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Sample records for brasiliensis fermentation process

  1. Monitoring the sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fermentation process to obtain anchovies Monitoramento do processo de fermentação da sardinha, Sardinella brasiliensis, para obtenção de anchovas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Oetterer

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are traditional fish preserves, prepared from fermented fish of the engraulidae family, mainly in European countries. In Brazil, sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis are an alternative fish for preparing these types of preserves, provided that the preservation process results in a high quality product. In this research, sardines were prepared for preservation and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out during the preservation process. Whole or eviscerated sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives and with 20% of salt (w/w were used. Sardines were analyzed fresh, and at 1, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days along the preservation process. The use of whole sardines, with or without condiments/preservatives, presented best results, with increased non-proteic nitrogen in the dry matter, higher levels of total volatile bases and higher contents of lactic acid and sodium chloride. The higher acidity observed in the whole sardine treatments resulted in better control of halophylic mesophilic microorganisms, which were kept under 1.4 x 10³ CFU g-1 in both treatments. Total coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus reached 21 and 3.0 x 10² CFU g-1, respectively. Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp were not present in the fresh sardines or in any of the four treatments, indicating that the concentration of salt used was appropriate to maintain the product under adequate microbiological control. Both whole or eviscerated sardines under the conditions of this experiment were appropriate in terms of the microbiological safety of the preserves. Treatments using whole fish, either with or without condiments/preservatives, also presented better sensorial properties such as color, flavor, taste and texture, as compared to the eviscerated fish treatments. Whole sardines produced good quality, anchovy-type preserves, which can be used for consumption and marketing purposes.As sardinhas brasileiras podem ser utilizadas para o preparo

  2. Secretomic Insight into Glucose Metabolism of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Salgado-Bautista, Daniel; Bergmann, Carl; Wells, Lance; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-10-07

    The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and includes various species extensively exploited industrially due to their ability to produce and secrete a variety of enzymes and metabolites. Most processes are performed in submerged fermentation (SmF); however, solid-state fermentation (SSF) offers several advantages, including lower catabolite repression and substrate inhibition and higher productivity and stability of the enzymes produced. This study aimed to explain the improved metabolic behavior of A. brasiliensis ATCC9642 in SSF at high glucose concentrations through a proteomic approach. Online respirometric analysis provided reproducible samples for secretomic studies when the maximum CO2 production rate occurred, ensuring consistent physiological states. Extracellular extracts from SSF cultures were treated by SDS-PAGE, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of 531 sequences identified, 207 proteins were analyzed. Twenty-five were identified as the most abundant unregulated proteins; 87 were found to be up-regulated and 95 were down-regulated with increasing glucose concentration. Of the regulated proteins, 120 were enzymes, most involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (51), amino acids (23), and nucleotides (9). This study shows the high protein secretory activity of A. brasiliensis under SSF conditions. High glucose concentration favors catabolic activities, while some stress-related proteins and those involved in proteolysis are down-regulated.

  3. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

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    Milton L. P. Espírito Santo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.Lactobacillus sakei é comprovadamente uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste trabalho procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador, na fermentação de filés de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4 e 6% e glicose (2 e 4%, observando-se sua capacidade para produzir ácidos orgânicos e conseqüente redução do pH e microrganismos deterioradores. Os tratamentos foram desenvolvidos de forma independente, variando apenas um dos parâmetros operacionais (NaCl ou glicose. Ao término de 21 dias de fermentação, a concentração de microrganismos deterioradores atingiu 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% de NaCl e 4% de glicose. Poucas diferenças foram observadas na produção de ácido lático quando

  4. Effect of different levels of sodium chloride and glucose on fermentation of sardines (Sardinella brasiliensis by Lactobacillus sakei 2a

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    Milton Luiz Pinho Espirito Santo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain. In this study, it's effects as a starter culture in the curing process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were studied at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4, 6% and glucose (2, 4%. After 21 days of fermentation, the spoilage microorganisms population reached 9.7 Log10 CFU g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. With no addition of glucose and starter culture, sardine fillets began spoilage 72 hours after fermentation, even when 6% NaCl was used. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6.0 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4.0 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl respectively. This could have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the spoilage microorganisms. After 21 days of the fermentation, the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1.Lactobacillus sakei 2a é uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste estudo, procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador na fermentação de filés de sardinha (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4, 6% e glicose (2, 4%. Com 21 dias (fermentação, os microrganismos deterioradores atingiram 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% NaCl e 4% de glicose. Sem a adição do starter e da glicose, a deterioração (filés iniciou a partir de 72 horas, mesmo quando foi utilizado 6% NaCl. Pouca diferença foi observada na produção de ácido lático quando se adicionou 2 e 4% de glicose, já que a acidez atingiu 1,32 e 1,34%, respectivamente (6% NaCl, os quais apresentaram os melhores resultados. O pH inicial dos filés foi 6 e, ao término de 21 dias, atingiu 3,8, 3,9 e 4, equivalente aos experimentos com 2, 4 e 6% NaCl. Este comportamento pode ser atribuído ao

  5. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for...

  6. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  7. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  8. Fermentative processes for environmental remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, Selene

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in environmental protection has led to the development of emerging biotechnologies for environmental remediation also introducing the biorefinery concept. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the applicability of innovative biotechnologies for environmental remediation and bioenergy production, throught fermentative processes. The investigated biotechnologies for waste and wastewater treatment and for the valorisation of specific feedstocks and energy recovery, were m...

  9. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

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    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  10. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  11. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

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    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  12. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  13. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura; Călin Şibotean; Emil Comşa

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were as...

  14. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive....... This provides a prediction of the future trajectory of the process, so that it is possible to guide the system to the desired target mass. The control strategy is applied on-line at 550L scale in the Novozymes A/S fermentation pilot plant, and the method is challenged with four different sets of process...

  15. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... from Novozymes A/S in order to predict the product concentration which is measured at the end of the batch. This is achieved with an average prediction error of 7.4%. The purpose of developing the model, is mainly in order to identify key process parameters which show variance relevant to the product...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive...

  16. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  17. Lignocellulose as raw material in fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Teixeira, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulose in the form of forestry, agricultural, and agro-industrial wastes is accumulated in large quantities every year. These materials are mainly composed of three groups of polymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose and hemicellulose are sugar rich fractions of interest for use in fermentation processes, since microorganisms may use the sugars for growth and production of value added compounds such as ethanol, food additives, organic acids, enzymes,...

  18. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  19. Heterologous expression and characterization of processing α-glucosidase I from Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 9642.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Matsumoto, Yuji; Matsuda, Kana; Kurakata, Yuma; Matsuo, Ichiro; Ito, Yukishige; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    A gene for processing α-glucosidase I from a filamentous fungus, Aspergillus brasiliensis (formerly called Aspergillus niger) ATCC 9642 was cloned and fused to a glutathione S-transferase tag. The active construct with the highest production level was a truncation mutant deleting the first 16 residues of the hydrophobic N-terminal domain. This fusion enzyme hydrolyzed pyridylaminated (PA-) oligosaccharides Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(3)Man(4)-PA and the products were identified as Glc(2)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(2)Man(4)-PA, respectively. Saturation curves were obtained for both Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PA and Glc(3)Man(4)-PA, and the K (m) values for both substrates were estimated in the micromolar range. When 1 μM Glc(3)Man(4)-PA was used as a substrate, the inhibitors kojibiose and 1-deoxynojirimycin had similar effects on the enzyme; at 20 μM concentration, both inhibitors reduced activity by 50%. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  20. PROBLEMATIC IN THE PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION IN RUBBER PLANTATIONS (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN TABASCO, MEXICO

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    Heyra Izquierdo-Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and Duncan analyses were done (P< 0.05. Plantations under production were between 7 to 46 years old. The 24% of these are considered as young plantations (7 to 18 years old, 34% mature (19 to 30 years old, and 12% old growth (31 to 46 years old, according to the level of latex production. Latex collection is realized by 85% men and 15% women. An important detected problem is the incidence of insects and diseases over the 82% of the plantations. In Tabasco State, two types of raw material are generated: clot (solid and latex (liquid. The tapping systems are ½ S d/1 6d/7 (one cuts in an average spiral with daily tapping over the 49% of the plantations, and the system ½ S d/2 6d/7, cuts in semi-spirals with alternating tapping over 51% of the plantations. The producers that practiced daily tapped obtained yields of 1.588 kg per ha/yr of dry rubber, in the other hand, those that tapped every other day obtained a yield of 1.647 kg per ha/year of dry rubber. The yield in daily tapping was 3.54% lower than the system with alternating tapping. The income obtained by the producers of fresh rubber varied from $8.750, 00 (810, 2 USD ha/year to $27.870, 00 (2.580 USD ha/year in 2006 and the production of latex from $5.955, 00 (551, 4 USD to 16.568,00 (1.534 USD per ha/year.

  1. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  2. Fermentation Process Simulation of Homebrewing Beer

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    Garduño-García A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the current research was to study the behavior of the fermentation process of home-made beer using a mathematical dynamic model. The model contains the rates of change of the concentration state variables of glucose, maltose and maltotriose. An output variable is the ethanol concentration and an auxiliary variable is the biomass (yeast concentration. The model was programmed in the Matlab-Simulink environment, and for its numerical integration Dormand-Prince method of fourth order with a variable integration step size and a relative tolerance of was used. In order to know which model parameters are more important, a local sensitivity analysis was carried out. Furthermore, an experiment was performed to produce home-made beer at constant temperature (21°C. Fourteen experimental units (fermenters with the same initial conditions were implemented. Using the experimental results the model was calibrated by nonlinear least squares and differential evolution algorithms. According to the statistics bias (BIAS, correlation coefficient (r, squared root of mean squared error (RMSE, mean absolute error (MAE and the efficiency of modeling (EF, a good fit between the model predictions and measurements were found after the model parameters estimation.

  3. A Perspective on PSE in Fermentation Process Development and Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the chemical industry, the use of PSE methods and tools is not as widespread in industrial fermentation processes. This paper gives an overview of some of the main engineering challenges in industrial fermentation processes. Furthermore, a number of mathematical models are highlighted...... as examples of PSE methods and tools that are used in the context of industrial fermentation technology. Finally, it is discussed what could be done to increase the future use of PSE methods and tools within the industrial fermentation technology area....

  4. Alcoholic fermentation process control by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, J.; Dincer, A.K.; Ivie, K.

    1983-02-01

    In large-scale fermentation for energy production high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provides an accurate method of monitoring the original oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, as well as their hydrolysis to fermentable monosaccharides. Also measuring the saccharide and alcohol content of the fermentation vat allows overseeing of the process, providing the capability of allowing the fermentation to proceed to the most economical level prior to distillation. Another application for HPLC in a large-scale fermentation for energy is to analyze the stillage for its ethanol content during distillation, in order to observe the efficiency of the still. HPLC can separate and detect very low levels, (i.e., 100 parts per million), of ethanol to yield information concerning the distillation process. These capabilities indicate that HPLC is an extremely useful efficient instrument to the fermentation industries. (Refs. 2).

  5. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the mathematical model of batch fermentation process of ethanol was formulated. The method of differential transform was used to obtain the solution governing the fermentation process; the system of equation was transformed using the differential transform method. The result obtained from the model was ...

  6. Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov., Spathaspora suhii sp. nov., Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov., four novel (D)-xylose-fermenting yeast species from Brazilian Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadete, Raquel M; Melo, Monaliza A; Zilli, Jerri E; Vital, Marcos J S; Mouro, Adriane; Prompt, Alice H; Gomes, Fátima C O; Stambuk, Boris U; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-02-01

    Four new D-xylose fermenting yeast species of the clade Spathaspora were recovered from rotting-wood samples in a region of Amazonian forest, Northern Brazil. Three species produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends. These species are described as Spathaspora brasiliensis, Spathaspora suhii and Spathaspora roraimanensis. Two isolates of an asexually reproducing species belonging to the Spathaspora clade were also obtained and they are described as Spathaspora xylofermentans. All these species are able to ferment D-xylose during aerobic batch growth in rich YP (1 % yeast extract, 2 % peptone and 2 % D-xylose) medium, albeit with differing efficiencies. The type strains are Spathaspora brasiliensis sp. nov UFMG-HMD19.3 (=CBMAI 1425=CBS 12679), Spathaspora suhii sp. nov. UFMG-XMD16.2 (=CBMAI 1426=CBS 12680), Spathaspora roraimanensis sp. nov. UFMG-XMD23.2 (CBMAI 1427=CBS 12681) and Spathaspora xylofermentans sp. nov. UFMG-HMD23.3 (=CBMAI 1428=CBS 12682).

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alison M; Sluzevich, Jason C; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis . Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  8. Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This mini-review describes the concept of the green biorefinery and lists a number of suitable agricultural by-products, which can be used for production of bioenergy and/or biochemicals. A process, in which one possible agricultural by-product from the green crop drying industry, brown juice......, is converted to a basic, universal fermentation medium by lactic acid fermentation, is outlined. The resulting all-round fermentation medium can be used for the production of many useful fermentation products when added a carbohydrate source, which could possibly be another agricultural by-product. Two...

  9. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process. 753. SHEHU, MD; JIYA, M; ELEBUTE, KO; AHMED, HO. Table 1: Description of State Parameter Used in the Model. Parameters. Description. Unit. µ. Ethanol production rate. 1 h− γ. Specific rate of latent fermentation. 1 h− α. Specific yeast settling down rate. /g l δ. Ethyl acetate ...

  10. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  11. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Generalized Net Model of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD Fermentation Process

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    Olympia Roeva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to render the specific peculiarities of the fermentation processes, as well as to avoid the complexity of mathematical description with systems of differential equations, the elaboration of some new methods and approaches for their modelling and control is predetermined. As a new, alternative approach for modelling of fermentation processes, an application of generalized nets is presented in this paper. The theory of generalized nets is applied to the fermentation process of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD for L-lysine production. A generalized net model of considered process is developed. For comparison and completeness, model with differential equations is also provided. The generalized nets model developed for the fed-batch cultivation of Brevibacterium flavul 22LD allows changing the concentration of the feeding solution and the aeration rate. In this way some inhibition effects are prevented and a possibility for optimal carrying out of the considered fermentation process is provided.

  13. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wort has been recorded, during the process of primary fermentation carried out in mini brewery of SPU. We have compared our results with theoretical values of primary fermentation process commonly achieved in conditions of industrial breweries. It was found out that our results differ in some ways, moreover they exceed theoretically given values which was caused due to different construction of mini brewery fermentation tank in comparison with industrial brewery technologies. Beer produced in mini brewery of SPU showed in sensorial tests very good quality without any strange odour and any strange taste.

  14. Protein enrichment of Irish potatoes by fermentation process using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein enrichment of Irish potatoes by fermentation process using mutant ... The mutants exhibited similar morphological and cultural characteristics as the wild ... The genetic analysis resealed that the Lactobacillus bulgaricus studied did not ...

  15. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chongyang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  16. Mechanistic Fermentation Models for Process Design, Monitoring, and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads Orla

    2017-01-01

    Mechanistic models require a significant investment of time and resources, but their application to multiple stages of fermentation process development and operation can make this investment highly valuable. This Opinion article discusses how an established fermentation model may be adapted...... for application to different stages of fermentation process development: planning, process design, monitoring, and control. Although a longer development time is required for such modeling methods in comparison to purely data-based model techniques, the wide range of applications makes them a highly valuable tool...... for fermentation research and development. In addition, in a research environment, where collaboration is important, developing mechanistic models provides a platform for knowledge sharing and consolidation of existing process understanding....

  17. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto; Widyotomo, Sukrisno

    2013-01-01

    Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast), “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor ma...

  18. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  19. The Kinetics of Ethanol Fermentation Based on Adsorption Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu, Z.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, almost all ethanol fermentation kinetic models are based on the Monod equation. Such models belong to empirical models, hence are not suitable for the optimization and expansion of real processes. In this work, a new ethanol fermentation kinetic model, in which all parameters had definite physical meaning, was established based on the adsorption mechanism. Through batch fermentation experiment with different initial glucose concentrations and comparison with existing model, this model has the advantage of high precision and few parameters. It also possessed obvious regulation in the model parameter that, with the increase in initial glucose concentration, the maximum specific growth rate µmax and adsorption equilibrium constant KS of glucose decreased and adsorption equilibrium constant KP of ethanol increased. This model provides a new perspec tive for kinetics research of fermentation.

  20. Water reuse in the l-lysine fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, T.Y.; Glatz, C.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-02-05

    L-Lysine is produced commercially by fermentation. As is typical for fermentation processes, a large amount of liquid waste is generated. To minimize the waste, which is mostly the broth effluent from the cation exchange column used for l-lysine recovery, the authors investigated a strategy of recycling a large fraction of this broth effluent to the subsequent fermentation. This was done on a lab-scale process with Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21253 as the l-lysine-producing organisms. Broth effluent from a fermentation in a defined medium was able to replace 75% of the water for the subsequent batch; this recycle ratio was maintained for 3 sequential batches without affecting cell mass and l-lysine production. Broth effluent was recycled at 50% recycle ratio in a fermentation in a complex medium containing beet molasses. The first recycle batch had an 8% lower final l-lysine level, but 8% higher maximum cell mass. In addition to reducing the volume of liquid waste, this recycle strategy has the additional advantage of utilizing the ammonium desorbed from the ion-exchange column as a nitrogen source in the recycle fermentation. The major problem of recycling the effluent from the complex medium was in the cation-exchange operation, where column capacity was 17% lower for the recycle batch. The loss of column capacity probably results from the buildup of cations competing with l-lysine for binding.

  1. A comprehensive model of simultaneous denitrification and methanogenic fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugtas, A Evren; Tezel, U; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2010-01-01

    The denitrification process was incorporated into the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) in order to account for the effect of denitrification on the methanogenic fermentation process. The model was calibrated and optimized using previously published experimental data and kinetic parameter values obtained with a mixed, mesophilic (35 degrees C) methanogenic culture. Model simulations were used to predict the effect of nitrate reduction on the methanogenic fermentation process in batch, semi-continuous, and continuous flow reactors experiencing operational changes and/or system disturbances. The extended model clearly revealed the importance of substrate competition between denitrifiers and non-denitrifiers as well as the impact of N-oxide inhibition on process interactions between fermentation, methanogenesis, and denitrification.

  2. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  3. Chinese vinegar and its solid-state fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Dengru,; Yang Zhu, Yang; Beeftink, H.H.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Rinzema, A.; Jian Chen,; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    China uses solid-state fermentation (SSF) processes on a large scale for products such as vinegar, Chinese distilled spirit, soy sauce, Furu, and other national foods that are consumed around the world. In this article, the typical SSF process is discussed, with a focus on Chinese vinegars,

  4. Imaging for monitoring downstream processing of fermentation broths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Baum, Andreas; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    In relation to downstream processing of a fermentation broth coagulation/flocculation is a typical pretreatment method for separating undesirable particles/impurities from the wanted product. In the coagulation process the negatively charged impurities are destabilized by adding of a clarifying...

  5. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  6. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Development of a high temperature microbial fermentation process for butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. St. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daubaras, Dayna L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost-competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to the U.S. future energy and chemical needs. Butanol production by microbial fermentation for chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process could decrease energy costs, capital cost, give higher butanol production, and allow for continuous fermentation. In this paper, we describe our approach to genetically transform Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus, using a pUCG18 plasmid, for potential insertion of a butanol production pathway. Transformation methods tested were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli donor and helper strains, and protoplast fusion. These methods have not been successful using the current plasmid. Growth controls show cells survive the various methods tested, suggesting the possibility of transformation inhibition from a DNA restriction modification system in G. caldoxylosiliticus, as reported in the literature.

  8. Eco-efficient butanol separation in the ABE fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Butanol is considered a superior biofuel, as it is more energy dense and less hygroscopic than the more popular ethanol, resulting in higher possible blending ratios with gasoline. However, the production cost of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is still high, mainly due to the

  9. Exploring process dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy in lactic fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina; Cieplak, Tomasz; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2016-01-01

    In the industrial production of yoghurt, measurement of pH is normally the only in-line technique applied as a real-time monitoring signalfor following the dynamics during the fermentation process. However, every dairy company would benefit from an in-line technique giving information about...

  10. Effect of processing (sprouting and fermentation) of five local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: The effect of processing (combined sprouting and fermentation) on chemical composition, tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and mineral element composition of five local varieties were studied. The five varieties studied were: “chakalari white, chakalari red, yafimoro, tumbuna and mire”. The parameters ...

  11. Mathematical modelling and integration of rumen fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    1993-01-01

    In ruminants, the profile of nutrients available for absorption generally differs considerably from that ingested. These differences result from the metabolic activities of the rumen microorganisms. The main aim of the present study, was to model the rumen fermentation processes, to achieve

  12. Forecasting optimal duration of a beer main fermentation process using the Kalman filter

    OpenAIRE

    Niyonsaba T.; Pavlov V. A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important processes of beer production is the main process of fermentation. In this process, the wort transforms into beer. The quality of beer depends on the dynamics of wort parameters. The main fermentation process continues for 10 days and requires high costs. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to forecast the optimal duration of the beer main fermentation process and provide its optimal control. The Kalman filter can provide optimal control of the main ferment...

  13. Ethanol fermentation integrated with PDMS composite membrane: An effective process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chaohui; Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Wang, Yong; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, prepared in water phase, was investigated in separation ethanol from model ethanol/water mixture and fermentation-pervaporation integrated process. Results showed that the PDMS membrane could effectively separate ethanol from model solution. When integrated with batch ethanol fermentation, the ethanol productivity was enhanced compared with conventional process. Fed-batch and continuous ethanol fermentation with pervaporation were also performed and studied. 396.2-663.7g/m(2)h and 332.4-548.1g/m(2)h of total flux with separation factor of 8.6-11.7 and 8-11.6, were generated in the fed-batch and continuous fermentation with pervaporation scenario, respectively. At the same time, high titre ethanol production of ∼417.2g/L and ∼446.3g/L were also achieved on the permeate side of membrane in the two scenarios, respectively. The integrated process was environmental friendly and energy saving, and has a promising perspective in long-terms operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzymic and structural studies on processed proteins from the vacuolar (lutoid-body) fraction of latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, T; de Vries, H; Schuringa, JJ; Soedjanaatmadja, UMS; Hofsteenge, J; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    The lutoid-body (bottom) fraction of latex from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) contains a limited number of major proteins. These are the chitin-binding protein hevein, its precursor and C-terminal fragment of the precursor, a basic chitinase/lysozyme, and a beta-1,3-glucanase. The content and

  15. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian J.

    2016-08-30

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  16. Downstream process options for the ABE fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, Anton

    2016-05-01

    Butanol is a very interesting substance both for the chemical industry and as a biofuel. The classical distillation process for the removal of butanol is far too energy demanding, at a factor of 220% of the energy content of butanol. Alternative separation processes studied are hybrid processes of gas-stripping, liquid-liquid extraction and pervaporation with distillation and a novel adsorption/drying/desorption hybrid process. Compared with the energy content of butanol, the resulting energy demand for butanol separation and concentration of optimized hybrid processes is 11%-22% for pervaporation/distillation and 11%-17% for liquid-liquid extraction/distillation. For a novel adsorption/drying/desorption process, the energy demand is 9.4%. But all downstream process options need further proof of industrial applicability. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L. produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Aparecida Spinosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L. for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany for the production of vinegar and was followed through 10 cycles. The vinegar had a total acidity of 6.85% (w/v, 0.17% alcohol (w/v, 1.26% (w/v minerals and 1.78% (w/v dry extract. The composition of organic acids present in rice vinegar was: cis-aconitic acid (6 mg/L, maleic acid (3 mg/L, trans-aconitic acid (3 mg/L, shikimic + succinic acid (4 mg/L, lactic acid (300 mg/L, formic acid (180 mg/L, oxalic acid (3 mg/L, fumaric acid (3 mg/L and itaconic acid (1 mg/L.

  18. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  19. On-line estimation of concentration parameters in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi-hua; Huang, Guo-hong; Shao, Hui-he

    2005-06-01

    It has long been thought that bioprocess, with their inherent measurement difficulties and complex dynamics, posed almost insurmountable problems to engineers. A novel software sensor is proposed to make more effective use of those measurements that are already available, which enable improvement in fermentation process control. The proposed method is based on mixtures of Gaussian processes (GP) with expectation maximization (EM) algorithm employed for parameter estimation of mixture of models. The mixture model can alleviate computational complexity of GP and also accord with changes of operating condition in fermentation processes, i.e., it would certainly be able to examine what types of process-knowledge would be most relevant for local models' specific operating points of the process and then combine them into a global one. Demonstrated by on-line estimate of yeast concentration in fermentation industry as an example, it is shown that soft sensor based state estimation is a powerful technique for both enhancing automatic control performance of biological systems and implementing on-line monitoring and optimization.

  20. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  1. Revealing the factors influencing a fermentative biohydrogen production process using industrial wastewater as fermentation substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boboescu, Iulian Zoltan; Ilie, Mariana; Gherman, Vasile Daniel; Mirel, Ion; Pap, Bernadett; Negrea, Adina; Kondorosi, Eva; Bíró, Tibor; Maróti, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Biohydrogen production through dark fermentation using organic waste as a substrate has gained increasing attention in recent years, mostly because of the economic advantages of coupling renewable, clean energy production with biological waste treatment. An ideal approach is the use of selected microbial inocula that are able to degrade complex organic substrates with simultaneous biohydrogen generation. Unfortunately, even with a specifically designed starting inoculum, there is still a number of parameters, mostly with regard to the fermentation conditions, that need to be improved in order to achieve a viable, large-scale, and technologically feasible solution. In this study, statistics-based factorial experimental design methods were applied to investigate the impact of various biological, physical, and chemical parameters, as well as the interactions between them on the biohydrogen production rates. By developing and applying a central composite experimental design strategy, the effects of the independent variables on biohydrogen production were determined. The initial pH value was shown to have the largest effect on the biohydrogen production process. High-throughput sequencing-based metagenomic assessments of microbial communities revealed a clear shift towards a Clostridium sp.-dominated environment, as the responses of the variables investigated were maximized towards the highest H2-producing potential. Mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the microbial consortium largely followed hydrogen-generating metabolic pathways, with the simultaneous degradation of complex organic compounds, and thus also performed a biological treatment of the beer brewing industry wastewater used as a fermentation substrate. Therefore, we have developed a complex optimization strategy for batch-mode biohydrogen production using a defined microbial consortium as the starting inoculum and beer brewery wastewater as the fermentation substrate. These results have the potential

  2. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...

  3. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A T W M; van Lier, J B; de Kreuk, M K

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Leroy, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3). A sourdough-characteristic LAB species is Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. A sourdough-characteristic yeast species is Candida humilis. Although it has been suggested that the microbiota of a specific sourdough may be influenced by its geographical origin, region specificity often seems to be an artefact resulting from interpretation of the research data, as those are dependent on sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. It is however clear that sourdough-adapted microorganisms are able to withstand stress conditions encountered during their growth. Based on the technological setup, type 0 (predoughs), type I (artisan bakery firm sourdoughs), type II (industrial liquid sourdoughs), and type III sourdoughs (industrial dried sourdoughs) can be distinguished. The production of all sourdoughs, independent of their classification, depends on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Both the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (fermentation temperature, pH and pH evolution, dough yield, water activity, oxygen tension, backslopping procedure and fermentation duration, etc.) determine the dynamics and outcome of (backslopped) sourdough fermentation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Background information for the economic assessment of solvent fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    An economic assessment of solvent fermentation processes was made. The question of whether or not the increased costs for petrochemical raw materials are sufficiently high now (or their projected costs in the 1980's), such that certain chemicals could be produced commercially from a cheaper raw material, say cellulosics, via various fermentation routes is considered. Specific examples under consideratin are n-butanol, propionic acid, and acetic acid. A qualitative approach was developed, based on major cost factors of alternative routes for making such projections. The technique described can be made as quantitative as desired by applying accepted engineering design and economic analysis principles to the complex, interacting factors that are involved. Some broad qualitative conclusions are made.

  6. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... TSS in cashew apple juice from 24 to 6.0 oBrix after 14 days fermentation at 20°C during cashew apple wine fermentation. The titrable acidity of fermented alcoholic beverage exhibited increasing trends till the end of experimentation in all the treatments. There was positive effect of fermentation and ...

  7. High-strength fermentable wastewater reclamation through a sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenqiang; Chen, Taojing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Minghong; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation was evaluated from both nutrient and energy recovery standpoints. The effects of different fermentation type on the biogas generation, broth metabolites' composition, algal growth and nutrients' utilization, and energy conversion efficiencies for the whole processes were discussed. When the fermentation was designed to produce hydrogen-dominating biogas, the total energy conversion efficiency (TECE) of the sequential process was higher than that of the methane fermentation one. With the production of hydrogen in anaerobic fermentation, more organic carbon metabolites were left in the broth to support better algal growth with more efficient incorporation of ammonia nitrogen. By applying the sequential process, the heat value conversion efficiency (HVCE) for the wastewater could reach 41.2%, if methane was avoided in the fermentation biogas. The removal efficiencies of organic metabolites and NH4+-N in the better case were 100% and 98.3%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  9. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis: fermentation process and risk assessment: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise M. F Capalbo

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Several factors make the local production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt highly appropriate for pest control in developing nations. Bt can be cheaply produced on a wide variety of low cost, organic substrates. Local production results in considerable savings in hard currency which otherwise would be spent on importation of chemical and biological insecticides. The use of Bt in Brazil has been limited in comparison with chemical insecticides. Although Bt is imported, some Brazilian researchers have been working on its development and production. Fermentation processes (submerged and semi-solid were applied, using by-products from agro-industries. As the semi-solid fermentation process demonstrated to be interesting for Bt endotoxins production, it could be adopted for small scale local production. Although promising results had been achieved, national products have not been registered due to the absence of a specific legislation for biological products. Effective actions are being developed in order to solve this gap. Regardless of the biocontrol agents being considered atoxic and harmless to the environment, information related to direct and indirect effects of microbials are still insufficient in many cases. The risk analysis of the use of microbial control agents is of upmost importance nowadays, and is also discussed.

  11. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-objective process optimisation of beer fermentation via dynamic simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Alistair; Gerogiorgis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is an essential step in beer brewing: when yeast is added to hopped wort, sugars released from the grain during germination are fermented into ethanol and higher alcohols. To study, simulate and optimise the beer fermentation process, accurate models of the chemical system are required for dynamic simulation of key component concentrations. Since the entire beer production process is a highly complex series of chemical reactions with the presence of over 600 species, many of the ...

  13. Limitations of Bio-Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation Process: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Ho, Goen

    2007-10-01

    Turning organic wastes into hydrogen (H2) by using anaerobic fermentative technology is an ideal concept because this can accomplish both waste treatment and energy recovery objectives. However, H2 production using anaerobic fermentative approaches faces a fundamental limitation of poor H2 production yield (i.e. overview on the limitations of bio-H2 production using fermentative processes. Fundamental microbiology and thermodynamic of the processes are discussed.

  14. Metabolite profiling of the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Morisaka, Hironobu; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Aoki, Wataru; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tani, Masafumi; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kitaoka, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Wakai, Yoshinori; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sake is a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage prepared by multiple parallel fermentation of rice. The fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" sake is mainly performed by three microbes, Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacilli; the levels of various metabolites fluctuate during the fermentation of sake. For evaluation of the fermentation process, we monitored the concentration of moderate-sized molecules (m/z: 200-1000) dynamically changed during the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake. This analysis revealed that six compounds were the main factors with characteristic differences in the fermentation process. Among the six compounds, four were leucine- or isoleucine-containing peptides and the remaining two were predicted to be small molecules. Quantification of these compounds revealed that their quantities changed during the month of fermentation process. Our metabolomic approach revealed the dynamic changes observed in moderate-sized molecules during the fermentation process of sake, and the factors found in this analysis will be candidate molecules that indicate the progress of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" sake fermentation.

  15. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-05

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Enhanced Down-Stream Processing of Biobutanol in the ABE Fermentation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Patraşcu, Iulian; Segovia Hernandez, J. G.; Kiss, Anton A.; Kravanja, Zdravko; Bogataj, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Butanol is considered a superior biofuel, as it is more energy dense and less hygroscopic than bioethanol, resulting in higher possible blending ratios with gasoline. However, the production cost of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is high, mainly due to the low butanol titer,

  17. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  18. Study on fermentation kinetics and extraction process of rhamnolipid production by papermaking wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keer

    2018-01-01

    Paper mill wastewater (PMW) is the outlet water generated during pulp and papermaking process in the paper industry. Fermentation by wastewater can lower the cost of production as well as alleviate the pressure of wastewater treatment. Rhamnolipids find broad placations as natural surfactants. This paper studied the rhamnolipids fermentation by employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated by the laboratory, and determined to use wastewater which filtered by medium speed filter paper and strain Z2, the culture conditions were optimized, based on the flask shaking fermentation. On the basis of 5L tank fermentation, batch fermentation was carried out, the yield of fermentation reached 7.067g/L and the fermentation kinetics model of cell growth, product formation and substrate consumption was established by using origin software, and the fermentation process could be simulated well. And studied on the extraction process of rhamnolipids, through fermentation dynamic equation analysis can predict the in fill material yield can be further improved. Research on the extraction process of rhamnolipid simplifies the operation of extraction, and lays the foundation for the industrial extraction.

  19. Improved Release and Metabolism of Flavonoids by Steered Fermentation Processes: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thai Huynh; John Van Camp; Guy Smagghe; Katleen Raes

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on steered fermentation processes to release phenolic compounds from plant-based matrices, as well as on their potential application to convert phenolic compounds into unique metabolites. The ability of fermentation to improve the yield and to change the profile of phenolic compounds is mainly due to the release of bound phenolic compounds, as a consequence of the degradation of the cell wall structure by microbial enzymes produced during fermentation. Moreover...

  20. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  1. Introducing capnophilic lactic fermentation in a combined dark-photo fermentation process: a route to unparalleled H2 yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipasquale, L; Adessi, A; d'Ippolito, G; Rossi, F; Fontana, A; De Philippis, R

    2015-01-01

    Two-stage process based on photofermentation of dark fermentation effluents is widely recognized as the most effective method for biological production of hydrogen from organic substrates. Recently, it was described an alternative mechanism, named capnophilic lactic fermentation, for sugar fermentation by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana in CO2-rich atmosphere. Here, we report the first application of this novel process to two-stage biological production of hydrogen. The microbial system based on T. neapolitana DSM 4359(T) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL gave 9.4 mol of hydrogen per mole of glucose consumed during the anaerobic process, which is the best production yield so far reported for conventional two-stage batch cultivations. The improvement of hydrogen yield correlates with the increase in lactic production during capnophilic lactic fermentation and takes also advantage of the introduction of original conditions for culturing both microorganisms in minimal media based on diluted sea water. The use of CO2 during the first step of the combined process establishes a novel strategy for biohydrogen technology. Moreover, this study opens the way to cost reduction and use of salt-rich waste as feedstock.

  2. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  4. The changes of peroxide number of coconut meal during storage and fermentation processed with Aspergillus nige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Hamid

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermentation process and duration of storage of fermented coconut meal with Aspergillus niger on its peroxide number has been studied. First stage of experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with four treatments (raw coconut meal, 0 and 4 day aerobic fermentation incubation and after 2 day anaerobic enzymatic incubation. The peroxide number was determined as potentiality for rancidity. The three incubation processes decreased the peroxide number significantly. The highest reduction was obtained at 4 day aerobic fermentation (49.7%. The decrease of peroxide number of fermented coconut meal was correlated with the decrease of lipid content. The regression coefficient is highly significant (r2 = 0.76, P0.05. Statistical analysis for the peroxide number showed that there was highly significant interaction between the type of substrates and storage temperature. The peroxide number on the fermented products did not significantly increase, where as the non fermented products show significantly increased during storage course. The significant interaction between storage duration and temperature observed. At low temperatures (-13 and 4°C storage the peroxide number increased 44%, while at high temperature (29°C up to 95%. The highest peroxide number on the fermented product (43.5 ppm was obtained at the temperature storage of 29°C for 4 month period. This value is still under rancidity limit (80 ppm. It could be concluded that fermentation process reduced the rancidity of coconut meal.

  5. Ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled water by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    An process of integrated ethanol-methane fermentation with improved economics has been studied extensively in recent years, where the process water used for a subsequent fermentation of carbohydrate biomass is recycled. This paper presents a systematic study of the ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled process water. Compared with tap water, fermentation time was shortened by 40% when mixed water was employed. However, while the maximal ethanol production rate increased from 1.07g/L/h to 2.01g/L/h, ethanol production was not enhanced. Cell number rose from 0.6×10(8) per mL in tap water to 1.6×10(8) per mL in mixed water but although biomass increased, cell morphology was not affected. Furthermore, the use of mixed water increased the glycerol yield but decreased that of acetic acid, and the final pH with mixed water was higher than when using tap water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adherence and intracellular parasitism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, S A; Monteiro da Silva, J L; Giannini, M J

    2000-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus known to produce invasive systemic disease in humans. The 43-kDa glycoprotein of P. brasiliensis is the major diagnostic antigen of paracoccidioidomycosis and may act as a virulence factor, since it is a receptor for laminin.Very little is known about early interactions between this fungus and the host cells, so we developed in vitro a model system employing cultured mammalian cells (Vero cells), in order to investigate the factors and virulence mechanisms of P.brasiliensis related to the adhesion and invasion process. We found that there is a permanent interaction after 30 min of contact between the fungus and the cells. The yeasts multiply in the cells for between 5 and 24 h. Different strains of P. brasiliensis were compared, and strain 18 (high virulence) was the most strongly adherent, followed by strain 113 (virulent), 265 (considered of low virulence) and 113M (mutant obtained by ultraviolet radiation, deficient in gp43). P. brasiliensis adhered to the epithelial cells by a narrow tube, while depressions were noticed in the cell surface, suggesting an active cavitation process. An inhibition assay was performed and it was verified that anti-gp43 serum and a pool of sera from individuals with paracoccidioidomycosis were able to inhibit the adhesion of P. brasiliensis to the Vero cells. Glycoprotein 43 (gp43) antiserum abolished 85% of the binding activity of P. brasiliensis. This fungus can also invade the Vero cells, and intraepithelial parasitism could be an escape mechanism in paracoccidioidomycosis.

  7. Enhanced coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi-Yu; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-01-01

    A three-stage anaerobic fermentation process including H(2) fermentation I, H(2) fermentation II, methane fermentation was developed for the coproduction of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks. Hydrogen production from cornstalks using direct microbial conversion by Clostridium thermocellum 7072 was markedly enhanced in the two-stage thermophilic hydrogen fermentation process integrated with alkaline treatment. The highest total hydrogen yield from cornstalks in the two-stage fermentation process reached 74.4 mL/g-cornstalk. The hydrogen fermentation effluents and alkaline hydrolyzate were further used for methane fermentation by anaerobic granular sludge, and the total methane yield reached 205.8 mL/g-cornstalk. The total energy recovery in the three-stage anaerobic fermentation process integrated with alkaline hydrolysis reached 70.0%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  9. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  10. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. PMID:28419110

  11. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Bakker, E.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their

  12. Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    le phosphore inorganique ont présenté les meilleures tendances à prédire le potentiel de production à l'âge adulte. Mots clés : Hevea brasiliensis, production, sélection précoce, paramètres physiologiques, CI. ABSTRACT. SELECTIVE QUALITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN EARLY SELECTION OF Hevea ...

