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Sample records for brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast

  1. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

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    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  2. Yeasts in Hevea brasiliensis Latex.

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    Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Maksimova, I A; Chernov, I Yu

    2016-07-01

    Yeast abundance and species diversity in the latex of caoutchouc tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Juss.) M611. Arg., on its green leaves, and in soil below the plant Was studied. The yeasts present in the fresh latex in concentrations of up to 5.5 log(CFU/g) were almost exclusively represented by the species Candida heveicola, which was previously isolated from Hevea latex in China. In the course of natural modification of the latex yeast diversity increased, while yeast abundance decreased. The yeasts of thickened and solidified latex were represented by typical epiphytic and ubiquitous species: Kodamea ohmeri, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and synanthropic species Candida parapsilosis and Cutaneotrichosporon arbori- formis. The role of yeasts in latex modification at the initial stages of succession and their probable role in de- velopment of antifungal activity in the latex are discussed.

  3. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

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    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD, thioredoxins (THX and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP. Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  4. Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov., a xylanolytic, ustilaginomycetous yeast species isolated from an insect pest of sugarcane roots.

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    Oliveira, Juliana Velasco de Castro; Borges, Thuanny A; Corrêa dos Santos, Renato Augusto; Freitas, Larissa F D; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    A novel ustilaginomycetous yeast isolated from the intestinal tract of an insect pest of sugarcane roots in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, represents a novel species of the genus Pseudozyma based on molecular analyses of the D1/D2 rDNA large subunit and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1+ITS2) regions. The name Pseudozyma brasiliensis sp. nov. is proposed for this species, with GHG001(T) ( = CBS 13268(T) = UFMG-CM-Y307(T)) as the type strain. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is a sister species of Pseudozyma vetiver, originally isolated from leaves of vetiver grass and sugarcane in Thailand. P. brasiliensis sp. nov. is able to grow well with xylan as the sole carbon source and produces high levels of an endo-1,4-xylanase that has a higher specific activity in comparison with other eukaryotic xylanases. This enzyme has a variety of industrial applications, indicating the great biotechnological potential of P. brasiliensis. © 2014 IUMS.

  5. Cell organisation, sulphur metabolism and ion transport-related genes are differentially expressed in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis mycelium and yeast cells

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    Passos Geraldo AS

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycelium-to-yeast transition in the human host is essential for pathogenicity by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and both cell types are therefore critical to the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. The infected population is of about 10 million individuals, 2% of whom will eventually develop the disease. Previously, transcriptome analysis of mycelium and yeast cells resulted in the assembly of 6,022 sequence groups. Gene expression analysis, using both in silico EST subtraction and cDNA microarray, revealed genes that were differential to yeast or mycelium, and we discussed those involved in sugar metabolism. To advance our understanding of molecular mechanisms of dimorphic transition, we performed an extended analysis of gene expression profiles using the methods mentioned above. Results In this work, continuous data mining revealed 66 new differentially expressed sequences that were MIPS(Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences-categorised according to the cellular process in which they are presumably involved. Two well represented classes were chosen for further analysis: (i control of cell organisation – cell wall, membrane and cytoskeleton, whose representatives were hex (encoding for a hexagonal peroxisome protein, bgl (encoding for a 1,3-β-glucosidase in mycelium cells; and ags (an α-1,3-glucan synthase, cda (a chitin deacetylase and vrp (a verprolin in yeast cells; (ii ion metabolism and transport – two genes putatively implicated in ion transport were confirmed to be highly expressed in mycelium cells – isc and ktp, respectively an iron-sulphur cluster-like protein and a cation transporter; and a putative P-type cation pump (pct in yeast. Also, several enzymes from the cysteine de novo biosynthesis pathway were shown to be up regulated in the yeast form, including ATP sulphurylase, APS kinase and also PAPS reductase. Conclusion Taken

  6. Radio-attenuated leishmanial parasites as immunoprophylactic agent against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Datta, Sanchita; Adak, Rupchand; Chakraborty, Priyanka; Haldar, Arun Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Chakraborty, Anindita; Roy, Syamal; Manna, Madhumita

    2012-01-01

    The present study intends to evaluate the role of radio-attenuated leishmania parasites as immunoprophylactic agents for experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis. BALB/c mice were immunized with gamma (γ)-irradiated Leishmania donovani. A second immunization was given after 15 days of first immunization. After two immunizations, mice were infected with virulent L. donovani promastigotes. Protection against Kala-azar (KA) was estimated from spleen and liver parasitic burden along with the measurement of nitrite and superoxide anion generation by isolation of splenocytes and also by T-lymphocyte helper 1(Th1) and T-lymphocyte helper 2(Th2) cytokines release from the experimental groups. It was observed that BALB/c mice having prior immunization with radio-attenuated parasites showed protection against L. donovani infection through higher expression of Th1 cytokines and suppression of Th2 cytokines along with the generation of protective free radicals. The group of mice without prior priming with radio-attenuated parasites surrendered to the disease. Thus it can be concluded that radio-attenuated L. donovani may be used for. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The diversity and extracellular enzymatic activities of yeasts isolated from water tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species in Brazil, and the description of Occultifur brasiliensis f.a., sp. nov.

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    Gomes, Fátima C O; Safar, Silvana V B; Marques, Andrea R; Medeiros, Adriana O; Santos, Ana Raquel O; Carvalho, Cláudia; Lachance, Marc-André; Sampaio, José Paulo; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-02-01

    The diversity of yeast species collected from the bromeliad tanks of Vriesea minarum, an endangered bromeliad species, and their ability to produce extracellular enzymes were studied. Water samples were collected from 30 tanks of bromeliads living in a rupestrian field site located at Serrada Piedade, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, during both the dry and rainy seasons. Thirty-six species were isolated, representing 22 basidiomycetous and 14 ascomycetous species. Occultifur sp., Cryptococcus podzolicus and Cryptococcus sp. 1 were the prevalent basidiomycetous species. The yeast-like fungus from the order Myriangiales, Candida silvae and Aureobasidium pullulans were the most frequent ascomycetous species. The diversity of the yeast communities obtained between seasons was not significantly different, but the yeast composition per bromeliad was different between seasons. These results suggest that there is significant spatial heterogeneity in the composition of populations of the yeast communities within bromeliad tanks, independent of the season. Among the 352 yeast isolates tested, 282 showed at least one enzymatic activity. Protease activity was the most widely expressed extracellular enzymatic activity, followed by xylanase, amylase, pectinase and cellulase activities. These enzymes may increase the carbon and nitrogen availability for the microbial food web in the bromeliad tank of V. minarum. Sequence analyses revealed the existence of 10 new species, indicating that bromeliad tanks are important sources of new yeasts. The novel species Occultifur brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the most frequently isolated yeast associated with V. minarum. The type strain of O. brasiliensis, f.a., sp. nov. is UFMG-CM-Y375(T) (= CBS 12687(T)). The Mycobank number is MB 809816.

  8. Kinetic analysis of gene expression during mycelium to yeast transition and yeast to mycelium germination in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Análisis de la cinética de expresión de genes durante la transición de micelio a levadura y la germinación levadura a micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Ana María García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic mycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a thermally dimorphic fungus that in tissues and cultures at 37ºC grows as a yeast while at lower temperatures (less than 24 ºC it becomes a mold; however the genes that rule these processes and their expression are poorly understood.
    Objective.This research focused on the kinetic expression of certain genes in P. brasiliensis throughout the dimorphic process, one that involves the transition from the mycelium-to-yeast(M-Y forms and the germination from the yeast-to-mycelium(Y- M form.
    Materials and methods. A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-qPCR was optimized to measure the expression of ten genes connected with diverse cellular functions including cell synthesis and wall structure, oxidative stress response, heat shock response, metabolism, proteins' processing, solute transport across the cell membrane and signal transduction pathways at different time points during the M-Y transition, as well as in the Y-M germination processes.
    Results.Genes involved in cell synthesis and wall structure, metabolism and signal transduction were differentially expressed and highly up-regulated during the Y-M germination process; on the other hand, genes involved in heat shock response, cell synthesis and wall structure were highly up-regulated during the M-Y transition process. The remaining genes were differentially regulated during both processes.
    Conclusion.In this work the up-regulation of certain genes involved in the morphological changes occurring in P. brasiliensis yeast and mycelia forms were confirmed, indicating that these biological processes play an important role during the host-pathogen interactions, as well as in the fungus adaptation to environmental conditions
    Introducción. La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica causada por el hogo termo-dimórfico Paracoccidioides

  9. Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov., Spathaspora suhii sp. nov., Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov., four novel (D)-xylose-fermenting yeast species from Brazilian Amazonian forest.

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    Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Mouro, Adriane; Prompt, Alice H; Gomes, Fátima C O; Stambuk, Boris U; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-02-01

    Four new D-xylose fermenting yeast species of the clade Spathaspora were recovered from rotting-wood samples in a region of Amazonian forest, Northern Brazil. Three species produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends. These species are described as Spathaspora brasiliensis, Spathaspora suhii and Spathaspora roraimanensis. Two isolates of an asexually reproducing species belonging to the Spathaspora clade were also obtained and they are described as Spathaspora xylofermentans. All these species are able to ferment D-xylose during aerobic batch growth in rich YP (1 % yeast extract, 2 % peptone and 2 % D-xylose) medium, albeit with differing efficiencies. The type strains are Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov UFMG-HMD19.3 (=CBMAI 1425=CBS 12679), Spathaspora suhii sp. nov. UFMG-XMD16.2 (=CBMAI 1426=CBS 12680), Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. UFMG-XMD23.2 (CBMAI 1427=CBS 12681) and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov. UFMG-HMD23.3 (=CBMAI 1428=CBS 12682).

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis

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    Fernandes, Alison M; Sluzevich, Jason C; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis . Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  11. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D; St Leger, Judy A; Dalton, Leslie M; Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; McCarthy, Peter J; Fair, Patricia A; Mendoza, Leonel

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti.

  12. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D.; St. Leger, Judy A.; Dalton, Leslie M.; Reif, John S.; Schaefer, Adam M.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Fair, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti. PMID:27869614

  13. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

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    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei

    2016-08-01

    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin.

  14. Adherence and intracellular parasitism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Vero cells.

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    Hanna, S A; Monteiro da Silva, J L; Giannini, M J

    2000-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus known to produce invasive systemic disease in humans. The 43-kDa glycoprotein of P. brasiliensis is the major diagnostic antigen of paracoccidioidomycosis and may act as a virulence factor, since it is a receptor for laminin.Very little is known about early interactions between this fungus and the host cells, so we developed in vitro a model system employing cultured mammalian cells (Vero cells), in order to investigate the factors and virulence mechanisms of P.brasiliensis related to the adhesion and invasion process. We found that there is a permanent interaction after 30 min of contact between the fungus and the cells. The yeasts multiply in the cells for between 5 and 24 h. Different strains of P. brasiliensis were compared, and strain 18 (high virulence) was the most strongly adherent, followed by strain 113 (virulent), 265 (considered of low virulence) and 113M (mutant obtained by ultraviolet radiation, deficient in gp43). P. brasiliensis adhered to the epithelial cells by a narrow tube, while depressions were noticed in the cell surface, suggesting an active cavitation process. An inhibition assay was performed and it was verified that anti-gp43 serum and a pool of sera from individuals with paracoccidioidomycosis were able to inhibit the adhesion of P. brasiliensis to the Vero cells. Glycoprotein 43 (gp43) antiserum abolished 85% of the binding activity of P. brasiliensis. This fungus can also invade the Vero cells, and intraepithelial parasitism could be an escape mechanism in paracoccidioidomycosis.

  15. Ultrastructure of dimorphic transformation in paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Carbonell, L M

    1969-11-01

    The fine structure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis undergoing temperature-dependent transformation from mycelium to yeast and vice versa (M right harpoon over left harpoon Y) was studied. The transitional form to mycelium from the yeast appears as an elongated bud that extends from the yeast and which has a mixture of characteristics from both the yeast and the mycelium. The transitional form to yeast from the mycelium starts with enlargement of the interseptal spaces and cracking of the outer electron-dense layer of the cell wall of the hypha. Later the interseptal spaces tend to become round and separate. In M --> Y only few interseptal spaces seem to transform. The yeast is produced by self-transformation of the hypha. In Y --> M a new structure is formed and the yeast dies. Intrahyphal hyphae are observed during the transformation from M --> Y, and intrayeast hyphae during the Y --> M. Due to the high mortality and breakage observed in both types of transformations, we believe that wound of the yeast or the mycelium could elicit this phenomenon.

  16. Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    le phosphore inorganique ont présenté les meilleures tendances à prédire le potentiel de production à l'âge adulte. Mots clés : Hevea brasiliensis, production, sélection précoce, paramètres physiologiques, CI. ABSTRACT. SELECTIVE QUALITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN EARLY SELECTION OF Hevea ...

  17. Therapeutic immunization with radio-attenuated Leishmania parasites through i.m. route revealed protection against the experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Datta, Sanchita; Manna, Madhumita; Khanra, Supriya; Ghosh, Moumita; Bhar, Radhaballav; Chakraborty, Anindita; Roy, Syamal

    2012-07-01

    After our promising results from prophylactic and therapeutic study (i.p. route) with the radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, we prompted to check their therapeutic efficacy through i.m route. BALB/c mice were infected with highly virulent L. donovani parasites. After 75 days, mice were treated with gamma (γ)-irradiated parasites. A second therapeutic immunization was given after 15 days of first immunization. The protection against kala-azar was estimated with the reduction of Leishman-Donovan unit from spleen and liver that scored up to 80% and 93%, respectively, while a twofold increase in nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions has been observed in the immunized groups of animals. These groups of mice also showed disease regression by skewing Th2 cytokines (IL-10) towards Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) bias along with the increased generation of NO and ROS, while the infected control group of mice without such treatment surrendered to the disease. Establishment of Th1 ambience in the treated groups has also been supported from the measured antileishmanial antibody IgG subsets (IgG2a and IgG1) with higher anti-soluble Leishmania antigen-specific IgG2a titer. As seen in our previous studies, doses of attenuation by γ-radiation should be taken into serious consideration. Attenuation of parasites at 50 Gy of absorbed dose of gamma rays has not worked well. Thus, therapeutic use of L. donovani parasites radio-attenuated at particular doses can be exploited as a promising vaccine agent. Absence of any adjuvant may increase its acceptability as vaccine candidate further.

  18. Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole

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    E Takahagi-Nakaira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

  19. Therapy with radio-attenuated vaccine in experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis showed enhanced T cell and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels, suppressed tumor growth factor-beta production with higher expression of some signaling molecules.

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    Datta, Sanchita; Roy, Syamal; Manna, Madhumita

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or Kala-Azar (KA) is one of the most deadly forms of disease among all neglected tropical diseases. There are no satisfactory drugs or vaccine candidates available for this dreaded disease. Our previous studies showed promising therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of the live, radio-attenuated parasites through intramuscular (I.M.) and intraperitoneal (I.P.) route in BALB/c mice model. The T-cell proliferation level, the mRNA expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor growth factor-beta (TGF-β) genes and finally the phosphorylation levels of phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) molecules were checked in BALB/c mice model immunized with radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites through I.M. route. Higher T-cell proliferation, increased iNOS level, and suppressed TGF-β level were found in treated infected animal groups (100 and 150Gy) in relation to untreated infected animals. Likewise, phosphorylation levels of PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK of these two groups were increased when compared to untreated infected controls. The clearance of the parasites from treated infected groups of animals may be mediated by the restoration of T-cell due to therapy with radio-attenuated L. donovani parasites. The killing of parasites was mediated by increase in nitric oxide release through PDK1, PI3K and p38MAPK signaling pathways. A lower TGF-β expression has augmented the restored Th1 ambience in the 100 and 150Gy treated animal groups proving further the efficacy of the candidate vaccine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  20. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB

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    Valim, Clarissa Xavier Resende; da Silva, Elaine Zayas Marcelino; Assis, Mariana Aprigio; Fernandes, Fabricio Freitas; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues; Oliver, Constance; Jamur, Maria Célia

    2015-01-01

    Background The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for

  1. rPbPga1 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Activates Mast Cells and Macrophages via NFkB.

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    Clarissa Xavier Resende Valim

    Full Text Available The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the leading etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic granulomatous disease that typically affects the lungs. Cell wall components of P. brasiliensis interact with host cells and influence the pathogenesis of PCM. In yeast, many glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored proteins are important in the initial contact with the host, mediating host-yeast interactions that culminate with the disease. PbPga1 is a GPI anchored protein located on the surface of the yeast P. brasiliensis that is recognized by sera from PCM patients.Endogenous PbPga1 was localized to the surface of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in the lungs of infected mice using a polyclonal anti-rPbPga1 antibody. Furthermore, macrophages stained with anti-CD38 were associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Additionally, rPbPga1 activated the transcription factor NFkB in the macrophage cell line Raw 264.7 Luc cells, containing the luciferase gene downstream of the NFkB promoter. After 24 h of incubation with rPbPga1, alveolar macrophages from BALB/c mice were stimulated to release TNF-α, IL-4 and NO. Mast cells, identified by toluidine blue staining, were also associated with P. brasiliensis containing granulomas. Co-culture of P. Brasiliensis yeast cells with RBL-2H3 mast cells induced morphological changes on the surface of the mast cells. Furthermore, RBL-2H3 mast cells were degranulated by P. brasiliensis yeast cells, but not by rPbPga1, as determined by the release of beta-hexosaminidase. However, RBL-2H3 cells activated by rPbPga1 released the inflammatory interleukin IL-6 and also activated the transcription factor NFkB in GFP-reporter mast cells. The transcription factor NFAT was not activated when the mast cells were incubated with rPbPga1.The results indicate that PbPga1 may act as a modulator protein in PCM pathogenesis and serve as a useful target for additional studies on the pathogenesis of P

  2. A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins

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    Soares Célia MA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization.

  3. P. brasiliensis Virulence Is Affected by SconC, the Negative Regulator of Inorganic Sulfur Assimilation

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    Menino, João Filipe; Saraiva, Margarida; Gomes-Rezende, Jéssica; Sturme, Mark; Pedrosa, Jorge; Castro, António Gil; Ludovico, Paula; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Rodrigues, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Conidia/mycelium-to-yeast transition of Paracoccidioidesbrasiliensis is a critical step for the establishment of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Thus, knowledge of the factors that mediate this transition is of major importance for the design of intervention strategies. So far, the only known pre-requisites for the accomplishment of the morphological transition are the temperature shift to 37°C and the availability of organic sulfur compounds. In this study, we investigated the auxotrophic nature to organic sulfur of the yeast phase of Paracoccidioides, with special attention to P. brasiliensis species. For this, we addressed the role of SconCp, the negative regulator of the inorganic sulfur assimilation pathway, in the dimorphism and virulence of this pathogen. We show that down-regulation of SCONC allows initial steps of mycelium-to-yeast transition in the absence of organic sulfur compounds, contrarily to the wild-type fungus that cannot undergo mycelium-to-yeast transition under such conditions. However, SCONC down-regulated transformants were unable to sustain yeast growth using inorganic sulfur compounds only. Moreover, pulses with inorganic sulfur in SCONC down-regulated transformants triggered an increase of the inorganic sulfur metabolism, which culminated in a drastic reduction of the ATP and NADPH cellular levels and in higher oxidative stress. Importantly, the down-regulation of SCONC resulted in a decreased virulence of P. brasiliensis, as validated in an in vivo model of infection. Overall, our findings shed light on the inability of P. brasiliensis yeast to rely on inorganic sulfur compounds, correlating its metabolism with cellular energy and redox imbalances. Furthermore, the data herein presented reveal SconCp as a novel virulence determinant of P. brasiliensis. PMID:24066151

  4. Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2007-11-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis.

  5. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

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    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  6. Proteomic analysis reveals that iron availability alters the metabolic status of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Ana F A Parente

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways.

  7. Antibodies against glycolipids enhance antifungal activity of macrophages and reduce fungal burden after infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Renata Amelia eBueno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  8. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

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    Martínez-Álvarez, José A.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Martínez-Duncker, Iván; Lópes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and germlings, but S. schenckii

  9. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

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    José A. Martínez-Álvarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and

  10. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

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    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  11. Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates to amphotericin B, azoles, and terbinafine.

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    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Gagini, Thalita Braga; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Castro, Rafaela; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Nucci, Marcio; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of the antifungal agents amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITC), posaconazole (PSC), voriconazole (VRC), and terbinafine (TRB) against 32 Brazilian isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis, including 16 isolates from a recent (2011-2012) epidemic in Rio de Janeiro state, was examined. We describe and genotype new isolates and clustered them with 16 older (from 2004 or earlier) S. brasiliensis isolates by phylogenetic analysis. We tested both the yeast and the mycelium form of all isolates using broth microdilution methods based on the reference protocols M38-A2 and M27-A3 (recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). Considering minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), TRB was found to be the most active drug in vitro for both fungal forms, followed by PSC. Several isolates showed high MICs for AMB and/or ITC, which are currently used as first-line therapy for sporotrichosis. VRC displayed very low activity against S. brasiliensis isolates. The primary morphological modification observed on treated yeasts by transmission electron microscopy analysis was changes in cell wall. Our results indicate that TRB is the antifungal with the best in vitro activity against S. brasiliensis and support the use of TRB as a promising option for the treatment of cutaneous and/or lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Primary Nocardia brasiliensis of the eyelid.

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    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Hudak, Donald T; Anderson, Heidi K; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2004-09-01

    To report a rare case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid. Observational case report. The clinical presentation, workup, and treatment of a case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid are presented. The patient presented with a preseptal cellulitis from an abrasion of the eyelid that progressed to submandibular lymph node suppuration. Culture was performed, and a diagnosis of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis was made. Nocardia brasiliensis may cause a lymphocutaneous infection of the face and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of preseptal cellulitis.

  13. Detection of 2 immunoreactive antigens in the cell wall of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix globosa.

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    Ruiz-Baca, Estela; Hernández-Mendoza, Gustavo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Toriello, Conchita; López-Romero, Everardo; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo

    2014-07-01

    The cell wall of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex contains highly antigenic molecules which are potentially useful for the diagnosis and treatment of sporotrichosis. In this study, 2 immunoreactive antigens of 60 (Gp60) and 70 kDa (Gp70) were detected in the cell wall of the yeast morphotypes of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix globosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring virulence and immunogenicity in the emerging pathogen Sporothrix brasiliensis.

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    Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2017-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic chronic infection of humans and animals classically acquired after traumatic inoculation with soil and plant material contaminated with Sporothrix spp. propagules. An alternative and successful route of transmission is bites and scratches from diseased cats, through which Sporothrix yeasts are inoculated into mammalian tissue. The development of a murine model of subcutaneous sporotrichosis mimicking the alternative route of transmission is essential to understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. To explore the impact of horizontal transmission in animals (e.g., cat-cat) and zoonotic transmission on Sporothrix fitness, the left hind footpads of BALB/c mice were inoculated with 5×106 yeasts (n = 11 S. brasiliensis, n = 2 S. schenckii, or n = 1 S. globosa). Twenty days post-infection, our model reproduced both the pathophysiology and symptomology of sporotrichosis with suppurating subcutaneous nodules that progressed proximally along lymphatic channels. Across the main pathogenic members of the S. schenckii clade, S. brasiliensis was usually more virulent than S. schenckii and S. globosa. However, the virulence in S. brasiliensis was strain-dependent, and we demonstrated that highly virulent isolates disseminate from the left hind footpad to the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, and brain of infected animals, inducing significant and chronic weight loss (losing up to 15% of their body weight). The weight loss correlated with host death between 2 and 16 weeks post-infection. Histopathological features included necrosis, suppurative inflammation, and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates. Immunoblot using specific antisera and homologous exoantigen investigated the humoral response. Antigenic profiles were isolate-specific, supporting the hypothesis that different Sporothrix species can elicit a heterogeneous humoral response over time, but cross reaction was observed

  15. Effects of gamma radiation on Sporothrix schenckii yeast cells

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    Lacerda, Camila M. de Sousa; Martins, Estefania Mara Nascimento; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmsl@cdtn.br, e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maressend@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Zoonotic transmission can occur after scratches or bites of animals, mainly cats, rodents, and armadillos. Up to the moment, no approved vaccine was reported for S. schenckii or to any important pathogenic fungi infection in humans, indicating the need to expand the research in this field and to explore new alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation in the viability, metabolic activity and reproductive ability of S. schenckii yeast cells for further studies on the development of a vaccine for immunization of cats and dogs. The culture of S. schenckii, in solid medium, was irradiated at doses ranging from 1.0 to 9.0 kGy. After each dose the reproductive capacity, viability and protein synthesis were estimated. The results showed that a reduction of 6 log{sub 10} cycles in the number of colonies was achieved at 6.0 kGy and after 8.0 kGy no colonies could be recovered. The viability analysis indicated that yeast cells remained viable up to 9.0 kGy. The results of protein synthesis analysis showed that the yeast cells, irradiated up to 9.0 kGy, were able to synthesize proteins. Our preliminary results indicated that for the yeast cells of S. schenckii, it is possible to find an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability, while retaining its viability, a necessary condition for the development of a radioattenuated yeast vaccine. (author)

  16. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

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    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  17. Paracoccidoides brasiliensis 30 kDa adhesin: identification as a 14-3-3 protein, cloning and subcellular localization in infection models.

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    Julhiany de Fatima da Silva

    Full Text Available Paracoccidoides brasiliensis adhesion to lung epithelial cells is considered an essential event for the establishment of infection and different proteins participate in this process. One of these proteins is a 30 kDa adhesin, pI 4.9 that was described as a laminin ligand in previous studies, and it was more highly expressed in more virulent P. brasiliensis isolates. This protein may contribute to the virulence of this important fungal pathogen. Using Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis, this 30 kDa adhesin was identified as a 14-3-3 protein. These proteins are a conserved group of small acidic proteins involved in a variety of processes in eukaryotic organisms. However, the exact function of these proteins in some processes remains unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to characterize the role of this protein during the interaction between the fungus and its host. To achieve this goal, we cloned, expressed the 14-3-3 protein in a heterologous system and determined its subcellular localization in in vitro and in vivo infection models. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the ubiquitous distribution of this protein in the yeast form of P. brasiliensis, with some concentration in the cytoplasm. Additionally, this 14-3-3 protein was also present in P. brasiliensis cells at the sites of infection in C57BL/6 mice intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis yeast cells for 72 h (acute infections and 30 days (chronic infection. An apparent increase in the levels of the 14-3-3 protein in the cell wall of the fungus was also noted during the interaction between P. brasiliensis and A549 cells, suggesting that this protein may be involved in host-parasite interactions, since inhibition assays with the protein and this antibody decreased P. brasiliensis adhesion to A549 epithelial cells. Our data may lead to a better understanding of P. brasiliensis interactions with host tissues and paracoccidioidomycosis pathogenesis.

  18. Low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or nitrite induced of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis cell proliferation in a Ras-dependent manner.

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    Ana Eliza Coronel Janu Haniu

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, should be able to adapt to dramatic environmental changes inside the infected host after inhalation of air-borne conidia and transition to pathogenic yeasts. Proteins with antioxidant functions may protect fungal cells against reactive oxygen (ROS and nitrogen (RNS species generated by phagocytic cells, thus acting as potential virulence factors. Ras GTPases are involved in stress responses, cell morphology, and differentiation in a range of organisms. Ras, in its activated form, interacts with effector proteins and can initiate a kinase cascade. In lower eukaryotes, Byr2 kinase represents a Ras target. The present study investigated the role of Ras in P. brasiliensis after in vitro stimulus with ROS or RNS. We have demonstrated that low concentrations of H2O2 (0.1 mM or NO2 (0.1-0.25 µM stimulated P. brasiliensis yeast cell proliferation and that was not observed when yeast cells were pre-incubated with farnesyltransferase inhibitor. We constructed an expression plasmid containing the Byr2 Ras-binding domain (RBD fused with GST (RBD-Byr2-GST to detect the Ras active form. After stimulation with low concentrations of H2O2 or NO2, the Ras active form was observed in fungal extracts. Besides, NO2 induced a rapid increase in S-nitrosylated Ras levels. This alternative posttranslational modification of Ras, probably in residue Cys123, would lead to an exchange of GDP for GTP and consequent GTPase activation in P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, low concentrations of H2O2 or NO2 stimulated P. brasiliensis proliferation through Ras activation.

  19. Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

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    Maraki, Sofia; Scoulica, Efstathia; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Dialynas, Michael; Tselentis, Yannis

    2003-09-01

    Nocardia species are Gram-positive bacteria responsible for systemic or cutaneous infections in humans. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most common infective agent in the cutaneous form of nocardiosis. We describe a case of a previously healthy man, who presented with lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection, and was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The identification of the isolate was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

  20. Nutritional Requirements for Growth of Agaricus brasiliensis = Requerimentos nutricionais para o crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis

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    Pascoal José Gaspar Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional requirements of A. brasiliensis in culture media were assessed by supplementing a basal medium (g L-1: (glucose, 10, KH2PO4, 1, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5, [NH4]2SO4, 1, pH 5.5 with CaCl2, trace elements (FeSO4.7H2O; MnCl2.4H2O; ZnSO4.7H2O; CuSO4.5H2O, casein, yeast extract, peptone, B-vitamins or amino acids. Evaluations were based on the mycelial growth in solid or liquid culture (mm day-1 or mg day-1 and visual analysis of the colony. The addition of CaCl2 and trace elements was very important for the major mycelial growth of the fungi. The addition of casein and inositol to the medium did not have a significant effect on growth. The best growth result in solid medium was obtained with the basal medium plus the addition of yeast extract and peptone. In relation to the other nutrient sources, the mycelial growth in the presence of amino acids darkened the medium after two weeks. The addition of B-vitamins to the basal medium lead to slower mycelial growth; however, growth was more visually dense when compared to other nutritional sources. B-vitamins added separately did not have the same result, suggesting that the fungus requires two or more vitamins at the same time for better mycelial growth.Os requerimentos nutricionais de A. brasiliensis foram avaliados, com a suplementação de um meio basal (g L-1: (glicose, 10, KH2PO4, 1, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5, [NH4]2SO4, 1, pH 5.5 com CaCl2, micronutrientes (FeSO4.7H2O; MnCl2.4H2O; ZnSO4.7H2O; CuSO4.5H2O, caseína, extrato de levedura, peptona, vitaminas do complexo B ou aminoácidos. O crescimento micelial foi avaliado em meio sólido e líquido, considerando velocidade de crescimento e produção de massa micelial (mm dia-1 ou mg dia-1 e análise visual da colônia. A adição de CaCl2 e micronutrientes foi muito importante para o melhor crescimentomicelial do fungo, enquanto que a adição de caseina e inositol não apresentou efeito significativo sobre o crescimento. O melhor crescimento em meio s

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Expressing Gp43 Protects Mice against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis-Marques, Mariana Aprigio; Oliveira, Aline Ferreira; Ruas, Luciana Pereira; dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Coelho, Paulo Sergio Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). It is believed that approximately 10 million people are infected with the fungus and approximately 2% will eventually develop the disease. Unlike viral and bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are the ones against which there is no commercially available vaccine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a suitable vehicle for immunization against fungal infections, as they require the stimulation of different arms of the immune response. Here we evaluated the efficacy of immunizing mice against PCM by using S. cerevisiae yeast expressing gp43. When challenged by inoculation of P. brasiliensis yeasts, immunized animals showed a protective profile in three different assays. Their lung parenchyma was significantly preserved, exhibiting fewer granulomas with fewer fungal cells than found in non-immunized mice. Fungal burden was reduced in the lung and spleen of immunized mice, and both organs contained higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ compared to those of non-vaccinated mice, a finding that suggests the occurrence of Th1 immunity. Taken together, our results indicate that the recombinant yeast vaccine represents a new strategy to confer protection against PCM. PMID:25790460

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Gp43 protects mice against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Aprigio Assis-Marques

    Full Text Available The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. It is believed that approximately 10 million people are infected with the fungus and approximately 2% will eventually develop the disease. Unlike viral and bacterial diseases, fungal diseases are the ones against which there is no commercially available vaccine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae may be a suitable vehicle for immunization against fungal infections, as they require the stimulation of different arms of the immune response. Here we evaluated the efficacy of immunizing mice against PCM by using S. cerevisiae yeast expressing gp43. When challenged by inoculation of P. brasiliensis yeasts, immunized animals showed a protective profile in three different assays. Their lung parenchyma was significantly preserved, exhibiting fewer granulomas with fewer fungal cells than found in non-immunized mice. Fungal burden was reduced in the lung and spleen of immunized mice, and both organs contained higher levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ compared to those of non-vaccinated mice, a finding that suggests the occurrence of Th1 immunity. Taken together, our results indicate that the recombinant yeast vaccine represents a new strategy to confer protection against PCM.

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  4. Involvement of Dihydrolipoyl Dehydrogenase in the Phagocytosis and Killing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by Macrophages

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    Taise N. Landgraf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii are fungi causing paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, an autochthonous systemic mycosis found in Latin America. These microorganisms contain a multitude of molecules that may be associated with the complex interaction of the fungus with the host. Here, we identify the enzyme dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD as an exoantigen from P. brasiliensis (Pb18_Dld by mass spectrometry. Interestingly, the DLD gene expression in yeast form showed higher expression levels than those in mycelial form and transitional phases. Pb18_Dld gene was cloned, and the recombinant protein (rPb18_Dld was expressed and purified for subsequent studies and production of antibodies. Immunogold labeling and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the Pb18_Dld is also localized in mitochondria and cytoplasm of P. brasiliensis. Moreover, when macrophages were stimulated with rPb18Dld, there was an increase in the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of these cells, as compared with non-stimulated cells. These findings suggest that Pb18_Dld can be involved in the pathogen-host interaction, opening possibilities for studies of this protein in PCM.

  5. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces cytokine secretion in epithelial cells in a protease-activated receptor-dependent (PAR) manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Priscila; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Dos Santos, Saara Maria Batista; de Barros, Bianca Carla Silva Campitelli; Maza, Paloma Korehisa; Puccia, Rosana; Suzuki, Erika

    2017-04-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is one of the etiological agents of the human systemic mycosis paracoccidioidomycosis. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are expressed in many cell types and comprise a family of G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4), which may be activated by proteases secreted by several pathogens. In the present study, we showed that the pathogenic fungus P. brasiliensis secretes components that promote interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion by the lung epithelial cell line A549. Cytokine secretion was reduced by antagonistic peptides for PAR-1 and PAR-2, but not for PAR-4. P. brasiliensis proteases were isolated from fungal culture supernatants in a p-aminomethylbenzamidine-Sepharose column. The obtained fractions were tested for enzymatic activity against fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptides derived from sequences that spanned the activation sites of human PARs. The eluted fraction, termed PbP, contained protease activities that were able to hydrolyze the FRET peptides. PbP also induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion in A549 epithelial cells, which was reduced upon heat inactivation of PbP, incubation with antagonistic peptides for PAR-1 and PAR-2, and the protease inhibitors aprotinin, leupeptin, and E-64. Together, these results show for the first time that P. brasiliensis yeasts secrete proteases that activate PARs in lung epithelial cells, leading to cytokine secretion.

  6. Characterization of HbWRKY1, a WRKY transcription factor from Hevea brasiliensis that negatively regulates HbSRPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Guo, Dong; Li, Hui-Liang; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2013-10-01

    Small rubber particle protein (SRPP) is a major component of Hevea brasiliensis (H. brasiliensis) latex, which is involved in natural rubber (NR) biosynthesis. However, little information is available on the regulation of SRPP gene (HbSRPP) expression. To study the transcriptional regulation of HbSRPP, the yeast one-hybrid experiment was performed to screen the latex cDNA library using the HbSRPP promoter as bait. One cDNA that encodes the WRKY transcription factor, designated as HbWRKY1, was isolated from H. brasiliensis. HbWRKY1 contains a 1437 bp open reading frame that encodes 478 amino acids. The deduced HbWRKY1 protein was predicted to possess two conserved WRKY domains and a C2H2 zinc-finger motif. HbWRKY1 was expressed at different levels, with the highest transcription in the flower, followed by the bark, latex, and leaf. Furthermore, the co-expression of pHbSRP::GUS with CaMV35S::HbWRKY1 significantly decreased the GUS activity in transgenic tobacco, indicating that HbWRKY1 significantly suppressed the HbSRPP promoter. These results suggested that HbWRKY1 maybe a negative transcription regulator of HbSRPP involved in NR biosynthesis in H. brasiliensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Phytochemical screening of rubberwood " Hevea brasiliensis " and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of rubberwood " Hevea brasiliensis " and the fuel wood impact on the organoleptic and keeping qualities of smoke- dried Nile tilapia. ... Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts were used as solvents for the extraction of the wood parts and standard procedures were employed to ...

