗传距离与杂种优势的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑世飞; 王会; 梅德圣; 刘佳; 付丽; 王军; 汪文祥; 胡琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective] To investigate the feasibility of heterosis prediction by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in rapeseed, the 60K SNP chip covering the whole genome ofBrassica napus was used to estimate the genetic distance (GD) of elite parental lines ofB. napus, and the correlation between GD and heterosis was analyzed for the guidance of hybrid development of rapeseed.[Method] Forty-six F1 hybrids were produced using six maintainer lines (1019B, 1055B, 6098B, 8908B, 6019B and ZS11B) and eight restorer lines (R1, R2, R3, R6, R9, R10, R11 and OR1) of Polima cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in an incomplete diallel cross design. All the parents and F1s were grown in three different ecological conditions which are located in Wuhan, Guiyang, and Chaohu. Ten yield-related traits including plant height (PH), branch height (BH), number of effective primary branches (NEPB), silique density (SD), effective length of main inflorescence (ELMI), number of effective siliques on main inflorescence (ESMI), number of effective siliques per plant (ESPP), seed per silique (SPS), 1 000-seed weight (TSW) and yield per plant (YPP) were investigated for mid-parent heterosis and high-parent heterosis. The 14 parental lines were genotyped by 60K SNP chip ofBrassicas. GD based on SNP genotyping was estimated with MEGA5.0 software, and cluster analysis was carried out using unweighted pair group method arithmetic averages (UPGMA) method. Correlation analysis between GD and heterosis was conducted by SAS9.1 statistical analysis software.[Result]There were 40 201 loci selected from 52 157 SNP loci as being effective for genetic distance calculation and cluster analysis after quality determination. GDs of the 14 parental lines ranged from 0.1883 to 0.8811, with an average of 0.5217. The GD between 6098B and 6019B was the smallest and that between ZS11B and R6 was the largest. The parental lines were divided into four groups, with six maintainers in one big group, four restorer lines R2

  11. The effect of new chemical hybridizing agent SX-1 on Brassica napus L. in two ecological regions%化学杂交剂SX-1对不同生态区甘蓝型油菜的杀雄效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦世豪; 田建华; 李永红; 张耀文; 李殿荣; 董育红; 任军荣; 姚雪雁

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The effect of new chemical hybridizing Agent SX-1 on Brassica napus L.was studied in two different ecological regions.【Method】 In order to study the influence of SX-1 on the rapeseed growth,inducing male sterility,agronomic traits and yield in the different ecological regions and the different mass concentrations,pure water selected was as control,chemical hybridizing agent SX-1 with four different mass concentrations were sprayed two times on rapeseed lines YD66A and Cn10 in winter rapeseed region and spring rapeseed region.The first spraying occured when pollen mother cell of maximum bud blossom entered monocyte stage,and the second spraying was done 10-15 days later.【Result】 Treated with A2(6.0 mg/L+7.0 mg/L)and B2(6.5 mg/L+7 mg/L)of SX-1 in two ecological regions,YD66A and Cn10 have the sterile rates of 98.11%,100%,100% and 100%,respectively.Moreover,the sterile plants have some good characteristics,such as no negative reaction to SX-1,leaf color becomes weaker,stem color is light purple,little inhibition for plant growth,plant height and the length of main inflorescence are reduced,the number of silique and yield per plant increase a little,and so on.【Conclusion】 With the concentration of(6.0 mg/L+7.0 mg/L)in rapeseed spring region and the concentration of(6.5 mg/L+7 mg/L)in rapeseed winter region,both spayings of SX-1 have good effect on inducing male sterility.%【目的】研究在不同生态区化学杂交剂SX-1对甘蓝型油菜的杀雄效果。【方法】在冬油菜区和春油菜区分别采用4个不同质量浓度的化学杂交剂SX-1,对YD66A和Cn10 2个甘蓝型油菜品种(系)进行2次喷施杀雄处理,第1次喷施在油菜最大花蕾的花粉母细胞进入单核期时进行,第2次喷施在第1次喷施后10~15d内进行,以喷施等量清水为对照,研究在不同生态区喷施SX-1的杀雄效果,并探讨其对油菜生长发育、农艺性状和产量的影响。

  12. Effect of different boron fertilizers on seed yield and seed quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and their residual effectiveness for rotated rice%不同硼肥对油菜产量和品质的影响及其在油稻轮作中的后效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣; 石桃雄; 武际; 鲁剑巍; 石磊; 徐芳森

    2011-01-01

    通过盆栽土培和田间试验,研究两种具有缓释特性的硼肥Etibor-48(Na2B4O7·5H2O,EB)和Colemanite (Ca2B6O11·5H2O,CB)对油菜产量和品质的影响及其在油稻轮作中的后效.盆栽试验结果表明,EB和CB各处理第一季油菜产量显著高于不施硼处理(-B),与硼砂处理(B)比较也有较大提高;安徽广德田间试验结果与盆栽试验结果一致.第二季水稻,盆栽试验各施硼处理产量均有不同程度的增加,但田间试验点,安徽广德和湖北荆州各施硼处理水稻产量与不施硼处理没有显著差异.盆栽试验第三季油菜各处理产量较第一季显著降低;各施硼处理产量无显著差异,但均显著高于不施硼处理.安徽田间试验EB和CB处理第三季油菜子产量仍显著高于不施硼处理,其中CB处理产量最高;而裂区试验,第三季各施硼处理产量没有显著差异,较相对应的不施硼处理油菜子产量均有增加.湖北和安徽田间试验结果并不完全一致,与湖北荆州试验点土壤有效硼含量较高有关.缺硼土壤施硼能够提高油菜产量并改善油菜品质,但对水稻品质影响不大.研究结果能够为长江中下游地区油稻轮作系统中不同硼肥的合理高效施用提供依据.%The effects of two kinds of boron (B) slow-release fertilizers, Etibor-48 (EB; Na2B4O7 · 5H2O) and Colemanite (CB; Ca2B6O11 · 5H2O), on seed yield and seed quality of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and their residual effectiveness for rotated rice were investigated in pot culture experiments and field trials, respectively.Seed yield of oilseed rape in the EB and CB treatments was significantly higher than that in the absence of boron (-B), and higher than that of borax treatment (B) for the first crop. Field trial results of the first crop ( oilseed rape) in Anhui province, China, were consistent with those of the pot culture experiments. Grain yield of the second crop (rice) in all B fertilizer treatments was

  13. Effects of Nitrogen Application on Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization of Direct Sowing Rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) in Paddy Rice Field%施氮对稻茬直播油菜扬油6号氮素吸收与利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐瑶; 左青松; 冷锁虎; 刘荣; 葛云龙; 徐波; 李苗苗; 胡宇杰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究施氨量对油菜(Brassica napus L)氮素吸收与利用的影响,为稻茬直播油菜精确定量施用氮肥提供理论和实践依据.[方法]以甘蓝型双低油菜品种扬油6号为材料,测定不同施氮处理(0、45、90、135、180、225、270、315和360 kg/hm2)初花期和成熟期各器官干重和氮素含量.[结果]油菜氮素吸收量和氮素利用率随施氮量的增加均呈先增加后减少的趋势,满足二次曲线关系.当施氮量低于110 kg/hm2时,随着施氮量的增加油菜对氮素的吸收量和利用率都呈增加的趋势;当施氮量在110~315 kg/hm2时,随着施氮量的增加氮吸收量仍呈增加的趋势,但氮素利用率已呈下降的趋势;当氮施用量超过315 kg/hm2时,随施氮量的增加二者均呈下降趋势.籽粒产量与施氮量之间呈二次曲线关系,获得最高产量的施氮量为278 kg/hm2.施氮量为278 kg/hm2时的氮素吸收量和利用率分别为209.90 kg/hm2和20.01g(籽粒)/g(N),与最大氮素吸收量211.78 kg/hm2和最高氮素利用率20.88 g(籽粒)/g(N)相比,获得最高产量时的氮素吸收量和氮素利用率分别下降0.8%和4.17%.[结论]油菜达到最大氮素吸收量和最大氮素利用率的施氮量分别为315和110 kg/hm2.施氮量为278 kg/hm2能较好地协调油菜对氮素吸收和利用的关系并取得最高的籽粒产量.%[Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of nitrogen application amount on nitrogen absorption and utilization of rapeseed,and provide a theoretical and practical basis for the precise and quantitative nitrogen fertilization of direct sowing rapeseed in paddy rice field. [ Method ] The dry weight and nitrogen content of double low rapeseed variety Yangyou No. 6 were measured at beginning flower and maturity stage under different nitrogen application treatmems(0,45,90,135,180,225,270,315 and 360 kg/hm2). [Result] With nitrogen application amount increasing, nitrogen absorption amount and

  14. The Acquisition and Expression Analysis of Polygalacturonase Gene MF6 Related to the Fertility ofBrassica napus L.%油菜育性相关多聚半乳糖醛酸酶基因MF6的获得及表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣仙; 唐志康; 郭世星; 牛应泽

    2012-01-01

    本研究目的在于利用化学杀雄剂“化杀灵WP1”锈导甘蓝型油菜R121产生雄性不育,并对花蕾中的差异表达基因进行分离、筛选及定量表达分析.首先,通过抑制消减杂交技术(SSH)和反向Northern斑点杂交技术,分离和筛选出在雄性不育花蕾中差异表达的基因片段.然后,将差异片段测序后在NCBI数据库中进行同源性比对及功能分析.最后,对差异表达基因进行反转录荧光定量表达(RT-QPCR)分析.本研究从筛选出来的6个阳性克隆中获得一个与多聚半乳糖醛酸酶基因(MF6) 100%同源的基因片段,该基因被认为与花粉生长发育及花粉成熟密切相关.对MF6基因在不同长度及不同育性花蕾中的表达量进行了定量分析,结果显示,MF6基因在雄性可育花蕾中的表达量均高于雄性不育花蕾,且在蕾长1.00 mm~1.50 mm和3.50 mm~4.00mm时分别达到了18.53倍和43.15倍的差异.因此,我们推测“化杀灵WP1”主要通过抑制花粉母细胞减数分裂时期中MF6基因的表达,使花粉产生败育:同时,MF6基因的表达可能也与花丝的伸长生长有关.%The purpose of this study is to analyze the differentially expressed genes in the buds of male sterile plants which were induced by a male sterilizing chemical" Hua-Sha-Ling WP1" in Brassica napus L. Rl 21. First, we isolated the differentially expressed gene fragments from the male sterile buds through the suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) and the reverse northern dot blotting. Then, homology comparisons and functional analysis were conducted through online database NCBI. Finally, the differentially expressed gene was further analyzed through reverse transcription quantitative PCR. In the results, we obtained a gene fragment which is 100% homologous to the gene of polygalacturonase (MF6) in Arabidopsis from the 6 positive clones. It has been reported that the polygalacturonase gene (MF6) is closely related to the development

  15. Plant defence responses in oilseed rape MINELESS plants after attack by the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ishita; van Dam, Nicole Marie; Winge, Per; Trælnes, Marianne; Heydarova, Aysel; Rohloff, Jens; Langaas, Mette; Bones, Atle Magnar

    2015-02-01

    The Brassicaceae family is characterized by a unique defence mechanism known as the 'glucosinolate-myrosinase' system. When insect herbivores attack plant tissues, glucosinolates are hydrolysed by the enzyme myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) into a variety of degradation products, which can deter further herbivory. This process has been described as 'the mustard oil bomb'. Additionally, insect damage induces the production of glucosinolates, myrosinase, and other defences. Brassica napus seeds have been genetically modified to remove myrosinase-containing myrosin cells. These plants are termed MINELESS because they lack myrosin cells, the so-called toxic mustard oil mines. Here, we examined the interaction between B. napus wild-type and MINELESS plants and the larvae of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae. No-choice feeding experiments showed that M. brassicae larvae gained less weight and showed stunted growth when feeding on MINELESS plants compared to feeding on wild-type plants. M. brassicae feeding didn't affect myrosinase activity in MINELESS plants, but did reduce it in wild-type seedlings. M. brassicae feeding increased the levels of indol-3-yl-methyl, 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl, and total glucosinolates in both wild-type and MINELESS seedlings. M. brassicae feeding affected the levels of glucosinolate hydrolysis products in both wild-type and MINELESS plants. Transcriptional analysis showed that 494 and 159 genes were differentially regulated after M. brassicae feeding on wild-type and MINELESS seedlings, respectively. Taken together, the outcomes are very interesting in terms of analysing the role of myrosin cells and the glucosinolate-myrosinase defence system in response to a generalist cabbage moth, suggesting that similar studies with other generalist or specialist insect herbivores, including above- and below-ground herbivores, would be useful.