  13. Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. In vitro digestibility of processed and fermented soya bean, cowpea and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical legumes, ie soya bean and cowpea, were pre-treated and subsequently fermented using pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. Impact of soaking, cooking and fermentation of the legumes on their digestibility was determined using an in vitro digestion method. Processing of white maize included, amongst

  15. Influence of fermentation and other processing steps on the folate content of a traditional African cereal-based fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubade, Fabien; Hemery, Youna M; Rochette, Isabelle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Humblot, Christèle

    2018-02-02

    Folate deficiency can cause a number of diseases including neural tube defects and megaloblastic anemia, and still occurs in both developed and developing countries. Cereal-based food products are staple foods in many countries, and may therefore be useful sources of folate. The production of folate by microorganisms has been demonstrated in some cereal-based fermented foods, but has never been studied in a traditional African cereal based food spontaneously fermented. The microbiota of ben-saalga, a pearl-millet based fermented porridge frequently consumed in Burkina Faso, has a good genetic potential for the synthesis of folate, but the folate content of ben-saalga is rather low, suggesting that folate is lost during the different processing steps. The aim of this study was therefore to monitor changes in folate content during the different steps of preparing ben-saalga, from pearl-millet grains to porridge. Traditional processing involves seven different steps: washing, soaking, grinding, kneading, sieving, (spontaneous) fermentation, and cooking. Two type of porridge were prepared, one using a process adapted from the traditional process, the other a modified process based on fermentation by backslopping. Dry matter and total folate contents were measured at each step, and a mass balance assessment was performed to follow folate losses and gains. Folate production was observed during the soaking of pearl-millet grains (+26% to +79%), but the folate content of sieved batters (2.5 to 3.4μg/100g fresh weight) was drastically lower than that of milled soaked grains (17.3 to 19.4μg/100g FW). The final folate content of the porridges was very low (1.5 to 2.4μg/100g FW). The fermentation had no significant impact on folate content, whatever the duration and the process used. This study led to a better understanding of the impact on folate of the different processing steps involved in the preparation of ben-saalga. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermentation of sewage sludge using the MixAlco process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    fermentor, calcium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate is added, which results in the formation and accumulation of carboxylate salts. Using thermal conversion, the carboxylate salts are converted to ketones and after hydrogenation, the ketones can. Pretreatment. Drying. Dewatering. Fermentation. Thermal. Conversion.

  17. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Havlik, S.; Lee, W.C.; Lineback, D.S.; Park, C.H.; Okos, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    A range of chemicals can be made from fermentation processes, and most fermentations are characterized by product inhibition. As product concentration increases, inhibitory products can substantially limit the rate of fermentation processes. Product recovery costs are a strong function of concentration. It is expensive to recover low levels of product from a fermentation broth. Thus, fermentation costs (which increase with higher product concentration) traditionally must be balanced against product recovery costs (which decrease with product concentration). A novel reactor-separator process has been developed at Purdue University to minimize product inhibition of fermentation rates. This reactor has been shown to exhibit very high productivities --- simultaneously producing and removing a inhibitory product while maintaining a high viable cell concentration in the reactor. The basic objective of this study is to develop an energy efficient and economical process to convert food wastes to usable fuels and chemicals. The work is divided into two major efforts: an applied phase which involves design and building of a whey to ethanol process as well as process design and optimization; and a basic phase which involves investigating alternative fermentation systems and fundamental research on immobilized cell reactor systems. This document discusses the study and its results.

  18. Real-time economic optimization for a fermentation process using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation is a widely used process in production of many foods, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. The main goal of the control system is to maximize profit of the fermentation process, and thus this is also the main goal of this paper. We present a simple dynamic model for a fermentation process...... and demonstrate its usefulness in economic optimization. The model is formulated as an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE), which guarantees conservation of mass and energy in discrete form. The optimization is based on recent advances within Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E...

  19. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes: role of physiological fitness and microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-03-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable fitness for alcoholic fermentation, also uses defensive strategies mediated by different mechanisms, such as cell-to-cell contact and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, to combat other microorganisms. In this paper, we review the main physiological features underlying the special aptitude of S. cerevisiae for alcoholic fermentation and discuss the role of microbial interactions in its dominance during alcoholic fermentation, as well as its relevance for winemaking.

  20. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzai, Masaki; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Fukunaga, Kaori; Miyaoka, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process.

  1. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzai, Masaki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Nishikata, Atsuhiro [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Fukunaga, Kaori [NICT, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Miyaoka, Shunsuke [Industrial Research Centre of Ehime, Matsuyama, Ehime 791-1101 (Japan)

    2007-01-07

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process.

  2. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. New process for production of fermented black table olives using selected autochthonous microbial resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eTufariello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Table olives represent one important fermented product in Europe and, in the world, their demand is constantly increasing. At the present time, no systems are available to control black table olives spontaneous fermentation by the Greek method. During this study, a new protocol for the production of black table olives belonging to two Italian (Cellina di Nardò and Leccino and two Greek (Kalamàta and Conservolea cultivars has been developed: for each table olive cultivar, starter-driven fermentations were performed inoculating, firstly, one selected autochthonous yeast starter and, subsequently, one selected autochthonous LAB starter. All starters formulation were able to dominate fermentation process. The olive fermentation was monitored using specific chemical descriptors able to identify a first stage (30 days mainly characterized by aldehydes; a second period (60 days mainly characterized by higher alcohols, styrene and terpenes; a third fermentation stage represented by acetate esters, esters and acids. A significant decrease of fermentation time (from 8-12 months to a maximum of 3 months and an significant improvement in organoleptic characteristics of the final product were obtained. This study, for the first time, describes the employment of selected autochthonous microbial resources optimized to mimic the microbial evolution already recorded during spontaneous fermentations.

  4. Research and Application of Ectopic Microbial Fermentation System in Processing Piggery Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Li-ting

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide theoretical basis for application of the ectopic microbial fermentation bed, the efficiency and quality of the ectopic microbial fermentation bed in processing piggery waste were evaluated by measuring the changes of physicochemical and environmental factors and the absorption of piggery wastewater. The results showed that the fermentation temperature of the filler maintained above 40℃ for up to 48 days and the highest fermentation temperature was 66℃. The alkaline environment and the moisture of filler remaining 50%~65% during the fermentation was suitable for aerobic fermentation of microorganisms. The absorption coeffient of piggery wastewater of the filler was 2.53, which was better than that of dairy wastewater. Microbial activity was mainly based on bacteria in the fermentation system and the organic matter was degraded and utilized by microorganisms at the same time. After the fermentation, the total nutrient content and the organic matter mass fraction of the filler was 6.19% and 56.11%, respectively, which met with the national standard for organic fertilizer.

  5. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brand?o Mafra; da Silva, Mar?lia Lord?lo Cardoso; da Silva, Gerv?sio Paulo; Bruna Aparecida Souza MACHADO; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cacha?a (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of f...

  6. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mahua flowers are rich in sugar (68-72%), in addition to a number of minerals and one of the most important raw materials for alcohol fermentation. The present investigation was for the development of a non-distilled alcoholic beverage from Mahua flowers. Eighteen (18) treatment combinations consisting of two ...

  8. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Mahua flowers are rich in sugar (68-72%), in addition to a number of minerals and one of the most important raw materials for alcohol fermentation. The present investigation was for the development of a non-distilled alcoholic beverage from Mahua flowers. Eighteen (18) treatment combinations consisting ...

  9. Inhibitory Compounds in Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates during Hydrolysate Fermentation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Muilwijk, B.; Coulier, L.C.; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the composition and performance of various lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media, 8 hydrolysates were generated from a grass-like and a wood biomass. The hydrolysate preparation methods used were 1) dilute acid, 2) mild alkaline, 3) alkaline/peracetic acid, and 4)

  10. Food Grade Ehanol Production With Fermentation And Distillation Process Using Stem Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Setyowati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10% -12% of sugar in its stem which is the optimum sugar concentration in fermentation process for bioethanol production. Sorghum has a high potential to be developed as a raw material for food-grade ethanol production which can be used to support food-grade ethanol demand in Indonesia through a fermentation process. This research focused on the effect of microorganism varieties in the fermentation process which are mutant Zymomonas mobilis (A3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis mixture. The Research for purification process are separated into two parts, distillation with steel wool structured packing and dehydration process using molecular sieve and eliminating impurities using activated carbon. The research can be concluded that the best productivity shown in continuous fermentation in the amount of 84.049 (g / L.hr using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The highest percentage of ethanol yield produced in batch fermentation using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis that is equal to 51.269%. And for the adsorption, the best result shown in continuous fermentation by using Zymomonas Mobilis of 88.374%..

  11. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava...... softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun....

  12. On-line monitoring of fermentation processes using multi-wavelength fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odman, Peter; Petersen, Nanna; Johansen, Claus Lindvald

    2007-01-01

    Fermentation processes often suffer from a lack of real-time methods for on-line determination of variables like the concentrations of nutrients and products. This work aims at investigating the possibilities of implementing an on-line fermentation monitoring system based on multi....... The model system considered in this work is the antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor, a filamentous bacterium. In addition to predicting concentrations of biomass in the fermentation broth, the data allowed detection of different physiological states, i.e. growth phase and phosphate limitation...

  13. Valuable biochemical production in mixed culture fermentation: fundamentals and process coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Wen, Jun-Li; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2017-08-02

    The mixed culture fermentation is an important environmental biotechnology that converts biodegradable organic wastes to valuable chemicals such as hydrogen, methane, acetate, ethanol, propionate, and so on. For the multistep process of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis/homoacetogensis, and methanogenesis, the typical metabolic reactions are firstly summarized. And then, since the final metabolites are always a mixture, the separation and purification processes are necessary to couple with anaerobic fermentation. Therefore, several typical coupling technologies including biogas upgrading, two-stage fermentation, gas stripping, membrane technology of pervaporation, membrane distillation, electrodialysis, bipolar membrane electrodialysis, and microbial fuel cells are summarized to separate the metabolites and recover energy. At last, the novel technologies such as the controlled metabolite production, medium chain carboxylic acid production, and high temperature ethanol recovery in thermophilic mixed culture fermentation are also reviewed. However, the novel concepts are still needed to meet the demands of better overall performances and lower total costs.

  14. “Lemzeiet” : Traditional couscous manufacture from fermented wheat (Algeria): process and technological and nutritional quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bekhouche, Farida; Merabti, Ryma; Bailly, Jean-Denis

    2013-01-01

    Couscous “Lemzeiet” was made from fermented wheat using a traditional process specific to the region of Constantine (North East of Algeria). This study involved the valorisation of traditional fermentation techniques of wheat in an underground silo called “Matmor” and manufacture of couscous “Lemzeiet”. The first part of this study consisted in a survey conducted in the city of Constantine. The 229 participants were from the east of Algeria: Constantine (191), Sigus (22) and Mila (16). The ag...

  15. Study through surveys and fermentation kinetics of the traditional processing of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) into ben-saalga, a fermented gruel from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, E H; Guyot, J P; Mouquet-Rivier, C; Rochette, I; Counil, E; Traoré, A S; Trèche, S

    2006-01-15

    Traditional cereal-based fermented foods are frequently used as complementary foods for infants and young children in Africa. This is the case for ben-saalga, a popular fermented gruel produced from pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) in Burkina Faso. Detailed knowledge of traditional processing is a prerequisite for investigating ways to improve both the nutritional and sanitary qualities of the corresponding foodstuff. In this work, the traditional processing of pearl millet into ben-saalga was investigated in 24 production units, and fermentation kinetics were studied in pilot scale experiments. Processing steps include: washing (optional), soaking of the grains (first fermentation step), grinding and sieving of the wet flour, settling (second fermentation step), and cooking. The soaking step was mainly characterized by alcoholic fermentation whereas lactic acid fermentation occurred during the settling step. Fermentation kinetics during settling indicates a temporal variation of metabolic activity. Initially, both homofermentative and heterofermentative pathways were simultaneously active, and later only a homofermentative pathway was active. The paste produced at the end of settling had a low pH (4.0+/-0.4) and its microflora was dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with an amylolytic LAB/LAB ratio of 12%. Sucrose disappeared in the grains during soaking but was not detected in the soaking water, whereas glucose, fructose and maltose appeared transiently. Glucose and fructose were the main substrates observed for lactic acid fermentation during the settling step; however unbalanced fermentation led to the hypothesis that starch hydrolysis products may also serve as substrates for lactic acid formation. At the end of the processing, a 75% and 83% decrease was observed in phytate (IP6) and raffinose, respectively. The sour gruel ben-saalga resulting from cooking the sour paste had inadequate nutritional characteristics with respect to infants' and young

  16. Nonlinear analysis and control of a continuous fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szederkényi, G.; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Hangos, K.M

    2002-01-01

    Different types of nonlinear controllers are designed and compared for a simple continuous bioreactor operating near optimal productivity. This operating point is located close to a fold bifurcation point. Nonlinear analysis of stability, controllability and zero dynamics is used to investigate o...... are recommended for the simple fermenter. Passivity based controllers have been found to be globally stable, not very sensitive to the uncertainties in the reaction rate and controller parameter but they require full nonlinear state feedback....

  17. The water kefir grain inoculum determines the characteristics of the resulting water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, D; De Vuyst, L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations and the microbial species diversity. There were always 2-10 lactic acid bacterial cells for every yeast cell and the majority of these micro-organisms was always present on the grains. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were always present and may be the key micro-organisms during water kefir fermentation. Low water kefir grain growth was associated with small grains with high viable counts of micro-organisms, fast fermentation and low pH values, and was not caused by the absence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria. The water kefir grain inoculum influences the microbial species diversity and characteristics of the fermentation process. A select group of key micro-organisms was always present during fermentation. This study allows a rational selection of a water kefir grain inoculum. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in

  19. YEAST dynamics during the natural fermentation process of table olives (Negrinha de Freixo cv.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ermelinda L; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Borges, Ana; Pereira, José A; Baptista, Paula

    2015-04-01

    Yeast population and dynamics associated to spontaneous fermentation of green table olives Negrinha de Freixo cv. were evaluated. Olives and brine samples were taken at different fermentation times, and yeast were enumerated by standard plate count and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequent, followed by Candida tropicalis, Pichia membranifaciens and Candida boidini, representing together 94.8% of the total isolates. Galactomyces reessii was also identified for the first time in table olives. The highest species diversity was found between 44 and 54 days of fermentation, both in brine and olive pulp. Furthermore, high similarity was observed between brine and olive pulp microbiotas. In conclusion, these results give valuable information to table olive industrials in order to achieve more knowledge on the fermentation process of this important Protected Designation of Origin product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... the reactor in the beginning of the fermentation. During the process there is no input nor output flow. In fed-batch process, nothing is removed from the reactor during the process, but one substrate component is added in ... batch; in this type of fed-batch, the limiting substrate is fed without diluting the culture.

  1. [GSH fermentation process modeling using entropy-criterion based RBF neural network model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zuoping; Wang, Shitong; Deng, Zhaohong; Du, Guocheng

    2008-05-01

    The prediction accuracy and generalization of GSH fermentation process modeling are often deteriorated by noise existing in the corresponding experimental data. In order to avoid this problem, we present a novel RBF neural network modeling approach based on entropy criterion. It considers the whole distribution structure of the training data set in the parameter learning process compared with the traditional MSE-criterion based parameter learning, and thus effectively avoids the weak generalization and over-learning. Then the proposed approach is applied to the GSH fermentation process modeling. Our results demonstrate that this proposed method has better prediction accuracy, generalization and robustness such that it offers a potential application merit for the GSH fermentation process modeling.

  2. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  3. Detection of Gluten during the Fermentation Process To Produce Soy Sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wanying; Watson, Damien; Bakke, Mikio; Panda, Rakhi; Bedford, Binaifer; Kande, Parnavi S; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2017-04-03

    Advances have been made to provide people with celiac disease (CD) access to a diverse diet through an increase in the availability of gluten-free food products and regulations designed to increase label reliability. Despite advances in our knowledge regarding CD and analytical methods to detect gluten, little is known about the effects of fermentation on gluten detection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow devices routinely used by analytical laboratories and regulatory agencies to test for the presence of gluten in food were examined for their ability to detect gluten during the fermentation processes leading to the production of soy sauce, as well as in finished products. Similar results were observed irrespective of whether the soy sauce was produced using pilot-plant facilities or according to a homemade protocol. In both cases, gluten was not detected after moromi (brine-based) fermentation, which is the second stage of fermentation. The inability to detect gluten after moromi fermentation was irrespective of whether the assay used a sandwich configuration that required two epitopes or a competitive configuration that required only one epitope. Consistent with these results was the observation that ELISA, lateral flow devices, and Western immunoblot analyses were unable to detect gluten in commercial soy sauce, teriyaki sauce, and Worcestershire sauce. Although reports are lacking on problems associated with the consumption of fermented soy-containing sauces by consumers with CD, additional research is needed to determine whether all immunopathogenic elements in gluten are hydrolyzed during soy sauce production.

  4. Classification and analysis of the fermenter with mechanical mixing devices in aerobic processes of biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Миколайович Закоморний

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed modern classification of industrial fermenters with the introduction of mechanical energy by mixing devices and contained analyses of specific multiphase flow system, based on the analysis of oxygen mass transfer processes in the processes of aerobic cultivation allows to calculate basic parameters of typical groups of devices

  5. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  6. Two Approaches to Control of Fed-batch Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ilkova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available L-lysine is one of the irreplaceable aminoacids whose content in the animal protein is relatively high in comparison to plants, where the content is relatively low. The insufficiently L-lysine quantity in the fodders reduces the biological value of the fodder doses, reduces the weight increase and the further productiveness of the agricultural animals, it increases the fodder quantity, used for a kilogram growth and decreases the product quantity of animal origin. The most effective and cheapest method for the L-lysine biosynthesis (in biological active form is the microbiological method via a direct fermentation. In this paper it is used an optimization method at the L-lysine production from strain Brevibacterium flavum 22LD - Neuro-dynamic programming. For receiving a feedback and robustness of the optimal control profile the Model predictive control of the L-lysine production is developed.

  7. [The optimization of guanosine fermentation based on process parameter correlation analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianpeng; Chen, Shuangxi; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Wang, Huanzhang; Liu, Yongmei

    2002-04-01

    The characteristic of Bacillus subtilis fermentation process of guanosine on 50 L fermentor was analyzed. Based on determination of on-line and off-line parameter, using correlation analysis, the technology study of physiologic regulation was combined with the metabolic flux distribution of synthesis process. The metabolic flux shift from HMP to EMP and TCA cycle during fermentation was found. The reason of the flux shift was preliminary analyzed, based on which the procedure was optimized to increase the yield of guanosine to 30 g/L.

  8. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  9. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number......Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... or decrease was observed in the fluorescence landscapes. This thesis presents a correction strategy based on a chemometric modelling approach, where weighted non-linear regression and weighted PARAFAC analysis are combined. Based on the research conducted in this PhD project, it is concluded that near...

  10. Influence of fungal morphology on the performance of industrial fermentation processes for enzyme production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra

    Production of industrial enzymes is usually carried out as submerged aerobic fermentations. Filamentous microorganisms are widely used as hosts in these processes due to multiple advantages. Nevertheless, they also present major drawbacks, due to the unavoidable oxygen transfer limitations...... in this work, along with its correlation to viscosity and other process variables. Considerable research work has been conducted through the years to study fungal morphology and its relation to productivity. However, the work reported in the literature lacks relevant industrial data. In this work, a platform...... in the literature. The developed platform was used to study the influence of agitation intensity on the morphology, rheology and protein production capability of Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30. Eight fed-batch fermentations were conducted in bench scale fermenters at two different media concentrations and four...

  11. Two-stage fermentation process for enhanced mannitol production using Candida magnoliae mutant R9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savergave, Laxman S; Gadre, Ramchandra V; Vaidya, Bhalchandra K; Jogdand, Vitthal V

    2013-02-01

    Mutants of Candida magnoliae NCIM 3470 were generated by treatment of ultra-violet radiations, ethyl methyl sulphonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutants with higher reductase activity were screened by means of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride agar plate assay. Among the screened mutants, the mutant R9 produced maximum mannitol (i.e. 46 g l(-1)) in liquid fermentation medium containing 250 g l(-1) glucose and hence was selected for further experiments. Preliminary optimization studies were carried out on shake-flask level which increased the mannitol production to 60 g l(-1) in liquid fermentation medium containing 300 g l(-1) glucose. A two-stage fermentation process comprising of growth phase and production phase was employed. During the growth phase, glucose was supplemented and aerobic conditions were maintained. Thereafter, the production phase was initiated by supplementing fructose and switching to anaerobic conditions by discontinuing aeration and decreasing the speed of agitation. The strategy of two-stage fermentation significantly enhanced the production of mannitol up to 240 g l(-1), which is the highest among all fermentative production processes and corresponds to 81 % yield and 4 g l(-1 )h(-1) productivity without formation of any by-product.

  12. Bio-hydrogen production using a two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalayah, W M; Kalil, M S; Kadhum, A A H; Jahim, J M; Jaapar, S Z S; Alauj, N M

    2009-11-15

    A two-stage fermentation process consisting of dark and photo-fermentation periods was carried out in a batch reactor. In the first stage, glucose was fermented in the dark stage using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564; CSN1-4) to produce acetate, CO2 and H2. The acetate produced in the first stage is fermented to H2 and CO2 by Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 for further hydrogen production in the second, illuminated stage. The yield of hydrogen in the first stage was about 3.10 mol H2 (mol glucose)(-1) at a glucose concentration of 10 g L(-1), pH 6 +/- 0.2 and 37 degrees C and the second stage yield was about 1.10-1.25 mol H2 (mol acetic acid)(-1) at pH 6.8 +/- 0.2 and 32 degrees C, without removal of the Clostridium CSN1-4. The overall yield of hydrogen in the two-stage process, with glucose as the main substrate was higher than single-stage fermentation.

  13. Efficient hydrogen gas production from cassava and food waste by a two-step process of dark fermentation and photo-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Wenming [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Zhihua [Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan, Meizhen [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A two-step process of sequential anaerobic (dark) and photo-heterotrophic fermentation was employed to produce hydrogen from cassava and food waste. In dark fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen was approximately 199 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 220 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. In subsequent photo-fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen from the effluent of dark fermentation was approximately 611 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 451 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. The total hydrogen yield in the two-step process was estimated as 810 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 671 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. Meanwhile, the COD decreased greatly with a removal efficiency of 84.3% in cassava batch and 80.2% in food waste batch. These results demonstrate that cassava and food waste could be ideal substrates for bio-hydrogen production. And a two-step process combining dark fermentation and photo-fermentation was highly improving both bio-hydrogen production and removal of substrates and fatty acids. (author)

  14. Modelling of Fed-batch Fermentation Process with Droppings for L-lysine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Ivanova

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the development of dynamic unstructured model of L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process with droppings. This approach includes the following procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; identification of the specific rates (growth rate (mu , substrate utilization rate (nu, production rate (rho; establishment and optimization of the dynamic model of the process; simulation researches.

  15. Flavor impacts of glycerol in the processing of yeast fermented beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangdong; Procopio, Susanne; Becker, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol contributes to the beverage body and fullness. Moreover, it also influences the flavor intensity. As a major byproduct, glycerol not only serves critical roles in yeast osmoregulation and redox balancing, but also acts as the carbon competitor against ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, increasing glycerol yield benefits both the flavor and ethanol reduction for the fermented beverages. Glycerol yield has been elevated either by fermentation optimization or by yeast genetic modification. The fermentation optimizations reached maximum 14 g/L glycerol through screening yeast strains and optimizing fermentation parameters. Meanwhile the yeast overexpressing GPD1 (encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) produced up to 6 folds more glycerol for beer and wine. Except for glycerol improvement, the genetically modified yeasts accumulated dramatically undesirable compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetate and acetoin which are detrimental for beverage flavor. In comparison, the natural high glycerol producers showed strain-specific manner on the yeast-derived aroma compounds like volatile acids, fusel alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Temperature, sugar concentration, nitrogen composition, oxygen and pH-value, which influence glycerol biosynthesis, also obtained various effects on the production of aromatic compounds. In the current review, we firstly deliberate the organoleptic contributions of glycerol for fermented beverages. Furthermore, glycerol optimization strategies are discussed regarding to the yield improvement, the genes expressions, the overall flavor impacts and the feasibilities in beverage applications. Lastly, for improving beverage flavor by glycerol optimization, a high-throughput platform is proposed to increase the screening capacity of yeast strains and parameters in the processing of fermented beverages.

  16. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  17. Fermented liquid feed - Feed processing has a big impact on microbial degradation of free lysine during fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of feed processing on the microbial degradation of free lysine during fermentation of liquid feed, a study at laboratory scale was carried out. Based on a standard Danish grower diet with extra free amino acids added, two treatments were prepared: treatment 1......) pelleted (83 °C) diet; treatment 2) mash, non-heated diet. The feed was mixed with water (1:2.75, w/w) and incubated at  25 °C. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in liquid feed prepared with the mash than with the pelleted feed immediately after feed and water were added to the mixture but after...

  18. A strategy to design efficient fermentation processes for traditional beverages production: prickly pear wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Bolaños, J L; Fato-Aldeco, E; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Botello-Álvarez, J E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes a methodology to establish an optimal process design for prickly pear wine production that preserves the peculiar and unique traits of traditional products, generating at the same time, technical information for appropriate design of both bioreactor and overall process. The strategy includes alcoholic fermentation optimization by the mixed native culture composed by Pichia fermentans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, followed by malolactic fermentation optimization by Oenococcus oeni. The optimization criteria were based on multiple output functions: alcohol content, volatile compounds profile, organic acids profile, and compound contents related to color, which were analyzed by spectroscopy-chromatography methods and sensory analysis. The results showed that the mixed culture inoculated into a bioreactor containing prickly pear juice with 20 °Bx of fermentable sugars concentration, processed at a constant temperature of 20 °C for 240 h, leads to a fermented product with 9.93% (v/v) total alcohol content, and significant abundance of volatile compounds, which provide fruity and ethereal aromatic notes, complemented by a lively but not unpleasant acidity. This young wine was further subjected to malolactic fermentation at constant temperature (16 °C) for 192 h, decreasing malic acid, and balancing volatile compounds contents, thus resulting in a product with better aroma and flavor perception, and a velvety feeling of long aftertaste. Repeated assays showed that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. These results were used for process design and spreadsheet construction in order to simulate the process, and properly select and size the equipment required for such process. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  20. Microbial community structure in fermentation process of Shaoxing rice wine by Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guangfa; Wang, Lan; Gao, Qikang; Yu, Wenjing; Hong, Xutao; Zhao, Lingyun; Zou, Huijun

    2013-09-01

    To understand the role of the community structure of microbes in the environment in the fermentation of Shaoxing rice wine, samples collected from a wine factory were subjected to Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing. De novo assembly of the sequencing reads allowed the characterisation of more than 23 thousand microbial genes derived from 1.7 and 1.88 Gbp of sequences from two samples fermented for 5 and 30 days respectively. The microbial community structure at different fermentation times of Shaoxing rice wine was revealed, showing the different roles of the microbiota in the fermentation process of Shaoxing rice wine. The gene function of both samples was also studied in the COG database, with most genes belonging to category S (function unknown), category E (amino acid transport and metabolism) and unclassified group. The results show that both the microbial community structure and gene function composition change greatly at different time points of Shaoxing rice wine fermentation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. The fermentation characteristics of different carbohydrate sources depending on heat processing: A model experiment with pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2017-01-01

    The effects of carbohydrate (CHO) source and processing (extrusion cooking) on large intestinal fermentation products were studied in ileo-cannulated pigs as a model for humans. Pigs were fed diets containing barley, pea or a mixture of potato starch:wheat bran (PSWB) either raw or extrusion cooked....... Extrusion cooking reduced the amount of starch fermented in the large intestine by 52–96% depending on the CHO source and the total pool of butyrate in the distal small intestine + large intestine by on average 60% across diets. Overall, extrusion cooking caused a shift in the composition of short...

  2. Improved release and metabolism of flavonoids by steered fermentation processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nguyen Thai; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy; Raes, Katleen

    2014-10-24

    This paper provides an overview on steered fermentation processes to release phenolic compounds from plant-based matrices, as well as on their potential application to convert phenolic compounds into unique metabolites. The ability of fermentation to improve the yield and to change the profile of phenolic compounds is mainly due to the release of bound phenolic compounds, as a consequence of the degradation of the cell wall structure by microbial enzymes produced during fermentation. Moreover, the microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds results in a large array of new metabolites through different bioconversion pathways such as glycosylation, deglycosylation, ring cleavage, methylation, glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation, depending on the microbial strains and substrates used. A whole range of metabolites is produced, however metabolic pathways related to the formation and bioactivities, and often quantification of the metabolites are highly underinvestigated. This strategy could have potential to produce extracts with a high-added value from plant-based matrices.

  3. Influence of fungal morphology on the performance of industrial fermentation processes for enzyme production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra

    is an important variable in industrial submerged fermentation since it highly impacts the broth rheology. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that affect it. One important factor is agitation-induced fragmentation since it will dictate the size of the particles, which will then affect rheology...... at predicting mycelial fragmentation across scales, compared to the EDCF. Furthermore, the morphological development of an industrial strain of T. reesei was monitored in pilot scale fermentations. This study showed that the morphology monitored with laser diffraction also granted the possibility to study......Production of industrial enzymes is usually carried out as submerged aerobic fermentations. Filamentous microorganisms are widely used as hosts in these processes due to multiple advantages. Nevertheless, they also present major drawbacks, due to the unavoidable oxygen transfer limitations...

  4. Improved Release and Metabolism of Flavonoids by Steered Fermentation Processes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thai Huynh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on steered fermentation processes to release phenolic compounds from plant-based matrices, as well as on their potential application to convert phenolic compounds into unique metabolites. The ability of fermentation to improve the yield and to change the profile of phenolic compounds is mainly due to the release of bound phenolic compounds, as a consequence of the degradation of the cell wall structure by microbial enzymes produced during fermentation. Moreover, the microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds results in a large array of new metabolites through different bioconversion pathways such as glycosylation, deglycosylation, ring cleavage, methylation, glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation, depending on the microbial strains and substrates used. A whole range of metabolites is produced, however metabolic pathways related to the formation and bioactivities, and often quantification of the metabolites are highly underinvestigated. This strategy could have potential to produce extracts with a high-added value from plant-based matrices.

  5. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélafi-Bakó, K.; Búcsú, D.; Pientka, Z.; Bálint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovács, K.I.; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    An integrated system for biohydrogen production and separation was designed, constructed and operated where biohydrogen was fermented by Thermococcus litoralis, a heterotrophic archaebacterium, and a two-step gas separation process was coupled to recover and concentrate hydrogen. A special liquid

  6. A vertical ball mill as a new reactor design for biomass hydrolysis and fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Assis Castro, Rafael Cunha; Mussatto, Solange I.; Conceicao Roberto, Inês

    2017-01-01

    A vertical ball mill (VBM) reactor was evaluated for use in biomass conversion processes. The effects of agitation speed (100–200 rpm), number of glass spheres (0–30 units) and temperature (40–46 °C) on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and on glucose fermentation by a thermotolerant Kluyveromyc...

  7. Process for the manufacture of a fermented health-promoting product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Koops, B.C.; Laere, van K.M.J.; Wissing, E.; Hagemann, R.J.J.; Meulen, van der J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process that yields a product that can suitably be used in the treatment and prevention of diarrhea without giving rise to any undesirable side-effects. The invention is based on the discovery that aqueous fractions obtained from the fermentation of certain plant

  8. Development of a lipase fermentation process that uses a recombinant Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, G; Hommes, R.W J; Quax, Wim

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes M-l secretes an alkaline lipase, which has excellent characteristics for the removal of fatty stains under modern washing conditions. A fed-batch fermentation process based on the secretion of the alkaline lipase from P. alcaligenes was developed. Due to the inability of P.

  9. Improved process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose......-containing material by sulfating the phenolic inhibitors and toxins using aryl sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.1) and sulfate transporter....

  10. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose......-containing material by enzymatically sulfating the phenolic inhibitors and toxins using aryl sulfotranseferases....

  11. Biogas Production Based On Miscanthus × Giganteus (Miscanthus Sinensis Anderss. Within Dry Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porvaz Pavol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dry fermentation“ technology may be used for energy recovery of phytomass substrate which has dry matter content from 20 to 60%. In agriculture sector, while only rarely used, it is a very perspective technology at such types of biomass – phytomass which is not recommended to be processed within “wet fermentation” (process is energetically and operationally very costly. For detecting the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus phytomass to biogas for production through dry fermentation process, as well as determining the biogas yield, at the Slovak university of Agriculture (SUA there has been developed an experimental device enabling the pilot plant trials, which is installed at the biogas station within the area of the VPP SPU Ltd. in Kolíňany. A pilot plant experiment of biogas production based on Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. phytomass within dry fermentation process was carried out at the period from 25 February to 25 March 2013. The monitored production of biogas was based on the substrate mixture of components formed as follows: the biomass from preceding cycle (farmyard manure and ensilage from Miscanthus phytomass. In these experiments the amount of produced biogas, analysis of biogas and the input substrate were materialized by standard methodology. On base of the obtained results, we can formulate the conclusion: the tested substrate mainly consists of Miscanthus phytomass and manure was suitable for biogas production technology and anaerobic dry fermentation process. The yield of Miscanthus substrate in our experiments was around 117 litres of biogas per 1 kg of dry matter silage. For assurance of the continuity and uniformity in the production of biogas by dry fermentation process, the multiple-fermentation chamber is needed, which must be saturated gradually with dosing interval. This dosing interval is caused by residence time and the number of chambers. For example, at the residence time of 28

  12. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the hydrolytic and acidogenic fermentation in a leach-bed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeuber, Heike; Kleinsteuber, Sabine [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy; UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology; Schroeder, Martina [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy

    2012-12-15

    Biogas production from lignocellulosic feedstock not competing with food production can contribute to a sustainable bioenergy system. The hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of solid substrates such as straw. Hence, a detailed understanding of the metabolic processes during the steps of hydrolysis and acidogenesis is required to improve process control strategies. The fermentation products formed during the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage as a model substrate in a leach-bed process were determined by gas and liquid chromatography. The bacterial community dynamics was monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The community profiles were correlated with the process data using multivariate statistics. The batch process comprised three metabolic phases characterized by different fermentation products. The bacterial community dynamics correlated with the production of the respective metabolites. In phase 1, lactic and acetic acid fermentations dominated. Accordingly, bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter were detected. In phase 2, the metabolic pathways shifted to butyric acid fermentation, accompanied by the production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and a dominance of the genus Clostridium. In phase 3, phylotypes affiliated with Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae prevailed, accompanied by the formation of caproic and acetic acids, and a high gas production rate. A clostridial butyric type of fermentation was predominant in the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage, whereas propionic-type fermentation was marginal. As the metabolite composition resulting from acidogenesis affects the subsequent methanogenic performance, process control should focus on hydrolysis/acidogenesis when solid substrates are digested. (orig.)

  13. Beer fermentation: monitoring of process parameters by FT-NIR and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvia; Amigo, José Manuel; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Foschino, Roberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2014-07-15

    This work investigates the capability of Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to monitor and assess process parameters in beer fermentation at different operative conditions. For this purpose, the fermentation of wort with two different yeast strains and at different temperatures was monitored for nine days by FT-NIR. To correlate the collected spectra with °Brix, pH and biomass, different multivariate data methodologies were applied. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR) were used to assess the relationship between FT-NIR spectra and the abovementioned process parameters that define the beer fermentation. The accuracy and robustness of the obtained results clearly show the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis, to be used as a quality control tool in the beer fermentation process. FT-NIR spectroscopy, when combined with LWR, demonstrates to be a perfectly suitable quantitative method to be implemented in the production of beer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  15. Suitability of anaerobic digestion effluent as process water for corn fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Liu, Pei; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-01-01

    A corn fuel ethanol plant integrated with anaerobic digestion treatment of thin stillage increases the net energy balance. Furthermore, the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) can be reused as a potential substitute for process water in the ethanol fermentation. In this study, the suitability of ADE as process water for corn ethanol fermentation was investigated by analyzing the potential inhibitory components in the ADE. It was found that ammonium influenced the growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum ethanol production was obtained when the concentration of ammonium nitrogen was 200 mg/L, and ammonium could replace urea as the nitrogen source for S. cerevisiae under this concentration. In the ethanol fermentation with a higher concentration of ammonium, more glycerol was produced, thereby resulting in the decrease of ethanol production. In addition, components except ammonium in the ADE caused no inhibition to ethanol production. These results suggest that ADE could be reused as process water for corn ethanol fermentation without negative effect when ammonium concentration is well controlled.

  16. The process-related dynamics of microbial community during a simulated fermentation of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiangzhen; Tao, Yong; Jia, Jia; He, Xiaohong

    2017-09-15

    Famous Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) is brewed by microbial consortia in a special fermentation pit (FT). However, the fermentation process was not fully understood owing to the complicate community structure and metabolism. In this study, the process-related dynamics of microbial communities and main flavor compounds during the 70-day fermentation process were investigated in a simulated fermentation system. A three-phase model was proposed to characterize the process of the CSFL fermentation. (i) In the early fermentation period (1-23 days), glucose was produced from macromolecular carbohydrates (e.g., starch). The prokaryotic diversity decreased significantly. The Lactobacillaceae gradually predominated in the prokaryotic community. In contrast, the eukaryotic diversity rose remarkably in this stage. Thermoascus, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and unidentified Saccharomycetales were dominant eukaryotic members. (ii) In the middle fermentation period (23-48 days), glucose concentration decreased while lactate acid and ethanol increased significantly. Prokaryotic community was almost dominated by the Lactobacillus, while eukaryotic community was mainly comprised of Thermoascus, Emericella and Aspergillus. (iii) In the later fermentation period (48-70 days), the concentrations of ethyl esters, especially ethyl caproate, increased remarkably. The CSFL fermentation could undergo three stages: saccharification, glycolysis and esterification. Saccharomycetales, Monascus, and Rhizopus were positively correlated to glucose concentration (P microbial communities during the CSFL fermentation, and it further revealed the correlations between some crucial microorganisms and flavoring chemicals (FCs). The results from this study help to design effective strategies to manipulate microbial consortia for fermentation process optimization in the CSFL brew practice.

  17. Fermentative production of lactic acid from biomass: an overview on process developments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rojan P; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-03-01

    The concept of utilizing excess biomass or wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial residues to produce energy, feeds or foods, and other useful products is not necessarily new. Recently, fermentation of biomass has gained considerable attention due to the forthcoming scarcity of fossil fuels and also due to the necessity of increasing world food and feed supplies. A cost-effective viable process for lactic acid production has to be developed for which several attempts have been initiated. Fermentation techniques result in the production of either D: (-) or L: (+) lactic acid, or a racemic mixture of both, depending on the type of organism used. The interest in the fermentative production of lactic acid has increased due to the prospects of environmental friendliness and of using renewable resources instead of petrochemicals. Amylolytic bacteria Lactobacillus amylovorus ATCC 33622 is reported to have the efficiency of full conversion of liquefied cornstarch to lactic acid with a productivity of 20 g l(-1) h(-1). A maximum of 35 g l(-1) h(-1) was reported using a high cell density of L. helveticus (27 g l(-1)) with a complete conversion of 55- to 60-g l(-1) lactose present in whey. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation is proved to be best in the sense of high substrate concentration in lower reactor volume and low fermentation cost. In this review, a survey has been made to see how effectively the fermentation technology explored and exploited the cheaply available source materials for value addition with special emphasis on lactic acid production.

