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Sample records for brasiliensis clone rrim

  1. Nutrient cycling in a RRIM 600 clone rubber plantation

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    Murbach Marcos Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Few reports have been presented on nutrient cycling in rubber tree plantations (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.. This experiment was carried out to evaluate: the effect of K rates on the amount of nutrients transfered to the soil in a 13-year old Hevea brasilensis RRIM 600 clone plantation, nutrient retranslocation from the leaves before falling to the soil, and nutrient loss by dry rubber export. The experiment started in 1998 and potassium was applied at the rates of 0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 of K2O under the crowns of 40 rubber trees of each plot. Literfall collectors, five per plot, were randomly distributed within the plots under the trees. The accumulated literfall was collected monthly during one year. The coagulated rubber latex from each plot was weighed, and samples were analyzed for nutrient content. Increasing K fertilization rates also increased the K content in leaf literfall. Calcium and N were the most recycled leaf nutrients to the soil via litterfall. Potassium, followed by P were the nutrients with the highest retranslocation rates. Potassium was the most exported nutrient by the harvested rubber, and this amount was higher than that transfered to the soil by the leaf literfall.

  2. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  3. Caracterização mecânica e térmica da borracha natural formulada e vulcanizada dos clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 Mechanical and thermal characterization of compounds of natural rubber of the clones: GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600

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    Ana C. Dall'Antonia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o desempenho mecânico e térmico de compostos de borracha natural (Hevea brasiliensis de 4 diferentes clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 e RRIM 600 cultivados no Estado de São Paulo, assim como de uma mistura destes clones e de uma borracha comercial, GEB-1. Estas borrachas foram formuladas e vulcanizadas com tempos de 5, 7 e 9 minutos. A caracterização foi realizada por calorimetria exploratória diferencial, termogravimetria, ensaios de resistência à tração, análise dinâmico-mecânica, medidas de dureza Shore A, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia na região do infravermelho. Os resultados permitiram concluir que o tempo de vulcanização e o tipo de clone não influenciaram na temperatura de transição vítrea (Tg dos compostos. Os valores de Tg obtidos por DMA foram de cerca de -62 °C, e os resultados ensaios de dureza apresentaram valores próximos de 60 para todos os compostos estudados. Os ensaios de resistência à tração mostraram que o melhor desempenho mecânico foi obtido pelo clone RRIM 600. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, todos os clones atingiram as propriedades reportadas na literatura, podendo ser utilizados, em princípio, nas indústrias de artefatos de borracha separadamente ou na forma de mistura.The objective of this work was to study the mechanical and thermal performance of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis compounds of different types of clones (GT 1, IAN 873, PB 235 and RRIM 600, as well as a mixture made from these clones and a commercial rubber GEB-1. These rubbers were formulated and prepared in a two-roll mill and vulcanized at different times (5, 7 and 9 minutes. The evaluation of the mechanical and thermal performance of different natural rubber compounds was carried out by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, mechanical properties (tensile and hardness tests, dynamic mechanic thermal analysis (DMTA

  4. RESPOSTA DA SERINGUEIRA CLONE RRIM 600 À ADUBAÇÃO NPK EM SOLO PODZÓLICO VERMELHO-AMARELO RESPONSES OF RUBBER TREE CLONE RRIM 600 TO NPK FERTILIZATION ON RED YELLOW PODZOLIC SOIL

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    ONDINO CLEANTE BATAGLIA

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo, que teve por objetivo determinar respostas da seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] à adubação NPK durante o período de formação do seringal, relata os resultados de experimento com o clone RRIM 600 em solo podzólico vermelho-amarelo de textura arenosa, no município de Avaí (SP, Brasil. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial fracionado 1/2 (4 x 4 x 4, com doses anuais de 0, 40, 80 e 120 kg.ha-1 de N, P2O5 e K2O, aplicados no período entre dois e oito anos de idade das plantas. Avaliou-se o perímetro do caule a 1,20 m acima do calo de enxertia, a cada quatro meses, e calculou-se a porcentagem de plantas aptas para sangria e o tempo de imaturidade do seringal em cada parcela. Efetuaram-se análises de solo aos 27 e 51 meses de idade das plantas e análises de folhas, anualmente, no verão. A partir de 60 meses de idade das plantas, aproximadamente três anos após o início das adubações, observou-se efeito linear da adubação nitrogenada sobre o perímetro do caule. A adubação fosfatada teve efeito linear a partir da idade de 72 meses e a interação NP linear foi consistente depois de 75 meses. Usando como indicador a porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria, houve efeito linear significativo para as adubações nitrogenada e potássica. O período de imaturidade foi abreviado até em oito meses, comparando-se o tratamento sem adubação com os de melhor desempenho. Adubações desequilibradas, como no tratamento 0-80-120, provocaram retardamento até de 12 meses no período de imaturidade em relação ao tratamento de melhor desempenho (120-120-120. Um ano depois da interrupção da aplicação de fertilizantes, no fim do experimento, não se observou efeito residual dos tratamentos sobre os indicadores de crescimento utilizados.The response of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell.Arg.], clone RRIM 600 to NPK fertilization during the

  5. Similaridade genética entre clones de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, por meio de marcadores RAPD Genetic similarity among rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones using RAPD markers

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    Karine Cristina Bicalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] é uma espécie nativa da região amazônica e compreende a maior fonte produtora de borracha natural do mundo. Na busca de condições mais favoráveis ao cultivo, além da busca pela auto-suficiência na produção de borracha natural, o cultivo da seringueira migrou para outras regiões do país. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, estimar a similaridade genética de genótipos de seringueira, provenientes de regiões distintas do país, Lavras-MG (UFLA e Campinas-SP (IAC, por meio de marcadores moleculares RAPD. A análise foi efetuada em 41 indivíduos, representados por 17 genótipos diferentes, com base em 19 primers, que geraram 121 fragmentos polimórficos. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o software NTSYS-pc - 2.1, por meio do coeficiente de Dice e pelo método das médias (UPGMA. A similaridade genética entre o material analisado variou de 0,56 a 1,00. Na análise do dendrograma, foram observados 18 grupos. Os clones (RRIM600, GT1, PB235, PL PIM e FX2261, utilizados em diferentes repetições, foram idênticos, quando comparados entre si, entretanto o mesmo não foi observado para os clones identificados como RRIM 701. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o material avaliado na UFLA é o mesmo implantado no IAC, exceto o RRIM 701, mostrando uma ampla variabilidade genética, disponível para estudos e propagação da cultura.The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex. Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.] is a native species from Amazon region, and represents the biggest source of natural rubber in the world.. However, the rubber tree culture has had an expansion to other brazilian regions, in search of more favorable conditions for its cultivation and self-sufficiency in natural rubber. The aim of this work was to estimate genetic similarity among rubber tree clones, from different Brazilian regions, Lavras (UFLA and Campinas (IAC, by using RAPD molecular markers

  6. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of Hevea brasiliensis clones Propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural de clones de Hevea brasiliensis

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    Rogério Manoel Biagi Moreno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubber industry has increased the requirements for quality and uniformity of natural rubber produced in Brazil. Technological properties of latex and natural rubber of clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 and RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Former Adr. de Juss. Muell.- Arg] were evaluated by standard methods of the dry rubber content (DRC%, percentage of nitrogen (N% and percentage of ashes (ASH% in two consecutive years; data were correlated with temperature and precipitation. Properties of latex and natural rubber varied (P A indústria da borracha está cada vez mais exigente em relação à qualidade e a uniformidade da borracha natural produzida no Brasil. Neste trabalho as propriedades tecnológicas do látex e da borracha natural dos clones de seringueira GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-.Arg] foram avaliadas pelos ensaios padrões do conteúdo de borracha seca (DRC%, porcentagem de nitrogênio (N% e porcentagem de cinzas (CNZ% por dois anos consecutivos; os dados obtidos foram correlacionados com dados de temperatura e precipitação. As propriedades do látex e da borracha natural variaram (P < 0.01 em função do tipo de clone e entre coletas. O DRC% diminuiu no início da estação seca (maio a junho, enquanto N% e CNZ% aumentaram. O período de abril a junho revelou ser crítico, pois os valores da N% oscilaram acima 0,60%, fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela norma técnica brasileira ABNT/NBR. O clone RRIM 600 foi menos suscetível às variações climáticas.