  16. Changes of Protective Enzymes and Accumulation of Polyamines Induced by Boron Deficiency in Roots of Rape Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOFENGHUI

    1998-01-01

    The effects of boron deficiency on the membrane permeability,the lipid peroxidation of membrane ,the activities of the protective enzymes and the accumulation of polyamines in the roots of rape (Brassica napus L.cv Zhongyou 821)plants were examined using solution culture experiment .Compared to the 20 mmol B m-3 treatment ,boron-deficient treatment( 2 mmol B m-3) decreased root dry weight and increased the rate of solute leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the roots of rape.Similar patterns of change were observed in the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA concentration) and the rate of solute leakage under boron deficiency.Results suggested that a signifcant alteration of membrane composition had occurred under B deficiency.The concentration of putrescin and the ration of putrescine to spermidine +spermine in the roots of rape increaed significantly,and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased in the roots of rape during B deficiency,But peroxidase activity in root of B-defcient plant was higher than that of control plant.

  17. Change of 3 Kinds of Enzyme Activity and Soluble Sugar in 3 Chinese Cabbage Varieties with Different Resistance Level During the Process of Plasmodiophora brassicae lnfecting Their Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuohua REN; Hu ZHOU; Xiaoli HUANG; Qiong SONG; Minjie LlU; Erming LlU

    2015-01-01

    There are different levels of resistance in Chinese cabbage varieties a-gainst clubroot. The content of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanin am-monia-lyase (PAL), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and soluble sugar activities of 3 cultivars with different clubroot-resistant levelswere detected after inoculation in this study. The results suggest that the changing rates of CAT, PAL and SOD contents of resistance cultivars after inoculation were higher than those of susceptible culti-vars (Baigengbaiye > Zaobaicaitai > Huangjinxiaobaicai); the POD activities of resis-tance cultivars reached a peak on an earlier day than those of susceptible cultivars;the increasing rate of soluble sugar of susceptible cultivars was higher than that of the resistance cultivars, and ended with two peaks. Therefore, the four enzymes (CAT, POD, PAL and SOD) and soluble sugar may be used as physiological and biochemical reference indexes for the resistance identification to clubroot after inoc-ulation with P. brassicae.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis on SLG and SRK Genes in Brassica and Raphanus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yu-tang; MA Chao-zhi; FU Ting-dong; TU Jin-xing

    2005-01-01

    S-locus genes were cloned from three Brassica napus and three B. campestris lines by using PCR walking and homologue sequence methods. A phylogenetic gene tree was constructed based on the six cloned genes and fifty-one previously reported SLG/SRK genes of Brassica and Raphanus. The SLGs from R. sativus were dispersed in the phylogenetic tree intermingling with SLG/SRKs from B. oleracea, B. napus and B. campestris. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅱ clustered independently in one group. The SLG/SRK genes of class Ⅰ showed to be more divergent than class Ⅱ genes. These results suggested that the divergence of class Ⅰ and class Ⅱ should have occurred before the differentiation of the genera Brassica and Raphanus. In addition, SLG and SRK of the same S haplotypes belonged to the same class. It suggested that class-Ⅰ and class-Ⅱ group divergence occurred first, and then SLG and SRK diverged. The three SC SRK genes from B. napus and B. campestris were grouped into one cluster, displaying difference from the SC SLG of B.oleracea. These three SC SRK genes were close to SI SRK of SI1300, SI271 and guanyou in phylogenetic relationships.These results indicated that SC and SI genes diverged more recently. It is not clear yet whether the differentiation of SC and SI genes was earlier than the differentiation of Brassica and Raphanus. Studies based on more genes are necessary for a comprehensive elucidation of the phylogenetic relationships in Brassicaceae.

  19. Effects of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu-resistant endophytic Enterobacter sr CBSB1 and Rhodotorula sp. CBSB79 on the growth and phytoextraction of Brassica plants in multimetal contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfeng; Deng, Zujun; Tan, Hongming; Cao, Lixiang

    2013-01-01

    To survey the effects of endophytic Enterobacter sp. CBSB1 and Rhodotorula sp. CBSB79 resistant to Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cu2+ on the growth and phytoextraction of Brassica, the endophytes were isolated by surface- sterilized methods and characterized. The CBSB1 significantly increased 44.2% of the dry weight of Brassica napus in the multimetal contaminated soil (P Enterobacter sp. CBSB1, the yeast Rhodotorula sp CBSB79 showed higher potentials to improve extraction efficacy of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu by Brassica seedlings in the field.

  20. Comparative mapping of Brassica juncea and Arabidopsis thaliana using Intron Polymorphism (IP markers: homoeologous relationships, diversification and evolution of the A, B and C Brassica genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Vibha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive mapping efforts are currently underway for the establishment of comparative genomics between the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana and various Brassica species. Most of these studies have deployed RFLP markers, the use of which is a laborious and time-consuming process. We therefore tested the efficacy of PCR-based Intron Polymorphism (IP markers to analyze genome-wide synteny between the oilseed crop, Brassica juncea (AABB genome and A. thaliana and analyzed the arrangement of 24 (previously described genomic block segments in the A, B and C Brassica genomes to study the evolutionary events contributing to karyotype variations in the three diploid Brassica genomes. Results IP markers were highly efficient and generated easily discernable polymorphisms on agarose gels. Comparative analysis of the segmental organization of the A and B genomes of B. juncea (present study with the A and B genomes of B. napus and B. nigra respectively (described earlier, revealed a high degree of colinearity suggesting minimal macro-level changes after polyploidization. The ancestral block arrangements that remained unaltered during evolution and the karyotype rearrangements that originated in the Oleracea lineage after its divergence from Rapa lineage were identified. Genomic rearrangements leading to the gain or loss of one chromosome each between the A-B and A-C lineages were deciphered. Complete homoeology in terms of block organization was found between three linkage groups (LG each for the A-B and A-C genomes. Based on the homoeology shared between the A, B and C genomes, a new nomenclature for the B genome LGs was assigned to establish uniformity in the international Brassica LG nomenclature code. Conclusion IP markers were highly effective in generating comparative relationships between Arabidopsis and various Brassica species. Comparative genomics between the three Brassica lineages established the major rearrangements

  1. Radiocaesium and radiostrontium uptake by turnips and broad beans via leaf and root absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Paniagua, J.M.; Rufo, M. [Departamento Fisica, Facultad de Veterinaria, E. Politecnica - Uex, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres, (Spain); Sterling, A. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain); Barandica, J. [Departamento Ecologia, F. De Biologia, UCM Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    1999-03-01

    One of the immediate consequences of massive radioisotope release into the atmosphere is contamination of the biosphere. This contamination can affect plants either by direct deposition onto the leaves, or by contaminating the soil followed by absorption by the roots. Knowledge of the efficacy of the two routes of radionuclide incorporation into the food chain is fundamental to understanding the mechanisms by which radioactive contamination reaches man. The present work analyzes the incorporation of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr via root and leaf uptake into the parts consumed by man, for two very different crops: turnip (Brassica napus) and broad bean (Vicia faba). The root uptake studies consider the available soil fraction for these two radionuclides, and indicate greater availability for {sup 85}Sr than for {sup 134}Cs which is fixed rapidly in the soil. For the study of leaf uptake, leaves were contaminated at three different stages of plant growth; the results indicate an inverse dependence of the transfer coefficients on the time elapsed from the moment of the contamination to harvesting of the edible parts.

  2. Diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria associated with the roots of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) cultivars and their antagonism towards pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Azizul; Yun, Han Dae; Cho, Kye Man

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the roots of Chinese cabbage (CC) cultivated in two areas in Korea, namely, Seosang-gun (SS) and Haenam-gun (HN), and also in a transgenic plant (TP) from the laboratory. A total of 653 colonies were isolated from the interior of CC roots, comprising 118, 302, and 233 isolates from SS, HN, and TP samples, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (HGC-GPB), low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria (LGC-GPB), Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes. The most dominant groups in the roots of the SS, HN, and TP cultivars were LGC-GPB (48.3%), Proteobacteria (50.2%), and HGC-GPB (38.2%), respectively. Importantly, most of the isolates that produced cell-walldegrading enzymes belonged to the genus Bacillus. Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, TPR07), and Bacillus subtilis (TPR03) showed high antagonism against the tested food-borne pathogenic bacteria. In addition, Bacillus sp. (HNR03, TPR06), Bacillus pumilus (SSR07, HNR11, HNR17, TPR11), Microbacterium oxidans (SSR09, TPR04), Bacillus cereus HNR10, Pseudomonas sp. HNR13, and Bacillus subtilis (TPR02, TPR03) showed strong antagonistic activity against the fungi Phythium ultimum, Phytophthora capsici, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The endophytes isolated from the TP cultivar showed the strongest antagonistic reactions against pathogens. This study is the first report on endophytic bacteria from Chinese cabbage roots.

  3. Enhancing the Heterosis of Spring Rapeseed Varieties (Brassica napus L.) by Using Semi-Winter Rapeseed Varieties as Parents%以半冬性甘蓝型油菜为亲本增强春性甘蓝型油菜杂种优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳梅; 柳海东; 徐亮; 杜德志

    2013-01-01

    Several B. napus varieties (lines) including two semi-winter rapeseed varieties, two spring restorer lines, two spring male-sterile lines and 16 spring restorer lines (derived from the spring restorer lines and semi-winter rapeseed varieties) were ana-lyzed using SSR, SRAP, and AFLP. Twenty-six combinations were produced according to the North Carolina mating design (NCII) by hand-pollinating 12 new restorer lines and one parental restorer line (Ag-5) with two spring male-sterile lines. The hy-brid performance values were also determined. Among the 16 restorer lines, except for 931 and Zhang 23, the genetic distances were greater between the new restorer lines and two male-sterile lines than between the corresponding parental restorer line (Ag-5) and the two male-sterile lines, showing that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could increase the genetic distance between spring restorer lines and spring male-sterile lines. The yield per plant for the maintainer lines of 15 combinations, which corresponded to the sterile lines showed high-parent values in 26 combinations, and 13 combinations showed stronger high-parent heterosis of yield per plant compared to combinations produced by the corresponding male-sterile and parental re-storer lines (CMSL×Ag-5), suggesting that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could enhance the hetero-sis of spring B. napus varieties. Eighteen hybrids among the 24 combinations showed higher yield per plant compared to the com-binations of CMSL×Ag-5, indicating introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines might improve the spring B. napus hybrids yield. The results also showed that introgressing semi-winter varieties into spring restorer lines could improve the resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of spring B. napus hybrids. This study indicates that semi-winter B. napus rapeseed may be a%  以春性恢复系与半冬性品种(系)杂交后选育的16

  4. Hypersensitivity to pollen of four different species of Brassica: a clinico-immunologic evaluation in patients of respiratory allergy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shipra; Katiyar, Raj Kishore; Gaur, Shailendra; Jain, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapeseed-mustard is the second most important source of edible oil in India. Several species of Brassica are grown in different parts of country for its oilseeds. Objective The objective was to investigate allergenicity to antigenic extracts of pollen of 4 species of Brassica. Methods Brassica campestris, Brassica juncea, Brassica nigra, and Brassica napus were selected for the detailed investigation. Pollen samples from each of the four species were collected from the polliniferous materials. The antigenic and allergenic profiles of these extracts were evaluated by means of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Skin prick test, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay and Western blot on atopic individuals. Results Out of the 159 atopic subjects tested, 21.38% were positive to at least one or other species of Brassica pollen, with highest skin positivity (13.20%) to B. campestris extract. Raised IgE with significant linear correlation with intensity of skin reactions was obtained. Protein fractions of 20, 25, 32, 37, 56, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. campestris and B. juncea whereas 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were recognized by B. nigra and B. napus as major IgE binding protein fractions. The patients also showed positivity to other inhalant pollen allergens tested. Conclusion IgE mediated hypersensitivity varied from 4.40% to 13.20% in Indian atopic subjects to pollen of one or the other species of Brassica. Protein fractions of 47, 56, 76, 87, and 90 kDa were identified as IgE binding by all the four species, however individual heterogeneity exists. Thus a local species may be more pertinent for immunotherapy. The major allergen needs to be further characterized. PMID:25379479

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15494-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7719 Brassica napus Late bud Brassica napus cD... 36 0.030 3 ( EV225356 ) 0107282 Brassica napus Damaged cot...yledons Brassic... 36 0.032 3 ( EV225027 ) 0106953 Brassica napus Damaged cotyled

  6. Recurring Challenges from a Necrotrophic Fungal Plant Pathogen: a Case Study with Leptosphaeria maculans (Causal Agent of Blackleg Disease in Brassicas) in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; BARBETTI, MARTIN J.; Li, Hua

    2005-01-01

    • Background Blackleg disease of Brassica napus, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, causes severe yield losses in Australia, Europe and Canada. In Western Australia, it nearly destroyed the oilseed rape industry in 1972 when host genotypes and conducive environmental conditions favoured severe epidemics. The introduction of cultivars with polygenic resistance and the adoption of sound cultural practices two decades later helped to manage the disease. These were abandone...