  18. Comprehensive assessment of the L-lysine production process from fermentation of sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    L-Lysine is an essential amino acid that can be produced by chemical processes from fossil raw materials, as well as by microbial fermentation, the latter being a more efficient and environmentally friendly procedure. In this work, the production process of L-lysine-HCl is studied using a systematic approach based on modeling and simulation, which supports decision making in the early stage of process design. The study considers two analysis stages: first, the dynamic analysis of the fermentation reactor, where the conversion of sugars from sugarcane molasses to L-lysine with a strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is carried out. In this stage, the operation mode (either batch or fed batch) and operating conditions of the fermentation reactor are defined to reach the maximum technical criteria. Afterwards, the second analysis stage relates to the industrial production process of L-lysine-HCl, where the fermentation reactor, upstream processing, and downstream processing are included. In this stage, the influence of key parameters on the overall process performance is scrutinized through the evaluation of several technical, economic, and environmental criteria, to determine a profitable and sustainable design of the L-lysine production process. The main results show how the operating conditions, process design, and selection of evaluation criteria can influence in the conceptual design. The best plant design shows maximum product yield (0.31 g L-lysine/g glucose) and productivity (1.99 g/L/h), achieving 26.5% return on investment (ROI) with a payback period (PBP) of 3.8 years, decreasing water and energy consumption, and with a low potential environmental impact (PEI) index.

  19. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  20. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Roberta Oliveira; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Braga, Roberto Alves; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41gL(-1), reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Oliveira Viana

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid. Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

  2. Process of preparing ethanol by continuous fermentation of polysaccharide-containing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehnstroem, L.K.J.

    1981-04-16

    The invention concerns a process of preparing ethanol by continuous fermentation of polysaccharide - containing raw materials. Fermentation, hereby, occurs in one or several fermentors while dividing one stream of the fermentation liquid into a yeast-concentrate stream and a yeast-free stream and, if neccessary, a sludge stream. The yeast-concentrate stream is re-fed into the fermentor and at least part of the yeast-free stream is directed into a simple evaporator corresponding to one or several distilling stages where it is separated partially in an ethanol-enriched initial vapour stream supplying a facility to produce the desired ethanol quality, and partially in a liquid initial bottom stream re-fed at least in part into the fermentor. The characteristic feature of this new process is that a raw-material stream is fed into a closed circuit containing the fermentor and the evaporator, and that, in the evaporator, the raw-material stream is hydrolysed to a fermentable state. This hydrolysis is carried out most favourably by enzymes - preferably a gluco-amylase - at a temperature ranging from 35/sup 0/C to 75/sup 0/C.

  3. Application of mechanistic models to fermentation and biocatalysis for next-generation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Tufvesson, Pär

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic models are based on deterministic principles, and recently, interest in them has grown substantially. Herein we present an overview of mechanistic models and their applications in biotechnology, including future perspectives. Model utility is highlighted with respect to selection...... of variables required for measurement, control and process design. In the near future, mechanistic models with a higher degree of detail will play key roles in the development of efficient next-generation fermentation and biocatalytic processes. Moreover, mechanistic models will be used increasingly...

  4. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Peris Tortajada, Miguel; Escuder Gilabert, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one...

  5. Alcoholic fermentation with flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidini, Carla Zanella; Marquez, Líbia Diniz Santos; de Almeida Silva, Helisângela; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; Ribeiro, Eloízio Júlio

    2014-02-01

    Studies have been conducted on selecting yeast strains for use in fermentation for ethanol production to improve the performance of industrial plants and decrease production costs. In this paper, we study alcoholic fermentation in a fed-batch process using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain with flocculant characteristics. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal combination of the variables involved, with the sucrose concentration of 170 g/L, a cellular concentration in the inoculum of 40% (v/v), and a filling time of 6 h, which resulted in a 92.20% yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity for 92.75% and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K(I) and K(s) values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).

  6. Novel two-stage fermentation process for bioethanol production using Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Yogender Kumar; Miller, Kristen P; Hodge, David B; Henson, J Michael; Harcum, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic materials has the potential to be economically feasible, if both glucose and xylose released from cellulose and hemicellulose can be efficiently converted to ethanol. Saccharomyces spp. can efficiently convert glucose to ethanol; however, xylose conversion to ethanol is a major hurdle due to lack of xylose-metabolizing pathways. In this study, a novel two-stage fermentation process was investigated to improve bioethanol productivity. In this process, xylose is converted into biomass via non-Saccharomyces microorganism and coupled to a glucose-utilizing Saccharomyces fermentation. Escherichia coli was determined to efficiently convert xylose to biomass, which was then killed to produce E. coli extract. Since earlier studies with Saccharomyces pastorianus demonstrated that xylose isomerase increased ethanol productivities on pure sugars, the addition of both E. coli extract and xylose isomerase to S. pastorianus fermentations on pure sugars and corn stover hydrolysates were investigated. It was determined that the xylose isomerase addition increased ethanol productivities on pure sugars but was not as effective alone on the corn stover hydrolysates. It was observed that the E. coli extract addition increased ethanol productivities on both corn stover hydrolysates and pure sugars. The ethanol productivities observed on the corn stover hydrolysates with the E. coli extract addition was the same as observed on pure sugars with both E. coli extract and xylose isomerase additions. These results indicate that the two-stage fermentation process has the capability to be a competitive alternative to recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based fermentations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A great interest in the anaerobic digestion process results mainly from its advantages, as compared to aerobic methods. The main advantages of the methane digestion process are: Production of an insignificant amount of biomass and lower energy input, as compared to degradation conducted under aerobic conditions.

  8. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources

    2010-07-01

    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  9. Neural-networks-based feedback linearization versus model predictive control of continuous alcoholic fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjalli, F.S.; Al-Asheh, S. [Chemical Engineering Department, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2005-10-01

    In this work advanced nonlinear neural networks based control system design algorithms are adopted to control a mechanistic model for an ethanol fermentation process. The process model equations for such systems are highly nonlinear. A neural network strategy has been implemented in this work for capturing the dynamics of the mechanistic model for the fermentation process. The neural network achieved has been validated against the mechanistic model. Two neural network based nonlinear control strategies have also been adopted using the model identified. The performance of the feedback linearization technique was compared to neural network model predictive control in terms of stability and set point tracking capabilities. Under servo conditions, the feedback linearization algorithm gave comparable tracking and stability. The feedback linearization controller achieved the control target faster than the model predictive one but with vigorous and sudden controller moves. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    integration shows the need for an additional pH controller in the fermenten A PI controller is implemented and tested. The complete control structure for the integrated system consists of this PI controller in the fermenter plus a previously developed (Prado-Rubio et al., 2010) input resetting control......The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes...... structure in the REED module. The integrated system design and operation is investigated through batch production of a starter culture. Substantial productivity improvements are predicted using the REED process compared to other systems. Insights are obtained for improving the integrated design...

  11. Enhanced bio-energy recovery in a two-stage hydrogen/methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M J; Song, J H; Hwang, S J

    2009-01-01

    A two-stage hydrogen/methane fermentation process has emerged as a feasible engineering system to recover bio-energy from wastewater. Hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) generate hydrogen from readily available carbohydrates, and organic acids produced during the hydrogen fermentation step can be degraded to generate methane in the following step. Three strong acids, HCl, H(2)SO(4), and HNO(3), were tested to determine the appropriate pre-treatment method for enhanced hydrogen production. The hydrogen production rates of 230, 290, and 20 L/kg(-glucose)/day was observed for the sludge treated with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and HNO(3), respectively, indicating that the acid pre-treatment using either HCl or H(2)SO(4) resulted in a significant increase in hydrogen production. The fluorescent in situ hybridization method indicated that the acid pre-treatment selectively enriched HPB including Clostridium sp. of cluster I from inoculum sludge. After hydrogen fermentation was terminated, the sludge was introduced to a methane fermentation reactor. This experiment showed methane production rates of 100, 30, and 13 L/kg(-glucose)/day for the sludge pre-treated with HCl, H(2)SO(4), and HNO(3), respectively, implying that both sulfate and nitrate inhibited the activity of methane-producing bacteria. Consequently, the acid pre-treatment might be a feasible option to enhance biogas recovery in the two-stage fermentation process, and HCl was selected as the optimal strong acid for the enrichment of HPB and the continuous production of methane.

  12. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.

  13. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  14. Butanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiel-Bengelsdorf, Bettina; Montoya, José; Linder, Sonja; Dürre, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This review provides an overview on bacterial butanol production and recent developments concerning strain improvement, newly built butanol production plants, and the importance of alternative substrates, especially lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The butanol fermentation using solventogenic clostridial strains, particularly Clostridium acetobutylicum, is a very old industrial process (acetone-butanol-ethanol-ABE fermentation). The genome of this organism has been sequenced and analysed, leading to important improvements in rational strain construction. As the traditional ABE fermentation process is economically unfavourable, novel butanol production strains are being developed. In this review, some newly engineered solvent-producing Clostridium strains are described and strains of which sequences are available are compared with C. acetobutylicum. Furthermore, the past and present of commercial butanol fermentation are presented, including active plants and companies. Finally, the use of biomass as substrate for butanol production is discussed. Some advances concerning processing of biomass in a biorefinery are highlighted, which would allow lowering the price of the butanol fermentation process at industrial scale.

  15. On-line monitoring of food fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Miguel; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura

    2013-12-04

    Fermentation processes are often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, close follow-up of this type of processes is critical for detecting unfavorable deviations as early as possible in order to save downtime, materials and resources. Nevertheless the use of traditional analytical techniques is often hindered by the need for expensive instrumentation and experienced operators and complex sample preparation. In this sense, one of the most promising ways of developing rapid and relatively inexpensive methods for quality control in fermentation processes is the use of chemical multisensor systems. In this work we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the monitoring of fermentation processes using electronic noses and electronic tongues. After a brief description of the fundamentals of both types of devices, the different approaches are critically commented, their strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. Finally, future trends in this field are also mentioned in the last section of the article. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Performance optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with butanol extractive fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping

    2008-11-01

    The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.

  17. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes......A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...

  18. Reverse Osmosis Processing of Organic Model Compounds and Fermentation Broths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    followed by RO treatment step for water recycling in electronic industry (Chen and Chen, 2004), meat processing industry (Bohdziewicz and Sroka, 2005...Membr. Sci. 255, 117–124. Todtheide, V., Laufenberg, G., Kunz, B., 1997. Waste water treatment using reverse osmosis: real osmotic pressure and chemical...A., Inanc, B., 2002. Fouling of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes by dairy industry effluents. Water Sci. Technol. 45 (12), 355–360

  19. Automated monitoring of amino acids during fermentation processes using on-line ultrafiltration and column liquid chromatography: application to fermentation medium improvement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Merbel, N.C.; Holthuis, J.J.M.; Lingeman, H.; Brinkman, U.A.T.; Zuur, P.; Frijlink, M.

    1995-01-01

    An automated system for the monitoring of amino acids during fermentation processes is described and evaluated. The system is based on the on-line combination of a hollow-fibre ultrafiltration module, for the removal of cellular and macromolecular material from the broth, and ion-exchange

  20. Possibility of using apple pomaces in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Piwowarek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Utilization of by-products is a significant challenge for manufacturing sites and the natural environment. The solution to this problem may involve the use of pomace as a medium component for microorganism cultivation, which is a source of industrially useful metabolites. This study examined the possibility of using apple pomace as a carbon source in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation via wild strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii T82 bacteria.

  1. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  2. Optimum Fermentation Process for Red Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium and Gracillaria verrucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Red macroalgae have the potential to be processed into bioethanol due to their high carbohydrate and low lignin content. Gelidium latifolium and Gracilaria verrucosa are red macroalgae commonly found in Indonesian seas. Sometimes an over-supply of red macroalgae is rejected by the food industry, which opens up opportunities for others uses, e.g. for producing bioethanol. The objectives of this research were to analyze the influence of sulfuric acid concentration on hydrolysis of G. latifolium and G. verrucosa and to calculate the optimum fermentation process to produce bioethanol. G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were hydrolyzed using H2SO4 at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, at a temperature of 121 °C and a pressure of 1.5 bar for 45 minutes. The process of fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic conditions for 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The results show that the optimum H2SO4 concentrations to hydrolyze G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were 1% and 2% respectively. The number of S. cerevisiae cells in hydrolysate G. latifolium and G. verrucosa increased in the third adaptation. S. cerevisiae can convert sugar from G. latifolium and G. verrucosa into bioethanol through fermentation. The highest bioethanol yields were achieved on days five and six. Therefore, red macroalgae can be seen as a potential raw material for bioethanol production.

  3. Optimization of the integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process by air stripping and glucoamylase addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Ke; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed. In the integrated process, extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. In this study, an Aspergillus niger mutant strain exhibiting resistance to high metal ions concentration was used to eliminate the inhibition of 200 mg/L Na(+) and 300 mg/L K(+) in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) and citric acid production increased by 25.0 %. Air stripping was used to remove ammonium, alkalinity, and part of metal ions in ADE before making mash. In consequence, citric acid production was significantly improved but still lower by 6.1 % than the control. Results indicated that metal ions in ADE synergistically inhibited the activity of glucoamylase, thus reducing citric acid production. When 130 U/g glucoamylase was added before fermentation, citric acid production was 141.5 g/L, which was even higher than the control (140.4 g/L). This process could completely eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  4. Processed milk waste recycling via thermal pretreatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Processed milk waste (MW) presents a serious problem within the dairy industries due to its high polluting load. Its chemical oxygen demand (COD) can reach values as high as 80,000 mg O2 L-1. This study proposes to reduce the organic load of those wastes using thermal coagulation and recover residual valuable components via fermentation. Thermal process results showed that the COD removal rates exceeded 40% when samples were treated at temperature above 60 °C to reach 72% at 100 °C. Clarified supernatants resulting from thermal treatment of the samples at the temperatures of 60 (MW60), 80 (MW80), and 100 °C (MW100) were fermented using lactic acid bacteria strains without pH control. Lactic strains recorded important final cell yields (5-7 g L-1). Growth mediums prepared using the thermally treated MW produced 73% of the bacterial biomass recorded with a conventional culture medium. At the end of fermentation, mediums were found exhausted from several valuable components. Industrial scale implementation of the proposed process for the recycling of industrial MWs is described and discussed.

  5. Microdilution procedure for antifungal susceptibility testing of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis to amphotericin b and itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Takahagi-Nakaira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro tests employing microdilution to evaluate fungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs are already standardized for fermentative yeasts. However, studies on the susceptibility of dimorphic fungi such as Paracoccidioides brasiliensis employing this method are scarce. The present work introduced some modifications into antifungal susceptibility testing from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST, concerning broth medium and reading time, to determine minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Yeast-like cells of P. brasiliensis (Pb18 strain were tested for susceptibility to amphotericin B and itraconazole in RPMI 1640 medium, supplemented with 2% glucose and nitrogen source and incubated at 35°C. The MIC of amphotericin B and itraconazole against Pb18 were respectively 0.25 µg/mL and 0.002 µg/mL. The results of minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC showed that amphotericin B at 0.25 µg/mL or higher concentrations displayed fungicidal activity against Pb18 while itraconazole at least 0.002 µg/mL has a fungistatic effect on P. brasiliensis. In conclusion, our results showed that the method employed in the present study is reproducible and reliable for testing the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis to antifungal drugs.

  6. Novel fermentation processes for manufacturing plant natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingwen; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Microbial production of plant natural products (PNPs), such as terpenoids, flavonoids from renewable carbohydrate feedstocks offers sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to their petroleum-based production. Rapid development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology of microorganisms shows many advantages to replace the current extraction of these useful high price chemicals from plants. Although few of them were actually applied on a large scale for PNPs production, continuous research on these high-price chemicals and the rapid growing global market of them, show the promising future for the production of these PNPs by microorganisms with a more economic and environmental friendly way. Introduction of novel pathways and optimization of the native cellular processes by metabolic engineering of microorganisms for PNPs production are rapidly expanding its range of cell-factory applications. Here we review recent progress in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of PNPs. Besides, factors restricting the yield improvement and application of lab-scale achievements to industrial applications have also been discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Lalaurette, Elodie

    2009-08-01

    A two-stage dark-fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials into hydrogen gas at high yields and rates. Fermentation using Clostridium thermocellum produced 1.67 mol H2/mol-glucose at a rate of 0.25 L H2/L-d with a corn stover lignocellulose feed, and 1.64 mol H2/mol-glucose and 1.65 L H2/L-d with a cellobiose feed. The lignocelluose and cellobiose fermentation effluent consisted primarily of: acetic, lactic, succinic, and formic acids and ethanol. An additional 800 ± 290 mL H2/g-COD was produced from a synthetic effluent with a wastewater inoculum (fermentation effluent inoculum; FEI) by electrohydrogensis using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Hydrogen yields were increased to 980 ± 110 mL H2/g-COD with the synthetic effluent by combining in the inoculum samples from multiple microbial fuel cells (MFCs) each pre-acclimated to a single substrate (single substrate inocula; SSI). Hydrogen yields and production rates with SSI and the actual fermentation effluents were 980 ± 110 mL/g-COD and 1.11 ± 0.13 L/L-d (synthetic); 900 ± 140 mL/g-COD and 0.96 ± 0.16 L/L-d (cellobiose); and 750 ± 180 mL/g-COD and 1.00 ± 0.19 L/L-d (lignocellulose). A maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.11 ± 0.13 L H2/L reactor/d was produced with synthetic effluent. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC using SSI were 270 ± 20% for the synthetic effluent, 230 ± 50% for lignocellulose effluent and 220 ± 30% for the cellobiose effluent. COD removals were ∼90% for the synthetic effluents, and 70-85% based on VFA removal (65% COD removal) with the cellobiose and lignocellulose effluent. The overall hydrogen yield was 9.95 mol-H2/mol-glucose for the cellobiose. These results show that pre-acclimation of MFCs to single substrates improves performance with a complex mixture of substrates, and that high hydrogen yields and gas production rates can be achieved using a two-stage fermentation and MEC

  8. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavor profile change of pomegranate wine during fermentation and aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yongli; Wu, Jin; Wang, Xuejiao; Sun, Xuchun; Hackman, Robert M; Li, Zhixi; Feng, Xianchao

    2017-10-01

    Antioxidant properties and flavor characteristic profile of pomegranate wine during winemaking were investigated. The total phenol content and radical scavenging activity exhibited a slightly decrease in the end edge. Punicalagins and gallic acid were revealed to be the most abundant phenolic compounds, followed by ellagic acid and vanillic acid. These constituents were mainly responsible for the effective antioxidant capacity of pomegranate wine. The major changes of flavor qualities occurred in the initial stage, particularly 0-4day of fermentation. Fermentation significantly reduced the relative content of aldehydes, ketones, heterocyclic and aromatic compounds, but promoted the generation of esters and alcohols. This is the first time of using E-nose and E-tongue to monitor odour and taste changes in the brewing process of pomegranate wine. The study may provide a promising instruction for improving functional features and quality control of the pomegranate wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Mead Wort Heat Treatment on the Mead Fermentation Process and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Czabaj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mead wort heat treatment on the mead fermentation process and antioxidant activity were tested. The experiment was conducted with the use of two different honeys (multiflorous and honeydew collected from the Lower Silesia region (Poland. Heat treatment was performed with the use of a traditional technique (gently boiling, the more commonly used pasteurization, and without heat treatment (control. During the experiment fermentation dynamics were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total phenolic content (TPC were estimated for worts and meads using UV/Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF was monitored by HPLC analyses. Heat treatment had a great impact on the final antioxidant capacity of meads.

  11. Measurement processing for state estimation and fault identification in batch fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dondo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an application of maximum likelihood identification and statistical detection techniques for determining the presence and nature of abnormal behaviors in batch fermentations. By appropriately organizing these established techniques, a novel algorithm that is able to detect and isolate faults in nonlinear and uncertain processes was developed. The technique processes residuals from a nonlinear filter based on the assumed model of fermentation. This information is combined with mass balances to conduct statistical tests that are used as the core of the detection procedure. The approach uses a sliding window to capture the present statistical properties of filtering and mass-balance residuals. In order to avoid divergence of the nonlinear monitor filter, the maximum likelihood states and parameters are periodically estimated. The maximum likelihood parameters are used to update the kinetic parameter values of the monitor filter. If the occurrence of a fault is detected, alternative faulty model structures are evaluated statistically through the use of log-likelihood function values and chi2 detection tests. Simulation obtained for xanthan gum batch fermentations are encouraging.

  12. Flow and Stress Field Analysis of Different Fluids and Blades for Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation techniques are applied for the biotechnology and are widely used for food manufacturing, materials processing, chemical reaction, and so forth. Different fluids and types of blades in the tank for fermentation cause distinct flow and stress field distributions on the surface between fluid and blade and various flow reactions in the tank appear. This paper is mainly focused on the analysis of flow field with different fluid viscosities and also studied the stress field acting on the blades with different scales and shapes of them under specific rotational speed. The results show that the viscosity of fluid influences the flow field and stress distributions on the blades. The maximum stress that acts on the blade is increased with the increasing of viscosity. On the other hand, the ratio of blade length to width influences stress distributions on the blade. At the same time, the inclined angle of blade is also the key parameter for the consideration of design and appropriate inclined angle of blade will decrease the maximum stress. The results provide effective means of gaining insights into the flow and stress distribution of fermentation process.

  13. Comparison of the effect of benzoic acid addition on the fermentation process quality with untreated silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of benzoic acid and formic acid (positive control of ensilaged maize and pressed sugar beet pulp on quality fermentation processes was studied in a laboratory experiment. The effect of additive on the quality of fermentation process during maize ensiling was studied in a first model experiment. Preservatives such as formic acid and benzoic acid were added to ensiled maize at the concentration of 1L/t and 1 kg/t, respectively. When benzoic acid was used as a preservative, the pH and the N-NH3/ N total ratio decreased statistically (PSugar beet pulp silages with benzoic acid or formic acid after 32 days of storage had a better sensuous evaluation than the control silage. The most intensive decrease of pH value was observed after formic acid addition as compared with control silage. The statistically significantly (P<0.05 highest lactic acid content (49.64 ± 0.28 as well as the highest ratio of LA/VFA were found in the sugar beet pulp silage with benzoic acid. Lactic acid constituted the highest percentage (P<0.05 of all fermentation acids in the silage with benzoic acid additive (65.12 ± 0.80. Undesirable butyric acid (BA was not found in any variant of silages. The positive correlation between the titration acidity and acids sum in dry matter of silage conserved with formic acid was found. The additive of organic acids reduced significantly TA and fermentation acids content. Between the pH value and lactic acid content, no correlation was found.

  14. Artificial neural network approach to modeling of alcoholic fermentation of thick juice from sugar beet processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Aleksandar I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the bioethanol production in batch culture by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from thick juice as intermediate product of sugar beet processing was examined. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to decrease fermentation time for the cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 5-15 g kg-1. For the fermentation of cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 20 and 25 g kg-1 significant increase in ethanol content was attained during the whole fermentation process, resulting in 12.51 and 10.95 dm3 m-3 ethanol contents after 48 h, respectively. Other goals of this work were to investigate the possibilities for experimental results prediction using artificial neural networks (ANNs and to find its optimal topology. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network was used to test the hypothesis. As input variables fermentation time and starting sugar content were used. Neural networks had one output value, ethanol content, yeast cell number or sugar content. There was one hidden layer and the optimal number of neurons was found to be nine for all selected network outputs. In this study transfer function was tansig and the selected learning rule was Levenberg-Marquardt. Results suggest that artificial neural networks are good prediction tool for selected network outputs. It was found that experimental results are in very good agreement with computed ones. The coefficient of determination (the R-squared was found to be 0.9997, 0.9997 and 0.9999 for ethanol content, yeast cell number and sugar content, respectively.

  15. The Design and Scale-Up of Multiple-Impeller Fermenters for Liquid Film Controlled Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labík, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically agitated gas-liquid contactors are frequently used in the chemical, food and biochemical industries as fermenters and as hydrogenation or chlorination reactors. However wide is the usage of such vessels, their design is not based on chemical engineering data, but is still rather empirical. Thus, it is highly desirable to have a tool for the rational design of agitated gas-liquid contactors that is based on fundamental chemical engineering parameters that are transferable to other systems and operating conditions. Focusing on liquid film-controlled processes and using the data from fermenters of different scales, we develop kLa correlations that are suitable for scale-up. First, we discuss how to determine the proper experimental kLa values, which are not distorted by other equipment parameters as is the gas residence time. We demonstrate the possible kLa distortion on the pilot-plant experimental data by comparing the results obtained by two different experimental techniques. Further, we present physically correct kLa data for fully non-coalescent (sodium sulphate solution batch. The data are presented both for laboratory and pilot-plant fermenters. We identify the process parameters, the values of which are dependent on the vessel scale when operated under the same power input per volume, and, using these parameters, we develop common kLa correlations suitable to describe the data for various scales of the vessel. The correlations developed reduce the uncertainty in predicting the volume of industrial scale fermenters from almost 1/2 to 1/4 of their total volume, thereby enabling significant reductions in both the initial costs, and operating costs.

  16. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  17. A combined approach of generalized additive model and bootstrap with small sample sets for fault diagnosis in fermentation process of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunbo; Pan, Feng; Li, Yun

    2016-07-29

    Glutamate is of great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. There is still lack of effective statistical approaches for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. To date, the statistical approach based on generalized additive model (GAM) and bootstrap has not been used for fault diagnosis in fermentation processes, much less the fermentation process of glutamate with small samples sets. A combined approach of GAM and bootstrap was developed for the online fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets. GAM was first used to model the relationship between glutamate production and different fermentation parameters using online data from four normal fermentation experiments of glutamate. The fitted GAM with fermentation time, dissolved oxygen, oxygen uptake rate and carbon dioxide evolution rate captured 99.6 % variance of glutamate production during fermentation process. Bootstrap was then used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated production of glutamate from the fitted GAM using 95 % confidence interval. The proposed approach was then used for the online fault diagnosis in the abnormal fermentation processes of glutamate, and a fault was defined as the estimated production of glutamate fell outside the 95 % confidence interval. The online fault diagnosis based on the proposed approach identified not only the start of the fault in the fermentation process, but also the end of the fault when the fermentation conditions were back to normal. The proposed approach only used a small sample sets from normal fermentations excitements to establish the approach, and then only required online recorded data on fermentation parameters for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. The proposed approach based on GAM and bootstrap provides a new and effective way for the fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets.

  18. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Optimizing of Arabica Coffee Bean Fermentation Process Using a Controlled Fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One  of  primary  coffee  processing  steps  which  affect  the  end  quality  isfermentation.  Fermentation  using  a  controlled  fermentor  might  be  usefulbecause  all  of  parameters  which  influence  coffee  quality  can  be  controlled.The  aim of this  research is to evaluate  performance  of  controlled fermentor forfermentation  process  of  Arabica  coffee  beans.  Main  material  of  this  researchwas ripe Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Research Station in Bondowoso district.  Research  parameters  were  temperature  with  four  levels  i.e.:  ambient temperature,  30o C,  35oC  and  40oC,  and  fermentation  time  with  three  levels  i.e.: 6  hours,  12  hours,  and  18  hours.  A  horizontal  type  of  modified  fermentor  has been  tested  with  20  kg/batch  or  50%  of  maximum  loading  capacity.  The  result showed  that  an  electric  heater  as  energy  source  can  raise  temperature  duringfermentation  processFermentation  process  using  fermentor  at  30-40oC had  not  significant  effect  on  physical  properties  change  such  as  density,  beancount  per  100  g  and  distribution  of  beans.  Optimum  condition  for  Arabica fermentation  process  in  a  modified  fermentor  reactor  was  25oC  temperature, and  12  hours  fermentation  time.  By  this  condition,  green  beans  have  good organoleptic  score  than  other  fermentation  process  treatments. Key words: Fermentor, fermentation, coffee, quality, organoleptic, horizontal cylinder.

  20. Application of mechanistic models to fermentation and biocatalysis for next-generation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernaey, Krist V; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Tufvesson, Pär; Woodley, John M; Sin, Gürkan

    2010-07-01

    Mechanistic models are based on deterministic principles, and recently, interest in them has grown substantially. Herein we present an overview of mechanistic models and their applications in biotechnology, including future perspectives. Model utility is highlighted with respect to selection of variables required for measurement, control and process design. In the near future, mechanistic models with a higher degree of detail will play key roles in the development of efficient next-generation fermentation and biocatalytic processes. Moreover, mechanistic models will be used increasingly in the frame of multi-objective decision-making under uncertainty and to promote increased selectivity of products.

  1. [Controlling the morphology of filamentous fungi for optimization of fermentation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiang; Xu, Qing; Gu, Shuai; Li, Shuang

    2012-02-01

    Filamentous fungi have been extensively used in industrial fermentation processes. One of the most interesting topics of filamentous fungi is their bothersome morphology, which closely correlates with the productivity and broth rheology. Aiming at the optimization of the microbial process, works mainly focused on the relationships between morphology, productivity and environment in the last decades. Based on those works, we tried to interpret the mechanism of filamentous fungi growth from physiological aspects, and reviewed the mathematical models describing the hyphal growth, differentiation during the formation of target products. Above all, efficient and effective morphology controlling strategies were addressed from the engineering view.

  2. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Sekoai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS, was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale biohydrogen production process.

  3. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhaida Mohd-Zaki; Juan R. Bastidas-Oyanedel; Yang Lu; Robert Hoelzle; Steven Pratt; Fran R. Slater; Batstone, Damien J.

    2016-01-01

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adju...

  4. Effect of pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw with laccase-displaying yeast on ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jun Gu; Fukai, Kotaro; Tokumoto, Naoki; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences; Nakatani, Masato [Daiwa Kasei, Shiga (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    A gene encoding laccase I was identified and cloned from the white-rot fungus Trametes sp. Ha1. Laccase I contained 10 introns and an original secretion signal sequence. After laccase I without introns was prepared by overlapping polymerase chain reaction, it was inserted into expression vector pULD1 for yeast cell surface display. The oxidation activity of a laccase-I-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst was examined with 2,2{sup '}-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and the constructed yeast showed a high oxidation activity. After the pretreatment of hydrothermally processed rice straw (HPRS) with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS, fermentation was conducted with yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase with HPRS. Fermentation of HPRS treated with laccase-I-displaying yeast was performed with 1.21-fold higher activities than those of HPRS treated with control yeast. The results indicated that pretreatment with laccase-I-displaying yeast with ABTS was effective for direct fermentation of cellulosic materials by yeast codisplaying endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and {beta}-glucosidase. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of SHF and SSF processes from steam-exploded wheat straw for ethanol production by xylose-fermenting and robust glucose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Pejo, Elia; Oliva, Jose M.; Ballesteros, Mercedes

    2008-01-01

    , it showed an ethanol yield on consumed sugars of 0.43 g/g and a volumetric ethanol productivity of 0.7 g/Lh for the first 3 h. Ethanol concentrations obtained in SSF processes were in all cases higher than those from SHF at the same conditions. Furthermore, using the whole slurry, final ethanol......In this study, bioethanol production from steam-exploded wheat straw using different process configurations was evaluated using two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, F12 and Red Star. The strain F12 has been engineerically modified to allow xylose consumption as cereal straw contain considerable...... amounts of pentoses. Red Star is a robust hexose-fermenting strain used for industrial fuel ethanol fermentations and it was used for comparative purposes. The highest ethanol concentration, 23.7 g/L, was reached using the whole slurry (10%, w/v) and the recombinant strain (F12) in an SSF process...

  6. Primary Nocardia brasiliensis of the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Hudak, Donald T; Anderson, Heidi K; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2004-09-01

    To report a rare case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid. Observational case report. The clinical presentation, workup, and treatment of a case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid are presented. The patient presented with a preseptal cellulitis from an abrasion of the eyelid that progressed to submandibular lymph node suppuration. Culture was performed, and a diagnosis of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis was made. Nocardia brasiliensis may cause a lymphocutaneous infection of the face and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of preseptal cellulitis.

  7. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  8. Fermentation Cover Brine Reformulation for Cucumber Processing with Low Salt to Reduce Bloater Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Y; Pérez-Díaz, I M

    2017-12-01

    represents a process ready cover brine formulation with the potential to allow the manufacture of cucumber pickles with low salt, enhanced food safety, and reduce environmental impact and water usage. Pilot commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with such ingredients are to reveal the efficacy of this process ready formulation in the presence of oxygen from air in tanks, as opposed to 3.8 L (1-US gal) closed jars in the laboratory. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fermentation at non-conventional conditions in food- and bio-sciences by the application of advanced processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria J; Lopes, Rita P; Koubaa, Mohamed; Roohinejad, Shahin; Barba, Francisco J; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2017-04-20

    The interest in improving the yield and productivity values of relevant microbial fermentations is an increasingly important issue for the scientific community. Therefore, several strategies have been tested for the stimulation of microbial growth and manipulation of their metabolic behavior. One promising approach involves the performance of fermentative processes during non-conventional conditions, which includes high pressure (HP), electric fields (EF) and ultrasound (US). These advanced technologies are usually applied for microbial inactivation in the context of food processing. However, the approach described in this study focuses on the use of these technologies at sub-lethal levels, since the aim is microbial growth and fermentation under these stress conditions. During these sub-lethal conditions, microbial strains develop specific genetic, physiologic and metabolic stress responses, possibly leading to fermentation products and processes with novel characteristics. In some cases, these modifications can represent considerable improvements, such as increased yields, productivities and fermentation rates, lower accumulation of by-products and/or production of different compounds. Although several studies report the successful application of these technologies during the fermentation processes, information on this subject is still scarce and poorly understood. For that reason, the present review paper intends to assemble and discuss the main findings reported in the literature to date, and aims to stimulate interest and encourage further developments in this field.

  11. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. High-temperature fermentation. How can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Banat, Babiker M.A.; Hoshida, Hisashi; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji [Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan). Dept. of Applied Molecular Bioscience; Ano, Akihiko [Iwata Chemical Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. (orig.)

  13. Monitoring of the cellulosic ethanol fermentation process by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ariane S S; Pereira, Sandra C; Ribeiro, Marcelo P A; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, efficient, and low-cost technologies for monitoring the fermentation process during second generation (2G) or cellulosic ethanol production are essential for the successful implementation of this process at the commercial scale. Here, the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS) regression was investigated as a tool for monitoring the production of 2G ethanol from lignocellulosic sugarcane residues including bagasse, straw, and tops. The spectral data was based on a set of 103 alcoholic fermentation samples. Models based on different pre-processing techniques were evaluated. The best root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values obtained in the external validation were around 3.02 g/L for ethanol and 6.60 g/L for glucose. The findings showed that the PLS-NIR methodology was efficient in accurately predicting the glucose and ethanol concentrations during the production of 2G ethanol, demonstrating potential for use in monitoring and control of large-scale industrial processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  15. Acid Fermentation Process Combined with Post Denitrification for the Treatment of Primary Sludge and Wastewater with High Strength Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kurniawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, combined with a post denitrification process, was applied to treat primary sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and wastewater with a high concentration of nitrate. The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs was maximized with a short hydraulic retention time in the acid fermentation of the ABR process, and then the produced VFAs were supplied as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process. The laboratory scale experiment was operated for 160 days to evaluate the VFAs’ production rate, sludge reduction in the ABR type-acid fermentation process, and the specific denitrification rate of the post denitrification process. As results, the overall removal rate of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, total suspended solids (TSS, and total nitrogen (TN were found to be 97%, 92%, 73%, respectively, when considering the influent into ABR type-acid fermentation and effluent from post denitrification. We observed the specific VFAs production rate of 0.074 gVFAs/gVSS/day for the ABR type-acid fermentation, and an average specific denitrification rate of 0.166 gNO3−-N/gVSS/day for the post denitrification. Consequently, we observed that a high production of VFAs from a primary sludge, using application of the ABR type acid fermentation process and the produced VFAs were then successfully utilized as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process, with a high removal rate of nitrogen.

  16. Hybrid Neural Network Model of an Industrial Ethanol Fermentation Process Considering the Effect of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovanelli, Ivana C. C.; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; da Costa, Aline C.; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work a procedure for the development of a robust mathematical model for an industrial alcoholic fermentation process was evaluated. The proposed model is a hybrid neural model, which combines mass and energy balance equations with functional link networks to describe the kinetics. These networks have been shown to have a good nonlinear approximation capability, although the estimation of its weights is linear. The proposed model considers the effect of temperature on the kinetics and has the neural network weights reestimated always so that a change in operational conditions occurs. This allow to follow the system behavior when changes in operating conditions occur.

  17. Estimation of Temperature Dependent Parameters of a Batch Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Atala, Daniel I. P.; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work, a procedure was established to develop a mathematical model considering the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics. Experiments were performed in batch mode in temperatures from 30 to 38°C. The microorganism used was Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the culture media, sugarcane molasses. The objective is to assess the difficulty in updating the kinetic parameters when there are changes in fermentation conditions. We conclude that, although the re-estimation is a time-consuming task, it is possible to accurately describe the process when there are changes in raw material composition if a re-estimation of parameters is performed.

  18. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick T. Sekoai; Kelvin O. Yoro; Michael O. Daramola

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS), was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale b...

  19. Structural identifiability of a model for the acetic acid fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Hornero, Jorge E; Santos-Dueñas, Inés M; Garci A-Garci A, Isidoro

    2008-12-01

    Modelling has proved an essential tool for addressing research into biotechnological processes, particularly with a view to their optimization and control. Parameter estimation via optimization approaches is among the major steps in the development of biotechnology models. In fact, one of the first tasks in the development process is to determine whether the parameters concerned can be unambiguously determined and provide meaningful physical conclusions as a result. The analysis process is known as 'identifiability' and presents two different aspects: structural or theoretical identifiability and practical identifiability. While structural identifiability is concerned with model structure alone, practical identifiability takes into account both the quantity and quality of experimental data. In this work, we discuss the theoretical identifiability of a new model for the acetic acid fermentation process and review existing methods for this purpose.

  20. A review of control strategies for manipulating the feed rate in fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of industrial fermentation processes are operated in fed-batch mode. In this case, the rate of feed addition to the system is a focus for optimising the process operation, as it directly impacts metabolic activity, as well as directly affecting the volume dynamics in the system....... This review covers a range of strategies which have been employed to use the feed rate as a manipulated variable in a control strategy. The feed rate is chosen as the focus for this review, as it is seen that this variable may be used towards many different objectives depending on the process of interest......, the characteristics of the strain, or the product being produced, which leads to different drivers for process optimisation. This review summarises the methods, as well as focusing on the different objectives for the controllers, and the choice of measured variables involved in the strategy. The discussion includes...

  1. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dawei; Liu, Dapeng; Zeng, Raymond J; Angelidaki, Irini

    2006-06-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H(2)/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH(4)/g VS added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. pH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary. Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase.