  8. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  9. Ecology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, P. lutzii and related species: infection in armadillos, soil occurrence and mycological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrycyk, Marluce Francisca; Garcia Garces, Hans; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; de Oliveira, Sílvio Luis; Marques, Sílvio Alencar; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2018-01-06

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and the related species P. americana, P. restrepiensis, P. venezuelensis, and P. lutzii (Ascomycota, Ajellomycetaceae) are the etiological agents of paracoccidoidoimycosis (PCM), one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. They are dimorphic fungi, with a mycelial life cycle in soil and a yeast phase associated with tissues of mammalian hosts. This study aimed to detect Paracoccidioides spp. in armadillo tissues and associated soil samples in three well-defined geographic areas, including the Alta Floresta, an area not only endemic for PCM in the central region of Brazil but also of probable P. lutzii occurrence, whose ecology and geographic distribution are poorly elucidated. The isolates were genotyped by sequencing ITS-rDNA and the gp43-exon-2 region, and by PCR-RFLP of alpha tubulin (tub1) gene; mycological aspects such as yeast-to-mycelial transition, growth and conidial production in soil extract agar were also evaluated. We confirmed that while armadillos are highly infected by P. brasiliensis, including multiple infections by distinct genotypes or species (P. brasiliensis and P. americana) in the same animal, the same does not hold true for P. lutzii, which in turn seems to present less capacity for mycelial growth and conidial production, when developing in a soil-related condition. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Amphotericin B, alone or followed by itraconazole therapy, is effective in the control of experimental disseminated sporotrichosis by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kelly; de Castro, Rafaela Alves; Borba Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Infección diseminada crónica con abscesos cerebralesmúltiples por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Chronic disseminated infection with multiple cerebralabscesses caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es una micosis sistémica, endémica de áreas tropicales y subtropicales de América Central y del Sur, causada por un hongo dimorfo denominado Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. El compromiso del sistema nervioso central es una rara complicación de la forma diseminada crónica de la enfermedad y puede comprometer el cerebro, el cerebelo, el tronco cerebral y la médula espinal. La forma clínica más común de la neuroparacoccidioidomicosis es el granuloma o absceso cerebral y, con menos frecuencia, la meningoencefalitis crónica. Se presenta un paciente con diagnóstico de paracoccidioidomicosis diseminada crónica con múltiples lesiones cerebrales compatibles con abscesos. La biopsia estereotáxica seguida del estudio histopatológico y microbiológico del material obtenido de las lesiones permitió observar las levaduras redondeadas con los brotes característicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic systemic disease in subtropical areas of Central and South America caused by a dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Central nervous system involvement is a rare complication of the chronic disseminated disease that can affect the brain, cerebellum, brainstem and the spinal cord. The most frequent clinical form of neuroparacoccidiodomycosis is the cerebral abscess; with less frequency, the disease presents as a diffuse chronic meningoencephalitis. Here we present a patient with diagnosis of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis and multiple cerebral lesions compatible with abscesses. Stereotactic biopsy followed by the microbiological and histopathological examination of the smears showed the characteristic yeast cells that confirmed the diagnosis of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.

  12. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Lutz, 1908 isolado por meio de hemocultura em um paciente portadora de símdrome de imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated by hemoculture from a patient with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hadad

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o primeiro caso de isolamento de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis em sangue de paciente HIV positivo, 28 anos, sexo masculino, natural de Nova Londrina que, ao exame físico e ultrassonográfico, apresentava esplenomegalia febril a esclarecer. Para estabelecer o diagnóstico etiológico, hemoculturas em triplicata foram realizadas para pesquisa de bactérias aeróbias, micobactérias e fungos. As hemoculturas para bactérias aeróbias e micobactérias foram negativas e P. brasiliensis foi isolado de duas hemoculturas, na fase leveduriforme em ágar BHI, 20 dias após a semeadura, a partir do meio de Negroni. O paciente classificado, segundo o "Centers for Disease Control (CDC", no grupo IV devido a uma pneumocistose pulmonar, interrompeu o tratamento por problemas particulares na segunda dose de anfotericina B, sendo tratado alternativamente com 800 mg/dia de cetoconazol. O óbito ocorreu um ano após o isolamento do P.brasiliensis em hemocultura.A case of an AIDS-patient with positive blood culture for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is reported. The patient was a 29 years old male born in Nova Londrina (Paraná State, Brazil who presented splenomegaly and fever of unknown origin. Three blood cultures were performed, each one of them for aerobic bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. Cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycobacteria were negative. However, the yeast phase P. brasiliensis was isolated from two cultures in BHI agar, 20 days after inoculation in Negroni medium. The patient was classified in group V according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC criteria for AIDS, due to a Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Treatment was discontinued due to an individual decision of the patient on the second dose of amphotericin B. This antibiotic was replaced by ketoconazole in the daily dose of 800 mg. The patient died one year after the isolation of P. brasiliensis on blood culture.

  13. Miltefosine is active against Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates with in vitro low susceptibility to amphotericin B or itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Gagini, Thalita; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a common mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In recent years, sporotrichosis incidence rates have increased in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, where Sporothrix brasiliensis is the species more frequently isolated from patients. The standard antifungals itraconazole and amphotericin B are recommended as first-line therapy for cutaneous/lymphocutaneous and disseminated sporotrichosis, respectively, although decreased sensitivity to these drugs in vitro was reported for clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis. Here, we evaluated the activity of the phospholipid analogue miltefosine - already in clinical use against leishmaniasis - towards the pathogenic yeast form of S. brasiliensis isolates with low sensitivity to itraconazole or amphotericin B in vitro. Miltefosine had fungicidal activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1-2 µg ml(-1). Miltefosine exposure led to loss of plasma membrane integrity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a decrease in cytoplasmic electron density, alterations in the thickness of cell wall layers and accumulation of an electron-dense material in the cell wall. Flow cytometry analysis using an anti-melanin antibody revealed an increase in cell wall melanin in yeasts treated with miltefosine, when compared with control cells. The cytotoxicity of miltefosine was comparable to those of amphotericin B, but miltefosine showed a higher selectivity index towards the fungus. Our results suggest that miltefosine could be an effective alternative for the treatment of S. brasiliensis sporotrichosis, when standard treatment fails. Nevertheless, in vivo studies are required to confirm the antifungal potential of miltefosine for the treatment of sporotrichosis. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Kaurene-Type Diterpenoids from Aristolochia brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio, Satoh; Mitsuru, Satoh; Mitsuko, Makino; Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University; Laboratry of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, Showa Pharmaceutical University; Department of General Studies, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University

    2011-01-01

    Kaurene-type diterpenes 1 and 2 and lignane-type diterpenes 3 and 4 were isolated from the aerial parts of Aristolochia brasiliensis (Aristolochiaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated to be 17-chloro-16α-hydroxy-ent-kaurane by analysis of its spectral data. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed as (5R, 8S, 9R, 10R, 16R) by chemical derivation of 1 to the known kaurene.

  15. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

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    Miriam Guevara R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen.

  16. Nocardia brasiliensis-associated femorotibial osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Samuel; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Cicero, Antonio; López-Jácome, Esaú; Colin, Claudia; Hernández, Melissa

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of femorotibial osteomyelitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardia spp are a rare cause of bone infections, and the majority of such cases are associated with the spine. This type of osteomyelitis is uncommon, and in the immunocompetent host, is more often related to a chronic evolution following direct inoculation of the microorganism. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing p...

  18. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  19. Inactivation of rifampin by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Maeda, A; Akao, M; Morisaki, N; Iwasaki, S

    1993-01-01

    Rifampin was glycosylated by a pathogenic species of Nocardia, i.e., Nocardia brasiliensis. The structures of two glycosylated compounds (RIP-1 and RIP-2) isolated from the culture broth of the bacterium were determined to be 3-formyl-23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifamycin SV and 23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifampin, respectively. Both compounds lacked antimicrobial activity against other gram-positive bacteria as well as the Nocardia species.

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  1. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

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    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Perez-Maya, Antonio Ali; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2012-05-01

    In Mexico, actinomycetoma is mainly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, which is a soil inhabitant actinobacterium. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome of a strain isolated from a human case that has largely been found in in vitro and experimental models of actinomycetoma, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

  3. Lysozyme plays a dual role against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis A lisozima desempenha um papel duplo contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Damaris Lopera

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the role of lysozyme, an antimicrobial peptide belonging to the innate immune system, against the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, co-cultures of the MH-S murine alveolar macrophages cell line with P. brasiliensis conidia were done; assays to evaluate the effect of physiological and inflammatory concentrations of lysozyme directly on the fungus life cycle were also undertaken. We observed that TNF-α-activated macrophages significantly inhibited the conidia to yeast transition (p = 0.0043 and exerted an important fungicidal effect (p = 0.0044, killing 27% more fungal propagules in comparison with controls. Nonetheless, after adding a selective inhibitor of lysozyme, the fungicidal effect was reverted. When P. brasiliensis propagules were exposed directly to different concentrations of lysozyme, a dual effect was observed. Physiologic concentrations of the enzyme facilitated the conidia-to-yeast transition process (p Com a finalidade de determinar o papel da lisozima, um peptídeo antimicrobiano que pertence ao sistema imune inato, contra o fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, foram feitas co-culturas de uma linha de macrófagos alveolares murinos (MH-S com as conídias do fungo na presença ou não do TNF-α e/ou um inibidor da lisozima; também foram feitos ensaios que avaliaram o efeito das concentrações fisiológicas e inflamatórias de lisozima diretamente sobre o ciclo de vida do fungo. Observamos que os macrófagos ativados com a citoquina tiveram um efeito significativo na inibição da transição conídia/levedura (p = 0,0043 e exerceram um efeito fungicida importante (p = 0,0044, matando mais de 27% das propágulas do fungo em comparação com os macrófagos não ativados. No entanto, após ser o inibidor seletivo da lisozima adicionado, o efeito fungicida foi revertido. Quando os propágulos do fungo foram expostos diretamente a diferentes concentrações da lisozima, um duplo efeito

  4. Analysis of Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis virulence in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo-Giraldo, Diana M; Matínez-Alvarez, José A; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ponce-Noyola, Patricia; Franco, Bernardo; Almeida, Ricardo S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2016-03-01

    The study of the host-pathogen interaction is essential to understand the mechanisms underlying adhesion, colonization and tissue damage by pathogens. This is usually achieved by performing in vivo studies using small mammals, such as rats, mice and guinea pigs. Nowadays, the mouse models of systemic or subcutaneous infection are the gold standard assays to analyze the virulence of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. There are, however, invertebrates that have been recently used as alternative hosts to assess the virulence of both bacteria and fungi, and among them, larvae of Galleria mellonella are popular because they are easy to breed, and require non-specialized facilities to maintain the colony. Here, we assessed the use of G. mellonella larvae to test the virulence of S. schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis strains, and found that infection with yeast-like cells, but not with conidia or germlings, reproduces the virulence data generated in the mouse model of infection. Furthermore, with this insect model we could classify the virulence of some strains as low, intermediate or high, in line with the observations in the mammalian model. Therefore, G. mellonella is suitable, and a new alternative, to test virulence of both S. schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Barras de cereais com Agaricus brasiliensis e minerais

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova, Katielle Rosalva Voncik

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis apresenta atividade antibactericida, antioxidante, antidiabética, antiangiogênica e anticancerígena. A adição de biomassa de fungos em produtos alimentícios pode elevar o nível proteico e de minerais desses alimentos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver barras de cereais contendo grãos de trigo fermentado com Agaricus brasiliensis e minerais. O cultivo sólido de A. brasiliensis em grãos de trigo resultou numa biomassa estimada de 0,212 ± 0,005 g....

  6. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  7. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell.) in Colkheti flora

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I. Sh. Mikeladze; G.K. Bolkvadze; M.V. Metreveli; R.N. Chagalidze; M.U. Davitadze; A.Sh. Sharabidze

    2017-01-01

    .... In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora...

  8. Nocardia brasiliensis in Italy: a nine-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Andrini, Laura; Bruno, Gianfranco; Sarti, Mario; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Boiron, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the past, no case reports concerning N. brasiliensis infections were published from Italy. We now report 4 cases observed during 1998-2006 in 4 Italian patients, 1 immunosuppressed and 3 immunocompetent.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Myco...

  10. Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diotaiuti Liléia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

  11. Susceptibility of species within the Sporothrix schenckii complex to a panel of killer yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopiglia, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; Heidrich, Daiane; Sorrentino, Julia Medeiros; Vieira, Fabiane Jamono; Landell, Melissa Fontes; Valente, Patrícia; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia

    2014-06-01

    The Sporothrix schenckii complex is the etiologic agent of sporotrichosis, a subacute or chronic mycosis which can affect humans and animals. Killer yeasts have been used in the medical field for development of novel antimycotics and biotyping of pathogenic fungi. The action of 18 killer yeasts on the growth of 88 characterized S. schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Sporothrix mexicana clinical and environmental isolates was evaluated. Killer studies were performed on Petri dishes containing cheese black starch agar. The yeasts Candida catenulata (QU26, QU31, QU127, LV102); Trichosporon faecale (QU100); Trichosporon japonicum (QU139); Kluyveromyces lactis (QU30, QU99, QU73); Kazachstania unispora (QU49), Trichosporon insectorum (QU89), and Kluyveromyces marxianus (QU103) showed activity against all strains of the S. schenckii complex tested. Observation by optical microscopy of S. brasiliensis 61 within the inhibition haloes around the colonies of the killer yeasts QU100, QU139, and LV102 showed that there was no conidiation, but there was hyphal proliferation. The toxins were fungistatic against S. brasiliensis 61. There was no difference in susceptibility to the toxins among the S. schenckii species complex. Further investigations are necessary to clearly establish the mechanism of action of the toxins. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  13. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  14. Proteome of cell wall-extracts from pathogenic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Comparison among morphological phases, isolates, and reported fungal extracellular vesicle proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa V.G. Longo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We identified non-covalently linked cell wall proteins from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeasts and mycelia, with focus on the yeast pathogenic phase, and correlated them with reported fungal extracellular vesicle proteins. We studied isolates Pb3 and Pb18, which evoke distinct patterns of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis and represent two phylogenetic groups. Proteins were extracted mildly with dithiothreitol, trypsinized, and peptides analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Among 132 yeast-exclusive sequences, 92 were Pb18-exclusive. About 80% of total proteins were classified as secretory, mostly showing non-conventional signals. Extracellular vesicular transportation could be involved, since 60% had orthologs reported in fungal extracellular vesicles.

  15. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  16. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  17. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  18. Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny P. Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE was investigated in mice. No mortality or signs of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg.

  19. Estudio comparativo de la patogenicidad y la antigenicidad de 6 cepas de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Comparative study of pathogenicity and antigenicity of six Paracoccidioides brasiliensis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Finquelievich

    1993-12-01

    against 6 serum samples obtained from rats experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, that had presented positive reactions with a metabolic control antigen. The cytoplasmic extracts were used at final concentration of 100 mg/ml. All of them showed 2 or 3 precipitation bands in this assay. One hundred twenty Wistar rats both sexes weighing approximately 200 g, were inoculated intracardiacally with suspensions of the yeast phase of different P. brasiliensis strains. Two concentrations containing 3x10(7 and 5x10(7 cells/ml of each isolate were prepared. The inoculated animals were divided in two groups, one was left to its spontaneous outcome and the percentages of deaths were registered and the other rats were sacrificed at 14, 28, 56 and 70 days post-infection. The following parameters were taken into account for evaluation: A presence of macroscopic granulomas in lung, liver, spleen and kidney; B presence of P. brasiliensis in microscopic exams of the same organs, in wet preparations and in hystologic sections stained by H&E; C culture of lung and D immunodiffusion test using pre-mortem serum samples and the homologous antigen. The correlation between the most important parameters studied in each strain are summarized as follow:As no significant differences between the two inocula employed for each strain was observed, the before-mention results are the average of those obtained with each inoculation doses. The most virulent strain was a recent isolate from an acute disseminated form of the juvenil type. A morphological atypic isolate, which produced a very mild experimental infection with viable P. brasiliensis determined 100% of positive immunodifussion tests. The strain 339 did not produce infection in the rats, and the animals inoculated did not presented antibodies. Nevertheless this strain is useful to prepare antigens for Serologic reactions. No correlation between antigenicity or pathogenicity and the time during which these strains were

  20. Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folb, P I; Jaffe, R; Altmann, G

    1976-05-01

    A model for Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis infections in Swiss white mice has been established without the addition to the inocula of any form of adjuvant. Serial histopathological studies revealed that these two actinomycetes cause lesions that are quite different in their features. An acute suppurative abscess characterizes the lesions of N. asteroides. In the case of N. brasiliensis infections a granuloma is produced in which a striking feature is the presence of large numbers of foam-laden macrophages, although occasional exceptions to this pattern were noted. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated that these macrophages contain within their cytoplasm organisms in varying stages of degeneration. Repeated mortality studies in mice failed to demonstrate differences in mortality rates produced by N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis. Thus, despite relatively trivial biochemical and antigenic differences between these two species of Nocardia, the local pathogenic response is quite different. The presence in the "brasiliensis lesion" of foamy macrophages with intracellular organisms is reminiscent of the histopathological features of lepromatous leprosy and of disseminated Myocobacterium bovis infection when this occurs in the immune suppressed situation. It is possible that N. brasiliensis infection produces a depression of cellular immunity that modifies the local host response to the organism.

  1. New developments of RNAi in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: prospects for high-throughput, genome-wide, functional genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercio Goes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Fungal Genome Initiative of the Broad Institute, in partnership with the Paracoccidioides research community, has recently sequenced the genome of representative isolates of this human-pathogen dimorphic fungus: Pb18 (S1, Pb03 (PS2 and Pb01. The accomplishment of future high-throughput, genome-wide, functional genomics will rely upon appropriate molecular tools and straightforward techniques to streamline the generation of stable loss-of-function phenotypes. In the past decades, RNAi has emerged as the most robust genetic technique to modulate or to suppress gene expression in diverse eukaryotes, including fungi. These molecular tools and techniques, adapted for RNAi, were up until now unavailable for P. brasiliensis.In this paper, we report Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of yeast cells for high-throughput applications with which higher transformation frequencies of 150±24 yeast cell transformants per 1×106 viable yeast cells were obtained. Our approach is based on a bifunctional selective marker fusion protein consisted of the Streptoalloteichus hindustanus bleomycin-resistance gene (Shble and the intrinsically fluorescent monomeric protein mCherry which was codon-optimized for heterologous expression in P. brasiliensis. We also report successful GP43 gene knock-down through the expression of intron-containing hairpin RNA (ihpRNA from a Gateway-adapted cassette (cALf which was purpose-built for gene silencing in a high-throughput manner. Gp43 transcript levels were reduced by 73.1±22.9% with this approach.We have a firm conviction that the genetic transformation technique and the molecular tools herein described will have a relevant contribution in future Paracoccidioides spp. functional genomics research.

  2. Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Koji Dairiki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL and dietary arginine (DA requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design (n=4. In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

  3. Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielly Mourão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

  4. Inhibition of PbGP43 expression may suggest that gp43 is a virulence factor in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Torres

    Full Text Available Glycoprotein gp43 is an immunodominant diagnostic antigen for paracoccidioidomycosis caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is abundantly secreted in isolates such as Pb339. It is structurally related to beta-1,3-exoglucanases, however inactive. Its function in fungal biology is unknown, but it elicits humoral, innate and protective cellular immune responses; it binds to extracellular matrix-associated proteins. In this study we applied an antisense RNA (aRNA technology and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation to generate mitotically stable PbGP43 mutants (PbGP43 aRNA derived from wild type Pb339 to study its role in P. brasiliensis biology and during infection. Control PbEV was transformed with empty vector. Growth curve, cell vitality and morphology of PbGP43 aRNA mutants were indistinguishable from those of controls. PbGP43 expression was reduced 80-85% in mutants 1 and 2, as determined by real time PCR, correlating with a massive decrease in gp43 expression. This was shown by immunoblotting of culture supernatants revealed with anti-gp43 mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies, and also by affinity-ligand assays of extracellular molecules with laminin and fibronectin. In vitro, there was significantly increased TNF-α production and reduced yeast recovery when PbGP43 aRNA1 was exposed to IFN-γ-stimulated macrophages, suggesting reduced binding/uptake and/or increased killing. In vivo, fungal burden in lungs of BALB/c mice infected with silenced mutant was negligible and associated with decreased lung ΙΛ-10 and IL-6. Therefore, our results correlated low gp43 expression with lower pathogenicity in mice, but that will be definitely proven when PbGP43 knockouts become available. This is the first study of gp43 using genetically modified P. brasiliensis.

  5. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  6. In Vitro Activities of New Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Choi, Sung H.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro sensitivities of 30 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis to DA-7867, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and BMS-284756 (garenoxacin) were determined using the broth microdilution method. All N. brasiliensis strains were sensitive to these antimicrobials. The most active drug in vitro was DA-7867, with a MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.03 μg/ml and a MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.06 μg/ml. PMID:14742215

  7. Actinomycetoma Due To Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Pankajalakshmi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamilians are reported. Both presented with multiple sinuses discharging serosanguinous material without any granules. In the first case, the lesion was located in the thigh and leg and the specific diagnosis was made by histopathology and isolation of N. brasiliensis. In the other, in addition to thigh and leg, the foot was also affected and the causative agent was isolated in pure culture. The geographic distribution of the organism and its incidence and prevalence are discussed.

  8. Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Méndez-Tovar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar las placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10 separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases.Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10 obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other

  9. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

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    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  10. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  11. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  12. Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, M C

    2000-09-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.

  13. Biologically active polysaccharides of Agaricus brasiliensis: Isolation and structural characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synytsya, A.; Blafková, P.; Míčková, K.; Jablonský, I.; Spěváček, Jiří; Čopíková, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, 3 & 4 (2007), s. 357 ISSN 1521-9437. [International Medicinal Mushroom Conference /4./. 23.09.2007/27.09.2007, Ljubljana] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polysaccharides * mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis * isolation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  14. Recombinant paracoccin reproduces the biological properties of the native protein and induces protective Th1 immunity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

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    Ana Claudia Paiva Alegre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paracoccin is a dual-function protein of the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that has lectin properties and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Proteomic analysis of a paracoccin preparation from P. brasiliensis revealed that the sequence matched that of the hypothetical protein encoded by PADG-3347 of isolate Pb-18, with a polypeptide sequence similar to the family 18 endochitinases. These endochitinases are multi-functional proteins, with distinct lectin and enzymatic domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The multi-exon assembly and the largest exon of the predicted ORF (PADG-3347, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the features of the recombinant proteins were compared to those of the native paracoccin. The multi-exon protein was also used for protection assays in a mouse model of paracoccidioidomycosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that the recombinant protein reproduced the biological properties described for the native protein-including binding to laminin in a manner that is dependent on carbohydrate recognition-showed N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, and stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages to produce high levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide. Considering the immunomodulatory potential of glycan-binding proteins, we also investigated whether prophylactic administration of recombinant paracoccin affected the course of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in mice. In comparison to animals injected with vehicle (controls, mice treated with recombinant paracoccin displayed lower pulmonary fungal burdens and reduced pulmonary granulomas. These protective effects were associated with augmented pulmonary levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ. We also observed that injection of paracoccin three days before challenge was the most efficient administration protocol, as the induced Th1 immunity was balanced by high levels of pulmonary IL-10, which may prevent the tissue damage caused by exacerbated

  15. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yeast Infections Print A A A en español Infecciones vaginales por hongos What Are Vaginal Yeast Infections? ... keep the amount in a person's body under control. But yeast in the vagina can sometimes "overgrow" ...

  16. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vaginal discharge with a cottage cheese appearance Complicated yeast infection You might have a complicated yeast infection ... have an uncomplicated or a complicated infection. Uncomplicated yeast infection For mild to moderate symptoms and infrequent ...

  17. Function of Hevea brasiliensis NAC1 in dehydration-induced laticifer differentiation and latex biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuxin; Zhai, Jinling; Wang, Qichao; Yuan, Hongmei; Huang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    HbNAC1 is a transcription factor in rubber plants whose expression is induced by dehydration, leading to latex biosynthesis. Laticifer is a special tissue in Hevea brasiliensis where natural rubber is biosynthesized and accumulated. In young stems of epicormic shoots, the differentiation of secondary laticifers can be induced by wounding, which can be prevented when the wounding site is wrapped. Using this system, differentially expressed genes were screened by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and macroarray analyses. This led to the identification of several dehydration-related genes that could be involved in laticifer differentiation and/or latex biosynthesis, including a NAC transcription factor (termed as HbNAC1). Tissue sections confirmed that local tissue dehydration was a key signal for laticifer differentiation. HbNAC1 was localized at the nucleus and showed strong transcriptional activity in yeast, suggesting that HbNAC1 is a transcription factor. Furthermore, HbNAC1 was found to bind to the cis-element CACG in the promoter region of the gene encoding the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). Transgenic experiments also confirmed that HbNAC1 interacted with the SRPP promoter when co-expressed, and enhanced expression of the reporter gene β-glucuronidase occurred in planta. In addition, overexpression of HbNAC1 in tobacco plants conferred drought tolerance. Together, the data suggest that HbNAC1 might be involved in dehydration-induced laticifer differentiation and latex biosynthesis.

  18. Homologous Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) present different auto-assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-02-01

    HbREF and HbSRPP are two Hevea brasiliensis proteins present on rubber particles, and probably involved in the coagulation of latex. Their function is unclear, but we previously discovered that REF had amyloid properties, which could be of particular interest during the coagulation process. First, we confirmed that REF and SRPP, homologous and principal proteins in hevea latex, are not glycoproteins. In this work, we investigated various aspects of protein interactions: aggregation, auto-assembling, yeast and erythrocyte agglutination, co-interactions by various biochemical (PAGE, spectroscopy, microscopy), biophysical (DLS, ellipsometry) and structural (TEM, ATR-FTIR, PM-IRRAS) approaches. We demonstrated that both proteins are auto-assembling into different aggregative states: REF polymerizes as an amyloid rich in β-sheets and forms quickly large aggregates (>μm), whereas SRPP auto-assembles in solution into stable nanomultimers of a more globular nature. Both proteins are however able to interact together, and SRPP may inhibit the amyloidogenesis of REF. REF is also able to interact with the membranes of yeasts and erythrocytes, leading to their agglutination. In addition, we also showed that both REF and SRPP did not have antimicrobial activity, whereas their activity on membranes has been clearly evidenced. We may suspect that these aggregative properties, even though they are clearly different, may occur during coagulation, when the membrane is destabilized. The interaction of proteins with membranes could help in the colloidal stability of latex, whereas the protein-protein interactions would contribute to the coagulation process, by bringing rubber particles together or eventually disrupting the particle monomembranes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae infected with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia

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    Santiago Plischuk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heavy infections caused by a microsporidium were detected in midgut epithelium cells of two adult workers of the bumble bee Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier collected near Puerto Iguazú, Misiones province, Argentina. Microsporidium rRNA (16S small subunit was amplified by 218MITOC primers and produced amplicons indicating presence of Nosema ceranae Fries et al., a virulent pathogen of more than 20 bee species, possibly involved in Apis mellifera L. Colony Collapse Disorder. Campaigns in search of B. brasiliensis between 2008 and 2015 have revealed a possible narrower range in the southeastern area of its known distribution. Effects of N. ceranae infections could be modulating their populations and should not be overlooked. In addition, the wide host range of this microsporidium makes it a potential threat to several endemic bees such as stingless (Meliponini and orchid bees (Euglossini.

  20. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ahmad Yamin Abdul; Usharraj, Abhilash O; Misra, Biswapriya B; Thottathil, Gincy P; Jayasekaran, Kandakumar; Feng, Yun; Hou, Shaobin; Ong, Su Yean; Ng, Fui Ling; Lee, Ling Sze; Tan, Hock Siew; Sakaff, Muhd Khairul Luqman Muhd; Teh, Beng Soon; Khoo, Bee Feong; Badai, Siti Suriawati; Aziz, Nurohaida Ab; Yuryev, Anton; Knudsen, Bjarne; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Mchunu, Nokuthula P; Yu, Qingyi; Langston, Brennick J; Freitas, Tracey Allen K; Young, Aaron G; Chen, Rui; Wang, Lei; Najimudin, Nazalan; Saito, Jennifer A; Alam, Maqsudul

    2013-02-02

    Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  1. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  2. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell. in Colkheti flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sh. Mikeladze

    2017-06-01

    In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora (Western Georgia's seaside part is given. In Colkheti it is mainly spread in the seaside, along the roads, along the railroad, on the ruderal places, near channels and rivers, deserted building sites, landfills, non-agricultural lands. Verbena Brasiliensis is a perennial, erect, branched, 50–210 cm height. The plant starts flowering in April–May and lasts till November. It is distinguished with high reproductivity. Fully grown plant in the second year develops about 90000–100000 seeds. Consequently the area of plant spread is gradually growing.

  3. Phospholipase gene expression during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis morphological transition and infection

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    Deyze Alencar Soares

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the following: (i the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis pld gene is preferentially expressed in mycelium cells, (ii the plb1 gene is mostly up-regulated by infection after 6 h of co-infection of MH-S cells or during BALB/c mice lung infection, (iii during lung infection, plb1, plc and pld gene expression are significantly increased 6-48 h post-infection compared to 56 days after infection, strongly suggesting that phospholipases play a role in the early events of infection, but not during the chronic stages of pulmonary infection by P. brasiliensis.

  4. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA FITOHEMOAGLUTININA DE LA CANAVALIA BRASILIENSIS

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    Gerardo Perez Gómez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se establecio la presencia de una lectina en semillas de Canavalia brasiliensis. Esta proteina que es una globulina, presenta una alta actividad aglutinante respecto a eritrocitos equinos y caninos; esta aglutinacion es inhibida considerable mente por melezitosa (7mg/ml y en menor grado por sacarosa, fructosa y glucosa. Los ensayos realizados con eritrocitos humanos, bovinos o de carnero, demuestra que la lectina es capaz de aglutinarlos solo despues de una tripsinizacion.

  5. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Magina,Michele Debiase Alberton; Dalmarco,Eduardo Monguilhot; Dalmarco,Juliana Bastos; Colla,Guilherme; Pizzolatti,Moacir Geraldo; Brighente,Inês Maria Costa

    2012-01-01

    A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves led to the isolation of α-amyrin and β-amyrin (in a mixture), betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinester...

  6. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA FITOHEMOAGLUTININA DE LA CANAVALIA BRASILIENSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Perez Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Se establecio la presencia de una lectina en semillas de Canavalia brasiliensis. Esta proteina que es una globulina, presenta una alta actividad aglutinante respecto a eritrocitos equinos y caninos; esta aglutinacion es inhibida considerable mente por melezitosa (7mg/ml) y en menor grado por sacarosa, fructosa y glucosa. Los ensayos realizados con eritrocitos humanos, bovinos o de carnero, demuestra que la lectina es capaz de aglutinarlos solo despues de una tripsinizacion.

  7. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis AND Paracoccidioides lutzii, A SECRET LOVE AFFAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Domingos ARANTES

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYTo commemorate Prof. Carlos da Silva Lacaz's centennial anniversary, the authors have written a brief account of a few, out of hundreds, biological, ecological, molecular and phylogenetic studies that led to the arrival of Paracoccidioides lutzii, hidden for more than a century within Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Lacaz's permanent interest in this fungus, and particularly his conviction on the benefits that research on paracoccidioidomycosis would bring to patients, were pivotal in the development of the field.

  8. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteomics analysis of latex from Hevea brasiliensis (clone RRIM 600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Mohd Afiq Hazlami; Yuen, Gan Chee; Othman, Fazilah; Zainudin, Nurul Nabilah; Latiff, Aishah Abdul; Ismail, Mohd Nazri

    2017-04-01

    The natural rubber latex extracted from the bark of Hevea brasiliensis plays various important roles in today's modern society. Following ultracentrifugation, the latex can be separated into 3 layers: C-serum, lutoids, and rubber particles. Previous studies have shown that a large number of proteins are present in these 3 layers. However, a complete proteome for this important plant is still unavailable. Protein sequences have been recently translated from the completed draft genome database of H. brasiliensis, leading to the creation of annotated protein databases of the following H. brasiliensis biosynthetic pathways: photosynthesis, latex allergens, rubberwood formation, latex biosynthesis, and disease resistance. This research was conducted to identify the proteins contained within the latex by way of de novo sequencing from mass spectral data obtained from the 3 layers of the latex. Peptides from these proteins were fragmented using collision-induced dissociation, higher-energy collisional dissociation, and electron-transfer dissociation activation methods. A large percentage of proteins from the biosynthetic pathways (63% to 100%) were successfully identified. In addition, a total of 1839 unique proteins were identified from the whole translated draft genome database (AnnHBM).

  10. Prions in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Bezdíčka, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The thesis describes yeast prions and their biological effects on yeast in general. It defines the basic characteristics of yeast prions, that distinguish prions from other proteins. The thesis introduces various possibilities of prion formation, and propagation as well as specific types of yeast prions, including various functions of most studied types of prions. The thesis also focuses on chaperones that affect the state of yeast prions in cells. Lastly, the thesis indicates similarities be...

  11. Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Filomena Justo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

  12. Resistência do Triatoma brasiliensis ao jejum Resistence of Triatoma brasiliensis to fasting

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    Maria José Costa

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis suporta prolongados períodos de jejum em condições de laboratório. O número médio de dias que os animais não alimentados e mantidos a 30oC e a 70-80% U.R. resistiram, foi: 33,30 + 1,12; 44,23 + 1,31; 40,28 + 1,78; 48,00 + 1,56; 58,46 + 3,06; 42,63 + 2,38 e 52,33 + 1,83 para ninfas de 1.°, 2.°, 3.° 4.°, 5.° estádios e adultos, fêmeas e machos, respectivamente. A perda de peso corpóreo durante o jejum é mais drástica na primeira semana decrescendo nas semanas seguintes. Existe diferença nas taxas de perda de peso entre as ninfas do 5.° estádio e os outros estádios estudados. A grande variação na resistência apresentada pelos animais em cada estádio pode ser explicada em termos do peso corpóreo do inseto. A resistência ao jejum aumenta com o aumento de peso podendo, estas relações, serem expressas como funções alométricas. São feitos comentários sobre programas de erradicação.Triatoma brasiliensis can resist to long periods of fasting at a constant temperature of 30 ± 0,5°C and 70-80% RH. The mean number of days the non-fed animals resisted was 33.30 ± 1.12, 44.23 ± 1.31, 40.28 ± 1.78, 48.00 ± 1.56, 58.46 ± 3.06, 42,63 ± 2.38 and 52.33 ± 1.83 for the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th instar nymphs and adults, femalea and males, respectively. The loss of weight is more drastic in the first week of fasting and gradually decreasis in the next periods. There is a difference in the rate of weight loss during the last weeks of fasting between the 5th instar and the other nymphal and adult stages. The large variation in the number of days each animal survive, in a instar, could be explained by the animal's body weight. Resistence to fasting increasis as the animal's weight increasis, the relationships between these parameters being expressed as allometric mathematical function. Commentaries are made about programs of pest eradication.

  13. Isoenzymes detect variation in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J; Freitas-Sibajev, M G; Marchon-Silva, V; Pires, M Q; Pacheco, R S

    1997-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is one of the most important vectors of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the northeast of Brazil. Intraspecific morphological and behavioural variation has been reported for different populations. Results for four distinct populations using eight isoenzymes are reported here. The literature describes three subspecies: T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911; T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent, 1941 and T. brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956. These subspecies differ mainly in their cuticle colour pattern and were regarded as synonyms by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to evaluate whether the chromatic pattern is a morphological variation of different melanic forms within T. brasiliensis or due to interspecific variation, field collections were performed in localities where these three subspecies have been described: Caicó (Rio Grande do Norte), the type-locality for T. b. brasiliensis; Petrolina (Pernambuco) for T. b. macromelasoma and Espinosa (Minas Gerais) for T. b. melanica. A fourth distinct chromatic pattern was found in Juazeiro (Bahia). A total of nine loci were studied. Values of Nei's genetic distance (D) were calculated. T. b. brasiliensis and T. b. macromelasoma are the closest populations with a D = 0.295. T. b. melanica had a D > or = 0.537 when compared to the others, a distance in the range of interspecific variation for other triatomine species.

  14. Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941, the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956, the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

  15. Ecotopes, natural infection and trophic resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J; de Almeida, J R; Britto, C; Duarte, R; Marchon-Silva, V; Pacheco, R da S

    1998-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness.

  16. Studies of the latex of Brazilian IAC series clones from Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber is an important commodity industrial crop that mainly derives from Hevea brasiliensis. Most natural rubber production is in Southeast Asia, but significant cultivar development takes place in Brazil, the original origin of current commercial H. brasiliensis cultivars. Thus it is criti...

  17. [Distribution and characterization of different populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Tritominae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J

    2000-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 is now considered the most important Chagas disease vector in the semiarid zones of northeastern Brazil. Four distinct populations of T. brasiliensis have been identified by multidisciplinary studies: brasiliensis (Caicó, RN), melânica (Espinosa, MG), macromelasoma (Petrolina, PE), and juazeiro (Juazeiro, BA). By scanning electron microscopy of egg exochorion, each population displayed a distinct ornamentation pattern. The brasiliensis, macromelasoma, and juazeiro populations were found in both artificial ecotopes and the wild, while the mel anica population was collected only in the wild. Isoenzymatic analysis detected phenotypic and genetic differences among them, with the melânica population being the most distinct. The brasiliensis population is the most important one from an epidemiological point of view, with the widest geographic distribution, the highest Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate, and occupying a wide variety of ecotopes.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae) from Mus musculus in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anshu; Goswami, Urvashi; Singh, Hridaya Shanker

    2016-12-01

    Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae) has generally been infected with a rodent hookworm Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. In this report, we present morphological and molecular identification of N. brasiliensis by light and scanning electron microscopy and PCR amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and the protein sequences encoded by cox1 gene, respectively. Despite the use of N. brasiliensis in many biochemistry studies from India, their taxonomic identification was not fully understood, especially at the species level, and no molecular data is available in GenBank from India. Sequence analysis of cox1 gene in this study revealed that the present specimen showed close identity with the same species available in GenBank, confirming that the species is N. brasiliensis. This study represents the first record of molecular identification of N. brasiliensis from India and the protein structure to better understand the comparative phylogenetic characteristics.

  19. ∆24-sterol methyltransferase plays an important role in the growth and development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

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    Luana Pereira Borba-Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of ∆24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3-ol (H3 were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors were completely replaced by 14-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective towards these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of

  20. Δ24-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  1. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

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    Jane Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

  2. Protein expression-yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus H

    2014-01-01

    Yeast is an excellent system for the expression of recombinant eukaryotic proteins. Both endogenous and heterologous proteins can be overexpressed in yeast (Phan et al., 2001; Ton and Rao, 2004). Because yeast is easy to manipulate genetically, a strain can be optimized for the expression of a specific protein. Many eukaryotic proteins contain posttranslational modifications that can be performed in yeast but not in bacterial expression systems. In comparison with mammalian cell culture expression systems, growing yeast is both faster and less expensive, and large-scale cultures can be performed using fermentation. While several different yeast expression systems exist, this chapter focuses on the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and will briefly describe some options to consider when selecting vectors and tags to be used for protein expression. Throughout this chapter, the expression and purification of yeast eIF3 is shown as an example alongside a general scheme outline. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Yeast Infection during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK? What's the best way to treat a yeast infection during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. You can safely treat a yeast infection during pregnancy with various over-the-counter ...