  7. Clonal stability of latex yield in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

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    K.O. Omokhafe

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Hevea brasiliensis clones were evaluated for clonal stability of latex yield. A randomized complete block design was used with four replicates, two locations, seven years and three periods per year. Stability analysis was based on clone x year and clone x year x location interactions. Five stability parameters viz environmental variance, shukla's stability variance, regression of clonal latex yield on environmental index, variance due to regression and variance due to deviation from regression were applied. There was significant clone x environment effect at the two levels of interaction. Among the eleven clones, C 162 was outstanding for clonal stability and it can serve as donor parent for stability alleles. Three clones (C 76, C 150 and C 154 were also stable. The four stable clones (C 76, C 150, C 154 and C 162 are suitable for broad-spectrum recommendation for latex yield. Five clones (C 83, C 143, C 163, C 202 and RRIM 600 will require environment-specific recommendation because of their unstable phenotype. The stability feature of two clones (C 145 and C 159 was not clear and this will be investigated in subsequent studies.

  8. Production of Particleboards from Hevea brasiliensis Clones and Castor Oil-based Polyurethane Resin

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    Maristela Gava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic exploitation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis usage is primarily directed toward latex extraction. After the productive life of the rubber tree forest, the managed area is harvested for planting reformulation. The harvested wood is most often used for energy generation purposes. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of using rubberwood waste and castor oil-based polyurethane resin in the production of particleboards. Homogeneous and heterogeneous panels were made with nominal dimensions of 500 x 500 mm and thicknesses of 10 mm using particles from GT1 and RRIM600 clones of the rubber tree and 12% castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive. The panels were pressed at 140 °C for 12 min with 40 kgf/cm2 specific pressure. Density, moisture content, thickness swelling, water absorption for 2 and 24 h, static bending, and internal bonding determinations were performed according to the Brazilian Standard (NBR 14810-3 (2006 for the physical-mechanical panel characterization. The results show that using Hevea brasiliensis in particleboard production is viable. However, multilayer boards exhibited better results.

  9. Hermaphroditism in the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg. - II

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    Silvia Marina Cuco

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowers of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 and GT 1, were analyzed under stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope, aiming to observe hermaphroditism rates. Results showed 71.49% hermaphrodite flowers, 29.83% of which exhibited incompletely developed, residual anthers. The scanning electron microscope analysis did not detect differences in anther epidermis of male and bisexual flowers of RRIM 600 and RRIM 527. In GT 1 clone (sterile male, the anther epidermis was already weak at the beginning of floral development and completely wrinkled at the end of maturation. Consequently, the anthers were empty by this stage.Flores de três clones de Hevea brasiliensis, RRIM 527, RRIM 600 e GT 1, foram analisadas, sob lupa e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, a fim de se observar as taxas de ocorrência de hermafroditismo. Os resultados mostraram um total de 71,49% de flores hermafroditas, sendo que destas 29,83% apresentaram anteras residuais, não completamente desenvolvidas. As análises ao microscópio de varredura não mostraram diferença ao nível de epiderme de anteras em flores masculinas e hermafroditas de RRIM 527 e RRIM 600. No clone GT 1 (macho estéril a epiderme das anteras mostrou-se frouxa já no início do desenvolvimento floral e completamente enrugada ao final da maturação, demonstrando que as anteras estão vazias neste estádio.

  10. Assessment of six tapping systems for four Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg.,clones in the Colombian High Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Mendez, Isaac; Aristizabal Gutierrez, Fabio Ancizar; Chaves Cordoba, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    The rubber yield of four Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell.-Arg. clones was evaluated on the Colombian high plains in the Meta department: IAN 873 and RRIM 600 (third year of tapping being done) and PB 260 and GT 1 (first year of tapping). Six tapping systems were used, including a combination of different tapping frequencies (d/4 and d/5), Ethephon concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 3.3% and 5%) and a number of applications per year (4 to 8) were also used depending on the clone. The production figures for one commercial year were obtained from assays, using a completely random- block design (having four repetitions) independently defined for each clone: having on average 4446 g rubber/tree of produce per year for the RRIM 600 clone within a system 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 7/y; 2696 g rubber/tree for the PB 260 clone with 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 5/y; 3822 g rubber/tree for the IAN 873 clone, 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 3.3%, Pa 8/y, and 3472 g rubber/ tree for the GT 1 clone, 1/2S, d/4, 6d/7, 10m/12, ET 2.5%, Pa 5/y. The highest produce was obtained with a four-day tapping frequency.

  11. Seleção de clones de Hevea brasiliensis para a região de Mococa, estado de São Paulo. Clone selection of Hevea brasiliensis to Mococa region, state of São Paulo.

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    Israel Luiz de LIMA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Juss., a seringueira, é utilizada para a produção de látex e, ao final do ciclo produtivo, a madeira também pode ser aproveitada. Dessa maneira, o melhoramento genético visa aumentar a produção tanto de látex quanto de madeira. Este estudo teve por objetivo determinar a variabilidade genética, o controle genético de caracteres de crescimento e a seleção de clones para a região de Mococa, Estado de São Paulo. Um teste clonal foi instalado no município de Mococa, com delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com oito tratamentos (clones, três repetições e 12 plantas por parcela, utilizando-se o espaçamento entre plantas de 7 x 2 m. Os caracteres avaliados foram: diâmetro à altura do peito – DAP, altura total – ALT, altura da bifurcação – AB e volume real individual de madeira – VOL. Diferenças significativas foram detectadas entre os clones para todos os caracteres, o que indica a possibilidade de melhoramento pela seleção. O coeficiente de herdabilidade no sentido amplo foi alto (0,72 para AB e baixo para DAP e VOL. O coeficiente de correlação genética foi alto, positivo e significativo para os caracteres DAP x ALT, DAP x VOL e ALT x VOL, o que indica que a seleção em um caráter pode trazer ganhos indiretos em outro. Os resultados mostraram que a seleção de clones com maior DAP pode resultar no aumento da ALT e VOL de plantios comerciais da espécie. Pode-se destacar o clone RRIM701, proveniente da Malásia, como o mais indicado para todos os caracteres de crescimento, bem como para o cultivo em Mococa-SP. Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Juss., locally known as seringueira, is used for latex production and at the end of production cycle, wood may be used for furniture. Thus, the breeding aimed at increasing the production of latex and wood. Our goal was to determine the genetic variability, genetic growth control of traits and selection of clones from Mococa

  12. Clones de Hevea brasiliensis de alta productividad caracterizados por resistencia a Microcyclus ulei en jardin clonal en el magdalena medio colombiano

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    Yeirme Yaneth Jaimes Suarez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de introducir en la región del magdalena medio de Colombia nuevos clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. de alta productividad y con resistencia al Mal de las Hojas, se evaluaron materiales un jardín clonal establecido en Cimitarra, Colombia en la región del magdalena medio. Se evaluó la incidencia y la severidad del ataque de Microcyclus ulei (P. Henn. von Arx. según Garcia et al. (1. Se encontró resistencia completa al mal de las hojas para los clones CDC 312, FDR 4575, FDR 5597, FDR 5788 y MDF 180 y resistencia parcial para los clones FX 3864 y CDC 32. Los clones RRIM 901, PB 235 y PB 260 se mostraron como susceptibles. De acuerdo con los resultados, los clones con resistencia total y parcial se podrán recomendar para zonas preferenciales con restricción para el cultivo, una vez este comportamiento se corroboré en campo clonal. En cuanto a los clones susceptibles se pueden recomendar para zonas de escape al mal de las hojas en el Magdalena Medio Colombiano.