  7. Analysis of aliphatic waxes associated with root periderm or exodermis from eleven plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosma, Dylan K; Rice, Adam; Pollard, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Aliphatic waxes can be found in association with suberized tissues, including roots. Non-polar lipids were isolated by rapid solvent extraction of mature regions of intact roots from eleven angiosperms, including both monocots and dicots. The majority of roots analyzed were taproots or tuberous taproots that had undergone secondary growth and thus were covered by a suberized periderm. The exceptions therein were maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), which present a suberized exodermis. The analysis herein focused on aliphatic waxes, with particular emphasis on alkyl hydroxycinnamates (AHCs). AHCs were widely distributed, absent from only one species, were found in both aerial and subterranean portions of tuberous taproots, and were associated with the fibrous roots of both maize and rice. Most species also contained monoacylglycerols, fatty alcohols and/or free fatty acids. Carrot (Daucus carrota L.) was the outlier, containing only free fatty acids, sterols, and polyacetylenes as identified components. Sterols were the only ubiquitous component across all roots analyzed. Monoacylglycerols of ω-hydroxy fatty acids were present in maize and rice root waxes. For species within the Brassiceae, wax compositions varied between subspecies or varieties and between aerial and subterranean portions of taproots. In addition, reduced forms of photo-oxidation products of ω-hydroxy oleate and its corresponding dicarboxylic acid (10,18-dihydroxy-octadec-8-enoate, 9,18-dihydroxy-octadec-10-enoate and 9-hydroxyoctadec-10-ene-1,18-dioate) were identified as naturally occurring suberin monomers in rutabaga (Brassica napus subsp. rapifera Metzg.) periderm tissues.

  8. Developmentally regulated site-specific marker gene excision in transgenic B. napus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopertekh, Lilya; Broer, Inge; Schiemann, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    We have developed a self-excision Cre-vector to remove marker genes from Brassica napus. In this vector cre recombinase gene and bar expression cassette were inserted between two lox sites in direct orientation. These lox-flanked sequences were placed between the seed-specific napin promoter and the gene of interest (vstI). Tissue-specific cre activation resulted in simultaneous excision of the recombinase and marker genes. The vector was introduced into B. napus by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. F1 progeny of seven lines with single and multiple transgene insertions was subjected to segregation and molecular analysis. Marker-free plants could be detected and confirmed by PCR and Southern blot in all transgenic lines tested. The recombination efficiency expressed as a ratio of plants with complete gene excision to the total number of investigated plants varied from 13 to 81% dependent on the transgene copy number. Potential application of this system would be the establishment of marker-free transgenic plants in generatively propagated species.

  9. Arabidopsis mutant bik1 exhibits strong resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1, a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1 and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2 and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40-50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2 and npr1-1 (non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms enhance the resistance to clubroot disease.

  10. Correlation between the stomatal guard cell size and the ploidy level in haploid and diploid of Brassica napus%气孔保卫细胞大小与油菜单倍体及二倍体倍性的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何婷; 刘成洪; 杜志钊; 高润红; 徐红卫; 邹磊; 王亦菲

    2012-01-01

    The width, length and perimeter of stomatal guard cells were measured in different leaves from seed-germinated diploid plants and microspore-derived haploid plants of B. napus Strain 2105,and the correlation between the stomatal guard cell size and the ploidy level of plants was studied. The results indicated that the width, length and perimeter of stomatal guard cells were significantly different between the haploid and diploid plants. The calculated perimeter of stomatal guard cell was 43 - 59 μm for haploid plants and 75 - 94μm for diploid plants. Compared with a single observed index of the width or the length, the stomatal guard cell perimeter calculated by the length and width had a wider range to distinguish the haploid from the diploid and could be used to rapidly identify the plant ploidy in the construction of double haploid population.%对甘蓝型油菜2105品系种子萌发的二倍体植株和小孢子来源再生单倍体植株的不同叶位叶片气孔保卫细胞大小进行了测定,考察了不同叶片的保卫细胞长轴长、短轴长以及其周长差异,并对气孔保卫细胞大小与植株倍性的相关性进行了研究.结果表明:油菜单倍体与二倍体叶片气孔保卫细胞的长轴长、短轴长以及其周长存在显著差异;单倍体和二倍体气孔保卫细胞的周长计算值范围分别为43~59 μm和75~94 μm;相对于单一的长轴长或短轴长观测指标,利用长轴与短轴长度计算的周长值指标对单倍体与二倍体鉴定具有更宽的区分窗口,可用于油菜双单倍体群体构建中植株倍性的快速鉴定.

  11. Interactions between atmospheric and pedospheric sulfur nutrition : Impact of short-term H2S exposure on the uptake and distribution of S-35-sulfate in roots and shoots of curly kale (Brassica oleracea L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonisch, A; Weidner, W; Tausz, M; Westerman, S; De Kok, LJ; Grill, D

    2005-01-01

    Curlykale (Brassica oleracea L., Brassicaceae) was exposed to 0 and 400 nl l(-1) H2S and simultaneously transferred to a 25% Hoagland nutrient solution containing S-35-sulfate for 24 h. H2S exposure hardly affected the contents of the different sulfur pools, but resulted in a decrease in the level o

  12. 甘蓝型油菜黄化突变体的叶绿体超微结构、气孔特征参数及光合特性%Analysis of Chloroplast Ultrastructure, Stomatal Characteristic Parameters and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Chlorophyll-Reduced Mutant in Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖华贵; 杨焕文; 饶勇; 杨斌; 朱英; 张文龙

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] In order to discuss the yellowing mechanism and provide a theoretical basis in rape breeding practice,the relationship between chloroplast ultrastructure,stomatal characteristic parameters,photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic characteristics of the spontaneous chlorophyll-reduced mutant NY in B.napus L.were studied.[Method] Taking the rape mutant NY,wild type NG,F1 (NY×NG) and rF1(NG×NY) as research materials,the heart-leaf and the flatten-leaf at five-leaf stage were used for chloroplast ultrastructure observation,stomatal characteristic parameters investigation,photosynthetic pigment content determination,photosynthetic characteristics measurement and agronomic traits investigation.[Result] In general,the chloroplast development degree in yellow heart-leaf and yellow-green flatten-leaf from mutant NY was worse than that of wild type NG,F1 (NY×NG) and rF1(NG×NY) from chloroplast ultrastructure; the chloroplast numbers of heart-leaf in a lower epidermis stoma guard cell from mutant NY was decreased about 40%,whereas the number in yellow-green flatten-leaf was close to that of the wild-type NG in stomatal characteristic parameters; the Chla,Chlb,Chl(a+b),carotenoids and the net photosynthetic rate of mutant were significantly lower than those of the same period of wild-type and F1,rF1 in content and composition of photosynthetic pigment as well as photosynthetic characteristics.Correspondingly,the growth period delayed,economic traits deteriorated and grain yieldper plant decreased,which happened in the mutant,but the above agronomic traits and photosynthetic characteristics from F1 and rF1 were restored to normal levels.[Conclusion] The mutant NY is one of total chlorophyll deficiency type caused by chloroplast structure developmental defects.Abnormal chloroplast structure,less grana and grana lamella and lower chlorophyll content are main reasons for mutant lower net photosynthetic rates and worst agronomic traits.%[目的]揭示甘

  13. Enzymatic Characteristics of Acetolactate Synthase Mutant S638N inBrassica napus and Its Resistance to ALS Inhibitor Herbicides%油菜乙酰乳酸合酶突变体S638N的酶学特性及其对ALS类除草剂的抗性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡茂龙; 浦惠明; 龙卫华; 高建芹; 戚存扣; 张洁夫; 陈松

    2015-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) catalyses the first step in the synthesis of the branched-chain amino acids and is the target of several classes of herbicides. ABnALS1R gene from herbicide-resistant mutant line M9 inB. napus, was previously isolated and demonstrated to be resistant to the imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides. This research was to reveal the differences of enzymatic characteristics and its resistance to ALS inhibitor herbicides between the mutant S638N and the wild-type enzyme. The BnALS1R gene was constructed and expressed inEscherichia coli along with the wild-type. The target recombinant proteins with the pre-dicted molecular weight (74 kD) were successively expressed inEscherichia coliand purified by SDS-PAGE. The enzymatic activity of the purified S638N and wild-type was then measured in enzyme reaction systems under different temperatures and pH values. Results showed that the S638N resembled the wild-type in their enzymatic activity, showing maximum activity at 37°C and pH 7.0, and no significant difference in theKm andVmax between the S638N and wild-type. The activation of the S638N by cofactors (FAD, Mg2+ and thiamine diphosphate) was examined and generated similar results to that of the wild-type. The mutant enzyme was inactive when one of three cofactors was omitted. However, the S638N was more resistant to IMI herbicides than the wild-type in contrast to Su herbicides that inhibited the S638N as well as the wild-type. Therefore, the S638N has resistance spe-cific to IMI herbicides with unalteration of the enzymatic reaction characteristics.%在对油菜抗咪唑啉酮类除草剂基因BnALS1R克隆与功能验证基础上,为比较抗性基因编码的乙酰乳酸合酶突变体 S638N 酶学特性及其对 ALS 类除草剂抗性与野生型的差异,构建基因原核表达载体,在大肠杆菌中表达S638N和野生型的重组融合蛋白。SDS-PAGE和Western blot分析表明, S638N和野生型均能表达出约74 kD的特异性重组

  14. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig J. Sturrock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray µCT and real-time PCR to study host-pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka. Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root system. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behaviour in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field.

  15. Cloning of fatty acid elongase1 gene and molecular identification of A and C genome in Brassica species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) genes of Brassic napus were cloned from two cultivars, i.e. Zhong- shuan No. 9 with low erucic acid content, and Zhongyou 821 with high erucic acid content, using the degenerate PCR primers. The sequence analysis showed that there was no intron within the FAE1 genes. The FAE1 genes from Zhongyou 821 contained a coding sequence of 1521 nucleotides, and those cloned from Zhongshuan No. 9 contained a 1517 bp coding sequence. Alignment of the FAE1 sequences from Brassica rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus detected 31 single nucleotide polymorphic sites (2.03%), which resulted in 7 amino-acid substitutions. Further analysis indicated that 19 SNPs were genome-specific, of which, 95% were synonymous mutations. The nucleotide substitution at po- sition 1217 in the FAE1 genes led to a specific site of restricted cleavage. An AvrII cleavage site was present only in the C genome genes and absent in the A genome FAE1 genes. Digestion profile of the FAE1 sequences from B. rapa, B. oleracea and B. napus produced with AvrII confirmed that the FAE1 genes of B. oleracea origin was recognized and digested, while that of B. rapa origin could not. The results indicated that by AvrII cleavage it was possible to distinguish B. rapa from B. oleracea and be- tween the A and C genome of B. napus. In addition, the FAE1 genes could be used as marker genes to detect the pollen flow of B. napus, thus providing an alternative method for risk assessment of gene flow.