  4. [Nocardia brasiliensis leg ulcer and nodular lymphangitis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, M; Friedel, J; Siré, C; Semon, J

    2005-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a very rarely reported cause of chronic phagedenic ulcerations. We report the case of an elderly woman who developed such an infection after falling on her right leg on the road in the Bresse country (an essentially agricultural and bovine-cattle breading region) and developed a chronic phagedenic ulcer secondarily complicated by nodular lymphangitis of the thigh. A 75 year-old woman fell on her right leg on the side of the main road outside her hamlet in the Bresse country and secondarily developed a chronique phagedenic ulceration. We first considered her as suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum. A complete scanning only revealed an autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly healing gastric ulceration, and none of the treatments, either local or systemic, helped the skin condition to heal. After 3 weeks of application of a local corticoid ointment, the patient developed fever, general malaise, an exacerbation of her wound and an infiltration of the skin round her knee, together with nodular lymphangitic dissemination. A supplementary bacterial swab disclosed massive proliferation of a slow-growing Gram-positive bacillus, which proved to be Nocardia brasiliensis, together with a methicillino-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimetoprim gave a rash after 12 hours and was changed to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which rapidly proved to be permanently effective. The revelation of this particular slow-growing bacteria is difficult and requires bacterial swabs. Nocardia brasiliensis is relatively rare in primary skin ulcerations and we discuss the reasons why an elderly women should find this bacteria on the road outside her hamlet in the French countryside. This particular infectious condition requires general scanning, to make sure that the primary skin condition does not extend to other organs. We review the therapeutical options for patients who exhibit allergic reactions to the classically effective

  5. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

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    Michele Debiase Alberton Magina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae leaves led to the isolation of α-amyrin and β-amyrin (in a mixture, betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

  6. Detection of the basement membrane-degrading proteolytic activity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis after SDS-PAGE using agarose overlays containing Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp

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    Puccia R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have characterized, in the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast phase, an exocellular SH-dependent serine proteinase activity against Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp and analogous fluorescent-quenched peptides, and showed that it is also active against constituents of the basement membrane in vitro. In the present study, we separated the components of P. brasiliensis culture filtrates by electrophoresis and demonstrated that the serine-thiol exocellular proteinase has a diffuse and heterogeneous migration by SDS-PAGE, localizing in a region between 69 and 43 kDa. The hydrolytic activity was demonstrable after SDS-PAGE using buffered agarose overlays of Abz-MKALTLQ-EDDnp, following incubation at 37oC, and detection of fluorescent bands with a UV transilluminator. Hydrolysis was more intense when incubation was carried out at basic pH, and was completely inhibited with 2.5 mM PMSF and partially with sodium 7-hydroxymercuribenzoate (2.5 mM p-HMB, suggesting its serine-thiol nature. A proteolytic band with similar characteristics was observed in conventional gelatin zymograms, but could not be correlated with a silver-stained component. Detection of the serine-thiol proteinase in substrate gels after SDS-PAGE provides a useful way of monitoring purification of the basement membrane degrading enzyme.

  7. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  8. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  9. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

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    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  10. B-lymphocyte activation with an extract of Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Oritz, L; Parks, D E; Lopez, J S; Weigle, W O

    1979-08-01

    An extract from the pathogenic actinomycete Nocardia brasiliensis was mitogenic for murine lymphocytes. This deoxyribonucleic acid-synthetic response of whole spleen cells peaked after 48 h in culture at concentrations of Nocardia extract ranging from 10 to 200 micrograms/ml. The extract appeared to be a mitogen for B lymphocytes since cultures of spleen cells from congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice and of antithymocyte serum plus complement-treated spleen cells from conventional (+/+) mice responded as well as untreated spleen cells from normal +/+ mice. Furthermore, thymocytes did not respond mitogenically to the extract. Mitogenic responses were stimulated in spleen cells from H-2(a), H-2(b), H-2(d), and H-2(k) mice, including lipopolysaccharide-nonresponder C3H/HeJ mice. This Nocardia extract also stimulated polyclonal B-cell activation to the hapten trinitrophenyl, serum protein human gamma globulin, and several mammalian erythrocytes in cultures of cells from both euthymic and nude mice. Additionally, the requirement for helper T cells in the primary in vitro immune response to sheep erythrocytes could be circumvented by the addition of this Nocardia extract. These results indicate that an extract from the pathogen N. brasiliensis can nonspecifically activate murine B lymphocytes and raise the possibility that polyclonal activation of B lymphocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of nocardiosis.

  11. Morphological review of the freshwater fairy shrimp Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921 (Anostraca: Thamnocephalidae

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    Samara de Paiva Barros-Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract Information concerning the morphology of Dendrocephalus brasiliensis Pesta, 1921 is currently fragmented. This study reviewed the morphological structures described previously and new features (e.g., antenna-like structures and gonopod. We review the distribution of this species and also expand the geographic distribution of D. brasiliensis in the state of Alagoas. The specimens were obtained from fish-breeding tanks in Porto Real do Colégio, Alagoas, Brazil, in November 2012. Several morphological structures of D. brasiliensis are described in greater detail, including all branches and sub-branches from the frontal appendage and thoracopods from one population and compared to other species.

  12. Nocardia brasiliensis endophthalmitis in a patient with an exposed Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Bendel, Rick E

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis in an eye with an exposed, infected Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant (GDI). Retrospective case report. A patient with an exposed GDI experienced recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis despite repeated intravitreal injections of antibiotics and steroids. The tube was initially repositioned and finally removed. Whereas repeated cultures from the anterior chamber and vitreous were negative, cultures from the removed tube grew Nocardia brasiliensis. Despite oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and intravitreal amikacin the eye became phthisical and lost light perception. An exposed GDI may lead to endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis and may require explantation to establish a diagnosis.

  13. Cutaneous Type of Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in an Elderly Patient

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    Chen-Yi Su

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute soft tissue infection with Nocardia brasiliensis is an uncommon manifestation in the elderly. A case of cellulitis and an abscess on the foot due to N. brasiliensis in a 77-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is reported. N. brasiliensis was isolated from fluid from the bulla. Treatment with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for 6 months led to complete resolution and no evidence of recurrence was noted. Nocardia infection must be considered in the differential diagnosis for elderly patients with soft tissue infection, especially in those with severe underlying diseases, and we suggest that trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole is an effective and safe treatment.

  14. In vitro activities of DA-7157 and DA-7218 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Rendon, Adrian; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio; Velazquez-Moreno, Victor M; Choi, Sung Hak; Molina-Torres, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    The in vitro activities of DA-7157, a novel oxazolidinone, against clinical isolates of Nocardia brasiliensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were determined. Equal MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s (0.25 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) were found for susceptible and multidrug-resistant isolates of M. tuberculosis. The N. brasiliensis isolates showed an MIC(90) of 1 microg/ml and an MIC(50) of 1 microg/ml. The DA-7157 prodrug, DA-7218, exhibited similar MICs for M. tuberculosis but fivefold-higher MICs for N. brasiliensis.

  15. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  16. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies

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    JEVROSIMA STEVANOVIC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy. Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  17. Host influences on reproduction and establishment of mouse-adapted Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J A; Bone, L W

    1983-10-01

    Various influences of the host altered the establishment and reproduction of mouse-adapted Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Establishment and egg production were greater in mature male than in female mice. Worm fecundity increased similarly in both sexes of mice prior to 41 days of host age. Male mice at 62 days of age or older harbored more N. brasiliensis than did females, but the number of nematodes was similar in younger hosts of both sexes. Crowding of male mice significantly increased the establishment of helminths, but not the production of eggs by N. brasiliensis. Pregnancy of the host significantly increased both establishment of and reproduction by N. brasiliensis. Ligation of the bile duct of the mouse reduced both establishment and fecundity of the nematode after subcutaneous or surgical infection with larvae and adults, respectively.

  18. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed byNocardia brasiliensis in Vitroand in Experimental Actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form ( in vitro ) in Nocardia brasiliensis . The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis.

  19. Construction of a Nocardia brasiliensis fluorescent plasmid to study Actinomycetoma pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rocha-Pizaña, María R

    2011-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis, is a bacteria that lives as saprophyte in soil and causes a disease called actinomycetoma in both human and animals. Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular, facultative bacterium that replicates and survives within host macrophages. The mechanisms involved in the evasion of the microbicidal actions of macrophages remain unclear. The filamentous growth of N. brasiliensis is resistant to unicellular preparations, leading to inaccurate quantification of bacterial numbers by means of colony forming units (CFU). As successful survival studies with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing bacterial strains have been reported, we constructed a recombinant GFP-expressing strain of N. brasiliensis. The virulence of the modified strain is maintained because it induces mycetoma in BALB/c mice. This new strain can be used for bacterial survival assays using cytometry and to elucidate the pathogenicity mechanisms in Actinomycetoma infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S.; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J.; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. Objective: The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form (in vitro) in Nocardia brasiliensis. Methods and Result: The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. Conclusion: The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis. PMID:28839491

  1. Nocardia brasiliensis induces an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors chronic infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Perez-Liñan, Amira R; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-07-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P 1 log) was also observed (P brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection.

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis Induces an Immunosuppressive Microenvironment That Favors Chronic Infection in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G.; Perez-Liñan, Amira R.; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P 1 log) was also observed (P brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection. PMID:22547544

  3. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  4. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis.

  5. Actinomycetoma in arm disseminated to lung with grains of Nocardia brasiliensis with peripheral filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Hernández, Bertha; Noyola, María Cecilia; Palma-Cortés, Gabriel; Rosete, Dora Patricia; Galván, Miguel Angel; Manjarrez, María Eugenia

    2009-07-01

    Actinomycetomas represent 97.8% of mycetomas in Mexico, where 86.6% are produced by Nocardia brasiliensis. We report a case of actinomycetoma in the arm by Nocardia brasiliensis disseminated to lung. Uncommon grains were observed which present outside peripheral filaments and also numerous filaments loosing the grains. These characteristics of the grains are due probably because for the long treatment with antibiotics of the patient. In situ antibiotic action against the microcolonies is discussed.

  6. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918: Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

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    Fortes, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian burrowing snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis, occurs in aquatic habitats such as swamps, from MinasGerais and Distrito Federal until Rio Grande do Sul. In spite of this wide distribution, the species’ geographic range stillremains unclear. This note reports the occurrence of G. brasiliensis in the municipality of Vargem Bonita, state of SantaCatarina, south Brazil, extending the species’ range ca. 80 km to the west in this state.

  7. Chemotropism during yeast mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette, Peter J; Arkowitz, Robert A

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all eukaryotic cells can grow in a polarized fashion in response to external signals. Cells can respond to gradients of chemoattractants or chemorepellents by directional growth, a process referred to as chemotropism. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes chemotropic growth during mating, in which two haploid cells of opposite mating type grow toward one another. We have shown that mating pheromone gradients are essential for efficient mating in yeast and have examined the chemotropism defects of different yeast mutants. Two methods of assessing the ability of yeast strains to respond to pheromone gradients are presented here.

  8. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: phospholipase in nonsensitized and sensitized rats after challenge

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    Ottolenghi, A. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC); Kocan, A.A.; Weatherly, N.F.; Larsh, J.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Rats given an initial infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis showed greatly elevated phospholipase B levels in the small intestines and lungs from 8 through 22 days after challenge. The rise in enzyme concentration occurred earlier (Days 8-11) in the proximal half of the intestine, but at Days 22, 29, and 36 the levels were much higher in the distal segments. This shift in activity correlates with the known elimination of worms and a diminishing inflammatory response in the proximal areas. The increase in enzyme activity in the intestine and lungs was associated with an increased production of eosinophils in the bone marrow 11-22 days after challenge. Rats sensitized with one stimulating infection before challenge showed an anamnestic type of response, as measured by enzyme levels in the small intestines and lungs and by the numbers of eosinophils in the bone marrow. The results are discussed in light of our similar data reported earlier from animals infected with Trichinella spiralis.

  9. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  10. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

  11. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae

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    Nilma Maciel Garcia

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  12. Desenvolvimento in vitro de Agaricus brasiliensis em meios suplementados com diferentes farelos In vitro development of Agaricus brasiliensis in media supplemented with different brans

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    Lorena Pastorini Donini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis normalmente é cultivado em meios à base de batata ou composto orgânico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desenvolvimento in vitro da linhagem ABL 97/11 de A. brasiliensis, cultivada em meio à base de composto suplementado com diferentes concentrações de farelos de milho, trigo, arroz e soja, à temperatura constante de 28ºC. Avaliou-se, diariamente, o diâmetro da colônia e obteve-se, aos seis dias de cultivo, a massa miceliana. A adição de farelos de soja ou arroz não favorece o desenvolvimento in vitro de A. brasiliensis. O meio de cultura suplementado com 20% de farelo de trigo apresenta as maiores massa miceliana e velocidade de crescimento, comparado aos meios suplementados com outros farelos, na mesma concentração. Na concentração de 10% de farelo, o milho promove a maior velocidade de crescimento do cogumelo.The mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis is usually grown in potato-based or compost media. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro development of the strain ABL 97/11 of A. brasiliensis grown in culture medium supplemented with brans of maize, wheat, rice and soybean, in different concentrations. Cultivation was performed under constant temperature of 28ºC. Diameter of the colony was evaluated daily and after six days of cultivation, mycelial mass was obtained. The addition of soybean or rice brans did not favor the development in vitro of A. brasiliensis. The largest averages of mycelial mass and growth rate are obtained in medium containing 20% of wheat bran. The medium containing 10% of maize corn presents the highest growth rate among the different media under the same bran concentration.

  13. Immunochemistry of the Group-Specific Polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Zamora, Abel; Bojalil, L. F.

    1965-01-01

    Estrada-Parra, Sergio (Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, México, D.F., México), Abel Zamora, and L. F. Bojalil. Immunochemistry of the group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis. J. Bacteriol. 90:571–574. 1965.—The group-specific polysaccharide of Nocardia brasiliensis was further purified, yielding an amorphous white material with the following characteristics: [α]D20 = + 48; nitrogen, 0.5%; phosphorus, 0.1%; and ash as sodium, 0.8%. The polymer is made of d-arabinose and d-galactose in a molar ratio of 3:1, and no other sugars were detected. Mild hydrolysis liberates mainly arabinose. The polysaccharide consumes 3.46 μmoles of periodate per mg of polymer in 15 days at 4 C (this value remains constant after 4 more days). Oxidation results in destruction of two of the arabinose, with the formation of two glycerols after borohydride reduction and hydrolysis. The polysaccharide oxidized by periodate and reduced under mild acid hydrolysis at 20 C yields glycerol and a polymer formed by galactose and arabinose (in a ratio of 1:1) which is resistant to a second oxidation. Therefore, the polysaccharide is probably formed by a main chain of glactose linked 1,3 and arabinose linked 1,2 or 1,3 or both, and nonreducing side chains of arabofuranose residues. The intact polysaccharide cross-reacts with sera from patients with active tuberculosis, and this, as well as the homologous reaction, is abolished by oxidation with periodate. PMID:16562050

  14. Cloning, heterologous expression and characterization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) gene in laticifer cells of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jinquan; Zhang, Shixin; Chen, Yueyi; Tian, Wei-Min

    2015-12-01

    Ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) are a kind of crucial enzymes for removing reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cell. In the present study, a full-length cDNA encoding an APX, designated HbAPX, was isolated from Hevea brasiliensis by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. HbAPX was 1174-bp in length and contained a 912-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 304 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass of HbAPX was 27.6 kDa (kDa) with an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.73. The phylogenetic analysis showed that HbAPX belonged to the cytosolic subgroup and was more relative to PtAPX and MdAPX2. By using PlantCare online analysis, such cis-acting elements as W-box and MRE were detected in the promoter region of HbAPX. Overproduction of recombinant HbAPX protein either in Escherichia coli or yeast enhanced their tolerance to such abiotic stresses as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Na(2+) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Ethrel application significantly down-regulated the expression of HbAPX and inhibited the activity of HbAPX in vivo. The ethrel-caused down-regulation of HbAPX may disturb the redox homeostasis in laticifer cells of rubber tree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Apparent digestibility of ingredients in diets for Salminus brasiliensis Digestibilidade aparente de ingredientes em dietas para Salminus brasiliensis

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    Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the nutritional value of different protein sources for "dourado" (Salminus brasiliensis. Thirty juveniles per group (33.51±1.4 g were hand fed on a reference diet (70% added of tested ingredients (30% and chromium oxide III (0.1%. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the gross energy (ADC GE, crude protein (ADC CP and amino acids of the tested ingredients were evaluated. Corn gluten meal yielded the best results for ADC GE and ADC CP (95.7 and 96.9%, respectively amongst plant ingredients. Spray-dried blood meal yielded the best values of ADC GE and ADC CP amongst animal ingredients (94.1 and 96.3%, respectively. Wheat bran yielded poorest ADCs coefficients (77 for ADC GE and 88.2% for ADC CP.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o valor nutricional de diferentes fontes protéicas para o Dourado (Salminus brasiliensis. Trinta juvenis por grupo (33,51±1,4 g foram alimentados ad libitum com ração referência (70% mais ingredientes-teste (30% e marcador de óxido de cromo III (0,1%. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta (CDA EB, proteína bruta (CDA PB e aminoácidos. Entre os ingredientes de origem vegetal, a glutenose apresentou os melhores resultados para CDA EB e CDA PB (95,7 e 96,9%, respectivamente. A farinha de sangue se destacou entre os ingredientes de origem animal (94,1 e 96,3%, respectivamente. O farelo de trigo apresentou menor digestibilidade entre todos, 77% para CDA EB e 88,2% para CDA PB.

  16. Trânsito gastrintestinal de dieta seca em Salminus brasiliensis Gastrointestinal transit of dry diet in Salminus brasiliensis

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    Luís Gustavo Tavares Braga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tempo de passagem do alimento e seqüência de repleção e depleção dos órgãos no trato gastrintestinal de Salminus brasiliensis. Cem peixes (38,8±7,6 g foram mantidos em 20 gaiolas (60 L, a 24,8±0,2ºC e alimentados com ração contendo 1% de Cr2O3. A cada 60 min a partir da primeira alimentação foram sacrificados cinco peixes e foi verificada a localização da digesta no trato gastrintestinal. A partir da segunda hora depois da alimentação, observou-se redução gradativa do conteúdo estomacal e subseqüente presença de digesta no intestino. Esse padrão se mantém até a 16ª hora; uma e duas horas depois, estômagos e intestinos, respectivamente, encontram-se completamente vazios.The objective of this work was to evaluate gastric transit time and sequence of repletion and depletion of Salminus brasiliensis gastrointestinal organs. One hundred fish (38.8±7.6 g were kept in 20 cages (60 L under 24.8±0.2ºC, and fed on practical feed, added of 1% Cr2O3. Every 60 minutes from the first feeding, five fish were sacrificed and it was verified the location of the digest in the gastrointestinal tract. From the second hour after the feeding, gradual reduction of the stomach content and subsequent presence of digest in the intestine were observed. This pattern was kept constant until the 16th hour. One and two hours later stomach and intestine were totally empty, respectively.

  17. Prions in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebman, Susan W.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a prion as an infectious self-propagating protein isoform was initially proposed to explain certain mammalian diseases. It is now clear that yeast also has heritable elements transmitted via protein. Indeed, the “protein only” model of prion transmission was first proven using a yeast prion. Typically, known prions are ordered cross-β aggregates (amyloids). Recently, there has been an explosion in the number of recognized prions in yeast. Yeast continues to lead the way in understanding cellular control of prion propagation, prion structure, mechanisms of de novo prion formation, specificity of prion transmission, and the biological roles of prions. This review summarizes what has been learned from yeast prions. PMID:22879407

  18. The yeast Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yasuyuki; Nakano, Akihiko

    2012-04-01

    The Golgi apparatus is an organelle that has been extensively studied in the model eukaryote, yeast. Its morphology varies among yeast species; the Golgi exists as a system of dispersed cisternae in the case of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the Golgi cisternae in Pichia pastoris and Schizosaccharomyces pombe are organized into stacks. In spite of the different organization, the mechanism of trafficking through the Golgi apparatus is believed to be similar, involving cisternal maturation, in which the resident Golgi proteins are transported backwards while secretory cargo proteins can stay in the cisternae. Questions remain regarding the organization of the yeast Golgi, the regulatory mechanisms that underlie cisternal maturation of the Golgi and transport machinery of cargo proteins through this organelle. Studies using different yeast species have provided hints to these mechanisms. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  20. Black yeast biota in the mangrove, in search of the origin of the lethargic crab disease (LCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Raquel Schier; do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; Miesch, Stephanie; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Ribeiro, Raphael Orélis; Ostrensky, Antonio; de Hoog, Gerrit Sybren; Vicente, Vania Aparecida; Boeger, Walter A

    2013-06-01

    Knowledge of natural ecology is essential for a better understanding of pathogenicity and opportunism in black yeast-like fungi. Although etiological agents of diseases caused by these fungi are supposed to originate from the environment, their isolation from nature is difficult. This is probably due to their oligotrophic nature, low competitive ability, and, overall, insufficient data on their natural habitat. We obtained environmental samples from mangrove areas where mortalities by lethargic crab disease (LCD) are reported and areas without disease recorded. Isolation of chaetothyrialean black yeasts and relatives was performed using a highly selective protocol. Species-specific primers were used to determine if these isolates represented Exophiala cancerae or Fonsecaea brasiliensis, two proven agents of LCD, in order to test hypotheses about the origin of the disease. Isolates, identified by morphology as Fonsecaea- or Exophiala-like, were tested specific diagnostic markers for the fungi associated with LCD. Although several black fungi were isolated, the main causative agent of the LCD, E. cancerae, was not found. Molecular markers for F. brasiliensis revealed 10 positive bands for isolates from biofilms on mangrove leaves, branches, and aerial roots, of which four were confirmed by ITS sequencing. The absence of E. cancerae in environmental samples suggests that the species is dependent on the crab, as a genuine pathogen, different from F. brasiliensis, which is probably not dependent on the host species, U. cordatus. However, we did not attempt isolation from the marine water, which may represent the pathway of dispersion of the black yeast species between neighbor mangroves.

  1. Detection of Anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in suspected tuberculosis patients = Detecção de anticorpos anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose

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    Maria Luiza Dias Fraga Peron

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an important systemic mycosis in LatinAmerica that occurs as active disease in 1-2% of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected people. Like PCM, tuberculosis (TB affects mainly the lungs and the clinical and radiological aspects do notalways allow differentiation between them. The aim of this study was to carry out serological investigation for detecting anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies, by three serological methods, in patientswith symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB. From August 2005 to September 2006, 76 patients with pulmonary symptoms suspected for TB were attended at the Regional Specialties Center Laboratory in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil and submitted to microbiological TB research, ELISA, immunodiffusion and immunoblotting for PCM. Of all the individuals, 21 (27.63% were reactive to P. brasiliensis by ELISA and 11 (14.47% showed a laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Of all the individuals serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis, by ELISA, none had positive results by immunodiffusion and one reacted with antigen 43 kDa when Immunobloting was carried out. Our results lead us to reflect a necessity to obtain a more specific serologic test for diagnosis of PCM disease in patients with respiratory symptoms considering the high number of individuals reactive to P. brasiliensis especially in endemic areas.Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é importante micose sistêmica na América Latina, que ocorre como doença ativa em 1-2% dos indivíduos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Assim como a PCM, a tuberculose (TB afeta principalmente os pulmões, porém os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos nem sempre permitem a diferenciação entreessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inquérito sorológico para a detecção de anticorpos anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando três métodos sorológicos, em pacientes com sintomassugestivos de tuberculose pulmonar. De agosto de 2005 a setembro de

  2. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis is associated with atypical clinical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-09-01

    There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole.

  3. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis Is Associated with Atypical Clinical Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-01-01

    Background There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole. PMID:25233227

  4. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

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    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  5. Keratitis caused by the recently described new species Aspergillus brasiliensis: two case reports

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    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human infections caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis have not yet been reported. We describe the first two known cases of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis. Case presentations A 49-year-old Indian Tamil woman agricultural worker came with pain and defective vision in the right eye for one month. Meanwhile, a 35-year-old Indian Tamil woman presented with a history of a corneal ulcer involving the left eye for 15 days. The fungal strains isolated from these two cases were originally suspected to belong to Aspergillus section Nigri based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics. Molecular identification revealed that both isolates represent A. brasiliensis. Conclusion The two A. brasiliensis strains examined in this study were part of six keratitis isolates from Aspergillus section Nigri, suggesting that this recently described species may be responsible for a significant proportion of corneal infections caused by black Aspergilli. The presented cases also indicate that significant differences may occur between the severities of keratitis caused by individual isolates of A. brasiliensis.

  6. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  7. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  8. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, A.; Jensen, E.S.; Jakobsen, I.

    1994-01-01

    and averaged 0.05 and 0.03% for mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal H. brasiliensis. The estimated transfer of N and P from P. phaseoloides to H. brasiliensis was not affected by mycorrhizas despite the high degree of root colonization in both species. The percentage of total legume N transferred to H...

  9. [Penicillium-inhibiting yeasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez Ahrendts, M R; Carrillo, L

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish the in vitro and in vivo inhibition of post-harvest pathogenic moulds by yeasts in order to make a biocontrol product. Post-harvest pathogenic moulds Penicillium digitatum, P. italicum, P. ulaiense, Phyllosticta sp., Galactomyces geotrichum and yeasts belonging to genera Brettanomyces, Candida, Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Pichia, Rhodotorula were isolated from citrus fruits. Some yeasts strains were also isolated from other sources. The yeasts were identified by their macro and micro-morphology and physiological tests. The in vitro and in vivo activities against P. digitatum or P. ulaiense were different. Candida cantarellii and one strain of Pichia subpelliculosa produced a significant reduction of the lesion area caused by the pathogenic moulds P. digitatum and P. ulaiense, and could be used in a biocontrol product formulation.

  10. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes

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    Aquino-Silva Maria Regina de

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent locus duplication hypothesis for sMDH-B* was proposed to explain the complex electrophoretic pattern of six bands detected for the soluble form of malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37 in 84% of the Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae, Perciformes analyzed (AB1B2 individuals. Klebe's serial dilutions were carried out in skeletal muscle extracts. B1 and B2 subunits had the same visual end-points, reflecting a nondivergent pattern for these B-duplicated genes. Since there is no evidence of polyploidy in the Cichlidae family, MDH-B* loci must have evolved from regional gene duplication. Tissue specificities, thermostability and kinetic tests resulted in similar responses from both B-isoforms, in both sMDH phenotypes, suggesting that these more recently duplicated loci underwent the same regulatory gene action. Similar results obtained with the two sMDH phenotypes did not show any indication of a six-banded specimen adaptive advantage in subtropical regions.

  12. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

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    Gabriel Capella Machado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339 from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens.

  13. Highlights on Hevea brasiliensis (pro)hevein proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Peruch, Frédéric; Lecomte, Sophie

    2016-08-01

    Hevein, from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree), was identified in 1960. It is the most abundant soluble protein (22%) found in latex. Hevein is formed from a larger protein called prohevein. The 187 amino-acid prohevein is cleaved into two fragments: the N-terminal 43 amino-acid hevein, a lectin bearing a chitin-binding motif with antifungal properties, and a C-terminal domain (C-ter), which possesses amyloid properties. Hevein-like proteins are also widely represented in the plant kingdom and belong to a larger family related to stress and pathogenic responses. During the last 55 years, these proteins have attracted the interest of numerous specialists from the fields of plant physiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology, and physico-chemistry to allergology. This review highlights various aspects of hevein, prohevein, and C-ter from the point of view of these various fields, and examines their potential roles in latex as well as their beneficial and negative biological effects (e.g. wound sealing and resistance to pathogens which is mediated by agglutination, antimicrobial activity, and/or allergenicity). It covers results and observations from 1960 up to the most recent research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic routes affecting rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Keng-See; Mat-Isa, Mohd.-Noor; Bahari, Azlina; Ghazali, Ahmad-Kamal; Alias, Halimah; Mohd.-Zainuddin, Zainorlina; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2012-01-01

    The cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathway in Hevea brasiliensis latex is the conventionally accepted pathway which provides isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) for cis-polyisoprene (rubber) biosynthesis. However, the plastidic 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway may be an alternative source of IPP since its more recent discovery in plants. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) expression profiles of genes from both pathways in latex showed that subcellular compartmentalization of IPP for cis-polyisoprene synthesis is related to the degree of plastidic carotenoid synthesis. From this, the occurrence of two schemes of IPP partitioning and utilization within one species is proposed whereby the supply of IPP for cis-polyisoprene from the MEP pathway is related to carotenoid production in latex. Subsequently, a set of latex unique gene transcripts was sequenced and assembled and they were then mapped to IPP-requiring pathways. Up to eight such pathways, including cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis, were identified. Our findings on pre- and post-IPP metabolic routes form an important aspect of a pathway knowledge-driven approach to enhancing cis-polyisoprene biosynthesis in transgenic rubber trees. PMID:22162870

  15. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  16. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Magda Paula Pereira do; Bannwart, Camila Ferreira; Nakaira-Takahagi, Erika; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha Serrão

    2011-09-01

    Multinucleated giant cells (MGC) are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg). The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI) and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18). The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  17. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  18. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dayvison F S; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease.

  19. Cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane do Nascimento Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannibalism is influenced by various intrinsic and extrinsic factors of the population, such as density, population structure, prey availability, habitat structure and famine. These factors acting either independently or in synergy determine the frequency of cannibalism. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of density and food availability on the occurrence of cannibalism among Myrmeleon brasiliensis larvae (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae. In the present study, the occurrence of cannibalism among M. brasiliensis larvae was greater in the treatments that simulated an absence of food in situations of both high and low density. The search for food makes a larva move about to forage, thereby increasing the risk of falling into the trap of a neighboring larva. Thus, the cannibalistic behavior of M. brasiliensis larvae may be associated with opportunity rather than a direct attempt to pray on the same species.

  20. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta

    2007-01-01

    A novel species, Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., is described within Aspergillus section Nigri. This species can be distinguished from other black aspergilli based on intergenic transcribed region, beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences, by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis...... and by extrolite profiles. A. brasiliensis isolates produced naphtho-gamma-pyrones, tensidol A and B and pyrophen in common with Aspergiflus niger and Aspergillus tubingensis, but also several unique compounds, justifying their treatment as representing a separate species. None of the isolates were found...... to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM...

  1. Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae

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    Panzera Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome characteristics, which differ from those observed in all other triatomine species. However, no cytogenetic differences were observed between the four chromatic forms of T. brasiliensis. The lack of chromosome differentiation among them could indicate that the populations of this species are in a process of differentiation that does not involve their chromosomal organization.

  2. Forces in yeast flocculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  3. Immunomodulating Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 in Mice and in Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed studies on murine models and human volunteers to examine the immunoenhancing effects of the naturally outdoor-cultivated fruit body of Agaricus brasiliensis KA21 (i.e. Agaricus blazei. Antitumor, leukocyte-enhancing, hepatopathy-alleviating and endotoxin shock-alleviating effects were found in mice. In the human study, percentage body fat, percentage visceral fat, blood cholesterol level and blood glucose level were decreased, and natural killer cell activity was increased. Taken together, the results strongly suggest that the A. brasiliensis fruit body is useful as a health-promoting food.

  4. Caracterização molecular de um antígeno de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Silva Martins, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A Paracoccidioidomicose é uma importante causa de morbidade, levando à morte em alguns casos. Essa doença é provocada pelo fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e seu diagnóstico clínico é inespecífico. Recentemente, no nosso laboratório foi isolado e sequenciado um fragmento de DNA de 850pb obtido pela técnica de RAPD, presente em cepas de P. brasiliensis com morfologia típica, e virulentas quando inoculadas em camundongos, que não estava presente em cepas de morfologias atípicas não...

  5. Potentiated reagin response to egg albumin in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infected rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, T. S. C.; Riley, Patricia; Doe, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The potentiated reagin response induced by infection with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis after sensitization with egg albumin and Bordetella pertussis vaccine was investigated to reveal the time course of the potentiated reagin response and the maximum reagin titre attained. The potentiated reagin response was found to be transitory but during this period high reagin titres to egg albumin were recorded. Rat sensitized to egg albumin and treated with N. brasiliensis crude worm extract instead of an infection did not show a potentiated response. PMID:5102245

  6. Cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection in an immunocompetent host after ovarian cystectomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manideepa SenGupta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia brasiliensis is a rare human pathogen that is usually associated with localised cutaneous infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection causing delayed wound healing that developed after ovarian cystectomy in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old woman. The patient was initially treated with cotrimoxazole, however due to intolerance intravenous amikacin was given and gradually the wound healed. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating the causative organism in exudates, and cultures. Early diagnosis as well as early institution of chemotherapy is effective in most patients, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolate should be performed to identify the best treatment options.

  7. In Vitro Activity of PNU-100766 (Linezolid), a New Oxazolidinone Antimicrobial, against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gómez-Flores, Alejandra; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, linezolid, was studied by comparing the activity of linezolid with those of amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis isolated from patients with mycetoma. All N. brasiliensis strains tested were sensitive to linezolid (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 2 μg/ml; MIC50, 1 μg/ml). This antimicrobial might constitute a good alternative for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:11709356

  8. Cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection in an immunocompetent host after ovarian cystectomy: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Sarkar; Saha, Puranjay; Sengupta, Manideepa

    2011-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a rare human pathogen that is usually associated with localised cutaneous infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection causing delayed wound healing that developed after ovarian cystectomy in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old woman. The patient was initially treated with cotrimoxazole, however due to intolerance intravenous amikacin was given and gradually the wound healed. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating the causative organism in exudates, and cultures. Early diagnosis as well as early institution of chemotherapy is effective in most patients, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolate should be performed to identify the best treatment options.

  9. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com

  10. Resultado tardio da infecção isolada no quadril por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Late outcome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolated infection on the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Hermínio Ferraz Picado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infecções causadas pelo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis são sempre um desafio diagnostico mesmo em áreas endêmicas, devidas as suas múltiplas apresentações clinicas e órgãos envolvidos. Este artigo descreve a evolução do único caso descrito na literatura no qual a doença acometeu apenas um quadril.Infections caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are always a diagnostic challenge, even in endemic areas due to its multiple clinical presentations and involved organs. This paper describes the evolution of the only case found in literature in which the disease affected just one hip.

  11. Yeasts associated with Manteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Schirone, Maria; Martuscelli, Maria; Gatti, Monica; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Neviani, Erasmo

    2003-04-01

    Manteca is a traditional milk product of southern Italy produced from whey deriving from Caciocavallo Podolico cheese-making. This study was undertaken to obtain more information about the microbiological properties of this product and particularly about the presence, metabolic activities, and technological significance of the different yeast species naturally occurring in Manteca. High numbers of yeasts were counted after 7 days ripening (10(4)-10(5) cfu g(-1)) and then decreased to 10(2) at the end. A total of 179 isolates were identified and studied for their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The most frequently encountered species were Trichosporon asahii (45), Candida parapsilosis (33), Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (32), Candida inconspicua (29). Some of these yeasts showed lipolytic activity (32 strains) and proteolytic activity (29 strains), NaCl resistance up to 10% and growth up to 45 degrees C (42 strains). Biogenic amines were formed by proteolytic strains, in particular phenylethylamine, putrescine and spermidine. Spermidine was produced by all the yeasts tested in this work, but only Trichosporon produced a great quantity of this compound. Histamine was not detectable. Caseinolytic activity was common to almost all strains, corresponding to the ability to efficiently split off amino-terminal amino acids. The highest and most constant activity expressed by all species was X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase. The findings suggest that the presence of yeasts may play a significant role in justifying interactions with lactic acid bacteria, and consequently with their metabolic activity in the definition of the peculiar characteristics of Manteca cheese.

  12. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2004-01-01

    they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...... that the minimum number of genes from each species that need to be compared to produce a reliable phylogeny is about 20. Yeast has also become an attractive model to study speciation in eukaryotes, especially to understand molecular mechanisms behind the establishment of reproductive isolation. Comparison...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...

  13. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Machado, Ana Caroline Sá; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-05-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) support the detection of identification of resistant strains. To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), ketoconazole (KET), posaconazole (POS), and terbinafine (TRB) against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  14. Enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Evert; Barends, Thomas; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    2000-01-01

    The enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, were studied in detail with a new enzyme assay. In this assay, the enzyme reaction products were derivatized by reductive coupling to a chromophore, Products mere separated by HPLC and the amount of product was

  15. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  16. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  17. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB, itraconazole (ITR, ketoconazole (KET, posaconazole (POS, and terbinafine (TRB against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  18. THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF HEVAMINE, AN ENZYME WITH LYSOZYME CHITINASE ACTIVITY FROM HEVEA-BRASILIENSIS LATEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JEKEL, PA; HARTMANN, JBH; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1991-01-01

    The primary structure of hevamine, an enzyme with lysozyme/chitinase activity from Hevea brasiliensis latex, has been determined predominantly with conventional non-automatic methods. The positions of three disulfide bridges have been determined. The sequence has about 60% identity with that of a

  19. base cation leaching from the canopy of a rubber (hevea brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-08-11

    Aug 11, 2012 ... relatively high throughout the sampling periods. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were ... major detrimental effect on nutrient cycling and forest health (Dean, 2002; Likens et al., .... Table 1 Volume-weighted mean concentrations (± SD) in precipitation and throughfall in rubber. (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation ...