  13. Efeitos de produtos químicos na transpiração e no potencial da água de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600 Effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of rubber plant (Hevea brasiliensis Muell . Arg. cv.RRIM 600

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    P.R.C. Castro

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado em condições de campo, em Piracicaba (SP, visando avali ar a eficiência de diferentes produtos químicos, em aplicação foliar, na taxa transpiratória e no potencial da água de folhas das plantas de seringueira (He Yea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 com 1,5 ano de idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: polissulfetc, de polietileno (Good-rite peps 0,04 %, oxietileno docosanol (Oed green 2%, caulim (silicato de aluminio 3%, e atrazine 50 ppm, alem do controle. Através do método da pesagem rápida de folhas desta cadas, com balança de torço tipo Jung, verificou-se a perda de água pelas plantas de seringueira foi restringida significativamente pelo anti-transpirante metabólico (atrazine com relação ao controle, aos formadores de filme e ao refletor. Polissulfeto de polietileno apresentou as menores amplitudes de variações na taxa respiratória. Atrazine também promoveu a manutenção do potencial da água das folhas mais alto (-7,8 bars com relação ao controle (-14,8 bars, de acordo com determinações efe tuadas através da Câmara de Scholander.This research deals with the effects of chemicals on transpiration and water potential of Hevea brasiliens is cv. RRIM 600 on plants, with 1,5 year old, under field conditions. Rubber plants were sprayed with poliethylen e polys ulfite 0,04%, oxyethylen e docosanol 2%, kaolin 3%, atrazine 50 ppm, and check. A higher efficiency again st water loss was observed for atrazine (10,9 mg water . cm-2 . min-1 in relation to check plants (14,6 mg water . cm . min-1 at the maximum transpiration rate average. Polyethylen e polysulfite presented lower amplitude variation of the transpiration rates during the measurements at the day period. Atrazine promoted the maint enance of a higher water potential (-7,8 bars compared to check treatment (-14,8 bars.

  14. Etude de la sensibilité des clones d' Hevea brasiliensis (Muell. Arg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chez Hevea brasiliensis, la production de latex est affectée par l'encoche sèche qui se manifeste par l'arrêt de l'écoulement de latex après la saignée. La sensibilité clonale à cette maladie est mal connue. La présente étude a pour objectif d'établir une classification des clones les plus plantés en Côte d'Ivoire selon leur ...

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 ...

  16. Desempenho de cinco clones jovens de seringueira na região do Planalto Ocidental Paulista Performance of five young clones of rubber tree in the São Paulo Occidental plateau region

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    Juliane Ribeiro Cavalcante

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A Região do Planalto Ocidental Paulista tem se destacado como pólo produtor de borracha natural. Visando fornecer informações sobre a adaptação dos clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Wildd. ex. Adr. de Juss Müell. Arg.] RRIM 600, GT 1, RRIM 701, IAN 873 e PB 235, em São José do Rio Preto (SP, realizaram-se avaliações de alguns caracteres de sua biologia, pelo acompanhamento das trocas gasosas e mensuração do desenvolvimento vegetativo durante os primeiros 18 meses após o enxerto sobre Tjir 16. A altura de RRIM 600 atingiu, em média, 3,74 m e o diâmetro do caule de IAN 873 e RRIM 600, 2,50 cm. PB 235 apresentou o menor índice relativo de crescimento durante o período. No período úmido, os valores das trocas gasosas não diferiram significativamente entre os clones, com valores médios da taxa fotossintética de 9,45 mmol.m-2.s-1; para a taxa de transpiração, 3,84 mmol.m-2.s-1, e para a condutância estomática, de 0,096 mol.m-2.s-1. Diferenças entre os valores de trocas gasosas ocorreram apenas no período seco, com redução mais acentuada para PB 235. Considerando o conjunto dos caracteres analisados, o desempenho dos clones IAN 873 e RRIM 600 foi superior, e do clone PB 235, inferior.The region of São Paulo Occidental Plateau is well known for its part as a major producer of natural rubber. In order to obtain information about adaptation of rubber tree clones [Hevea brasiliensis (Wildd. ex. Adr. de Juss Müell. Arg.] RRIM 600, RRIM 701, IAN 873, PB 235 and GT 1, in the city of São José do Rio Preto some biologic characteristics were evaluated. Analysis were performed by monitoring gas exchanges and by measuring vegetative development, during the 18 months after engraft on the Tjir 16 clonal rootstocks. The height of RRIM 600 reached a mean of 3,74 m, and the diameter of the stem of IAN 873 and RRIM 600 reached the mean of 2,50 cm. Clone PB 235 presented the lowest relative growth during the period. During the

  17. Genomic validation of PB 260 clone of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royani, J. I.; Safarrida, A.; Rachmawati, I.; Khairiyah, H.; Mustika, I. P.; Suyono, A.; Rudiyana, Y.; Kubil; Nurjaya; Arianto, A.

    2017-05-01

    Rubber from Hevea brasiliensis is the only commercial natural rubber in the world. Propagation of rubber trees usually done by grafting and seed germination. BPPT had been producing rubber tree by in vitro technique with embryo somatic methods. Validation of mother plant for in vitro propagation is important to compare between mother plant and propagated plants. The aim for this research was to validation of PB 260 clone that planted at Cikumpay Plantation by SSR marker. Sampling of 10 rubber leaves were done at Cikumpay Plantation based on GPS position from the area of PB 260 clone. Rubber leaves were isolated with CTAB modification method to obtained DNA. Four of SSR primers from rubber, i.e.: hmac 4, hmac 5, hmct 1, and hmct 5, were used as primers to amplification of rubber DNA. The result showed that no band that different from 10 rubber of PB 260 clone at Cikumpay Plantation. This research will continue to compare genomic validation between mother plant and propagated plants that had been produced from BPPT.

  18. Microsporogênese em clones normais e tetraplóides de Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg Microsporo genesis in normal and tetraploid Hevea brasiliensis (Muell.-Arg.

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    Cândida H. T. M. Conagin

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas sôbre o efeito da colquicina em Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. realizadas anteriormente levaram à obtenção de clones com número duplicado de cromossomos; tais clones, atualmente em fase de amplas e detalhadas observações (6, floresceram em 1969, pela primeira vez. Foi então realizado um estudo citológico comparativo da microsporo-gènese de duas plantas, uma pertencente ao clone normal n.° 3064, com 2n = 36 cromossomos, e outra pertencente ao clone duplicado n.° 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos. Ambos são considerados clones gêmeos, porque foram obtidos de uma mesma semente, por técnica especial (7. Na planta com 2n = 36 cromossomos, o processo meiótico é normal, dando tétrades perfeitas e grãos de pólen aparentemente funcionais. A planta 3065, com 2n=72 cromossomos, apresenta, além de células-mães de pólen que se dividem normalmente, outras que no final da meiose produzem tétrades anormais, com micrócitos excedentes e grãos de pólen vazios. Caracteriza-se também por grãos de pólen que não passam pelas divisões mitóticas, isto é, apresentam sempre um núcleo só, que não se divide. Em virtude destas primeiras observações pode-se formular uma hipótese de esterilidade masculina para o clone em estudo.Previous works on Hevea brasiliensis Muell.-Arg. produced several pairs of twin clones, one member having the normal chromosome number and the other the duplicated set after colchicine treatment. Plants of normal clone 3064 are fertile and have 32 chromosomes. Microsporogenesis is normal, producing only normal tetrads of four microsporocytes. The resulting pollen grains have three germinal pores. Grains in different stages of development could be noticed, from one-nucleated cytoplasm to the two-nucleated reproductive cell, which undoubtedly means normal game to genesis. On the other hand plants of the duplicated twin clone 3065, blossomed during the year of 1969 for the first time. Microsporogenesis studied

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Latex Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Increased Rubber Yield in Hevea brasiliensis Self-Rooting Juvenile Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Liang; Guo, Dong; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Wang, Ying; Chen, Xiong-Ting; Peng, Shi-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) self-rooting juvenile clones (JCs) are promising planting materials for rubber production. In a comparative trial between self-rooting JCs and donor clones (DCs), self-rooting JCs exhibited better performance in rubber yield. To study the molecular mechanism associated with higher rubber yield in self-rooting JCs, we sequenced and comparatively analyzed the latex of rubber tree self-rooting JCs and DCs at the transcriptome level. Total raw reads of 34,632,012 and 35,913,020 bp were obtained from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs, respectively, by using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing technology. De novo assemblies yielded 54689 unigenes from the library of self-rooting JCs and DCs. Among 54689 genes, 1716 genes were identified as differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs via comparative transcript profiling. Functional analysis showed that the genes related to the mass of categories were differentially enriched between the two clones. Several genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone metabolism and reactive oxygen species scavenging were up-regulated in self-rooting JCs, suggesting that the self-rooting JCs provide sufficient molecular basis for the increased rubber yielding, especially in the aspects of improved latex metabolisms and latex flow. Some genes encoding epigenetic modification enzymes were also differentially expressed between self-rooting JCs and DCs. Epigenetic modifications may lead to gene differential expression between self-rooting JCs and DCs. These data will provide new cues to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the improved rubber yield of H. brasiliensis self-rooting clones.