  2. Biohydrogen production from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ge-Fu; Wu, Peng; Wei, Qun-Shan; Lin, Jian-yi; Liu, Hai-Ning [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Yan-Li [China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater was evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment by dark-fermentation process in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) with selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia under continuous flow condition in this paper. The inoculated sludge used in the reactor was excess sludge taken from a second settling tank in a local wastewater treatment plant. Under the conditions of the inoculants not less than 6.3 gVSS/L, the organic loading rate (OLR) of 16 kgCOD/m{sup 3} d, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h and temperature of (35 {+-} 1) C, when the pH value, alkalinity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the effluent ranged from 4.2 to 4.4, 280 to 350 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L, and -220 to -250 mV respectively, soluble metabolites were predominated by acetate and ethanol, with smaller quantities of propionate, butyrate and valerate. Stable ethanol-type fermentation was formed with the sum of ethanol and acetate concentration ratio of 70.31% to the total liquid products after 25 days operation. The H{sub 2} volume content was estimated to be 48-53% of the total biogas and the biogas was free of methane throughout the study. The average biomass concentration was estimated to be 10.82 gVSS/L, which favored H{sub 2} production efficiently. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached at about 45% and a specific H{sub 2} production rate achieved 0.073 L/gMLVSS d in the study. This CSTR system showed a promising high-efficient bioprocess for H{sub 2} production from high-strength chemical wastewater. (author)

  3. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  5. Quality and antioxidant activity of ginseng seed processed by fermentation strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Hee Lee

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Antioxidant activities measured by ABTS and SOD were higher in fermented ginseng seeds compared to nonfermented ginseng seeds. These results may contribute to improving the antioxidant activity and quality of ginseng subjected to fermentation treatments.

  6. Changes in Volatile Compounds of Chinese Luzhou-Flavor Liquor during the Fermentation and Distillation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaofei; Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic of volatile compounds in the Zaopei during the fermentation and distillation process by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GCMS). Physicochemical properties analysis of Zaopei (fermented grains [FG], fermented grains mixed with sorghum [FGS], streamed grains [SG], and streamed grains mixed with Daqu [SGD]) showed distinct changes. A total number of 66 volatile compounds in the Zaopei were identified, in which butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, hexyl hexanoate, ethyl hydrocinnamate, ethyl oleate, ethyl hexadecanoate, and ethyl linoleate were considered to be the dominant compounds due to their high concentrations. FG had the highest volatile compounds (112.43 mg/kg), which significantly decreased by 17.05% in the FGS, 67.12% in the SG, and 73.75% in the SGD. Furthermore, about 61.49% of volatile compounds of FGS were evaporated into raw liquor, whereas head, heart, and tail liquor accounted for 29.84%, 39.49%, and 30.67%, respectively. Each volatile class generally presented a decreasing trend, except for furans. Especially, the percentage of esters was 55.51% to 67.41% in the Zaopei, and reached 92.60% to 97.67% in the raw liquor. Principal component analysis based ordination of volatile compounds data segregated FGS and SGD samples. In addition, radar diagrams of the odor activity values suggested that intense flavor of fruit was weakened most from FG to SGD. The dynamic of volatile compounds in the Zaopei during the fermentation and distillation process was tested by SPME-GCMS. The result of this study demonstrated that both volatile compounds of Zaopei and thermal reaction during distillation simply determined the unique feature of raw liquor. This study was conducted based on the real products from liquor manufactory, so it is practicable that the method can be used in an industry setting. © 2015 Institute of Food

  7. Comparative study of separated fermentations and cofermentation processes to produce ethanol from hardwood derived hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgenes, J.P.; Laplace, J.M.; Moletta, R. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Narbonne (France). Lab. de Biotechnologie de l`Environnement; Navarro, J.M. [Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France)

    1996-12-31

    As a part of the alcoholic conversion of lignocellulosic sugars, the co-culture process was studied in continuous conditions using a medium resulting from complete hydrolysis of aspen wood and compared with the separated fermentations process performing continuously on hemicellulosic and cellulosic aspen wood derived hydrolysates. The complete conversion of mixture of glucose and xylose was obtained using a respiratory deficient mutant of Saccharomyces diastaticus cocultivated with Pichia stipitis in continuous culture. At the dilution rate of 0.125 h{sup -1}, ethanol (13.5 g 1{sup -1}) was produced with a yield of 0.25 g g{sup -1}, a volumetric productivity of 1.6 g 1{sup -1} h{sup -1} and a substrate conversion rate of 100%. In the separated fermentations scheme, ethanol (39 g 1{sup -1}) was produced by Zymomonas mobilis from cellulosic hydrolysate with a yield of 0.35 g g{sup -1} and a productivity of 7.8 g 1{sup -1} h{sup -1}, whereas Pichia stipitis grown on hemicellulosic hydrolysate produced ethanol (14 g 1{sup -1}) with a yield of 0.37 g g{sup -1} and a productivity of 0.56 g 1{sup -1} h{sup -1}. (Author)

  8. Cider fermentation process monitoring by Vis-NIR sensor system and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Alberto; Vadillo, Julen; Santos, Jose I; Gorritxategi, Eneko; Mabe, Jon; Arnaiz, Aitor; Fernández, Luis A

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of a multivariate calibration process has been undertaken for a Visible-Near Infrared (400-1100nm) sensor system, applied in the monitoring of the fermentation process of the cider produced in the Basque Country (Spain). The main parameters that were monitored included alcoholic proof, l-lactic acid content, glucose+fructose and acetic acid content. The multivariate calibration was carried out using a combination of different variable selection techniques and the most suitable pre-processing strategies were selected based on the spectra characteristics obtained by the sensor system. The variable selection techniques studied in this work include Martens Uncertainty test, interval Partial Least Square Regression (iPLS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). This procedure arises from the need to improve the calibration models prediction ability for cider monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Time Series Analysis of Fed-batch Fermentation Process for L-valine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fed-batch fermentation processes are some of the most efficient and wildly applied types of cultivation for industrial production of most amino acids including L-valine. Time series analysis is an important tool for description of the experimental data. This article deals with statistical inference from the time series analysis of generalised stoichiometric equations as a hypothesis for modelling and optimisation. The aim of the article is to develop some time series models of generalized stoichiometric equations. The identification procedure includes the following steps: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; model structure selection for each stoichiometric equation; estimation of the model's parameters; verification of the derived models.

  10. An integrated green process: Subcritical water, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation, for biohydrogen production from coconut husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Ranggina, Dian; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-10-09

    The objective of this work is to develop an integrated green process of subcritical water (SCW), enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of coconut husk (CCH) to biohydrogen. The maximum sugar yield was obtained at mild severity factor. This was confirmed by the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The tendency of the changing of sugar yield as a result of increasing severity factor was opposite to the tendency of pH change. It was found that CO2 gave a different tendency of severity factor compared to N2 as the pressurizing gas. The result of SEM analysis confirmed the structural changes during SCW pretreatment. This study integrated three steps all of which are green processes which ensured an environmentally friendly process to produce a clean biohydrogen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.

    2009-07-01

    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  12. The Application of State-of-the-Art Analytic Tools (Biosensors and Spectroscopy in Beverage and Food Fermentation Process Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaneel Chandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of several agricultural products and foods are linked with fermentation. Traditional methods used to control and monitor the quality of the products and processes are based on the use of simple chemical analysis. However, these methods are time-consuming and do not provide sufficient relevant information to guarantee the chemical changes during the process. Commonly used methods applied in the agriculture and food industries to monitor fermentation are those based on simple or single-point sensors, where only one parameter is measured (e.g., temperature or density. These sensors are used several times per day and are often the only source of data available from which the conditions and rate of fermentation are monitored. In the modern food industry, an ideal method to control and monitor the fermentation process should enable a direct, rapid, precise, and accurate determination of several target compounds, with minimal to no sample preparation or reagent consumption. Here, state-of-the-art advancements in both the application of sensors and analytical tools to monitor beverage and food fermentation processes will be discussed.

  13. Impact of osmotic stress and ethanol inhibition in yeast cells on process oscillation associated with continuous very-high-gravity ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xue, Chuang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2013-09-16

    VHG fermentation is a promising process engineering strategy aiming at improving ethanol titer, and thus saving energy consumption for ethanol distillation and distillage treatment. However, sustained process oscillation was observed during continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, which significantly affected ethanol fermentation performance of the system. Sustained process oscillation was investigated in continuous VHG ethanol fermentation, and stresses exerted on yeast cells by osmotic pressure from unfermented sugars and ethanol inhibition developed within the fermentation system were postulated to be major factors triggering this phenomenon. In this article, steady state was established for continuous ethanol fermentation with LG medium containing 120 g/L glucose, and then 160 g/L non-fermentable xylose was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the osmotic stress on yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, but the fermentation process was still at steady state, indicating that the impact of osmotic stress on yeast cells was not the main reason for the process oscillation. However, when 30 g/L ethanol was supplemented into the LG medium to simulate the ethanol inhibition in yeast cells under the VHG fermentation condition, process oscillation was triggered, which was augmented with extended oscillation period and exaggerated oscillation amplitude as ethanol supplementation was increased to 50 g/L, but the process oscillation was gradually attenuated when the ethanol supplementations were stopped, and the steady state was restored. Furthermore, gas stripping was incorporated into the continuous VHG fermentation system to in situ remove ethanol produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the process oscillation was also attenuated, but restored after the gas stripping was interrupted. Experimental results indicated that ethanol inhibition rather than osmotic stress on yeast cells is one of the main factors triggering the process oscillation under the

  14. Optimization of Bioethanol Production Using Whole Plant of Water Hyacinth as Substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Weng, Chen; Huang, Huiqin; Achal, Varenyam; Wang, Duanchao

    2015-01-01

    Water hyacinth was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the present study. Combination of acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis was the most effective process for sugar production that resulted in the production of 402.93 mg reducing sugar at optimal condition. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to response surface method in saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87°C in 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast, where 1.291 g/L bioethanol was produced. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced during experimentation, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this research. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  15. SIMULATION OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS TO OBTAIN BIOETHANOL FROM RICE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Capdevila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper presents a simulation model of the fermentation/separation process of bioethanol from hydrolyzed pretreated rice husk, using Aspen HYSYS simulator. Sensitivity studies performed on the developed model indicated levels for selected variables: biomass/water ratio of 1:2,89 ; biomass flow of 50 t/h and inlet temperature separator of 30°C, leading to maximize the yield of bioethanol. From these variables, a bioethanol production of 8,81 t/h with a purity of 65,51% w/w is obtained, corresponding to a flow of hydrolyzed treated biomass of 50 t/h. This work represents an advance in the development of the simulation model of the complete process to obtain second generation of bioethanol from rice husks.

  16. Processing of excess fermentation remainders to compact fuel pellets; Verarbeitung ueberschuessiger Gaerreste zu kompakten Brennstoffpellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsten, Claudia; Lenz, Volker; Schroeder, Hans-Werner; Repke, Jens-Uwe [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). AG Brennstoffe im Bereich Thermo-Chemische Konversion

    2013-10-01

    With a growing number of biogas plants in Germany the amounts of digestate grows too. In regions with high livestock farming and low agriculture the disposal of digestate as fertilizer can be problematic for energetic related use of digestate, both combustion technologies and fuel-qualities have to be optimized. Depending on the fermentation process, the variability of the ingredients and the structure of the digestate, special challenges for the processing of the raw material have to be overcome. Thus, analysis of the grinding and pelletizing behavior of digestate is presented. Fuel pellets with a durability of up to 98 wt.-% and a bulk density up to 700 kg/m{sup 3} could be produced, which is in accordance with the requirements on the physical-mechanical properties of EN 14961-6. (orig.)

  17. Two phases fermentative process for hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryane Mota Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydrogen and methane production was investigated in two phases of fermentative process. Objective: At the acidogenic phase, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed with cassava wastewater producing hydrogen. Methods: Expanded clay was used as a support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was operated with HRT ranging from 8-1 h. Results: The best hydrogen yield production was 1.91 mol H2/mol glucose at HRT of 2 h. At the methanogenic phase, the acidogenic process effluent fed a fixed-bed reactor producing methane. Conclusion: Sururu (Mytella falcata shells was used as support acted as pH neutralizer in the fixed-bed reactor, yielding best (0.430±0.150 Lmethane/gCOD with 12h HRT phase.

  18. Supervisory System and Multivariable Control Applying Weighted Fuzzy-PID Logic in an Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Mendonça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is analyzed a multivariate system control of an alcoholic fermentation process with no minimum phase. The control is made with PID classic controllers associated with a supervisory system based on Fuzzy Systems. The Fuzzy system, a priori, send set-points to PID controllers, but also adds protection functions, such as if the biomass valued is at zero or very close. The Fuzzy controller changes the campaign to prevent or mitigate the paralyzation of the process. Three control architectures based on Fuzzy Control Systems are presented and compared in performance with classic control in different campaigns. The third architecture, in particular, adds an adaptive function. A brief summary of Fuzzy theory and correlated works will be presented. And, finally simulations results, conclusions and future works end the article.

  19. Operating tests analysis of liquid biologically degradable waste processing by anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fryč

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the analysis of operating anaerobic fermentation systems of agricultural biogas station and implementing a suitable system enabling the use of liquid biowaste. Based on the comparison of the technological solutions and operating parameters of specific equipment a system enabling the utilisation of biowaste has been designed. The tests made use of liquid substrates commercially offered to biogas station operators. The study evaluates practical measurements at an agricultural biogas station in order to evaluate the biogas production from these substrates and the efficiency of transforming input material to usable energy. The use of such treated substrates for the anaerobic fermentation technology may have a substantial influence on the volume of dosed energy crops. The mixture of input substrates consisting of liquid cattle excrements, silage corn, liquid food-processing waste, animal waste and glycerine water was experimentally validated. This mixture was compared with the operation using liquid cattle excrements and silage corn. It was concluded that the proposed composition of input raw materials makes it possible to increase the production of biogas and el. power. On the other hand, it was identified that the energy content of the input raw materials is not optimally transformed into usable energy. Therefore, the proposed mixture of input materials with biowaste is not recommended for use.

  20. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, C; Panagiotidis, P; Koureli, R; Tzia, C

    2007-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation during the production of skim milk and whole fat set-style yogurt was continuously monitored by measuring pH. The modified Gompertz model was successfully applied to describe the pH decline and viscosity development during the fermentation process. The viscosity and incubation time data were also fitted to linear models against ln(pH). The investigation of the yogurt quality improvement practices included 2 different heat treatments (80 degrees C for 30 min and 95 degrees C for 10 min), 3 milk protein fortifying agents (skim milk powder, whey powder, and milk protein concentrate) added at 2.0%, and 4 hydrocolloids (kappa-carrageenan, xanthan, guar gum, and pectin) added at 0.01% to whole fat and skim yogurts. Heat treatment significantly affected viscosity and acetaldehyde development without influencing incubation time and acidity. The addition of whey powder shortened the incubation time but had a detrimental effect on consistency, firmness, and overall acceptance of yogurts. On the other hand, addition of skim milk powder improved the textural quality and decreased the vulnerability of yogurts to syneresis. Anionic stabilizers (kappa-carrageenan and pectin) had a poor effect on the texture and palatability of yogurts. However, neutral gums (xanthan and guar gum) improved texture and prevented the wheying-off defect. Skim milk yogurts exhibited longer incubation times and higher viscosities, whereas they were rated higher during sensory evaluation than whole fat yogurts.

  1. Nonthermal Pasteurization of Fermented Green Table Olives by means of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthoula A. Argyri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP processing (400, 450, and 500 MPa for 15 or 30 min. Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20°C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400 MPa for 15 and 30 min, 450 MPa for 15 and 30 min, and 500 MPa for 15 min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500 MPa for 30 min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months. After 5 months of storage at 20°C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation. In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives.

  2. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vinasse organic matter quality and mineralization potential, as influenced by raw material, fermentation and concentration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, V; Condom, N; Oliver, R; Cazevieille, P; Recous, S

    2008-04-01

    Both dilute and concentrated vinasse can be spread on agricultural fields or used as organic fertilizer. The effects of different characteristics of the original raw material on the biochemical composition of vinasse and their C and N mineralization in soil were investigated. Vinasse samples were obtained from similar industrial fermentation processes based on the growth of microorganisms on molasses from different raw material (sugar beet or sugar cane) and vinasse concentration (dilute or concentrated). The nature of the raw material used for fermentation had the greatest effect on the nature and size of the resistant organic pool. This fraction included aromatic compounds originating from the raw material or from complex molecules and seemed to be quantitatively related to acid-insoluble N. Samples derived from sugar beet were richer in N compounds and induced greater net N mineralization. The effect of evaporation varied with the nature of the raw material. Concentration led to a slight increase in the abundance of phenolic compounds, acid-insoluble fraction, and a slight decrease in the labile fraction of vinasses partly or totally derived from sugar beet. The effect of the dilute vinasse from sugar cane was greater. The concentrated vinasse had a smaller labile fraction, induced N immobilization at the beginning of incubation, and exhibited greater N concentration in the acid-insoluble fraction than the dilute vinasse.

  4. Copper stressed anaerobic fermentation: biogas properties, process stability, biodegradation and enzyme responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, He; Tian, Yonglan; Zhang, Huayong; Chai, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The effect of copper (added as CuCl 2 ) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied in pilot experiments by investigating the biogas properties, process stability, substrate degradation and enzyme activities at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that 30 and 100 mg/L Cu 2+ addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by up to 43.62 and 20.77% respectively, and brought forward the daily biogas yield peak, while 500 mg/L Cu 2+ addition inhibited biogas production. Meanwhile, the CH 4 content in the 30 and 100 mg/L Cu 2+ -added groups was higher than that in the control group. Higher pH values (close to pH 7) and lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) values in the Cu 2+ -added groups after the 8th day indicated better process stability compared to the control group. In the presence of Cu 2+ , the degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and other organic molecules (represented by chemical oxygen demand, COD) generated from hydrolysis was enhanced, and the ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) concentrations were more stable than in the control group. The contents of lignin and hemicellulose in the substrate declined in the Cu 2+ -added groups while the cellulose contents did not. Neither the cellulase nor the coenzyme F 420 activities could determine the biogas producing efficiency. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Cu 2+ addition on biogas yields was mainly attributable to better process stability, the enhanced degradation of lignin and hemicellulose, the transformation of intermediates into VFA, and the generation of CH 4 from VFA.

  5. Change of Monascus pigment metabolism and secretion in different extractive fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaofei; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    Monascus pigments that were generally produced intracellularly from Monascus spp. are important natural colorants in food industry. In this study, change of pigment metabolism and secretion was investigated through fed-batch extractive fermentation and continuous extractive fermentation. The biomass, secreting rate of pigment and total pigment yield closely correlated with the activated time of extractive fermentation as well as the composition of feeding nutrients. Metal ions played a key role in both the cell growth and pigment metabolism. Nitrogen source was necessary for a high productivity of biomass but not for high pigment yield. Furthermore, fermentation period for the fed-batch extractive fermentation could be reduced by 18.75% with a nitrogen source free feeding medium. Through a 30-day continuous extractive fermentation, the average daily productivity for total pigments reached 74.9 AU day -1 with an increase by 32.6 and 296.3% compared to that in a 6-day conventional batch fermentation and a 16-day fed-batch extractive fermentation, respectively. At the meantime, proportions of extracellular pigments increased gradually from 2.7 to 71.3%, and yellow pigments gradually became dominated in both intracellular and extracellular pigments in the end of continuous extractive fermentation. This findings showed that either fed-batch or continuous extractive fermentation acted as a promising method in the efficient production of Monascus pigments.

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of natural fermentation process of Conservolea and Kalamàta table olives and developement of a protocol for the pre-selection of fermentation starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Grieco, Francesco; Ramires, Francesca Anna; Mita, Giovanni; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. Conservolea and Kalamàta are the most important table olives Greek varieties. In the Greek system, the final product is obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. This natural fermentation process is not predictable and strongly influenced by the physical-chemical conditions and by the presence of microorganisms contaminating the olives. Natural fermentations of Conservolea and Kalamàta cultivars black olives were studied in order to determine microbiological, biochemical and chemical evolution during the process. Following the process conditions generally used by producers, in both cultivars, yeasts were detected throughout the fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in the last staged of the process. A new optimized specific protocol was developed to select autochthonous yeast and LAB isolates that can be good candidates as starters. These microorganisms were pre-selected for their ability to adapt to model brines, to have beta-glucosidase activity, not to produce biogenic amines. Chemical compounds deriving by microbiological activities and associated to the three different phases (30, 90 and 180 days) of the fermentation process were identified and were proposed as chemical descriptors to follow the fermentation progress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization and scale-up of fermentation process for production of microbial polysaccharide. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buller, C.S.

    1994-12-21

    This grant was awarded to provide for the scale-up of the process of production of a (1 {r_arrow})-{beta}-D-glucan which is produced by Cellulomonas flavigena. One of the goals was to provide sufficient amounts of the polysaccharide polymer to conduct a field test of its usefulness in subterranean permeability modification procedures of enhanced oil recovery. During September and October, 1994, fermentations and recoveries were done by Abbott Laboratories, to develop a process to provide at least 400 lbs of the glucan polymer for field testing. Shake flask runs and four fermentation runs were completed. A summary of the fourth fermentation run, conducted in a 40,000 liter fermentor, follows.

  8. A new process for the production of clinical dextran by mixed-culture fermentation of Lipomyces starkeyi and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D; Day, D F

    1994-10-01

    A mixed-culture fermentation system was designed for the production of size-limited dextrans. This process was simpler and more economical than traditional methods. It required the establishment of microbial consortia of Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 74054 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 10830. Controlling initial conditions, growth, and enzyme production by both organisms controlled the product size. In this process, both strains were grown separately and then mixed. Dextran fermentation was then allowed to proceed. At the desired time (and molecular size), the fermentation was harvested. The optimum pH and temperature for production of clinical dextran (75,000 MW) were 5.2 (+/- 0.1) and 28 (+/- 0.5) degrees C, respectively. Varying the ratio of L. mesenteroides to L. starkeyi in the inoculum did not significantly affect either the final cell ratios or dextran production.

  9. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L-1 for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  10. Production of fuel ethanol and methane from garbage by high-efficiency two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yoji; An, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Yue-Qin; Syo, Tomohiro; Osaka, Noriko; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    A two-stage fermentation process, consisting of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) stage and a dry methane fermentation stage, was developed to utilize garbage for the production of fuel ethanol and methane. Garbage from families, canteens and concessionaires was used for the study. Saccharification method was studied and the results indicated that the liquefaction pretreatment and the combination of cellulase and glucoamylase was effective for polysaccharide hydrolysis of family garbage with a high content of holocellulose and that SSF was suitable for ethanol fermentation of garbage. Ethanol productivity could be markedly increased from 1.7 to 7.0 g/l/h by repeated-batch SSF of family garbage. A high ethanol productivity of 17.7 g/l/h was achieved when canteen garbage was used. The stillage after distillation was treated by dry methane fermentation and the results indicated that the stillage was almost fully digested and that about 850 ml of biogas was recovered from 1 g of volatile total solid (VTS). Approximately 85% of the energy of the garbage was converted to fuels, ethanol and methane by this process.

  11. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-04-01

    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  12. Characterization of probiotic bacteria involved in fermented milk processing enriched with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Wu, Jing; Cao, Pei; Jin, Yifeng; Pan, Daodong; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Guo, Yuxing

    2017-06-01

    Yogurt products fermented with probiotic bacteria are a consumer trend and a challenge for functional food development. So far, limited research has focused on the behavior of the various probiotic strains used in milk fermentation. In the present study, we characterized folic acid production and the sensory and textural characteristics of yogurt products fermented with probiotic bacteria. Yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum had improved nutrient content and sensory and textural characteristics, but the presence of L. plantarum significantly impaired the growth and survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage. Overall, L. plantarum was a good candidate for probiotic yogurt fermentation; further studies are needed to understand the major metabolite path of lactic acid bacteria in complex fermentation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  14. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, X.; Moran, A.; Cuetos, M.J.; Sanchez, M.E. [Institute of Natural Resources, Avda de Portugal 41, University of Leon, Leon 24071 (Spain)

    2006-07-03

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34{sup o}C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3NLkg{sup -1}VS{sub rem}. (author)

  15. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, X.; Morán, A.; Cuetos, M. J.; Sánchez, M. E.

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34 °C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3 N L kg -1 VS rem.

  16. THE STUDY OF DIRECTED FERMENTATION PROCESS USING STRAINS OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FOR OBTAINING VEGETABLE PRODUCTS OF STABLE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kondratenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the process of directed fermentation of whitehead cabbage variety ‘Slava’, using strains of lactic acid bacteria and their consortium with the degree of their mutual influence. As strains of lactic acid bacteria, we have chosen the following: VCR 536 Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum VKM V-578. To obtain comparable results, all experiments were performed on model mediums. For the first time we studied the dynamics of changes in quality indicators at the process of directed fermentation using strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB including their consortiums. The mathematical model developed adequately describes the degree of destruction of glucose and fructose in the fermentation process. The raw material was undergone to homogenization and sterilization with the aim to create optimal conditionsfor the development of the target microorganisms and to detect the degree of  restruction of fructose and glucose by different strains of microorganisms. The mathematical model developed adequately described the degree of destruction of fructose and glucose in the treatment process. The use of a consortium of lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum+L. casei to this culture medium is shown to be impractical. The addition of fructose in quantity 0.5% to weight of the model medium enabled to intensify significantly the process of white cabbage fermentation.

  17. Effect of curing agents on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2014-07-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of curing agents, ascorbate (0, 250, and 500 ppm), and nitrite (0, 75, and 150 ppm), on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins during processing of fermented sausages was studied. The potential influence of these reactions on color and texture of the fermented sausages was also addressed. Nitrite had a pro-oxidant effect on tryptophan depletion and promoted the formation of protein carbonyls and Schiff bases. The nitration degree in the fermented sausages was also dependent on nitrite concentration. On the other hand, ascorbate acted as an efficient inhibitor of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins. As expected, nitrite clearly favored the formation of the cured red color and ascorbate acted as an enhancer of color formation. Nitrite content was positively correlated with hardness. The chemistry behind the action of nitrite and ascorbate on muscle proteins during meat fermentation is thoroughly discussed. The results suggest that ascorbate (500 ppm) may be required to compensate the pro-oxidant impact of nitrite on meat proteins. This study provides insight on the action of curing agents on meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages. This chemistry background provides understanding of the potential influence of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins on the quality of processed muscle foods. The study provides novel information on the impact of the combination of nitrite and ascorbate on the chemical deterioration of proteins and the influence on particular quality traits of fermented sausages. These data may be of interest for the design of cured muscle foods of enhanced quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  19. Novel process for the coproduction of xylo-oligosaccharides, fermentable sugars, and lignosulfonates from hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Caoxing; Jeuck, Ben; Du, Jing; Yong, Qiang; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan; Phillips, Richard

    2016-11-01

    Many biorefineries have not been commercialized due to poor economic returns from final products. In this work, a novel process has been developed to coproduce valuable sugars, xylo-oligosaccharides, and lignosulfonates from hardwood. The modified process includes a mild autohydrolysis pretreatment, which enables for the recovery of the xylo-oligosaccharides in auto-hydrolysate. Following enzymatic hydrolysis, the residue is sulfomethylated to produce lignosulfonates. Recycling the sulfomethylation residues increased both the glucan recovery and lignosulfonate production. The glucose recovery was increased from 81.7% to 87.9%. Steady state simulation using 100g of hardwood produced 46.7g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 25.7g lignosulfonates, which were significantly higher than that produced from the no-recycling process with 39.1g sugars, 5.9g xylo-oligosaccharides, and 15.0g lignosulfonates. The results indicate that this novel biorefinery process can improve the production of fermentable sugars and lignosulfonate from hardwood as compared to a conventional biorefinery process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and evaluation of an optimal controller for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Ganti S; Johnston, David B; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, M E; Singh, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol from corn is produced using dry grind corn process in which simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is one of the most critical unit operations. In this work an optimal controller based on a previously validated SSF model was developed by formulating the SSF process as a Bolza problem and using gradient descent methods. Validation experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of optimal controller under different process disturbances that are likely to occur in practice. Use of optimal control algorithm for the SSF process resulted in lower peak glucose concentration, similar ethanol yields (13.38±0.36% v/v and 13.50±0.15% v/v for optimally controlled and baseline experiments, respectively). Optimal controller improved final ethanol concentrations as compared to process without optimal controller under conditions of temperature (13.35±1.28 and 12.52±1.19% v/v for optimal and no optimal control, respectively) and pH disturbances (12.65±0.74 and 11.86±0.49% v/v for optimal and no optimal control, respectively). Cost savings due to lower enzyme usage and reduced cooling requirement were estimated to be up to $1 million for a 151 million L/yr (40 million gal/yr) dry grind plant.

  1. Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from corncob by a two-step process: dark- and photo-fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honghui; Guo, Liejin; Liu, Fei

    2010-03-01

    Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from pretreated corncob by integrating dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation process was investigated in this study. In the first step, the maximum bio-hydrogen yield and rate from corncob by dark-fermentation was 120.3+/-5.2 mL H(2)/g-corncob and 150 mL H(2)/(Lh), respectively. In the second step, a hydrogen yield of 713.6+/-44.1 mL H(2)/g-COD was obtained from digesting the effluent of dark-fermentation by photosynthetic bacteria. Meanwhile, COD removal efficiency achieved 90%. Bio-hydrogen production in the first step was mainly attributed to the bioconversion of the reducing sugars and oligosaccharides in the hydrolyzate of corncob. Bio-hydrogen production in the second step was due to the biodegradation of acetic acid, butyric acid, butyl alcohol and ethanol in the effluent of dark-fermentation. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of alcoholic fermentation in the content of phenolic compounds in cider processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nogueira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of alcoholic fermentation on the content of phenol compounds of five cider apple varieties. The initial content in the apple juice samples, as determined by HPLC, varied from 188.4 to 2776.17 m mg.L-1. In three of them (DC, PJ, GU, the total phenol compounds remained unaffected by fermentation. However, in two (DM, KE, the final values were lower (55 and 313 mg.L-1. In these apple cider, the values of caffeic acid increased from 6.6 mg.L-1 to 41.8 mg.L-1. The catechin content increased during the process, approximately 13 mg.L-1 independent of the variety. The other phenols class did not present any modifications due to the alcoholic fermentation, maintaining the phenolic compounds of original clarified apple juice in the cider.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da fermentação alcoólica no teor de compostos fenólicos de cinco mostos de maçãs industriais. Os compostos fenólicos foram analisados por HPLC. Os mostos apresentaram fenóis totais entre 188,4 a 2776,17 mg.L-1. Os teores de fenóis durante a fermentação permaneceram os mesmos para as variedades DC, PJ e GU, entretanto, em DM e KE foi observada uma diminuição dos teores de fenóis (55 e 313 mg.L-1, respectivamente. Em KE o teor do ácido caféico aumentou de 6,6 mg.L-1 para 41,8 mg.L-1. O teor de catequinas aumentou cerca de 13 mg.L-1 durante o processo, independente da variedade. As outras classes de fenóis não apresentaram modificações com a fermentação alcoólica, permanecendo na sidra os compostos fenólicos do suco de maçã clarificado.

  3. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-01-03

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  5. Process integration for simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR): Production of butanol from corn stover using Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for production of acetone butanol ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86 gL^-1^ corn stover, over 97% of the sugars were r...

  6. Effect of processed and fermented soyabeans on net absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Andel, van E.E.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a major problem in both children and piglets. Infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In the present study the effect of processed and fermented soyabean products on net absorption during

  7. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of ...

  8. Potency of microfiltration membrane process in purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as functional food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Maryati, Yati; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) using mixture of L. bulgaricus, S. thermopillus, L. acidophillusand Bifidobacteriumbifidum and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as carbon source have been performed to recover biomass concentrate for probiotic and antioxidant. Purification of fermented broccoli was conducted through microfiltration (MF) membrane of 0.15 µm at stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Fermented broccoli produced via fermentation process with fermentation time 0 (initial) and 48 hours, and LAB concentration 10% and 20% (v/v) represented as biomass of A, B, C and D. The experimental result showed that based on selectivity of total organic acids, separating optimization was achieved at biomass D (fermentation time 48 hours and mixed LAB culture concentration 20%). Concentrate composition produced in this condition were total acids 6.04%, total solids 24.31%, total polyphenol 0.0252%, reducing sugar 68.25 mg/mL, total sugars 30.89 mg/mL, and dissolved protein 28.54 mg/mL with pH 3.94. In this condition, recovery of biomass concentrate of D for total acids 5.64 folds, total solids 1.82 folds, total polyphenol 3.03 folds, reducing sugar 1.16 folds, total sugars 1.19 folds, and dissolved protein 0.67 folds compared with feed (initial process). Identification of monomer of biomass concentrate D as polyphenol derivatives at T2,01 and T3.01 gave monomer with molecular weight (MW) 192.78 Dalton (Da.), and monomer with MW 191.08, 191.49 and 192.07 Da., while lactic acid derivatives showed MW 251.13, 251.6 and 252.14, and monomer with MW 250.63, 252.14 and 254.22 Da.

  9. Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Scoulica, Efstathia; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Dialynas, Michael; Tselentis, Yannis

    2003-09-01

    Nocardia species are Gram-positive bacteria responsible for systemic or cutaneous infections in humans. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most common infective agent in the cutaneous form of nocardiosis. We describe a case of a previously healthy man, who presented with lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection, and was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The identification of the isolate was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

  10. An overview on fermentation, downstream processing and properties of microbial alkaline proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R; Beg, Q K; Khan, S; Chauhan, B

    2002-12-01

    Microbial alkaline proteases dominate the worldwide enzyme market, accounting for a two-thirds share of the detergent industry. Although protease production is an inherent property of all organisms, only those microbes that produce a substantial amount of extracellular protease have been exploited commercially. Of these, strains of Bacillus sp. dominate the industrial sector. To develop an efficient enzyme-based process for the industry, prior knowledge of various fermentation parameters, purification strategies and properties of the biocatalyst is of utmost importance. Besides these, the method of measurement of proteolytic potential, the selection of the substrate and the assay protocol depends upon the ultimate industrial application. A large array of assay protocols are available in the literature; however, with the predominance of molecular approaches for the generation of better biocatalysts, the search for newer substrates and assay protocols that can be conducted at micro/nano-scale are becoming important. Fermentation of proteases is regulated by varying the C/N ratio and can be scaled-up using fed-batch, continuous or chemostat approaches by prolonging the stationary phase of the culture. The conventional purification strategy employed, involving e.g., concentration, chromatographic steps, or aqueous two-phase systems, depends on the properties of the protease in question. Alkaline proteases useful for detergent applications are mostly active in the pH range 8-12 and at temperatures between 50 and 70 degrees C, with a few exceptions of extreme pH optima up to pH 13 and activity at temperatures up to 80-90 degrees C. Alkaline proteases mostly have their isoelectric points near to their pH optimum in the range of 8-11. Several industrially important proteases have been subjected to crystallization to extensively study their molecular homology and three-dimensional structures.

  11. Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Eva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate.

  12. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  13. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  14. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  15. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the substrate inhibition that takes place at high levels of carbon source, fed-batch fermentation was proposed as a better alternative for BLM production. The combined effects of batch and fed-batch fermentation and various pH profiles on BLM production in a bioreactor were evaluated. The tested pH profiles included ...

  16. Process control of solid-state fermentation : simultaneous control of temperature and moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.I.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF), i.e. cultivation of micro-organisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free-flowing water, is an alternative for submerged fermentation (SmF) for the production of biotechnological products. In recent years, research on SSF has led to a

  17. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  18. Solid-substrate fermentation of soya beans to tempe : process innovations and product characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-substrate fermentations (SSF) are restricted by heat- and mass transfer limitations, which might result in unfavourable growth conditions. One way to prevent such conditions is by agitation of the substrate. In this study a Rotating Drum Reactor (RDR) was designed for the fermentation of soya

  19. Yeasts in Hevea brasiliensis Latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, A M; Kachalkin, A V; Maksimova, I A; Chernov, I Yu

    2016-07-01

    Yeast abundance and species diversity in the latex of caoutchouc tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Juss.) M611. Arg., on its green leaves, and in soil below the plant Was studied. The yeasts present in the fresh latex in concentrations of up to 5.5 log(CFU/g) were almost exclusively represented by the species Candida heveicola, which was previously isolated from Hevea latex in China. In the course of natural modification of the latex yeast diversity increased, while yeast abundance decreased. The yeasts of thickened and solidified latex were represented by typical epiphytic and ubiquitous species: Kodamea ohmeri, Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and synanthropic species Candida parapsilosis and Cutaneotrichosporon arbori- formis. The role of yeasts in latex modification at the initial stages of succession and their probable role in de- velopment of antifungal activity in the latex are discussed.

  20. Modeling and parameter identification of the simultaneous saccharification-fermentation process for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Silvia; Yoo, Ahrim; Repke, Jens-Uwe; Wozny, Günter; Yang, Dae Ryook

    2007-01-01

    Despite many environmental advantages of using alcohol as a fuel, there are still serious questions about its economical feasibility when compared with oil-based fuels. The bioethanol industry needs to be more competitive, and therefore, all stages of its production process must be simple, inexpensive, efficient, and "easy" to control. In recent years, there have been significant improvements in process design, such as in the purification technologies for ethanol dehydration (molecular sieves, pressure swing adsorption, pervaporation, etc.) and in genetic modifications of microbial strains. However, a lot of research effort is still required in optimization and control, where the first step is the development of suitable models of the process, which can be used as a simulated plant, as a soft sensor or as part of the control algorithm. Thus, toward developing good, reliable, and simple but highly predictive models that can be used in the future for optimization and process control applications, in this paper an unstructured and a cybernetic model are proposed and compared for the simultaneous saccharification-fermentation process (SSF) for the production of ethanol from starch by a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain. The cybernetic model proposed is a new one that considers the degradation of starch not only into glucose but also into dextrins (reducing sugars) and takes into account the intracellular reactions occurring inside the cells, giving a more detailed description of the process. Furthermore, an identification procedure based on the Metropolis Monte Carlo optimization method coupled with a sensitivity analysis is proposed for the identification of the model's parameters, employing experimental data reported in the literature.

  1. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fermentation Process Modeling with Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm and Runge-Kutta Method on Ethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The core of the Chinese rice wine making is a typical simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. In order to control and optimize the SSF process of Chinese rice wine brewing, it is necessary to construct kinetic model and study the influence of temperature on the Chinese rice wine brewing process. An unstructured kinetic model containing 12 kinetics parameters was developed and used to describe the changing of kinetic parameters in Chinese rice wine fermentation at 22, 26, and 30°C. The effects of substrate and product inhibitions were included in the model, and four variable, including biomass, ethanol, sugar and substrate were considered. The R-square values for the model are all above 0.95 revealing that the model prediction values could match experimental data very well. Our model conceivably contributes significantly to the improvement of the industrial process for the production of Chinese rice wine.

  3. Optimization of process variables for minimization of byproduct formation during fermentation of blackstrap molasses to ethanol at industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, M; Khan, Z M; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Shah, F A; Rajoka, M I

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effect of molasses concentration, initial pH of molasses medium, and inoculum's size to maximize ethanol and minimize methanol, fusel alcohols, acetic acid and aldehydes in the fermentation mash in industrial fermentors. Initial studies to optimize temperature, nitrogen source, phosphorous source, sulfur supplement and minerals were performed. The essential nutrients were urea (2 kg in 60 m(3)), 0.5 l each of commercial phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid (for pH control) added at the inoculum preparation stage only. Yields of ethanol, methanol, fusel alcohols, total acids and aldehydes per 100-l fermentation broth were monitored. Molasses at 29 degrees Brix (degree of dissolved sugars in water), initial pH 4.5, inoculum size 30% (v/v) and anaerobic fermentation supported maximum ethanol (7.8%) with Y(P/S) = 238 l ethanol per tonne molasses (96.5% yield) (8.2% increase in yield), and had significantly lower values of byproducts than those in control experiments. Optimization of process variables resulted in higher ethanol yield (8.2%) and reduced yield of methanol, fusel alcohols, acids and aldehydes. More than 5% substrate is converted into byproducts. Eliminating or reducing their formation can increase ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, decrease the overall cost of fermentation process and improve the quality of ethanol.