  20. Thermal preferences and limits of Triatoma brasiliensis in its natural environment - Field observations while host searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Silvia; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça; Diotaiuti, Lileia

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work was to explore the thermal relationship between foraging Triatoma brasiliensis and its natural habitat during the hottest season in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The thermal profiles were determined using infrared analysis. Although the daily temperature of rock surfaces varied in a wide range, T. brasiliensis selected to walk through areas with temperatures between 31.7-40.5ºC. The temperature of T. brasiliensis body surface ranged from 32.8-34.4ºC, being higher in legs than the abdomen. A strong relationship was found between the temperature of the insect and the temperature of rock crevices where they were hidden (r: 0.96, p < 0.05). The species was active at full sunlight being a clear example of how the light-dark rhythm may be altered, even under predation risk. Our results strongly suggest a thermal borderline for T. brasiliensis foraging activity near 40ºC. The simultaneous determination of insect body and rock temperatures here presented are the only obtained in natural habitats for this or other triatomines. PMID:26517659

  1. Crystallization of Hevamine, an Enzyme with Lysozyme/Chitinase Activity from Hevea brasiliensis Latex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEBOOM, HJ; BUDIANI, A; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1990-01-01

    Hevamine, an enzyme with both lysozyme and chitinase activity, was isolated and purified from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex. The enzyme (molecular weight 29,000) is homologous to certain “pathogenesis-related” proteins from plants, but not to hen egg-white or phage T4 lysozyme. To

  2. A life-threatening case of disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramythiotou, Elisabeth; Papadomichelakis, Evangelos; Vrioni, Georgia; Pappas, Georgios; Pantelaki, Maria; Kontos, Fanourios; Zerva, Loukia; Armaganidis, Apostolos

    2012-10-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare disease caused by infection with Nocardia species, aerobic actinomycetes with a worldwide distribution. A rare life-threatening disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis infection is described in an elderly, immunocompromised patient. Microorganism was recovered from bronchial secretions and dermal lesions, and was identified using molecular assays. Prompt, timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment ensured a favorable outcome.

  3. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  4. Nocardia brasiliensis primary pulmonary nocardiosis with subcutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, R; Koirala, R; Khanal, B; Dhakal, S S

    2011-01-01

    This is a report of an unusual case of Nocardia brasiliensis causing primary pulmonary nocardiosis with disseminated subcutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with pulmonary and cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure.

  5. Nocardia brasiliensis primary pulmonary nocardiosis with subcutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amatya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of an unusual case of Nocardia brasiliensis causing primary pulmonary nocardiosis with disseminated subcutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with pulmonary and cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure.

  6. In vivo therapeutic effect of gatifloxacin on BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw-Garza, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Waksman de Torres, Noemi; Rocha, Norma Cavazos; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the effect of gatifloxacin on the evolution of experimental murine infection with Nocardia brasiliensis using linezolid as a control. Gatifloxacin was injected subcutaneously at 100 mg/kg body weight every 8 h for 4 weeks. This compound was equally as efficient as linezolid in reducing the production of lesions.

  7. Development of CD4 T cell dependent immunity against N. brasiliensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eHarvie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Of all the microbial infections relevant to mammals the relationship between parasitic worms and what constitutes and regulates a host protective immune response is perhaps the most complex and evolved. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is a tissue migrating parasitic roundworm of rodents that exemplifies many of the salient features of parasitic worm infection, including parasite development through sequential larval stages as it migrates through specific tissue sites. Immune competent hosts respond to infection by N. brasiliensis with a rapid and selective development of a profound Th2 immune response that appears able to confer life long protective immunity against reinfection. This review details how the lung can be the site of migrating nematode immune killing and the gut a site of rapid immune mediated clearance of worms. Furthermore it appears that N. brasiliensis induced responses in the lung are sufficient for conferring immunity in lung and gut while infection of the gut only confers immunity in the gut. This review also covers the role of IL-4, STAT6 and the innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in the generation of CD4-mediated immunity against N. brasiliensis reinfection and discusses what cytokines might be involved in mediated killing or expulsion of helminth parasites.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Teixeira, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schubach, T.M.P.; Pereira, S.A.; Fernandes, G.F.; Bezerra, L.M.; Felipe, M.S.; Camargo, Z.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics

  9. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline sporotrichosis outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; de Melo Teixeira, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Pacheco Schubach, T.M.; Pereira, S.A.; Ferreira Fernandes, G.; Lopes Bezerra, L.M.; Felipe, M.S.; Pires de Camargo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics

  10. Black thread disease, control measures and yield stimulation in Hevea brasiliensis in Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.

    1972-01-01

    Described are investigations, carried out in 1963 to 1971 in Hevea brasiliensis at the Firestone Plantation at Harbel in Liberia. Studied was the tapping panel disease, black thread, caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora. The emphasis of the

  11. Sôbre o Phlebotomus Brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932 (Diptera, Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Mangabeira

    1962-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1939, Mangabeira obtained, under laboratory conditions, the development of eggs of Phlebotomus brasiliensis Costa Lima, 1932, collected at Lassance (typical locality, Minas Gerais, Brasil. He then studied the female and immature stages of this Phlebotomus. The results of these observations plus some more recent data on the male, geographical distribution and bionomics are presented. Morphologically it is closest to Phlebotomus runoides. However, the male Phlebotomus brasiliensis differs from all other Phlebotomus because of its very long spicules, similar to those of Brumptomyia. The female differs by its longer ducts, and by possessing only four horizontal teeth in the buccal cavity, whereas P. runoides has approximately 12 teeth. The pupae of P. brasiliensis is characterized by its two pre-alar setae, which are very simple and small and by the abdominal setae, which are not planted on a protruding tubercle. The fourth stage larvae main characteristics are very thin antennae, inserted on a protruding tuberculum, and slightly brush-like hind frontal setae. P. brasiliensis is here reported, for the first time, for the State of Bahia (Cachoeira, Pojuca and Salvador. The species has almost always been found in armadillo burrows. In the State of Bahia it is more frequent during the dry season. Under laboratory conditions, the female lays about 53 eggs.

  12. Genetics of Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  13. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  14. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  16. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  17. Recombinant wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    González García, Ramón; González Ramos, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for obtaining strains that secrete a higher concentration of mannoproteins to the medium, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain deposited at the Spanish Type Culture Collection (CECT) as CECT 13012, and to the uses of said strains.

  18. Infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, cricetidae por Litomosoides carinii Natural infection of Holochilius brasiliensis nanus Thomas, 1897 (Rodentia, Cricetidae by Litomosoides carinii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Holanda

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available É registrada a infecção natural do Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, um pequeno roedor semi-aquático da Baixada Ocidental do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, por Litomosoides carinii.It is recorded the natural infection of Holochilus brasiliensis nanus, a small semi-aquatic rodent of the Occidental Lowland of Maranhão State, Brazil, by Litomosoides carinii.

  19. Proteolytic activities in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H

    1975-03-28

    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC 3.4.23.8), B (EC 3.4.22.9) and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  20. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2013-02-12

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  1. Changes in kinematics and aerodynamics over a range of speeds in Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Hristov, Nickolay I; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2012-06-07

    To date, wake measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV) of bats in flight have studied only three bat species, all fruit and nectar feeders. In this study, we present the first wake structure analysis for an insectivorous bat. Tadarida brasiliensis, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an aerial hunter that annually migrates long distances and also differs strikingly from the previously investigated species morphologically. We compare the aerodynamics of T. brasiliensis with those of other, frugivorous bats and with common swifts, Apus apus, a bird with wing morphology, kinematics and flight ecology similar to that of these bats. The comparison reveals that, for the range of speeds evaluated, the cyclical pattern of aerodynamic forces associated with a wingbeat shows more similarities between T. brasiliensis and A. apus than between T. brasiliensis and other frugivorous bats.

  2. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  3. Extratos de Curcuma longa L. e Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. no tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus

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    F. V. Fonseca

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a utilização dos extratos aquosos das plantas Curcuma longa e Kalanchoe brasiliensis na terapêutica tópica complementar do envenenamento botrópico experimental em camundongos, visando a antagonização dos efeitos locais (edema, hemorragia e necrose provocados pelo veneno. O experimento mostrou que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

  4. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rafaela A; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula H; Teixeira, Pedro A C; Sanches, Glenda F; Teixeira, Marcus M; Quintella, Leonardo P; Almeida, Sandro R; Costa, Rosane O; Camargo, Zoilo P; Felipe, Maria S S; de Souza, Wanderley; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2013-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  5. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

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    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  6. Identification and Evaluation of Clinically Significant Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum Strains Using Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry (PyMS)

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Kamil; KARİPTAŞ, Ergin; ŞAHİN, Nevzat

    2001-01-01

    Out of a total of thirty-nine Nocardia strains, eight species of N. brasiliensis, seventeen species of N. farcinica and fourteen species of N. otitidiscaviarum were identified using Pyrolysis mass spectrometry. N428, N477 N. brasiliensis; N669, N233 N. farcinica; and N231, N232 N. otitidiscaviarum duplicated strains were clustered in their own groups. Strains belonging to Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum formed distinct pyrogroups corresponding to cluste...

  7. Interação de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis com células endoteliais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.S. Mendes-Giannini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A paracoccidioidomicose apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, seu agente etiológico, pode atingir vários tecidos com ênfase ao pulmão. A migração de fungos patogênicos através da camada de células endoteliais é considerada pré-requisito para a invasão de múltiplos órgãos e sua disseminação. No presente estudo verificou-se a adesão de P. brasiliensis às células endoteliais in vitro e se esta adesão poderia representar um mecanismo para a disseminação do fungo. Para tanto, além da técnica convencional de microscopia ótica, uma outra metodologia foi desenvolvida, emblocando os cordões umbilicais em parafina, no intuito de detectar o fungo presente no material (in vivo. Experimento de migração de P. brasiliensis através da monocamada de células endoteliais também foi realizado, e nos poços sem células, a migração de células leveduriformes foi maior em menor período de tempo. Os fungos conseguiram passar através da monocamada, quando comparados com o controle sem as células, mas com redução em torno de 30%. Isso mostra que a monocamada foi parcialmente impediente para o fungo, mas que este foi capaz de migrar através dessas células. Em nossos experimentos com estas células, houve grande dificuldade de se encontrar P. brasiliensis aderido ao tapete celular nos períodos de tempo padronizados. Sugere-se com esses resultados que o fungo atravessa as células endoteliais de uma maneira muito rápida, que não pode ser detectada através do cultivo in vitro. Portanto, P. brasiliensis teria capacidade de atravessar rapidamente as células endoteliais e provavelmente alcançar tecidos mais profundos. Palavras-chave: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, células endoteliais, migração.

  8. The sucrose transporter HbSUT3 plays an active role in sucrose loading to laticifer and rubber productivity in exploited trees of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaorong; Huang, Debao; Yang, Jianghua; Liu, Shujin; Sakr, Soulaïman; Li, Heping; Zhou, Yihua; Qin, Yunxia

    2010-10-01

    Efficient sucrose loading in rubber-producing cells (laticifer cells) is essential for retaining rubber productivity in Hevea brasiliensis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of this process remain unknown. Here, we functionally characterized a putative Hevea SUT member, HbSUT3, mainly in samples from regularly exploited trees. When expressed in yeast, HbSUT3 encodes a functional sucrose transporter that exhibits high sucrose affinity with a K(m) value of 1.24 mm at pH 4.0, and possesses features typical of sucrose/H(+) symporters. In planta, when compared to the expression of other Hevea SUT genes, HbSUT3 was found to be the predominant member expressed in the rubber-containing cytoplasm (latex) of laticifers. The comparison of HbSUT3 expression among twelve Hevea tissues demonstrates a relatively tissue-specific pattern, i.e. expression primarily in the latex and in female flowers. HbSUT3 expression is induced by the latex stimulator Ethrel (an ethylene generator), and relates to its yield-stimulating effect. Tapping (the act of rubber harvesting) markedly increased the expression of HbSUT3, whereas wounding alone had little effect. Moreover, the expression of HbSUT3 was found to be positively correlated with latex yield. Taken together, our results provide evidence favouring the involvement of HbSUT3 in sucrose loading into laticifers and in rubber productivity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  10. Lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis: a case report and review of primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis reported in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Saotome, Atsuko; Usami, Nao; Urushibata, Osamu; Mukai, Hideki

    2008-06-01

    Nocardiosis is a mixed suppurative and granulomatous inflammatory disease caused by infection with Nocardia organisms, a group of aerobic actinomycetes. We recently encountered a 25-year-old woman with posttraumatic nocardiosis of the lower extremities. The clinical symptoms noted during her first visit included erythematous swelling of the right knee accompanied by white maceration of the center of the knee and erosions, shallow ulcers and satellite pustules. In addition, multiple erythematous areas (up to the size of the tip of the thumb) were linearly distributed on the right thigh. These lesions were painful, and right inguinal lymphadenopathy was also noted. No lesion was found in internal organs such as the lungs. Histopathologically, signs of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation were observed, as well as several filamentous branching bacilli positive on Grocott stain. The organisms isolated from culture of pus were acid-fast, Gram-positive long rods. The isolated strain was finally identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient was therefore diagnosed with lymphocutaneous type of primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis. Drip infusion of flomoxef sodium was initially performed to treat her condition. Because of exacerbation of erythematous swelling of the right knee and an increase in number of pustules, treatment was switched to oral minocycline hydrochloride therapy. The disease healed 9 weeks after the start of oral minocycline hydrochloride therapy. Our patient was free of systemic immunosuppression and was neither under 10 nor over 65 years of age. She may therefore be considered a rare case of lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis. We present this case and discuss reported cases of primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to N. brasiliensis in Japan.

  11. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

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    S. DÍEZ

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de

  12. Disseminated Sporothrix brasiliensis Infection with Endocardial and Ocular Involvement in an HIV-Infected Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Vergara, Mario León; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Silva, Patricia Ferreira; Abdalla, Michel Reis; Sgarbieri, Ricardo Nilsson; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; dos Santos, Keila Cristina; Barata, Cristina Hueb; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated sporotrichosis occurs in individuals with impaired cellular immunity, such as in cases of neoplasia, transplantation, diabetes, and especially, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This report presents a 32-year-old Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient who developed a protracted condition of disseminated sporotrichosis with endocarditis, bilateral endophthalmitis, and lymphatic involvement. He needed cardiac surgery to replace the mitral valve. Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates were recovered from cultures of subcutaneous nodules and mitral valve fragments. Species identification was based on classical and molecular methods. The patient received amphotericin B for 52 days and subsequently, oral itraconazole. He remains asymptomatic, and he is on maintenance therapy with itraconazole. Despite his positive clinical outcome, he developed bilateral blindness. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of endocarditis and endophthalmitis caused by S. brasiliensis. PMID:22403321

  13. [Soil moisture content and fine root biomass of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations at different ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xi-Hao; Chen, Qiu-Bo; Hua, Yuan-Gang; Yang, Li-Fu; Wang, Zhen-Hui

    2011-02-01

    By using soil core sampling method, this paper studied the soil moisture regime of rubber plantations and the fine root biomass of Hevea brasiliensis in immature period (5 a), early yielding period (9 a), and peak yielding period (16 a). With the increasing age of rubber trees, the soil moisture content of rubber plantations increased but the fine root biomass decreased. The soil moisture content at the depth of 0-60 cm in test rubber plantations increased with soil depth, and presented a double-peak pattern over the period of one year. The fine root biomass of rubber trees at different ages had the maximum value in the top 10 cm soil layers and decreased with soil depth, its seasonal variation also showed a double-peak pattern, but the peak values appeared at different time. Soil moisture content and soil depth were the main factors affecting the fine root biomass of H. brasiliensis.

  14. Can passage in Galleria mellonella activate virulence factors of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as in the murine model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula E Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; Marcos, Caroline Maria; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2017-06-15

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a fungal disease restricted to Latin countries, and its etiologic agents derive from the Paracoccidioides genus. Attenuation or loss of virulence in Paracoccidioides spp. following successive subculturing has been described. However, virulence can be recovered by passage in mammalian host. In this study, the recovery of adhesion of P. brasiliensis through passage in mice was compared to that in the insect Galleria mellonella. Analysis of in vitro fungal-host cell interaction, gene expression of adhesins, and analysis of the survival curves revealed that Galleria mellonella is useful for the reactivation of P. brasiliensis adhesion. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Metal pollution assessment in a Brazilian hydroelectric reservoir: Geophagus brasiliensis as a suitable bioindicator organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Binde Doria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vossoroca is a reservoir in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Although it is located near big cities and can be used as a human water supply, it has remained unstudied. Concentrations of toxic metals and arsenic in sediments, water, liver, gills, and muscle of Geophagus brasiliensis from the reservoir were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Histological analyses were performed on the gills and the livers using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, respectively. The results showed that Vossoroca sediments were moderately polluted by copper, chromium, nickel and arsenic. Cadmium was above legal limits in the water. Histopathological assessment revealed epithelial alterations in the secondary lamella to be the most common abnormality observed in the gills and necrosis, melanomacrophage centers in the livers. In conclusion, although the reservoir is located in an Environmental Protection Area, it is negatively affected by human activity. Further, Geophagus brasiliensis was a suitable bioindicator for metal pollution studies.

  16. Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2014-12-01

    This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality.

  17. Activity of novel oxazolidinones against Nocardia brasiliensis growing within THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Espinoza-González, Nelly A; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Nocardia are organisms that can escape the effects of both immune response and antimicrobial agents, due to their potential capacity to grow intracellularly. In previous studies, we found that experimental oxazolidinones, DA-7157 and DA-7218, are active both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we compare the ability of linezolid, DA-7157 and DA-7218 to inhibit intracellular growth of Nocardia brasiliensis within the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The addition of oxazolidinones to the infected macrophage monolayer at concentrations 0.25x, 1x, 4x and 16x the MIC for N. brasiliensis resulted in an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth as follows DA-7157 > or = DA-7218 > linezolid. The excellent intracellular antimicrobial activity detected suggests that these compounds could be effective in the treatment of actinomycetoma. However, more studies are needed both in vitro and in vivo, including clinical trials, to confirm this issue.

  18. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-Alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2004-01-01

    In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin. PMID:14982772

  19. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2015-12-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis.

  20. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Dias, Maria Adelaide Galvão; da Silva, Elisabete Aparecida; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-11-19

    Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas. We describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic. The fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis

  1. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Pedrini Silvia CB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Findings This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla, by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i from road-killed animals (n = 6; ii from naturally dead animals (n = 8; iii from animals that died in captivity (n = 9; and iv from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2. Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla. The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Conclusion Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  2. Anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extract from Eugenia brasiliensis (Brazilian cherry)

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES,Adeline Conceição; OLIVEIRA,Brígida D’Ávila de; SILVA,Elis Regina da; SACRAMENTO,Nayara Thais Barbosa; BERTOLDI,Michele Corrêa; PINTO,Uelinton Manoel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extracts from grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis), also known as Brazilian cherry, in concentrations that did not interfere with bacterial growth. The pulp phenolic compounds were extracted by using solid phage extraction in a mini-collumn C18 and quantified by spectrophotometry. The anti-quorum sensing activity was evaluated by testing the inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and...

  3. In situ detection and distribution of inflammatory cytokines during the course of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Solis-Soto, J.M.; Quintanilla-Rodriguez, L.E.; Meester, I.; Segoviano-Ramirez, J.C.; Vazquez-Juarez, J.L.; Salinas Carmona, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Actinomycetoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, is characterized by an infiltration of several inflammatory cell populations. To explore aspects of the immune response in the pathogenesis of these bacteria we injected 106 CFU in footpads of BALB/c mice. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 30 and 90 days immunohistochemistry was performed to compare presence and distribution of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, ...

  4. Yeast interactions and wine flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Graham H

    2003-09-01

    Wine is the product of complex interactions between fungi, yeasts and bacteria that commence in the vineyard and continue throughout the fermentation process until packaging. Although grape cultivar and cultivation provide the foundations of wine flavour, microorganisms, especially yeasts, impact on the subtlety and individuality of the flavour response. Consequently, it is important to identify and understand the ecological interactions that occur between the different microbial groups, species and strains. These interactions encompass yeast-yeast, yeast-filamentous fungi and yeast-bacteria responses. The surface of healthy grapes has a predominance of Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora (Kloeckera), Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula species depending on stage of maturity. This microflora moderates the growth of spoilage and mycotoxigenic fungi on grapes, the species and strains of yeasts that contribute to alcoholic fermentation, and the bacteria that contribute to malolactic fermentation. Damaged grapes have increased populations of lactic and acetic acid bacteria that impact on yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation is characterised by the successional growth of various yeast species and strains, where yeast-yeast interactions determine the ecology. Through yeast-bacterial interactions, this ecology can determine progression of the malolactic fermentation, and potential growth of spoilage bacteria in the final product. The mechanisms by which one species/strain impacts on another in grape-wine ecosystems include: production of lytic enzymes, ethanol, sulphur dioxide and killer toxin/bacteriocin like peptides; nutrient depletion including removal of oxygen, and production of carbon dioxide; and release of cell autolytic components. Cell-cell communication through quorum sensing molecules needs investigation.

  5. In Vitro Susceptibility of Sporothrix brasiliensis to Essential Oils of Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Silva, Anna Luiza; Dias de Castro, Luciana Laitano; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Ferraz, Vanny; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; Zanette, Régis; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the chemical, cytotoxic and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis properties of commercial essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and marjoram (Origanum majorana L.). Chemical composition of the oils was identified through gas chromatography with flame ionization detector, and cytotoxicity was performed through MTT assay in VERO cell line. Anti-S. brasiliensis activity was performed according to the CLSI M38-A2 guidelines using isolates obtained from cats and dogs. The major compounds found were carvacrol in the oregano oil (73.9 %) and 1,8-cineole in rosemary and marjoram oils (49.4 and 20.9 %, respectively). All S. brasiliensis isolates were susceptible to the plant oils, including itraconazole-resistant ones. Marjoram and rosemary oils showed MIC90 of 0.56 and 1.12 mg ml(-1), and MFC90 of 4.5 and 9 mg ml(-1), respectively. For oregano oil, a strong antifungal activity was observed with MIC90 and MFC90 values ≤0.07 mg ml(-1). The weakest cytotoxicity was observed for rosemary oil. Further studies should be undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these essential oils in sporotrichosis.

  6. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  7. Comparison of virulence between Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii using Galleria mellonella as a host model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzoni, Liliana; de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Rosangela Aparecida Moraes; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis, endemic in Latin America. The etiologic agents of this mycosis are composed of 2 species: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii. Murine animal models are the gold standard for in vivo studies; however, ethical, economical and logistical considerations limit their use. Galleria mellonella is a suitable model for in vivo studies of fungal infections. In this study, we compared the virulence of P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii in G. mellonella model. The deaths of larvae infected with P. brasiliensis or P. lutzii were similar, and both species were able to reduce the number of hemocytes, which were estimated by microscopy and flow cytometer. Additionally, the phagocytosis percentage was similar for both species, but when we analyze hemocyte-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction using flow cytometer, P. lutzii showed higher interactions with hemocytes. The gene expression of gp43 as well as this protein was higher for P. lutzii, and this expression may contribute to a greater adherence to hemocytes. These results helped us evaluate the behavior of Paracoccidioides spp in G. mellonella, which is a convenient model for investigating the host-Paracoccidioides spp. interaction.

  8. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Preserving and Maintaining Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), in Sterile Distilled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Del-Rlo, L M; Montoya, Sandra; Sepulveda-Arias, J C

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable. Analysis of variance showed that the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and potato extract did not display a significantly different growth rate, and PDA was selected for safety reasons. We also evaluated the viability of the strains grown on PDA and 0.2% activated carbon after 3 months of storage in sterile distilled water. A factorial design was applied with 2 factors, the strain and incubation for 10 different times. The Tukey post hoc test indicated that ABC showed quicker and more homogeneous growth than ABWC838. Finally, the results showed that pieces of mycelium of ABC and ABWC838 strains inoculated on the PDA medium with 0.2% activated carbon and preserved in sterile distilled water at 18 ± 1°C showed 100% viability after 3 months of storage. Moreover, the results of semiquantitative biochemical tests confirmed that the production of laccases and amylases was preserved in these strains after storage in sterile water, enhancing their ability to degrade substrates containing lignin and starchy waste.

  10. Nocardia brasiliensis induces formation of foamy macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection.

  11. Nocardia brasiliensis induces formation of foamy macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Meester

    Full Text Available Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM or DC (BMDC were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE. Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection.

  12. Immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis extracellular antigens in patients with mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Matteotti, Bárbara; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Rendón, Adrián; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Welsh, Oliverio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of culture-filtrate proteins to induce a cellular immune response in infected mice and humans was investigated. A crude extract culture filtrate of Nocardia brasiliensis (CFA) and five semi-purified CFA fractions (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5) were used to stimulate BALB/c mice spleen-cell cultures. The animals were divided into three groups: the first group was infected with 1 x 10(7) CFU of N. brasiliensis in the footpad, the second group was immunized with heat-killed bacteria, and the third was injected with sterile saline. IFN-gamma, IL-1alpha, and IL-4 concentrations were determined in culture supernatants. Protein fractions eliciting IFN-gamma production in mice, as well as the CFA, were used to stimulate IFN-gamma production and in vitro cell proliferation assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with actinomycetoma by N. brasiliensis, individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy controls. In mice, CFA and three of the protein fractions (P3, P4 and P5) induced significant IFN-gamma production in the infected group. In humans, only the CFA-induced IFN-gamma production and cell proliferation in the group of patients with actinomycetoma. There was no stimulation in tuberculosis patients nor healthy controls. These results suggest that some culture-filtrate antigens are recognized by patients with active actinomycetoma and do not cross-react with M. tuberculosis antigens, being therefore potential candidates to develop a diagnostic test.

  13. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer-Chávez, Janeth A; Welsh, Oliverio; Lozano-Garza, Hector G; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2011-10-26

    Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130). The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  14. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  15. Flavour-active wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Cordente, Antonio G.; Curtin, Christopher D.; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S.

    2012-01-01

    The flavour of fermented beverages such as beer, cider, saké and wine owe much to the primary fermentation yeast used in their production, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Where once the role of yeast in fermented beverage flavour was thought to be limited to a small number of volatile esters and higher alcohols, the discovery that wine yeast release highly potent sulfur compounds from non-volatile precursors found in grapes has driven researchers to look more closely at how choice of yeast can infl...

  16. Nocardia brasiliensis cell wall lipids modulate macrophage and dendritic responses that favor development of experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis.

  17. Nocardia brasiliensis Cell Wall Lipids Modulate Macrophage and Dendritic Responses That Favor Development of Experimental Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Villarreal, J. Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L.

    2012-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis. PMID:22851755

  18. Yeast Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginal yeast infection (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Yeast Infections updates ... gram stain Thrush Vaginal yeast infection Related Health Topics Fungal Infections Vaginitis National Institutes of Health The ...

  19. TOPOGRAFIA DO CONE MEDULAR NA ARIRANHA (Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann, 1780 ON THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE MEDULLAR CONE IN GIANT OTTER (Pteronura brasiliensis Zimmermann, 1780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Valente Machado

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o propósito de disponibilizar dados anatômicos que sirvam de base para a prática das anestesias epidurais, em especial aqueles relativos à topografia do cone medular, foram dissecados três exemplares adultos de ariranha (Pteronura brasiliensis, dois machos e uma fêmea, após morte natural, provenientes do Laboratório de Mamíferos Aquáticos, do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA. Após as dissecações, observou-se que: a o ápice do cone medular encontra-se ao nível da quarta vértebra lombar (L4 em dois animais (66,6%, sendo um macho e uma fêmea, e entre as vértebras L3 e L4 em um animal (33,3% macho; b o cone medular apresentou cerca de 5,50 cm de comprimento, nos três animais estudados, estando sua base sobre a vértebra L3 em dois animais (66,6%, ou entre as vértebras L2 e L3, em um espécime (33,3%; c intumescência lombar, que se apresentou contínua com a base do cone medular, foi registrada entre as vértebras T12 e L2, nos três espécimes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Anatomia, cone medular, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Pteronura brasiliensis, anatomia, cone medular.

    Aiming to offer the anatomical bases for epidural anesthesia, particularly relative to the topographical anatomy of the medullar cone, three specimens of adult giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis, two male and one female, after natural death, were dissected. Those animals were donated from Laboratory of aquatic mammals (INPA – National Institute for Amazonia Research.  After the dissection were observed: a in two animals (66.6%, one male and one female, the medullar cone apex is close to fourth lumbar vertebra (L4 and, in other one animal (33.3%, male, between the L3 and L4

  20. Paraphyly and (yeast) classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, Marc-André

    2016-12-01

    Yeast systematics has wholeheartedly embraced the phylogenetic approach. Central to this has been the unspoken convention that taxa at all ranks be strictly monophyletic. This can result in a proliferation of small genera and instances of nomenclatural instability, counter to the expected benefit of phylogenetic systematics. But the literature abounds with examples, at all taxonomic levels, where paraphyly is a reality that can no longer be ignored. The very concepts of Bacteria or Archaea, under the constraint of monophyly, are in peril. It is therefore desirable to effect a shift in practices that will recognize the existence of paraphyletic taxa.

  1. Inheritance of the yeast mitochondrial genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure

    1994-01-01

    Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast......Mitochondrion, extrachromosomal genetics, intergenic sequences, genome size, mitochondrial DNA, petite mutation, yeast...

  2. Yeasts preservation: alternatives for lyophilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, T.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of two low-cost, low technology traditional methods for drying starter cultures with standard lyophilisation. Lyophilised yeast cultures and yeast cultures preserved in dry rice cakes and dry plant fibre strands were examined for viable cell counts

  3. Sociobiology of the budding yeast

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for sociobiological research. I discuss the problems connected with clear classification of yeast behaviour based on the fitness-based Hamilton paradigm. Relevant traits include different types of communities, production of flocculins, invertase and toxins, and the presence ...

  4. Nocardia brasiliensis Modulates IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-12 cytokine production by macrophages from BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Zúñiga, Juan M; Pérez-Rivera, Luz I; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan C; Vázquez-Marmolejo, Anna V

    2009-05-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a critical cytokine involved in control of different infections. Actinomycetoma is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by the bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, which destroys subcutaneous tissue, including bone. Currently, the mechanism of pathogenesis in N. brasiliensis infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate that N. brasiliensis induced an IFN-gamma response in serum after 24 h of infection, while, in infected tissue, positive cells to IFN-gamma appeared in 2 early peaks: the first was present only 3 h after infection, then transiently decreased; and the second peak appeared 12 h after infection and was independent of interleukin-10. Resident macrophages produced an immediate IFN-gamma response 1 h after in vitro infection, and spleen-positive cells began later. The phase of growth of N. brasiliensis affected cytokine production, and exposure of macrophages to Nocardia opsonized with either polyclonal anti-Nocardia antibodies or anti-P61 monoclonal antibody led to a suppression of cytokine production. Our report provides evidence that N. brasiliensis as an intracellular bacterium modulates macrophage cytokine production, which helps survival of the pathogen. Modulation of these cytokines may contribute to pathogenesis once this bacterium is inside the macrophage.

  5. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each

  6. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis in vitro and in an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Moreno, Brenda Edith; Welsh, Oliverio; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; de la Luz Salazar-Cavazos, Maria; Garza-Lozano, Hector Gerardo; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis was evaluated by applying 25 mg of each drug/kg subcutaneously every 8 h in BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. A statistically significant difference was observed only with moxifloxacin. A moxifloxacin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was as active as when each compound was used alone.

  7. Mitochondria autophagy in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Tomotake; Klionsky, Daniel J; Okamoto, Koji

    2011-05-15

    The mitochondrion is an organelle that carries out a number of important metabolic processes such as fatty acid oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. However, this multitasking organelle also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative stress resulting in self-damage. This type of mitochondrial damage can lead to the further production of ROS and a resulting downward spiral with regard to mitochondrial capability. This is extremely problematic because the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria is related to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Accordingly, appropriate quality control of this organelle is important to maintain proper cellular homeostasis. It has been thought that selective mitochondria autophagy (mitophagy) contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial quality by eliminating damaged or excess mitochondria, although little is known about the mechanism. Recent studies in yeast identified several mitophagy-related proteins, which have been characterized with regard to their function and regulation. In this article, we review recent advances in the physiology and molecular mechanism of mitophagy and discuss the similarities and differences of this degradation process between yeast and mammalian cells.

  8. Production of Food Grade Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyro Bekatorou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in traditional fermentation processes like wine, beer and bread making. Today, yeasts are also used as alternative sources of high nutritional value proteins, enzymes and vitamins, and have numerous applications in the health food industry as food additives, conditioners and flavouring agents, for the production of microbiology media and extracts, as well as livestock feeds. Modern scientific advances allow the isolation, construction and industrial production of new yeast strains to satisfy the specific demands of the food industry. Types of commercial food grade yeasts, industrial production processes and raw materials are highlighted. Aspects of yeast metabolism, with respect to carbohydrate utilization, nutritional aspects and recent research advances are also discussed.

  9. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  10. Evolutionary History of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    2014-06-06

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comparison of these with several other previously published yeast genomes have added increased confidence to the phylogenetic positions of previously poorly placed species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that yeasts with alternative nuclear codon usage where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes with Lipomyces starkeyi and the previously published Pneumocystis jirovecii being notable exceptions. Intron analysis suggests that early diverging species have more introns. We also observed a large number of unclassified lineage specific non-simple repeats in these genomes.

  11. Pulmonary infection in two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae) and Anolis brasiliensis (Polychrotidae) from a cloud forest in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, S C; Ferreira, F S; Brito, S V; Teles, D A; Ávila, R W; Almeida, W O; Anjos, L A; Guarnieri, M C

    2012-11-01

    The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15). The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.

  12. Pulmonary infection in two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara (Scincidae and Anolis brasiliensis (Polychrotidae from a cloud forest in Chapada do Araripe, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

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    SC. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The parameters of infection by lung parasites from two sympatric lizards, Mabuya arajara and Anolis brasiliensis, from the Atlantic Rainforest of the lower slope of Chapada do Araripe in Northeastern Brazil were analyzed between September, 2009 and July, 2010. A total of 202 lizards were collected. 125 specimens were from Mabuya arajara and 77 from Anolis brasiliensis. M. arajara was infected by the pentastomid Raillietiella mottae while A. brasiliensis was infected by the nematode Rhabdias sp., with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The mean intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. was 3.63 ± 2.58 (range 1-15. The body size and sex of lizards did not influence the intensity of infection by Rhabdias sp. The overall prevalence was also not different between males and females hosts in A. brasiliensis. Both Anolis brasiliensis and Mabuya arajara represent a new host to Rhabdias sp. and Raillietiella mottae, respectively.

  13. Feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity of Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Anura: Cycloramphidae from the Atlantic Rainforest, Brazil

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    Thiago Maia-Carneiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the feeding habits, microhabitat use, and daily activity period of the anuran species Cycloramphus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1864, endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The only previous studies on this species focused on the systematics and new altitudinal records. This study was conducted in a large forest remnant located in the municipalities of Guapimirim and Cachoeiras de Macacu. We captured frogs through visual encounter surveys and recorded the frequency of microhabitat types used by them, and the time of capture. Diet was analyzed in terms of number, volume and frequency of occurrence of items. Individuals of C. brasiliensis occurred in association with fast-moving rocky portions of clear freshwater rivers, indicating a rheophilic habit, and were active mainly at night. Such as most anuran species, the diet of Cycloramphus brasiliensis was mainly based on arthropods, and included Blattodea, Formicidae, and Coleoptera as most important prey items.

  14. Bioprotective Role of Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muccilli, Serena; Restuccia, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts constitute a large group of microorganisms characterized by the ability to grow and survive in different and stressful conditions and then to colonize a wide range of environmental and human ecosystems. The competitive traits against other microorganisms have attracted increasing attention from scientists, who proposed their successful application as bioprotective agents in the agricultural, food and medical sectors. These antagonistic activities rely on the competition for nutrients, production and tolerance of high concentrations of ethanol, as well as the synthesis of a large class of antimicrobial compounds, known as killer toxins, which showed clearly a large spectrum of activity against food spoilage microorganisms, but also against plant, animal and human pathogens. This review describes the antimicrobial mechanisms involved in the antagonistic activity, their applications in the processed and unprocessed food sectors, as well as the future perspectives in the development of new bio-drugs, which may overcome the limitations connected to conventional antimicrobial and drug resistance. PMID:27682107

  15. Bioprotective Role of Yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Muccilli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts constitute a large group of microorganisms characterized by the ability to grow and survive in different and stressful conditions and then to colonize a wide range of environmental and human ecosystems. The competitive traits against other microorganisms have attracted increasing attention from scientists, who proposed their successful application as bioprotective agents in the agricultural, food and medical sectors. These antagonistic activities rely on the competition for nutrients, production and tolerance of high concentrations of ethanol, as well as the synthesis of a large class of antimicrobial compounds, known as killer toxins, which showed clearly a large spectrum of activity against food spoilage microorganisms, but also against plant, animal and human pathogens. This review describes the antimicrobial mechanisms involved in the antagonistic activity, their applications in the processed and unprocessed food sectors, as well as the future perspectives in the development of new bio-drugs, which may overcome the limitations connected to conventional antimicrobial and drug resistance.