  20. Photosynthetic behaviour during the leaf ontogeny of rubber tree clones[Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.], in Lavras, MG Comportamento fotossintético durante a ontogenia foliar de clones de seringueira, [Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex. Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.], em Lavras, MG

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    Aurélio Antas Miguel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This work proposed to investigate changes in the photosynthetic behavior during the leaf ontogeny of the during the leaf development. Up to the 32nd day of leaf age (stage B2, the net photosynthesis was negative due to the inefficiency of the photosynthetic system, and this fact was justified by the following factors: low chlorophyll content, less stomatal conductance, high rubber tree clones PB 235, RRIM 600 and GT 1, in Lavras, MG. The experiment was performed in 2004, between May and July, under field conditions, at the Universidade Federal de Lavras. During the leaf ontogeny, the following characteristics were evaluated: chlorophyll content, gaseous exchanges and chlorophyll fluorescence. The clones presented similar profiles of alterations in the physiological characteristics internal CO2 levels and low chlorophyll fluorescence. From the 37th day of leaf age, net photosynthesis became positive and gradually higher, stimulated by the increases in the chlorophyll contents, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, carboxylation efficiency, stomatal conductance, transpiration and water use efficiency. Among the clones, photosynthetic behavior was similar, reaching maximum performance on the 57th day of leaf age (stage D, when clone RRIM 600 showed the highest net photosynthesis, differing from the clones PB 235 and GT 1.Este trabalho, propôs-se a investigar mudanças no comportamento fotossintético durante a ontogenia foliar dos clones de seringueira PB 235, RRIM 600 e GT 1, em Lavras, MG. O experimento foi realizado no período de maio a julho de 2004, em condições de campo, na Universidade Federal de Lavras. Durante a ontogenia foliar avaliaram-se as seguintes características: os teores de clorofilas, as trocas gasosas e a fluorescência da clorofila. Os clones apresentaram perfis semelhantes de alterações nas características fisiológicas avaliadas durante o desenvolvimento foliar. Até o 32º dia de idade foliar (estádio B2, a

  1. Desempenho de clones de seringueira da série IAC 300 selecionados para a região noroeste do Estado de São Paulo Performance of Hevea clones from IAC 300 series selected in the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o desempenho de 19 novos clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. exAdr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.], resultantes de hibridações conduzidas no Instituto Agronômico e avaliados em experimento de pequena escala, tendo o clone RRIM 600 como testemunha. O experimento em campo obedeceu ao delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Com relação à produção de borracha seca, o clone IAC 40 apresentou a maior média (62,22 g/árvore/sangria nos três anos de avaliação, seguido pelo IAC 301 (57,67 g/árvore/sangria e pelo IAC 300 (50,61 g/árvore/sangria, com produções 154%, 138% e 123% superiores em relação ao RRIM 600 (41,04 g/árvore/sangria. Todos os clones selecionados foram vigorosos, com perímetro do caule na abertura do painel variando de 37,81 cm (IAC 317 a 50,90 cm (IAC 315. A porcentagem de plantas aptas a sangria variou de 20,0% (IAC 317 a 100% (IAC 315. Todos os clones apresentaram baixas incidências de quebra pelo vento e de secamento do painel. Não foi detectada nenhuma doença foliar em caráter epidêmico. Dos clones estudados, 15 apresentaram alta resistência à antracnose do painel, e foram superiores ao RRIM 600; os outros cinco apresentaram resistência moderada semelhante ao RRIM 600.The present paper shows the performance of 19 rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell. Arg.] originated from Hevea breeding programme conducted at the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC and evaluated in a small scale trial in the northwestern of São Paulo State, Brazil. The old popular clone RRIM 600 of Malaysian origin was used as control. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Concerned to yielding the clone IAC 40 recorded highest yield (62.22 g/tree/tap over three years of tapping which was followed by IAC 301 (57.67 g/tree/tap and IAC 300 (50.61 g/tree/tap yielding 154%, 138% and 123% superior to the control clone and RRIM 600 whereas

  2. Evaluation of natural rubber from IAC series clones by solid state {sup 13}C NMR; Avaliacao da borracha natural de clones da serie IAC por {sup 13}C RMN no estado solido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria A.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Goncalves, Paulo S. [Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Centro de Cafe e Plantas Tropicais. Programa Seringueira]. E-mails: paulog@iac.sp.gov.br; mariaalice@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Forato, Lucimara A.; Colnago, Luiz A.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C. [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: colnago@cnpdia.embrapa.br; forato@cnpdia.embrapa.br; rogerio@cnpdia.embrapa.br; mattoso@cnpdia.embrapa.br; Job, Aldo E. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia

    2005-07-01

    Agronomic Institute (IAC) and EMBRAPA Agricultural Instrumentation (EMBRAPA/CNPDIA) have been studied Hevea species in order to increase the production of the natural rubber and to develop new clones more appropriated to Brazil's soil and climate. Structural characterization of natural rubber [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.) Muell. - Arg.] from new clones of the IAC series (IAC 300, 301, 302, 303, 35, 40, and 56) and from RRIM 600 clone has been studied by high-resolution solid-state {sup 13}C NMR and by single pulse technique. The results have shown that the application of solid-state {sup 13}C NMR using the single pulse technique is a powerful tool to study natural rubber. The spectra obtained through this technique confirmed that natural rubber from all clones studied are cis-1,4-polyisoprene (author) form.(author)

  3. Initial performance of clones of rubber, in Puerto Carreño, Vichada – Colombia.

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    Diego Fernando Vélez Sánchez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate performance in a large-scale clonal field of rubber clones (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex Adr. de Juss.] Muell.-Arg. IAN 710, IAN 873, FX 3864, RRIM 600, RRIM 703, PB 314, PB 312, PB 235, PR 255, PR 303 e IRCA 41 at 12 and 36 months of planting.  Clonal materials were established using a randomized complete block design with 4 replications of 100 trees per clone. It was evaluated the growth in height and diameter. Clones that showed better diameter growth at 12 and 36 months were FX 3864 (2.13cm and 3.5cm and IAN 710 (2.06cm and 3.63cm, those of smaller growth in diameter at 12 months were IAN 873 with 1.48 cm and PR255 with 1.47cm, while at 36 months was IAN 873 with 2.48cm. Respect to the total height IAN 710 (4.97m and 5.20m presented the best growth at 12 and 36 months, while PR 255 with 2.21m and PR 303 with 2.12cm the lowest growth in 12 months and  in 36 months IAN 873 slower growth with 2.82m.

  4. Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg clones from different geographical origins

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    Santiago Cadavid Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American and PB 254 (Asian. Young leaves and eight- to ten-week-old seed integument from both clones were used as explants in several experiments; they were initially cultured in MH medium (Carron, et ál., 1989, modified MH medium (Montoro, et ál., 1993, 2000 and modified MS medium (Carron, et at,. 1992, no positive response being obtained by days 25 or 50. However, other trials were carried out with the integument in modified MS medium (1962, 0.67 mg/L BAP and 0.66 mg/L 2-4 D being added as medium for initiating embryogenesis, the formation of white, friable calluses being observed by day 25 in the two selected clones. These calluses were sub-cultured in MS supplemented with 0.35 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L 2-4 D as callogenesis expression medium, embryogenic expression being observed in both clones by day 50. Equally friable white calluses were obtained from young leaves in the two clones in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L ANA but without IBA and kinetin by day 25. Calluses sub-cultured in the same medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA began to show increased friability after 50 days. culture. This work is a partial report of a macro-project for optimising a protocol for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis  multiplication by somatic embryogenesis.