  4. Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panzera Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome characteristics, which differ from those observed in all other triatomine species. However, no cytogenetic differences were observed between the four chromatic forms of T. brasiliensis. The lack of chromosome differentiation among them could indicate that the populations of this species are in a process of differentiation that does not involve their chromosomal organization.

  5. Fermentable sugar production from paddy straw by two steps chemical pretreatment and hydrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vivian J. Q.; Salimi, M. N.; Yusoff, Ahm

    2017-04-01

    Paddy straw is one of the most abundant lignocellulose wastes and has potential as a feedstock for sugar production. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are the process that selected for the production of sugar. The paddy straw was pretreated with 1% (v/v) of sulfuric acid at 95 °C for 60 minutes followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis is desirable to achieve high yield of sugar from solid residues with high cellulose content. The optimization has been carried out by using Central composite design (CCD) to analyze the effect of pH, temperature and enzyme dosing for the enzymatic hydrolysis. For both the process, the concentration of sugar was analyzed by using Dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent with the aid of the standard glucose curve. The results showed the highest sugar yield from dilute acid pre-treatment was 1.14 g/L. For the optimum condition for enzymatic hydrolysis was at pH 5, 50 °C and 0.10 mL of enzyme and this produced 4.55 g/L of fermentable sugar.

  6. Fermentation characteristics of some assamica clones and process optimization of black tea manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Ananta Madhab; Mahanta, Pradip Kumar

    2003-10-22

    Changes in the specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and protease and in the relative amounts of flavan-3-ols for eight genetically derived cultivated teas at various stages of leaf maturity and in four succescive seasons were examined. A series of investigations were carried out to study the cross-reactivity of complex polyphenols and PPO-generated orange-yellow theaflavins, as well as of POD oxidized substrates, producing brown so-called thearubigins during fermented tea processing. From the estimation of five major catechins, PPO activities in young shoots, and theaflavin and thearubigin contents of crushed, torn, and curled (CTC) black teas, the superior variety and flavorful flush characteristics were refined. Notable protein hydrolysis by endogenous protease as measured from free amino acids and formation of tannin-protein complex (browning products) was obtained for cultivar character and product quality. Results showed that process optimization with respect to time, temperature, moisture, and pH maximizes PPO-catalyzed desirable theaflavin pigments, whereas POD-mediated chemical reaction produces dull color.

  7. Quality Prediction for a Fed-Batch Fermentation Process Using Multi-Block PLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeong Jin; Zhang, Jie

    Quality prediction is usually required for product quality monitoring and setting up control strategy can reduce operating cost and improve production efficiency. Partial least square (PLS) regression is a popular statistical method for predictive modelling. The amount of data measured and stored in a typical industrial process is dramatically increased due to the fast development of computer and measuring system. It is hard to analyse all measured data using one matrix for its complexity. Multi-Block PLS model allows the data to be separated into sub-blocks and the sub-blocks can be analysed independently. Data from the fed-batch fermentation process is used to build models. Data is divided by different modes and different phases and model parameters are used to select variables that can be used as good predictors. The new set of data after variable selections is used to build a new model again. In most cases, new models show improved prediction performances compared with results from the conventional method.

  8. Utilizing acid-rich effluents of fermentative hydrogen production process as substrate for harnessing bioelectricity: An integrative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanakrishna, G.; Venkata Mohan, S.; Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre (BEEC), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad 500 607 (India)

    2010-04-15

    Lower substrate degradation is one of the limiting factors associated with fermentative hydrogen production process. To overcome this, an attempt was made to integrate microbial fuel cell (MFC) as a secondary energy generating process with the fermentative hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production. The acid-rich effluents generated from the acidogenic sequential batch biofilm reactor (AcSBBR) producing H{sub 2} by fermenting vegetable waste was subsequently used as substrate for bioelectricity generation in single chambered MFC (air cathode; non-catalyzed electrodes). AcSBBR was operated at 70.4 kg COD/m{sup 3}-day and the outlet was fed to the MFC at three variable organic loading rates. The final outlet from AcSBBR was composed of fermentative soluble acid intermediates along with residual carbon source. Experimental data illustrated the feasibility of utilizing acid-rich effluents by MFC for both additional energy generation and wastewater treatment. Higher power output (111.76 mW/m{sup 2}) was observed at lower substrate loading condition. MFC also illustrated its function as wastewater treatment unit by removing COD (80%), volatile fatty acids (79%), carbohydrates (78%) and turbidity (65.38%) effectively. Fermented form of vegetable wastewater exhibited higher improvement (94%) in power compared to unfermented wastewater. The performance of MFC was characterized with respect to polarization behavior, cell potentials, cyclic voltammetry and sustainable power. This integration approach enhanced wastewater treatment efficiency (COD removal, 84.6%) along with additional energy generation demonstrating both environmental and economic sustainability of the process. (author)

  9. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  10. Performance comparison of differential evolution techniques on optimization of feeding profile for an industrial scale baker's yeast fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzgeç, Uğur

    2010-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is one of the novel evolutionary optimization methods used for solving the problems that consist of nondifferentiable, nonlinear and multi-objective functions. In this presented work, the classical DE technique and its various versions, such as opposition based on differential evolution (ODE), adaptive differential evolution (ADE), adaptive opposition based on differential evolution (AODE) which is an advanced version of ODE, are presented to determine the optimal feeding flow profile of an industrial scale fed-batch baker's yeast fermentation process. The main objective in any fed-batch fermentation process optimization is both to maximize the amount of the biomass at the end of the process and to minimize the ethanol formation during the process. Four different cases regarding the initial condition of the fermentation process were considered so as to evaluate the performances of proposed algorithms. Besides, two strategies of mutation and crossover operators, which are the most popular in DE's applications, were utilized for performance comparison tests. The influence of initial seed value, initial condition of the process, and both of the mutation and crossover strategies have been investigated for all the different classic, opposition-based, self-adaptive and adaptive opposition-based mechanisms. To demonstrate the performance comparison of the of DE's techniques, the experimental data collected from the fermentor with volume of 100 m(3) are presented with the optimization results obtained by using all the interested DE techniques for the same initial conditions. 2009 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Process combination of thermo pressure hydrolysis and fermentation for innovative processing of residual biogenous mass; Verfahrenskombination aus Thermodruckhydrolyse und Vergaerung zur innovativen Verwertung biogener Restmassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.; Merkl, M.; Schieder, D.; Schneider, R.; Bischof, F. [Applikations- und Technikzentrum fuer Energieverfahrens-, Umwelt- und Stroemungstechnik (ATZ-EVUS), Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The described processing technique consisting of topped thermal hydrolysis and downstream fermentation is particularly suitable for wet, low-structure organic waste. High turnover rates at short treatment times permit to minimize residues effectively, yield a fair amount of biogas and allow compact design because of low fermenter volumes, which has a positive impact on investment cost. (orig.) [German] Das vorgestellt Verwertungsverfahren bestehend aus vorgeschalteter thermischer Hydrolyse und nachgeschalteter Vergaerung eignet sich besonders fuer nasse, strukturarme organische Abfaelle. Hohe Umsatzraten bei kurzen Behandlungszeiten ermoeglichen eine gute Reststoffminimierung und Biogasausbeute sowie eine kompakte Bauweise durch kleine Fermentervolumina, was sich positiv auf die Investitionskosten auswirkt. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of process factors of dry fermented salami to control Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenge tests are a clear opportunity for manufacturers interested in the evaluation of their management system with the aim to reduce the spread of foodborne pathogens. This is a main concern especially in ready-to-eat food in relation to the risk associated with Listeria monocytogenes. For small and medium-scale food industry the manufacturing practices and products formulation are characterised by a wider variability and poor repeatability. The use of ad hoc challenge test and the comparison among different processing systems are strongly required. This paper reports a preliminary comparison among different challenge tests (n=12 commissioned by three manufacturers of raw-fermented salami during a period of three years (2013-2016. The challenge tests were designed to evaluate the growth potential (δ of L. monocytogenes during the whole processing period of the salami. The doughs were prepared according to different formulations: the simplest formulation was represented by the use of salt, potassium nitrate, black pepper and starter cultures, while the most composited formulations also included the use of sugars and ascorbic acid in addition to nitrite salt. All the processing steps were conducted within an experimental laboratory dedicated for the processing of meat. After stuffing, the salami were dried and ripened under temperature and relative humidity control. The sugar inclusion can be considered as a protective factor, while the drying step at high temperature (above 20°C was associated with higher δ values (δ>0.5 log10 cfu/g. The addition of starter cultures, and the subsequent acidification highlighted the importance of pH as the parameter able to affect the L. monocytogenes growth.

  13. Detection of abnormal fermentations in wine process by multivariate statistics and pattern recognition techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urtubia, A; Hernández, G; Roger, J M

    2012-06-30

    Three multivariate statistical techniques (Multiway Principal Component Analysis, Multiway Partial Least Squares, and Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis) and one artificial intelligence method (Artificial Neural Networks) were evaluated to detect and predict early abnormal behaviors of wine fermentations. The techniques were tested with data of thirty-two variables at different stages of fermentation from industrial wine fermentations of Cabernet Sauvignon. All the techniques studied considered a pre-treatment to obtain a homogeneous space and reduce the overfitting. The results were encouraging; it was possible to classify at 72h 100% of the fermentation correctly with three variables using Multiway Partial Least Squares and Artificial Neural Networks. Additional and complementary results were obtained with Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis, which found that ethanol, sugars and density measurements are able to discriminate abnormal behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative technoeconomic analysis of a softwood ethanol process featuring posthydrolysis sugars concentration operations and continuous fermentation with cell recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Economical production of second generation ethanol from Ponderosa pine is of interest due to widespread mountain pine beetle infestation in the western United States and Canada. The conversion process is limited by low glucose and high inhibitor concentrations resulting from conventional low-solids dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Inhibited fermentations require larger fermentors (due to reduced volumetric productivity) and low sugars lead to low ethanol titers, increasing distillation costs. In this work, multiple effect evaporation (MEE) and nanofiltration (NF) were evaluated to concentrate the hydrolysate from 30 g/l to 100, 150, or 200 g/l glucose. To ferment this high gravity, inhibitor containing stream, traditional batch fermentation was compared with continuous stirred tank fermentation (CSTF) and continuous fermentation with cell recycle (CSTF-CR). Equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC = amortized capital + yearly operating expenses) was used to compare these potential improvements for a local-scale 5 MGY ethanol production facility. Hydrolysate concentration via evaporation increased EAOC over the base process due to the capital and energy intensive nature of evaporating a very dilute sugar stream; however, concentration via NF decreased EAOC for several of the cases (by 2 to 15%). NF concentration to 100 g/l glucose with a CSTF-CR was the most economical option, reducing EAOC by $0.15 per gallon ethanol produced. Sensitivity analyses on NF options showed that EAOC improvement over the base case could still be realized for even higher solids removal requirements (up to two times higher centrifuge requirement for the best case) or decreased NF performance. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  15. Amino Acid and Mineral Supplementation in Fermentation Process of Concentrate Protein of Jatropha Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Widiyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the optimization of fermentation process by adding a minerals and amino acids so that the potential of protein  of Concentrate Protein-Jatropha seed cake (CP-JSC can be optimally used as a substitute for soybean meal. The method used was completely randomized design. The treatment consisted of F1: Fermentation CP-BBJ + methionine-lysine (0.25%: 0.25%, F2: Fermentation CP-JSC + methionine-lysine (0.5%: 0.5%, F3: F1 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate, F4: F2 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate. Each treatment was repeated four times, When treatment significantly continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD, variables observed are the levels of antinutrients (phorbolester, antitrypsin, the levels of nutrients (fat, protein, crude fiber, Ca, P and gross energy and amino acid. Results of analysis of variance showed that the addition of amino acids and minerals Ca, P in the fermentation process was highly significant effect on the levels of crude fiber and phosphorus (P 0.05. While the levels obtained phorbolester range of 0.055% - 0.08%. It was concluded that the optimization of fermentation can be done without adding the amino acid supplementation of minerals calcium and phosphorus. Supplementation significantly affect a significant increase or decrease in some nutrients (crude fiber, gross energy, phosphor and capable of suppressing a decrease in amino acids. Supplementation of amino acids Lysine and Methionin 0.05% is the best treatment.

  16. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs (each 25mL) connected in series to an MEC (72mL) produced a maximum of 0.43V using fermentation effluent as a feed, achieving a hydrogen production rate from the MEC of 0.48m 3 H 2/m 3/d (based on the MEC volume), and a yield of 33.2mmol H 2/g COD removed in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production for the integrated system (fermentation, MFC and MEC) was increased by 41% compared with fermentation alone to 14.3mmol H 2/g cellulose, with a total hydrogen production rate of 0.24m 3 H 2/m 3/d and an overall energy recovery efficiency of 23% (based on cellulose removed) without the need for any external electrical energy input. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Upstream process optimization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by Alcaligenes latus using two-stage batch and fed-batch fermentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingqing; Sharma-Shivappa, Ratna R; Olson, Jonathan W; Khan, Saad A

    2012-11-01

    This research focused on optimizing the upstream process time for production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from sucrose by two-stage batch and fed-batch fermentation with Alcaligenes latus ATCC 29714. The study included selection of strain, two-stage batch fermentations with different time points for switching to nitrogen limited media (14, 16 or 18 h) and fed-batch fermentations with varied time points (similar to two stage) for introducing nitrogen limited media. The optimal strain to produce PHB using sucrose as carbon source was A. latus ATCC 29714 with maximum-specific growth rate of 0.38 ± 0.01 h(-1) and doubling time of 1.80 ± 0.05 h. Inducing nitrogen limitation at 16 h and ending second stage at 26 h gave optimal performance for PHB production, resulting in a PHB content of 46.7 ± 12.2 % (g PHB per g dry cell weight) at the end of fermentation. This was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) (approximately 7 %) than the corresponding fed batch run in which nitrogen limitation was initiated at 16 h.

  18. Pythium irregulare fermentation to produce arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) using soybean processing co-products as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lio, Junyi; Wang, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were produced by Pythium irregulare fungus using soybean cotyledon fiber and soy skim, two co-products from soybean aqueous processing, as substrates in different fermentation systems. Parameters such as moisture content, substrate glucose addition, incubation time, and vegetable oil supplementation were found to be important in solid-state fermentation (SSF) of soybean fiber, which is to be used as animal feed with enriched long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Soybean fiber with 8 % (dwb) glucose supplementation for a 7-day SSF produced 1.3 mg of ARA and 1.6 mg of EPA in 1 g of dried substrate. When soy skim was used as substrate for submerged fermentation, total ARA yield of 125.7 mg/L and EPA yield of 92.4 mg/L were achieved with the supplementation of 7 % (w/v) soybean oil. This study demonstrates that the values of soybean fiber and soy skim co-products could be enhanced through the long-chain PUFA production by fermentation.

  19. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijie; Sun, Dan; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Haoyu; Ren, Nanqi; Wu, Wei-Min; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs (each 25 mL) connected in series to an MEC (72 mL) produced a maximum of 0.43 V using fermentation effluent as a feed, achieving a hydrogen production rate from the MEC of 0.48 m(3) H(2)/m(3)/d (based on the MEC volume), and a yield of 33.2 mmol H(2)/g COD removed in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production for the integrated system (fermentation, MFC and MEC) was increased by 41% compared with fermentation alone to 14.3 mmol H(2)/g cellulose, with a total hydrogen production rate of 0.24 m(3) H(2)/m(3)/d and an overall energy recovery efficiency of 23% (based on cellulose removed) without the need for any external electrical energy input. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of residue from cassava starch processing for production of fermentable sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Reis Fontinelle SOUTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize and perform enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peeling residue (peel and inner peel, mainly composed of peels and small pieces. Residue was sanitized, dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and ground. The obtained flour showed pH of 4.85; 72.53 g 100 g–1 moisture; 5.18 mL 1M NaOH 100 g–1 acidity; 60.68 g 100 g–1 starch; 1.08 g 100 g–1 reducing sugar; 1.63 g 100g–1 ash; 0.86 g 100 g–1 lipid and 3.97 g 100 g–1 protein. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out by means of rotational central composite design, analyzing the effects of concentrations of α-amylase enzyme (10 to 50 U g starch–1, and the amyloglucosidase enzyme (80 to 400 U g starch–1 on variable responses: percent conversion of starch into reducing sugars (RSC and soluble solid content (SS. Highest values of RSC (110% and SS (12 °Brix were observed when using the maximum concentration of amyloglucosidase and throughout the concentration range of α-amylase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel is feasible and allows the use of hydrolysate in fermentation processes for the production of various products, such as alcoholic drinks, vinegar, among others.

  1. Utilization of residue from cassava starch processing for production of fermentable sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Reis Fontinelle SOUTO

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize and perform enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peeling residue (peel and inner peel, mainly composed of peels and small pieces. Residue was sanitized, dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and ground. The obtained flour showed pH of 4.85; 72.53 g 100 g–1 moisture; 5.18 mL 1M NaOH 100 g–1 acidity; 60.68 g 100 g–1 starch; 1.08 g 100 g–1 reducing sugar; 1.63 g 100g–1 ash; 0.86 g 100 g–1 lipid and 3.97 g 100 g–1 protein. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out by means of rotational central composite design, analyzing the effects of concentrations of α-amylase enzyme (10 to 50 U g starch–1, and the amyloglucosidase enzyme (80 to 400 U g starch–1 on variable responses: percent conversion of starch into reducing sugars (RSC and soluble solid content (SS. Highest values of RSC (110% and SS (12 °Brix were observed when using the maximum concentration of amyloglucosidase and throughout the concentration range of α-amylase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel is feasible and allows the use of hydrolysate in fermentation processes for the production of various products, such as alcoholic drinks, vinegar, among others.

  2. [Optimization of synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Bei-Bei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Ming-Yu; Xiao, Dong-Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2014-07-01

    To optimize the synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid. Using the DNA assembler method, one copy of Glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase (GgbAS), Medicago truncatula oleanolic acid synthase (MtOAS) and Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase 1 (AtCPR1) genes were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY-OA, resulting in strain BY-20A. YPD medium with different glucose concentration were then used to cultivate strain BY-2OA. Increasing gene copies of GgbAS, MtOAS and AtCPR1 resulted in increased beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid production. The strain BY-2OA produced 136.5 mg x L(-1) beta-amyrin and 92.5 mg x L(-1) oleanolic acid, which were 54% and 30% higher than the parent strain BY-OA. Finally, the titer of oleanolic acid increased to 165.7 mg x L(-1) when cultivated in YPD medium with 40 mg x L(-1) glucose. Production of oleanoic acid increased significantly in the yeast strain BY-2OA, which can provide the basis for creating an alternative way for production of oleanoic acid in place of extraction from plant sources.

  3. Optimizing fermentation process miscanthus-to-ethanol biorefinery scale under uncertain conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, Matthew; Sanchez, Daniel L.; Lipman, Timothy E.

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks has garnered significant interest for greenhouse gas abatement and energy security promotion. One outstanding question in the development of a mature cellulosic ethanol industry is the optimal scale of biorefining activities. This question is important for companies and entrepreneurs seeking to construct and operate cellulosic ethanol biorefineries as it determines the size of investment needed and the amount of feedstock for which they must contract. The question also has important implications for the nature and location of lifecycle environmental impacts from cellulosic ethanol. We use an optimization framework similar to previous studies, but add richer details by treating many of these critical parameters as random variables and incorporating a stochastic sub-model for land conversion. We then use Monte Carlo simulation to obtain a probability distribution for the optimal scale of a biorefinery using a fermentation process and miscanthus feedstock. We find a bimodal distribution with a high peak at around 10-30 MMgal yr-1 (representing circumstances where a relatively low percentage of farmers elect to participate in miscanthus cultivation) and a lower and flatter peak between 150 and 250 MMgal yr-1 (representing more typically assumed land-conversion conditions). This distribution leads to useful insights; in particular, the asymmetry of the distribution—with significantly more mass on the low side—indicates that developers of cellulosic ethanol biorefineries may wish to exercise caution in scale-up.

  4. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Cassells, Benny; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-07-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress of the batch taking into account the oxygen mass transfer conditions and the expected future trajectory of the mass. The final results show that the target fill was achieved to within 5% under the maximum fill when tested using eight pilot scale batches, and over filling was avoided. The results were reproducible, unlike the reference experiments which show over 10% variation in the final tank fill, and this also includes over filling. The variance of the final tank fill is

  5. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  6. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  7. Increasing CoQ10 production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris J001 using a two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shi-yun; Yu, Long-jiang

    2008-01-01

    CoQ10 is used not only as a medicine but also as a food supplement due to its various physiological activities. The production of CoQ10 by microbes is a successful approach for generating large amounts of this natural product. The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) contents and the two-stage fermentation process on cell growth and CoQ10 production by Rhodopseudomonas palustris J001 were investigated. The optimal DO contents for cell growth and CoQ10 production were 45% and 15%, respectively. A two-stage fermentation process, which consists of a 1st stage with 45% DO, a 2nd stage with 15% DO and a synchronous feeding of 2.0% NaAc at the switching time (42 h after inoculation), has proven to be the optimum fermentation process for the production of CoQ10. The maximum biomass, CoQ10 production and CoQ10 production rate were 1.31 g l(-1), 89.1 mg l(-1), and 1.142 mg l(-1) h(-1), respectively, increased by 28%, 585% and 426% as compared to the one-stage batch production with 45% DO. The DO level was the major factor to increase the CoQ10 production by the two-stage process.

  8. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  9. Nitrogen compounds in must and volatile profile of white wine: Influence of clarification process before alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Vívian Maria; Caliari, Vinícius; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding a fining agent to the must in relation to the fermentation kinetics and the volatile composition of the wine produced. Three fining agents, bentonite, pectinolytic enzyme and silica were applied, separately, to samples of Chardonnay must. It was observed that the addition of a fining agent had a significant influence on the must and wine composition. The must clarified with bentonite showed the lowest nitrogen content and the enzyme addition led to the highest nitrogen content. During the fermentation process, a difference in the consumption rate was observed for each amino acid in relation to the fining agent used in the process. In relation to the volatile composition, the wine produced had different characteristics according to the fining agent added to the must, which was confirmed by separation of the samples using principal component analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Modelling of L-valine Repeated Fed-batch Fermentation Process Taking into Account the Dissolved Oxygen Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of variable volume fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of hydrothermal pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: evaluation of process performance under multiple stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kelbert, M.; Romaní, Aloia; Coelho, Eduardo; Pereira, L; Teixeira, J. A.; Domingues, Lucília

    2016-01-01

    Industrial lignocellulosic bioethanol processes are exposed to different environmental stresses (such as inhibitor compounds, high temperature, and high solid loadings). In this study, a systematic approach was followed where the liquid and solid fractions were mixed to evaluate the influence of varied solid loadings, and different percentages of liquor were used as liquid fraction to determine inhibitor effect. Ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of hyd...

  12. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chojnacka

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia, Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and

  13. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  14. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Zaki, Zuhaida; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R; Lu, Yang; Hoelzle, Robert; Pratt, Steven; Slater, Fran R; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-01-04

    Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations.

  15. Influence of pH Regulation Mode in Glucose Fermentation on Product Selection and Process Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhaida Mohd-Zaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture anaerobic fermentation generates a wide range of products from simple sugars, and is potentially an effective process for producing renewable commodity chemicals. However it is difficult to predict product spectrum, and to control the process. One of the key control handles is pH, but the response is commonly dependent on culture history. In this work, we assess the impact of pH regulation mode on the product spectrum. Two regulation modes were applied: in the first, pH was adjusted from 4.5 to 8.5 in progressive steps of 0.5 and in the second, covered the same pH range, but the pH was reset to 5.5 before each change. Acetate, butyrate, and ethanol were produced throughout all pH ranges, but there was a shift from butyrate at pH < 6.5 to ethanol at pH > 6.5, as well as a strong and consistent shift from hydrogen to formate as pH increased. Microbial analysis indicated that progressive pH resulted in dominance by Klebsiella, while reset pH resulted in a bias towards Clostridium spp., particularly at low pH, with higher variance in community between different pH levels. Reset pH was more responsive to changes in pH, and analysis of Gibbs free energy indicated that the reset pH experiments operated closer to thermodynamic equilibrium, particularly with respect to the formate/hydrogen balance. This may indicate that periodically resetting pH conforms better to thermodynamic expectations.

  16. The usefulness of intermediate products of plum processing for alcoholic fermentation and chemical composition of the obtained distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Patelski, Piotr; Sapińska, Ewelina; Księżopolska, Mirosława

    2013-05-01

    In this study, an evaluation of intermediate products of plum processing as potential raw materials for distillates production was performed. Effects of composition of mashes on ethanol yield, chemical composition and taste, and flavor of the obtained spirits were determined. The obtained results showed that spontaneous fermentations of the tested products of plum processing with native microflora of raisins resulted in lower ethanol yields, compared to the ones fermented with wine yeast Saccharomyces bayanus. The supplementation of mashes with 120 g/L of sucrose caused an increase in ethanol contents from 6.2 ± 0.2 ÷ 6.5 ± 0.2% v/v in reference mashes (without sucrose addition, fermented with S. bayanus) to ca. 10.3 ± 0.3% v/v, where its highest yields amounted to 94.7 ± 2.9 ÷ 95.6 ± 2.9% of theoretical capacity, without negative changes in raw material originality of distillates. The concentrations of volatile compounds in the obtained distillates exceeding 2000 mg/L alcohol 100% v/v and low content of methanol and hydrocyanic acid, as well as their good taste and aroma make the examined products of plum processing be very attractive raw materials for the plum distillates production. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Synthesis and Application of Amine Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Menaquinone-7 Fermentation: A Step towards Process Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ebrahiminezhad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production of menaquione-7 by Bacillus subtilis natto is associated with major drawbacks. To address the current challenges in menaquione-7 fermentation, studying the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the bacterial cells can open up a new domain for intensified menqainone-7 process. This article introduces the new concept of production and application of l-lysine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (l-Lys@IONs as a novel tool for menaquinone-7 biosynthesis. l-Lys@IONs with the average size of 7 nm were successfully fabricated and were examined in a fermentation process of l-Lys@IONs decorated Bacillus subtilis natto. Based on the results, higher menaquinone-7 specific yield was observed for l-Lys@IONs decorated bacterial cells as compared to untreated bacteria. In addition, more than 92% removal efficacy was achieved by using integrated magnetic separation process. The present study demonstrates that l-Lys@IONs can be successfully applied during a fermentation of menaquinone-7 without any negative consequences on the culture conditions. This study provides a novel biotechnological application for IONs and their future role in bioprocess intensification.

  18. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, CC; Dong, J; Yang, ST

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of thermally processed carbohydrate/amino acid mixtures on the fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauer, Andreas; Elss, Sandra; Frischmann, Matthias; Tellez, Patricia; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2004-04-07

    The production of alcoholic beverages such as Tequila, Mezcal, whiskey, or beer includes the fermentation of a mash containing Maillard reaction products. Because excessive heating of the mash can lead to complications during the following fermentation step, the impact of Maillard products on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. For this purpose, fermentation was carried out in a model system in the presence and absence of Maillard reaction products and formation of ethanol served as a marker for the progression of fermentation. We found that increasing amounts of Maillard products reduced the formation of ethanol up to 80%. This effect was dependent on the pH value during the Maillard reaction, reaction time, as well as the carbohydrate and amino acid component used for the generation of Maillard reaction products. Another important factor is the pH value during fermentation: The inhibitory effect of Maillard products was not detectable at a pH of 4 and increased with higher pH-values. These findings might be of relevance for the production of above-mentioned beverages.

  1. Drying process of fermented inulin fiber concentrate by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a dietary fiber source for cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Ghozali, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation on inulin hydrolysate as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a result of hydrolysis by inulase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi has been performed to bind cholesterol. Their applications on preparation of fermented pour beverages was conducted via a series of concentration process using dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at stirrer rotation of 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure of 40 psia for 0 minute (pre-concentration process) as concentrate (A) and 45 minutes as concentrate (B), and drying process using vacuum dryer at 30 °C and 22 cm Hg for 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 hours. Based on optimization of Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), the best time of drying process was achieved for 40 hours. Long time of drying process would increase TDF and total solids, decreased total acids, and fluctuated dissolved protein and Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC). At the optimum condition of drying process was get fermented inulin fiber powder from concentration processes using both UF as pre process (0 minute) as concentrate (A) and UF for 45 minutes as concentrate (B) with compositions of total solids of 92.31 % and 93.67 %, TDF of 59.07 % (dry weight) and 69.28 %, total acids of 7.03 % and 7.5 %, dissolved protein of 3.95 mg/mL and 3.05 mg/mL, and CBC pH 2 15.71 mg/g and 16.8 mg/g, respectively. Concentration process through dead-end SUFC mode gave distribution of particles with better smoothness level than without through dead-end SUFC mode.

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of Lactobacillus pentosus and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides isolated from naturally-fermented Aloreña table olives throughout fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado Muñoz, María del Carmen; Benomar, Nabil; Lerma, Leyre Lavilla; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2014-02-17

    Antimicrobial resistance of Lactobacillus pentosus (n=59) and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (n=13) isolated from Aloreña green table olives (which are naturally-fermented olives from Málaga, Spain) to 15 antibiotics was evaluated. Most Lb. pentosus (95%) and all Lc. pseudomesenteroides were resistant to at least three antibiotics. Principal component analysis determined that the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in LAB throughout the fermentation process was highly dependent on the fermenter where the fermentation took place. All Lb. pentosus and Lc. pseudomesenteroides strains were highly sensitive to amoxicillin and ampicillin (MIC≤2 μg/ml), and also to chloramphenicol (MIC≤4 μg/ml), gentamicin and erythromycin (MIC≤16 μg/ml). However, they were phenotypically resistant to streptomycin (83-100%, MIC>256 μg/ml), vancomycin and teicoplanin (70-100%, MIC>128 μg/ml), trimethoprim (76% of Lb. pentosus and 15% of Lc. pseudomesenteroides, MIC>128 μg/ml), trimethoprim/sulfomethoxazol (71-100%, MIC>4-64 μg/ml) and cefuroxime (44% of Lb. pentosus and 85% of Lc. pseudomesenteroides, MIC>32-128 μg/ml). Lb. pentosus was susceptible to tetracycline and clindamycin, while 46% of Lc. pseudomesenteroides strains were resistant to these antibiotics. Only Lb. pentosus strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin (70%, MIC>4-64 μg/ml), although no mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions of the genes encoding GyrA and ParC were found, thus indicating an intrinsic resistance. Similarly, no genes encoding possible transferable resistance determinants for the observed phenotypic resistance were detected by PCR. In some cases, a bimodal distribution of MICs was observed for some antibiotics to which both LAB species exhibited resistance. Nevertheless, such resistances resulted from an intrinsic mechanism, non-transferable or non-acquired resistance determinants which may in part be due to chromosomally encoded efflux pumps (NorA, MepA and MdeA). Results

  4. Hydrogen and electricity production from a food processing wastewater using fermentation and microbial fuel cell technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang Eun; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from fermentation of sugars in wastewaters, but much of the organic matter remains in solution. We demonstrate here that hydrogen production from a food processing wastewater high in sugar can be linked to electricity generation using a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to achieve more effective wastewater treatment. Grab samples were taken from: plant effluent at two different times during the day (Effluents 1 and 2; 735+/-15 and 3250+/-90 mg-COD/L), an equalization tank (Lagoon; 1670+/-50mg-COD/L), and waste stream containing a high concentration of organic matter (Cereal; 8920+/-150 mg-COD/L). Hydrogen production from the Lagoon and effluent samples was low, with 64+/-16 mL of hydrogen per liter of wastewater (mL/L) for Effluent 1, 21+/-18 mL/L for Effluent 2, and 16+/-2 mL/L for the Lagoon sample. There was substantially greater hydrogen production using the Cereal wastewater (210+/-56 mL/L). Assuming a theoretical maximum yield of 4 mol of hydrogen per mol of glucose, hydrogen yields were 0.61-0.79 mol/mol for the Cereal wastewater, and ranged from 1 to 2.52 mol/mol for the other samples. This suggests a strategy for hydrogen recovery from wastewater based on targeting high-COD and high-sugar wastewaters, recognizing that sugar content alone is an insufficient predictor of hydrogen yields. Preliminary tests with the Cereal wastewater (diluted to 595 mg-COD/L) in a two-chambered MFC demonstrated a maximum of 81+/-7 mW/m(2) (normalized to the anode surface area), or 25+/-2 mA per liter of wastewater, and a final COD of hydrogen production and electricity producing using MFCs in order to achieve both wastewater treatment and bioenergy production.

  5. Production of alcoholic beverage from ginger: study of fermentation process and final product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel, Magali [UNESP; Torres,Lívia Maria; Garcia,Emerson Loli; Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues dos [UNESP; Mischan,Martha Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In Brazil part of the production of ginger is of inadequate quality for export. The production of spirit from felt-over rhizomes is an alternative of great interest to producers of these rhizomes. Aim: Aiming to increase the value of felt-over rhizomes, this work aimed to study the use of ginger as a raw material for alcoholic beverage production. It was evaluated the effect of fermentation conditions on the components of fermented alcoholic, as well as, the quality of alcoholic...

  6. Approximate Solutions of Linearized Delay Differential Equations Arising from a Microbial Fermentation Process Using the Matrix Lambert Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yodi Gunawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present approximate solutions of linearized delay differential equations using the matrix Lambert function. The equations arise from a microbial fermentation process in a metabolic system. The delay term appears due to the existence of a rate-limiting step in the fermentation pathway. We find that approximate solutions can be written as a linear combination of the Lambert function solutions in all branches. Simulations are presented for three cases of the ratio of the rate of glucose supply to the maximum reaction rate of the enzyme that experienced delay. The simulations are worked out by taking the principal branch of the matrix Lambert function as the most dominant mode. Our present numerical results show that the zeroth mode approach is quite reliable compared to the results given by classical numerical simulations using the Runge-Kutta method.

  7. Optimization of bioethanol production using whole plant of Water Hyacinth as substrate in Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuzhuo eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The whole plant of Water Hyacinth that had potential to remove heavy metals from wastewater was used as substrate for bioethanol production in the current study. It was found that acid pretreatment exhibited the most effective for reducing sugars production. An amount of 402.93 mg reducing sugars was achieved at optimal condition after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. A regression model was built to optimize the fermentation factors according to Response Surface Method (RSM in Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF process. The optimized condition for ethanol production by SSF process was fermented at 38.87℃ for 81.87 h when inoculated with 6.11 ml yeast. 1.291 g/L bioethanol could be achieved by our predicted model in optimal condition. Meanwhile, 1.289 g/L ethanol was produced, which showed reliability of presented regression model in this study. The optimization method discussed in the present study leading to relatively high bioethanol production could provide a promising way for Alien Invasive Species with high cellulose content.

  8. Effect of acetic acid in recycling water on ethanol production for cassava in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process has been studied to prevent wastewater pollution. However, when the anaerobic digestion reaction runs poorly, acetic acid will accumulate in the recycling water. In this paper, we studied the effect of low concentration of acetic acid (≤25 mM) on ethanol fermentation at different initial pH values (4.2, 5.2 or 6.2). At an initial pH of 4.2, ethanol yields increased by 3.0% and glycerol yields decreased by 33.6% as the acetic acid concentration was increased from 0 to 25 mM. Raising the concentration of acetic acid to 25 mM increased the buffering capacity of the medium without obvious effects on biomass production in the cassava medium. Acetic acid was metabolized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the reason that the final concentration of acetic acid was 38.17% lower than initial concentration at pH 5.2 when 25 mM acetic acid was added. These results confirmed that a low concentration of acetic acid in the process stimulated ethanol fermentation. Thus, reducing the acetic acid concentration to a controlled low level is more advantageous than completely removing it.

  9. Accurate determination of process variables in a solid-state fermentation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Schlösser, E.E.; Knol, W.

    1996-01-01

    The solid-state fermentation (SSF) method described enabled accurate determination of variables related to biological activity. Growth, respiratory activity and production of carboxymethyl-cellulose-hydrolysing enzyme (CMC-ase) activity by Trichoderma reesei QM9414 on wheat bran was used as a model

  10. Development of a fermentation-based process for biomass conversion to hydrogen gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Vrije, de G.J.; Urbaniec, K.; Grabarczyk, R.

    2010-01-01

    The production of hydrogen gas from biomass to meet the foreseen demand arising from the expected introduction of fuel cells is envisaged. Apart from the well-known gasification method, fermentative conversion can also be applied for this purpose. Two options of the latter method, that is,

  11. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  12. Assessment of volatile organic compounds from banana Terra subjected to different alcoholic fermentation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michely CAPOBIANGO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Banana characteristics could provide yeast growth and support the action of yeast to produce beverages. The effects of enzymatic treatment, centrifugation, commercial yeast and two selected strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using the fermented banana Terra. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were determined by solid phase microextraction using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the condition employing enzymatic treatment, centrifugation and wet commercial yeast provided maximum ethanol yield (86% and effiency (98%. Twenty-two compounds of distinct chemical classes were analysed including alcohols, esters, acids and aldehydes. The concentrations of the VOCs differed depending on the fermentation condition and were more influenced by using different yeasts. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.056 to 2.694 mg L–1 and 0.057 to 2.904 mg L–1 respectively. Among the most prevalent VOCs the higher alcohols ranged from 353 to 1017 mg per 100 mL of anhydrous alcohol. The fermented banana studied showed a composition similar to other fermented fruit pulps.