  16. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  17. Lager Yeast Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic fermentations have accompanied human civilizations throughout our history. Lager yeasts have a several-century-long tradition of providing fresh beer with clean taste. The yeast strains used for lager beer fermentation have long been recognized as hybrids between two Saccharomyces species. We summarize the initial findings on this hybrid nature, the genomics/transcriptomics of lager yeasts, and established targets of strain improvements. Next-generation sequencing has provided fast access to yeast genomes. Its use in population genomics has uncovered many more hybridization events within Saccharomyces species, so that lager yeast hybrids are no longer the exception from the rule. These findings have led us to propose network evolution within Saccharomyces species. This “web of life” recognizes the ability of closely related species to exchange DNA and thus drain from a combined gene pool rather than be limited to a gene pool restricted by speciation. Within the domesticated lager yeasts, two groups, the Saaz and Frohberg groups, can be distinguished based on fermentation characteristics. Recent evidence suggests that these groups share an evolutionary history. We thus propose to refer to the Saaz group as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis and to the Frohberg group as Saccharomyces pastorianus based on their distinct genomes. New insight into the hybrid nature of lager yeast will provide novel directions for future strain improvement. PMID:25084862

  18. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

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    Rafaela A Castro

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  19. Decomposition of the Rubber Tree Hevea brasiliensis Litter at Two Depths Descomposición del Mantillo del Árbol del Caucho Hevea brasiliensis en Dos Profundidades

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    Thiago Claudino Gréggio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of soil litter contributes to maintaining agricultural sustainability, since the nutrients released by microbial activity are determinants of the net productivity of the agroecosystem. The decomposition of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. leaves located on the surface and buried in at 10 cm depth in Forest and Savannah (Cerradão soils (Oxisols was studied, with emphasis on the production of CO2 and the monthly variation of the remaining amounts of litter mass, soluble substances, cellulose and lignin. To evaluate CO2 production, H. brasiliensis leaves were incubated for 30 days in soils from the 0-2 cm and 10-12 cm layers. CO2 production increased in the 0-2 cm layer in comparison to the 10-12 cm layer. Litter mass and soluble substance loss was of 62 and 72% at the end of nine months of incubation, and of 38 and 65%, respectively, in the first three months, being greater in the deeper (71-74% than in surface layer (48-55%. Forest soil stimulated more litter mass loss and cellulose decomposition (only in the surface layer than Savannah soil. The cellulose (25% content decreased and lignin (30% increased in the initial months of incubation, however, at the end of the period of this study the same content (29% was found.La descomposición del mantillo del suelo contribuye a mantener la sostenibilidad agrícola, puesto que los nutrientes liberados por la actividad microbiana son determinantes para la productividad del ecosistema. La descomposición de hojas del árbol del caucho (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. colocadas en la superficie y enterradas en la profundidad de 10 cm en los suelos de Bosque y Cerradão (Oxisols se estudió con énfasis en la producción de CO2 y la variación mensual de las cantidades remanentes de masa foliar (MF, substancias solubles (SS, celulosa y lignina. Para evaluar la producción de CO2, se incubaron hojas del H. brasiliensis por 30 días en

  20. Extension of Yeast Chronological Lifespan by Methylamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Lefevre, Sophie D.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronological aging of yeast cells is commonly used as a model for aging of human post-mitotic cells. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose in the presence of ammonium sulphate is mainly used in yeast aging research. We have analyzed chronological aging of the yeast

  1. Modest efficacy of voriconazole against murine infections by Sporothrix schenckii and lack of efficacy against Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Guarro, Josep

    2014-02-01

    The efficacy of voriconazole (VRC) was evaluated against two strains of each of the two most common species causing sporotrichosis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis, using a murine model of disseminated infection. Voriconazole was administered at doses of 20 or 40 mg kg(-1) per day by gavage. The drug showed some efficacy, especially at 40 mg kg(-1) per day, in prolonging the survival and reducing fungal load in spleen and liver in mice infected with S. schenckii, whereas in animals infected with S. brasiliensis the drug did not work. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2007-11-15

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  3. Nematode Parasites of Brazilian Corvid Birds (Passeriformes: A General Survey with a Description of Viktorocara brasiliensis n. sp. (Acuariidae, Schistorophinae

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    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This report deals with the identification of 139 samples of nematodes recovered from Brazilian jays. Viktorocara brasiliensis n. sp. is proposed and compared with V. capillaris, V. limosae, V. charadrii and V. garridoi which are the other species included in the genus. The differentiation of V. brasiliensis n. sp. was based on the ratios between muscular and glandular esophagus and spicules, as well. Other referred species are Acuaria mamillaris, A. mayori, Aprocta sp., Cheilospirura sp., Diplotriaena americana, D. bargusinica, Oxyspirura matogrosensis, Oxyspirura sp., Pelecitus helicinus, Procyrnea sp., Skrjabinura spiralis, Subulura papillosa, Synhimantus sp. and Tetrameres (Microtetrameres sp., with the establishment of some new host records

  4. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E; Esperança, Gleidson M; Morales, Nínive; Dos S Mallet, Jacenir R; Gonçalves, Teresa C M; do Prado, Angelo P

    2007-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations.

  5. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

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    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  6. Sinopse das espécies neotropicais do grupo brasiliensis do gênero Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae Synopsis of neotropical species of brasiliensis group genus Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magno S Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustradas Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov. e A. recta sp. nov. da região Neotropical. São adicionados dados novos de variações estruturais e distribuição geográfica de A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 e A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002. Duas sinonímias novas são propostas: A. peruana Evans, 1963 como sinônimo junior de A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 como sinônimo junior de A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, esta ultima considerada dentro ao grupo nitida. É fornecida uma chave de identificação para as espécies do grupo, baseada em machos.Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov., and A. recta sp. nov., from Neotropical region are described and illustrated. Additional material of A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 and A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002 had their structural variations and known distribution broadened. Two new synonyms are proposed: A. peruana Evans, 1963 as junior synonym of A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 as junior synonym of A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, and the latter considered in the nitida group. An identification key to species of the group based on males is provided.

  7. Chemical composition and cytotoxicity of extracts of marjoram and rosemary and their activity against Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Hoffmann, Jéssica Fernanda; Picoli, Tony; Cleff, Marlete Brum; Chaves, Fábio Clasen; Faria, Renata Osório de; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; Braga de Mello, João Roberto

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by increasing reports of antifungal resistance in human and animal sporotrichosis, this study evaluated the chemical composition, cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of extracts of marjoram (Origanum majorana) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). Ten (INF10) and 60 min (INF60) infusions, a decoction and a hydroalcoholic extract (HAE, 70 %) were prepared from both plants (10 % w/v). The extract composition was analysed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and the cytotoxicity was evaluated using a colorimetric assay in canine and feline kidney cells. Using a broth microdilution assay (CLSI M38-A2) adapted to the extracts, 30 Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates from dogs, cats and humans, and one Sporothrix schenckii were tested.Results/Key findings. The predominant phenolic compounds found in all extracts were 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. Luteolin was also one of the predominant compounds, but only in the HAE of marjoram. Extracts of marjoram maintained cell viability in concentrations up to 2.5 mg ml-1 for the feline cell line and up to 10 mg ml-1 for the canine cell line, whereas in rosemary, the cell viability for both kidney lines was maintained with concentrations up to 5 mg ml-1. The activity of rosemary extracts was low or absent. Among the marjoram extracts, HAE was highlighted and had fungistatic activity against Sporothrix brasiliensis (MIC5040 mg ml-1), including in all itraconazole-resistant isolates. S. schenckiisensu stricto was sensitive to marjoram extracts (MIC/MFC ≤5 mg ml-1), with the exception of INF10. These findings support the potential usefulness of the HAE of marjoram in the treatment of sporotrichosis.

  8. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  9. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  10. Simulating population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes: guidelines and application with Triatoma brasiliensis.

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    Francois Rebaudo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of the vectors of pathogens infecting humans is a central issue in tropical epidemiology. In view of the rapid changes in the features of landscape pathogen vectors live in, this issue requires new methods that consider both natural and human systems and their interactions. In this context, individual-based model (IBM simulations represent powerful yet poorly developed approaches to explore the response of pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological systems, especially when field experiments cannot be performed.We first present guidelines for the use of a spatially explicit IBM, to simulate population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes. We then applied our model with Triatoma brasiliensis, originally restricted to sylvatic habitats and now found in peridomestic and domestic habitats, posing as the most important Trypanosoma cruzi vector in Northeastern Brazil. We focused on the effects of vector migration rate, maximum dispersal distance and attraction by domestic habitat on T. brasiliensis population dynamics and spatial genetic structure. Optimized for T. brasiliensis using field data pairwise fixation index (FST from microsatellite loci, our simulations confirmed the importance of these three variables to understand vector genetic structure at the landscape level. We then ran prospective scenarios accounting for land-use change (deforestation and urbanization, which revealed that human-induced land-use change favored higher genetic diversity among sampling points.Our work shows that mechanistic models may be useful tools to link observed patterns with processes involved in the population genetics of tropical pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological landscapes. Our hope is that our study may provide a testable and applicable modeling framework to a broad community of epidemiologists for formulating scenarios of

  11. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo-Candiani Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130. The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  12. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Alejandra González-Martínez

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1, an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae.In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity.These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  13. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  14. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

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    Uriel Alonso Hurtado Páez

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis. RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  15. A Cross-Reactive Monoclonal Antibody to Nematode Haemoglobin Enhances Protective Immune Responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E.; Meter, Jeanne M.; Horsnell, William G.; Hoving, J. Claire; Fick, Lizette; Sharp, Michael F.; Darby, Matthew G.; Parihar, Suraj P.; Brombacher, Frank; Lopata, Andreas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Nematode secreted haemoglobins have unusually high affinity for oxygen and possess nitric oxide deoxygenase, and catalase activity thought to be important in protection against host immune responses to infection. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (48Eg) against haemoglobin of the nematode Anisakis pegreffii, and aimed to characterize cross-reactivity of 4E8g against haemoglobins of different nematodes and its potential to mediate protective immunity against a murine hookworm infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunoprecipitation was used to isolate the 4E8g-binding antigen in Anisakis and Ascaris extracts, which were identified as haemoglobins by peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS. Immunological cross-reactivity was also demonstrated with haemoglobin of the rodent hookworm N. brasiliensis. Immunogenicity of nematode haemoglobin in mice and humans was tested by immunoblotting. Anisakis haemoglobin was recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies of Anisakis-infected mice, while Ascaris haemoglobin was recognized by IgG but not IgE antibodies in mouse and human sera. Sequencing of Anisakis haemoglobin revealed high similarity to haemoglobin of a related marine nematode, Psuedoterranova decipiens, which lacks the four –HKEE repeats of Ascaris haemoglobin important in octamer assembly. The localization of haemoglobin in the different parasites was examined by immunohistochemistry and associated with the excretory-secretary ducts in Anisakis, Ascaris and N. brasiliensis. Anisakis haemoglobin was strongly expressed in the L3 stage, unlike Ascaris haemoglobin, which is reportedly mainly expressed in adult worms. Passive immunization of mice with 4E8g prior to infection with N. brasiliensis enhanced protective Th2 immunity and led to a significant decrease in worm burdens. Conclusion The monoclonal antibody 4E8g targets haemoglobin in broadly equivalent anatomical locations in parasitic nematodes and enhances host immunity to a hookworm

  16. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie Bressan; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Ferraz, Vanny; Picoli, Tony; Cleff, Marlete Brum; de Faria, Renata Osório; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram), its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17) from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1) were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3) and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2μg/mL and 8μg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2μg/mL and >16μg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1μg/mL and MFC of 8μg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25mg/mL and 4.5mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID) and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT) assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram, its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17 from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1 were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3 and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC. The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2 µg/mL and >16 µg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1 µg/mL and MFC of 8 µg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9 mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18 mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25 mg/mL and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5 mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.

  18. Produção de prostaglandinas e leucotrienos por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Biondo, Guilherme Augusto [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, é o agente da paracoccidioidomicose, a micose profunda endêmica na América Latina. Produção de eicosanóides, como prostaglandinas e leucotrienos, durante as infecções fúngicas tem mostrado desempenhar um papel crítico na sobrevivência e/ou crescimento fúngico, bem como na modulação da resposta imune do hospedeiro. As células hospedeiras são uma fonte desses mediadores, porém outra fonte em potencial pode ser o próprio fungo. O objetivo do nosso estudo foi avalia...

  19. Estudo fitoquímico e farmacobotânico de Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Fábio Henrique Tenório de

    2009-01-01

    Richardia brasiliensis Gomes (Rubiaceae), planta herbácea conhecida por ervanço , poaia e ipeca , é utilizada popularmente como emética, antidiabética, vermífuga e no tratamento de eczema, queimadura, bronquite, gripe, hemorróida e malária avícola. Estudos farmacológicos revelaram atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante e investigações fitoquímicas anteriores resultaram no isolamento de terpenóides, flavonóide e cumarina. Este trabalho objetivou contribuir para o conhecimen...

  20. Under-Expression of Chemosensory Genes in Domiciliary Bugs of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma brasiliensis.

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    Axelle Marchant

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, the bloodsucking bugs Triatominae are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Chemical elimination programs have been launched to control Chagas disease vectors. However, the disease persists because native vectors from sylvatic habitats are able to (recolonize houses-a process called domiciliation. Triatoma brasiliensis is one example. Because the chemosensory system allows insects to interact with their environment and plays a key role in insect adaption, we conducted a descriptive and comparative study of the chemosensory transcriptome of T. brasiliensis samples from different ecotopes.In a reference transcriptome built using de novo assembly, we found transcripts encoding 27 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs, 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 3 odorant receptors (ORs, 5 transient receptor potential channel (TRPs, 1 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMPs, 25 takeout proteins, 72 cytochrome P450s, 5 gluthatione S-transferases, and 49 cuticular proteins. Using protein phylogenies, we showed that most of the OBPs and CSPs for T. brasiliensis had well supported orthologs in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. We also showed a higher number of these genes within the bloodsucking bugs and more generally within all Hemipterans compared to the other species in the super-order Paraneoptera. Using both DESeq2 and EdgeR software, we performed differential expression analyses between samples of T. brasiliensis, taking into account their environment (sylvatic, peridomiciliary and domiciliary and sex. We also searched clusters of co-expressed contigs using HTSCluster. Among differentially expressed (DE contigs, most were under-expressed in the chemosensory organs of the domiciliary bugs compared to the other samples and in females compared to males. We clearly identified DE genes that play a role in the chemosensory system.Chemosensory genes could be good candidates for genes that contribute to adaptation or

  1. Etude de la sensibilité des clones d' Hevea brasiliensis (Muell. Arg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chez Hevea brasiliensis, la production de latex est affectée par l'encoche sèche qui se manifeste par l'arrêt de l'écoulement de latex après la saignée. La sensibilité clonale à cette maladie est mal connue. La présente étude a pour objectif d'établir une classification des clones les plus plantés en Côte d'Ivoire selon leur ...

  2. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mg twice daily) in patients with previous statin intolerance . American Journal of Cardiology . 2010;105:198–204. ... to Avoid Red Yeast Rice Products Promoted on Internet as Treatments for High Cholesterol: Products Found to ...

  3. Biotechnical Microbiology, yeast and bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Ingrid Stampe

    1999-01-01

    This section contains the following single lecture notes: Eukaryotic Cell Biology. Kingdom Fungi. Cell Division. Meiosis and Recombination. Genetics of Yeast. Organisation of the Chromosome. Organization and genetics of the mitochondrial Geneme. Regulatio of Gene Expression. Intracellular Compart...

  4. Sexual differentiation in fission yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, R; Nielsen, O; Weilguny, D

    1990-01-01

    The regulation of sexual reproduction in yeast constitutes the highest level of differentiation observed in these unicellular organisms. The various ramifications of this system involve DNA rearrangement, transcriptional control, post-translational modification (such as protein phosphorylation) a...

  5. Mucositis Grades and Yeast Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ognjenović, Marina; Milatić, Katja; Parat, Katica; KOVAČIĆ, IVAN; Ježina Bušelić, Marina A.; Božić, Joško

    2013-01-01

    Surgically treated patients with oral, head and neck cancer commonly develop mucositis during additional irradiation therapy. Oral mucosa inflammation other than irradiation is mostly caused by Candida albicans, yeast of Candida genus. This study evaluated possible connection between grades of oral mucositis and oral yeast profile in irradiated patients before, during and after irradiation. In 25 examined patients mucosits grades »0« to »2« before irradiation with 20% positive smears and o...

  6. Biotechnological Applications of Dimorphic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiphode, N.; Joshi, C.; Ghormade, V.; Deshpande, M. V.

    The dimorphic yeasts have the equilibrium between spherical growth (budding) and polarized (hyphal or pseudohyphal tip elongation) which can be triggered by change in the environmental conditions. The reversible growth phenomenon has made dimorphic yeasts as an useful model to understand fungal evolution and fungal differentiation, in general. In nature dimorphism is clearly evident in plant and animal fungal pathogens, which survive and most importantly proliferate in the respective hosts. However, number of organisms with no known pathogenic behaviour also show such a transition, which can be exploited for the technological applications due to their different biochemical make up under different morphologies. For instance, chitin and chitosan production using dimorphic Saccharomyces, Mucor, Rhizopus and Benjaminiella, oil degradation and biotransformation with yeast-form of Yarrowia species, bioremediation of organic pollutants, exopolysac-charide production by yeast-phase of Aureobasidium pullulans, to name a few. Myrothecium verrucaria can be used for seed dressing in its yeast form and it produces a mycolytic enzyme complex in its hyphal-form for the biocontrol of fungal pathogens, while Beauveria bassiana and other entomopathogens kill the insect pest by producing yeast- like cells in the insect body. The form-specific expression of protease, chitinase, lipase, ornithine decarboxylase, glutamate dehydrogenases, etc. make Benjaminiella poitrasii, Basidiobolus sp., and Mucor rouxii strains important in bioremediation, nanobiotechnology, fungal evolution and other areas.

  7. Activation of the alternative complement pathway in canine normal serum by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Ativação da via alternativa do complemento em soro de cão normal por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    A.A.C. Bianchini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a human granulomatous disease. Recently the first case of natural disease in dogs was reported. The complement system is an important effector component of humoral immunity against infectious agents. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activation of the dog alternative complement pathway by P. brasiliensis. Initially, the ability of erythrocytes of guinea pig, rabbit, sheep, chicken and swine to activate the dog alternative pathway was evaluated. The guinea pig erythrocytes showed the greatest capacity to activate dog alternative pathway. The alternative (AH50 hemolytic activity was evaluated in 27 serum samples from healthy dogs and the mean values were 87.2 AH50/ml. No significant differences were observed in relation to sex and age. The alternative pathway activation by P. brasiliensis was higher in serum samples from adult dogs when compared to puppies and aged dogs (p O fungo dimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis é o agente etiológico da paracoccidioidomicose, uma doença granulomatosa humana. Recentemente, foi relatado o primeiro caso da doença natural em cães. O sistema complemento é um importante componente efetor da imunidade humoral contra agentes infecciosos. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ativação da via alternativa do complemento canina pelo P. brasiliensis. Inicialmente, foi avaliada a capacidade de eritrócitos de cobaia, coelho, carneiro, galinha e suíno ativarem a via alternativa do complemento canino. Os eritrócitos de cobaia apresentaram maior capacidade de ativar a via alternative do complemento canino. A atividade hemolítica da via alternativa (AH50 foi avaliada em 27 amostras de soro de cães saldáveis e os valores médios observados foram de 87,2 AH50/ml. Não foi observada diferença significativa ao sexo e idade. A ativação da via alternativa pelo P. brasiliensis foi

  8. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  9. Red Yeast Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  10. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  11. Plasma protein concentrations of the young and adult Amazona brasiliensis parrots

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    Schmidt Elizabeth Moreira Dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis is an endangered species of the Psittacine family, and for which various data are important for a comprehensive preservation plan. Data about plasma protein gel electrophoresis of Amazon parrot blood are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma protein concentrations and concentrations of major protein bands in blood of young and adult Red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis. Materials and Methods. Blood samples from eight young and eight adult healthy free-living parrots were obtained. Plasma protein concentration and fractions were determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare variables. Results and Conclusions. Six major protein bands with the following molecular weights were identified by SDS-PAGE: 170 kDa, 117 kDa, 85 kDa (putative ovotransferrin, 60 kDa, 45 kDa and 23 kDa. Adult parrots had significantly higher concentrations of total proteins, albumin and other proteins with similar mobility (around 60 kDa. Young birds had significantly higher levels of 23kDa proteins. The concentration of putative ovotransferrin (85 kDa was not different between young and adult parrots. Plasma protein gel electrophoresis patterns in Red-tailed Amazon parrots are similar between young and adult animals, but specific protein bands differ in their absolute concentrations. This finding should be taken into consideration when clinical pathology data are analysed.

  12. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis

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    J. R. Leite

    Full Text Available Abstract Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56’20”S 38°55’32”W, Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.

  13. Isolation of antioxidant phenolics from Schinopsis brasiliensis based on a preliminary LC-MS profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Clisiane Carla de Souza; Masullo, Milena; Cerulli, Antonietta; Mari, Angela; Estevam, Charles Dos Santos; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2017-08-01

    The phenolic content of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of the Brazilian plant Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. (Anacardiaceae) has been evaluated together with the antioxidant activity. The good antioxidant activity exhibited in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay (TEAC value = 3.04 mg/mL) encouraged us to investigate its constituents. An analytical approach based on LC-ESIMS(n) was applied to rapidly obtain a metabolite profile of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of S. brasiliensis. Sixteen phenolic compounds, among which five galloyl derivatives, never reported before, have been isolated and their structures have been unambiguously elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D ((1)H, (13)C, TOCSY) and 2D (DQF-COSY, HMBC, and HSQC) NMR experiments. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of all the isolated compounds was evaluated, along with the cytotoxicity against the cancer cell lines A549 (human alveolar basal carcinoma) and Hela (human epitheloid cervix carcinoma). The previously undescribed compounds exhibited a high free-radical-scavenging activity, in the range of 1.10-1.86 mM. None of the tested compounds, in a range of concentrations between 12.5 and 100 μM, caused a significant reduction of the cell number. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Allocation of reserve nitrogen compounds during germination of Canavalia brasiliensis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ferreira Aguiar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Canavalia brasiliensis, commonly known as “feijão-bravo-do-ceará”, is an herbaceous plant with a great potential for biomass production and rusticity within the period of low water availability, coupled with the great effectiveness of nitrogen fixation. This article aims to evaluate the main nitrogen compounds and their translocation from seed to seedling during and after germination. For this, the experiment was conducted in a germination chamber, and seedlings were kept in 4 L pots containing vermiculite throughout the experimental period. Seedlings were collected every 2 days until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons, which took place 16 days after germination (radicle protrusion. In each of the collection times, we divided seedlings into roots, stem, leaves, and cotyledons and analyzed, three times, the total protein, total soluble amino acids, canavanine, ureides (allantoin and allantoic acid, and nitrate contents in all tissues. We observed a decrease in the canavanine and total protein levels as the collection period was increased, and the canavanine levels disappeared after 16 days. Proteins and amino acids showed inversely proportional concentrations, i.e. whenever one increases the other decreases until the senescence and abscission of cotyledons. We detected the presence of nitrate in the seedling tissues until the last collection (16 days after germination. The concentration of ureides (allantoic acid and allantoin was high throughout the evaluated period, indicating that they are compounds for nitrogen metabolism in C. brasiliensis, and there is de novo synthesis.

  15. Desarrollo de un sistema de transformación genética en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Mauricio Corredor

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La transformación genética es una alternativa para el conocimiento de genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de los hongos. A la fecha se han transformado algunos hongos utilizando técnicas como luz ultravioleta para obtener mutantes auxotróficas. Así mismo, se ha empleado la transformación basada en la introducción de plásmidos que confieren resistencia a antibióticos bien sea por medio de electroporación o imitando un evento que se presenta naturalmente entre plantas y el bacilo gram negativo Agrobacterium tumefaciens y que consiste en la transferencia del T-DNA del plásmido Ti bacteriano a la célula vegetal, con la consecuente aparición de un tumor en el tallo de
    la planta. Este mecanismo se ha reproducido con éxito en hongos
    filamentosos y en levaduras. En el caso de Paraco ccidioides brasiliensis aún no se dispone de un modelo de transformación. Considerando esta carencia y la necesidad de conocer los genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de este microorganismo, pretendemos desarrollar un sistema de transformación genética para P. brasiliensis utilizando A. tumefaciens.

     

     

  16. Assessment of water quality and genotoxic impact by toxic metals in Geophagus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Cássio Resende; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Araujo, Galber Rodrigues; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Morelli, Sandra; Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2016-06-01

    This study used the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis as a bioindicator to survey the health of the aquatic environment on four sites (P1, P2, P3 and P4) of the Mumbuca stream located at Monte Carmelo/MG, Brazil. The selection of different sites was made with reference to the gradient of urban activity and via physicochemical and biological evaluation of water quality and genotoxicity. The water quality index was classified as 'good' for P1 and P4, regular in P2 and 'poor' for P3. The micronuclei (MN) frequency obtained from blood analysis was in agreement with the water quality, such that the higher values of MN were detected in sites evaluated as poor. Water degradation conditions worsen according to the flow of the stream over the sites P1, P2 and P3, but for site P4, located after the Monte Carmelo Sewage Treatment Plant, improvements in the micronuclei frequency are detected. Our results showed high levels of potentially toxic metals (chromium, lead, aluminum and nickel) in specific stream sites (P2 and P3). We suggest that the micronuclei induction in G. brasiliensis could be due to the presence of these compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Partial cross-resistance between Strongyloides venezuelensis and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. Khyrul; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, John-Wha; Hur, Jin

    1999-01-01

    Rats were immunized through an initial infection with 1,000 filariform larvae (L3) of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and after complete expulsion of worms they were challenged with 1,000 L3 of Strongyloides venezuelensis to investigate whether cross-resistance developed against a heterologous parasite. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-immunized rats developed a partial cross-resistance against S. venezuelensis migrating larvae (MSL3) in the lungs and adult worms in the small intestine. The population of MSL3 in the lungs were significantly lower (P<0.05) in immunized rats (22.0 ± 7.4) compared with controls (105.0 ± 27.6). The populations of adult worms, egg output and fecundity were initially decreased but from day 14 post-challenge they did not show any significant difference between immunized and control rats. However, the length of worm in immunized rat was revealed as retardation. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was significantly decreased (P<0.05) on day 7 post-challenge and then gradually increased, which peaked on day 42 post-challenge when most of the worms were expelled. These results suggest that peripheral blood eosinophilia is strongly involved in the worm establishment and expulsion mechanisms. PMID:10388268

  18. Secretomic Insight into Glucose Metabolism of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Salgado-Bautista, Daniel; Bergmann, Carl; Wells, Lance; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-10-07

    The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and includes various species extensively exploited industrially due to their ability to produce and secrete a variety of enzymes and metabolites. Most processes are performed in submerged fermentation (SmF); however, solid-state fermentation (SSF) offers several advantages, including lower catabolite repression and substrate inhibition and higher productivity and stability of the enzymes produced. This study aimed to explain the improved metabolic behavior of A. brasiliensis ATCC9642 in SSF at high glucose concentrations through a proteomic approach. Online respirometric analysis provided reproducible samples for secretomic studies when the maximum CO2 production rate occurred, ensuring consistent physiological states. Extracellular extracts from SSF cultures were treated by SDS-PAGE, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of 531 sequences identified, 207 proteins were analyzed. Twenty-five were identified as the most abundant unregulated proteins; 87 were found to be up-regulated and 95 were down-regulated with increasing glucose concentration. Of the regulated proteins, 120 were enzymes, most involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (51), amino acids (23), and nucleotides (9). This study shows the high protein secretory activity of A. brasiliensis under SSF conditions. High glucose concentration favors catabolic activities, while some stress-related proteins and those involved in proteolysis are down-regulated.

  19. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

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    Piyanuch Piyatrakul

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

  20. Anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extract from Eugenia brasiliensis (Brazilian cherry

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    Adeline Conceição RODRIGUES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the anti-quorum sensing activity of phenolic extracts from grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis, also known as Brazilian cherry, in concentrations that did not interfere with bacterial growth. The pulp phenolic compounds were extracted by using solid phage extraction in a mini-collumn C18 and quantified by spectrophotometry. The anti-quorum sensing activity was evaluated by testing the inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum and by evaluating the swarming motility in Aeromonas hydrophila and Serratia marcescens, both phenotypes regulated by quorum sensing. The phenolic extract strongly inhibited the production of violacein in C. violaceum, reducing its production in comparison with a control with no extract. No inhibition of growth was observed at the concentrations tested for quorum sensing inhibition. Confirming the quorum sensing inhibition phenotype, the extract was also able to inhibit swarming motility in S. marcescens and in A. hydrophila, although in the later the effect was marginal. Overall, these results indicate that phenolic extract from E. brasiliensis presents quorum sensing inhibitory activity most likely due to the presence of fruit phenolics which have been implicated as quorum sensing inhibitors in Gram negative bacteria.

  1. Utilização do picro-sirius para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A solução do picro-sirius foi usada para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em tecidos humanos fixados em formol. À luz comum, o fungo mostra uma faixa periférica avermelhada e, à luz polarizada, apresenta um ou mais anéis birrefringentes esverdeados. A imersão prévia em solução de hidróxido de sódio a 1%, por alguns minutos, melhora a coloração, sendo o fungo visualizado com mais nitidez à luz polarizada. Por outro lado, a diferenciação dos cortes corados, com picro-sirius em hidróxido de sódio a 0,5%, elimina a birrefringência do colágeno mais rapidamente que a do Paracoccidioides.Picrosirius stain was used for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in formalin-fixed human tissue. By common light microscopy the fungus shows a red peripheral band and on polarization microscopy, one or more birefringent green rings. Previous immersion in 1% sodium hidroxide solution enhances the staining and the birefringency of parasitic cells. The differentiation of the stained sections with 0,5% sodium hydroxide eliminates the birefringency of the collagen more rapidly than that of the paraeoccidioides.

  2. Proteins secreted by the parasitic nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis act as adjuvants for Th2 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, M J; Harcus, Y M; Riches, P L; Maizels, R M

    2000-07-01

    Infections with parasitic helminths such as Nippostronglyus brasiliensis induce dominant type 2 responses from antigen-specific T helper cells. The potency of the Th2 bias can also drive Th2 responses to bystander antigens introduced at the same time as infection. We now report that the Th2-promoting effect of infection can be reproduced with soluble N. brasiliensis excretory-secretory proteins (NES) released by adult parasites in vitro. Immunization of BALB/c mice with NES results in the production of IL-4 with elevated total serum IgE and specific IgG1 antibodies. NES is also able to stimulate IL-4 and polyclonal IgE production in other mouse strains (C57BL/6, B10.D2, CBA). These features are seen whether NES is administered without adjuvant as soluble protein in phosphate-buffered saline or with complete Freund's adjuvant which normally favors Th1 responses. Thus, NES possesses intrinsic adjuvanticity. Moreover, co-administration of hen egg lysozyme (HEL) with NES in the absence of other adjuvants results in generation of HEL-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IL-4 release and IgG1 antibody responses, documenting that NES can act as an adjuvant for third-party antigens. Proteinase K digestion or heat treatment of NES before immunization abolished the IL-4-stimulating activity, indicating that the factors acting to promote Th2 induction are proteins secreted by the adult parasite.

  3. Estudio sobre las relaciones filogenéticas entre diversos aislamientos del hongo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Juan McEwen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque es poco lo que se conoce acerca de la biología evolutiva
    del hongo P. brasiliensis, varios estudios moleculares han demostrado que existen variaciones en secuencias de ADN entre sus aislamientos, las que se correlacionan con el origen geográfico de las mismas y con diferencias en su virulencia para modelos murinos (1,2. Se desconoce si estas variaciones son el resultado final de un proceso de especiación alopátrica que daría origen a especies aisladas genéticamente provistas de características fenotípicas (patogenicidad, inmunogenicidad y genotípicas diferentes, las que podrían ser usadas como una alternativa para mejorar e innovar los métodos actuales de diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, proponemos como objetivo general estudiar un aspecto fundamental de la biología evolutiva del hongo patógeno humano P. brasiliensis como es la especiación.

  4. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

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    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  5. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  6. Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-10-01

    Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma.

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  8. Enzymic and structural studies on processed proteins from the vacuolar (lutoid-body) fraction of latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, T; de Vries, H; Schuringa, JJ; Soedjanaatmadja, UMS; Hofsteenge, J; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    The lutoid-body (bottom) fraction of latex from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) contains a limited number of major proteins. These are the chitin-binding protein hevein, its precursor and C-terminal fragment of the precursor, a basic chitinase/lysozyme, and a beta-1,3-glucanase. The content and

  9. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Vagner José; Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Pinotti, Heloisa; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Pita, Sebastián; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Panzera, Francisco; De Araújo, Renato Freitas; Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela De; Rosa, João Aristeu Da

    2016-05-02

    Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, 1967, and T. pessoai Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 were described based on material collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia. These species were later included in the T. brasiliensis complex based on their geographic distribution. Triatoma bahiensis and T. pessoai were subsequently synonymized with T. lenti. However, the phylogenetic position of T. lenti within the T. brasiliensis complex has remained doubtful. This study aims to assess the taxonomic status of T. bahiensis and to infer the phylogenetic relationships between T. lenti, T. bahiensis and the other members of the T. brasiliensis species complex. The identities of the species in concern were confirmed by comparisons with high resolution photos of the respective type materials; lectotypes are designated for T. pessoai and T. bahiensis. Morphological, morphometric, molecular, and cytogenetic approaches as well as experimental crosses were used. The low viability of experimental crosses combined with morphological and morphometric data allow the differentiation of T. bahiensis and T. lenti. Pairwise cyt b sequence divergence between T. lenti and T. bahiensis was 2.5%. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses grouped T. lenti and T. bahiensis as members of the T. brasiliensis complex. These results revalidate the specific status of T. bahiensis.

  10. Expression and characterization of active site mutants of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Evert; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Sibbald, Mark; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Its active site contains Asp125, Glu127, and Tyr183, which interact with the -1 sugar residue of the substrate. To investigate their role in catalysis, we have successfully expressed wild-type enzyme and mutants of these residues as

  11. Determination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, E; Spiering, M; Chow, KS; Mulder, PPMFA; Subroto, T; Beintema, JJ

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis and belongs to the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases. This paper describes the cloning of hevamine DNA and cDNA sequences. Hevamine contains a signal peptide at the N-terminus and a putative vacuolar targeting sequence at the C-terminus

  12. Dietary polysaccharide extracts of Agaricus brasiliensis fruiting bodies: chemical characterization and bioactivities at different levels of purifiaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Jakovljevic, D.; Todorovic, N.; Niksic, M.; Vrvic, M.M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides of the European strain of A. brasiliensis were obtained by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation (HWPE I) of fruiting bodies, and further purified by dialysis (HWPE II) and pronase incubation (PPE). These polysaccharides consisted mainly of (1 ¿ 6)-ß-D-glucans. PPE was free

  13. Evaluation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection by gp 43 intradermal test in rural settlements in Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana Paula da C; Oliveira, Sandra Maria V L; Rezende, Grazielli R; Melo, Dayane A; Fernandes-Fitts, Sonia M; Pontes, Elenir Rose J C; Bonecini-Almeida, Maria da Glória; Camargo, Zoilo P; Paniago, Anamaria M M

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies of paracoccidioidomycosis have been based on surveys achieved with intradermal tests, and paracoccidioidin is the most common antigen used in most cases. The glycoprotein of 43-kDa (gp43) has been used in intradermal tests. It is the most antigenic component of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, and it provides greater specificity to evaluate infection for this fungus. In this study, the prevalence of P. brasiliensis infection was estimated with intradermal tests involving gp43 for 695 people in rural Central-West Brazil. The infection rate was 45.8 % (95 % CI = 42.1-49.5), and the average age of those infected was 45.8 ± 18.2 years. The prevalence did not show gender-based differences but increased with age. The results demonstrate the importance of P. brasiliensis infection in rural settlements and the early exposure of children in the region to the fungus. Despite the high antigenicity and specificity of gp43, its usage must be standardized, so that epidemiological surveys will be comparable and more accurately reflect P. brasiliensis infection in endemic areas.

  14. Effects of polysaccharide from fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phenllinus linteus on alcoholic liver injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyanoglu, M.; Canbek, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Yamac, M.; Senturk, H.; Kartkaya, K.; Oglakci, A.; Turgak, O.; Kanbak, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the curative effects of crude polysaccharides (PSs) from mushrooms on the symptoms of alcoholic liver injury were investigated. PSs from Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, and Phellinus linteus fruiting bodies were administered by gavage at levels of 100¿mg per kg body

  15. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  16. Comparative genomics of the major fungal agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus M; de Almeida, Luiz G P; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula; Alves, Fernanda L; Kioshima, Erika S; Abadio, Ana K R; Fernandes, Larissa; Derengowski, Lorena S; Ferreira, Karen S; Souza, Rangel C; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; de Andrade, Nathalia C; Paes, Hugo C; Nicola, André M; Albuquerque, Patrícia; Gerber, Alexandra L; Martins, Vicente P; Peconick, Luisa D F; Neto, Alan Viggiano; Chaucanez, Claudia B; Silva, Patrícia A; Cunha, Oberdan L; de Oliveira, Fabiana F M; dos Santos, Tayná C; Barros, Amanda L N; Soares, Marco A; de Oliveira, Luciana M; Marini, Marjorie M; Villalobos-Duno, Héctor; Cunha, Marcel M L; de Hoog, Sybren; da Silveira, José F; Henrissat, Bernard; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A; Cisalpino, Patrícia S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Almeida, Sandro R; Stajich, Jason E; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Felipe, Maria S S

    2014-10-29

    The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on this comparative genomic study are: 1) to explore the presence of virulence factors in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis; 2) to compare S. brasiliensis, which is cat-transmitted and infects both humans and cats with S. schenckii, mainly a human pathogen; 3) to compare these two species to other human pathogens (Onygenales) with similar thermo-dimorphic behavior and to other plant-associated Sordariomycetes. The genomes of S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis were pyrosequenced to 17x and 20x coverage comprising a total of 32.3 Mb and 33.2 Mb, respectively. Pair-wise genome alignments revealed that the two species are highly syntenic showing 97.5% average sequence identity. Phylogenomic analysis reveals that both species diverged about 3.8-4.9 MYA suggesting a recent event of speciation. Transposable elements comprise respectively 0.34% and 0.62% of the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes and expansions of Gypsy-like elements was observed reflecting the accumulation of repetitive elements in the S. brasiliensis genome. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons showed the presence of group-I intron encoding homing endonucleases (HE's) exclusively in S. brasiliensis. Analysis of protein family expansions and contractions in the Sporothrix lineage revealed expansion of LysM domain-containing proteins, small GTPases, PKS type1 and leucin-rich proteins. In contrast, a lack of polysaccharide lyase genes that are associated with decay of plants was observed when compared to other Sordariomycetes and dimorphic fungal pathogens, suggesting evolutionary adaptations from a plant pathogenic or saprobic to an animal pathogenic life style. Comparative genomic data suggest a unique ecological shift in the

  17. Métodos de superação de dormência de sementes de Schinopsis brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. B. Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Schinopsis brasiliensis é uma das espécies ameaçadas de extinção na Caatinga do nordeste brasileiro. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar diferentes tratamentos pré-germinativos afim de superar a dormência em  sementes de Schinopsis brasiliensis. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado no esquema fatorial 5x2 com cinco repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos consistiram em: a escarificação com lixa metálica junto da micrópila; b escarificação com lixa metálica do lado oposto da micrópila; c escarificação com lixa metálica de um lado  da semente; d escarificação com lixa metálica dos dois lados da semente e e sem escarificação. Estes cinco níveis foram combinados com as sementes com ou sem lavagem em água. A porcentagem de emergência variou de 11,25 a 36,25%. A escarificação junto à micrópila combinada com a lavagem em agua proporcionou maior comprimento da parte aérea. A retirada do epicarpo e mesocarpo de Schinopsis brasiliensis seguida da lavagem em agua corrente por 12 horas e escarificação com lixa junto a micrópila proporcionam maior porcentagem de emergência.Methods to overcome seed dormancy in Schinopsis brasiliensisAbstract: Schinopsis brasiliensis is a species threatened with extinction in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to apply different pre-treatments to improve germination of Schinopsis brasiliensis. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 5x2 with five repetitions of 50 seeds. It was used five forms of scarification: a scarification with metal sandpaper along the micropyle; b scarification with sandpaper metal opposite the micropyle; c scarification with metal sanding a seed side; d scraping with a metallic grip both sides of the seed  and e without scarification. These five levels were combined with a without washing seeds in water and b seeds washed in running water for ten minutes. The emergency percentage ranged from

  18. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  19. Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

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    Jane Costa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.