  5. Performance of new Hevea clones from IAC 400 series Perfomance de novos clones de Hevea da série IAC 400

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    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hevea breeding program of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC has completed clonal evaluation on the following series: IAC 100, IAC 200 and IAC 300. The performance of 22 clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg., evolved at IAC, over a period of eleven years was evaluated in the Western Central part of the São Paulo State, Brazil. Among these 22 new clones, six were intraspecific hybrid clones (IAC 400, IAC 404, IAC 405, IAC 406, IAC 410, IAC 412 and the remaining are primary those resulted from selected ortets within half-sib progenies. An old popular clone RRIM 600, of Malaysian origin, was used as the control. The trial was laid out in a randomized block design with three replications. Yield performance over a period of four years, mean girth at the 11th year, girth increment before tapping and on tapping, thermal property of natural rubber produced, bark thickness, number of latex vessel rows in seven year virgin bark, percentage incidence of tapping panel dryness, wind damage and diseases like leaf and panel anthracnose have been observed. Sixty one percent of the clones were superior in relation to the control for yield. The clone IAC 400 recorded the highest yield (97.40 g tree-1 tap-1 over four years of tapping, followed by IAC 411 (78.87 tree-1 tap-1, whereas the control clone RRIM 600 recorded 50.86 g tree-1 tap-1. All selected clones were vigorous in growth. Girth increment of these clones was average to above average. Except for IAC 423, other clones had thick virgin bark at opening ranging from 4.84 mm for IAC 401 to 6.38 mm for IAC 416. The natural rubbers from IAC clones have shown good thermal stability up to 300ºC and no differences in the thermal behavior among rubber from clones of the IAC series and the clone RRIM 600 were found in inert atmosphere.O programa de melhoramento de Hevea do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC completou a avaliação dos clones da série IAC 100, IAC 200 e IAC

  6. Análisis de la variación genética en clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis de Asia, Suramérica y Centroamérica usando marcadores RAPD Analysis of genetic variation in clones of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis from Asían, South and Central American origin using RAPDs markers

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    Lobo Arias Mario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis representa a especies potenciales para reforestación y programas de explo­tación comercial en ciudades tropicales como Colombia. La variabilidad genética de una colección de caucho que se encuentra en la Estación experimental de Paraguaycito en Buenavista, departamento del Quindio en Colom­bia fue estudiada para aumentar el conocimiento en cuanto a las especies y realizar un mejor uso de los árboles disponibles. Un total de 25 clones, seis de Sur América, 17 de Asia y 2 de América Central fueron seleccionados y analizados usando RAPDs. Las muestras aisladas de ADN de los árboles fueron con 102 primers, 23 de los cuales mostraron polimorfismos. Aunque se encontró un alto grado de similaridad, los análisis grupales de datos llevaron a diferenciar los árboles de de caucho en términos de su origen geográfico. Por lo tanto, las relaciones genéticas que se encontraron entre los clones podrían ayudar a seleccionar parentales para uso en programas de reproducción y diseño de estrategias para la conservación de los clones que tengan características agronómicas deseables. Palabras clave: identificación de cultivos, distancia genética, diversidad genética, Hevea brasiliensis, marcadores RAPD.Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis represents a potential species for reforestation and commercial exploitation programmes in tropical countries such as Colombia. The genetic variability of a rubber collection kept at the Paraguaicito Experimental Station in Buenavista in the Quindio department of Colombia was studied to improve knowledge regarding this species and make better use of the trees available. A total of 25 clones, six from South-America, 17 from Asia and two from Central-América were selected and analysed using RAPDs. DNA samples isolated from the trees were screened with 102 primers, 23 of which revealed polymorphism. Although a high degree of similarity was found, clustering analysis of the data led

  7. PIGMENTOS FOTOSSINTÉTICOS EM CLONES DE SERINGUEIRA SOB ATAQUE DE OÍDIO

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    Gisely Cristina Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. Of Juss. Muell. Arg.] can be affected by the occurrence of the fungus Oidium heveae, which causes one of the most important diseases of rubber trees, powdery mildew. This work meet changes in photosynthetic pigments, an indicator of oxidative stress, in seedlings of three Hevea brasiliensis clones, RRIM 600, GT1 and PR255, under infection in Oidium heveae. The experiment was conducted in an open environment under natural photoperiod conditions and at the beginning of the trial, the rubber plants that would be inoculated were sprayed with an aqueous suspension containing Oidium heveae at a concentration of 16 x 104 conidia mL-1. On the day of inoculation and after 48, 96, 144 and 192 h leaf samples were collected for the determination of photosynthetic pigments. Degradation in photosynthetic pigments in the period of infection was observed in rubber tree clones studied; thus, there is oxidative stress in clones of rubber trees. No promising genetic material for genetic improvement work stress tolerance by Oidium heveae was identified.

  8. Early growth of promising rubber tree clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. in an agroforestry system in Caquetá, Colombia

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    Armando Sterling Cuéllar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the early growth of three rubber tree clones (Hevea brasiliensis (FX 4098, FDR 5788, and control IAN 873 in four planting systems with cupuasu (Theobroma grandiflorum and banana trees (Musa AAB at two localities in Caquetá (Colombian Amazonia. A completely randomized block design with three replications and split-plot arrangement, analyzed with a general linear mixed model, was used at each locality. Total height (AT, trunk circumference (CT, canopy area (AC and leaf area index (IAF were evaluated one and two years after establishment of rubber trees. Trunk circumference was the variable most correlated with different growth indices (r ≥ 0.94. Four growth indices were strongly influenced by temporal and clonal variation and by planting system (p < 0.01. The only significant differences between the two localities were for AC (p < 0.05. System x clone interaction was significant for IAF (p < 0.01. After two years, the highest growth indices were observed in rubber tree clone FX 4098 (AT = 4.43 m; CT = 13.00 cm, AC = 4.62 m2; LAI = 1.37, and in two of the three agroforestry systems (AT ≥ 4.08 m, CT ≥ 11.43 cm, AC ≥ 4.01 m2; IAF ≥ 1.54 compared with the control system (monoculture.

  9. Cloning and characterization of HbMT2a, a metallothionein gene from Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg differently responds to abiotic stress and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Yue Yi; Yang, Shu Guang; Tian, Wei Min, E-mail: wmtian9110@126.com

    2015-05-22

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are of low molecular mass, cysteine-rich proteins. They play an important role in the detoxification of heavy metals and homeostasis of intracellular metal ions, and protecting against intracellular oxidative damages. In this study a full-length cDNA of type 2 plant metallothioneins, HbMT2a, was isolated from 25 mM Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) stressed leaves of Hevea brasiliensis by RACE. The HbMT2a was 372 bp in length and had a 237 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding for a protein of 78 amino acid residues with molecular mass of 7.772 kDa. The expression of HbMT2a in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone RY7-33-97 was up-regulated by Me-JA, ABA, PEG, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}, but down-regulated by water. The role of HbMT2a protein in protecting against metal toxicity was demonstrated in vitro. PET-28a-HbMT2-beared Escherichia coli. Differential expression of HbMT2a upon treatment with 10 °C was observed in the detached leaves of rubber tree clone 93-114 which is cold-resistant and Reken501 which is cold-sensitive. The expression patterns of HbMT2a in the two rubber tree clones may be ascribed to a change in the level of endogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Cloning an HbMT2a gene from rubber tree. • Analyzing expression patterns of HbMT2a upon abiotic stress and heavy metal stress. • Finding different expression patterns of HbMT2a among two Hevea germplasm. • The expressed protein of HbMT2a enhances copper and zinc tolerance in Escherichia coli.