  13. Utilization of wastewater originated from naturally fermented virgin coconut oil manufacturing process for bioextract production: physico-chemical and microbial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripetchkul, Sudarut; Kusuwanwichid, Sasithorn; Koonsrisuk, Songpon; Akeprathumchai, Saengchai

    2010-08-01

    Production of virgin coconut oil via natural fermentation has led to large amount of wastes being generated, i.e., coconut pulp and wastewater containing coconut crème. Objective of this study is to gain more insight into the feasibility of utilization of such wastes as raw materials together with several types of wastes such as fish waste and/or pineapple peel for bioextract production. Chemical, physico-chemical and biological changes including phytotoxicity of the fermented mixture were closely monitored. Physical observation suggested that fermentation of bioextract obtained with fish waste appeared to be complete within the first month of fermentation while bioextract obtained using pineapple waste seemed to be complete after 8 months post-fermentation. Fermentation broth is of blackish color with alcoholic as well as acidic odour with no gas bubble and/or yeast film present on top of the surface. During the whole fermentation interval, several attributes of both bioextracts, e.g., pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic acids, were statistically different. Further, the total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria present in pineapple bioextract were statistically higher than those of the fish bioextract (ppineapple bioextracts, respectively. In addition, qualities of both bioextracts conformed well with those specified by the Thai standard for liquid biofertilizer after 1 month fermentation. Results further showed that wastewater derived from virgin coconut oil manufacturing process could effectively be employed together with other types of wastes such as fish waste and pineapple peel for bioextract production. However, for the best bioextract quality, fermentation should be carefully planned since over fermentation led to bioextract of low qualities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of wine microbiota using classical method, polymerase chain method and Step One Real-Time PCR during fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Hleba, Lukáš; Pochop, Jaroslav; Kádasi-Horáková, Miriam; Fikselová, Martina; Rovná, Katarína

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our study was the identification of grape, must and wine microbiota during the fermentation process using a classical microbiological method and Real-Time PCR. The changes in different groups of microorganisms were monitored in total counts of bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts. Microbiological parameters were observed during the current collection and processing of grapes in 2009. Samples were taken during the fermentation process in wine enterprises and a private vineyard. During this period 30 samples of wine among Müller Thurgau, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Tramin and Red Bio-wine were examined. Samples were collected from stages of grape-must unfiltered, grape-must filtered, the beginning of fermentation, fermentation, late fermentation and young wine. The highest total counts of bacteria ranged from 0.00 to 176 ± 15 CFU.mL(-1) in the wine of Müller Thurgau, the highest number of yeast ranged from 0.00 to 150 ± 9 CFU.mL(-1) in the wine of Müller Thurgau and the number of Lactobacillus spp. ranged from 0.00 to 92 ± 5 CFU.mL(-1) in the sample of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The presence and sensitivity of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus salivarius were detected using Real-Time PCR (RTQ PCR). Susceptibility of Enterococcus faecium varied in different isolates from 1 to 10(6) CFU.mL(-1), the sensitivity of the species Lactobacillus acidophilus in different isolates of the wine samples ranged from 1 to 10(5) CFU.mL(-1). We also monitored representation of species Lactobacillus crispatus, which were captured by RTQ PCR sensitivity and ranged from 1 to 10(5) CFU.mL(-1). Identification of the species Lactobacillus salivarius in each of isolates by RTQ PCR method showed the presence of these bacteria in the range of 1 to 10(4) CFU.mL(-1). Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  15. Phytochemical screening of rubberwood " Hevea brasiliensis " and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening of rubberwood " Hevea brasiliensis " and the fuel wood impact on the organoleptic and keeping qualities of smoke- dried Nile tilapia. ... Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extracts were used as solvents for the extraction of the wood parts and standard procedures were employed to ...

  16. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  17. Effect of milk base and starter culture on acidification, texture, and probiotic cell counts in fermented milk processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodini, I; Lucas, A; Oliveira, M N; Remeuf, F; Corrieu, G

    2002-10-01

    In the present work, the compared effect of milk base and starter culture on acidification, texture, growth, and stability of probiotic bacteria in fermented milk processing, was studied. Two strains of probiotic bacteria were used, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5 and L. rhamnosus LR35, with two starter cultures. One starter culture consisted only of Streptococcus thermophilus ST7 (single starter culture); the other was a yogurt mixed culture with S. thermophilus ST7 and L. bulgaricus LB12 (mixed starter culture). For the milk base preparation, four commercial dairy ingredients were tested (two milk protein concentrates and two casein hydrolysates). The resulting fermented milks were compared to those obtained with control milk (without enrichment) and milk added with skim milk powder. The performance of the two probiotic strains were opposite. L. acidophilus LA5 grew well on milk but showed a poor stability during storage. L. rhamnosus LR35 grew weakly on milk but was remarkably stable during storage. With the strains tested in this study, the use of the single starter culture and the addition of casein hydrolysate gave the best probiotic cell counts. The fermentation time was of about 11 h, and the probiotic level after five weeks of storage was greater than 106 cfu/ml for L. acidophilus LA5 and 10(7) cfu/ml for L. rhamnosus LR35. However, an optimization of the level of casein hydrolysate added to milk base has to be done, in order to improve texture and flavor when using this dairy ingredient.

  18. Ethanol production from grass silage by simultaneous pretreatment, saccharification and fermentation: first steps in the process development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieker, Tim; Tippkoetter, Nils; Muffler, Kai; Ulber, Roland [Institute of Bioprocess Engineering, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany); Neuner, Andreas; Heinzle, Elmar [Biochemical Engineering, Saarland University, Saarbruecken (Germany); Dimitrova, Darina; Bart, Hans-Joerg [Chair of Separation Science and Technology, University of Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Grass silage provides a great potential as renewable feedstock. Two fractions of the grass silage, a press juice and the fiber fraction, were evaluated for their possible use for bioethanol production. Direct production of ethanol from press juice is not possible due to high concentrations of organic acids. For the fiber fraction, alkaline peroxide or enzymatic pretreatment was used, which removes the phenolic acids in the cell wall. In this study, we demonstrate the possibility to integrate the enzymatic pretreatment with a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation to achieve ethanol production from grass silage in a one-process step. Achieved yields were about 53 g ethanol per kg silage with the alkaline peroxide pretreatment and 91 g/kg with the enzymatic pretreatment at concentrations of 8.5 and 14.6 g/L, respectively. Furthermore, it was shown that additional supplementation of the fermentation medium with vitamins, trace elements and nutrient salts is not necessary when the press juice is directly used in the fermentation step. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Dynamics of hydrogen-producing bacteria in a repeated batch fermentation process using lake sediment as inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Stefano; Paganin, Patrizia; Varrone, Cristiano; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Chiarini, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of lake sediment as inoculum for hydrogen production through dark fermentation in a repeated batch process. In addition, we investigated the effect of heat treatment, applied to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria, on the bacterial composition and metabolism. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and molecular cloning, both performed using the 16S rDNA gene as target gene, were used to monitor the structure of the bacterial community. Hydrogen production and bacterial metabolism were analysed via gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Both treated and non-treated inocula were able to produce high amounts of hydrogen. However, statistical analysis showed a clear difference in their bacterial composition and metabolism. The heat treatment favoured the growth of different Clostridia sp., in particular of Clostridium bifermentans, allowing the production of a constant amount of hydrogen over prolonged time. These cultures showed both butyrate and ethanol fermentation types. Absence of heat treatment allowed species belonging to the genera Bacillus, Sporolactobacillus and Massilia to outgrow Clostridia sp. with a reduction in hydrogen production and a significant metabolic change. Our data indicate that lake sediment harbours bacteria that can efficiently produce hydrogen over prolonged fermentation time. Moreover, we could show that the heat treatment stabilizes the bacterial community composition and the hydrogen production.

  20. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  1. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  2. Changes in the bacterial community in the fermentation process of kôso, a Japanese sugar-vegetable fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tai-Ying; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Takahashi, Tomoya

    2017-02-01

    Kôso is a Japanese fermented beverage made with over 20 kinds of vegetables, mushrooms, and sugars. The changes in the bacterial population of kôso during fermentation at 25 °C over a period of 10 days were studied using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The analysis detected 224 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) clustered from 8 DNA samples collected on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 from two fermentation batches. Proteobacteria were the dominant phylum in the starting community, but were replaced by Firmicutes within three days. Seventy-eight genera were identified from the 224 OTUs, in which Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, and Lactobacillus dominated, accounting for over 96% of the total bacterial population after three days' fermentation. UniFrac-Principal Coordinate Analysis of longitudinal fermented samples revealed dramatic changes in the bacterial community in kôso, resulting in significantly low diversity at the end of fermentation as compared with the complex starting community.

  3. Yeasts from Canastra cheese production process: Isolation and evaluation of their potential for cheese whey fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rafaela Pereira; Melo, Carolina Naves; Genisheva, Zlatina; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Canastra cheese is a cheese with geographical indication recognized by the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Protection under number IG201002. It is produced in seven municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais in a region called Serra da Canastra. In this work, samples of milk, "pingo" (natural starter), whey and Canastra cheese were collected on a farm in Medeiros-MG/Brazil to evaluate the yeast microbiota and select yeasts for whey fermentation to produce ethanol and volatile aromatic compounds of relevance in the production of cheese. Thirty-nine isolates capable of fermenting lactose in a synthetic medium were identified by MALDI-TOF as Kluyveromyces lactis (29), Torulaspora delbrueckii (7) and Candida intermedia (3). Eleven isolates of K. lactis and three of T. delbrueckii efficiently fermented lactose until 4th day, and due to this reason were selected for cheese whey fermentation with Brix 12, 14 and 18. Generally, the isolates T. delbrueckii B14, B35, and B20 and K. lactis B10 were the most effective regardless of the initial Brix value. The identification of these four isolates by MALDI TOF was confirmed by sequencing of the ITS region. In the fermentation of cheese whey 14 Brix, T. delbrueckii B14 and B35, respectively yielded 24.06g/L and 16.45g/L of ethanol, while K. lactis B10 was more efficient in the consumption of lactose. In sequential culture with K. lactis B10 inoculated 48h after T. delbrueckii B14, 97.82% of the total sugars were consumed resulting in the production of 19.81g/L ethanol and 39 aromatic volatile compounds. The most abundant compounds were 3-methyl-1-butanol, octanoic acid and ethyl decanoate, which are reported as important for the aroma and flavor of cheeses. Based in our results, B10 isolate inoculated 48h after B14 isolate is a promising yeast inoculum to be used for fermentation of dairy substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of fermentation processes using flow microfluorometry: Single-parameter observations of batch bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel-Madjlessi, Jila; Bailey, J E

    2002-09-05

    The laser flow microfluorometer (FMF) can determine the amounts of certain components in single cells at sample rates of several thousand cells per second. This technique has been employed to characterize Bacillus subtilis populations in batch fermentations with different inocula. Protein and nucleic acid distributions obtained by FMF analyses at different times during the batch have been decomposed using an optimized fit of summed subpopulation distributions. The results of these decomposition calculations, some of which have been approximately confirmed by independent microscopic observations, indicate that the relative numbers of single rods, cell chains, spores, and swollen rounded cells change dramatically during the entire fermentation including the stationary phase. The dynamics of these subpopulations may be related to secondary metabolite production. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Conversion of Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Pith Waste to Fermentable Sugars via a Facile Depolymerization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Suh Cem; Voon, Lee Ken; Chin, Suk Fun

    2017-09-30

    The conversion of starchy sago (Metroxylon sagu) pith waste (SPW), a lignocellulosic biomass waste, to fermentable sugars under mild conditions had been successfully demonstrated. The optimum depolymerization of SPW was achieved at 2 wt% sample loading which was catalyzed by 100 mM of oxalic acid in the presence of 25 wt% NaCl solution at 110 °C for 3 h. Up to 97% SPW sample was being converted into fermentable sugars with limited formation of by-products after two sequential depolymerization cycles. Both reaction temperature and concentration of oxalic acid were crucial parameters for the depolymerization of SPW which exhibited a high selectivity for the production of glucose over other reducing sugars.

  7. The effect of processing parameters on the structure of fermented milk products with transglutaminase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effect of concentration of transglutaminase (TG, content of milk fat and starter culture type (probiotic and kombucha on the structure of fermented milk products. The application of TG significantly improved textural characteristics of the fermented milk products. The firmness of the samples produced from milk with 0.1g100g-1 and 0.9g100g-1 fat content with probiotic starter were by 33% and 17.6% higher, respectively, compared to the control samples. During ten days of storage, the value of the hysteresis loop area of all samples produced from milk with 0.9g100g-1 fat content with TG addition, decreased by 14%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  8. Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for efficient very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco B; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2010-11-01

    An optimized very high gravity (VHG) glucose medium supplemented with low cost nutrient sources was used to evaluate bio-ethanol production by 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The industrial strains PE-2 and CA1185 exhibited the best overall fermentation performance, producing an ethanol titre of 19.2% (v/v) corresponding to a batch productivity of 2.5 g l(-1) h(-1), while the best laboratory strain (CEN.PK 113-7D) produced 17.5% (v/v) ethanol with a productivity of 1.7 g l(-1) h(-1). The results presented here emphasize the biodiversity found within S. cerevisiae species and that naturally adapted strains, such as PE-2 and CA1185, are likely to play a key role in facilitating the transition from laboratory technological breakthroughs to industrial-scale bio-ethanol fermentations.

  9. Gas production in anaerobic dark-fermentation processes from agriculture solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, L.; Priantoro, E. A.; Sintawardani, N.

    2017-03-01

    Approximately, Bandung produces agricultural solid waste of 1549 ton/day. This wastes consist of wet-organic matter and can be used for bio-gas production. The research aimed to apply the available agricultural solid waste for bio-hydrogen. Biogas production was done by a serial of batches anaerobic fermentation using mix-culture bacteria as the active microorganism. Fermentation was carried out inside a 30 L bioreactor at room temperature. The analyzed parameters were of pH, total gas, temperature, and COD. Result showed that from 3 kg/day of organic wastes, various total gases of O2, CH4, H2, CO2, and CnHn,O2 was produced.

  10. Dynamic simulation and visualisation of fermentation: Effect of process conditions on beer quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rodman, Alistair; Gerogiorgis, DI

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is the central, most important unit operation in alcoholic beverage manufacturing and has already been studied by means of first-principles dynamic models which explicitly consider  temperature effects and employ parameterisations obtained using industrial beer brewing campaign data. Nevertheless, the precise effect of initial conditions on beer quality and flavour has not been documented. Multi-objective optimization encompasses ethyl alcohol maximization and batch duration mini...

  11. Fermentation processes in yeast technology - some manufacturing, development and optimization problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pis, E.

    Supplementation of beet molasses with biotin rich sugarcane molasses was not sufficient to permit fermentation of the beet molasses. An additional biotin supplement was needed. The sugarcane molasses, in addition to its biotin, also contained less than or equal to 14% CaO and less than or equal to 12% SiO/sub 2/ by dry weight, which adsorbed and neutralized the biotin.

  12. Successive membrane separation processes simplify concentration of lipases produced by Aspergillus niger by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Treichel, Helen; Tres, Marcus Vinicius; Steffens, Juliana; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Colla, Luciane Maria

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we developed a simplified method for producing, separating, and concentrating lipases derived from solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues by filamentous fungi. First, we used Aspergillus niger to produce lipases with hydrolytic activity. We analyzed the separation and concentration of enzymes using membrane separation processes. The sequential use of microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes made it possible to obtain concentrates with enzymatic activities much higher than those in the initial extract. The permeate flux was higher than 60 L/m2 h during microfiltration using 20- and 0.45-µm membranes and during ultrafiltration using 100- and 50-kDa membranes, where fouling was reversible during the filtration steps, thereby indicating that the fouling may be removed by cleaning processes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of lipase production using A. niger by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues, followed by successive tangential filtration with membranes, which simplify the separation and concentration steps that are typically required in downstream processes.

  13. Presence and molecular characterization of the major serovars of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna; Mazza, Roberta; Mureddu, Anna; Fois, Federica; Piras, Francesca; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants. A total of 230 samples were collected and 40 L. monocytogenes isolates were obtained and subjected to serotyping and investigated for the presence of ten virulence-associated genes using multiplex PCR assays. The isolates were further subjected to PFGE and investigated for their adhesion abilities in polystyrene microtiter plates. L. monocytogenes was found in 6% of food contact surfaces, in sausages at the end of acidification (3%) and ripening (8%). Serotyping revealed the presence of four serovars: 1/2c (37.5%), 1/2b (27.5%), 4b (22.5%) and 1/2a (12.5%). All virulence-associated genes were detected in 67.5% of the isolates. Isolates from processing environment, semi-processed and finished products showed high pulsotype diversity and the majority of isolates presented weak adhesion capability. The detection of the pathogen in fermented sausages confirms the ability of L. monocytogenes to overcome the hurdles of the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acetate and butyrate as substrates for hydrogen production through photo-fermentation: Process optimization and combined performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, S.; Venkata Mohan, S.; Prathima Devi, M.; Peri, Dinakar; Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, AP 500 007 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Organic acids viz., acetate and butyrate were evaluated as primary substrates for the production of biohydrogen (H{sub 2}) through photo-fermentation process using mixed culture at mesophilic temperature (34 C). Experiments were performed by varying parameters like operating pH, presence/absence of initiator substrate (glucose) and vitamin solution, type of nitrogen source (mono sodium salt of glutamic acid and amino glutamic acid) and gas (nitrogen/argon) used to create anaerobic microenvironment. Experimental data showed the feasibility of H{sub 2} production along with substrate degradation utilizing organic acids as metabolic substrate but was found to be dependent on the process parameters evaluated. Maximum specific H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation were observed with acetic acid [3.51 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.22 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (92.96%)] compared to butyric acid [3.33 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.19 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (88%)]. Higher H{sub 2} yield was observed under acidophilic microenvironment in the presence of glucose (co-substrate), mono sodium salt of glutamic acid (nitrogen source) and vitamins. Argon induced microenvironment was observed to be effective compared to nitrogen induced microenvironment. Combined process efficiency viz., H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation was evaluated employing data enveloping analysis (DEA) methodology based on the relative efficiency. Integration of dark fermentation with photo-fermentation appears to be an economically viable route for sustainable biohydrogen production if wastewater is used as substrate. (author)

  15. Optimization of soybean processing into kinema, a Bacillus-fermented alkaline food, with respect to a minimum level of antinutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Kumari, S; Wongputtisin, P; Nout, M J R; Sarkar, P K

    2015-07-01

    Optimization of traditional processing of soybeans using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve a minimum level of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in kinema. Central composite rotatable designs were used to optimize the processing stages of kinema preparation. In each stage, the linear or quadratic effects of independent variables were significant in minimizing ANF levels. The predicted optimum condition for soaking was when the raw beans-water ratio was 1 : 10, and the soaking temperature, time and pH were 10°C, 20 h and 8·0 respectively. Here, tannins content (TC), phytic acid content (PAC) and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased (P < 0·05). While haemagglutinating activity (HA) level remained unchanged (P < 0·05), total biogenic amines content (TBAC) increased. The optimum condition for cooking was optimally soaked beans-water ratio of 1 : 5, and cooking pressure and time were 1·10 kg cm(-2) and 20 min respectively. Here, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P < 0·05), but TBAC remained unchanged compared to optimally soaked beans. TC and HA went below the level of detection. The optimum condition for fermentation was obtained when inoculum load was 10(3) total cells g(-1) grits, and fermentation temperature and time were 37°C and 48 h respectively. Fermentation of optimally cooked beans caused a reduction (P < 0·05) of PAC. While TIA remained unchanged (P < 0·05), TBAC increased. In kinema, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P < 0·05) over raw beans by 100, 61, 71 and 100% respectively. Good agreement was observed between predicted values and experimental values. The processing treatments significantly minimized the level of ANFs in soybeans. RSM was successfully deployed to obtain the optimum condition for kinema-making with a minimum level of ANFs without impairing sensory attributes of the product. The results are useful for commercial production of kinema. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. The effect silage aditives supplementation on dynamic fermentation process, quality and aerobic stability of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Pyrochta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of additives supplementation on the fermentation quality of corn silage was examined, compared with the untreated control (K. The aditive „A“ contained bacterial component of (Propionibactrium acidipropionici – MA126/4U 3*1010 and Lactobacillus plantarum – MA18/5U. The effective substances of bacterial inoculants „B“, selected were bacterial strains of (Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus LC – 705 DSM 7061 4*1011, Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS DSM 6067 2-4*1011. There were used as effective substances of bacterial inoculants „C“ lactic bacteria and enzyme (Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3769 1.67*1010, Lactococcus lactis CCM 4754 1.67*1010, Enterococcus faecium CCM 6226 1.67*1010, Pediococcus pentosaceus CCM 3770 1,67*1010, cellulase, hemicellulase, sodium benzoate. They were applied in the dose of prescript by producer. At conservations with all aditivum were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase of lactic acid formation from 55.31±9.72 g/kg DM of control silage to 59.60±10.84 g/kg DM aditivum „A“, 59.36±10.04 g/ kg DM aditivum „B“ rather to 60.74±9.90 g/kg DM aditivum „C“. Aditives „A“ and „B“ were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase propoinic acid and total fermentation acid content in silages occured. The fermentation characteristics in the microbial aditivum silages by us were more favourable. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase the contents of acetic acid from 45.49±2.83 g/kg DM of 4st day to 63.07±4.25 g/kg DM of 32ndday rather to 67.70±2.94 g/kg DM of 64st day. There were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase contents of acetic acid and total acid content. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 degressive of pH.

  17. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  18. A secreted serine protease of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and its interactions with fungal proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Célia MA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus, the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Serine proteases are widely distributed and this class of peptidase has been related to pathogenesis and nitrogen starvation in pathogenic fungi. Results A cDNA (Pbsp encoding a secreted serine protease (PbSP, was isolated from a cDNA library constructed with RNAs of fungal yeast cells recovered from liver of infected mice. Recombinant PbSP was produced in Escherichia coli, and used to develop polyclonal antibodies that were able to detect a 66 kDa protein in the P. brasiliensis proteome. In vitro deglycosylation assays with endoglycosidase H demonstrated that PbSP is a N-glycosylated molecule. The Pbsp transcript and the protein were induced during nitrogen starvation. The Pbsp transcript was also induced in yeast cells infecting murine macrophages. Interactions of PbSP with P. brasiliensis proteins were evaluated by two-hybrid assay in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PbSP interacts with a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, calnexin, HSP70 and a cell wall protein PWP2. Conclusions A secreted subtilisin induced during nitrogen starvation was characterized indicating the possible role of this protein in the nitrogen acquisition. PbSP interactions with other P. brasiliensis proteins were reported. Proteins interacting with PbSP are related to folding process, protein trafficking and cytoskeleton reorganization.

  19. Effect of inoculation on strawberry fermentation and acetification processes using native strains of yeast and acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, C; Torija, M J; Mas, A; Mateo, E

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the microbiota involved in the traditional vinegar elaboration of strawberry fruit during a spontaneous and inoculated process. In the spontaneous processes, low biodiversity was detected in both alcoholic fermentation (AF) and acetification. Nevertheless, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of Acetobacter malorum were selected and tested as starter cultures in the inoculation study. The inoculated processes with these strains were compared with another spontaneous process, yielding a significant reduction in time for AF with a total imposition of the S. cerevisiae strain. The resulting strawberry wine was acetified in different containers (glass and wood) yielding an initial imposition of the A. malorum inoculated strain, although displacement by Gluconacetobacter species was observed in the wood barrels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of fundamental kinetic parameters of polyhydroxybutyrate fermentation process of Azohydromonas australica using statistical approach of media optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2012-11-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate or PHB is a biodegradable and biocompatible thermoplastic with many interesting applications in medicine, food packaging, and tissue engineering materials. The present study deals with the enhanced production of PHB by Azohydromonas australica using sucrose and the estimation of fundamental kinetic parameters of PHB fermentation process. The preliminary culture growth inhibition studies were followed by statistical optimization of medium recipe using response surface methodology to increase the PHB production. Later on batch cultivation in a 7-L bioreactor was attempted using optimum concentration of medium components (process variables) obtained from statistical design to identify the batch growth and product kinetics parameters of PHB fermentation. A. australica exhibited a maximum biomass and PHB concentration of 8.71 and 6.24 g/L, respectively in bioreactor with an overall PHB production rate of 0.75 g/h. Bioreactor cultivation studies demonstrated that the specific biomass and PHB yield on sucrose was 0.37 and 0.29 g/g, respectively. The kinetic parameters obtained in the present investigation would be used in the development of a batch kinetic mathematical model for PHB production which will serve as launching pad for further process optimization studies, e.g., design of several bioreactor cultivation strategies to further enhance the biopolymer production.

  1. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator: Seventh quarterly report, March 1, 1989--May 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Park, C.H.; Lee, W.; Havlik, S.; Lineback, D.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1989-07-01

    Fermentation costs (which increase with higher product concentration) traditionally must be balanced against product recovery costs (which decrease with product concentration). A novel reactor-separator process has been developed at Purdue University to minimize product inhibition of fermentation rates. This has been shown to exhibit very high productivities -- simultaneously producing and removing a inhibitory product while maintaining a high viable cell concentration in the reactor. The objective of this study is to develop an energy efficient and economical process to convert food wastes to usable chemicals. Work is divided into two major effects (1) an applied phase which involves design and building a whey to ethanol process as well as process design and optimization and (2) a basic phase which involves investigating alternative fermentation systems and fundamental research on immobilized cell reactor systems. Accomplishments are discussed.

  3. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator: Fourth quarterly progress report, June 1--August 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Park, C.H.; Lee, W.; Lin, J.; Havlik, S.; Lineback, D.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1988-09-01

    Fermentation costs (which increase with higher product concentration) traditionally must be balanced against product recovery costs (which decrease with product concentration). A novel reactor-separator process has been developed at Purdue University to minimize product inhibition of fermentation rates. This has been shown to exhibit very high productivities---simultaneously producing and removing a inhibitory product while maintaining a high viable cell concentration in the reactor. The objective of this study is to develop an energy efficient and economical process to convert food wastes to usable chemicals. Work is divided into two major effects (1) an applied phase which involves design and building a whey to ethanol process as well as process design and optimization and (2) a basic phase which involves investigating alternative fermentation systems and fundamental research on immobilized cell reactor systems. Accomplishments are discussed. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Production of a potential liquid plant bio-stimulant by immobilized Piriformospora indica in repeated-batch fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina; Flor-Peregrin, Elena; Martos, Vanessa; Reyes, Antonia; Vassileva, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhizal-like fungus able to establish associations with roots of a wide range of plants, supporting plant nutrition and increasing plant resistance and tolerance to stress, was shown to solubilise phosphate applied in the form of animal bone char (HABO) in fermentation systems. The process of P solubilisation was caused most likely by proton extrusion and medium pH lowering. The fungal mycelium was successfully immobilized/retained in a polyurethane foam carrier. Further employment of the immobilized mycelium in repeated-batch fermentation process resulted in at least 5 cycles of P solubilization. The concentration of soluble P increased during the experiment with 1.0 and 3.0 g HABO l -1 and at the end of the 5th batch cycle reached 40.8 and 120 mg l -1 , respectively. The resulting final liquid product, without or with solubilized phosphate, was found to significantly increase plant growth and P plant uptake. It can be used as a biostimulant containing microbial plant growth-promoting substances and soluble P derived from renewable sources (HABO) thus supporting the development of sustainable agro-ecosystems.

  5. Two-stage pervaporation process for effective in situ removal acetone-butanol-ethanol from fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Chen, Changjing; Chen, Huidong; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-01-01

    Two-stage pervaporation for ABE recovery from fermentation broth was studied to reduce the energy cost. The permeate after the first stage in situ pervaporation system was further used as the feedstock in the second stage of pervaporation unit using the same PDMS/PVDF membrane. A total 782.5g/L of ABE (304.56g/L of acetone, 451.98g/L of butanol and 25.97g/L of ethanol) was achieved in the second stage permeate, while the overall acetone, butanol and ethanol separation factors were: 70.7-89.73, 70.48-84.74 and 9.05-13.58, respectively. Furthermore, the theoretical evaporation energy requirement for ABE separation in the consolidate fermentation, which containing two-stage pervaporation and the following distillation process, was estimated less than ∼13.2MJ/kg-butanol. The required evaporation energy was only 36.7% of the energy content of butanol. The novel two-stage pervaporation process was effective in increasing ABE production and reducing energy consumption of the solvents separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two-stage fermentation process for alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii mutant altered in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M A; Segura, D; Espín, G; Galindo, E; Peña, C

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage fermentation strategy, based on batch cultures conducted first under non-oxygen-limited conditions, and later under oxygen-limited conditions, was used to improve alginate production by Azotobacter vinelandii (AT6), a strain impaired in poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production. The use of sucrose as carbon source, as well as a high oxygen concentration (10%), allowed to obtain a maximum biomass concentration of 7.5 g l(-1) in the first stage of cultivation. In the second stage, the cultures were limited by oxygen (oxygen close to 0%) and fed with a sucrose solution at high concentration. Under those conditions, the growth rate decreased considerably and the cells used the carbon source mainly for alginate biosynthesis, obtaining a maximum concentration of 9.5 g l(-1), after 50 h of cultivation. Alginate concentration obtained from the AT6 strain was two times higher than that obtained using the wild-type strain (ATCC 9046) and was the highest reported in the literature. However, the mean molecular mass of the alginate produced in the second stage of the process by the mutant AT6 was lower (400 kDa) than the polymer molecular mass obtained from the cultures developed with the parental strain (950 kDa). The use of a mutant of A. vinelandii impaired in the PHB production in combination with a two-stage fermentation process could be a feasible strategy for the production of alginate at industrial level.

  7. Simultaneous or separated; comparison approach for saccharification and fermentation process in producing bio-ethanol from EFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Dahnum, Deliana; Amaliyah, Nur

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF) of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp were investigated as a part of ethanol production process. SSF was investigated by observing the effect of substrate loading variation in range 10-20%w, cellulase loading 5-30 FPU/gr substrate and yeast addition 1-2%v to the ethanol yield. Mathematical model for describing the effects of these three variables to the ethanol yield were developed using Response Surface Methodology-Cheminformatics (RSM-CI). The model gave acceptable accuracy in predicting ethanol yield for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) with coefficient of determination (R2) 0.8899. Model validation based on data from previous study gave (R2) 0.7942 which was acceptable for using this model for trend prediction analysis. Trend prediction analysis based on model prediction yield showed that SSF gave trend for higher yield when the process was operated in high enzyme concentration and low substrate concentration. On the other hand, even SHF model showed better yield will be obtained if operated in lower substrate concentration, it still possible to operate in higher substrate concentration with slightly lower yield. Opportunity provided by SHF to operate in high loading substrate make it preferable option for application in commercial scale.

  8. A Comparative Study of Temperature Optimal Control in a Solid State Fermentation Process for Edible Mushroom Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Gurubel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, optimal control strategies for temperature trajectory determination in order to maximize thermophilic bacteria in a fed-batch solid-state fermentation reactor are proposed. This process is modeled by nonlinear differential equations, which has been previously validated experimentally with scale reactor temperature profiles. The dynamic input aeration rate of the reactor is determined to increase microorganisms growth of a selective substrate for edible mushroom cultivation. In industrial practice, the process is comprised of three thermal stages with constant input air flow and three types of microorganisms in a 150-hour lapse. Scytalidium thermophilum and actinobacteria are desired in order to obtain a final biomass composition with acceptable microorganisms concentration. The Steepest Descent gradient algorithm in continuous time and the Gradient Projection algorithm in discrete-time are used for the process optimal control. A comparison of simulation results in the presence of disturbances is presented, where the resulting temperature trajectories exhibit similar tendencies as industrial data.

  9. Kaurene-Type Diterpenoids from Aristolochia brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshio, Satoh; Mitsuru, Satoh; Mitsuko, Makino; Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, Showa Pharmaceutical University; Laboratry of Drug Design and Medicinal Chemistry, Showa Pharmaceutical University; Department of General Studies, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University

    2011-01-01

    Kaurene-type diterpenes 1 and 2 and lignane-type diterpenes 3 and 4 were isolated from the aerial parts of Aristolochia brasiliensis (Aristolochiaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated to be 17-chloro-16α-hydroxy-ent-kaurane by analysis of its spectral data. The absolute configuration of 1 was confirmed as (5R, 8S, 9R, 10R, 16R) by chemical derivation of 1 to the known kaurene.

  10. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Guevara R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen.

  11. Nocardia brasiliensis-associated femorotibial osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Samuel; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Cicero, Antonio; López-Jácome, Esaú; Colin, Claudia; Hernández, Melissa

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of femorotibial osteomyelitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardia spp are a rare cause of bone infections, and the majority of such cases are associated with the spine. This type of osteomyelitis is uncommon, and in the immunocompetent host, is more often related to a chronic evolution following direct inoculation of the microorganism. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing p...

  13. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  14. Inactivation of rifampin by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Maeda, A; Akao, M; Morisaki, N; Iwasaki, S

    1993-01-01

    Rifampin was glycosylated by a pathogenic species of Nocardia, i.e., Nocardia brasiliensis. The structures of two glycosylated compounds (RIP-1 and RIP-2) isolated from the culture broth of the bacterium were determined to be 3-formyl-23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifamycin SV and 23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifampin, respectively. Both compounds lacked antimicrobial activity against other gram-positive bacteria as well as the Nocardia species.

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  16. Paracoccidoides brasiliensis 30 kDa adhesin: identification as a 14-3-3 protein, cloning and subcellular localization in infection models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julhiany de Fatima da Silva

    Full Text Available Paracoccidoides brasiliensis adhesion to lung epithelial cells is considered an essential event for the establishment of infection and different proteins participate in this process. One of these proteins is a 30 kDa adhesin, pI 4.9 that was described as a laminin ligand in previous studies, and it was more highly expressed in more virulent P. brasiliensis isolates. This protein may contribute to the virulence of this important fungal pathogen. Using Edman degradation and mass spectrometry analysis, this 30 kDa adhesin was identified as a 14-3-3 protein. These proteins are a conserved group of small acidic proteins involved in a variety of processes in eukaryotic organisms. However, the exact function of these proteins in some processes remains unknown. Thus, the goal of the present study was to characterize the role of this protein during the interaction between the fungus and its host. To achieve this goal, we cloned, expressed the 14-3-3 protein in a heterologous system and determined its subcellular localization in in vitro and in vivo infection models. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed the ubiquitous distribution of this protein in the yeast form of P. brasiliensis, with some concentration in the cytoplasm. Additionally, this 14-3-3 protein was also present in P. brasiliensis cells at the sites of infection in C57BL/6 mice intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis yeast cells for 72 h (acute infections and 30 days (chronic infection. An apparent increase in the levels of the 14-3-3 protein in the cell wall of the fungus was also noted during the interaction between P. brasiliensis and A549 cells, suggesting that this protein may be involved in host-parasite interactions, since inhibition assays with the protein and this antibody decreased P. brasiliensis adhesion to A549 epithelial cells. Our data may lead to a better understanding of P. brasiliensis interactions with host tissues and paracoccidioidomycosis pathogenesis.

  17. Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Ogueke, C C; Owuamanam, C I; Ahaotu, N N; Nwosu, J N

    2011-10-15

    The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

  18. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  19. Production of ethanol from a mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste via a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Kira, Noriko; Tomiyama, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Efficient ethanol production from waste paper requires the addition of expensive nutrients. To reduce the production cost of ethanol from waste paper, a study on how to produce ethanol efficiently by adding kitchen waste (potentially as a carbon source, nutrient source, and acidity regulator) to waste paper was performed and a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (L+PSSF) was developed. The individual saccharification performances of waste paper and kitchen waste were not influenced by their mixture. Liquefaction of kitchen waste at 90°C prior to presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) was essential for efficient ethanol fermentation. Ethanol at concentrations of 46.6 or 43.6g/l was obtained at the laboratory scale after fermentation for 96h, even without pH adjustment and/or the addition of extra nutrients. Similarly, ethanol at a concentration of 45.5g/l was obtained at the pilot scale after fermentation for 48h. The ethanol concentration of L+PSSF of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste was comparable to that of PSSF of waste paper with added nutrients (yeast extract and peptone) and pH adjustment using H 2 SO 4 , indicating that kitchen waste is not only a carbon source but also an excellent nutrient source and acidity regulator for fermentation of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Genetic Algorithms for a Parameter Estimation of a Fermentation Process Model: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of a parameter estimation using genetic algorithms is examined. A case study considering the estimation of 6 parameters of a nonlinear dynamic model of E. coli fermentation is presented as a test problem. The parameter estimation problem is stated as a nonlinear programming problem subject to nonlinear differential-algebraic constraints. This problem is known to be frequently ill-conditioned and multimodal. Thus, traditional (gradient-based local optimization methods fail to arrive satisfied solutions. To overcome their limitations, the use of different genetic algorithms as stochastic global optimization methods is explored. These algorithms are proved to be very suitable for the optimization of highly non-linear problems with many variables. Genetic algorithms can guarantee global optimality and robustness. These facts make them advantageous in use for parameter identification of fermentation models. A comparison between simple, modified and multi-population genetic algorithms is presented. The best result is obtained using the modified genetic algorithm. The considered algorithms converged very closely to the cost value but the modified algorithm is in times faster than other two.

  1. Ethanol production from cotton gin trash using optimised dilute acid pretreatment and whole slurry fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Morris, S

    2014-12-01

    Cotton ginning trash (CGT) collected from Australian cotton gins was evaluated for bioethanol production. CGT composition varied between ginning operations and contained high levels of extractives (26-28%), acid-insoluble material (17-22%) and holocellulose (42-50%). Pretreatment conditions of time (4-20 min), temperature (160-220 °C) and sulfuric acid concentration (0-2%) were optimised using a central composite design. Response surface modelling revealed that CGT fibre pretreated at 180 °C in 0.8% H2SO4 for 12 min was optimal for maximising enzymatic glucose recoveries and achieved yields of 89% theoretical, whilst the total accumulated levels of furans and acetic acid remained relatively low at <1 and 2 g/L respectively. Response surface modelling also estimated maximum xylose recovery in pretreated liquors (87% theoretical) under the set conditions of 150 °C in 1.9% H2SO4 for 23.8 min. Yeast fermentations yielded high ethanol titres of 85%, 88% and 70% theoretical from glucose generated from: (a) enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated fibres, (b) enzymatic hydrolysis of whole pretreated slurries and (c) simultaneous saccharification fermentations, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [State Recognition of Solid Fermentation Process Based on Near Infrared Spectroscopy with Adaboost and Spectral Regression Discriminant Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Liu, Guo-hai; Xia, Rong-sheng; Jiang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the rapid monitoring of process state of solid state fermentation (SSF), this study attempted to qualitative identification of process state of SSF of feed protein by use of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy analysis technique. Even more specifically, the FT-NIR spectroscopy combined with Adaboost-SRDA-NN integrated learning algorithm as an ideal analysis tool was used to accurately and rapidly monitor chemical and physical changes in SSF of feed protein without the need for chemical analysis. Firstly, the raw spectra of all the 140 fermentation samples obtained were collected by use of Fourier transform near infrared spectrometer (Antaris II), and the raw spectra obtained were preprocessed by use of standard normal variate transformation (SNV) spectral preprocessing algorithm. Thereafter, the characteristic information of the preprocessed spectra was extracted by use of spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA). Finally, nearest neighbors (NN) algorithm as a basic classifier was selected and building state recognition model to identify different fermentation samples in the validation set. Experimental results showed as follows: the SRDA-NN model revealed its superior performance by compared with other two different NN models, which were developed by use of the feature information form principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and the correct recognition rate of SRDA-NN model achieved 94.28% in the validation set. In this work, in order to further improve the recognition accuracy of the final model, Adaboost-SRDA-NN ensemble learning algorithm was proposed by integrated the Adaboost and SRDA-NN methods, and the presented algorithm was used to construct the online monitoring model of process state of SSF of feed protein. Experimental results showed as follows: the prediction performance of SRDA-NN model has been further enhanced by use of Adaboost lifting algorithm, and the correct

  3. Study of flocculent yeast performance in tower reactors for bioethanol production in a continuous fermentation process with no cell recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrietta, Sílvio Roberto; Steckelberg, Cláudia; Andrietta, Maria da Graça Stupiello

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the retention ability of 12 different Saccharomyces sp. yeast strains with flocculent characteristics when inoculated in a continuous ethanol fermentation process. The system was comprised of two reactors connected in series with no cell recycling. The feeding substrate used was a synthetic medium containing glucose. The parameters assessed were total reducing sugars of the feeding substrate, total reducing sugars and ethanol at the outlet of the first and second reactors and quantification and classification of yeast population in the two reactors. The system reached yield levels of 83.53% of theoretical yield with a maximum total reducing sugars conversion of 92.68%. The conversion in this system was lower than expected. The dominant yeast in the process in both reactors, contrary to expectation, was the Saccharomyces CP6 strain which was unable to form pellets in spite of its flocculate growth.