  20. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Induction and secretion of elastinolytic and proteolytic activity in cultures of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    A. R. VOLTAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    P. brasiliensis parasitizes various human tissues and proteinases exported by this fungus may allow it to metabolize and invade host tissues. The influence of the culture medium on the production of proteinases by P. brasiliensis isolates was studied and the export of these enzymes was followed as a function of culture time. The fungus was grown in neopeptone, BSA, elastin or collagen medium. The culture medium was assayed for azocollytic, elastinolytic and caseinolytic activity. Proteolytic activity was also analysed by electrophoresis of the culture medium on gelatin and casein substrate gels. P. brasiliensis expressed relatively high levels of azocoll, elastin and casein degrading activity in all types of medium, except in neopeptone medium. Generally, expression of azocollytic activity peaked during the third week of culture and caseinolytic activity during the fourth week of culture. Azocollytic activity was highest at pH 4.0 and caseinolytic activity at pH 8.0. Elastinolytic activity was also highest at pH 8.0. This activity, as well as the others, may provide the fungus with a source of carbon and nitrogen and may also be responsible for the invasion of host tissues, such as pulmonary elastic fiber, by P. brasiliensis. Keywords: Proteolytic activity; collagenolytic activity; elastinolytic activity; Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; paracoccidioidomycosis.

  2. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

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    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone.Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water, weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% calcium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and

  3. Yeast Genetics and Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Saroj; Baranwal, Richa

    Yeast can be recognized as one of the very important groups of microorganisms on account of its extensive use in the fermentation industry and as a basic eukaryotic model cellular system. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively used to elucidate the genetics and regulation of several key functions in the cell such as cell mating, electron transport chain, protein trafficking, cell cycle events and others. Even before the genome sequence of the yeast was out, the structural organization and function of several of its genes was known. With the availability of the origin of replication from the 2 μm plasmid and the development of transformation system, it became the host of choice for expression of a number of important proteins. A large number of episomal and integrative shuttle vectors are available for expression of mammalian proteins. The latest developments in genomics and micro-array technology have allowed investigations of individual gene function by site-specific deletion method. The application of metabolic profiling has also assisted in understanding the cellular network operating in this yeast. This chapter is aimed at reviewing the use of this system as an experimental tool for conducting classical genetics. Various vector systems available, foreign genes expressed and the limitations as a host will be discussed. Finally, the use of various yeast enzymes in biotechnology sector will be reviewed.

  4. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  5. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

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    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 μL e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 μL. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G

  6. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A.brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product – natural preservatives in yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojkovic, D.S.; Reis, F.S.; Glamoclija, J.; Ciric, A.; Barros, L.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Sokovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic

  7. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-01-01

    .... Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5...

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi againstParacoccidioides brasiliensis and identification ofAspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-01-01

    .... Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5...

  9. A common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, is an important ecotope of wild Triatoma brasiliensis populations in the Jaguaribe valley of northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Bezerra, Claudia M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the Caatinga eco-region of northeastern Brazil. Wild T. brasiliensis populations have been reported only from rocky outcrops. However, this species frequently infests/re-infests houses in rock-free sedimentary lowlands. We therefore hypothesized that it should also occupy other natural ecotopes. We show that a common Caatinga cactus, Pilosocereus gounellei, locally known as xiquexique, often harbors T. brasiliensis breeding colonies apparently associated with rodents (n = 44 cacti, infestation rate = 47.7%, 157 bugs captured). Our findings suggest that infested cacti might be involved in house re-infestation by T. brasiliensis in the Caatinga region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

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    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento

  11. Emulsifying activity of hydrocarbonoclastic marine yeasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gupta, R.

    Marine yeast growth on four petroleum hydrocarbons induced the production of extracellular emulsifying agents (biosurfactants). Out of the 17 marine yeast isolates tested, 7 isolates, i.e., Candida parapsilosis, C. cantarelli, C. membranae...

  12. Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

  13. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

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    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  14. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of pink cusk-eel, Genypterus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae, from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Dimitri R Alves

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of pink cusk-eel, Genypterus brasiliensis Regan, 1903 (Osteichthyes: Ophidiidae collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (approx. 21-23°S, 41-45°W, from September 2000 to January 2001, were necropsied to study their parasites. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. Fourteen species of parasites were collected. G. brasiliensis is a new host record for nine parasite species. The larval stages of cestodes and the nematodes were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 38.4% and 36.5%, respectively. Cucullanus genypteri was the dominant species with highest prevalence and/or abundance. The parasites of G. brasiliensis showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. Six parasite species showed correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence and abundance. Host sex did not influence prevalence and parasite abundance of any parasite species. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of G. brasiliensis was H= 0.364 ± 0.103, with correlation with the host's total length and without differences in relation to sex of the host. One pair of adult endoparasites (C. genypteri and A. brasiliensis showed positive covariations between their abundances. Negative association or covariation was not found. Differences between the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the parasite community of G. brasiliensis from Rio de Janeiro and Argentina suggest the existence of two population stocks of pink cusk-eel in the South America Atlantic Ocean.

  15. Characteristics of fermentation yeast isolated from traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A relatively higher amount of propan-1-ol (43 mg/l) was found in the honey wine than in those made with wine yeast W4 and sake yeast K7. The aroma characteristics of honey wine made with yeast ET99 were acceptable, as determined by organoleptic tests, and were found to be applicable to ethanol fermentation.

  16. 21 CFR 73.355 - Phaffia yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phaffia yeast. 73.355 Section 73.355 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.355 Phaffia yeast. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive phaffia yeast consists of the killed, dried cells of a nonpathogenic and nontoxicogenic strain of the...

  17. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

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    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  18. Utilização do picro-sirius para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Hipólito de Oliveira Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available A solução do picro-sirius foi usada para corar o Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em tecidos humanos fixados em formol. À luz comum, o fungo mostra uma faixa periférica avermelhada e, à luz polarizada, apresenta um ou mais anéis birrefringentes esverdeados. A imersão prévia em solução de hidróxido de sódio a 1%, por alguns minutos, melhora a coloração, sendo o fungo visualizado com mais nitidez à luz polarizada. Por outro lado, a diferenciação dos cortes corados, com picro-sirius em hidróxido de sódio a 0,5%, elimina a birrefringência do colágeno mais rapidamente que a do Paracoccidioides.

  19. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  20. A case of an immunocompetent young man obtaining community-acquired disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Cao, Jie; Wu, Yueqing; Wan, Nansheng; Pan, Li; Chen, Yuanbao

    2014-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare but severe pyogenic or granulomatous disease and caused by Nocardia that mainly infects immunocompromised patients. We report here a case of an immunocompetent 24-year-old male student with community-acquired pneumonia with asymptomatic disseminated cerebral abscess by Brasiliensis nocardiosis. The patient was fully recovered after receiving optimized antimicrobial therapy without relapse. This case suggests the health professionals such as the physicians of pulmonary, infection, neurology department and et al should always think about unusual cause of community acquired pneumonia, even in immunocompetent patients and when having pulmonary nocardiosis we should do a radiological neurological work up, even with the absence of neurological finding or symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection isolated in an immunosuppressed patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kimberly W; Brodell, Lindsey A; Lambert, Emily; Menegus, Marilyn; Scott, Glynis A; Tu, John H

    2012-02-01

    Cutaneous nocardiosis is a rare infection that may manifest as a superficial skin lesion, lymphocutaneous infection, mycetoma, or diffuse cutaneous infection from a disseminated systemic infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompromised man with persistent primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection following a motor vehicle collision. A high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose Nocardia infection because of its resemblance to other bacterial infections. Nocardiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic cutaneous infections, especially when the response to antibiotics is inadequate or when the patient is immunocompromised. Because Nocardia may take several weeks to grow in standard bacterial culture media, laboratories should be notified of the suspicion so that culture plates are held for longer time periods. Long-term therapy, usually with sulfonamides, often is necessary.

  3. Emergence of co-trimoxazole resistant Nocardia brasiliensis causing fatal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Vineeta; Gupta, Prashant; Himanshu, D; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-04-17

    An 85-year-old man was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with a 10-day history of severe breathlessness, fever and cough. The patient was known to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and had been receiving corticosteroids in the preceding 18 months. He had been treated for tuberculosis 2.5 years previously. On examination he was febrile, tachycardic with a respiratory rate of 46/min. Auscultation revealed bilateral crepitation's and wheeze. Chest radiograph revealed patchy infiltrates on right lung. The patient developed respiratory depression and was mechanically ventilated. His sputum and endotracheal aspirates revealed Nocardia brasiliensis on culture which was found to be co-trimoxazole resistant. Once this became known imipenem was substituted for co-trimoxazole but unfortunately condition of the patient did not improve and he died following a cardiac arrest.

  4. Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana reduce the survival of Xenopsylla brasiliensis larvae (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnyone, Ladslaus L; Ng'habi, Kija R; Mazigo, Humphrey D; Katakweba, Abdul A; Lyimo, Issa N

    2012-09-19

    Entomopathogenic fungi, particularly those belonging to the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria have shown great promise as arthropod vector control tools. These agents, however, have not been evaluated against flea vectors of plague. A 3-h exposure to the fungi coated paper at a concentration of 2 × 108 conidia m-2 infected >90% of flea larvae cadavers in the treatment groups. The infection reduced the survival of larvae that had been exposed to fungus relative to controls. The daily risk of dying was four- and over three-fold greater in larvae exposed to M. anisopliae (HR = 4, pfungi can successfully infect and kill larvae of X. brasiliensis with a pooled median survival time (MST±SE) of 2 ± 0.31 days post-exposure. These findings justify further research to investigate the bio-control potential of entomopathogenic fungi against fleas.

  5. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

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    Barbara Maichak De Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters (salinity, chlorophyll, pH and water temperature. Collections were conducted between August 2010 and July 2011, at 17 sites in the north-south axis of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil. CTD profiling was carried out every month to measure the environmental parameters. At each month and sampling site, a paralel trawling 30 m long was carried out using a beach seine net 5 m long, 2 m high and 2.5 mm between opposite knots. After collection, fish were identified, measured for total length, weighed and the ages were estimated according von Bertalanffy. We caught 10024 individuals with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Our results evidenced that all age classes of A. brasiliensis are present in shallow areas. This species shows different habitat use between age classes, which is caused by changes in feeding habits and higher availability of favorable environments, besides specific characteristics.

  6. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

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    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  7. Dietary energetics of the insectivorous Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, T H; Whitaker, J O; Wadanoli, M D

    1995-04-01

    Stomach content analysis of 20 pregnant (x body mass=13.4 g) and 18 lactating (x body mass=11.5 g) female Tadarida brasiliensis revealed that the diet, expressed as percent volume, consists largely of lepidopterans, coleopterans, hymenopterans, and dipterans, in decreasing order of importance. We found no significant difference in the diet of pregnant and lactating females when expressed as percent volume. However, when expressed as percent frequency, proportionately more pregnant females fed on lepidopterans, coleopterans, and dipterans than did lactating bats, and proportionately more lactating females fed on hymenopterans. We found no significant differences in the percentages of water, lean dry mass, fat, and energy density in the stomach contents of pregnant and lactating females. Water in stomach contents averaged 62.7% and fat and lean dry mass averaged 22.2% and 15.2%, respectively (expressed as percentage of wet mass); energy density averaged 31.2 kJ g(-1) dry mass. This relatively high energy density of stomach contents, as compared to whole insects, can be attributed to the consumption of insects high in fat (especially flying ants) and the abdomens only of moths and beetles (other body parts being discarded). Estimates of nightly food intake increased markedly from mid- to late pregnancy, stabilized or decreased during late pregnancy, and increased again during early to mid-lactation. Average nightly feeding rate doubled from pregnancy to lactation and increased threefold during the first half of lactation. By adjusting our gravimetric estimates of nightly feeding rate upwards by 40% (based on estimates of field metabolic rate), we estimate that the average nightly energy intake of female T. brasiliensis ranges from 57 kJ day(-1) in early lactation to 104 kJ day(-1) in mid-lactation. These estimates represent nightly feeding rates averaging 39% and 73% of a female's body mass in the period from early to mid-lactation, respectively.

  8. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In situ detection and distribution of inflammatory cytokines during the course of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Soto, J M; Quintanilla-Rodriguez, L E; Meester, I; Segoviano-Ramirez, J C; Vazquez-Juarez, J L; Salinas Carmona, M C

    2008-05-01

    Actinomycetoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, is characterized by an infiltration of several inflammatory cell populations. To explore aspects of the immune response in the pathogenesis of these bacteria we injected 10(6) CFU in footpads of BALB/c mice. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 30 and 90 days immunohistochemistry was performed to compare presence and distribution of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta. Analysis of serial paraffin tissue sections showed strong participation and differences in distribution of cytokine-producing cells during the course of infection. Several TNF-alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes of the dermis were present during the course of the infection, but absent in the site of inflammation. During the first 4 days, IL-1 beta immunoreactivity was observed in dendritic epidermal cells and in cells surrounding the neutrophils around the grain. In later stages of infection, immunoreactive cells to this cytokine were mainly in the periphery of the microabscesses. Strong immunoreactivity was observed with IL-6 during the course of infection. Some cells in the epidermis and dermis, as well as muscle cells and several cells at the periphery of the microabscesses, showed strong IL-6 immunoreactivity. Cells immunoreactive to IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta were present at the site of infection and, in later stages, in cells at the periphery of the microabscesses. In conclusion a mix of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are produced at the same time by host cells. According to their distribution, inflammatory cytokines seems to have different functions during the course of infection with the intracellular bacterium N. brasiliensis.

  10. Hermaphroditism in the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg. - II

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    Silvia Marina Cuco

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 and GT 1, were analyzed under stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope, aiming to observe hermaphroditism rates. Results showed 71.49% hermaphrodite flowers, 29.83% of which exhibited incompletely developed, residual anthers. The scanning electron microscope analysis did not detect differences in anther epidermis of male and bisexual flowers of RRIM 600 and RRIM 527. In GT 1 clone (sterile male, the anther epidermis was already weak at the beginning of floral development and completely wrinkled at the end of maturation. Consequently, the anthers were empty by this stage.Flores de três clones de Hevea brasiliensis, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 e GT 1, foram analisadas, sob lupa e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a fim de se observar as taxas de ocorrência de hermafroditismo. Os resultados mostraram um total de 71,49% de flores hermafroditas, sendo que destas 29,83% apresentaram anteras residuais, não completamente desenvolvidas. As análises ao microscópio de varredura não mostraram diferença ao nível de epiderme de anteras em flores masculinas e hermafroditas de RRIM 527 e RRIM 600. No clone GT 1 (macho estéril a epiderme das anteras mostrou-se frouxa já no início do desenvolvimento floral e completamente enrugada ao final da maturação, demonstrando que as anteras estão vazias neste estádio.

  11. Yeast genomics on food flavours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoondermark-Stolk, Sung Ah

    2005-01-01

    The appearance and concentration of the fusel alcohol 3-methyl-1-butanol is important for the flavour of fermented foods. 3-Methyl-1-butanol is formed by yeast during the conversion of L-leucine. Identification of the enzymes and genes involved in the formation of 3-methyl-1-butanol is a major

  12. Nucleotide excision repair in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, Patrick van

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) is a conserved DNA repair pathway capable of removing a broad spectrum of DNA damage. In human cells a defect in NER leads to the disorder Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model organism to study the mechanism of NER. The

  13. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  14. Uso do Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD no estudo populacional do Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD in the populational study of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911

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    Érika C. Borges

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Para o estudo de variabilidade genética em Triatoma brasiliensis, o principal vetor da doença de Chagas no Nordeste brasileiro, espécimes de três diferentes populações intradomiciliares foram analisados. Regiões do DNA genômico foram amplificadas utilizando dois iniciadores randômicos através da técnica de RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, visualizados em géis de poliacrilamida corados pela prata. Os perfis originados se mostraram bastante homogêneos quando comparados intrapopulacionalmente. Populações capturadas em duas regiões diferentes do Estado do Ceará também apresentaram homogeneidade entre si, mas, quando comparadas com a população proveniente do Piauí, foi possível diferenciá-las. Esses resultados, preliminares, indicam que o RAPD pode ser usado com sucesso nos estudos de variabilidade em triatomíneos, bem como sugerem a existência de variabilidade entre diferentes populações de T. brasiliensis pertencentes a uma mesma subespécie.We evaluated the genetic variability of Triatoma brasiliensis, the main vector of Chagas disease in Northeast Brazil, using specimens from three populations. Regions of genomic DNA were amplified by RAPD (Random Amplified Polimorphic DNA, using two primers. The products were visualized after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. A dendrogram constructed through the Dice similarity coefficient allowed for separation of the tested specimens into three distinct groups. The populations captured in areas from Ceará State showed similar profiles, but different from that captured in Piauí State. Our results indicate that RAPD can be used successfully in triatomine studies and suggest the presence of genetic variability between different populations of T. brasiliensis.

  15. A model based on spectrofluorimetry to study the interaction between glyphosate and serum albumin of Salminus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Marta Araujo Cyrino; Cortez, Celia Martins; Silva, Dilson; Neto, Jayme da Cunha Bastos

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to initiate an investigation on the albumin of Salminus brasiliensis (gold fish) as a biomarker of environmental actions of glyphosate. We started using a mathematical-computational model based on spectrofluorimetric measurements to study the interaction of glyphosate with gold fish albumin and human serum albumin. Salminus brasiliensis is a migratory freshwater fish species found in southern and central-western Brazil, mainly in the Prata river basin, where most of soybean plantations are set. Glyphosate is a very used herbicide in this type of crop. Differently from the organophosphorate methyl parathion, glyphosate does not form complex with HSA, and the quenching constants estimated for its binding with gold fish albumin at 20 °C and 25 °C is 1.3(± 0.3) × 104 / M e 2.5 (± 0.3) × 104 / M, respectively.

  16. Diet and helminths of Enyalius brasiliensis (Lacertilia, Iguania, Leiosauridae in an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in southeastern Brazil

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    TA Dorigo

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to add information about the diet and endoparasites of Enyalius brasiliensis from an Atlantic Rainforest remnant in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Regarding diet, E. brasiliensis consumed arthropods, with caterpillars and beetles being the most important preys. Regarding helminth parasites, overall prevalence was low (9.5%, with 238 nematodes of the genus Physaloptera found in the stomach of one specimen and one nematode of the genus Rhabdias inside the lung of another. Our results corroborate the observations of previous studies that indicate that lizards of the genus Enyalius tend to feed mainly on relatively large-bodied arthropods and to harbour depauperate endoparasite fauna.

  17. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

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    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos

  18. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers

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    Karine Cristina Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers

  19. Sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras Sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions

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    A.T.M. Viveiros

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Em três experimentos, avaliou-se a sensibilidade dos espermatozoides de dourado (Salminus brasiliensis a diferentes soluções crioprotetoras. No experimento 1, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:10, em 12 soluções (quatro diluidores x três crioprotetores - dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO, metilglicol ou glicerol. Metade de cada amostra foi resfriada por uma hora e a outra, criopreservada. A motilidade espermática foi avaliada imediatamente após a diluição e após o resfriamento em todas as amostras e, após o descongelamento, apenas nas amostras criopreservadas em DMSO. No experimento 2, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em cinco soluções contendo DMSO e resfriado, criopreservado e avaliado como no experimento 1. No experimento 3, o sêmen foi diluído, 1:5, em quatro soluções contendo DMSO e criopreservado e avaliado quanto à motilidade e à fertilidade. Quando o sêmen foi diluído 1:10, observou-se motilidade acima de 58% em todas as amostras resfriadas em DMSO e em NaCl-tris-metilglicol. Baixa motilidade foi observada nas amostras resfriadas nas outras combinações com metilglicol (5-32% ou glicerol (0-8% e naquelas criopreservadas (16-20%. Todas as amostras diluídas 1:5 apresentaram motilidade de 65-72% após o resfriamento e de 45-66% após o descongelamento (experimentos 2 e 3. As taxas de eclosão produzidas com sêmen criopreservado, entretanto, foram baixas (17-23% em relação ao sêmen fresco (60%.The sensitivity of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis spermatozoa to different cryoprotectant solutions was evaluated in three experiments. In experiment 1, semen was diluted, 1:10, in 12 solutions (four extenders x three cryoprotectants - dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO, methyglycol, or glycerol. Half of each sample was refrigerated for one hour while the other half was cryopreserved. Sperm motility was immediately assessed after dilution and after refrigeration in all samples, and after thawing in those cryopreserved in DMSO. In experiment 2, semen was

  20. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.

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    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied

  1. Yeasts in an industrial malting ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitila, A; Wilhelmson, A; Kotaviita, E; Olkku, J; Home, S; Juvonen, R

    2006-11-01

    The malting ecosystem consists of two components: the germinating cereal grains and the complex microbial community. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but the composition and the effects of this microbial group have been largely unknown. In this study we surveyed the development of yeasts and yeast-like fungi in four industrial scale malting processes. A total of 136 malting process samples were collected and examined for the presence of yeasts growing at 15, 25 and 37 degrees C. More than 700 colonies were isolated and characterized. The isolates were discriminated by PCR-fingerprinting with microsatellite primer (M13). Yeasts representing different fingerprint types were identified by sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. Furthermore, identified yeasts were screened for the production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucanase, cellulase and xylanase. A numerous and diverse yeast community consisting of both ascomycetous (25) and basidiomycetous (18) species was detected in the various stages of the malting process. The most frequently isolated ascomycetous yeasts belonged to the genera Candida, Clavispora, Galactomyces, Hanseniaspora, Issatchenkia, Pichia, Saccharomyces and Williopsis and the basidiomycetous yeasts to Bulleromyces, Filobasidium, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Sporobolomyces and Trichosporon. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi (black yeasts) belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Knowledge of the microbial diversity provides a basis for microflora management and understanding of the role of microbes in the cereal germination process.

  2. Atividade antitumoral, isolamento e identificação dos principios ativos da Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spreng.) Meisn. (Ericaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aparecida Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spreng.) Meisn. (Ericaceae), popularmente conhecida corno "camarinha", é usada na medicina popular brasileira no tratamento de processos inflamatórios. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: (1) avaliar a atividade antitumoral de extratos brutos obtidos desta espécie vegetal em modelo "in vitro" de cultura de células tumorais humanas; (2) determinar as frações ativas farmacologicamente nos modelos de cultura de células tumorais humanas e isolar e caracterizar qu...

  3. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis Catalase Gene Fragment in Members of the Genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Johnson, Wendy M.; Welsh, Oliverio; Resendiz-Uresti, Francisco L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.

    1999-01-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  4. Immune Response to Nocardia brasiliensis Antigens in an Experimental Model of Actinomycetoma in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Torres-Lopez, Ernesto; Ramos, Alma I.; Licon-Trillo, Angel; Gonzalez-Spencer, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Nine- to twelve-week-old BALB/c mice were injected in footpads with 107 CFU of a Nocardia brasiliensis cell suspension. Typical actinomycetoma lesions, characterized by severe local inflammation with abscess and fistula formation, were fully established by day 28 after infection. These changes presented for 90 days, and then tissue repair with scar formation slowly appeared, with complete healing after 150 days of infection. Some animals developed bone destruction in the affected area. Histop...

  5. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) in its development and adult size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, T N; Silva, D C R

    2016-07-25

    Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae) are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen), anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size.

  6. Effect of energetic cost to maintain the trap for Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae in its development and adult size

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    T. N. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Antlion larvae Myrmeleon brasiliensis Návas, 1914 (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae are sit-and-wait predators who build traps to catch their prey. The aim of this study was to observe under laboratory conditions, how the energy cost spent on maintenance of their traps affects: the larval developmental time, time spent as a pupa, mortality rate of larvae and adult size. M. brasiliensis larvae were collected in the municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and were individually maintained in plastic containers and subjected to two treatments. In the control treatment larvae did not have their traps disturbed while in the manipulated treatment, larvae had their traps disturbed three times a week. The experiments were followed until adult emergence. When the adults emerged, their body size (head-abdomen, anterior and posterior wing span and width were measured. Furthermore, the number of larvae that died during the experiment was recorded. The results showed that the larvae whose traps were manipulated had longer larval development time, smaller pupal development time and were smaller adults. It can be concluded that the energy expenditure spent on maintenance of the trap constructed by M. brasiliensis larvae can affect the development of negative ways, represented by a longer larval development and reduced adult size.

  7. Lesions associated with Halocercus brasiliensis Lins de Almeida, 1933 in the lungs of dolphins stranded in the Northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, J P; Febronio, A M B; Vergara-Parente, J E; Werneck, M R

    2015-04-01

    The parasitic fauna of cetaceans is an important tool for ecological studies, including analyses on the causes of death. Halocercus brasiliensis is a nematode frequently found in the bronchi and bronchioles of some cetaceans, and it is commonly associated with focal inflammation of the respiratory tract leading to bacterial pneumonia and septicemia and, sometimes, to death. The objective of this study was to report infections by H. brasiliensis in the respiratory tract of Delphinidae stranded on the northern seaside of Bahia, Sergipe, and south of Alagoas, all states in the northeast region of Brazil. A total of 30 individuals, 1 Feresa attenuate (pygmy killer whale), 9 Stenella clymene (Clymene dolphin), and 20 Sotalia guianensis (Guiana dolphin) were studied. In 16 of them, the presence of H. brasiliensis was observed with a mean intensity of 3.5 ± 0.6 (range 1-9) in the hosts. Macroscopically, parasitic calcified nodules, lung congestion, edema, and emphysema were observed. Histopathological examination showed interstitial and granulomatous pneumonia with multifocal infiltrates, discrete to moderate edema, congestion, diffuse hemorrhage, and foci of calcification. We conclude that parasitic pneumonia in the sampled individuals may have directly contributed to stranding and death of the animals.

  8. Cell-free antigens from precocious Paracoccidioides brasiliensis culture induce a typical delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction

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    Fecchio CJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free antigens (CFAg derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis have typically been used in immunodiffusion reactions for serodiagnosis or therapeutic follow-up of paracoccidioidomycosis patients. Thus, we investigated the usefulness of CFAg obtained from cultures at different ages, to evaluate cellular immunity by the footpad test, in experimental murine paracoccidioidomycosis. Male mice infected with P. brasiliensis 265 strain were challenged in the footpad with CFAg obtained from four- (4d CFAg or 11-day-old cultures (11d CFAg. The increase in footpad swelling provoked by 4d CFAg and 11d CFAg was similar and showed significant difference in relation to control groups. However, the infiltrate pattern was strikingly different: 4d CFAg induced a predominant mononuclear infiltrate whereas 11d CFAg provoked a predominant polymophonuclear infiltrate. These different inflammatory patterns were associated with distinct electrophoretic characteristics. By comparison with 11d CFAg, 4d CFAg showed more numerous and intense bands, including a strong one of 43 kDa (gp43. These results suggest that CFAg derived from Pb 265 isolate can be used as a reagent to evaluate cellular immunity; however, the culture's age is critical because only young cultures are able to induce a typical mononuclear infiltrate. The efficacy of this new paracoccidioidin to assay the cellular immunity in infections caused by other P. brasiliensis isolates is under investigation.

  9. Construction and analysis of the cDNA subtraction library of yeast and mycelial phases of Sporothrix globosa isolated in China: identification of differentially expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-bi; He, Yu; Zhou, Xun

    2015-12-01

    Species included in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are temperature-dependent with dimorphic growth and cause sporotrichosis that is characterized by chronic and fatal lymphocutaneous lesions. The putative species included in the Sporothrix complex are S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, S. pallida, S. schenckii, and S. lurei. S. globosa is the causal agent of sporotrichosis in China, and its pathogenicity appears to be closely related to the dimorphic transition, i.e. from the mycelial to the yeast phase, it adapts to changing environmental conditions. To determine the molecular mechanisms of the switching process that mediates the dimorphic transition of S. globosa, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to prepare a complementary DNA (cDNA) subtraction library from the yeast and mycelial phases. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to profile the relationship between differently expressed genes and the dimorphic transition. Two genes that were expressed at higher levels by the yeast form were selected, and their differential expression levels were verified using a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). It is believed that these differently expressed genes are involved in the pathogenesis of S. globosa infection in China.

  10. Construction and analysis of the cDNA subtraction library of yeast and mycelial phases of Sporothrix globosa isolated in China: identification of differentially expressed genes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing-bi; He, Yu; Zhou, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Species included in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are temperature-dependent with dimorphic growth and cause sporotrichosis that is characterized by chronic and fatal lymphocutaneous lesions. The putative species included in the Sporothrix complex are S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, S. pallida, S. schenckii, and S. lurei. S. globosa is the causal agent of sporotrichosis in China, and its pathogenicity appears to be closely related to the dimorphic transition, i.e. from the mycelial to the yeast phase, it adapts to changing environmental conditions. To determine the molecular mechanisms of the switching process that mediates the dimorphic transition of S. globosa, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to prepare a complementary DNA (cDNA) subtraction library from the yeast and mycelial phases. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to profile the relationship between differently expressed genes and the dimorphic transition. Two genes that were expressed at higher levels by the yeast form were selected, and their differential expression levels were verified using a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). It is believed that these differently expressed genes are involved in the pathogenesis of S. globosa infection in China. PMID:26642182

  11. Combinatorial pathway assembly in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Essani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of synthetic biology and the vast knowledge about individual biocatalytic reactions, the challenge nowadays is to implement whole natural or synthetic pathways into microorganisms. For this purpose balanced enzyme activities throughout the pathway need to be achieved in addition to simple functional gene expression to avoid bottlenecks and to obtain high titers of the desired product. As the optimization of pathways in a specific biological context is often hard to achieve by rational design, combinatorial approaches have been developed to address this issue. Here, current strategies and proof of concepts for combinatorial pathway assembly in yeasts are reviewed. By exploiting its ability to join multiple DNA fragments in a very efficient and easy manner, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not only constitute an attractive host for heterologous pathway expression, but also for assembling pathways by recombination in vivo.

  12. Yeast Isolation for Bioethanol Production

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    EKA RURIANI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated 12 yeast isolates from five different rotten fruits by using a yeast glucose chloramphenicol agar (YGCA medium supplemented with tetracycline. From pre-screening assay, four isolates exhibited higher substrate (glucose-xylose consumption efficiency in the reaction tube fermentation compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae dan Saccharomyces ellipsoids as the reference strains. Based on the fermentation process in gooseneck flasks, we observed that two isolates (K and SB showed high fermentation efficiency both in sole glucose and mixed glucose-xylose substrate. Moreover, isolates K and SB produced relatively identical level of ethanol concentration compared to the reference strains. Isolates H and MP could only produce high levels of ethanol in glucose fermentation, while only half of that amount of ethanol was detected in glucose-xylose fermentation. Isolate K and SB were identified as Pichia kudriavzeevii (100% based on large sub unit (LSU ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region.

  13. Yeasts colonizing the leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sláviková, Elena; Vadkertiová, Renata; Vránová, Dana

    2007-08-01

    The yeasts were isolated from the leaf surfaces of ten species of trees. The study site was a forest park (Zelezná Studnicka) of the Small Carpathians mountain range. One hundred and thirty seven yeast strains belonging to 13 genera were isolated from 320 samples of leaves and needles. Seventeen yeast species were isolated, but only seven occurred regularly: Aureobasidium pullulans, Cryptococcus laurentii, Pichia anomala, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Saccharomyces sp., Lachancea thermotolerans, and Rhodotorula glutinis. The remaining species were isolated from the leaves and needles of three or less tree species. A. pullulans, Cr. laurentii, and P. anomala were the most frequently found species and they occurred on leaves and needles of all ten tree species. Saccharomyces sp. occurred in leaf samples collected from eight kinds of trees. M. pulcherrima and L. thermotolerans were found in samples collected from six species of trees. Both these species occurred almost always on the leaves of deciduous trees. Rh. glutinis was the most frequently isolated carotenoids producing species. We have found out that the ascomycetous and basidiomycetous species were present in the leaf samples in approximately equal frequency, contrary to the soil samples taken from this forest park, where the ascomycetous species were found rarely.

  14. Yeast: A new oil producer?

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    Beopoulos Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of plant oils or animal fat for biodiesel and specific lipid derivatives for the oleochemical field (such as lubricants, adhesives or plastics have created price imbalance in both the alimentary and energy field. Moreover, the lack of non-edible oil feedstock has given rise to concerns on land-use practices and on oil production strategies. Recently, much attention has been paid to the exploitation of microbial oils. Most of them present lipid profiles similar in type and composition to plants and could therefore have many advantages as are no competitive with food, have short process cycles and their cultivation is independent of climate factors. Among microorganisms, yeasts seem to be very promising as they can be easily genetically enhanced, are suitable for large-scale fermentation and are devoid of endotoxins. This review will focus on the recent understanding of yeasts lipid metabolism, the succeeding genetic engineering of the lipid pathways and the recent developments on fermentation techniques that pointed out yeasts as promising alternative producers for oil or plastic.

  15. Therapeutic effect of a novel oxazolidinone, DA-7867, in BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

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    Lucio Vera-Cabrera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of tropical and subtropical countries. It is produced by true fungi and actinobacteria. In México, Nocardia brasiliensis is the main causative agent of mycetoma, producing about 86% of the cases; the gold standard for the therapy of mycetoma by N. brasiliensis is the use of sulfonamides which give a 70% cure rate. The addition of amikacin to this regime increases to 95% the cure rate; however, the patients have to be monitored for creatinine clearance and audiometry studies because of the potential development of side effects. Because of that it is important to search for new active compounds. In the present work, we evaluated the in vivo effect of DA-7867, an experimental oxazolidinone, on the development of experimental mycetomas by N. brasiliensis in BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to determine the optimal dose utilized to apply to the animals, we first determined by HPLC the plasma levels using several concentrations of the compounds. Based on these results, we used 10 and 25 mg/kg subcutaneously every 24 hr; DA-7867 was also supplied in the drinking water at a calculated dose of 25 mg/kg. As a control we utilized linezolid at 25 mg/kg, a compound active in murine and human infections, three times a day. The mice were infected in the right footpad with a young culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1, and one week later we started the application of the antimicrobials for six more weeks. After that we compared the development of lesions in the groups injected with saline solution or with the antimicrobials; the results were analyzed by the variance ANOVA test. DA-7867 was able to reduce the production of lesions at 25 mg/kg, when given either subcutaneously or in the drinking water. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental oxazolidinone DA-7867 is active in vivo against N. brasiliensis, which opens the possibility of using this drug once it is accepted for human

  16. Therapeutic effect of a novel oxazolidinone, DA-7867, in BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Daw-Garza, Alejandra; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Rocha, Norma Cavazos; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Choi, Sung-Hak; Welsh, Oliverio

    2008-09-10

    Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of tropical and subtropical countries. It is produced by true fungi and actinobacteria. In México, Nocardia brasiliensis is the main causative agent of mycetoma, producing about 86% of the cases; the gold standard for the therapy of mycetoma by N. brasiliensis is the use of sulfonamides which give a 70% cure rate. The addition of amikacin to this regime increases to 95% the cure rate; however, the patients have to be monitored for creatinine clearance and audiometry studies because of the potential development of side effects. Because of that it is important to search for new active compounds. In the present work, we evaluated the in vivo effect of DA-7867, an experimental oxazolidinone, on the development of experimental mycetomas by N. brasiliensis in BALB/c mice. In order to determine the optimal dose utilized to apply to the animals, we first determined by HPLC the plasma levels using several concentrations of the compounds. Based on these results, we used 10 and 25 mg/kg subcutaneously every 24 hr; DA-7867 was also supplied in the drinking water at a calculated dose of 25 mg/kg. As a control we utilized linezolid at 25 mg/kg, a compound active in murine and human infections, three times a day. The mice were infected in the right footpad with a young culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1, and one week later we started the application of the antimicrobials for six more weeks. After that we compared the development of lesions in the groups injected with saline solution or with the antimicrobials; the results were analyzed by the variance ANOVA test. DA-7867 was able to reduce the production of lesions at 25 mg/kg, when given either subcutaneously or in the drinking water. The experimental oxazolidinone DA-7867 is active in vivo against N. brasiliensis, which opens the possibility of using this drug once it is accepted for human application. Since oxazolidinones seem to be active against a wide spectrum of actinobacteria, it

  17. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) in the tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, André R S; Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Colla, Guilherme; Magina, Michele D A; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2012-09-28

    Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant. To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of different plant species of genus Eugenia and to characterize the participation of the monoaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of the specie that afforded the most prominent antidepressant-like efficacy. In the first set of experiments, the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Eugenia beaurepaireana, Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae, Eugenia umbelliflora and Eugenia uniflora and the antidepressant fluoxetine (positive control) administered acutely by p.o. route were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test in mice. In the second set of experiments, the involvement of the monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of Eugenia brasiliensis was evaluated by treating mice with several pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of Eugenia brasiliensis and the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion were also evaluated. The administration of the extracts from Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae and Eugenia umbelliflora, but not Eugenia beaurepaireana and Eugenia uniflora, exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect, without altering locomotor activity. The behavioral profile was similar to fluoxetine. Pre-treatment of mice with ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH23390, sulpiride, prazosin and yohimbine prevented the reduction of immobility time induced by Eugenia brasiliensis. Treatment with sub-effective doses of WAY100635, SKF38393, apomorphine, phenylephrine, but not clonidine, combined

  18. Behavior and demography in an urban colony of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Rosario, Argentina

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    Marcelo C Romano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bat colonies were sampled in the city of Rosario to increase the understanding of bat ecology in urban areas of the southern cone of South America. Seven species were recorded, of which three are new records for Rosario. One representative colony was chosen for intensive ecological study. Approximately 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formed a maternity colony in the attic of an old building. Most of the bats were pregnant or lactating females and their young.. Adults arrive in the colony in mid-September and leave in February, no bats were present at this site from the beginning of March to mid-September. Births occur between mid-November and mid-December. Pups roosted in compact clusters in the nursery areas, spatially segregated from adults. Densities of these aggregations were 643 + 76 bats/m2 (p Con el objetivo de incrementar el conocimiento de la ecología de los murciélagos en áreas urbanas, se muestrearon colonias en la ciudad de Rosario. Fueron registradas siete especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros. Se seleccionó una colonia que se consideró más representativa, para realizar un intensivo estudio ecológico. Se realizaron conteos poblacionales, que arrojaron aproximadamente 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formando una colonia maternal en el ático de un antigüo edificio. Se hicieron registros de comportamiento (fechas de arribo y partida, patrones diarios de actividad, pariciones, etc.. Los adultos arrivan al refugio a mediados de septiembre y lo abandonan en febrero. Las pariciones ocurren entre mediados de noviembre y mediados de diciembre. Las crías se ubicaron en grupos compactos en áreas separadas de los adultos, siendo su densidad de 643 + 76 /m2 (p < 0.20. y la de los adultos de 161 + 21 /m2 (p < 0.20. 182 animales capturados fueron identificados, sexados y pesados. Los registros incluyeron patrones diarios de actividad.. Se detectó predación por "lechuza de campanario" (Tyto alba y gatos domésticos. La b

  19. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae

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    F.V. Santa-Cecília

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae, nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as propriedades terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos.