  10. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series; Caracterizacao da borracha natural dos novos clones de seringueira da serie PB 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: maria-alice.martins@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentacao/LNNA, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Votuporanga, SP (Brazil). Centro de Seringueira e Sistemas Agroflorestais; Goncalves, Paulo de S. [Instituto Agronomico (IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  11. Expressão fenotípica de clones de seringueira na região noroeste do estado de São Paulo Phenotypic expression of rubber tree clones in the northwestern region of São Paulo state

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    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de novos clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg.] com alto potencial de produção aliado a outros caracteres secundários desejáveis é de fundamental importância para uma heveicultura sustentável e competitiva. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a expressão fenotípica de caracteres superiores em 17 clones de seringueira, tendo em vista a escolha dos mais promissores. Em campo, o experimento obedeceu ao delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e parcelas lineares de seis plantas. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que o clone IAC 40 foi o mais produtivo, com média de 2.316 kg de borracha seca ha-1 ano-1 no período de seis anos, seguido pelo clone IAC 300 (1.921 kg, enquanto o clone-testemunha, RRIM 600 produziu 1.493 kg. Observou-se na maior parte dos clones, crescimento superior em relação à testemunha. A porcentagem de plantas aptas à sangria variou de 40% (IAC 329 a 100% (IAC 327. Exceto nos clones IAC 56, IAC 331 e IAN 3156 com 7,21 mm, 7,18 mm e 6,40 mm respectivamente, em todos os demais notou-se espessura de casca virgem inferior ao clone RRIM 600 (6,38 mm. Com exceção do IAN 3156, os demais clones tiveram baixa incidência de secamento de painel. O bom desempenho de todos os clones IAC e amazônicos (IAN, Fx e RO permite que sejam recomendados para plantio em pequena escala, ao tempo em que serão avaliados para futura recomendação em grande escala envolvendo diferentes ambientes do Estado de São Paulo.The development of new clones with high production combined to other desirable secondary characters is fundamental for a sustainable and competitive rubber tree cultivation. The objective of this study was to evaluate, during a period of 13 years, the phenotypic expression of superior characters of 17 clones of rubber tree grown in the plateau region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were arranged in a randomized block design with three

  12. Characterization of the natural rubber from new rubber tree clones of PB 300 series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Maycon J.; Spinelli, Rafaela O.; Moreno, Rogerio M.B.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martins, Maria Alice; Scaloppi Junior, Erivaldo J.

    2015-01-01

    The natural rubber (NR) is present in more than 2500 species of plants, being the Hevea brasiliensis the most commercially exploited. It is a raw material of great importance to the Brazilian economy, but the country faces a production's deficit, having to import about 60% of its consumption. In this work , the latex obtained from rubber tree of new clones of PB series 300 (PB 311, PB 312, PB 314 , PB 326, PB 346 and PB 350 ) and RRIM 600 (control) were characterized by dry rubber content (DRC), total solids content, distribution of particle size, Zeta potential, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared in the spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and technological properties. The DRC values ranged from 33% to 40%, and total solids of 38% to 44%. All of the clones showed average particle diameter between 180.0 to 192.1 nm, excluding clones PB 326 and PB 346 with 150.0 nm and 157.9 nm, respectively. The NMR spectra and FTIR showed that the structure of the natural rubber from all clones studied is cis -1,4- polyisoprene. Natural rubber from the new clones showed good thermal stability up to 285 °C and glass transition temperature of -64 °C. (author)

  13. Genotype-environment interaction and phenotypic stability for girth growth and rubber yield of Hevea clones in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The best-yielding, best vigour and most stable Hevea clones are identified by growing clones in different environments. However, research on the stability in Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Adr. ex Juss. Muell.-Arg. is scarce. The objectives of this work were to assess genotype-environment interaction and determine stable genotypes. Stability analysis were performed on results for girth growth and rubber yield of seven clones from five comparative trials conducted over 10 years (girth growth and four years (rubber yield in São Paulo State, Brazil. Stability was estimated using the Eberhart and Russell (1966 method. Year by location and location variability were the dominant sources of interactions. The stability analysis identified GT 1 and IAN 873 as the most stable clones for girth growth and rubber yield respectively since their regression coefficients were almost the unity (b = 1 and they had one of the lowest deviations from regressions (S2di. Their coefficient of determination (R² was as high as 89.5% and 89.8% confirming their stability. In contrast, clones such as PB 235, PR 261, and RRIM 701 for girth growth and clones such as GT 1 for rubber yield with regression coefficients greater than one were regarded as sensitive to environment changes.

  14. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloning describes the processes used to create an exact genetic replica of another cell, tissue or organism. ... named Dolly. There are three different types of cloning: Gene cloning, which creates copies of genes or ...

  15. Respostas fisiológicas ao déficit hídrico em duas cultivares enxertadas de seringueira ("RRIM 600" e "GT 1" crescidas em campo Physiological responses to water deficit in two young field-grown scion rubber ('RRIM 600' and 'GT 1'

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    Elenice de Cássia Conforto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sob condições de campo, as plantas estão sujeitas a períodos de déficit hídrico no solo e na atmosfera, durante todo o seu ciclo de vida. Foi avaliado o desempenho de duas cultivares enxertadas de seringueira ("RRIM 600" e "GT 1", mantidas na UNESP-IBILCE, em São José do Rio Preto, SP, com e sem suplementação hídrica, a partir da idade de quatro meses. A resistência máxima ao período seco ininterrupto, considerada quando cessou a realização de fotossíntese com ganho líquido, foi de 17 e 20 dias, respectivamente. Trinta e três dias após a suspensão do estresse, a recuperação das trocas gasosas foi bastante similar para as duas cultivares, e apenas a concentração de dióxido de carbono intercelular retornou a valores equivalentes aos dos controles. Apenas o incremento relativo da área foliar, para "GT 1", e da altura, para "RRIM 600", não diferiram aos do grupo controle (P=0,05. As curvas de resposta à luz indicaram, para ambos os clones, decréscimos para a irradiância de compensação e a taxa fotossintética (P=0,05. Embora parcial, a melhor recuperação após o estresse foi verificada para "GT 1".During their life cycle, plants growing under field condition are subject to periods of air and soil water deficits. In this study was evaluated the performance of two scion cultivar of rubber tree ('RRIM 600' and 'GT 1' growing in São José do Rio Preto, SP, with and without water supplementation since the age of 4 months. The maximum resistance to the uninterrupted dry period, considered when net photosynthesis was ceased, was 17 and 20 days, respectively. Thirty-three days later the water stress was ceased, the gas exchange recovery for both cultivars were quite similar, but just the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration returned to similar values of the control group. Only the relative increment of leaf area to 'GT 1', and plant height of 'RRIM 600' was similar to the control group (P=0.05. The light curve

  16. Color Spectrum Properties of Pure and Non-Pure LATEX in Discriminating Rubber Clone Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Aishah Khairuzzaman; Hadzli Hashim; Nina Korlina Madzhi; Noor Ezan Abdullah; Faridatul Aima Ismail; Ahmad Faiz Sampian; Azhana Fatnin Che Will

    2015-01-01

    A study of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex in discriminating rubber clone series has been presented in this paper. There were five types of clones from the same series being used as samples in this study named RRIM2002, RRIM2007, RRIM2008, RRIM2014, and RRIM3001. The main objective is to identify the significant color spectrum (RGB) from pure and non-pure latex that can discriminate rubber clone series. The significant information of color spectrum properties for pure and non-pure latex is determined by using spectrometer and Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS). Visible light spectrum (VIS) is used as a radiation light of the spectrometer to emit light to the surface of the latex sample. By using SPSS software, the further numerical analysis of color spectrum properties is being conducted. As the conclusion, blue color spectrum for non-pure is able to discriminate for all rubber clone series whereas only certain color spectrum can differentiate several clone series for pure latex. (author)

  17. Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg clones from different geographical origins Estudios preliminares en la estandarización de un protocolo para la obtención de callos embriogénicos en dos clones de caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. de diferentes orígenes geográficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina S. Marisol