  4. Bacterial Diversity Analysis during the Fermentation Processing of Traditional Chinese Yellow Rice Wine Revealed by 16S rDNA 454 Pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruo-si; Dong, Ya-chen; Chen, Feng; Chen, Qi-he

    2015-10-01

    Rice wine is a traditional Chinese fermented alcohol drink. Spontaneous fermentation with the use of the Chinese starter and wheat Qu lead to the growth of various microorganisms during the complete brewing process. It's of great importance to fully understand the composition of bacteria diversity in rice wine in order to improve the quality and solve safety problems. In this study, a more comprehensive bacterial description was shown with the use of bacteria diversity analysis, which enabled us to have a better understanding. Rarefaction, rank abundance, alpha Diversity, beta diversity and principal coordinates analysis simplified their complex bacteria components and provide us theoretical foundation for further investigation. It has been found bacteria diversity is more abundant at mid-term and later stage of brewing process. Bacteria community analysis reveals there is a potential safety hazard existing in the fermentation, since most of the sequence reads are assigned to Enterobacter (7900 at most) and Pantoea (7336 at most), followed by Staphylococcus (2796 at most) and Pseudomonas (1681 at most). Lactic acid bacteria are rare throughout the fermentation process which is not in accordance with other reports. This work may offer us an opportunity to investigate micro ecological fermentation system in food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Selection of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Probiotic Potential Isolated from the Fermentation Process of "Cupuaçu" (Theobroma grandiflorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornellas, Roberta Maria Santos; Santos, Tiza Teles; Arcucio, Leonardo Borges; Sandes, Sávio Henrique Cicco; Oliveira, Mayara Messias; Dias, Cristiano Villela; de Carvalho Silva, Samuel; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti; Vinderola, Gabriel; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, nine lactic acid bacteria isolated from the fermentation process of "cupuaçu" (Theobroma grandiflorum) were selected for probiotic use. In vitro (resistance to gastrointestinal environment, in vitro antagonism and co-aggregation with pathogens) and in vivo (intestinal colonization and ex vivo antagonism in germ-free mice, cumulative mortality, translocation to liver and spleen, histopathological examination of liver and ileum and mRNA cytokine gene expression during an experimental infection with S. Typhimurium) assays were used. Among the nine Lactobacillus strains isolated from the "cupuaçu" fermentation, L. plantarum 81 and L. plantarum 90 were selected as potential probiotics based on better results obtained in in vitro evaluations (production of diffusible inhibitory compounds and co-aggregation) as well as in vivo experiments (resistance to gastrointestinal environment, ex vivo antagonism, higher survival after enteropathogen challenge, lower hepatic translocation of enteropathogen, lower histopathological lesions in ileum and liver and anti-inflammatory pattern of immunological response). Concluding, L. plantarum 81 and L. plantarum 90 showed in vitro and in vivo capacities for probiotic use through different mechanisms of protection and its origin would allow an easier adaptation in an alimentary matrix for its administration.

  6. Analysis of production tests in processing the mixture of solid and liquid biologically degradable wastes by anaerobic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fryč

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the analysis of operating anaerobic fermentation systems of agricultural biogas station and implementing a suitable system enabling the use of a mixture of solid and liquid biowaste. The tests made use of liquid substrates commercially offered to biogas station operators. The study evaluates practical measurements at an agricultural biogas station in order to evaluate the biogas production from these substrates and the efficiency of transforming input material to usable energy. The use of such treated substrates for the anaerobic fermentation technology may have a substantial influence on the volume of dosed energy crops. The mixture of input substrates consisting of liquid cattle excrements, silage corn, solid and liquid waste from food processing, animal waste and glycerine water was experimentally validated. This mixture was compared with the operation using liquid cattle excrements and silage corn. It was concluded that the proposed composition of input raw materials makes it possible to increase the production of biogas and el. power. On the other hand, it was identified that the energy content of the input raw materials is not optimally transformed into usable energy. This is why the proposed mixture of input materials with biowaste is not recommended for use at the used proportion.

  7. The application of multi-parameter flow cytometry to the study of recombinant Escherichia coli batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth; Taylor, Ian W; Nienow, Alvin W; Hewitt, Christopher J

    2004-08-01

    Multi-parameter flow cytometric techniques coupled with dual colour fluorescent staining were used to study the physical and metabolic consequences of inclusion body formation in batch cultures of the recombinant Escherichia coli strain MSD3735. This strain contains a plasmid coding for the isopropylthiogalactopyranoside-inducible model eukaryotic protein AP50. It is known that the synthesis of foreign proteins at high concentrations can exert a severe metabolic stress on the host cell and that morphological changes can occur. In this work, using various points of induction, it was shown that inclusion body formation is followed immediately by measurable changes in the characteristic intrinsic light scatter patterns for the individual cell (forward scatter, 90 degrees side scatter) and a concomitant progressive change in the individual cell physiological state with respect to both cytoplasmic membrane polarisation and permeability. This work establishes flow cytometry as a potentially valuable tool for monitoring recombinant fermentation processes, providing important information for scale-up. Further, we discuss the possibility of optimising inclusion body formation by manipulating the fermentation conditions based on these rapid "real-time" measurements.

  8. Pre-fermentation of a low-strength meat-processing wastewater in an upflow sludge blanket reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, M; Vrtovsek, J

    2001-01-01

    Pre-fermentation of low-strength wastewater from a meat processing facility (at 20 degrees C) was studied. A laboratory-scale upflow sludge blanket (USB) reactor was used for the experiments; 10 different operating conditions were tested with regard to the hydraulic residence time (HRT). At HRTs from 0.4 to 2.4 hours, the USB reactor produced effluent with acetate chemical oxygen demand from 82 to 100 mg/L. At HRTs shorter than 0.4 hours and upflow velocities greater than 0.5 m/h, biomass washout was observed. At HRTs longer than 2.4 hours, acetate concentration in the effluent and acetate production efficiency decreased. The transformation of organic nitrogen to ammonia-nitrogen occurred simultaneously with acetate production. Minimal accumulation of biomass in the USB reactor was observed. Pre-fermentation of the low-strength industrial wastewater in the USB reactor could be beneficial for biological nitrogen removal. The produced acetate is directly available for denitrification and the transformed ammonia-nitrogen is directly available for nitrification in the subsequent wastewater treatment steps.

  9. Process integration for simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR): production of butanol from corn stover using Clostridium beijerinckii P260.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N; Singh, V; Liu, S; Ezeji, T C; Saha, B C; Cotta, M A

    2014-02-01

    A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86 g L(-1) corn stover provided, over 97% of the sugars were released during hydrolysis and these were fermented completely with an ABE productivity of 0.34 g L(-1)h(-1) and yield of 0.39. This productivity is higher than 0.31 g L(-1)h(-1) when using glucose as a substrate demonstrating that AB could be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass. Acetic acid that was released from the biomass during pretreatment and hydrolysis was also used by the culture to produce AB. An average rate of generation of sugars during corn stover hydrolysis was 0.98 g L(-1)h(-1). In this system AB was recovered using vacuum, and as a result of this (simultaneous product recovery), 100% sugars were used by the culture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  12. Complete genome sequence of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Perez-Maya, Antonio Ali; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2012-05-01

    In Mexico, actinomycetoma is mainly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, which is a soil inhabitant actinobacterium. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome of a strain isolated from a human case that has largely been found in in vitro and experimental models of actinomycetoma, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

  13. Sequential fungal fermentation-biotransformation process to produce a red pigment from sclerotiorin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêia Gomes, Dhionne; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida

    2016-11-01

    The fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum produces sclerotiorin, an orange compound closely related to the useful food coloring pigments produced by Monascus species. The high productivity, together with several biological activities reported for sclerotiorin highlights its potential application in food industry. In this work, sclerotiorin was obtained as the major metabolite produced in liquid fermentation by P. sclerotiorum standing for 30% of the fungal dry extract. Modulation of sclerotiorin color was accomplished by biotransformation using Beauveria bassiana generating a red derivative with 13.8% yield. Color modification was caused by fungal-mediated substitution of oxygen by nitrogen in the pyrone ring changing the molecule's chromophore. A derivative, 1-methyl sclerotiorin was synthesized from sclerotiorin using diazomethane and fed to B. bassiana. In this case, substituent at C-1 avoided heteroatom substitution. Sclerotiorin derivatives obtained in the present show the great potential of sclerotiorin derivatives as food colorants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Genetic Algorithm for Feeding Trajectory Optimisation of Fed-batch Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a genetic algorithm is proposed with the purpose of the feeding trajectory optimization during a fed-batch fermentation of E. coli. The feed rate profiles are evaluated based on a number of objective functions. Optimization results obtained for different feeding trajectories demonstrate that the genetic algorithm works well and shows good computational performance. Developed optimal feed profiles meet the defined criteria. The ration of the substrate concentration and the difference between actual cell concentration and theoretical maximum cell concentration is defined as the most appropriate objective function. In this case the final cell concentration of 43 g·l-1 and final product concentration of 125 g·l-1 are achieved and there is not significant excess of substrate.

  15. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  16. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D; St Leger, Judy A; Dalton, Leslie M; Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; McCarthy, Peter J; Fair, Patricia A; Mendoza, Leonel

    2016-12-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti.

  17. Cutaneous Granulomas in Dolphins Caused by Novel Uncultivated Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Raquel; Bossart, Gregory D.; St. Leger, Judy A.; Dalton, Leslie M.; Reif, John S.; Schaefer, Adam M.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Fair, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous granulomas in dolphins were believed to be caused by Lacazia loboi, which also causes a similar disease in humans. This hypothesis was recently challenged by reports that fungal DNA sequences from dolphins grouped this pathogen with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We conducted phylogenetic analysis of fungi from 6 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) with cutaneous granulomas and chains of yeast cells in infected tissues. Kex gene sequences of P. brasiliensis from dolphins showed 100% homology with sequences from cultivated P. brasiliensis, 73% with those of L. loboi, and 93% with those of P. lutzii. Parsimony analysis placed DNA sequences from dolphins within a cluster with human P. brasiliensis strains. This cluster was the sister taxon to P. lutzii and L. loboi. Our molecular data support previous findings and suggest that a novel uncultivated strain of P. brasiliensis restricted to cutaneous lesions in dolphins is probably the cause of lacaziosis/lobomycosis, herein referred to as paracoccidioidomycosis ceti. PMID:27869614

  18. Experimental analysis on the main contents of Rhizoma gastrodiae extract and inter-transformation throughout the fermentation process of Grifola frondosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Wu, Tian-xiang; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Xiao-bao; Tan, Sha; Fu, Hong-Wei

    2013-03-01

    Gastrodin (GA), p-hydroxylbenzaldehyde (HBA), p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (gastrodigenin, HA) and parishin not only are the major active ingredients of Rhizoma gastrodiae, but exist transformed relations from each other throughout the fermentation process of Grifola frondosa in this work. We had found that parishin (non-free gastrodin) almost could completely transformed into gastrodin (GA, free gastrodin) after R. gastrodiae alcohol extract was sterilized by moist heat (121 °C, 30 min), but before was added into submerged cultivation of G. frondosa. However, interestingly and importantly, gastrodin re-synthesized of parishin after R. gastrodiae alcohol extract's addition into submerged cultivation of G. frondosa. In addition, the reduction of p-hydroxylbenzaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol in G. frondosa fermentation process reconfirmed that the G. frondosa strain 51616 really could synthesize gastrodin into parishin by submerged fermentation. This paper firstly also reported G. frondosa's effects on R. gastrodiae.

  19. Ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

  20. Obtaining edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers from sewage sludge using fermentative processes. Short-time effects on soil biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Caballero, Pablo; Paneque, Patricia; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2017-10-28

    In this manuscript, we study the manufacture and effect on soils of different edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) obtained from sewage sludge using Bacillus licheniformis as biological tool. These BS consist of different combinations of organic matter, bacteria and enzymes that were subjected to several treatments. These BS were applied in soil in order to observe their influence on the biochemical properties (enzymatic activities and ergosterol content). Dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase activities and ergosterol content were measured at different incubation days. Only dehydrogenase activity and ergosterol content were significantly stimulated after the application of BS1 and BS4. Rest of the extracellular activities were not stimulated probably because B. licheniformis practically has digested all organic substrates during fermentation process.

  1. Purification and substrate specificities of a fructanase from Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from the fermentation process of Mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    A fructanase, produced by a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain isolated during the fermentation step of the elaboration process of "Mezcal de Guerrero" was purified and biochemically characterized. The active protein was a glycosylated dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 250 kDa. The specific enzymatic activity of the protein was determined for different substrates: sucrose, inulin, Agave tequilana fructan, levan and Actilight® and compared with the activity of Fructozyme®. The hydrolysis profile of the different substrates analyzed by HPAEC-PAD showed that the enzyme has different affinities over the substrates tested with a sucrose/inulin enzymatic activity ratio (S/I) of 125. For the hydrolysis of Agave tequilana fructans, the enzyme also showed a higher enzymatic activity and specificity than Fructozyme®, which is important for its potential application in the tequila industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  3. Screening of probiotic cultures intended for processing of fermented foods for their ability to produce biogenic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary trend is using probiotic cultures in fermented food production. They can be used as starter cultures and for their positive effect on human health. Probiotics are defined as living microorganisms present in food which consumed in adequate amounts affects positively the intestinal microflora’s composition and balance and thus human health itself. Cultures of these bacteria have to be of human origin and be able to survive the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. They also have to be able to multiply on the site of action (in intestine and must not be toxic or pathogenic. Unfortunately, even some probiotic cultures can be counted among potential producers of biogenic amines, so their testing for the presence of biogenic amines is necessary (BURDYCHOVÁ, 2007.The aim of this study was screening of 26 types of bacterial cultures (SACCO, Italy as probiotic cultures for their ability to produce biogenic amines tyramine and histamine. Cultivation in decarboxy­lating medium (BOVER-CID and HOLZAPFEL, 1999, HPLC descibed by BURDYCHOVÁ and DOHNAL (2007, and PCR detection of genes coding enzymes tyrosindecarboxylase and histidindecarboxylase, participating in formation of biogenic amines (COTON et al., 2004, were used as the screening methods. 19 strains of Lactobacillus spp., 3 strains of Bifidobacterium spp., 2 strains of Pediococcus spp. and 2 strains of Enterococcus spp. were examined by the methods mentioned above. The tyramine production was detected at 8 strains of Lactobacillus spp., 3 strains of Bifidobacterium spp. and 2 strains of Enterococcus spp., whereas no tested cultures were found to be able to produce histamine.The strains at which production of biogenic amines tyramine and histamine wasn’t detected are suitable for fermented food processing. When the strains at which production of tyramine was demonstrated were used in food processing, a control of concentration of this biogenic amine in final product

  4. Depolymerization of Pseudomonas stutzeri exopolysaccharide upon fermentation as a promising production process of antibacterial compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalej, Hana; Boisset, Claire; Hmidet, Noomen; Colin-Morel, Philippe; Buon, Laurine; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-07-15

    Many researchers have focused on high molecular weight (Mw) exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a source of potentially bioactive lower Mw derivatives. Therefore, it is of interest to find means for efficient and safe production of depolymerized-polymer derivatives. Exopolysaccharide-depolymerization products (EDP) varying in molecular weight were recovered from fermentative depolymerization of a native EPS produced by Pseudomonas stutzeri AS22. Following their purification and physicochemical characterization, the antibacterial activity of EDP on food spoilage and food poisoning microorganisms was evaluated through the measurement of the inhibition zone diameter, the half maximal (IC50) and the minimal (MIC) inhibitory concentrations. Our results indicate that the lower the Mw, the higher will be the effectiveness of EDP on reducing Gram-negative bacteria growth and the opposite trend was observed in the case of Gram-positive bacteria. EDP bioactivities may provide novel insights into the potentiality of P. stutzeri EPS and its derivatives to be used as functional-food components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut--a model experiment with pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Maud; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2009-12-01

    The effect of wheat and rye breads made from white wheat flour with added refined fibre (WFL), whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on digestion and fermentation processes in the gut was studied in a model experiment with pigs. The diets were similar in dietary fibre (DF) but differed in arabinoxylan (AX) content and composition. Twenty pigs were fed the breads three times daily (08.00, 13.00 and 18.00 hours) and the digesta collected through a T-cannula for two successive periods (breakfast: 8.00-13.00; lunch: 13.00-18.00 hours). Faeces were collected for 24 h and caecal and colonic contents at slaughter. The rigid nature of the aleurone cell walls encapsulated nutrients, which resulted in reduced (P breads) and fat (RAF bread). For the RAF bread, the digestibility of starch was also lower (P wheat-based diets primarily due to the higher intestinal viscosity. The DF composition had an impact on (P bread, with the lowest degree of substitution, were fermented as much in the caecum as in the colon, whereas AX of the RAF bread, with an intermediary degree of substitution, were mainly fermented in the caecum. The WFL bread, rich in cellulose, was fermented more distally. Fermentation of experimental breads in the large intestine had no effect (P>0.05) on the production of metabolites, except for butyrate which was higher (P bread consumption.

  6. The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut - a model experiment with pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legall, Maud; Serena, Anja; Jørgensen, Henry

    2009-01-01

    The effect of wheat and rye breads made from white wheat flour with added refined fibre (WFL), whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on digestion and fermentation processes in the gut was studied in a model experiment with pigs. The diets were similar in dietary...... of the wheat-based diets primarily due to the higher intestinal viscosity. The DF composition had an impact on (P,0001) the site for fibre degradation in the large intestine. Thus, AX of the WAF bread, with the lowest degree of substitution, were fermented as much in the caecum as in the colon, whereas AX...

  7. Evaluation of high pressure processing, freezing, and fermentation/drying on viability of Trichinella spiralis larvae in raw pork and in Genoa salami

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated high pressure processing (HPP), freezing, and fermentation/drying to inactivate Trichinella spiralis larvae in both infected pig muscle and in Genoa salami produced with trichinae infected pork. In part A, in each of two trials 10 gram portions (2 replicates per treatment) of fresh pig ...

  8. Characterization of isolated biomass of the fermentation processes for ethanol production for use as biofuels; Caracterizacao da biomassa isolada de processos fermentativos de producao de etanol para uso como biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckelberg, Claudia; Andrietta, Maria da Graca Stupiello; Andrietta, Silvio Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CPQBA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Div. de Biotecnologia e Processos], Email: claudia@cpqba.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This study has had the purpose of enhancing the knowledge on the dominant strains of ethanol fermentation process biomass to use as bio fuel. The attributes studied were: numerical taxonomy (Griffits, 1981) and fermentative performance. The results have showed that all strains have presented good fermentative characteristics. All strains have been classified as Saccharomyces. In this genus were found the follow species: chevalieri, coreanus cerevisiae. If the classification according Barnet (1992) is considered, all of them are representative of S. cerevisiae. (author)

  9. [Genetic algorithm for fermentation kinetics of submerged fermentation by Morchella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Piao, Meizi; Sun, Yonghai

    2008-08-01

    Fermentation kinetics is important for optimizing control and up-scaling fermentation process. We studied submerged fermentation kinetics of Morchella. Applying the genetic Algorithm in the Matlab software platform, we compared suitability of the Monod and Logistic models, both are commonly used in process of fungal growth, to describe Morchella growth kinetics. Meanwhile, we evaluated parameters involved in the models for Morchella growth, EPS production and substrate consumption. The results indicated that Logistic model fit better with the experimental data. The average error of this model was 5.8%. This kinetics model can be useful for optimizing and up-scaling fungal fermentation process.

  10. Lipase Production in Solid-State Fermentation Monitoring Biomass Growth of Aspergillus niger Using Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Julio C. V.; da Terzi, Selma C.; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C. T.; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A. P.; Senna, Lilian F.

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

  11. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  12. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  13. Municipal waste liquor treatment via bioelectrochemical and fermentation (H2 + CH4) processes: Assessment of various technological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rózsenberszki, Tamás; Koók, László; Bakonyi, Péter; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Logroño, Washington; Pérez, Mario; Urquizo, Gladys; Recalde, Celso; Kurdi, Róbert; Sarkady, Attila

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the anaerobic treatment of a high organic-strength wastewater-type feedstock, referred as the liquid fraction of pressed municipal solid waste (LPW) was studied for energy recovery and organic matter removal. The processes investigated were (i) dark fermentation to produce biohydrogen, (ii) anaerobic digestion for biogas formation and (iii) microbial fuel cells for electrical energy generation. To find a feasible alternative for LPW treatment (meeting the two-fold aims given above), various one- as well as multi-stage processes were tested. The applications were evaluated based on their (i) COD removal efficiencies and (ii) specific energy gain. As a result, considering the former aspect, the single-stage processes could be ranked as: microbial fuel cell (92.4%)> anaerobic digestion (50.2%)> hydrogen fermentation (8.8%). From the latter standpoint, an order of hydrogen fermentation (2277 J g-1 CODremoved d-1)> anaerobic digestion (205 J g-1 CODremoved d-1)> microbial fuel cell (0.43 J g-1 CODremoved d-1) was attained. The assessment showed that combined, multi-step treatment was necessary to simultaneously achieve efficient organic matter removal and energy recovery from LPW. Therefore, a three-stage system (hydrogen fermentation-biomethanation-bioelectrochemical cell in sequence) was suggested. The different approaches were characterized via the estimation of COD balance, as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Photoacoustic spectroscopy applied to the direct detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fernando Maia; Mokochinski, João Benhur; Reyes Torres, Yohandra; Dalla Santa, Herta Stutz; González-Borrero, Pedro Pablo

    2017-12-05

    This paper describes the application of the photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) for detection of bioactive compounds in Agaricus brasiliensis mycelium. The mycelium was cultivated by solid-state fermentation and by submerged fermentation. Vegetal residues from food industry were used as substrates for fermentation: apple pomace (Malus domestica), wheat (Triticum aestivum), peel and pomace of pineapple (Ananas comosus), malt (Hordeum vulgare) and grape pomace (Vitis vinifera). Dry and ground samples of biomass were directly put into the PA cell. The optical absorption spectra indicated the existence of three main absorption bands: one around 280 nm related to phytosterols (ergosterol), phenolic acids, flavonoids and aromatic amino acids, another at 340 nm, due to phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and the third one at around 550 nm associated with anthocyanins and anthocyanidins. A correlation between the PA signal and the total phenolic content was satisfactory, as well as for the analyzed spectrum region (270 nm up to 1000 nm), using multivariate methods. Our results indicated that PA technique may be considered as an analytical tool to quickly detect bioactive compounds in mushrooms without the need of sample pretreatment.

  15. Barras de cereais com Agaricus brasiliensis e minerais

    OpenAIRE

    Córdova, Katielle Rosalva Voncik

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: O cogumelo Agaricus brasiliensis apresenta atividade antibactericida, antioxidante, antidiabética, antiangiogênica e anticancerígena. A adição de biomassa de fungos em produtos alimentícios pode elevar o nível proteico e de minerais desses alimentos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver barras de cereais contendo grãos de trigo fermentado com Agaricus brasiliensis e minerais. O cultivo sólido de A. brasiliensis em grãos de trigo resultou numa biomassa estimada de 0,212 ± 0,005 g....

  16. Mathematical modeling of a continuous alcoholic fermentation process in a two-stage tower reactor cascade with flocculating yeast recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samuel Conceição; de Castro, Heizir Ferreira; Visconti, Alexandre Eliseu Stourdze; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) around 150 g/L. The data obtained in these experimental conditions were used to adjust the parameters of a mathematical model previously developed for the single-stage process. This model considers each of the tower bioreactors as a perfectly mixed continuous reactor and the kinetics of cell growth and product formation takes into account the limitation by substrate and the inhibition by ethanol and biomass, as well as the substrate consumption for cellular maintenance. The model predictions agreed satisfactorily with the measurements taken in both stages of the cascade. The major differences with respect to the kinetic parameters previously estimated for a single-stage system were observed for the maximum specific growth rate, for the inhibition constants of cell growth and for the specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance. Mathematical models were validated and used to simulate alternative operating conditions as well as to analyze the performance of the two-stage process against that of the single-stage process.

  17. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli show strain dependent reductions under dry-fermented sausage production and post-processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Tone Mari; Holck, Askild; Axelsson, Lars; Høy, Martin; Heir, Even

    2012-04-16

    Dry-fermented sausages (DFS) are considered possible risk products regarding Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). We have compared the reduction of 11 E. coli isolates of various serogroups in salami during the sausage production process and during post-process measures including storage, heating and freezing. The 11 E. coli isolates, mainly STEC, included enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak strains linked to DFS along with apathogenic E. coli. During sausage production, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction between the E. coli strains ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 log₁₀ (p0.1) between the reductions of E. coli in salami and in the TSB broth model. Results based on broth models and/or single or surrogate strains must therefore be interpreted with caution. The EHEC reducing post-processing measures tested can easily be implemented in DFS production with marginal influence on the quality of the sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring and characterization of yeasts behavior under fermentation processes using technometric approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Cristiana C.

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Chemical and Biological Engineering Technometrics concerns on the development and use of statistical methods in different fields, such as biotechnological processes, in order to understand their multivariate and multidimensional complexity. Chemical changes occurring within these processes can be monitored using chemometric tools that combined with bioinformatic methodologies, can provide an enlarged overview of the process, enabling the unbiased study ...

  19. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  20. Continuous H2 and CH4 production from high-solid food waste in the two-stage thermophilic fermentation process with the recirculation of digester sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yeol; Ebie, Yoshitaka; Xu, Kai-Qin; Li, Yu-You; Inamori, Yuhei

    2010-01-01

    A thermophilic two-stage fermentation process using 10% total solids (TS) food waste was tested at varying organic loading rates (OLRs). The system was configured to produce H(2) and CH(4) in conjugation with the chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen removal, and adjustment of the pH by returning sludge as an alkali buffer from the sludge storage tank for denitrification. The pH in the H(2) fermentation reactor was maintained in the range of 5.4-5.7 using sludge recirculation (Q(r)/Q(i) ratio 1). The average H(2) (11.1l-H(2) l(-1)-fed d(-1)) and CH(4) (47.4l-CH(4) l(-1)-fed d(-1)) production rates were achieved at OLRs of 39 (H(2) fermentation reactor) and 4.16 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) (CH(4) fermentation reactor), respectively. These results suggest that long-term stability of the continuous two-stage process can be successfully achieved by recirculation of high-alkalinity sludge of 6.7-7.5 g l(-1) as CaCO(3), without any added external chemical buffer.

  1. Effective conversion of maize straw wastes into bio-hydrogen by two-stage process integrating H2 fermentation and MECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Bai, Yan-Xia; Pan, Chun-Mei; Li, Wei-Wei; Zheng, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Jing-Nan; Fan, Yao-Ting; Hou, Hong-Wei

    2015-12-01

    The enhanced H2 production from maize straw had been achieved through the two-stage process of integrating H2 fermentation and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) in the present work. Several key parameters affecting hydrolysis of maize straw through subcritical H2O were optimized by orthogonal design for saccharification of maize straw followed by H2 production through H2 fermentation. The maximum reducing sugar (RS) content of maize straw reached 469.7 mg/g-TS under the optimal hydrolysis condition with subcritical H2O combining with dilute HCl of 0.3% at 230 °C. The maximum H2 yield, H2 production rate, and H2 content was 115.1 mL/g-TVS, 2.6 mL/g-TVS/h, and 48.9% by H2 fermentation, respectively. In addition, the effluent from H2 fermentation was used as feedstock of MECs for additional H2 production. The maximum H2 yield of 1060 mL/g-COD appeared at an applied voltage of 0.8 V, and total COD removal reached about 35%. The overall H2 yield from maize straw reached 318.5 mL/g-TVS through two-stage processes. The structural characterization of maize straw was also carefully investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra.

  2. Enzymatic activity of proteases and its isoenzymes in fermentation process in cultivars of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. produced in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Santos SOUSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The fermentation of cocoa seeds envolves microbial processes and the action of enzymes. To identify the possible differences in the cocoa fermentation process, with regards to proteolysis, this study has the objective of determining protease activity (under predetermined conditions and its isoenzymes in two cocoa cultivars (PH-16 and HRT-1188 in different cocoa fermentation times, in addition to establishing the microbial load (molds and yeasts and aerobic mesophilic. Protease and its isoenzymes were extracted and partially purified and the enzymatic activities determined by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the proteases activity was higher at 66h of fermentation for both cultivars. When the isoenzymes activity was evaluated, the results demonstrated similar activity behavior for both cultivars, with regards to the isoenzymes aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase, although the behavior of the endoprotease isoenzyme activity proved to be a little different for TSH-1188 cultivar. Concerning microbiological analyses, the results indicate that the period after molds and yeast counting reduction is consistent with the period of protease activity increase.

  3. Process optimization and analysis of product inhibition kinetics of crude glycerol fermentation for 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Pritam Kumar; Padhi, Susant Kumar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, statistical optimization of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol fermentation to DHA by immobilized G. oxydans cells over polyurethane foam is reported. Effect of DHA (product) inhibition on crude glycerol fermentation was analyzed using conventional biokinetic models and new model that accounts for both substrate and product inhibition. Optimum values of fermentation parameters were: pH=4.7, temperature=31°C, initial substrate concentration=20g/L. At optimum conditions, DHA yield was 89% (17.83g/L). Effect of product inhibition on fermentation was trivial for DHA concentrations ≤30g/L. At higher concentrations (≥50g/L), kinetics and yield of fermentation showed marked reduction with sharp drop in V max and K S values. Inhibition effect was more pronounced for immobilized cells due to restricted transport of fermentation mixture across polyurethane foam. Retention of fermentation mixture in immobilized matrix resulted in higher localized DHA concentration that possibly enhanced inhibition effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing waste contamination from animal-processing plants by anaerobic thermophilic fermentation and by flesh fly digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchaim, U; Gelman, A; Braverman, Y

    2003-01-01

    There is currently no market in Israel for the large amounts of waste from fish- and poultry-processing plants. Therefore, this waste is incinerated, as part of the measures to prevent the spread of pathogens. Anaerobic methanogenic thermophilic fermentation (AMTF) of wastes from the cattle-slaughtering industry was examined previously, as an effective system to treat pathogenic bacteria, and in this article, we discuss a combined method of digestion by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria and by flesh flies, as a means of waste treatment. The AMTF process was applied to the wastes on a laboratory scale, and digestion by rearing of flesh fly (Phaenicia sericata) and housefly (Musca domestica) larvae on the untreated raw material was done on a small scale and showed remarkable weight conversion to larvae. The yield from degradation of poultry waste by flesh fly was 22.47% (SD = 3.89) and that from fish waste degradation was 35.34% (SD = 12.42), which is significantly higher than that from rearing houseflies on a regular rearing medium. Bacterial contents before and after thermophilic anaerobic digestion, as well as the changes in the chemical composition of the components during the rearing of larvae, were also examined.

  5. Potato powders prepared by successive cooking-process depending on resistant starch content affect the intestinal fermentation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Sakura; Han, Kyu-Ho; Araki, Takahiro; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Wakabayashi, Tatsuya; Shimada, Kenichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2017-02-01

    The effects of resistant starch (RS) in dry potato powders prepared by various processes on intestinal fermentation in rats were assessed. Rats were fed raw potato powder (RP), blanched potato powder (BP), steamed potato powder (SP), or drum-dried potato powder (DP) for 4 weeks. The cecal RS content was significantly higher in the RP group than in the control diet (CN) group and other dry potato powder groups. Cecum pH was significantly lower in the RP group compared to the CN group, and was also significantly lower than that in the SP, BP, and DP groups. Lactic acid bacteria levels in the RP group were significantly higher than those in the CN group, and levels in the SP group also increased relative to the control group. Lactobacillus levels in the RP group were higher than in the CN and other dry potato powder groups. Cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the RP group followed by the SP group exhibited significantly higher levels relative to the control levels. Dry potato powders containing RS produced during the cooking process may represent a useful food material that increases intestinal concentrations of SCFA and enhances the growth of certain lactic acid bacteria.

  6. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell.) in Colkheti flora

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    I. Sh. Mikeladze; G.K. Bolkvadze; M.V. Metreveli; R.N. Chagalidze; M.U. Davitadze; A.Sh. Sharabidze

    2017-01-01

    .... In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora...

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis in Italy: a nine-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Andrini, Laura; Bruno, Gianfranco; Sarti, Mario; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Boiron, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the past, no case reports concerning N. brasiliensis infections were published from Italy. We now report 4 cases observed during 1998-2006 in 4 Italian patients, 1 immunosuppressed and 3 immunocompetent.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Myco...

  9. Mechanistic Models for Process Development and Optimization of Fed-batch Fermentation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads O.

    2016-01-01

    . This is based on on-line gas measurements and ammonia addition flow rate measurements. Additionally, a mechanistic model is applied offline as a tool for batch planning, based on definition of the process back pressure, aeration rate and stirrer speed. This allows the batch starting fill to be planned, taking...... into account the oxygen transfer conditions, as well as the evaporation rates of the system. Mechanistic models are valuable tools which are applicable for both process development and optimization. The state estimator described will be a valuable tool for future work as part of control strategy development...... for on-line process control and optimization....

  10. Regulation of alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and peroxisome biogenesis in different fermentation processes in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sehoon; Warburton, Shannon; Boldogh, Istvan; Svensson, Cecilia; Pon, Liza; d'Anjou, Marc; Stadheim, Terrance A; Choi, Byung-Kwon

    2013-07-20

    Production of recombinant proteins is affected by process conditions, where transcriptional regulation of Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (PpAOX1) promoter has been a key factor to influence expression levels of proteins of interest. Here, we demonstrate that the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis are regulated based on different process conditions. Two types of GFP-fusion proteins, Ub-R-GFP (short-lived GFP in the cytosol) and GFP-SKL (peroxisomal targeting GFP), were successfully used to characterize the time-course of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis, respectively. The activity of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis was highly subjected to different fermentation process conditions - methanol-limited condition at normoxy (ML), switched feeding of carbon sources (e.g., glucose and methanol) under carbon-limited condition at normoxy (SML), and oxygen-limited (OL) condition. The AOX1 promoter was most active under the ML, but less active under the OL. Peroxisome biogenesis showed a high dependency on methanol consumption. In addition, the proliferation of peroxisomes was inhibited in a medium containing glucose and stimulated in the methanol phase under a carbon-limited fed-batch culture condition. The specific productivity of a monoclonal antibody (qp) under the AOX1 promoter was higher at 86h of induction in the ML than in the OL (0.026 vs 0.020mgg(-1)h(-1)). However, the oxygen-limited condition was a robust process suitable for longer induction (180h) due to high cell fitness. Our study suggests that the maximal production of a recombinant protein is highly dependent on methanol consumption rate that is affected by the availability of methanol and oxygen molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental potential of the use of CO2 from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO2-AFP strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; García-Yuste, Santiago

    2016-10-15

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO2 emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO2 produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO2 from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na2CO3, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6Mt of Na2CO3 in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7Mt of captured CO2 and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na2CO3 obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na2CO3 production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO2Chem network, and an estimation of the CO2negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0Mt of CO2 from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO2 production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO2 released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO2 from AFP as an alternative for the top Na2CO3-producing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  13. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  14. Dual effect of soluble materials in pretreated lignocellulose on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process for the bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Xia; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Guan, Qi-Man; Zhang, Man-Tong; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary. Soluble lignins were found as the key composition which promoted sugars utilization and cell viability without nutrient supplementary. The dual effects of soluble materials on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation resulted in the reduction of ethanol yield as soluble materials increased in SSCF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass by a three-stage process comprising dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    The effects of pre-treatment methods on saccharification and hydrogen fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass were investigated. When raw biomass and biomass pre-treated by steam heating, by microwave heating, and by ultrasonication were used as feedstock, the hydrogen yields were only 8.8-12.7 ml/g total volatile solids (TVS) during dark fermentation. When biomass was pre-treated by steam heating with diluted acid and by microwave heating with diluted acid, the dark hydrogen yields significantly increased to 75.6 ml/g TVS and 83.3 ml/g TVS, respectively. Steam heating with diluted acid is the preferred pre-treatment method of C. pyrenoidosa biomass to improve hydrogen yield during dark fermentation and photofermentation, which is followed by methanogenesis to increase energy conversion efficiency (ECE). A total hydrogen yield of 198.3 ml/g TVS and a methane yield of 186.2 ml/g TVS corresponding to an overall ECE of 34.0% were obtained through the three-stage process (dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adding value to the oil cake as a waste from oil processing industry: production of lipase and protease by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftah, Omar Ali Saied; Grbavčić, Sanja; Zuža, Milena; Luković, Nevena; Bezbradica, Dejan; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Olive oil cake is a by-product from the olive oil processing industry and can be used for the lipase and protease production by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated, and the results showed that the supplementation of the substrate with maltose and starch as carbon sources and yeast extract as a nitrogen source significantly increased the lipase production. The best results were obtained with maltose, whereas rather low lipase and protease activities were found with glucose and oleic acid. Response surface methodology and a five-level-three-factor central composite rotatable design were used to evaluate the effects of the initial moisture content, inoculum size and fermentation time on both lipase and protease activity levels. A lipase activity value of ≈25 U g(-1) and a protease activity value of 110 U g(-1) were obtained under the optimized fermentation conditions. An alkaline treatment of the substrate appeared to be efficient, leading to increases of 39% and 133% in the lipase and protease production, respectively. The results showed that the olive cake could be a good source for enzyme production by solid state fermentation.

  17. New process controls in the co-fermentation of organic waste and municipal sewage sludge; Neue Verfahrensfuehrungen bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und kommunalen Klaerschlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaepers, D.; Schierholt, M.; Buer, T.; Risse, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft (ISA)

    1999-07-01

    For the co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge in digester towers at municipal sewage treatment plant, mainly single-stage processes have so far been studied or are in use in part. Within the framework of a project sponsored by the foundation Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung, the use of a two-stage mode of operation (thermophilic/mesophilic) for co-fermenting organic waste and sewage sludge was investigated. By adding organic waste to the digester content, biogas production per reactor volume was more than doubled in comparison with exclusive sewage sludge fermentation. Because of the thermophilic stage for the conditioning of organic waste, specific biogas yield for an organic load of 1.5 kg organic dry residue TR/m{sup 3*}d was slightly enhanced in comparison with single-stage co-fermentation. (orig.) [German] Zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm in Faultuermen kommunaler Klaeranlagen werden bislang hauptsaechlich einstufige Verfahren untersucht und teilweise eingesetzt. Im Rahmen eines von der Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung gefoerderten Projektes wurde der Einsatz einer 2-stufigen Betriebsweise (thermophil/mesophil) bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm untersucht. Die Biogasproduktion pro Reaktorvolumen konnte durch die Zugabe von Bioabfall in die Faulbehaelter gegenueber der reinen Klaerschlammfaulung mehr als verdoppelt werden. Durch die thermophile Stufe zur Vorbehandlung der Bioabfaelle konnte die spezifische Biogasausbeute bei einer organischen Raumbelastung von 1,5 kg o TR/m{sup 3*}d gegenueber der 1-stufigen Co-Vergaerung leicht erhoeht werden. (orig.)

  18. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    , 1003 Tunis, Tunisia. ... food processing. Fermentation is a simple and useful operation. Saccharomyces sp. is the safest and most effective microorganism for fermenting sugars to ... Photometric quantification of betalains.