  16. Insecticidal activity of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of straw from Brassica spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqi, Liu; Cáceres, Luis A; Caceres, Luis; Schieck, Katie; McGarvey, Brian D; Booker, Christina J; McGarvey, Brian M; Yeung, Ken K-C; Pariente, Stephane; Briens, Cedric; Berruti, Franco; Scott, Ian M

    2014-04-23

    Agricultural crop residues can be converted through thermochemical pyrolysis to bio-oil, a sustainable source of biofuel and biochemicals. The pyrolysis bio-oil is known to contain many chemicals, some of which have insecticidal activity and can be a potential source of value-added pest control products. Brassicacae crops, cabbage, broccoli, and mustards, contain glucosinolates and isocyanates, compounds with recognized anti-herbivore activity. In Canada, canola Brassica napus straw is available from over 6 000 000 ha and mustard Brassica carinata and Brassica juncea straw is available from 200 000 ha. The straw can be converted by microbial lignocellulosic enzymes as a substrate for bioethanol production but can also be converted to bio-oil by thermochemical means. Straw from all three species was pyrolyzed, and the insecticidal components in the bio-oil were isolated by bioassay-guided solvent fractionation. Of particular interest were the mustard straw bio-oil aqueous fractions with insecticidal and feeding repellent activity to Colorado potato beetle larvae. Aqueous fractions further analyzed for active compounds were found not to contain many of the undesirable phenol compounds, which were previously found in other bio-oils seen in the dichloromethane (DCM) and ethyl acetate (EA) solvent phases of the present study. Identified within the most polar fractions were hexadecanoic and octadecanoic fatty acids, indicating that separation of these compounds during bio-oil production may provide a source of effective insecticidal compounds.

  17. A rich TILLING resource for studying gene function in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoah Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brassicaceae family includes the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana as well as a number of agronomically important species such as oilseed crops (in particular Brassica napus, B. juncea and B. rapa and vegetables (eg. B. rapa and B. oleracea. Separated by only 10-20 million years, Brassica species and Arabidopsis thaliana are closely related, and it is expected that knowledge obtained relating to Arabidopsis growth and development can be translated into Brassicas for crop improvement. Moreover, certain aspects of plant development are sufficiently different between Brassica and Arabidopsis to warrant studies to be carried out directly in the crop species. However, mutating individual genes in the amphidiploid Brassicas such as B. napus and B. juncea may, on the other hand, not give rise to expected phenotypes as the genomes of these species can contain up to six orthologues per single-copy Arabidopsis gene. In order to elucidate and possibly exploit the function of redundant genes for oilseed rape crop improvement, it may therefore be more efficient to study the effects in one of the diploid Brassica species such as B. rapa. Moreover, the ongoing sequencing of the B. rapa genome makes this species a highly attractive model for Brassica research and genetic resource development. Results Seeds from the diploid Brassica A genome species, B. rapa were treated with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS to produce a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes population for reverse genetics studies. We used the B. rapa genotype, R-o-18, which has a similar developmental ontogeny to an oilseed rape crop. Hence this resource is expected to be well suited for studying traits with relevance to yield and quality of oilseed rape. DNA was isolated from a total of 9,216 M2 plants and pooled to form the basis of the TILLING platform. Analysis of six genes revealed a high level of mutations with a density of about one per 60 kb. This

  18. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  19. WRR4, a broad-spectrum TIR-NB-LRR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana that confers white rust resistance in transgenic oilseed Brassica crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhan, Mohammad Hossein; Holub, Eric B; Kindrachuk, Colin; Omidi, Mansour; Bozorgmanesh-Frad, Ghazaleh; Rimmer, S Roger

    2010-03-01

    White blister rust caused by Albugo candida (Pers.) Kuntze is a common and often devastating disease of oilseed and vegetable brassica crops worldwide. Physiological races of the parasite have been described, including races 2, 7 and 9 from Brassica juncea, B. rapa and B. oleracea, respectively, and race 4 from Capsella bursa-pastoris (the type host). A gene named WRR4 has been characterized recently from polygenic resistance in the wild brassica relative Arabidopsis thaliana (accession Columbia) that confers broad-spectrum white rust resistance (WRR) to all four of the above Al. candida races. This gene encodes a TIR-NB-LRR (Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat) protein which, as with other known functional members in this subclass of intracellular receptor-like proteins, requires the expression of the lipase-like defence regulator, enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1). Thus, we used RNA interference-mediated suppression of EDS1 in a white rust-resistant breeding line of B. napus (transformed with a construct designed from the A. thaliana EDS1 gene) to determine whether defence signalling via EDS1 is functionally intact in this oilseed brassica. The eds1-suppressed lines were fully susceptible following inoculation with either race 2 or 7 isolates of Al. candida. We then transformed white rust-susceptible cultivars of B. juncea (susceptible to race 2) and B. napus (susceptible to race 7) with the WRR4 gene from A. thaliana. The WRR4-transformed lines were resistant to the corresponding Al. candida race for each host species. The combined data indicate that WRR4 could potentially provide a novel source of white rust resistance in oilseed and vegetable brassica crops.

  20. Filmcoating the seed of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. convar. Capitata L.) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. Botrytis L.) with imidacloprid and spinosad to control insect pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Putter, de H.; Bilsen, van J.G.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Four field experiments were carried out between 1999 and 2001, to assess the protection against cabbage root fly larvae (Delia radicum), flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum and P. undulata), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and caterpillars achieved in white cabbage and cauliflower crops by filmco

  1. 茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸诱导的大白菜叶片与根系硫苷含量系统性变化研究%Leaf and root glucosinolate profiles of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) as a systemic response to methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid elicitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-xiang ZANG; Jia-li GE; Ling-hui HUANG; Fei GAO; Xi-shan LV; Wei-wei ZHENG; Seung-beom HONG; Zhu-jun ZHU

    2015-01-01

      结论:茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸处理后,大白菜根系比叶片积累更多的硫苷,吲哚族硫苷比其他种类的硫苷积累更快;茉莉酸甲酯诱导硫苷合成的效果好于水杨酸,而且诱导时间更长;茉莉酸甲酯与水杨酸在诱导大白菜根系硫苷合成过程中具有反协同效应。%Glucosinolates (GSs) are an important group of defensive phytochemicals mainly found in Brassicaceae. Plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are major regulators of plant response to pathogen attack. However, there is little information about the interactive effect of both elicitors on inducing GS biosynthesis in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). In this study, we applied different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and/or SA onto the leaf and root of Chinese cabbage to investigate the time-course interactive profiles of GSs. Re-gardless of the site of the elicitation and the concentrations of the elicitors, the roots accumulated much more GSs and were more sensitive and more rapidly responsive to the elicitors than leaves. Irrespective of the elicitation site, MeJA had a greater inducing and longer lasting effect on GS accumulation than SA. Al three components of indole GS (IGS) were detected along with aliphatic and aromatic GSs. However, IGS was a major component of total GSs that ac-cumulated rapidly in both root and leaf tissues in response to MeJA and SA elicitation. Neoglucobrassicin (neoGBC) did not respond to SA but to MeJA in leaf tissue, while it responded to both SA and MeJA in root tissue. Conversion of glucobrassicin (GBC) to neoGBC occurred at a steady rate over 3 d of elicitation. Increased accumulation of 4-methoxy glucobrassicin (4-MGBC) occurred only in the root irrespective of the type of elicitors and the site of elici-tation. Thus, accumulation of IGS is a major metabolic hallmark of SA-and MeJA-mediated systemic response sys-tems. SA exerted an antagonistic effect on

  2. Control of rapeseed clubroot by screened antagonistic microorganisms against Plasmodiophora brassicae%油菜根肿病菌拮抗微生物的筛选及其防治效果测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王靖; 黄云; 张艳; 姚佳

    2011-01-01

    Hundreds of microbes were isolated from rhizosphere soil, root, stem and twigs of plants species for rapeseed clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) control. The plant species included ginkgo tree ( Ginkgo biloba ), tea tree ( Camellia sinensis), Ormosia yaanensis, Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa), and also rapeseed ( Brassica napus). A total of 421 bacterias, 155 fungi and 368 actinomycete strains were isolated. From the results of gemination rate investigation of P. brassicae resting spore after inoculation of isolated strains, 5.46% of bacteria, 0.65% of fungi and 4.35% of actinomycetes were found, all of them could decrease the gemination rates of P. brassicae below 45%. Among these strains, antagonistic strains actinomycete A316, Al0 and fungi T1 had the best potential in biological control of rapeseed clubroot. The resting spore germination inhibition rates reached 77.11%, 72.54% and 69.01%, respectively. Their control efficiencies were 73.60%, 70.94%, 67.10% in pot experiment and 65.84%, 59.59%, 61.24% in field experiment.%以寻找对油菜根肿病菌具有生物防治作用的拮抗微生物为主要目的,采集茶树、红豆树、银杏树、白菜和油菜的根际土壤及根、茎、叶、枝条等样品进行分离,通过测定根肿病菌休眠孢子接种这些微生物后的萌发率来筛选拮抗菌株,并在室内盆栽及大田试验中评价了10株拮抗微生物的防治效果.实验共分离出细菌421株、真菌155株、放线菌368株,使休眠孢子萌发率低于45%的菌株仅分别占5.4%、0.65%、4.35%.其中放线菌A316、A10和真菌T1对根肿病的生防潜力最大,对休眠孢子萌发的抑制率分别高达77.11%、72.54%、69.01%,室内盆栽防效分别为73.60%、70.94%、67.10%,大田防效依次达65.84%、59.59%、61.24%.

  3. Effect of microwave on the dynamics of some oxidoreductase enzymes in Brassica napus germination seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of microwaves on the catalase and peroxidase activity in rape germinating seeds. Two experimental lots were projected: one in which the non germinated seeds were exposed 1 hour, respectively, 5 hours, to microwave rays, and the second in which the germinated seeds (after 24 hours) were exposed to microwave action for the some interval. We used a microwave generator with a horn antenna, at the 10.75 GHz and a power density under 1 mWcm-1. For a period...

  4. Influence of Meteorological Factors on Oil Content and Major Fatty Acids of Rapeseeds (Brassica napus L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Weijun; Zhao Desheng; Shen Huicong

    1998-01-01

    A study on the influence of meteorological factors on oil content and major fatty acids of rapeseeds was conducted based on latitudinal location experiments and years of varietal investigations. Negative correlation was found between the latitudes and erucic acid content, and positive correlations were found between the latitudes and oil content, oleic acid and linoleic acid contents of rapeseeds. No significant correlation was observed between the latitudes and lionlenic acid content of rapeseeds. The oil content of rapeseeds varied from 34.00 % to 44.90 % and was concentrated within 39.00 %~40.90% in the Yangtze River lower basin. The difference of oil content between years was observed to be 3. 00% ~5.00%. The regional variation of the same varieties had ravealed a 0. 4432 % increase of oil content per 1 increase of the latitudes.The seed formation was the key growth stage in which the oil content and stagemajor fatty acid contents of rapeseeds were influenced by the meteorological factors. The following correlations were observed:( 1 )positive correlation between oil content and the daylength; (2) negative correlations between erucic acid content and daily mean temperature, ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature, and the daylength; (3)positive correlation between oleic acid content and the daylength; (4) negative correlation between linoleic acid content and daily mean temperature, and positive one between linoleic acid content and ≥3℃ effective accumulated temperature;(5) no significant correlation between linolenic acid content and these meteorological factors. The experiments also estimated the key meteorological factors which affected oil content and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds, and established the stepwise regression equations between the key meteorological factors and oil content, and major fatty acid contents of rapeseeds. The experimental results formed important bases for the selection of low erucic acid rape breeding area and for the development and expansion of high quality rape.