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American and PB 254 (Asian. Young leaves and eight- to ten-week-old seed integument from both clones were used as explants in several experiments; they were initially cultured in MH medium (Carron, et ál., 1989, modified MH medium (Montoro, et ál., 1993, 2000 and modified MS medium (Carron, et at,. 1992, no positive response being obtained by days 25 or 50. However, other trials were carried out with the integument in modified MS medium (1962, 0.67 mg/L BAP and 0.66 mg/L 2-4 D being added as medium for initiating embryogenesis, the formation of white, friable calluses being observed by day 25 in the two selected clones. These calluses were sub-cultured in MS supplemented with 0.35 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L 2-4 D as callogenesis expression medium, embryogenic expression being observed in both clones by day 50. Equally friable white calluses were obtained from young leaves in the two clones in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L ANA but without IBA and kinetin by day 25. Calluses sub-cultured in the same medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA began to show increased friability after 50 days. culture. This work is a partial report of a macro-project for optimising a protocol for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis  multiplication by somatic embryogenesis.Se investigó la influencia de los reguladores de crecimiento para la obtención de callos friables en caucho (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. sin llegar a obtenerse regeneración de plántulas. En todos los ensayos realizados en este estudio, se utilizaron dos clones de diferentes orígenes geográficos: el FX 3864 (suramericano y el PB 254 (asiático. Para los diferentes tratamientos se utilizaron como explantes hojas j

  18. Producción y propiedades químicas del caucho en clones de Hevea según los estados fenológicos

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    Juliano Quarteroli Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el desempeño productivo y el contenido de macronutrientes del caucho extraído de cuatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis, en diferentes sistemas de sangría y estados fenológicos de las plantas. El experimento fue realizado en los años agrícolas de 2010 y 2011, en diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, en parcelas subdivididas, con cuatro repeticiones. Los tratamientos principales - clones GT 1, PB 235, IAN 873 e RRIM 600 - fueron ubicados en las parcelas, y los subtratamientos, que fueron los sistemas de sangría ½S d/2, ½S d/4 ET 2,5% y ½S d/7 ET 2,5%, se ubicaron en las subparcelas. Las variables analizadas fueron producción y contenido de macronutrientes. Las muestras fueron obtenidas en los estados fenológicos de brotación foliar, hojas maduras y senescencia foliar. La producción y los contenidos de macronutrientes del caucho son más influenciados por la práctica de sangría que por el material genético en los estados fenológicos más restrictivos para el follaje de caucho.

  19. CARACTERIZAÇÃO COLORIMÉTRICA DAS MADEIRAS DE MUIRAPIRANGA (Brosimum rubescensTaub. E DE SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis, clone Tjir 16 Müll Arg. VISANDO À UTILIZAÇÃO EM INTERIORES

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    Cristine da Silva Autran

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Ainda que recente, a técnica para a determinação da cor da madeira por meio da colorimetria quantitativa mostra-se precisa e eficaz. O sistema CIELAB 1976, que determina os parâmetros colorimétricos L*, a*, b*, C e h*, mostrou-se eficiente para a determinação da cor das madeiras de muirapiranga (Brosimum rubescens e de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis, clone Tjir 16. A madeira de muirapiranga é de cor vermelha-amarronzada (L* de 42,39, tendo o pigmento vermelho (a* de 22,02 como determinante, apesar de o pigmento amarelo (b* ter influência significativa na definição de sua cor. A madeira de seringueira apresenta cor amarela (L* de 77,55, fortemente influenciada pelo pigmento amarelo (b* de 19,61. Considerando o parâmetro cor, ambas as madeiras apresentam potenciais para serem utilizadas em interiores.

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana e sinérgica das frações das folhas de Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. frente a clones multirresistentes de Staphylococcus aureus Antimicrobial and synergic activity of fractions from the leaves of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl. against Staphylococcus aureus multiresistant clones

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    A.M. Saraiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana e sinérgica de 4 frações das folhas de Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl (F1', F2', F1" e F2" frente às cepas Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes. Os métodos utilizados foram poços de difusão em ágar, concentração mínima inibitória (CMI - diluição em ágar, e bioautografia. Nos resultados bioautográficos observou-se três halos de inibição relacionados, no mínimo, à quatro constituintes ativos; sendo dois deles isolados das folhas (galato de metila e ácido gálico. A F2" (200∝g/mL apresentou halos de inibição de 16 e 19mm frente as cepas de S. aureus multirresistente e Klebsiella pneumoniae, e CMI 100∝g/mL, respectivamente. Quanto as análises das associações das frações F1" ou F2" (25 e 50∝g/mL com a tetraciclina e oxacilina, mostraram ações aditiva e sinérgica para a F2" (50∝g/mL, embora não suficiente para que a CMI atingisse valores inferiores a 2 e 4∝g/mL, necessário para serem classificadas como cepas sensíveis a oxacilina e tetraciclina, respectivamente. "Assim, conclui-se que a F2" das folhas de S. brasiliensis apresentou potencial antimicrobiano frente às cepas de S. aureus MRSA multirresistentes e que as associações das frações com os antibióticos testados não apresentaram benefícios não justificando o uso concomitante.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and synergic activity of 4 leaf fractions of Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl (F1', F2', F1" and F2" against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. The used methods were agar well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC - agar dilution, and bioautography. The bioautographic results showed three inhibition zones that corresponded to at least four active compounds, two of which (methyl gallate and gallic acid have already been isolated from leaves. The F2" (200∝g/mL fraction showed inhibition zones of 16 mm and 19 mm against S

  1. Draft genome sequence of the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

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    Rahman Ahmad Yamin Abdul

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR. NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876. Results Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified. Conclusions The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Melo Teixeira, Marcus; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Bezerra, Leila Maria Lopes; Felipe, Maria Sueli; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics of sporotrichosis occurred in Brazil due to zoonotic transmission, and cats were pointed out as key susceptible hosts. In order to understand the eco-epidemiology of feline sporotrichosis and its role in human sporotrichosis a survey was conducted among symptomatic cats. Prevalence and phylogenetic relationships among feline Sporothrix species were investigated by reconstructing their phylogenetic origin using the calmodulin (CAL) and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α) loci in strains originated from Rio de Janeiro (RJ, n = 15), Rio Grande do Sul (RS, n = 10), Paraná (PR, n = 4), São Paulo (SP, n =3) and Minas Gerais (MG, n = 1). Our results showed that S. brasiliensis is highly prevalent among cats (96.9%) with sporotrichosis, while S. schenckii was identified only once. The genotype of Sporothrix from cats was found identical to S. brasiliensis from human sources confirming that the disease is transmitted by cats. Sporothrix brasiliensis presented low genetic diversity compared to its sister taxon S. schenckii. No evidence of recombination in S. brasiliensis was found by split decomposition or PHI-test analysis, suggesting that S. brasiliensis is a clonal species. Strains recovered in states SP, MG and PR share the genotype of the RJ outbreak, different from the RS clone. The occurrence of separate genotypes among strains indicated that the Brazilian S. brasiliensis epidemic has at least two distinct sources. We suggest that cats represent a major host and the main source of cat and human S. brasiliensis infections in Brazil.

  3. Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Sucrose and inorganic phosphorus exhibited best tendencies to predict yield potential of rubber tree clones at old age. .... molybdate d'ammonium (Mo), puis le complexe est lui-même réduit par du sulfate .... Pi : inorganic phosphorus ; Prod : Production ; Sac : Sucrose ; Exs: Dry rubber R-SH : thiols. "0" : without stimulation ;.

  4. Mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis

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    Kar P

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available One case of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis presented with a swelling on the right ankle with multiple sinuses discharging sero-sanguinous material without any granules. He was treated successfully with dapsone followed by surgical excision of the swelling and skin graft.

  5. Primary Nocardia brasiliensis of the eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Hudak, Donald T; Anderson, Heidi K; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2004-09-01

    To report a rare case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid. Observational case report. The clinical presentation, workup, and treatment of a case of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis originating in the eyelid are presented. The patient presented with a preseptal cellulitis from an abrasion of the eyelid that progressed to submandibular lymph node suppuration. Culture was performed, and a diagnosis of lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis was made. Nocardia brasiliensis may cause a lymphocutaneous infection of the face and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of preseptal cellulitis.