  19. Fermentation du citron par inoculation microbienne | Bousmaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work attempts to replace the traditional process known in Morocco by a controlled process allowing the fermentation and the preservation of lemon. We isolated and selected lactic bacteria and yeasts with big acidifying capacity and with high fermentative potential able to preserve and to ferment in a natural way ...

  20. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rosario del P., E-mail: rosariocastillo@udec.cl [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araya, Juan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Troncoso, Eduardo [Consorcio Bioenercel S.A, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita [Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required.

  1. A two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production by yeast Y. lipolytica from molasses and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M; Rakicka, Magdalena; Biegalska, Anna; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Dobrowolski, Adam

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a two-stage fermentation process of erythritol production based on molasses and glycerol was investigated. During the first stage, the biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica was grown on medium containing sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the second stage, production of erythritol was initiated by glycerol addition. To use molasses as a substrate for erythritol synthesis, sucrose utilization was established by expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SUC2 gene. In this study, cultivation of yeast Y. lipolytica could produce 52-114 g/L of erythritol. The productivity was 0.58-1.04 g/L/h, and yield was 0.26-0.57 g/g; the final biomasses yield ranged 17-41 g/L. This is the first report describing erythritol production via industrial raw molasses and glycerol by Y. lipolytica. This work uses genetically modified strains of Y. lipolytica as tool for the direct conversion of affordable raw industrial molasses and glycerol into the value-added erythritol product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diotaiuti Liléia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

  4. Bio-hydrogen production from tempeh and tofu processing wastes via fermentation process using microbial consortium: A mini-review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengga, Wara Dyah Pita; Wati, Diyah Saras; Siregar, Riska Yuliana; Wulandari, Ajeng Riswanti; Lestari, Adela Ayu; Chafidz, Achmad

    2017-03-01

    One of alternative energies that can replace fossil fuels is hydrogen. Hydrogen can be used to generate electricity and to power combustion engines for transportation. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste can be considered as a renewable energy. Bio-hydrogen produced from tempeh and tofu processing waste is beneficial because the waste of soybean straw and tofu processing waste is plentiful, cheap, renewable and biodegradable. Specification of tempeh and tofu processing waste were soybean straw and sludge of tofu processing. They contain carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) and methane. This paper reviews the optimal condition to produce bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste. The production of bio-hydrogen used microbial consortium which were enriched from cracked cereals and mainly dominated by Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium roseum. The production process of bio-hydrogen from tempeh and tofu processing waste used acid pre-treatment with acid catalyzed hydrolysis to cleave the bond of hemicellulose and cellulose chains contained in biomass. The optimal production of bio-hydrogen has a yield of 6-6.8 mL/g at 35-60 °C, pH 5.5-7 in hydraulic retention time (HRT) less than 16 h. The production used a continuous system in an anaerobic digester. This condition can be used as a reference for the future research.

  5. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Model-based identifiable parameter determination applied to a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process model for bio-ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López C, Diana C; Barz, Tilman; Peñuela, Mariana; Villegas, Adriana; Ochoa, Silvia; Wozny, Günter

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a methodology for the model-based identifiable parameter determination (MBIPD) is presented. This systematic approach is proposed to be used for structure and parameter identification of nonlinear models of biological reaction networks. Usually, this kind of problems are over-parameterized with large correlations between parameters. Hence, the related inverse problems for parameter determination and analysis are mathematically ill-posed and numerically difficult to solve. The proposed MBIPD methodology comprises several tasks: (i) model selection, (ii) tracking of an adequate initial guess, and (iii) an iterative parameter estimation step which includes an identifiable parameter subset selection (SsS) algorithm and accuracy analysis of the estimated parameters. The SsS algorithm is based on the analysis of the sensitivity matrix by rank revealing factorization methods. Using this, a reduction of the parameter search space to a reasonable subset, which can be reliably and efficiently estimated from available measurements, is achieved. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process for bio-ethanol production from cellulosic material is used as case study for testing the methodology. The successful application of MBIPD to the SSF process demonstrates a relatively large reduction in the identified parameter space. It is shown by a cross-validation that using the identified parameters (even though the reduction of the search space), the model is still able to predict the experimental data properly. Moreover, it is shown that the model is easily and efficiently adapted to new process conditions by solving reduced and well conditioned problems. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  9. In vitro gas production profiles and fermentation end-products in processed barley, maize and milo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azarfar, A.; Namgay, K.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Tamminga, S.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An experiment was carried out to establish whether using a pre-compacting device (expander) changes the contribution of dry matter (DM) and degradative behaviour of grains of barley, maize and milo pre-processed by grinding over the different DM fractions (non-washable (NWF), insoluble

  10. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R.P.

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  11. Nutrient assessment of olive leaf residues processed by solid-state fermentation as an innovative feedstuff additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, P-J; Huang, L-X; Zhang, C-H; Zhang, Y-L

    2016-07-01

    Olive leaf residue feedstuff additives were prepared by solid-state fermentation (SSF), and its feeding effects on broiler chickens were examined. The fermentation's nutrient value, that is, protein enrichment, cellulase activity, tannic acid degradation and amino acid enhancement, was determined. The effect of different strains, including molds (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma viride) and yeasts (Candida utilis, Candida tropicalis and Geotrichum candidum), and the fermentation time on the nutrient values of the feedstuff additives was investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for best performance were A. niger and C. utilis in a 1 : 1 ratio (v/v) in co-culture fermentation for 5 days. Under these conditions, the total content of amino acids in the fermented olive leaf residues increased by 22·0% in comparison with that in the raw leaf residues. Both Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid contents were increased by more than 25·4%. Broiler chickens fed with different amounts of feedstuff additives were assessed. The results demonstrated that the chicken weight gains increased by 120%, and normal serum biochemical parameters were improved significantly after 10% of the feedstuff additives were supplemented to the daily chicken feed for 28 days. The co-culture combination of A. niger and C. utilis with SSF for olive leaf residue had the best nutrient values. The addition of 10% fermented olive leaf residue facilitated the chicken growth and development. This study reveals that olive leaf residues fermented by SSF exhibited considerable potential as feed additives for feeding poultry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. The effect of citrus pulp type on pectinase production in solid-state fermentation: Process evaluation and optimization by Taguchi design of experimental (DOE) methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Masumeh Anvari; Gholam Khayati

    2014-01-01

    Pectinase is an important enzyme that finds application in many food processing industries and solid state fermentation (SSF) is an attractive technology for enzyme production. In this work, design of experimental (DOE) methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was applied to evaluate the influence of five factors (different levels of citrus pulp, initial pH of the medium, C/N ratio, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp) on the pectinase production by Aspergillus niger under solid-st...

  13. Identification of thermostable beta-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, H.K.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  14. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta...

  15. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1991-12-01

    During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year's project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

  16. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  17. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS....... The optimum PH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary...

  18. Prevalence and diversity of tetracycline resistant lactic acid bacteria and their tet genes along the process line of fermented dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Dirk; Masco, Liesbeth; Baert, Leen; Huys, Geert; Debevere, Johan; Swings, Jean

    2003-06-01

    In order to study the prevalence and diversity of tetracycline resistant lactic acid bacteria (Tc(r) LAB) along the process line of two different fermented dry sausage (FDS) types, samples from the raw meat, the meat batter and the fermented end product were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively by using a culture-dependent approach. Both the diversity of the tet genes and their bacterial hosts in the different stages of FDS production were determined. Quantitative analysis showed that all raw meat components of both FDS types (FDS-01 and FDS-08) contained a subpopulation of Tc(r) LAB, and that for FDS-01 no Tc(r) LAB could be recovered from the samples after fermentation. Qualitative analysis of the Tc(r) LAB subpopulation in FDS-08 included identification and typing of Tc(r) LAB isolates by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, plasmid profiling, protein profiling and a characterization of the resistance by PCR detection of tet genes. Two remarks can be made when the results of this analysis for the different samples are compared. (i) The taxonomic diversity of Tc(r) LAB varies along the process line, with a higher diversity in the raw meat (lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and enterococci), and a decrease after fermentation (only lactobacilli). (ii) Also the genetic diversity of the tet genes varies along the process line. Both tet(M) and tet(S) were found in the raw meat, whereas only tet(M) was found after fermentation. A possible relationship was found between the disappearing of species other than lactobacilli and tet(S), because tet(S) was only found in lacotocci, enterococci, and streptococci. These data suggest that fermented dry sausages are among those food products that can serve as vehicles for Tc(r) LAB and that the raw meat already contains a subpopulation of these bacteria. Whether these results reflect the transfer of resistant bacteria or of bacterial resistance genes from animals to man via the food chain is difficult to ascertain and may

  19. Simultaneous analysis of the non-canonical amino acids norleucine and norvaline in biopharmaceutical-related fermentation processes by a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Michael; Bardl, Bettina; Vollstädt, Sebastian; Linnemann, Julia; Knüpfer, Uwe; Seidel, Guido; Horn, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a precise and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of non-canonical (norvaline and norleucine) and standard amino acids (aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, histidine, glycine, threonine, arginine, tyrosine, methionine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine) in biopharmaceutical-related fermentation processes was established. After pre-column derivatization with ortho-phthaldialdehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol, the derivatives were separated on a sub-2 μm particle C18 reverse-phase column. Identification and quantification of amino acids were carried out by fluorescence detection. To test method feasibility on standard HPLC instruments, the assay was properly transferred to a core-shell particle C18 reverse-phase column. The limits of detection showed excellent sensitivity by values from 0.06 to 0.17 pmol per injection and limits of quantification between 0.19 and 0.89 pmol. In the present study, the newly established UHPLC method was applied to a recombinant antibody Escherichia coli fermentation process for the analysis of total free amino acids. We were able to specifically detect and quantify the unfavorable amino acids in such complex samples. Since we observed trace amounts of norvaline and norleucine during all fermentation phases, an obligatory process monitoring should be considered to improve quality of recombinant protein drugs in future.

  20. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  1. Scale-up fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch to produce ruminant feed by radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, M.R.; Mutaat, H.H.; Deres, R.M. (Unit Tenaga Nuklear, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)); Kume, Tamikazu

    1992-01-01

    Scale-up fermentation and irradiation conditions of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm were examined to produce a large amount of fermented products for animal feeds. The EFB substrates pasteurized by irradiation were inoculated with Coprinus cinereus. After 1 month incubation, the crude fiber contents decreased to 20 - 38% and crude protein contents increased to 9 - 13% in small scale fermentation using conical flask (6 - 20 g EFB). In the case of fermentation using polypropylene bags with 400 g EFB, crude fiber and protein contents were 32 - 34% and 11 - 14%, respectively. A larger plastic container packed with 1.5 kg EFB fiber of 10cm thickness was used for mushroom cultivation. After harvest of mushroom (yields were about 250 g per container), the quality of residual substrates improved further as reflected by its crude fiber content of only 16 - 20%, crude protein content of 6 - 8%. These results show that a large volume of products are available under the good aeration by increasing the number of plastic bags or containers. For the irradiation of a lot of fermentation substrates, the advantage of [sup 60]Co gamma-ray and electron beam irradiator was also discussed. (author).

  2. Impact of pre-selected autochthonous starter cultures on the flavor quality of Iberian dry-fermented "salchichón" sausage with different ripening processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquete, Rocío; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Nevado, Francisco Pérez; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on flavor quality of 2 autochthonous starter cultures in the manufacture of Iberian dry-fermented "sálchichón." A total of 2 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici (MS200 and MS198) were combined individually with a strain of Staphylococcus vitulus (RS34) to obtain 2 starter cultures: P200S34 and P198S34. The ability of both starter cultures to implant during 2 different manufacturing procedures of "salchichón" was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Changes due to starter culture inoculations on volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the impact on flavor quality evaluated by sensorial analysis. The implantation of starter cultures was adequate and did not significantly modify the flavor of the traditional Iberian dry-fermented "salchichón," while modulating the volatile compound profile with respect to that found in sausages with wild microbial populations. The influence of the starter cultures studied was more evident in the shorter sausage processing time. P198S34 was related with the increase in some volatile compounds deriving from lipid degradation. P200S34 contributed to the formation of several volatile compounds arising from lipid degradation, amino acid catabolism, and microbial esterase activity. P200S34 and P198S34 are autochthonous starter cultures for specific use in the processing of Iberian dry-fermented sausages. The application of these starters allows obtaining Iberian dry-fermented sausages with sensorial characteristics standardized. It is greatly interesting for processing and marketing industry of these high-quality meat products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Evaluation of Escherichia coli biotype 1 as a surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7 for cooking, fermentation, freezing, and refrigerated storage in meat processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Carisa; Niebuhr, Steven E; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S

    2009-04-01

    Five Escherichia coli biotype I isolates were compared with E. coli O157:H7 under four common meat processing conditions. The processes that were evaluated were freezing, refrigerating, fermentation, and thermal inactivation. For each study, at least one surrogate organism was not statistically different when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the four studies did not consistently show the same isolate as having this agreement. The three studies that involved temperature as a method of controlling or reducing the E. coli population all had at least one possible surrogate in common. In the fermentation study, only one isolate (BAA-1429) showed no statistical difference when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the population reductions that were observed indicated the isolates BAA-1427 and BAA-1431 would overestimate the surviving E. coli O157:H7 population in a fermented summer sausage. When all of the data from all of the surrogates were examined, it was found that isolates BAA-1427, BAA-1429, and BAA-1430 would be good surrogates for all four of the processes that were examined in this study. There was no statistical difference noted between these three isolates and E. coli O157:H7 in the refrigeration study. These isolates resulted in smaller population reductions than did E. coli O157:H7 in the frozen, fermentation, and thermal inactivation studies. This would indicate that these isolates would overpredict the E. coli O157:H7 population in these three instances. This overprediction results in an additional margin of safety when using E. coli biotype 1 as a surrogate.

  4. The influence of process parameters in production of lipopeptide iturin A using aerated packed bed bioreactors in solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahíta-Aguirre, C A; Bastos, R G; Carvalho, A L; Monte Alegre, R

    2014-08-01

    The strain Bacillus iso 1 co-produces the lipopeptide iturin A and biopolymer poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) in solid-state fermentation of substrate consisting of soybean meal, wheat bran with rice husks as an inert support. The effects of pressure drop, oxygen consumption, medium permeability and temperature profile were studied in an aerated packed bed bioreactor to produce iturin A, diameter of which was 50 mm and bed height 300 mm. The highest concentrations of iturin A and γ-PGA were 5.58 and 3.58 g/kg-dry substrate, respectively, at 0.4 L/min after 96 h of fermentation. The low oxygen uptake rates, being 23.34 and 22.56 mg O2/kg-dry solid substrate for each air flow rate tested generated 5.75 W/kg-dry substrate that increased the fermentation temperature at 3.7 °C. The highest pressure drop was 561 Pa/m at 0.8 L/min in 24 h. This is the highest concentration of iturin A produced to date in an aerated packed bed bioreactor in solid-state fermentation. The results can be useful to design strategies to scale-up process of iturin A in aerated packed bed bioreactors. Low concentration of γ-PGA affected seriously pressure drop, decreasing the viability of the process due to generation of huge pressure gradients with volumetric air flow rates. Also, the low oxygenation favored the iturin A production due to the reduction of free void by γ-PGA production, and finally, the low oxygen consumption generated low metabolic heat. The results show that it must control the pressure gradients to scale-up the process of iturin A production.

  5. Enhanced dark fermentative biohydrogen production from marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica by different pretreatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are promising substrates for biofuel production. Pretreating macroalgae with chemicals could remove microbial inhibitors and enhance the accessibility of the microorganisms involved in the process to the substrates leading to increased product yield. In the present study, Padina tetrastromatica a seaweed species was subjected to different chemical pretreatment in order to remove phenolic content and to enhance biohydrogen production. Different mineral acids (i.e., HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 and bases (NaOH and KOH were applied for effective pretreatment of the seaweed. Dilute sulphuric acid treatment of seaweed resulted in the highest cumulative biohydrogen production of 78 ± 2.9 mL/0.05 g VS and reduced phenolic content to 1.6 ±0.072 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g. Optimization of three variables for pretreatment (i.e., substrate concentration, acid concentration, and reaction time was examined by Response Surface Methodology. After the optimization of the pretreatment conditions, phenolic content was decreased to 0.06 mg GAE/g. and enhanced biohydrogen production was observed. Structural changes due to pretreatment was studied by FTIR and XRD analyses. The results clearly indicated that the dilute sulphuric acid pretreatment was effective in removing phenolic content and enhancing biohydrogen production.

  6. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  7. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  8. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  9. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  10. Effect Addition of Rice Bran on Fermentation Process to Increasing Lovastatin and Intensity of Red Pigment Angkak

    OpenAIRE

    Elok Zubaidah; Alicia Puspita Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Red yeast rice, known as Angkak, is a natural dye product of rice fermented by mold Monascus purpureus. Red yeast rice contains lovastatin compounds as secondary metabolites that have been shown to lower triglycerides and cholesterol. Increase secondary metabolites can be done by the addition of a source of vitamin B1 and zinc. Rice bran is a good source of vitamin B1 and zinc. This study aims to increase levels of lovastatin and red pigments are produced during the fermentation of red yeast ...

  11. Evaluation of the effect of process variables on the fatty acid profile of single cell oil produced by Mortierella using solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Seyedeh Zeinab; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Nikoopour, Houshang; Bakhoda, Hossein

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews some of the aspects of single cell oil (SCO) production using solid-state fermentation (SSF) by fungi of the genus Mortierella. This article provides an overview of the advantages of SSF for SCO formation by the aforementioned fungus and demonstrates that the content of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) depend on the type of fermentation media and culture conditions. Process variables that influence lipid accumulation by Mortierella spp. and the profile of the fatty acids are discussed, including incubation temperature, time, aeration, growth phase of the mycelium, particle size of the substrate, carbon to nitrogen ratio, initial moisture content and pH as well as supplementation of the substrate with nitrogen and oil. Finally, the article highlights future research trends for the scaled-up production of PUFAs in SSF.

  12. Following the compositional changes of fresh grape skin cell walls during the fermentation process in the presence and absence of maceration enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Trygg, Johan; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-03-18

    Cell wall profiling technologies were used to follow compositional changes that occurred in the skins of grape berries (from two different ripeness levels) during fermentation and enzyme maceration. Multivariate data analysis showed that the fermentation process yielded cell walls enriched in hemicellulose components because pectin was solubilized (and removed) with a reduction as well as exposure of cell wall proteins usually embedded within the cell wall structure. The addition of enzymes caused even more depectination, and the enzymes unravelled the cell walls enabling better access to, and extraction of, all cell wall polymers. Overripe grapes had cell walls that were extensively hydrolyzed and depolymerized, probably by natural grape-tissue-ripening enzymes, and this enhanced the impact that the maceration enzymes had on the cell wall monosaccharide profile. The combination of the techniques that were used is an effective direct measurement of the hydrolysis actions of maceration enzymes on the cell walls of grape berry skin.

  13. The effect of citrus pulp type on pectinase production in solid-state fermentation: Process evaluation and optimization by Taguchi design of experimental (DOE methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Anvari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is an important enzyme that finds application in many food processing industries and solid state fermentation (SSF is an attractive technology for enzyme production. In this work, design of experimental (DOE methodology using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA was applied to evaluate the influence of five factors (different levels of citrus pulp, initial pH of the medium, C/N ratio, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp on the pectinase production by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation. The results showed that citrus pulp concentration, type of solid substrate and citrus pulp were found to be the most effective factor for promoting enzyme production and the supplementation of the medium with citrus pulp caused a 23% increase in the pectinase production when compared with the basal medium. The study shows that the Taguchi's method is suitable to optimize the experiments for the production of pectinase (R2 = 0.946.

  14. [Determination of process variable pH in solid-state fermentation by FT-NIR spectroscopy and extreme learning machine (ELM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-hai; Jiang, Hui; Xiao, Xia-hong; Zhang, Dong-juan; Mei, Cong-li; Ding, Yu-han

    2012-04-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was attempted to determine pH, which is one of the key process parameters in solid-state fermentation of crop straws. First, near infrared spectra of 140 solid-state fermented product samples were obtained by near infrared spectroscopy system in the wavelength range of 10 000-4 000 cm(-1), and then the reference measurement results of pH were achieved by pH meter. Thereafter, the extreme learning machine (ELM) was employed to calibrate model. In the calibration model, the optimal number of PCs and the optimal number of hidden-layer nodes of ELM network were determined by the cross-validation. Experimental results showed that the optimal ELM model was achieved with 1040-1 topology construction as follows: R(p) = 0.961 8 and RMSEP = 0.104 4 in the prediction set. The research achievement could provide technological basis for the on-line measurement of the process parameters in solid-state fermentation.

  15. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  16. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effect of unknown fermentation inhibitors in corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate processed by pretreatment and detoxification on fermentation, corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and artificially prepared hydrolysate were fermented in parallel by Candida shehatae YHFK-2. The results show that ...

  17. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To treat this garbage of algae, we employed a biological fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria (BL11) and yeast (THE 16). These were isolated and selected for their acidifying and fermentation qualities, respectively. The fermentation resulted in a decrease of pH from 7.4 to 3.75 and a reduction of the different ...

  18. Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, acute toxicity in mice Toxicidade aguda de Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny P. Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as "pluméria" or "taiuiá", is widely used in different ways in Brazilian popular medicine to treat several diseases. Acute toxicity of Siolmatra brasiliensis crude ethanolic extract (CEE was investigated in mice. No mortality or signs of CEE toxicity were observed at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw, but the administration of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw caused several adverse behavioral effects and mortality. Macroscopic inspection of the organs showed morphologic alterations in the heart of animals treated with doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw. According to our results, S. brasiliensis CEE has an LD50 of 1000 mg/kg bw. We conclude that S. brasiliensis CEE was safe at the doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg bw and presented toxicity at the doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg bw.Siolmatra brasiliensis (Cogn. Baill., Cucurbitaceae, popularmente conhecida como "pluméria" ou "taiuiá" é utilizada na medicina popular brasileira para diversos fins terapêuticos. O estudo de toxicidade aguda do extrato bruto etanólico (EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis foi investigado em camundongos. Nenhuma mortalidade ou sinais de toxicidade foram observados nas doses de 10 e 100 mg/kg, entretanto em doses administradas de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg levou as diversas alterações comportamentais e mortalidade. A DL50 para o EBE foi de 1000 mg/kg. Análise macroscópica dos órgãos demonstrou alterações morfológicas no coração dos animais tratados com 1000 e 2000 mg/kg. Por meios destes resultados conclui-se que o EBE de Siolmatra brasiliensis é seguro em doses de 10 and 100 mg/kg e apresentou toxicidade nas doses de 1000 e 2000 mg/kg.

  19. Data Pre-Processing Method to Remove Interference of Gas Bubbles and Cell Clusters During Anaerobic and Aerobic Yeast Fermentations in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, S.; Wenzel, U.; Miller, R.; Hessling, M.

    2014-11-01

    One aerobic and four anaerobic batch fermentations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in a stirred bioreactor and monitored inline by NIR spectroscopy and a transflectance dip probe. From the acquired NIR spectra, chemometric partial least squares regression (PLSR) models for predicting biomass, glucose and ethanol were constructed. The spectra were directly measured in the fermentation broth and successfully inspected for adulteration using our novel data pre-processing method. These adulterations manifested as strong fluctuations in the shape and offset of the absorption spectra. They resulted from cells, cell clusters, or gas bubbles intercepting the optical path of the dip probe. In the proposed data pre-processing method, adulterated signals are removed by passing the time-scanned non-averaged spectra through two filter algorithms with a 5% quantile cutoff. The filtered spectra containing meaningful data are then averaged. A second step checks whether the whole time scan is analyzable. If true, the average is calculated and used to prepare the PLSR models. This new method distinctly improved the prediction results. To dissociate possible correlations between analyte concentrations, such as glucose and ethanol, the feeding analytes were alternately supplied at different concentrations (spiking) at the end of the four anaerobic fermentations. This procedure yielded low-error (anaerobic) PLSR models for predicting analyte concentrations of 0.31 g/l for biomass, 3.41 g/l for glucose, and 2.17 g/l for ethanol. The maximum concentrations were 14 g/l biomass, 167 g/l glucose, and 80 g/l ethanol. Data from the aerobic fermentation, carried out under high agitation and high aeration, were incorporated to realize combined PLSR models, which have not been previously reported to our knowledge.

  20. Solid-State Fermentation: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargav, Samir; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ali, Mohd.; Javed, Saleem

    2008-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (ssf) is defined as the growth of microbes without free flowing aqueous phase. The ssf is alternative to submerged fermentation for production of value added products like antibiotics, single cell protein, PUFA’s, enzymes, organic acids, biopesticides, biofuel and aroma production. However, the advantages of ssf in various processes are found to be greater than in submerged fermentation. This paper reviews the advantages of solid-state fermentation over submerged in p...

  1. Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folb, P I; Jaffe, R; Altmann, G

    1976-05-01

    A model for Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis infections in Swiss white mice has been established without the addition to the inocula of any form of adjuvant. Serial histopathological studies revealed that these two actinomycetes cause lesions that are quite different in their features. An acute suppurative abscess characterizes the lesions of N. asteroides. In the case of N. brasiliensis infections a granuloma is produced in which a striking feature is the presence of large numbers of foam-laden macrophages, although occasional exceptions to this pattern were noted. Electron microscopic studies demonstrated that these macrophages contain within their cytoplasm organisms in varying stages of degeneration. Repeated mortality studies in mice failed to demonstrate differences in mortality rates produced by N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis. Thus, despite relatively trivial biochemical and antigenic differences between these two species of Nocardia, the local pathogenic response is quite different. The presence in the "brasiliensis lesion" of foamy macrophages with intracellular organisms is reminiscent of the histopathological features of lepromatous leprosy and of disseminated Myocobacterium bovis infection when this occurs in the immune suppressed situation. It is possible that N. brasiliensis infection produces a depression of cellular immunity that modifies the local host response to the organism.

  2. Cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: impact on paracoccidioidomycosis immunodiagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Capella Machado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate whether the occurrence of cryptic species of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, S1, PS2, PS3 and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has implications in the immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. Small quantities of the antigen gp43 were found in culture filtrates of P. lutzii strains and this molecule appeared to be more variable within P. lutzii because the synonymous-nonsynonymous mutation rate was lower, indicating an evolutionary process different from that of the remaining genotypes. The production of gp43 also varied between isolates belonging to the same species, indicating that speciation events are important, but not sufficient to fully explain the diversity in the production of this antigen. The culture filtrate antigen AgEpm83, which was obtained from a PS3 isolate, showed large quantities of gp43 and reactivity by immunodiffusion assays, similar to the standard antigen (AgB-339 from an S1 isolate. Furthermore, AgEpm83 was capable of serologically differentiating five serum samples from patients from the Botucatu and Jundiaí regions. These patients had confirmed PCM but, were non-reactive to the standard antigen, thus demonstrating an alternative for serological diagnosis in regions in which S1 and PS2 occur. We also emphasise that it is not advisable to use a single antigen preparation to diagnose PCM, a disease that is caused by highly diverse pathogens.

  3. Characterization of Microbial Community during the Fermentation of Chinese Homemade paocai, a Traditional Fermented Vegetable Food

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liang, Huipeng; Zhang, An; Wu, Zhengyun; Liu, Chaolan; Zhang, Wenxue

    2016-01-01

    The microbial community in the fermentation process of Chinese homemade paocai (CHP), which was a traditional fermented vegetable food in China, was analyzed firstly by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis...

  4. Effect of thermal processing on the profile of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Berná, Genoveva; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2016-11-01

    Previously, we reported that alcoholic fermentation enhanced flavanones and carotenoids content of orange juice. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of pasteurization on the qualitative and quantitative profile of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice. Ascorbic acid (203 mg/L), total flavanones (647 mg/L), total carotenoids (7.07 mg/L) and provitamin A (90.06 RAEs/L) values of pasteurized orange beverage were lower than those of fermented juice. Total phenolic remained unchanged (585 mg/L) and was similar to that of original juice. The flavanones naringenin-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-glucoside and isosakuranetin-7-O-rutinoside, and the carotenoids karpoxanthin and isomer, neochrome, lutein, ζ-carotene, zeaxanthin, mutatoxanthin epimers, β-cryptoxanthin and auroxanthin epimers were the major compounds. Pasteurization produced a decrease in antioxidant capacity of fermented juice. However, TEAC (5.45 mM) and ORAC (6353 μM) values of orange beverage were similar to those of original orange juice. The novel orange beverage could be a valuable source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity and exert potential beneficial effects.

  5. Novel fermentation process strengthening strategy for production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Jiao, Youjing; Liu, Shouxin

    2014-12-01

    An efficient fermentation-strengthening approach was developed to improve the anaerobic production of propionic acid and vitamin B12 by co-fermentation with Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Vitamin B12 production from glucose resulted in relatively high productivity (0.35 mg/L h) but a low propionic acid yield (0.55 g/g). By contrast, glycerol gave a high propionic acid yield (0.63 g/g) but low productivity (0.16 g/L h). Co-fermentation of glycerol and glucose with a gradual addition strategy gave high yields (propionic acid: 0.71 g/g; vitamin B12: 0.72 mg/g) and productivities (propionic acid: 0.36 g/L h; vitamin B12: 0.36 mg/L h). Finally, the integrated feedstock and fermentation system strengthening strategy was demonstrated as an efficient method for the economic production of bio-based propionic acid and vitamin B12.

  6. Method for sustaining microorganism culture in syngas fermentation process in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Stephen S.; Scott, Syrona; Ko, Ching-Whan

    2015-05-19

    The present invention relates to methods for sustaining microorganism culture in a syngas fermentation reactor in decreased concentration or absence of various substrates comprising: adding carbon dioxide and optionally alcohol; maintaining free acetic acid concentrations; and performing the above mentioned steps within specified time.

  7. Lysine and arginine requirements of Salminus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Koji Dairiki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the dietary lysine (DL and dietary arginine (DA requirements of dourado (Salminus brasiliensis, through dose-response trials using the amino acid profiles of whole carcasses as a reference. Two experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design (n=4. In the first experiment, groups of 12 feed-conditioned dourado juveniles (11.4±0.2 g were stocked in 60 L cages placed in 300 L plastic indoor tanks in a closed circulation system. Fish were fed for 60 days on diets containing 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, or 3.5 % dietary lysine. In the second experiment, dourado juveniles (27.0±0.8 g were fed for 60 days on semipurified diets containing arginine at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0%, in similar conditions to those of the first experiment. Optimal DL requirements, as determined by broken-line analysis method for final weight, weight gain and specific growth rate, were 2.15% DL or 5% lysine in dietary protein, and 1.48% DA or 3.43% arginine in dietary protein. The best feed conversion ratio is attained with 2.5% DL or 5.8% lysine in dietary protein and 1.4% DA or 3.25% arginine in dietary protein.

  8. Ultrastructure of dimorphic transformation in paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, L M

    1969-11-01

    The fine structure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis undergoing temperature-dependent transformation from mycelium to yeast and vice versa (M right harpoon over left harpoon Y) was studied. The transitional form to mycelium from the yeast appears as an elongated bud that extends from the yeast and which has a mixture of characteristics from both the yeast and the mycelium. The transitional form to yeast from the mycelium starts with enlargement of the interseptal spaces and cracking of the outer electron-dense layer of the cell wall of the hypha. Later the interseptal spaces tend to become round and separate. In M --> Y only few interseptal spaces seem to transform. The yeast is produced by self-transformation of the hypha. In Y --> M a new structure is formed and the yeast dies. Intrahyphal hyphae are observed during the transformation from M --> Y, and intrayeast hyphae during the Y --> M. Due to the high mortality and breakage observed in both types of transformations, we believe that wound of the yeast or the mycelium could elicit this phenomenon.

  9. Application of multi-enzymatic hydrolysis for improving the efficiency of the biogas production in solid waste fermentation process in Ostróda WWTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipiński Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass fermentation is one of the important sources of renewable energy in EU. Application of multi-enzymatic hydrolysis process enables a significant increase in efficiency of biogas production. The main goal of the paper is to present the results of the pilot scale research performed in WWTP in óstroda. The fixed combination of three enzymes was continiously introduced: amylase, lipase and protease. Research aimed at verifying the impact of enzyme dose on sludge digestion process and on the amount of biogas produced. Statistical analysis of the research results allows to determine the influence of dosing the enzymes in mesophilic digestion on the biogas production.

  10. Application of multi-enzymatic hydrolysis for improving the efficiency of the biogas production in solid waste fermentation process in Ostróda WWTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiński, Kamil; Umiejewska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    Biomass fermentation is one of the important sources of renewable energy in EU. Application of multi-enzymatic hydrolysis process enables a significant increase in efficiency of biogas production. The main goal of the paper is to present the results of the pilot scale research performed in WWTP in óstroda. The fixed combination of three enzymes was continiously introduced: amylase, lipase and protease. Research aimed at verifying the impact of enzyme dose on sludge digestion process and on the amount of biogas produced. Statistical analysis of the research results allows to determine the influence of dosing the enzymes in mesophilic digestion on the biogas production.

  11. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  12. The ability to use nitrate confers advantage to Dekkera bruxellensis over S. cerevisiae and can explain its adaptation to industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Pita, Will; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; de Souza Liberal, Anna Theresa; Simões, Diogo Ardaillon; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2011-06-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been regarded as a contamination problem in industrial ethanol production because it can replace the originally inoculated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The present study deals with the influence of nitrate on the relative competitiveness of D. bruxellensis and S. cerevisiae in sugar cane ethanol fermentations. The industrial strain D. bruxellensis GDB 248 showed higher growth rates than S. cerevisiae JP1 strain in mixed ammonia/nitrate media, and nitrate assimilation genes were only slightly repressed by ammonia. These characteristics rendered D. bruxellensis cells with an ability to overcome S. cerevisiae populations in both synthetic medium and in sugar cane juice. The results were corroborated by data from industrial fermentations that showed a correlation between high nitrate concentrations and high D. bruxellensis cell counts. Moreover, the presence of nitrate increased fermentation efficiency of D. bruxellensis cells in anaerobic conditions, which may explain the maintenance of ethanol production in the presence of D. bruxellensis in industrial processes. The presence of high levels of nitrate in sugar cane juice may be due to its inefficient conversion by plant metabolism in certain soil types and could explain the periodical episodes of D. bruxellensis colonization of Brazilian ethanol plants.

  13. Expression of three Trichoderma reesei cellulase genes in Saccharomyces pastorianus for the development of a two-step process of hydrolysis and fermentation of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J; Kricka, W; James, T C; Bond, U

    2014-07-01

    To compare the production of recombinant cellulase enzymes in two Saccharomyces species so as to ascertain the most suitable heterologous host for the degradation of cellulose-based biomass and its conversion into bioethanol. cDNA copies of genes representing the three major classes of cellulases (Endoglucanases, Cellobiohydrolases and β-glucosidases) from Trichoderma reesei were expressed in Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The recombinant enzymes were secreted by the yeast hosts into the medium and were shown to act in synergy to hydrolyse cellulose. The conditions required to achieve maximum release of glucose from cellulose by the recombinant enzymes were defined and the activity of the recombinant enzymes was compared to a commercial cocktail of T. reesei cellulases. We demonstrate that significantly higher levels of cellulase activity were achieved by expression of the genes in S. pastorianus compared to S. cerevisiae. Hydrolysis of cellulose by the combined activity of the recombinant enzymes was significantly better at 50°C than at 30°C, the temperature used for mesophilic yeast fermentations, reflecting the known temperature profiles of the native enzymes. The results demonstrate that host choice is important for the heterologous production of cellulases. On the basis of the low activity of the T. reesei recombinant enzymes at fermentation temperatures, we propose a two-step process for the hydrolysis of cellulose and its fermentation into alcohol using cellulases produced in situ. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Antineoplasic activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielly Mourão

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Agaricus brasiliensis is a Basidiomycete studied because of its immunomodulation and/or antitumor substances. The objective of this study was to verify the Agaricus brasiliensis antineoplasic activity in vivo on different basidiocarp maturation phases on Sarcoma 180 cells implanted in mice. Sarcoma cells were implanted in mice and after seven days mice were divided in three groups. The first group was treated with saline solution, the second group was treated with closed basidiocarp extract solution and the third group was treated with opened basidiocarp extract solution. After 30 days of being daily orally treated with these three solutions all animals suffered euthanasia, and the splenic index, tumor mass and volume were determined. No significant differences of the tumor growth inhibition in function of the different basidiocarp maturation phases for the Agaricus brasiliensis strain were observed. The in vivo basidiocarp antineoplasic average activity was 89.22%.

  15. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  16. In Situ Analysis of Metabolic Characteristics Reveals the Key Yeast in the Spontaneous and Solid-State Fermentation Process of Chinese Light-Style Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yu; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The in situ metabolic characteristics of the yeasts involved in spontaneous fermentation process of Chinese light-style liquor are poorly understood. The covariation between metabolic profiles and yeast communities in Chinese light-style liquor was modeled using the partial least square (PLS) regression method. The diversity of yeast species was evaluated by sequence analysis of the 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1/D2 domains of cultivable yeasts, and the volatile compounds in fermented grains were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Eight yeast species and 58 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. The modulation of 16 of these volatile compounds was associated with variations in the yeast population (goodness of prediction [Q2] > 20%). The results showed that Pichia anomala was responsible for the characteristic aroma of Chinese liquor, through the regulation of several important volatile compounds, such as ethyl lactate, octanoic acid, and ethyl tetradecanoate. Correspondingly, almost all of the compounds associated with P. anomala were detected in a pure culture of this yeast. In contrast to the PLS regression results, however, ethyl lactate and ethyl isobutyrate were not detected in the same pure culture, which indicated that some metabolites could be generated by P. anomala only when it existed in a community with other yeast species. Furthermore, different yeast communities provided different volatile patterns in the fermented grains, which resulted in distinct flavor profiles in the resulting liquors. This study could help identify the key yeast species involved in spontaneous fermentation and provide a deeper understanding of the role of individual yeast species in the community. PMID:24727269

  17. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...

  18. Larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado (Odonata: Platystictidae), from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar; Hamada, Neusa

    2016-02-09

    The larva of Palaemnema brasiliensis Machado, 2009 is described and illustrated based on last-instar larvae and exuviae of reared larvae collected in a blackwater stream in Barcelos and Presidente Figueiredo municipalities, Amazonas state, Brazil. The larva of P. brasiliensis can be distinguished from the two South American species of the genus with described larvae (P. clementia Selys and P. mutans Calvert), mainly by presence of a single obtuse cusp on the labial palp, the presence and configuration of setae in the caudal lamellae, and the proportional length of terminal filaments of the caudal lamellae. The family is recorded here for the first time in Brazilian state of Amazonas.

  19. In Vitro Activities of New Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Choi, Sung H.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro sensitivities of 30 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis to DA-7867, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and BMS-284756 (garenoxacin) were determined using the broth microdilution method. All N. brasiliensis strains were sensitive to these antimicrobials. The most active drug in vitro was DA-7867, with a MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.03 μg/ml and a MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.06 μg/ml. PMID:14742215

  20. Actinomycetoma Due To Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Pankajalakshmi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamilians are reported. Both presented with multiple sinuses discharging serosanguinous material without any granules. In the first case, the lesion was located in the thigh and leg and the specific diagnosis was made by histopathology and isolation of N. brasiliensis. In the other, in addition to thigh and leg, the foot was also affected and the causative agent was isolated in pure culture. The geographic distribution of the organism and its incidence and prevalence are discussed.