  20. Cytokines produced by susceptible and resistant mice in the course of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

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    Calich V.L.G.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most prevalent deep mycosis in Latin America and presents a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. We established a genetically controlled murine model of PCM, where A/Sn mice develop an infection which mimics the benign disease (immune responses which favor cellular immunity and B10.A animals present the progressive disseminated form of PCM (preferential activation of B cells and impairment of cellular immune responses. To understand the immunoregulatory phenomena associated with resistance and susceptibility in experimental PCM, A/Sn and B10.A mice were studied regarding antigen-elicited secretion of monokines (TNF-a and TGF-ß and type-1 (IL-2 and IFN-g and type-2 (IL-4,5,10 cytokines. Total lymph node cells from resistant mice infected ip with P. brasiliensis produced early and sustained levels of IFN-g and IL-2; type-2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5 started to appear 8 weeks after infection. In contrast, susceptible mice produced low levels of IFN-g concomitant with significant levels of IL-5 and IL-10 early in the infection. In the chronic phase of the disease, susceptible animals presented a transitory secretion of IL-2, and IL-4. In the pulmonary infection IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 were preferentially detected in the lung cells washings of susceptible animals. After in vitro challenge with fungal antigens, normal peritoneal macrophages from B10.A mice secreted high levels of TGF-ß and low levels of TNF-a. In contrast, macrophages from A/Sn animals released high levels of TNF-a associated with a small production of TGF-ß. The in vivo depletion of IFN-g not only abrogated the resistance of A/Sn mice but also diminished the relative resistance of B10.A animals. The in vivo depletion of IL-4 did not alter the disease outcome, whereas administration of rIL-12 significantly enhanced resistance in susceptible animals. Taken together, these results suggest that an early secretion of high levels of TNF-a and IFN

  1. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YEL005C, YGL079W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available endosome; identified as a transcriptional activator in a high-throughput yeast one-hybrid assay Rows with th...protein localizes to the endosome; identified as a transcriptional activator in a high-throughput yeast one-

  3. Cloning and characterization of the 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway genes of a natural-rubber producing plant, Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Tomoki; Takeno, Shinya; Watanabe, Norie; Okumoto, Hiroshi; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Ogasawara, Naotake; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Kobayashi, Akio

    2008-11-01

    Natural rubber is synthesized as rubber particles in the latex, the fluid cytoplasm of laticifers, of Hevea brasiliensis. Although it has been found that natural rubber is biosynthesized through the mevalonate pathway, the involvement of an alternative 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is uncertain. We obtained all series of the MEP pathway candidate genes by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST) information and degenerate PCR in H. brasiliensis. Complementation experiments with Escherichia coli mutants were performed to confirm the functions of the MEP pathway gene products of H. brasiliensis together with those of Arabidopsis thaliana, and it was found that 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase of H. brasiliensis were functionally active in the E. coli mutants. Gene expression analysis revealed that the expression level of the HbDXS2 gene in latex was relatively high as compared to those of other MEP pathway genes. However, a feeding experiment with [1-(13)C] 1-deoxy-D-xylulose triacetate, an intermediate derivative of the MEP pathway, indicated that the MEP pathway is not involved in rubber biosynthesis, but is involved in carotenoids biosynthesis in H. brasiliensis.

  4. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Suruceanu; Sonia Socaci; Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura

    2013-01-01

    Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, ident...

  5. Did Gause Have a Yeast Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Jonathon O; Porter, Alice H M; Montagnes, David J S

    2016-09-01

    We planned to develop predator-prey models using Paramecium and yeast, but they have not been empirically examined since work by Gause in the 1930s. Therefore, we evaluated if Paramecium aurelia ingests and grows on eight yeasts. Recognising that it ingested yeasts but could not grow, we assessed if it might grow on other yeasts, by empirically parameterising a predator-prey model that relies on ingestion, not growth. Simulations were compared to P. aurelia-yeast time-series data, from Gause. We hypothesised that if the model simulated predator-prey dynamics that mimicked the original data, then possibly P. aurelia could grow on yeast; simulations did not mimic the original data. Reviewing works by Gause exposed two issues: experiments were undoubtedly contaminated with bacteria, allowing growth on bacteria, not yeast; and the population cycle data cannot be considered a self-sustaining time series, as they were manipulated by adding yeast and ciliates. We conclude that past and future work should not rely on this system, for either empirical or theoretical evaluations. Finally, although we show that P. aurelia, P. caudatum, Euplotes patella, and Blepharisma sp. cannot grow on yeast, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Colpidium striatum can; these may provide models to explore predator-prey dynamics. © 2016 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2016 International Society of Protistologists.

  6. Evaluation of Automated Yeast Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and nine teleomorphic and anamorphic yeast isolates representing approximately 30 taxa were used to evaluate the accuracy of the Biolog yeast identification system. Isolates derived from nomenclatural types, environmental, and clinica isolates of known identity were tested in the Biolog system. Of the isolates tested, 81 were in the Biolog database. The system correctly identified 40, incorrectly identified 29, and was unable to identify 12. Of the 28 isolates not in the database, 18 were given names, whereas 10 were not. The Biolog yeast identification system is inadequate for the identification of yeasts originating from the environment during space program activities.

  7. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

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    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  8. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  9. Contributions of weather variables for specific adaptation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.- Arg clones

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    Priyadarshan P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific adaptation of 15 rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones was assessed by analyzing yield during a normal year (1997-98 and a year (1998-99 in which the yield was exceptional. Differences in yield in response to changes in weather conditions over the years were evident with clones RRII 203, RRIM 703, PB 5/51 and PB 235 which all exhibited a negative trend with increasing wind velocity during 1997-98, these clones also exhibited a negative correlation with minimum temperature during 1998-99. The prominent yield differences across the years made selection based on both yield and stability inevitable through computing weather variables and environmental index as covariant. To determine the contribution of variable(s to genotype-environment (GE interactions, the GE interaction was partitioned into heterogeneity and residual GE interaction. Heterogeneity only for environmental index was highly significant (p = 0.01, meaning that stability or instability of clones was due to a linear effect of the environmental index. The non-significant values of heterogeneity for the weather variables revealed that none of these factors individually was sufficient to explain heterogeneity. A QBASIC computer program called STABLE was used to select simultaneously for yield and stability. Clones PB 235, RRII 118, RRII 203, RRIM 703 and RRIM 600 were stable over the years investigated.

  10. Identification and subcellular localization analysis of two rubber elongation factor isoforms on Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Nie, Zhiyi; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Zeng, Rizhong

    2017-02-01

    Rubber elongation factor (REF) is the most abundant protein found on the rubber particles or latex from Hevea brasiliensis (the Para rubber tree) and is considered to play important roles in natural rubber (cis-polyisoprene) biosynthesis. 16 BAC (benzyldimethyl-n-hexadecylammonium chloride)/SDS-PAGE separations and mass spectrometric identification had revealed that two REF isoforms shared similar amino acid sequences and common C-terminal sequences. In this study, the gene sequences encoding these two REF isoforms (one is 23.6 kDa in size with 222 amino acid residues and the other is 27.3 kDa in size with 258 amino acid residues) were obtained. Their proteins were relatively enriched by sequential extraction of the rubber particle proteins and separated by 16 BAC/SDS-PAGE. The localization of these isoforms on the surfaces of rubber particles was further verified by western blotting and immunogold electron microscopy, which demonstrated that these two REF isoforms are mainly located on the surfaces of larger rubber particles and that they bind more tightly to rubber particles than the most abundant REF and SRPP (small rubber particle protein). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Photoacoustic spectroscopy applied to the direct detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fernando Maia; Mokochinski, João Benhur; Reyes Torres, Yohandra; Dalla Santa, Herta Stutz; González-Borrero, Pedro Pablo

    2017-12-05

    This paper describes the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) for detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium. The mycelium was cultivated by solid-state fermentation and by submerged fermentation. Vegetal residues from food industry were used as substrates for fermentation: apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peel and pomace of pineapple (Ananas comosus), malt (Hordeum vulgare) and grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Dry and ground samples of biomass were directly put into the PA cell. The optical absorption spectra indicated the existence of three main absorption bands: one around 280 nm related to phytosterols (ergosterol), phenolic acids, flavonoids and aromatic amino acids, another at 340 nm, due to phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and the third one at around 550 nm associated with anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. A correlation between the PA signal and the total phenolic content was satisfactory, as well as for the analyzed spectrum region (270 nm up to 1000 nm), using multivariate methods. Our results indicated that PA technique may be considered as an analytical tool to quickly detect bioactive compounds in mushrooms without the need of sample pretreatment.

  12. Chemical Analysis and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Photoprotective Activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. (Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Raquel Gomes de Lima-Saraiva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. is a native plant of Caatinga which has high concentrations of compounds capable of absorbing ultraviolet light, suggesting its potential application for the development of sunscreen preparations. After its identification and collection, this vegetable drug was submitted to a physicochemical analysis through the preparation of ethanolic extract. The phytochemical screening and analysis of extracts were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC evaluation. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and β-carotene bleaching test. Inhibitory hemolytic activity and morphological deformation of erythrocytes induced by H2O2 were also demonstrated and the antimicrobial activity was analyzed by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC method. For the in vitro determination of the sun protection factor (SPF, the spectrophotometric method was used. From the analyses carried out with this species, this plant showed significant results for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as sunscreen action. Important flavonoids were identified. These data are an important step for the development of new photoprotective cosmetic with Caatinga species, revealing importance and representing another incentive for the preservation of the species involved and analyzed in the study.

  13. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  14. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Patos Lagoon, extreme south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; da Silva, Diego Silva; Wendt, Emília Welter; Monteiro, Cassandra de Moraes; Berne, Maria Elizabeth Aires

    2015-01-01

    This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis) from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W), Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2%) and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9%) and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9%) were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time.

  15. Dicer-like Proteins Regulate the Growth, Conidiation, and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis

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    Qiannan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis is the hemibiotrophic fungi which could cause anthracnose in rubber trees. Dicer like proteins (DCL were the core enzymes for generation of small RNAs. In the present study, the knocking-out mutants of two dicer like proteins encoding genes of C. gloeosporioides were constructed; and functions of two proteins were investigated. The results showed that DCL play important roles in regulating the growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides; and there is a functional redundancy between DCL1 and DCL2. Microscopy analysis and DAB staining revealed that loss of penetration ability into the host cells, instead of the decreased growth rate, was the main cause for the impaired pathogenicity of the ΔDcl1ΔDcl2 double mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that DCL proteins affected the expression of functional proteins to regulating multiple biological processes of C. gloeosporioides. These data lead to a better understanding of the functions of DCL proteins in regulating the development and pathogenesis of C. gloeosporioides.

  16. Heterologous expression and characterization of processing α-glucosidase I from Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 9642.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Matsumoto, Yuji; Matsuda, Kana; Kurakata, Yuma; Matsuo, Ichiro; Ito, Yukishige; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    A gene for processing α-glucosidase I from a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus brasiliensis (formerly called Aspergillus niger) ATCC 9642 was cloned and fused to a glutathione S-transferase tag. The active construct with the highest production level was a truncation mutant deleting the first 16 residues of the hydrophobic N-terminal domain. This fusion enzyme hydrolyzed pyridylaminated (PA-) oligosaccharides Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(3)Man(4)-PA and the products were identified as Glc(2)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(2)Man(4)-PA, respectively. Saturation curves were obtained for both Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(3)Man(4)-PA, and the K (m) values for both substrates were estimated in the micromolar range. When 1 μM Glc(3)Man(4)-PA was used as a substrate, the inhibitors kojibiose and 1-deoxynojirimycin had similar effects on the enzyme; at 20 μM concentration, both inhibitors reduced activity by 50%. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  17. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSION WOOD IN Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Mull. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Maria Alves Ramos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tension wood is an important anatomical structure for its participation in the orientation of the trunk and the architecture of the branches as a function of structural reinforcement. However, its presence in large amounts significantly affects the technological properties of wood, just as in the rubber tree. Nevertheless, there is still demand for information about the origin, distribution and structural features in this species. Thus, this study aims to characterize the cellular structures in tension and opposite wood in Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree, as well as its radial and longitudinal distribution. Discs at the base and the middle of the commercial logs were collected from three trees in a commercial plantation located in Tabapoã - SP. Tangential diameter of vessels, fiber length (gelatinous and non-gelatinous fibers, microfibril angle and proportionality of cellular elements (vessels, axial parenchyma, ray, gelatinous fibers and non-gelatinous fibers were measured, and influence of gelatinous fiber presence in vessel diameter was observed. Gelatinous fibers were observed in the two types of wood and in the two trunk heights. Both types of wood were distinguished by gelatinous fiber length and the proportion of axial parenchyma. The tension wood in mid-trunk was the most different, with long gelatinous fibers and less abundant, larger vessel diameter and vessel proportion. Moreover, smaller vessel diameter was observed in the regions with a high proportion of gelatinous fibers, suggesting that the plant invests more support than in liquid transport.

  18. Efectividad de siete productos antimancha contra ceratocystis sp. en madera de hevea brasiliensis muell arg. (hule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fuentes Salinas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objeto de conocer la eficacia de siete productos antimancha que se comercializan en México, contra el hongo manchador Ceratocystis sp. en madera aserrada de Hevea brasiliensis (hule, mediante el método de los discos, conjuntamente con la norma ASTM D 4445-91. Los productos están elaborados a partir de pentaclorofenato de sodio, tres de ellos, siendo Osmotox, Pentatox y Biotox; tres más están hechos a base de metil bistiocianato y 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol y son Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071, y el séptimo solamente contiene 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol, siendo el Busan 1118. La concentración mínima observada para evitar el manchado de la madera (crecimiento cero en un tiempo de 4 semanas, para cada uno de los productos ensayados se obtuvo para Osmotox de 4.68 %, para Pentatox de 2.82 %, para Biotox de 3.24 %, para Busan 1118 de 2.00 % y para Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071 una concentración menor a 0.25%. Tomando en cuenta los precios comerciales de cada producto y de acuerdo con las concentraciones mínimas efectivas para crecimiento cero obtenidas, el tratamiento con Busan 1071 es el más económico y más efectivo.

  19. Contribuição para o estudo da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. de Siqueira-Jaccoud

    1956-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor, após tecer rápidas considerações sôbre Phytomonas da planta em questão e do gênero Manihot, passa a dar: métodos por êle empregados na confecção da presente nota; sucinta descrição da Euphorbia brasiliensis Lam. e suas variedades; nomes vulgares por que é a mesma conhecida no Brasil; resultado negativo, por êle encontrado, nas pesquisas de alcalóide e, finalmente, descrição anatômica da fôlha e caule. Fôlha. a - limbo: epidermes com cutícula e estoma, uma camada de células paliçadicas, tecido lacunoso, ramificações dos tubos laticiferos e bainha dos feixes bem desenvolvida. b - nervura principal: epidermes com cutícula, uma camada de tecido paliçadico, bainha dos feixes em semicírculo, xilema, floema e parênquima. Caule - Epiderme com cutícula, colênquima, parênquima cortical, tubos laticíferos, esclerócitos, floema, câmbio e fibras do lenho (inclusive gelatinosas, vasos e, finalmente, parênquima fundamental.

  20. Chemical Analysis and Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Photoprotective Activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. (Anacardiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima-Saraiva, Sarah Raquel Gomes; Oliveira, Fernanda Granja da Silva; Junior, Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira; Araújo, Camila de Souza; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; César, Francine Celise Siqueira

    2017-01-01

    Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. is a native plant of Caatinga which has high concentrations of compounds capable of absorbing ultraviolet light, suggesting its potential application for the development of sunscreen preparations. After its identification and collection, this vegetable drug was submitted to a physicochemical analysis through the preparation of ethanolic extract. The phytochemical screening and analysis of extracts were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) evaluation. The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and β-carotene bleaching test. Inhibitory hemolytic activity and morphological deformation of erythrocytes induced by H2O2 were also demonstrated and the antimicrobial activity was analyzed by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) method. For the in vitro determination of the sun protection factor (SPF), the spectrophotometric method was used. From the analyses carried out with this species, this plant showed significant results for the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as sunscreen action. Important flavonoids were identified. These data are an important step for the development of new photoprotective cosmetic with Caatinga species, revealing importance and representing another incentive for the preservation of the species involved and analyzed in the study. PMID:29124118

  1. Genomic validation of PB 260 clone of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royani, J. I.; Safarrida, A.; Rachmawati, I.; Khairiyah, H.; Mustika, I. P.; Suyono, A.; Rudiyana, Y.; Kubil; Nurjaya; Arianto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercial natural rubber in the world. Propagation of rubber trees usually done by grafting and seed germination. BPPT had been producing rubber tree by in vitro technique with embryo somatic methods. Validation of mother plant for in vitro propagation is important to compare between mother plant and propagated plants. The aim for this research was to validation of PB 260 clone that planted at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker. Sampling of 10 rubber leaves were done at Cikumpay Plantation based on GPS position from the area of PB 260 clone. Rubber leaves were isolated with CTAB modification method to obtained DNA. Four of SSR primers from rubber, i.e.: hmac 4, hmac 5, hmct 1, and hmct 5, were used as primers to amplification of rubber DNA. The result showed that no band that different from 10 rubber of PB 260 clone at Cikumpay Plantation. This research will continue to compare genomic validation between mother plant and propagated plants that had been produced from BPPT.

  2. Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae inhabiting foliar tanks of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule (Bromeliaceae in central Amazonia, Brazil

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    Sharlene Roberta da Silva Torreias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the family Culicidae develop their immature forms in different environments depending on various circumstances. This study represents the first contribution to the ecological knowledge of culicids living in the bromeliad G. brasiliensis. The objectives of the study were to compare the Culicidae fauna of bromeliads in two seasonal periods, analyzing their abundance, richness and the influence of pH, conductivity and water volume, on the populations. Sampling was done at Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil between 2003 and 2005. Six samplings were done in the rainy season and six in the dry season. On each sampling day, six terrestrial and six epiphytic bromeliads, totaling 144 sampling units, were retrieved. A total of 444 immature mosquitoes were collected, distributed in the following species: Culex (Microculex stonei Lane & Whitman, Culex (Microculex chryselatus Dyar & Knab, Culex (Microculex sp., Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia autocratica Dyar & Knab and Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia splendida Bonne-Wepster & Bonne. The relationship between abundance of Culicidae and sampling period was not significant, although abundance was higher in the dry period. There were significant correlations between water volume and the abundance (p = 0.003 and richness (p = 0.001 of culicids. The pH was positively related to the occurrence of the species Wy. autocratica (p= 0.010 and Wy. splendida (p= 0.006, demonstrating the influence of this factor in the structuring of bromeliad-inhabiting communities.

  3. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in Patos lagoon, extreme south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lopes Rassier

    Full Text Available Abstract This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2% and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9% and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9% were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time.

  4. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maichak de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters. We caught 10024 individuals between August 2010 and July 2011, with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Environmental variables that most influenced the distribution of age classes were temperature and salinity.

  5. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto G; Morel, Ademir F; Adolpho, Luciana; Ilha, Vinícius; Giralt, Ernest; Tarragó, Teresa; Dalcol, Ionara I

    2012-10-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl)-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeyl)-glucopyranoside] (1) has been isolated as the main constituent of the crude extract of Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng from Southern Brazil. The crude extract, main fractions and the compound 1 were evaluated for inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Compound 1 showed weak activity against DPP-IV with an IC(50) > 150 µM and was inactive against AChE, with a pMIQ determined by bioautography of 9.6. In contrast, 1 displayed significant inhibition of POP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 1.3 ± 0.2 µM, similar to the positive control, baicalin, with a POP IC(50) of 12 ± 3 µM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Freshwater Discharge in Sandy Beach Populations: The Mole Crab Emerita brasiliensis in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercari, D.; Defeo, O.

    1999-10-01

    Sandy beaches are ecosystems which are heavily affected by human activities. An example of this is freshwater discharges, which are known to change salinity, temperature and nutrient regimes and degrade nearshore environments. However, the effects of this kind of disturbance on sandy beach fauna have been little studied. This paper reports the spatial effects of a man-made freshwater canal discharge on the population structure, abundance and reproductive characteristics of the sandy beach mole crab Emerita brasiliensis. Along the 22 km of sandy beach sampled, the mole crab showed a marked longshore variability in population structure and abundance. Abundance of different population components (juveniles, males, females and ovigerous females) significantly decreased towards the canal. Population structure by sex and size, individual weight, fecundity and female maturity patterns at size also displayed a non-linear response to the distance from the freshwater discharge. Only the size structure of males did not follow this pattern. For males, spatial heterogeneity enhanced the detection of density-dependence at less disturbed sites. The authors conclude that artificial freshwater discharges could significantly influence the distribution, abundance and life-history traits of the biota of sandy beaches, and that further study of these ecosystems should include human activities as important factors affecting spatial and temporal trends. The need to consider different spatial and temporal scales in order to detect the effect of anthropogenically-driven impacts in sandy beach populations is stressed.

  7. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  8. Ontogenetic variations in flush development are indicative of low temperature tolerance in Hevea brasiliensis clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis trees are naturally adapted to the Amazonian tropical climate. In India rubber trees are traditionally cultivated in the warm humid tropics of the south. Northeast India is a non-traditional area for rubber cultivation. A major limiting factor on tree growth in the northeast region is stress due to low temperature. Being a deciduous tree, rubber trees exhibit annual natural defoliation prior to the winter season, and ensuing new leaf growth usually coincides with the low temperature period. Flushing behaviour of trees during this period provides an opportunity to assess their winter hardiness. A study was carried out on five clones, RRIM 600, SCATC 93/114, GT 1, PB 5/51 and Haiken 1, to evaluate phenological behaviour of leaf growth during the period of low temperature stress. Trees were monitored for expansion of leaf area, internode length, petiole length and development of chlorophyll. Wide variation was observed among these clones for all the traits. SCATC 93/114 was better adapted for low temperature stress as this clone was found to have faster expansion of leaf area and better chlorophyll development, followed by Haiken 1. PB 5/51 was found to show poor performance during low temperature. Haiken 1 and PB 5/51 also exhibited better relative growth rate during winter months confirming their low temperature tolerance. Ontogenetic variations in leaf development are good indicators of assessing inherent cold tolerance in Hevea clones.

  9. Ontogenetic variations in flush development are indicative of low temperature tolerance in Hevea brasiliensis clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K. Vinod

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para rubber (Hevea brasiliensis trees are naturally adapted to the Amazonian tropical climate. In India rubber trees are traditionally cultivated in the warm humid tropics of the south. Northeast India is a non-traditional area for rubber cultivation. A major limiting factor on tree growth in the northeast region is stress due to low temperature. Being a deciduous tree, rubber trees exhibit annual natural defoliation prior to the winter season, and ensuing new leaf growth usually coincides with the low temperature period. Flushing behaviour of trees during this period provides an opportunity to assess their winter hardiness. A study was carried out on five clones, RRIM 600, SCATC 93/114, GT 1, PB 5/51 and Haiken 1, to evaluate phenological behaviour of leaf growth during the period of low temperature stress. Trees were monitored for expansion of leaf area, internode length, petiole length and development of chlorophyll. Wide variation was observed among these clones for all the traits. SCATC 93/114 was better adapted for low temperaturestress as this clone was found to have faster expansion of leaf area and better chlorophyll development, followed by Haiken 1. PB 5/51 was found to show poor performance during low temperature. Haiken 1 and PB 5/51 also exhibited better relative growth rate during winter months confirming their low temperature tolerance. Ontogenetic variations in leaf development are good indicators of assessing inherent cold tolerance in Hevea clones.

  10. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-08-04

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD.

  11. Rubber Elongation Factor (REF), a Major Allergen Component in Hevea brasiliensis Latex Has Amyloid Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Bentaleb, Ahmed; Cullin, Christophe; Deffieux, Alain; Peruch, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    REF (Hevb1) and SRPP (Hevb3) are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom. PMID:23133547

  12. Yeast Infection Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/yeastinfectiontest.html Yeast Infection Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Yeast Test? Yeast is a type of fungus that ...

  13. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  14. Cell size control in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jonathan J; Ewald, Jennifer C; Skotheim, Jan M

    2012-05-08

    Cell size is an important adaptive trait that influences nearly all aspects of cellular physiology. Despite extensive characterization of the cell-cycle regulatory network, the molecular mechanisms coupling cell growth to division, and thereby controlling cell size, have remained elusive. Recent work in yeast has reinvigorated the size control field and suggested provocative mechanisms for the distinct functions of setting and sensing cell size. Further examination of size-sensing models based on spatial gradients and molecular titration, coupled with elucidation of the pathways responsible for nutrient-modulated target size, may reveal the fundamental principles of eukaryotic cell size control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots of Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliavao das atividades antioxidante e anti-inflamatoria das raizes de Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jucilene Cavalini; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Schuquel, Ivania T. Albrecht; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da, E-mail: ccsilva@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de; Kato, Lucilia; Ferreira, Heleno Dias [Universidade Federal de Goais (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Sabicea brasiliensis roots led to the isolation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinics acids, scopoletin, ursolic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, daucosterol and saccharose. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed. (author)

  16. Liver damages and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of Atherinella brasiliensis (Actynopterigii, Atherinopsidade from two beaches in Southeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welingtom S. Fernandez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few environmental studies using biomarkers for the species Atherinella brasiliensis in Brazil. In the present work, the presence of hepatic histopathological lesions and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes were investigated in A. brasiliensis from Lamberto, a beach under influence of domestic wastes and marine activities. For comparison, fish were also sampled in Puruba, a non-polluted beach, located in the northeastern of São Paulo State. The frequency of lesions found in liver was in higher numbers in individuals from Lamberto than Puruba beach. The most critical injuries observed in A. brasiliensis were the presence of necrotic areas, leucocytes infiltration and piknotic nucleus. A high occurrence of cells with vacuolization was also observed. The hepatic lesion index of the fish from Lamberto beach showed significant high values (Iorg=13 when compared with fish from Puruba beach (Iorg=7 suggesting the influence of the several human activities in the studied site. Notched and blebed nucleous were observed in this study, and significant differences were found between the studied sites. However, these differences did not reflect the total nuclear alterations.Existem poucos estudos no Brasil usando biomarcadores em Atherinella brasiliensis. No presente trabalho foram investigadas a presença de lesões histopatológicas hepáticas e as alterações nucleares em eritrócitos de A. brasiliensis amostrados na praia do Lamberto, local submetido à influência de resíduos domésticos e atividades humanas. Para comparação, indivíduos da espécie foram também amostrados na praia de Puruba, local não impactado, localizado no noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Peixes provenientes da praia do Lamberto apresentaram lesões hepáticas em número maior do que aqueles da praia de Puruba. Áreas necróticas, infiltração de leucócitos e núcleos picnóticos foram os danos de maior importância observados em A. brasiliensis, apesar de uma

  17. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beers. Additionally, it adds to the characteristic aromatic properties of some red wines. Recently this yeast has also become a model for the study of yeast evolution. In this review we focus on the recently developed molecular and genetic tools, such as complete genome sequencing and transformation, to study and manipulate this yeast. We also focus on the areas that are particularly well explored in this yeast, such as the synthesis of off-flavours, yeast detection methods, carbon metabolism and evolutionary history. © 2014 The Authors. Yeast published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    . Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  19. Yeast (Saccharomyces cereveresiae) Supplementation In High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-week trial to assess the impact of yeast supplementation on the performance characteristics of broiler starters fed high levels of rice bran with or without yeast addition, was conducted using two hundred and forty day old broilers of the Bova nera strain. The chicks were divided into 15 groups of 16 chicks each.

  20. Virgin olive oil yeasts: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, Gino; Zullo, Biagi Angelo

    2018-04-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on virgin olive oil yeasts. Newly produced olive oil contains solid particles and micro drops of vegetation water in which yeasts reproduce to become the typical microbiota of olive oil. To date, about seventeen yeast species have been isolated from different types of olive oils and their by-products, of which six species have been identified as new species. Certain yeast species contribute greatly to improving the sensorial characteristics of the newly produced olive oil, whereas other species are considered harmful as they can damage the oil quality through the production of unpleasant flavors and triacylglycerol hydrolysis. Studies carried out in certain yeast strains have demonstrated the presence of defects in olive oil treated with Candida adriatica, Nakazawaea wickerhamii and Candida diddensiae specific strains, while other olive oil samples treated with other Candida diddensiae strains were defect-free after four months of storage and categorized as extra virgin. A new acetic acid producing yeast species, namely, Brettanomyces acidodurans sp. nov., which was recently isolated from olive oil, could be implicated in the wine-vinegary defect of the product. Other aspects related to the activity of the lipase-producing yeasts and the survival of the yeast species in the flavored olive oils are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Yeast evolution and ecology meet genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Dunham, Maitreya J.; Louis, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    The EMBO Conference on Experimental Approaches to Evolution and Ecology in Yeast covered a broad range of interests. The applications of genomic methods to ecological and evolutionary questions emphasize that the yeasts are poised to make significant contributions to these fields.

  2. Exobiopolymer from polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing transgenic yeast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the wild type yeast Kloeckera sp. strain KY1 was equipped in their cytoplasm with the phaABC operon containing genes phbA, phbB and phbC of the PHA biosynthetic pathway of Ralstonia eutropha. Unpredicted, resulted transgenic yeast strain KY1/PHA was able to synthesize another exopolymer beside the ...

  3. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanotes in wildtype yeasts | Desuoky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosynthesis of the biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs) are studied extensively in wild type and genetically modified prokaryotic cells, however the content and structure of PHA in wild type yeasts are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to screen forty yeast isolates collected from different ...

  4. Yeasts in sustainable bioethanol production: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Azhar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol has been identified as the mostly used biofuel worldwide since it significantly contributes to the reduction of crude oil consumption and environmental pollution. It can be produced from various types of feedstocks such as sucrose, starch, lignocellulosic and algal biomass through fermentation process by microorganisms. Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars. However, there are some challenges in yeast fermentation which inhibit ethanol production such as high temperature, high ethanol concentration and the ability to ferment pentose sugars. Various types of yeast strains have been used in fermentation for ethanol production including hybrid, recombinant and wild-type yeasts. Yeasts can directly ferment simple sugars into ethanol while other type of feedstocks must be converted to fermentable sugars before it can be fermented to ethanol. The common processes involves in ethanol production are pretreatment, hydrolysis and fermentation. Production of bioethanol during fermentation depends on several factors such as temperature, sugar concentration, pH, fermentation time, agitation rate, and inoculum size. The efficiency and productivity of ethanol can be enhanced by immobilizing the yeast cells. This review highlights the different types of yeast strains, fermentation process, factors affecting bioethanol production and immobilization of yeasts for better bioethanol production.

  5. Sporangiospore - Yeast Transformation of Mucor circinelloides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Measurement of intracellular ion concentration during sporangiospores-yeast transformation of Mucor circinelloides .... Intercellular ion variation (K+, 0.90 g/l; Na+, 0.05 to 0.20 g/l) during sporangiospore-to-yeast transformation of M. circinelloides ...... progressive replication of DNA and, hence nucleation.

  6. Measurement of yeast invertase during alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudin, O.; Boudarel, M.J.; Ramirez, A.

    1986-01-01

    In continuous alcoholic fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is important but difficult to know the variation of yeast physiological state with time, so as to maintain maximum yeast productivity. We decided to quantify invertase activity, for which there are few if any appropriate methods (Vitolo and Borzani, Analytical Biochemistry 130, 469-470, 1983). 1 reference.

  7. Biodiesel generation from oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored a strategy to convert agricultural and forestry residues into microbial lipid, which could be further transformed into biodiesel. Among the 250 yeast strains screened for xylose assimilating capacity, eight oleaginous yeasts were selected by Sudan Black B test. The lipid content of these 8 strains was ...

  8. Growth requirements of san francisco sour dough yeasts and bakers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, N

    1976-03-01

    The growth requirements of several yeasts isolated from San Francisco sour dough mother sponges were compared with those of bakers' yeast. The sour dough yeasts studied were one strain of Saccharomyces uvarum, one strain of S. inusitatus, and four strains of S. exiguus. S. inusitatus was the only yeast found to have an amino acid requirement, namely, methionine. All of the yeasts had an absolute requirement for pantothenic acid and a partial requirement for biotin. Inositol was stimulatory to all except bakers' yeast. All strains of S. exiguus required niacin and thiamine. Interestingly, S. inusitatus, the only yeast that required methionine, also needed folic acid. For optimal growth of S. exiguus in a molasses medium, supplementation with thiamine was required.

  9. First documented record of Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 and Calomys laucha (G. Fischer, 1814 in the state of Santa Catarina, south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the richness of small mammals in the Brazilian South Region are recent and point out the need for using varied methods. This way, this paper contributes to knowledge on the fauna of small sigmodontinae rodents in Santa Catarina, including Holochilus brasiliensis and Calomys laucha in the list of species with confirmed occurrence in this state. The records of H. brasiliensis refer to Laguna (n = 2 and Timbe do Sul (n = 1. In turn, C. laucha presents 23 records from Capinzal. The entire material is represented by skull fragments from owl pellets samples collected from nests and feeding perches of the Tyto alba.

  10. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  11. YEAST β-MANNANASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Borzova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the mannan-degrading activity of yeasts cultures isolated from various sources and select strains with high β-mannanase activity. As a result of screening of 245 yeast strains, which are the representatives of 7 genera and 14 species, the active producers of extracellular β-mannanase were identified. To increase β-mannanase activity, the cultures were grown under submerged conditions using guar gum galactomannan as a carbon source and an inducer. β-Mannanase activity was determined by dinitrosalicylic method. The most active biosynthetic species were Cryptococcus albidus, C. gastricus, C. magnus, C. terreus, C. laurentii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Williopsis californica, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala and P. guilliermondii. The activity in culture supernatant was ranged from 0.2 to 75 U/ml. α-Galactosidase activity was found in two strains (Debaryomyces polymorphus UCM Y-152 and Debaryomyces hansenii var. fabryi UCM Y-2400. None of the tested cultures demonstrated both β-mannanase and α-galactosidase activity, that is, they are unable to attack both the main and side chains of galactomannan.

  12. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and SNP markers development for rubber biosynthesis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantello, Camila Campos; Cardoso-Silva, Claudio Benicio; da Silva, Carla Cristina; de Souza, Livia Moura; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo José; de Souza Gonçalves, Paulo; Vicentini, Renato; de Souza, Anete Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex Adr. Juss.) Muell.-Arg. is the primary source of natural rubber that is native to the Amazon rainforest. The singular properties of natural rubber make it superior to and competitive with synthetic rubber for use in several applications. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of H. brasiliensis bark on the Illumina GAIIx platform, which generated 179,326,804 raw reads on the Illumina GAIIx platform. A total of 50,384 contigs that were over 400 bp in size were obtained and subjected to further analyses. A similarity search against the non-redundant (nr) protein database returned 32,018 (63%) positive BLASTx hits. The transcriptome analysis was annotated using the clusters of orthologous groups (COG), gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and Pfam databases. A search for putative molecular marker was performed to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In total, 17,927 SSRs and 404,114 SNPs were detected. Finally, we selected sequences that were identified as belonging to the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathways, which are involved in rubber biosynthesis, to validate the SNP markers. A total of 78 SNPs were validated in 36 genotypes of H. brasiliensis. This new dataset represents a powerful information source for rubber tree bark genes and will be an important tool for the development of microsatellites and SNP markers for use in future genetic analyses such as genetic linkage mapping, quantitative trait loci identification, investigations of linkage disequilibrium and marker-assisted selection.