  5. Seed Vigor and Field Performance of Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed vigor on field performance of two oilseed rape cultivars (Licord and Okapi was investigated in 2008 at the Research Farm of the University Tabriz, Iran. The experiment was arranged as factorial based on RCB design with three replications. A sub-sample of seeds of each cultivar was kept as control. The other two sub-samples of each cultivar with about 15% moisture content were artificially deteriorated at 40C for 9 and 12 days (Licord and 7 and 10 days (Okapi. Consequently, three seed lots for each cultivar with different levels of vigor were provided. The results showed that the mean emergence time increased with decreasing seed vigor. However, the highest percentage of seedling emergence was obtained for the high quality seed lot and decreased with decreasing seed lot vigor. Decreasing seed vigor led to significant reduction in ground cover of both cultivars; mainly due to poor stand establishment. Ground cover of Licord was higher than that of Okapi. Plants from high vigor seed lots of both cultivars had higher leaf chlorophyll content index at early stages of growth, compared with those from low quality seed lots. Grains per plant, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant for plants from deteriorated seed lots were higher than those from high-vigor seed lot. However, these advantages in individual plant performance were not sufficient to compensate for low stand establishment. Consequently, grain yield per unit area significantly improved with increasing seed vigor of oilseed rape cultivars, even within the range of acceptable germination.

  6. Pollination of rapeseed (Brassica napus) by Africanized honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on two sowing dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambó, Emerson D; De Oliveira, Newton T E; Garcia, Regina C; Duarte-Júnior, José B; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria Claudia C; Toledo, Vagner A

    2014-12-01

    In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433), three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees) and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011). The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  7. Critical Period of Weed Control in Three Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    HAMZEI, Javad; NASAB, Adel Dabbagh Mohammady; KHOIE, Farrokh Rahimzadeh; JAVANSHIR, Aziz

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, in 2004-2005 and 2005-2006. Three winter oilseed rape cultivars (Okapi, Licord, and SLM046) with 12 weed interference durations were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The experiments consisted of 2 sets of treatments. In the first set, the crop was kept weed-free until the growth stages of 4-leaf, 8-leaf, stem...

  8. Establishment and Identification of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Brassica napus by Intergeneric Somatic Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiong; LI Yun-chang; MEI De-sheng; FANG Xiao-ping; Lise N Hansen; Sven B Andersen

    2003-01-01

    Exploitation of novel cytoplasmic male sterility(CMS)is a main approach for widening the cytoplasmic genetic background of hybrid oilseed rape and avoiding epidemic risk in oilseed rape production.In this study,symmetric somatic hybrids between Brassicanapus var.Zhongshuang4 and Sinapis arvensis(Yeyou18)were produced by protoplast fusion.Two of the six established hybrids were male sterile showing trace or no pollen release upon flowering with non-or slightly extended stamens.Using Zhongshuang4 as a recurrent parent to pollinate the male sterile plants,the ratio of male sterile plants increased with the number of backcrosses.As early as in BC3 generation,most of the sterile families had nearly 100%sterile plants.Up to BC4 generation,the male sterility became stable and no fertility segregation was observed.All F1 progenies from tested crosses using restorer and maintainer lines of Polima CMS were 100%sterile,indicating that the established CMS by somatic hybridization is different from Polima CMS.The origin of the cytoplasm and potential use of this hovel CMS in oilseed rape breeding were discussed.Key wotds:Oilseed rape,Protoplast fusion,Cytoplasmic male sterility,Sinapis arvensis

  9. Nutrient and heavy metal content of rapeseed (Brassica napus irrigated with treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El Lateef E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were conducted in winter season in two sites located about 20km north east of Cairo; Gabal Asfar farm (fertile soil and Berka site (virgin soil.The trials aimed to evaluate the impact of rapeseed irrigation methods with secondary treated wastewater on yield ,quality trace elements and heavy metal content. The results clearly showed that rapeseed crop was not suited to the virgin soil as the crop produced 10% of the seed yield achieved at the fertile soil. There were significant increases in seed yield, straw and biological yields due to NPK application .Oil yields were 0.312 and 2.304 t ha-1 on virgin and fertile soils, respectively. Treated wastewater supplied rapeseed with 35,43and 156% of the recommended requirements of N, P and K, respectively in the virgin soil while the corresponding values in the fertile soil were 79,96 and191% for N,P and K, respectively. Trace elements and heavy metal additions from wastewater were very small Seed analysis indicated that the ranges of heavy metals were within the normal ranges expected and were far below levels that would be of concern due to the high pH of both sites.

  10. Pollination of Rapeseed (Brassica napus by Africanized Honeybees (Hymenoptera: Apidae on Two Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMERSON D. CHAMBÓ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performed in the western part of the state of Paraná, Brazil, two self-fertile hybrid commercial rapeseed genotypes were evaluated for yield components and physiological quality using three pollination tests and spanning two sowing dates. The treatments consisted of combinations of two rapeseed genotypes (Hyola 61 and Hyola 433, three pollination tests (uncovered area, covered area without insects and covered area containing a single colony of Africanized Apis mellifera honeybees and two sowing dates (May 25th, 2011 and June 25th, 2011. The presence of Africanized honeybees during flowering time increased the productivity of the rapeseed. Losses in the productivity of the hybrids caused by weather conditions unfavorable for rapeseed development were mitigated through cross-pollination performed by the Africanized honeybees. Weather conditions may limit the foraging activity of Africanized honeybees, causing decreased cross-pollination by potential pollinators, especially the Africanized A. mellifera honeybee. The rapeseed hybrids respond differently depending on the sowing date, and the short-cycle Hyola 433 hybrid is the most suitable hybrid for sowing under less favorable weather conditions.

  11. Intraspecific variability of floral nectar volume and composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eBertazzini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous angiosperms rely on pollinators to ensure efficient flower fertilization, offering a reward consisting of nourishing nectars produced by specialized floral cells, known as nectaries. Nectar components are believed to derive from phloem sap that is enzymatically processed and transformed within nectaries. An increasing body of evidence suggests that nectar composition, mainly amino acids, may influence pollinator attraction and fidelity. This notwithstanding, little is known about the range of natural variability in nectar content for crop species. Sugar and amino acid composition of nectar harvested from field-grown plants at the 63 to 65 phenological stage was determined for a set of 44 winter genotypes of rapeseed, a bee-pollinated crop. Significant differences were found for solute concentrations, and an even higher variability was evident for nectar volumes, resulting in striking differences when results were expressed on a single flower basis. The comparison of nectar and phloem sap from a subset of 8 varieties pointed out qualitative and quantitative diversities with respect to both sugars and amino acids. Notably, amino acid concentration in phloem sap was up to one hundred times higher than in nectar. Phloem sap showed a much more uniform composition, suggesting that nectar variability depends mainly on nectary metabolism. A better understanding of the basis of nectar production would allow an improvement of seed set efficiency, as well as hive management and honey production.

  12. Effects of specific organs on seed oil accumulation in Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hua, Wei; Yang, Hongli; Guo, Tingting; Sun, Xingchao; Wang, Xinfa; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-10-01

    Seed oil content is an important agricultural characteristic in rapeseed breeding. Genetic analysis shows that the mother plant and the embryo play critical roles in regulating seed oil accumulation. However, the overwhelming majority of previous studies have focused on oil synthesis in the developing seed of rapeseed. In this study, to elucidate the roles of reproductive organs on oil accumulation, silique, ovule, and embryo from three rapeseed lines with high oil content (zy036, 6F313, and 61616) were cultured in vitro. The results suggest that zy036 silique wall, 6F313 seed coat, and 61616 embryo have positive impacts on the seed oil accumulation. In zy036, our previous studies show that high photosynthetic activity of the silique wall contributes to seed oil accumulation (Hua et al., 2012). Herein, by transcriptome sequencing and sucrose detection, we found that sugar transport in 6F313 seed coat might regulate the efficiency of oil synthesis by controlling sugar concentration in ovules. In 61616 embryos, high oil accumulation efficiency was partly induced by the elevated expression of fatty-acid biosynthesis-related genes. Our investigations show three organ-specific mechanisms regulating oil synthesis in rapeseed. This study provides new insights into the factors affecting seed oil accumulation in rapeseed and other oil crops.

  13. Heterosis of Double Low Self-incompatibility in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jin-xiong; FU Ting-dong; YANG Guang-sheng

    2002-01-01

    66 F1 hybrids, produced by 3 double low self-incompatible lines and 22 varieties with a North Carolina Ⅱ (NCⅡ) crossing design, were tested for their heterosis in Wuhan, China during two growing seasons from 1999- 2001. The results showed that significant differences were found between F1s and their parents for yield per plant and seed oil content. Mid-parent heterosis of these two characters ranged from 5.50%-64.11% and from 1.55% -7.44% respectively. Heterosis for seed yield per plant was greater than that of seed oil content. For yield components, heterosis of total number of siliques per plant was the highest, followed by seed number per silique and 1 000 seeds weight. Significant genotype-by-year interaction was found for seed yield per plant. Results from correlation and combining ability analysis indicated that parental effects on its F1 hybrid depended on characters, seed yield per plant was affected by both additive and non-additive effects, and seed oil content was affected mainly by additive effect. When designing hybrid programme, parents might be selected by GCAs and variances of SCAs of parents for the characters affected by both additive and non-additive effects, and by the sum of GCAs of female and male parents for the characters mainly affected by additive effects.

  14. Multiple transgene traits may create un-intended fitness effects in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being developed to express multiple “stacked” traits for different types of transgenes, for example, herbicide resistance, insect resistance, crop quality and resistance to environmental factors. The release of crops that express mult...

  15. Isparta Koşullarında Kanola (Brassica napus L. Çeşitlerinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Baydar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kanola (kolza, tohumlarında %40-50 arasında yağ bulunan, oleik asitçe zengin değerli bir yağ bitkisidir. Bu araştırmada; 00 tipi (yağında %2'den az erusik asit ve 1 gram kuru küspesinde 30 μmol'ün altında glukosinolat içeren 15 kanola çeşidinin (Bienvenue, Bristol, Cascade, Colombus, Eurol, Honk, Liborius, Ninetta, Lirawell, Monitta, Quinta, Semu-86/225 Na, Synergy, Tarok ve Westar Isparta koşullarında verim ve kalite özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Tarla denemesi, 2000/2001 yetiştirme sezonunda Süleyman Demirel Üniveristesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü deneme tarlasında Tesadüf Blokları Deneme Deseni'nde 3 tekerrürlü olarak kurulmuştur. Araştırmada, soxhlet ve GC teknikleri yardımıyla yağ oranları ve yağ asitleri kompozisyonları (palmitik asit, stearik asit, oleik asit, linoleik asit ve linolenik asit saptanmıştır. En yüksek tohum verimi Tarok (287.2 kg/da çeşidinden ve en düşük tohum verimi Bienvenue (218.0 kg/da çeşidinden elde edilmiştir. Kanola çeşitlerinin yağ oranı değerleri %35.4-44.4 arasında değişmiştir. Kanola yağında %5.3-7.0 arasında palmitik asit, %1.0-4.3 arasında stearik asit, %66.6-74.4 arasında oleik asit, %14.1-19.7 linoleik asit ve %1.8-6.0 arasında linolenik asit bulunduğu saptanmıştır. Hiçbir çeşidin yağında erusik asit varlığına rastlanmamıştır.

  16. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR and cotton–rapeseed (CR rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg− 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P and potassium (K fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha− 1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR. In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha− 1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  17. Evaluation of Genetic and Epigenetic Modification in Rapeseed(Brassica napus) Induced by Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Salinity is an important limiting environmental factor for rapeseed production worldwide.In this study,we assessed the extent and pattern of DNA damages caused by salt stress in rapeseed plants.Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)analysis revealed dose-related increases in sequence alterations in plantlets exposed to 10-1 000 mmol/L sodium chloride.In addition.Individual plantlets exposed to the same salt concentration showed different AFLP and selected region amplified polymorphism banding patterns.These observations suggested that DNA mutation in response to salt stress was random In the genome and the effect was dose-dependant.DNA methylation changes in response to salt stress were also evaluated by methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism(MSAP).Three types of MSAP bands were recovered.Type Ⅰ bands were observed with both isoschizomers Hpa Ⅱ and Msp Ⅰ, while type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ bands were observed only with Hpa Ⅱ and Msp Ⅰ,respectively.Extensive changes in types of MSAP bands after NaCl treatments were observed,including appearance and disappearance of type Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ bands,as well as exchanges between either type Ⅰ and type Ⅱ or type Ⅰand type Ⅲ bands.An Increase of 0.2-17.6% cytosine methylated CCGG sites were detected in plantlets exposed to 10-200 mmol/L salt compared to the control,and these changes included both de novo methylation and demethylation events Nine methylation related fragments were also recovered and sequenced,and one sharing a high sequence homology with the ethylene responsive element binding factor was identified.These results demonstrated clear DNA genetic and epigenetic alterations in plantlets as a response to salt stress,and these changes may suggest a mechanism for plants adaptation under salt stress.

  18. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape(Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao; Ren; Hui; Li; Jianwei; Lu; Rongyan; Bu; Xiaokun; Li; Rihuan; Cong; Mingxing; Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed(RR) and cotton–rapeseed(CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization,seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen(N)fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg- 1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus(P) and potassium(K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha- 1was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate(EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha- 1lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  19. Crop rotation-dependent yield responses to fertilization in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ren; Hui Li; Jianwei Lu; Rongyan Bu; Xiaokun Li; Rihuan Cong; Mingxing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Differences in soil physical, chemical and biological properties between paddy–upland and continuous upland rotations will influence nutrient relations and crop growth. With the aim of estimating rapeseed yield performance in response to fertilization in rice–rapeseed (RR) and cotton–rapeseed (CR) rotations, on-farm experiments were conducted at 70 sites across Hubei province, central China. The economically optimal fertilizer rates of winter oilseed rape in different rotations were determined. Field experiments showed that previous crops significantly influenced seed yields. Without N fertilization, seed yields were significantly lower for the RR rotation than for the CR rotation. The average yield increase ratio and agronomic efficiency associated with nitrogen (N) fertilization in the RR rotation were 96.6% and 6.56 kg kg−1, significantly higher than those in the CR rotation. No seed yield differences were detected between the two rotations under phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilization. In contrast to the CR rotation, N fertilizer played a more vital role in maintaining high seed yields in the RR rotation owing to the lower indigenous soil N supply. Compared with local N fertilizer recommendation rates for the RR rotation, on average an additional 18 kg N ha−1 was recommended according to the economically optimal N fertilizer rate (EONFR). In contrast, the EONFR was 14 kg N ha−1 lower than the locally recommended N fertilizer rate for the CR rotation. There were no differences between the two rotations for the average economically optimal P and K fertilization rates. Consequently, the average EONFR of winter oilseed rape could be reduced if cotton rather than rice preceded the winter oilseed rape.

  20. Induction of embryogenesis in microspores and pollen of Brassica napus L. cv. Topas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hause, B.; Hause, G.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial systems to produce plant embryos are important tools for basic research as well as for plant breeding. It is possible to produce large amounts of embryos by methods like somatic embryogenesis or embryogenic microspore cultures. Such high amounts of embryos, which are easier to handle than

  1. Vacuolar Iron Transporter BnMEB2 Is Involved in Enhancing Iron Tolerance of Brassica napus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Wei; Zuo, Rong; Zhou, Rongfang; Huang, Junyan; Tang, Minqiang; Cheng, Xiaohui; Liu, Yueying; Tong, Chaobo; XIANG, YANG; Dong, Caihua; Liu, Shengyi

    2016-01-01

    Iron toxicity is a nutrient disorder that severely affects crop development and yield in some soil conditions. Vacuolar detoxification of metal stress is an important strategy for plants to survive and adapt to this adverse environment. Vacuolar iron transporter (VIT) members are involved in this process and play essential roles in iron storage and transport. In this study, we identified a rapeseed VIT gene BnMEB2 (BnaC07g30170D) homologs to Arabidopsis MEB2 (At5g24290). Transient expression ...

  2. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the highest palmitoleic, oleic and myristic acid were observed in F6 and F7 treatments.

  3. Identification of desiccation tolerance transcripts potentially involved in rape (Brassica napus L.) seeds development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sirui; Liu, Xiaoxia; Ma, Gang; Lan, QinYing; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-10-01

    To investigate regulatory processes and protective mechanisms leading to desiccation tolerance (DT) in seeds, cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) in conjunction with 128 primer combinations was used to detect differential gene expression in rape seeds in response to DT during seed development and germination. We obtained approximately 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), of which 394 TDFs with differential expression patterns ("sustained expression", "up-regulated", "couple with seed DT", and "down-regulated") were excised from gels and re-amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After sequencing and comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information database, 176 TDFs presented significant similarity with known genes that could be classified into the following categories: metabolism and energy, stress resistance and defense, storage, signal transduction, and other functional categories. Using semiquantitative reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR approaches, the significance of the differences was further confirmed in fresh seeds and dehydrated seeds. The genes that encode superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin, caleosin, oleosin S3, steroleosin, late embryogenesis abundant protein, glutathione reductase, β-glucosidase, S23 transcriptional repressor, and some heat-shock proteins could be associated with DT. The results of this study will aid in the identification of candidate genes for future experiments that seek to understand seed DT.

  4. Role of Relative Humidity in Processing and Storage of Seeds and Assessment of Variability in Storage Behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of relative humidity (RH while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40±2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  5. Role of relative humidity in processing and storage of seeds and assessment of variability in storage behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, A; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A K; Radhamani, J

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  6. Transformation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) via sonication and vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds with Agrobacterium harboring a group 3 LEA gene from B. napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byong-Jin; Liu, Zaochang; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki

    2005-10-01

    A protocol for producing transgenic radish (Raphanus sativus) was obtained by using both ultrasonic and vacuum infiltration assisted, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 contained the binary vector pBI121-LEA (late embyogenesis abundant), which carried a Group 3 LEA gene, from Brassica napus. Among six combinations, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assisted by a combination of 5-min sonication with 5-min vacuum infiltration resulted in the highest transformation frequency. The existence, integration and expression of transferred LEA gene in transgenic T(1) plants were confirmed by PCR, genomic Southern and Western blot analysis. Transgenic radish demonstrated better growth performance than non-transformed control plants under osmotic and salt stress conditions. Accumulation of Group 3 LEA protein in the vegetative tissue of transgenic radish conferred increased tolerance to water deficit and salt stress.

  7. The effect of Bt-transgene introgression on plant growth and reproduction in wild Brassica juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Bo; Darmency, Henry; Stewart, C Neal; Wei, Wei; Tang, Zhi-Xi; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the relative plant growth and reproduction of insect-resistant and susceptible plants following the introgression of an insect-resistance Bt-transgene from Brassica napus, oilseed rape, to wild Brassica juncea. The second backcrossed generation (BC2) from a single backcross family was grown in pure and mixed stands of Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic siblings under two insect treatments. Various proportions of Bt-transgenic plants were employed in mixed stands to study the interaction between resistant and susceptible plants. In the pure stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants performed better than non-transgenic plants with or without insect treatments. In mixed stands, Bt-transgenic BC2 plants produced fewer seeds than their non-Bt counterparts at low proportions of Bt-transgenic BC2 plants in the absence of insects. Reproductive allocation of non-transgenic plants marginally increased with increasing proportions of Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure, which resulted in increased total biomass and seed production per stand. The results showed that the growth of non-transgenic plants was protected by Bt-transgenic plants under herbivore pressure. The Bt-transgene might not be advantageous in mixed stands of backcrossed hybrids; thus transgene introgression would not be facilitated when herbivorous insects are not present. However, a relatively large initial population of Bt-transgenic plants might result in transgene persistence when target herbivores are present.

  8. A Brassica exon array for whole-transcript gene expression profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Love

    Full Text Available Affymetrix GeneChip® arrays are used widely to study transcriptional changes in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. GeneChip® arrays comprise multiple 25-mer oligonucleotide probes per gene and retain certain advantages over direct sequencing. For plants, there are several public GeneChip® arrays whose probes are localised primarily in 3' exons. Plant whole-transcript (WT GeneChip® arrays are not yet publicly available, although WT resolution is needed to study complex crop genomes such as Brassica, which are typified by segmental duplications containing paralogous genes and/or allopolyploidy. Available sequence data were sampled from the Brassica A and C genomes, and 142,997 gene models identified. The assembled gene models were then used to establish a comprehensive public WT exon array for transcriptomics studies. The Affymetrix GeneChip® Brassica Exon 1.0 ST Array is a 5 µM feature size array, containing 2.4 million 25-base oligonucleotide probes representing 135,201 gene models, with 15 probes per gene distributed among exons. Discrimination of the gene models was based on an E-value cut-off of 1E(-5, with ≤98% sequence identity. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array was validated by quantifying transcriptome differences between leaf and root tissue from a reference Brassica rapa line (R-o-18, and categorisation by Gene Ontologies (GO based on gene orthology with Arabidopsis thaliana. Technical validation involved comparison of the exon array with a 60-mer array platform using the same starting RNA samples. The 135 k Brassica Exon Array is a robust platform. All data relating to the array design and probe identities are available in the public domain and are curated within the BrassEnsembl genome viewer at http://www.brassica.info/BrassEnsembl/index.html.

  9. Impact of Brassica and Lucerne Finishing Feeds and Intramuscular Fat on Lamb Eating Quality and Flavor. A Cross-Cultural Study Using Chinese and Non-Chinese Australian Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Watkins, Peter; Ball, Alex; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Sewell, James; Ortuño, Jordi; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2016-09-14

    Use of forage brassicas (Brassica napus) and lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa) as ruminant feeds has been linked to unacceptable flavors in sheepmeat. Lambs from low and high intramuscular fat sires were allocated to one of four finishing feeds-perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), lucerne, and two brassica forages-for a 6 week period. Grilled loins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) were subjected to chemical and sensory analysis by a trained panel and also evaluated by non-Chinese and Chinese background Australian consumers. Consumer liking was similar for both groups, and liking was highest for the brassica- and lucerne-finished lamb, especially from high intramuscular fat sires. No evidence of a distinctive lucerne- or brassica-induced flavor taint was measured by the trained panel or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The diets influenced the composition of lipids and branched-chain fatty acids in the subcutaneous fat, and the concentration of total branched-chain fatty acids was positively correlated with flavor and overall liking. Significantly higher levels of key aroma volatiles were measured in the higher fat samples.

  10. 不结球白菜根尖体细胞染色体制片及其二倍体和四倍体有丝分裂过程观察%Chromosome preparation of somatic cell in root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis ) and observation of mitosis process of its diploid and tetraploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金双; 张蜀宁; 孙成振; 王雅美

    2011-01-01

    以不结球白菜(Brassica campestris ssp.chinensis Makino)根尖为材料,对染色体制片过程中根长(小于0.5 cm、0.5 ~ 1.0 cm、1.0~2.0 cm及大于2.0 cm)、预处理方法、预处理剂种类(2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉、2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉与质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素等体积混合液、质量浓度0.2g·L-1秋水仙素、饱和对二氯苯、质量浓度20或40 mg·L-1放线菌酮、质量浓度40mg·L-1放线菌酮与2 mmol·L-1 8-羟基喹啉等体积混合液)及预处理时间(1.0~3.5 h)进行了比较和筛选;在此基础上,对二倍体和四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程进行观察.结果表明:根长度对分裂相的数量有显著影响;根长1.0~2.0 cm,分裂相相对较多,占细胞总数的64.75%.冰冻预处理22 ~ 23 h,能获得一定量的分裂相.采用不同的预处理剂及预处理时间,分裂相的数量及染色体形态有明显差异;用质量浓度40 mg·L-1放线菌酮溶液处理3.5h,分裂相数量最多,但易导致染色体加倍;用质量浓度20mg·L-1放线菌酮预处理3.5h,染色体长且着丝点及随体清晰,且分裂相较多,占细胞总数的53.65%.因而,根长度以1.0 ~2.0 cm为宜,适宜的预处理方法为用质量浓度20 mg·L-1放线菌酮浸泡2.0~3.0 h.二倍体及四倍体不结球白菜根尖体细胞有丝分裂过程基本相似,在有丝分裂的间期、前期、中期、后期和末期染色体的行为基本一致,但在四倍体的有丝分裂过程中会出现多价体、染色体桥、落后染色体、染色体异常分离及内源有丝分裂等异常现象.%Using root-tip of non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. Chinensis Makino) as experimental material, root length (shorter than 0.5 cm, 0.5-1.0 cm, 1.0-2.0 cm and longer than 2.0 cm) , pretreatment method, pretreatment agent types (2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline, equivalent volume mixed solution of 2 mmol · L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline and 0. 2 g

  11. A novel methyltransferase from the intracellular pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae methylates salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Jülke, Sabine; Geiß, Kathleen; Richter, Franziska; Mithöfer, Axel; Šola, Ivana; Rusak, Gordana; Keenan, Sandi; Bulman, Simon

    2015-05-01

    The obligate biotrophic pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae causes clubroot disease in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is characterized by large root galls. Salicylic acid (SA) production is a defence response in plants, and its methyl ester is involved in systemic signalling. Plasmodiophora brassicae seems to suppress plant defence reactions, but information on how this is achieved is scarce. Here, we profile the changes in SA metabolism during Arabidopsis clubroot disease. The accumulation of SA and the emission of methylated SA (methyl salicylate, MeSA) were observed in P. brassicae-infected Arabidopsis 28 days after inoculation. There is evidence that MeSA is transported from infected roots to the upper plant. Analysis of the mutant Atbsmt1, deficient in the methylation of SA, indicated that the Arabidopsis SA methyltransferase was not responsible for alterations in clubroot symptoms. We found that P. brassicae possesses a methyltransferase (PbBSMT) with homology to plant methyltransferases. The PbBSMT gene is maximally transcribed when SA production is highest. By heterologous expression and enzymatic analyses, we showed that PbBSMT can methylate SA, benzoic and anthranilic acids.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: rape [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Brassica_napus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassic...a+napus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Brassica+napus&t=NS ...