  13. Alkyl Protocatechuate-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Systems as a Treatment Strategy for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Alarcón, Kaila P.; Singulani, Junya L.; Voltan, Aline R.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Petrônio, Maicon S.; Santos, Mariana B.; Polaquini, Carlos R.; Regasini, Luis O.; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; da Silva, Dulce H. S.; Chorilli, Marlus; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Dodecyl protocatechuate (dodecyl) is a derivative of protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) that possesses anti-oxidant and antifungal properties. Nanostructured lipid systems (NLS) can potentiate the action of many antifungal agents, reducing the required dose and side effects by improving their activity. This work aimed to evaluate dodecyl protocatechuate loaded into a NLS (NLS+dodecyl) as a strategy for the treatment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii in vitro. Antifungal activity against P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii was evaluated using the microdilution technique. NLS+dodecyl showed high antifungal activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.06 to 0.03 μg/mL; 4- to 16-fold higher than that of free dodecyl. NLS+dodecyl was able to inhibit fungal adhesion of the extracellular artificial matrix proteins (laminin and fibronectin), resulting in 82.4 and 81% inhibition, respectively, an increase of 8–17% compared with free dodecyl. These findings corroborate previous results demonstrating 65 and 74% inhibition of fungal adhesion in pulmonary fibroblast cells by dodecyl and NLS+dodecyl, respectively, representing a 9% increase in inhibition for NLS+dodecyl. Subsequently, cytotoxicity was evaluated using the 0.4% sulforhodamine B assay. NLS+dodecyl did not exhibit cytotoxicity in MRC5 (human pneumocyte) and HepG2 (human hepatic carcinoma) cells, thus increasing the selectivity index for NLS+dodecyl. In addition, cytotoxicity was evaluated in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans model; neither dodecyl nor NLS+dodecyl exhibited any toxic effects. Taken together, these results suggest that NLS can be used as a strategy to improve the activity of dodecyl against P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii because it improves antifungal activity, increases the inhibition of fungal adhesion in lung cells and the extracellular matrix in vitro, and does not exhibit any toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:28659880

  14. Anatomy and functional morphology of the feeding apparatus of the lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Mason N; Motta, Philip J

    2004-10-01

    Protrusion of the jaws during feeding is common in Batoidea (rays, skates, sawfishes, and guitarfishes), members of which possess a highly modified jaw suspension. The lesser electric ray, Narcine brasiliensis, preys primarily on polychaete annelids using a peculiar and highly derived mechanism for jaw protraction. The ray captures its prey by protruding its jaws beneath the substrate and generating subambient buccal pressure to suck worms into its mouth. Initiation of this protrusion is similar to that proposed for other batoids, in that the swing of the distal ends of the hyomandibulae is transmitted to Meckel's cartilage. A "scissor-jack" model of jaw protrusion is proposed for Narcine, in which the coupling of the upper and lower jaws, and extremely flexible symphyses, allow medial compression of the entire jaw complex. This results in a shortening of the distance between the right and left sides of the jaw arch and ventral extension of the jaws. Motion of the skeletal elements involved in this extreme jaw protrusion is convergent with that described for the wobbegong shark, Orectolobus maculatus. Narcine also exhibits asymmetrical protrusion of the jaws from the midline during processing, accomplished by unequal depression of the hyomandibulae. Lower jaw versatility is a functional motif in the batoid feeding mechanism. The pronounced jaw kinesis of N. brasiliensis is partly a function of common batoid characteristics: euhyostylic jaw suspension (decoupling the jaws from the hyoid arch) and complex and subdivided cranial musculature, affording fine motor control. However, this mechanism would not be possible without the loss of the basihyal in narcinid electric rays. The highly protrusible jaw of N. brasiliensis is a versatile and maneuverable feeding apparatus well-suited for the animal's benthic feeding lifestyle. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Alkyl Protocatechuate-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Systems as a Treatment Strategy for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaila P. Medina-Alarcón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dodecyl protocatechuate (dodecyl is a derivative of protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid that possesses anti-oxidant and antifungal properties. Nanostructured lipid systems (NLS can potentiate the action of many antifungal agents, reducing the required dose and side effects by improving their activity. This work aimed to evaluate dodecyl protocatechuate loaded into a NLS (NLS+dodecyl as a strategy for the treatment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and P. lutzii in vitro. Antifungal activity against P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii was evaluated using the microdilution technique. NLS+dodecyl showed high antifungal activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.06 to 0.03 μg/mL; 4- to 16-fold higher than that of free dodecyl. NLS+dodecyl was able to inhibit fungal adhesion of the extracellular artificial matrix proteins (laminin and fibronectin, resulting in 82.4 and 81% inhibition, respectively, an increase of 8–17% compared with free dodecyl. These findings corroborate previous results demonstrating 65 and 74% inhibition of fungal adhesion in pulmonary fibroblast cells by dodecyl and NLS+dodecyl, respectively, representing a 9% increase in inhibition for NLS+dodecyl. Subsequently, cytotoxicity was evaluated using the 0.4% sulforhodamine B assay. NLS+dodecyl did not exhibit cytotoxicity in MRC5 (human pneumocyte and HepG2 (human hepatic carcinoma cells, thus increasing the selectivity index for NLS+dodecyl. In addition, cytotoxicity was evaluated in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans model; neither dodecyl nor NLS+dodecyl exhibited any toxic effects. Taken together, these results suggest that NLS can be used as a strategy to improve the activity of dodecyl against P. brasiliensis and P. lutzii because it improves antifungal activity, increases the inhibition of fungal adhesion in lung cells and the extracellular matrix in vitro, and does not exhibit any toxicity both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. The use of the sardine scale (Sardinella brasiliensis - STEIDACHNER, 1859), preserved in glicerine, in experimental lamellar keratoplasties in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Laus; Afonso Luis Ferreira; Alexandre Lima Andrade

    2000-01-01

    Estudou-se experimentalmente a escama de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis) como substituto de córneas no reparo de ceratectomias superficiais em cães. Utilizaram-se 14 animais, machos e fêmeas, sem raça definida, com peso médio de 10 kg, considerados sadios. Analisaram-se, macro e microscopicamente, as córneas receptoras bem como o material implantado aos 1, 3, 7, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. As evidências clínicas para a enxertia lamelar mostraram fotofobia e blefarospasmo mais incid...

  17. Lipid profile and glycemic response of rats fed on a semi-purified diet supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Simeone Henriques; Cristiane Vieira Helm; Ana Paula Busato; Maria Lucia Ferreira Simeone

    2016-01-01

    The search for more healthy alimentary habits has stimulated the study of new food sources. Edible mushrooms, such as the genus Agaricus, may be underscored. Current assay evaluates the dietary influence of diets supplemented with the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis on the metabolic profile of lipids and glycemic behavior in rats. A trial with 28 male Wistar rats in 4 groups with 7 rats each was carried out during 32 days. Diets given to these groups were AIN-93 (CAS) for Group 1; AIN-93 with ...

  18. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH Nocardia.

  19. Hevea brasiliensis REF (Hev b 1) and SRPP (Hev b 3): An overview on rubber particle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Karine; Lecomte, Sophie; Estevez, Yannick; Peruch, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    This review article aims to gather all the knowledge on two important proteins associated with Hevea brasiliensis rubber particles: namely the rubber elongation factor (REF) and the small rubber particle protein (SRPP). It covers more then three decades of research on these two proteins and their homologues in plants, and particularly emphasizes on the different possible properties or functions of these various proteins found in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  20. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célso Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades org

  1. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton L. P. Espírito Santo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.Lactobacillus sakei é comprovadamente uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste trabalho procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador, na fermentação de filés de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4 e 6% e glicose (2 e 4%, observando-se sua capacidade para produzir ácidos orgânicos e conseqüente redução do pH e microrganismos deterioradores. Os tratamentos foram desenvolvidos de forma independente, variando apenas um dos parâmetros operacionais (NaCl ou glicose. Ao término de 21 dias de fermentação, a concentração de microrganismos deterioradores atingiu 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% de NaCl e 4% de glicose. Poucas diferenças foram observadas na produção de ácido lático quando

  3. Physiological and molecular responses to variation of light intensity in rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-feng

    2014-01-01

    Light is one of most important factors to plants because it is necessary for photosynthesis. In this study, physiological and gene expression analyses under different light intensities were performed in the seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) clone GT1. When light intensity increased from 20 to 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1), there was no effect on the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm), indicating that high light intensity did not damage the structure and function of PSII reaction center. However, the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), electron transfer rate (ETR), and coefficient of photochemical fluorescence quenching assuming interconnected PSII antennae (qL) were increased significantly as the light intensity increased, reached a maximum at 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1), but decreased from 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). These results suggested that the PSII photochemistry showed an optimum performance at 200 µmol m(-2) s(-1) light intensity. The chlorophyll content was increased along with the increase of light intensity when it was no more than 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). Since increasing light intensity caused significant increase in H2O2 content and decreases in the per unit activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD, but the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was preserved at a low level even under high light intensity of 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1), suggesting that high light irradiation did not induce membrane lipid peroxidation in rubber tree. Moreover, expressions of antioxidant-related genes were significantly up-regulated with the increase of light intensity. They reached the maximum expression at 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1), but decreased at 1000 µmol m(-2) s(-1). In conclusion, rubber tree could endure strong light irradiation via a specific mechanism. Adaptation to high light intensity is a complex process by regulating antioxidant enzymes activities, chloroplast formation, and

  4. Sugar metabolism and developmental stages of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Genaina Aparecida; Dias, Denise Cunha Fernandes Dos Santos; Pimenta, Thaline Martins; Almeida, Andrea Lanna; Picoli, Edgard Augusto de Toledo; Alvarenga, Antônio de Pádua; da Silva, José Cleydson Ferreira

    2017-10-09

    Changes in the concentration of sugars and sucrose metabolism enzymes can characterize the developmental stages of a seed. In recalcitrant species such as Hevea brasiliensis L., little is known about these changes. We aimed to evaluate the three main stages of development of rubber tree seeds - histodifferentiation, cell elongation and accumulation of reserves. The activities of acid and neutral invertases (E.C. 3.2.1.26) and sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13), and the concentrations of reducing sugars (RS), total soluble sugars (TSS), and sucrose (Suc) were determined concomitantly with the histochemical and anatomical evaluation of seed structure. Histodifferentiation in rubber tree seeds occurs up to 75 days after anthesis (DAA). The concentration of RS is high and of Suc is low during seed histodifferentiation, which occurs along with a visible increase in the number of cell divisions. After that period, there is an increase in the concentration of Suc (mg g-1 ) and in the number and size of starch granules, and a decrease in the concentration of RS (mg g-1 ). At that point, cell elongation occurs. At 135 DAA, there is an inversion in the concentration of these two sugars and an increase in reserve accumulation. Thus, in seeds of the evaluated clone, the period up to 75 DAA is characterized as the histodifferentiation stage, while from that time up to 120 DAA the cell elongation stage takes place. The final stage of seed maturation and reserve accumulation begins at 135 DAA, and the seed, including the embryo, is completely formed at 175 DAA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological and molecular responses to variation of light intensity in rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-feng Wang

    Full Text Available Light is one of most important factors to plants because it is necessary for photosynthesis. In this study, physiological and gene expression analyses under different light intensities were performed in the seedlings of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clone GT1. When light intensity increased from 20 to 1000 µmol m(-2 s(-1, there was no effect on the maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm, indicating that high light intensity did not damage the structure and function of PSII reaction center. However, the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Y(II, photochemical quenching coefficient (qP, electron transfer rate (ETR, and coefficient of photochemical fluorescence quenching assuming interconnected PSII antennae (qL were increased significantly as the light intensity increased, reached a maximum at 200 µmol m(-2 s(-1, but decreased from 400 µmol m(-2 s(-1. These results suggested that the PSII photochemistry showed an optimum performance at 200 µmol m(-2 s(-1 light intensity. The chlorophyll content was increased along with the increase of light intensity when it was no more than 400 µmol m(-2 s(-1. Since increasing light intensity caused significant increase in H2O2 content and decreases in the per unit activity of antioxidant enzymes SOD and POD, but the malondialdehyde (MDA content was preserved at a low level even under high light intensity of 1000 µmol m(-2 s(-1, suggesting that high light irradiation did not induce membrane lipid peroxidation in rubber tree. Moreover, expressions of antioxidant-related genes were significantly up-regulated with the increase of light intensity. They reached the maximum expression at 400 µmol m(-2 s(-1, but decreased at 1000 µmol m(-2 s(-1. In conclusion, rubber tree could endure strong light irradiation via a specific mechanism. Adaptation to high light intensity is a complex process by regulating antioxidant enzymes activities, chloroplast formation, and related

  6. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  7. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Camelini, C. M.; Cordeiro, M. N. S.; Mascarello, A.; Malagoli, B. G.; Larsen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Nunes, R. J.; Braga, F. C.; Brandt, C.R.; Simões, C. M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurred during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14 % sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm−1 in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through 1H and 13C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1→6)-(1→3)-β-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1→3)-β-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1→3)-β-D-gluco-(1→2)-β-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC50=605.6 μg/mL) and MI-S (EC50=342.1 μg/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC50>1500 μg/mL). PMID:23511057

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a Mlo gene in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bi; Zheng, Fucong; Zhang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Mlo gene encodes a plant-specific seven-transmembrane domain protein involved in a variety of cellular processes. In this study, a novel Mlo gene from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), designated HbMlo1, was cloned by RT-PCR in rubber tree. The ORF of HbMlo1 was 1551bp in length, encoding a putative protein of 516 amino acids. HbMlo1 was a typical Mlo protein with seven-transmembrane domain. Sequence comparison between HbMlo1 and other Mlo proteins demonstrated that HbMlo1 shared the highest similarity with the Cucumis melo CmMlo1 and Arabidopsis thaliana AtMlo1 with 75.1% and 71.3% sequence identity, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HbMlo1, CmMlo1, AtMlo1, AtMlo13, and AtMlo15 formed into the phylogenetic clade II with 100% bootstrap support value. HbMlo1 transcript exhibited tissue specificity, and it was preferentially expressed in leaf. Furthermore, the amount of HbMlo1 transcript was significantly induced by various phytohormones (including ethephon, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and gibberellic acid), H2O2, and wounding treatments. Under drought stress, HbMlo1 exhibited a complex pattern of regulation. However, HbMlo1 expression did not significantly change during powdery mildew infection. These results suggested that HbMlo1 might play a role in phytohormone signaling and abiotic stress response processes in rubber tree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of the Hevea brasiliensis AP2/ERF superfamily by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Cuifang; Argout, Xavier; Gébelin, Virginie; Summo, Marilyne; Dufayard, Jean-François; Leclercq, Julie; Kuswanhadi; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Pirrello, Julien; Rio, Maryannick; Champion, Antony; Montoro, Pascal

    2013-01-16

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) laticifers are the source of natural rubber. Rubber production depends on endogenous and exogenous ethylene (ethephon). AP2/ERF transcription factors, and especially Ethylene-Response Factors, play a crucial role in plant development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. This study set out to sequence transcript expressed in various tissues using next-generation sequencing and to identify AP2/ERF superfamily in the rubber tree. The 454 sequencing technique was used to produce five tissue-type transcript libraries (leaf, bark, latex, embryogenic tissues and root). Reads from all libraries were pooled and reassembled to improve mRNA lengths and produce a global library. One hundred and seventy-three AP2/ERF contigs were identified by in silico analysis based on the amino acid sequence of the conserved AP2 domain from the global library. The 142 contigs with the full AP2 domain were classified into three main families (20 AP2 members, 115 ERF members divided into 11 groups, and 4 RAV members) and 3 soloist members. Fifty-nine AP2/ERF transcripts were found in latex. Alongside the microRNA172 already described in plants, eleven additional microRNAs were predicted to inhibit Hevea AP2/ERF transcripts. Hevea has a similar number of AP2/ERF genes to that of other dicot species. We adapted the alignment and classification methods to data from next-generation sequencing techniques to provide reliable information. We observed several specific features for the ERF family. Three HbSoloist members form a group in Hevea. Several AP2/ERF genes highly expressed in latex suggest they have a specific function in Hevea. The analysis of AP2/ERF transcripts in Hevea presented here provides the basis for studying the molecular regulation of latex production in response to abiotic stresses and latex cell differentiation.

  10. PROBLEMATIC IN THE PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION IN RUBBER PLANTATIONS (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN TABASCO, MEXICO

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    Heyra Izquierdo-Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and Duncan analyses were done (P< 0.05. Plantations under production were between 7 to 46 years old. The 24% of these are considered as young plantations (7 to 18 years old, 34% mature (19 to 30 years old, and 12% old growth (31 to 46 years old, according to the level of latex production. Latex collection is realized by 85% men and 15% women. An important detected problem is the incidence of insects and diseases over the 82% of the plantations. In Tabasco State, two types of raw material are generated: clot (solid and latex (liquid. The tapping systems are ½ S d/1 6d/7 (one cuts in an average spiral with daily tapping over the 49% of the plantations, and the system ½ S d/2 6d/7, cuts in semi-spirals with alternating tapping over 51% of the plantations. The producers that practiced daily tapped obtained yields of 1.588 kg per ha/yr of dry rubber, in the other hand, those that tapped every other day obtained a yield of 1.647 kg per ha/year of dry rubber. The yield in daily tapping was 3.54% lower than the system with alternating tapping. The income obtained by the producers of fresh rubber varied from $8.750, 00 (810, 2 USD ha/year to $27.870, 00 (2.580 USD ha/year in 2006 and the production of latex from $5.955, 00 (551, 4 USD to 16.568,00 (1.534 USD per ha/year.

  11. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

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    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  12. Aspectos anatômicos e funcionais do aparelho reprodutor de Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae Anatomical and functional aspects of the reproductive system of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae

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    Alexandre Oliveira de Almeida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of morphological external characteristics that allow the recognition of the sex as well as the presence of both male and female gonopores in the same animal [except in some sexual forms of Parastacus nicoleti (Philippi, 1882] gives rise to the hypothetical existence of some form of hermaphroditism in crayfishes belonging to the genus Parastacus Huxley, 1879. Specimens of Parastacus brasiliensis (von Martens, 1869 were collected in a rivulet at Mariana Pimentel municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the laboratory they were reared and dissected. The results suggest that P. brasiliensis may be a sequential hermaphroditic species, but male and female gonadal tissues were not simultaneously present in the analized samples. In testes and ovaries two pairs of genital ducts are present; that connect, respectively, to the gonopores on the coxae of the fifth and the third pairs of pereiopods. In the females only the apertures and anterior ducts seem to be functional, while in the males only the apertures and posterior ducts may be functional. The existence of different degrees of obstruction in the female genital apertures and different degrees of projection in the male genital apertures was observed. The aspect of the gonopores were used to recognize, externally, the sex of animais.

  13. Observações sobre stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis calman, 1917 na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul Observation on the Stamatopoda Squilla brasiliensis Calman, 1917 on the continental shelf of the Rio Grande do Sul State

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    Luiz Roberto Tommasi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available O Stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis ocorreu em 60 estações na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul. É aparentemente, bastante freqüente entre 19 e 285 m de profundidade, mas especialmente entre 100 e 150 m, temperatura da água de fundo de 12,22 a 24,45ºC, salinidade de 30,20 a 36,16º/.., fundo de areia fina e lodo com baixo teor de calcario (0-20% na fração menor do que 44µ. Ocorreu especialmente em fundos sob influencia da massa de água Subtropical. As maiores abundancias ocorreram entre 30º e 31ºS e entre 49º e 50ºW. Vários exemplares, tanto machos como fêmeas, apresentaram telso com bordos entumescidos, o que sugere não ser essa uma característica ligada ao sexo nesta espécie .The distribution of Squilla brasiliensis Caiman, 1917 (Crustacea Stomatopoda is by the first time discussed in the continental plataform in the region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in relationship with depth, temperature and salinity. Apparently the distribution of that species is more related to salinity than to depth and temperature, and specially to the water mass of Subtropical origin. The largest densities were found between 84 and 128 m depth.

  14. Aspectos da anatomia e do óleo essencial em folhas de Pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng. Aspects of the anatomy and essential oil in leaves of pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis Spreng.

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    Breno Régis Santos

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, estudaram-se aspectos de anatomia foliar, extraiu-se e caracterizou-se o óleo essencial presente nos tecidos foliares de pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis. Os cortes transversais foram realizados à mão livre com o auxílio de uma lâmina de barbear e submetidos ao processo de coloração com safranina e azul de astra. A extração e a caracterização do óleo essencial foram realizadas pela técnica de arraste de vapor de água. Na seção transversal da folha da pindaíba foi observada a presença de cavidade oleífera, sendo o óleo constituído principalmente de óxido de cariofileno.Aspects of leaf anatomy, extraction and characterization of essential oils present in leaf tissues of Pindaíba (Xylopia brasiliensis, were studied. The anatomical cuts were manually performed and their visualization were made through a coloration process using safranine and astra blue. The extraction and characterization of the essential oil used the steam drag’s method. With these studies it was observed the presence of oily idioblasts filled mainly with cariophylene oxide.

  15. Rheologically interesting polysaccharides from yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.; Nelson, G. A.; Cathey, C. A.; Fuller, G. G.

    1989-01-01

    We have examined the relationships between primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of polysaccharides exhibiting the rheological property of friction (drag) reduction in turbulent flows. We found an example of an exopolysaccharide from the yeast Cryptococcus laurentii that possessed high molecular weight but exhibited lower than expected drag reducing activity. Earlier correlations by Hoyt showing that beta 1 --> 3, beta 2 --> 4, and alpha 1 --> 3 linkages in polysaccharides favored drag reduction were expanded to include correlations to secondary structure. The effect of sidechains in a series of gellan gums was shown to be related to sidechain length and position. Disruption of secondary structure in drag reducing polysaccharides reduced drag reducing activity for some but not all exopolysaccharides. The polymer from C. laurentii was shown to be more stable than xanthan gum and other exopolysaccharides under the most vigorous of denaturing conditions. We also showed a direct relationship between extensional viscosity measurements and the drag reducing coefficient for four exopolysaccharides.

  16. Yeast-based biosensors: design and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniran, Adebola; Sherer, Michael; Tyo, Keith E J

    2015-02-01

    Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription-dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription-independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  17. Accelerating Yeast Prion Biology using Droplet Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Lloyd; Rotem, Assaf; Jarosz, Daniel; Datta, Manoshi; Lindquist, Susan; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Prions are infectious proteins in a misfolded form, that can induce normal proteins to take the misfolded state. Yeast prions are relevant, as a model of human prion diseases, and interesting from an evolutionary standpoint. Prions may also be a form of epigenetic inheritance, which allow yeast to adapt to stressful conditions at rates exceeding those of random mutations and propagate that adaptation to their offspring. Encapsulation of yeast in droplet microfluidic devices enables high-throughput measurements with single cell resolution, which would not be feasible using bulk methods. Millions of populations of yeast can be screened to obtain reliable measurements of prion induction and loss rates. The population dynamics of clonal yeast, when a fraction of the cells are prion expressing, can be elucidated. Furthermore, the mechanism by which certain strains of bacteria induce yeast to express prions in the wild can be deduced. Integrating the disparate fields of prion biology and droplet microfluidics reveals a more complete picture of how prions may be more than just diseases and play a functional role in yeast.

  18. Desulfovibrio brasiliensis sp. nov., a moderate halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium from Lagoa Vermelha (Brazil) mediating dolomite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthmann, Rolf; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Sass, Henrik; McKenzie, Judith A

    2005-06-01

    A novel halotolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfovibrio brasiliensis strain LVform1, was isolated from sediments of a dolomite-forming hypersaline coastal lagoon, Lagoa Vermelha, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cells are vibrio-shaped and 0.30 to 0.45 microm by 1.0 to 3.5 microm in size. These bacteria mediate the precipitation of dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] in culture experiments. The strain was identified as a member of the genus Desulfovibrio in the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria on the basis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, its physiological and morphological properties. Strain LVform1 is obligate sodium-dependent and grows at NaCl concentrations of up to 15%. The 16S rRNA sequence revealed that this strain is closely related to Desulfovibrio halophilus (96.2% similarity) and to Desulfovibrio oxyclinae (96.8% similarity), which were both isolated from Solar Lake, a hypersaline coastal lake in the Sinai, Egypt. Strain LVform1 is barotolerant, growing under pressures of up to 370 bar (37 MPa). We propose strain LVform1 to be the type strain of a novel species of the genus Desulfovibrio, Desulfovibrio brasiliensis (type strain LVform1 = DSMZ No. 15816 and JCM No. 12178). The GenBank/EMBL accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain LVform1 is AJ544687.

  19. Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; González, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    The effects of electric current on membranes associated with metabolism modifications in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 were studied. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15g of perlite, as inert support, was inoculated with A. brasiliensis spores and incubated in a solid inert-substrate culture (12 d; 30°C). Then, 4.5days after starting the culture, a current of 0.42mAcm(-2) was applied for 24h. The application of low-intensity electric current increased the molecular oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in high concentrations of reactive oxygen species, promoting high lipoperoxidation levels, according to measured malondialdehyde, and consequent alterations in membrane permeability explained the high n-hexadecane (HXD) degradation rates observed here (4.7-fold higher than cultures without current). Finally, cell differentiation and spore production were strongly stimulated. The study contributes to the understanding of the effect of current on the cell membrane and its association with HXD metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Senecio brasiliensis e alcaloides pirrolizidínicos: toxicidade em animais e na saúde humana

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    Thaísa Meira Sandini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p83   No Brasil, as plantas tóxicas são responsáveis por grande parte dos prejuízos econômicos em animais de produção, principalmente em equinos e bovinos. Nesse contexto, no Rio Grande do Sul, o gênero Senecio, especialmente S. brasiliensis Lessing, merece maior destaque por ser a principal causa de mortes de bovinos adultos. A toxicidade causada por esse gênero vegetal ocorre devido à presença dos alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, os quais sofrem biotransformação no fígado, gerando metabólitos tóxicos: os pirrois. Esses compostos tóxicos podem também ser nocivos para o homem através do consumo de produtos comestíveis, de origem animal, contaminados ou pelo uso dessa planta na medicina popular. Assim, o presente artigo traz uma revisão, em particular de S. brasiliensis com ênfase nos seus princípios ativos tóxicos e no mecanismo pelo qual se desenvolve a patogenia, além de abordar outras plantas que contêm os mesmos princípios tóxicos e que causam efeitos nocivos à saúde humana.

  1. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G., E-mail: joao.lago@unifesp.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Carvalho, Larissa A.C.; Silva, Flavia S. da; Romoff, Paulete [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg{sup -1}) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  2. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil

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    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses’ detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings’ microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans.

  3. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Serafini, Patrícia Pereira; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Meurer, Rafael; Durigon, Edison Luiz; de Araújo, Jansen; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Ometto, Tatiana; Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos; Sezerban, Rafael Meirelles; Abbud, Maria Cecília; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses' detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings' microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA REPRODUTIVA DE Drimys brasiliensis Miers (WINTERACEAE EM FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA, SUL DO BRASIL

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    Alexandre Mariot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as “cataia” or “casca-de-anta”, is a native tree of “Floresta Ombrófila Mista”, in Brazil. Its bark has been used for medicine, through the exploitation of plants of natural populations. The present work aimed to study aspects of reproductive biology of Drimys brasiliensis in order to establish strategies for sustainable management and conservation, in order to generate alternative income from the exploitation of this non-timber forest product. Studies about reproductive phenology (296 plants during 2 years and a half, pollination and dispersal ecology, and floral biology were realized. The flowering season occurred the summer, with its peak in January. There are unripe fruits throughout the year, becoming ripe fruits as the temperature increases. There is a superposition of unripe and ripe fruit phenology from different flowering seasons. Ripe fruits are then, available for animals throughout the year. Hymenopteras are flower visitors with major potential for gene flow via pollen, but their frequency is low, like others flowers visitors, despite the high flowers production and pollen viability. Therefore, the highest fruit production which was seen comes from self-fecundation. The primary fruit dispersers are rare, birdsbeing observed. However, the secondary dispersal of seeds that reach the ground by barocory is high.

  5. Efficacy of DA-7218, a new oxazolidinone prodrug, in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma produced by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-González, Nelly Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Choi, Sung-Hak; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-11

    Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157) and its corresponding pro-drug (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218), have shown very good activity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. In the present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardia brasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c mice using several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetoma murine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg) and the control group(saline solution) (p=0.001), proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option for patients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

  6. In situ TLR2 and TLR4 expression in a murine model of mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Chiu, Blanca Edith; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; López-Martínez, Rubén

    2011-04-01

    Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis is a common disease in tropical regions. This ailment is characterized by a localized chronic inflammation that mainly affects the lower limbs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators. The role of TLRs in the immune response against N. brasiliensis is unknown. The aim of this work was to locate and quantify in a murine model the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the infection site using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TLR2 expression increased in the infected tissue, whereas TLR4 expression decreased. The presence of TLR2 and TLR4 was demonstrated in different cell populations throughout the chronic infectious process. In the early stages of this process, TLR2 was expressed in neutrophils and macrophages in direct contact with the inoculum, whereas TLR4 was observed in mast cells. In the advanced stages of the infection, TLR2 was expressed in foam cells and fibroblasts and was likely associated with bacterial containment, while TLR4 was downregulated, probably resulting in an imbalance between the host immune response and the bacterial load that favoured chronic disease. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of neolignan compounds with biological activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by using quantum chemical and chemometric methods

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    Camargo Ademir J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric (statistical methods are employed to classify a set of neolignan compounds with activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The AM1 (Austin Model 1 method was used to calculate a set of molecular descriptors (properties of the neolignan compounds under study. The descriptors were further analyzed using Principal Components Analysis (PCA, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN chemometric methods. The PCA and HCA methods were quite efficient to classify the compounds into two groups (active and inactive and three descriptors were found to be important in the classification: the highest occupied molecular orbital energy (E HOMO, the bond order between C1'-R7 atoms (L14 and the bond order between C5' -R6 atoms (L22. The three variables responsible for the separation between active and inactive compounds are all electronic descriptors, therefore we can conclude that electronic effects should have an important role when one is trying to understand the activity of neolignan compounds against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

  8. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  9. Thermoregulation during flight: body temperature and sensible heat transfer in free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Jonathan D; Fellows, Spenser R; Frank, Alexander J; Kunz, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    Bat wings are important for thermoregulation, but their role in heat balance during flight is largely unknown. More than 80% of the energy consumed during flight generates heat as a by-product, and thus it is expected that bat wings should dissipate large amounts of heat to prevent hyperthermia. We measured rectal (T(r)) and surface (T(s)) temperatures of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) as they emerged from and returned to their daytime roosts and calculated sensible heat transfer for different body regions (head, body, wings, and tail membrane). Bats' T(r) decreased from 36.8°C during emergence flights to 34.4°C during returns, and T(s) scaled positively with ambient temperature (T(a)). Total radiative heat loss from bats was significantly greater for a radiative sink to the night sky than for a sink with temperature equal to T(a). We found that free-ranging Brazilian free-tailed bats, on average, do not dissipate heat from their wings by convection but instead dissipate radiative heat (L) to the cloudless night sky during flight ([Formula: see text] W). However, within the range of T(a) measured in this study, T. brasiliensis experienced net heat loss between evening emergence and return flights. Regional hypothermia reduces heat loss from wings that are exposed to potentially high convective fluxes. Additional research is needed to establish the role of wings in evaporative cooling during flight in bats.

  10. The acute toxicity of four heavy metals (Cd++, Cr+++, Cu++, and Zn++ to the juvenile spotted brown shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S Chung

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The static biossays were performed to determine lethal concentration (LC50 values of four heavy metals (Cd++, Cr+++. Cu++. and Zn++ of spotted brown shrimp (Penaeus brasiliensis The test animals were collected from the Laguna of Restinga, Nueva Esparto, and were acclimated in the laboratory condition for 11-21 days. Temperature and salinity were 22 ºC and 36 ppt, respectively. The LC50 values (mg/l determined by probability-logarithm transformation were as follows-cadmium: 38 (24 -h, 21 (48 -h, and 12 (60 -h;chromium:40 (48 -h, 23 (60 -h, 13 (86 -h, and 10 (96 -h; copper: 24 (48 -h, 19 (60 -h, 16 (72 -h, 14 (86 -h, and 10 (144 -h; and zinc: 69 (24 -h, 25 (36 -h, 15 (48 -h and 8 (60 -h. The LC50 values of 48 -h and 60 -h indicate that the most toxic heavy metals to P. brasiliensis in order are zinc, cadmium, copper, and chromium.

  11. 21 CFR 172.325 - Bakers yeast protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bakers yeast protein. 172.325 Section 172.325 Food... Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.325 Bakers yeast protein. Bakers yeast protein may be safely used in food in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Bakers yeast protein is the...

  12. Yeast cell factories on the horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    been engineered to make chemicals at industrial scale (e.g., succinic acid, lactic acid, resveratrol) and advanced biofuels (e.g., isobutanol) (1). On page 1095 of this issue, Galanie et al. (2) demonstrate that yeast can now be engineered to produce opioids (2), a major class of compounds used...... for treating severe pain. Their study represents a tour de force in the metabolic engineering of yeast, as it involved the expression of genes for more than 20 enzymatic activities from plants, mammals, bacteria, and yeast itself. It clearly represents a breakthrough advance for making complex natural products...

  13. Chemical gradients and chemotropism in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkowitz, Robert A

    2009-08-01

    Chemical gradients of peptide mating pheromones are necessary for directional growth, which is critical for yeast mating. These gradients are generated by cell-type specific secretion or export and specific degradation in receiving cells. Spatial information is sensed by dedicated seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors and yeast cells are able to detect extremely small differences in ligand concentration across their approximately 5-microm cell surface. Here, I will discuss our current knowledge of how cells detect and respond to such shallow chemical gradients and in particular what is known about the proteins that are involved in directional growth and the establishment of the polarity axis during yeast mating.

  14. Evaluation of RbCl and CrCl₃ as markers of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) nymphs: persistence and influence of Rb and Cr on triatomine biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, Otília; Oliveira, Lívia S; Rego, Reginaldo; Gonçalves, Jaylei M; Lima, Marli M; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    In order to mark Triatoma brasiliensis, the vector of Chagas disease in Brazil, two chemical compounds, rubidium chloride (RbCl) and chromium chloride (CrCl₃), were tested. First, 199 N2-N5 nymphs were fed on blood with 0.025M RbCl. Rb marker positivity ranged from 2.5% (N3)-70% (N2), with a maximum persistence of 98 days. Second, 265 N2-N5 nymphs were fed on blood containing 0.0015M CrCl₃. Cr marker positivity ranged up to 93% (N5), with a maximum persistence of 119 days. Finally, we blood fed 213 T. brasiliensis to investigate whether CrCl₃ altered the biology of this insect. The developmental time of T. brasiliensis was unaltered, but the survival of the Cr-marked group was lower than that of the control group. Differences in the mean fecundity of the control (mean of 156.1) and experimental (mean of 135.6) groups were not statistically significant and 100% of the egg batches of females Cr-marked as nymphs were positive. In conclusion, CrCl₃ is a useful tool for marking T. brasiliensis nymphs due to its high positivity and persistence.

  15. Identificación de algunos genes asociados al proceso de germinación de la conidia al micelio en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García

    2009-09-01

    Conclusiones. Éste es el primer reporte en el que se identifican genes no descritos anteriormente, que son expresados durante la germinación de conidia a micelio, proceso de gran importancia en la biología de P. brasiliensis.

  16. Comparison of the Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and PbGP43 Genes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from Patients and Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Morais, Flavia V.; Montenegro, Mario R.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Montes, Beatriz; McEwen, Juan G.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Puccia, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates from 10 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were comparable with 19 clinical isolates by sequence analysis of the PbGP43 gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. In this original ITS study, eight isolates differed by one or three sites among five total substitution sites. PMID:14662970

  17. Evaluation of the Antigenotoxic Effects of the Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Human Lymphocytes Treated with Thymol in the Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaković, Milena; Djelić, Ninoslav; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each component was tested in the comet assay. Thymol significantly increased DNA damage in human lymphocytes at higher concentrations (20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL), whereas no genotoxic effect of A. brasiliensis ethanol extract was observed. In simultaneous treatment with thymol (200 µg/mL) and A. brasiliensis ethanol extract (50, 100, 150, and 200 µg/mL), the latter failed to reduce a thymol-induced DNA damaging effect regardless of the applied concentrations. To confirm that thymol induces DNA damage via reactive oxygen species, we performed cotreatment with quercetin. Cotreatment with quercetin (100 and 500 µmol/L) significantly reduced DNA damage caused by thymol (200 µg/mL), indicating that thymol exhibits genotoxicity mainly through induction of reactive oxygen species.

  18. IgM but not IgG monoclonal anti-Nocardia brasiliensis antibodies confer protection against experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular microorganism that produces a human chronic infection known as actinomycetoma. Human and mouse anti-N. brasiliensis antibody response identify P24, P26 and P61 immunodominant antigens. In this work, we generated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to immunodominant P61 antigen. The monoclonal IgM (NbM1) and IgG2a (NbG1) antibodies were assessed for their in vitro bactericidal activity, in vivo protective effect and ability to block catalase activity. These mAbs specifically recognized P61, but they did not inhibit its enzyme activity. The in vitro bactericidal effect of NbG1 was higher than the killing ability of the IgM mAb. In vivo experiments with a murine model of experimental infection with N. brasiliensis injected into rear footpads was used to test the effect of NbM1 and NbG1. The negative untreated group developed a chronic actinomycetoma within 4 weeks. IgM mAbs conferred protection to BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. IgG mAb lacked this protective effect. IgM mAb showed a dose-response correlation between antibody concentration and lesion size. These results demonstrate that humoral immune response mediated by antigen-specific IgM antibody protects against an intracellular bacterial infection.

  19. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  20. Whole-Transcriptome Survey of the Putative ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter Family Genes in the Latex-Producing Laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 ‘full-size’, 21 ‘half-size’ and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis. PMID:25615936