  13. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea a

  14. Do escaped transgenes persist in nature? The case of an herbicide resistance transgene in a weedy Brassica rapa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, S I; Légère, A; Simard, M-J; James, T

    2008-03-01

    The existence of transgenic hybrids resulting from transgene escape from genetically modified (GM) crops to wild or weedy relatives is well documented but the fate of the transgene over time in recipient wild species populations is still relatively unknown. This is the first report of the persistence and apparent introgression, i.e. stable incorporation of genes from one differentiated gene pool into another, of an herbicide resistance transgene from Brassica napus into the gene pool of its weedy relative, Brassica rapa, monitored under natural commercial field conditions. Hybridization between glyphosate-resistant [herbicide resistance (HR)]B. napus and B. rapa was first observed at two Québec sites, Ste Agathe and St Henri, in 2001. B. rapa populations at these two locations were monitored in 2002, 2003 and 2005 for the presence of hybrids and transgene persistence. Hybrid numbers decreased over the 3-year period, from 85 out of approximately 200 plants surveyed in 2002 to only five out of 200 plants in 2005 (St Henri site). Most hybrids had the HR trait, reduced male fertility, intermediate genome structure, and presence of both species-specific amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Both F(1) and backcross hybrid generations were detected. One introgressed individual, i.e. with the HR trait and diploid ploidy level of B. rapa, was observed in 2005. The latter had reduced pollen viability but produced approximately 480 seeds. Forty-eight of the 50 progeny grown from this plant were diploid with high pollen viability and 22 had the transgene (1:1 segregation). These observations confirm the persistence of the HR trait over time. Persistence occurred over a 6-year period, in the absence of herbicide selection pressure (with the exception of possible exposure to glyphosate in 2002), and in spite of the fitness cost associated with hybridization.

  15. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  16. Drug: D09374 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D09374 Crude, Drug Rapeseed oil, fully hydrogenated superglycerinated (NF) Brassica... napus [TAX:3708], Brassica campestris [TAX:439823] Brassicaceae (mustard family) Brassica napus, Brassica campestris seed oil hydrogenated, superglycerinated PubChem: 96026054 ...

  17. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  18. The Clubroot Pathogen (Plasmodiophora brassicae Influences Auxin Signaling to Regulate Auxin Homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jahn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clubroot disease, caused by the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae, affects cruciferous crops worldwide. It is characterized by root swellings as symptoms, which are dependent on the alteration of auxin and cytokinin metabolism. Here, we describe that two different classes of auxin receptors, the TIR family and the auxin binding protein 1 (ABP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana are transcriptionally upregulated upon gall formation. Mutations in the TIR family resulted in more susceptible reactions to the root pathogen. As target genes for the different pathways we have investigated the transcriptional regulation of selected transcriptional repressors (Aux/IAA and transcription factors (ARF. As the TIR pathway controls auxin homeostasis via the upregulation of some auxin conjugate synthetases (GH3, the expression of selected GH3 genes was also investigated, showing in most cases upregulation. A double gh3 mutant showed also slightly higher susceptibility to P. brassicae infection, while all tested single mutants did not show any alteration in the clubroot phenotype. As targets for the ABP1-induced cell elongation the effect of potassium channel blockers on clubroot formation was investigated. Treatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA resulted in less severe clubroot symptoms. This research provides evidence for the involvement of two auxin signaling pathways in Arabidopsis needed for the establishment of the root galls by P. brassicae.

  19. Inheritance of rapeseed (Brassica napus)-specific RAPD markers and a transgene in the cross B.juncea x (B.juncea x B.napus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frello, S.; Hansen, K.R.; Jensen, J.

    1995-01-01

    , with B. juncea as the female parent, was successful both in controlled crosses and spontaneously in the field. The controlled backcrossing of selected hybrids to B. juncea, again with B. juncea as the female parent, also resulted in many seeds. The BC1 plants contained from 0 to 20 of the rapeseed RAPD...... markers, and the frequency of inheritance of individual RAPD markers ranged from 19% to 93%. The transgene was found in 52% of the plants analyzed. Five synteny groups of RAPD markers were identified. In the hybrids pollen fertility was 0-28%. The hybrids with the highest pollen fertility were selected...

  20. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  1. The detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaczmarek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot, is a very serious problem preventing from successful and profitable cultivation of oilseed rape in Poland. The pathogen was found in all main growing areas of oilseed rape; it also causes considerable problems in growing of vegetable brassicas. The aim of this work was to elaborate fast, cheap and reliable screening method to detect P. brassicae. To achieve this aim the Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP technique has been elaborated. The set of three primer pairs was designed using LAMP software. The detection was performed with the GspSSD polymerase, isolated from bacteria Geobacillus sp., with strand displacement activity. DNA extraction from clubbed roots obtained from farmers’ fields of oilseed rape infected by P. brassicae was done using a modified CTAB method. The reaction was performed for 60 min at 62oC. The visual detection was done using CFX96 Real Time PCR Detection System (BioRad or Gerie II Amplicatior (Optigen. The detection with LAMP proved its usefulness; it was easy, fast and accurate and independent of plant age. The detection limit was 5 spores per 1 µl of the spore suspension, so LAMP was less sensitive than quantitative PCR tests reported in the literature. However, the method is cheap and simple, so it is a good alternative, when it comes to practical use and the assessment of numerous samples.

  2. Characterization of a putative pollen-specific arabinogalactan protein gene, BcMF8, from Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Cao, Jia-Shu; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Ye, Yi-Qun

    2008-12-01

    The BcMF8 (Brassica campestris male fertility 8) gene, possessing the features of 'classical' arabinogalactan protein (AGP) was isolated from Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis, Makino syn. B. rapa L. ssp. chinensis. This gene was highly abundant in the fertile flower buds but silenced in the sterile ones of genic male sterile A/B line ('ZUBajh97-01A/B') in B. campestris. Expression patterns analysis suggested BcMF8 was a pollen-specific gene, whose transcript started to be expressed at the uninucleate stage and maintained throughout to the pollen at pollination stage. BcMF8 is highly homologous to the known pollen-specific AGP genes Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 from B. napus. Isolation and multiple alignment of the homologs of BcMF8 gene in the family Cruciferae indicated that BcMF8 was highly conserved in this family, which reflect the conservation in biological function and importance of this putative AGP gene in plant development. Similarity analysis also demonstrated Sta 39-4 and Sta 39-3 may originate from different genomes.

  3. A novel method for efficient and abundant production of Phytophthora brassicae zoospores on Brussels sprout leaf discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govers Francine

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora species are notorious oomycete pathogens that cause diseases on a wide range of plants. Our understanding how these pathogens are able to infect their host plants will benefit greatly from information obtained from model systems representative for plant-Phytophthora interactions. One attractive model system is the interaction between Arabidopsis and Phytophthora brassicae. Under laboratory conditions, Arabidopsis can be easily infected with mycelial plugs as inoculum. In the disease cycle, however, sporangia or zoospores are the infectious propagules. Since the current P. brassicae zoospore isolation methods are generally regarded as inefficient, we aimed at developing an alternative method for obtaining high concentrations of P. brassicae zoospores. Results P. brassicae isolates were tested for pathogenicity on Brussels sprout plants (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera. Microscopic examination of leaves, stems and roots infected with a GFP-tagged transformant of P. brassicae clearly demonstrated the susceptibility of the various tissues. Leaf discs were cut from infected Brussels sprout leaves, transferred to microwell plates and submerged in small amounts of water. In the leaf discs the hyphae proliferated and abundant formation of zoosporangia was observed. Upon maturation the zoosporangia released zoospores in high amounts and zoospore production continued during a period of at least four weeks. The zoospores were shown to be infectious on Brussels sprouts and Arabidopsis. Conclusion The in vitro leaf disc method established from P. brassicae infected Brussels sprout leaves facilitates convenient and high-throughput production of infectious zoospores and is thus suitable to drive small and large scale inoculation experiments. The system has the advantage that zoospores are produced continuously over a period of at least one month.

  4. Clubroot in the cole crops: the interaction between Plasmodiophora brassicae and Brassica oleracea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    The clubroot disease of the cole crops ( Brassica oleracea ) and other crucifers is caused by the fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae . It is an important disease, affecting an estimated 10 % of the total cultured area world-wide. The potential of cultural practices to reduce crop losses due to clubroot

  5. Ozone affects growth and development of Pieris brassicae on the wild host plant Brassica nigra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaling, E.; Papazian, S.; Poelman, E.H.; Holopainen, J.K.; Albrectsen, B.R.; Blande, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    When plants are exposed to ozone they exhibit changes in both primary and secondary metabolism, which may affect their interactions with herbivorous insects. Here we investigated the performance and preferences of the specialist herbivore Pieris brassicae on the wild plant Brassica nigra under eleva

  6. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from Brassica kaber to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa through embryo rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, J; Hall, J Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides are widely used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Prolonged use of auxinic herbicides has resulted in the evolution of resistance to these herbicides in some biotypes of Brassica kaber (wild mustard), a common weed in agricultural crops. In this study, auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber was transferred to Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa, two commercially important Brassica crops, by traditional breeding coupled with in vitro embryo rescue. A high frequency of embryo regeneration and hybrid plant establishment was achieved. Transfer of auxinic herbicide resistance from B. kaber to the hybrids was assessed by whole-plant screening of hybrids with dicamba, a widely used auxinic herbicide. Furthermore, the hybrids were tested for fertility (both pollen and pistil) and their ability to produce backcross progeny. The auxinic herbicide-resistant trait was introgressed into B. juncea by backcross breeding. DNA ploidy of the hybrids as well as of the backcross progeny was estimated by flow cytometry. Creation of auxinic herbicide-resistant Brassica crops by non-transgenic approaches should facilitate effective weed control, encourage less tillage, provide herbicide rotation options, minimize occurrence of herbicide resistance, and increase acceptance of these crops.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14077-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tzomyia longipalpis ... 44 9.6 1 ( EV226355 ) 0108281 Brassica napus Damaged cotyledons Brassic... 44 9.6 1 ...( EV225735 ) 0107661 Brassica napus Damaged cotyledons Brassic... 44 9.6 1 ( EV225532 ) 0107458 Brassica napus Damage...d cotyledons Brassic... 44 9.6 1 ( EV223333 ) 0105259 Brassica napus Damage

  8. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p < 0.01). The toxic effect of AlCl(3) on Brassica chinensis was less with a neutral pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (<64 mg . L(-1)) of PAC in a neutral condition than in an acidic condition. Undoubtedly, the Al toxicity caused by Al-based coagulants at a neutral pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  9. Effect of some plant growth regulators on lindane and alpha-endosulfan toxicity to Brassica chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouychai, Waraporn

    2012-07-01

    The effect of indolebutyric acid (IBA) and gibberellic acid (GA3), to alleviate the organochlorine phytotoxicity were studied in Brassica chinensis. Presence of organochlorine decreased Brassica chinensis seedlings growth in contaminated alkaline soil. One mg l(-1) IBA could enhance 14 and 26% shoot and root length of B. chinensis seedlings grown at 40 mg kg(-1) lindane contaminated soil, respectively. Ten mg l(-1) IBA also increased 80 and 40% root fresh weight of seedling grown in 40 mg kg(-1) lindane and alpha-endosulfan contaminated soils, respectively. However, IBAhad no effect on shoot and root length of seedlings grown in endosulfan contaminated soil. On the other hand, 10 mg l(-1) GA3 only increased 80% of shoot and root fresh weigh of B. chinensisin 40 mg kg(-1) endosulfan contaminated soil. External auxin addition could increase B. chinensis growth in lindane more than endosulfan contaminated soil. External gibberellin was less effective than external auxin to increase B. chinensis growth in organochlorine contaminated soil. There is possibility that auxin could decrease organochlorine phytotoxicity in plants and hence can be useful for organochlorine phytoremediation.

  10. Qualidade e produtividade de sementes de canola (Brassica napus após aplicação de dessecantes em pré-colheita Quality and yield of canola (Brassica napus seeds after pre-harvest desiccant application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Marchiori Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A cultura de canola é indicada nos esquemas de rotação de culturas, bem como para diversificação agrícola e cobertura vegetal do solo no período de inverno na Região Sul do Brasil. Contudo, a colheita mecanizada é uma das operações mais críticas do sistema de produção, uma vez que os frutos do tipo síliqua apresentam maturação desuniforme, gerando grandes perdas de produtividade devido à deiscência natural. O uso de dessecantes químicos permite uma colheita com as síliquas em maturação mais uniforme, porém é importante a manutenção da qualidade do produto obtido. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de herbicidas dessecantes na produtividade e na qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de canola cultivar Hyola 401. Os herbicidas utilizados foram o glufosinato de amônio (0,5 kg ha-1, carfentrazone-ethyl (0,03 kg ha-1, paraquat (0,4 kg ha-1 e diquat (0,3 kg ha-1, mais a testemunha sem aplicação. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada por meio dos testes de germinação, de envelhecimento acelerado, de condutividade elétrica, de emergência em areia, de velocidade de emergência e de sanidade. A aplicação dos produtos dessecantes permitiu uma antecipação de sete dias na colheita das sementes de canola. A produtividade de sementes não foi afetada pela dessecação. A aplicação do glufosinato de amônio e carfentrazone-ethyl reduziu (PCanola crop is indicated to integrate crop rotation systems, as well as for agricultural diversification and vegetal ground cover during winter in southern Brazil. However, mechanical harvest is critical to crop production, since pods present a non-uniform ripening, leading to great yield losses, due to natural dehiscence. Desiccants are usually applied to provide a more uniform harvest, maintaining the quality of the product. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of desiccant application on productivity and physiological/sanitary quality of canola (cv. Hyola 401 seeds. The desiccants evaluated were ammonium glufosinate (0.5 kg ha-1, carfentrazone-ethyl (0.03 g ha-1, paraquat (0.4 kg ha-1, diquat (0.3 kg ha-1, and a non-sprayed check. Seed quality was evaluated by germination test, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, emergence in sand seedbank, speed of emergence-index and seed health. Desiccant application provided a seven-day antecipation of canola seed harvest. Seed yield was not affected by desiccation. Application of ammonium glufosinate and carfentrazone-ethyl decreased (P<0.05 the seed protein contents. Chemical desiccation did not have any negative effect on the physiological quality of the seeds.

  11. 甘蓝型油菜(Brassica napus)中一个未知功能蛋白基因的cDNA克隆%The cDNA Cloning of a Gene Encoding an Unknown Protein from Brassica napus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱峰; 王茂林; 刘阳; 周云涛; 赵云; 张帆

    2005-01-01

    随着现代分子生物学的发展,许多物种,特别是拟南芥等模式生物的整个基因组序列以及其中一部分基因的功能已经比较清楚,但仍然存在大量功能未知的基因有待进一步研究,从已知片段出发,利用cDNA末端快速扩增(rapid amplification of cDNA ends,RACE)技术钓取基因全长,并结合生物信息学技术预测蛋白质结构,是研究未知基因功能的一种重要手段.

  12. Inheritance of Erucic Acid, Glucosinolate, and Oleic Acid Contents in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ze-su; Laosuwan Paisan; Machikowa Thitiporn; Chen Ze-hui; Dai Wen-dong; Tang Rong; Li De-zhen

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the inheritance of certain characters of rapeseed including erucic acid, glucosinolate and oleic acid contents by using generation mean analysis. The cross of lines Ⅲ174×Zi20 (F1), F2, BC1 (F1×P1), BC2 (F1×P2), and parents (P1 and P2) were evaluated in the field. Data were measured on individual plants for oleic acid, erucic acid, and glucosinolate contents. Transgressive variations in F2 population were observed for oleic acid content, indicating that dominance and recessive genes distributed in both parents. Scaling test indicated that the effects of genes controlling these characters did not follow the additivedominance model. The data for three characters were analyzed using six parameter models and found that one or more types of epistatic gene effects were important for glucosinolate content. High broad sense heritabilities were obtained for erucic acid, oleic acid, and glucosinolate contents with the values of 98.97%, 93.68%, and 86.17%, respectively. Two major gene pairs were found to control the expression of erucic acid and oleic acid contents, while three major gene pairs were detected to control glucosinolate content.

  13. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    (III) at concentrations of 10-50-mu-g/ml did not significantly alter the concentrations of polyamines nor the chitinase activities in either species, however, at 100-mu-g/ml in barley Cr(III) induced an increase in putrescine concentration after 6 days of exposure. The induction of chitinases and the increases...... in the putrescine level caused by Cr(VI) but not by Cr(III) (10-50-mu-g/ml) exposure is similar in the two species suggesting an analogous defense system in both mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. The anionic form of Cr(VI) seems to be more potent than the cationic form of Cr(III). Grain of barley plants grown...

  14. To be or not to be biosafe. An evaluation of transgenic phosphinothricin-tolerant oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, P.J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic modification is an additional tool for conventional plant breeding to improve the application and quality of crop plants. No longer hampered by natural crossing barriers, application of genetic modification results in a nearly infinite pool from which genes, after isolation, can be introduce

  15. Response of winter rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera Metzg., Sinsk to foliar fertilization and different seeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in growing winter rape was carried out during the period 2009-2011 in a family farm (owned by Mr. M. Bednarczyk located in Jaroszewice (Lublin region, on podzolic soil. Plant biometric features as well as yield and seed qualitative parameters (oil, protein and glucosinolate content were evaluated depending on the following rates of soil NPK fertilizers and on foliar fertilization (autumn spraying with the fertilizer solution: 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + nickel chelate + MgSO4H2O; 100% and 75% of NPK as well as urea + Plonvit R + MgSO4H2O. Plots without foliar fertilization (only 100% of NPK were the control treatment. The other experimental factor was the seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1 – 30 cm row spacing; 4 kg×ha-1 – 18 cm row spacing. Foliar spraying was done once in the autumn in the second decade of October. Tillage as well as mechanical and chemical control of agricultural pests in the plantation were typical for this plant species and consistent with the recommendations for winter rape protection. A hypothesis was made that the application of foliar fertilizers would have a beneficial effect on winter rape productivity, at the same time maintaining the high quality of raw material. It was also assumed that a reduction in the seeding rate of winter oilseed rape would result in reduced plant lodging and an increased number of siliques per plant; as a consequence, seed and oil productivity would be at a level not lower than that obtained at the higher seeding rate. The present study has proved that foliar fertilization of winter oilseed rape in the autumn period contributes to improved plant winter hardiness and increased productivity. The application of foliar fertilizers also enables the rates of basic mineral NPK fertilizers to be reduced by 25% without detriment to seed yield. Foliar fertilizers have been found to have a weaker effect on changing the chemical composition of rapeseed. The study has shown that, from the productive point of view, it is justified to use the lower seeding rate (2.5 kg×ha-1, since winter rape yield (seed and oil yield did not significantly differ from that found in the case of the higher seeding rate (4.0 kg×ha-1.

  16. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant.

  17. Study of variation of tocochromanol and phytosterol contents in black and yellow seeds of Brassica napus L. doubled haploid populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cegielska-Taras

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the study, an analysis of tocopherols, plastochomanol-8 and phytosterols was conducted using DH lines obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between yellow- and black-seeded lines. Material and methods. The biological material for the study consisted of two DH populations of winter oilseed rape obtained from F1 hybrids of reciprocal crosses between two DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded. Seed color was determined using a ColorFlex spectrophotometer. Fat content was determined via pulsed NMR. The levels of tocopherols, and plastochromanol-8 are analyzed using HPLC. Phytosterol contents and composition were determined by the GC method. Results. The fat content of the black-seeded parental line was 49% and this was higher than that of the yellow-seeded parental line (44%. The fat content of DH line populations ranged from 44 to 51%. Total tocopherol content ranged from 460 to 602 mg/kg and the α-T/γ-T ratio was from 0.66 to 1.09. In parental lines H2-26 and Z-114 the total tocopherol content was 534 and 525 mg/kg, but the α-T/γ-T ratios were 0.81 and 1.21, respectively. The yellow-seeded parental line (Z-114 was characterized by a higher PC-8 content (81 mg/kg than the H2-26 black-seeded parental line (58 mg/kg. The largest part of the total phytosterol content in seeds of both populations was β-sitosterol from 976 to 2148 mg/kg, followed by campasterol, from 636 to 1364 mg/kg, and brassicasterol from 375 to 678 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged from 462 to 595 mg/kg (population HxZ and from 460 to 602 mg/kg (population ZxH. Signifi cantly positive correlations were observed between the seed color with α-T (r = 0.38, p < 0.01, γ-T (r = –0,34, p < 0.01 and PC-8 content (r = 0.29, p < 0.01. Correlations between the seed color with total tocopherol and total phytosterol content were not noted. Conclusion. Considering the range of genetic variation among doubled haploids of two populations, selected DH lines may be good parents for further breeding programs focused on increasing the amount and improving the quality of oilseed rapeseed oil. However, further studies will also be made to determine the infl uence of the environment on bioactive compounds in rapeseed oil. Cross direction of parental DH lines: yellow- and black-seeded has some infl uence, albeit not statistically signifi cant, on the diversity of doubled haploid in their populations with regard to average fat, tocochromanol and phytosterol content.

  18. Effects of Super-Absorbent Polymer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.

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    Fariborz SHEKARI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Limitation of water resources and its great impact on agricultural and natural resources play a crucial role in the efficiency of water use. Applying super absorbent polymer to the soil may be one of the methods to minimize the stress of weather dryness in arid and semi-arid regions. In order to evaluate the effects of hydrophilic polymer application on yield and water use efficiency of rapeseed plants, an experiment was conducted under field condition in 2012 at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh. Treatments’ factors were: (i 3 super absorbent polymers (SAP (Taravat A200 levels of 0 (without application, 75 and 150 kg ha-1 A200 application, (ii three irrigation levels of 80, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A basin in main plots, (iii two cultivars ʻHyola 401ʼ and ʻRVSʼ in sub plots as factorial split plot combination based on completely randomized block design with three replications. The results showed that in all of the measured traits within the experiment there were significant differences between SAP levels. Furthermore, increasing irrigation interval led to an increase in a thousand seeds’ weight, but decreased seed yield. Increasing water stress raised seed oil percent and infertile silique and subsequently resulted in reduced oil yield. ʻHyola 401ʼ was more susceptible to embryo abortion compared with ʻRVSʼ. As a conclusion of the research, SAP (A200 application in quantities smaller than 75 kg ha-1 may be recommended for rapeseed production under field condition.

  19. Effect of inter- and intragenic epistasis on the heritability of oil content in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans Peter; Dreyer, Felix; Reif, Jochen C

    2013-02-01

    The loci detected by association mapping which are involved in the expression of important agronomic traits in crops often explain only a small proportion of the total genotypic variance. Here, 17 SNPs derived from 9 candidate genes from the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway were studied in an association analysis in a population of 685 diverse elite rapeseed inbred lines. The 685 lines were evaluated for oil content, as well as for glucosinolates, yield, and thousand-kernel weight in field trials at 4 locations. We detected main effects for most of the studied genes illustrating that genetic diversit