  6. Determination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, E; Spiering, M; Chow, KS; Mulder, PPMFA; Subroto, T; Beintema, JJ

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis and belongs to the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases. This paper describes the cloning of hevamine DNA and cDNA sequences. Hevamine contains a signal peptide at the N-terminus and a putative vacuolar targeting sequence at the C-terminus

  7. Propagation and molecular characterisation of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antwi-wiredu, A.

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at the propagation and molecular characterisation of some introduced clones of Hevea brasiliensis in Ghana. Propagation of H. brasiliensis by stem cuttings and in vitro techniques was used to study alternative procedures for mass production of rubber planting materials. Brown and green stem cuttings of Clone I and Clone II were soaked for 6 hours in 0.0-22.5g/L NAA followed by propagation in a nursery bag filled with nutrient-rich soil. Only the brown stem cuttings of H. brasiliensis survived. The % survival, length of shoots, number of roots as well as length of roots of Clone II was significantly (P<0.05) higher than Clone I. Stem cuttings treated with 15.0g/L NAA significantly (P<0.05) developed higher shoots (83.33%), number of roots (6.167), length of shoots (15.38cm) and length of roots (6.00cm) than the remaining treatments. There was significant (P<0.05) effects of NAA and Clone II in sprouting and rooting growth of the brown stem cuttings. The addition of 5.0mg/L kinetin in the MS culture medium significantly (P<0.05) enhanced higher shoot development (84.00%), number of shoots (3.60) and leaves (23.40) of the shoot-tip explants compared to other treatments. In nodal explants cultured on a medium without kinetin developed higher shoots (94.00%), height of shoot (4.80cm), number of leaves (19.20), number of shoots (6.00) and number of roots (7.00) than those with kinetin treatments. However, 7.5mg/L kinetin of the nodal culture also performed significantly after the controls. A dendrogram derived from the UPGMA distinguished the rubber clones from four areas of Ghana into two clusters. The five SSR markers showed high degree of relatedness among the rubber clones which suggested high genetic similarity (IRCA317-5, IRCA41-2, IRCA331-6, IRCA230-4, IRCA109-3, B8-23) and some degree of diversity/variation (K2-18,IRCA840-7, PB217-8, PB217-10, IRCA317-16) among the clones. Thus, clones of interest could be selected for future breeding and

  8. Genetic Determinism of Sensitivity to Corynespora cassiicola Exudates in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Minh; Clément-Demange, André; Déon, Marine; Garcia, Dominique; Le Guen, Vincent; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Soumahoro, Mouman; Masson, Aurélien; Label, Philippe; Le, Mau Tuy; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    An indirect phenotyping method was developed in order to estimate the susceptibility of rubber tree clonal varieties to Corynespora Leaf Fall (CLF) disease caused by the ascomycete Corynespora cassiicola. This method consists in quantifying the impact of fungal exudates on detached leaves by measuring the induced electrolyte leakage (EL%). The tested exudates were either crude culture filtrates from diverse C. cassiicola isolates or the purified cassiicolin (Cas1), a small secreted effector protein produced by the aggressive isolate CCP. The test was found to be quantitative, with the EL% response proportional to toxin concentration. For eight clones tested with two aggressive isolates, the EL% response to the filtrates positively correlated to the response induced by conidial inoculation. The toxicity test applied to 18 clones using 13 toxinic treatments evidenced an important variability among clones and treatments, with a significant additional clone x treatment interaction effect. A genetic linkage map was built using 306 microsatellite markers, from the F1 population of the PB260 x RRIM600 family. Phenotyping of the population for sensitivity to the purified Cas1 effector and to culture filtrates from seven C. cassiicola isolates revealed a polygenic determinism, with six QTL detected on five chromosomes and percentages of explained phenotypic variance varying from 11 to 17%. Two common QTL were identified for the CCP filtrate and the purified cassiicolin, suggesting that Cas1 may be the main effector of CCP filtrate toxicity. The CCP filtrate clearly contrasted with all other filtrates. The toxicity test based on Electrolyte Leakage Measurement offers the opportunity to assess the sensitivity of rubber genotypes to C. cassiicola exudates or purified effectors for genetic investigations and early selection, without risk of spreading the fungus in plantations. However, the power of this test for predicting field susceptibility of rubber clones to CLF will have

  9. Assessment of the genetic diversity of natural rubber tree clones of the SINCHI Institutes clone collection, using of morphological descriptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Mendez, Isaac; Quintero Barrera, Lorena; Aristizabal, Fabio A; Rodriguez Acuna, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity of natural rubber clones of the in SINCHI Institute’s clone collection was assessed. Clones of Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. De Juss.) Muell.Arg., Hevea spp. (H. brasiliensis x H. benthamiana), and three more species of Hevea genus are a part of the collection. Seventy-two materials were characterized with twenty-eight morphological descriptors. They were later used to generate a similarity matrix through the analysis of multi-categorical variables, and to obtain clusters based on the matrix. A low variability between clones of H. brasiliensis and H. spp. was observed, presumably because of the direct descendants of most of the materials from crosses of parental PB 80, PB 5/51, PB 49 and Tjir, exception made of clone GU 1410. Clustering between some materials product of exclusive cross of PB series, a group between clones descendants of parental clones PB 86, and clustering between descendants of parental clones PB 5/51, were observed. Clones from other species of Hevea differ from this big group.

  10. CDNA library from the Latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Chotigeat

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains 30-50% (w/w of natural rubber (cis-1,4-polyisoprene, the important rawmaterial for many rubber industries. We have constructed a cDNA library from the latex of H. brasiliensis to investigate theexpressed genes and molecular events in the latex. We analyzed 412 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. More than 90% of theEST clones showed homology to previously described sequences in public databases. Functional classification of the ESTsshowed that the largest category were proteins of unknown function (30.1%, 11.4% of ESTs encoded for rubber synthesisrelatedproteins (RS and 8.5% for defense or stress related proteins (DS. Those with no significant homology to knownsequences (NSH accounted for 8.7%, primary metabolism (PM and gene expression and RNA metabolism were 7.8% and6.6%, respectively. Other categories included, protein synthesis-related proteins (6.6%, chromatin and DNA metabolism(CDM 3.9%, energy metabolism (EM 3.4%, cellular transport (CT 3.2%, cell structure (CS 3.2%, signal transduction (ST2.2%, secondary metabolism (SM 1.7%, protein fate (PF 2.2%, and reproductive proteins (RP 0.7%.

  11. Expression of Nocardia brasiliensis superoxide dismutase during the early infection of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revol, Agnès; Espinoza-Ruiz, Marisol; Medina-Villanueva, Igor; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2006-12-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is the main agent of actinomycetoma in Mexico, but little is known about its virulence and molecular pathogenic pathways. These facultative intracellular bacteria are able to survive and divide within the host phagocytic cells, in part by neutralizing the reactive oxygen intermediates. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) participates in the intracellular survival of several bacterial species and, in particular, constitutes one of Nocardia asteroides virulence factors. To clarify SOD participation in the N. brasiliensis early infective process, we report its isolation and the consequent comparison of its transcript level. A 630 bp polymerase chain reaction fragment that included most of the coding sequence of N. brasiliensis sodA was cloned. A competitive assay was developed, allowing comparison of bacterial sod expression in exponential culture and 1 h after infecting peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice. At that time, there were viable bacteria in the macrophages. The intracellular bacteria presented a clear decrease in their sod transcript amount, although their 16S rRNA (used as an internal control) and hsp levels were maintained or slightly increased, respectively. These results indicate that sodA transcription is not maintained within the SOS bacterial response induced by phagosomal conditions. Further kinetics will be necessary to precisely define sod transcriptional regulation during N. brasiliensis intra-macrophage growth.

  12. Assembly and Analysis of Differential Transcriptome Responses of Hevea brasiliensis on Interaction with Microcyclus ulei.

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    Uriel Alonso Hurtado Páez

    Full Text Available Natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis is a tropical tree used commercially for the production of latex, from which 40,000 products are generated. The fungus Microcyclus ulei infects this tree, causing South American leaf blight (SALB disease. This disease causes developmental delays and significant crop losses, thereby decreasing the production of latex. Currently several groups are working on obtaining clones of rubber tree with durable resistance to SALB through the use of extensive molecular biology techniques. In this study, we used a secondary clone that was resistant to M. ulei isolate GCL012. This clone, FX 3864 was obtained by crossing between clones PB 86 and B 38 (H. brasiliensis x H. brasiliensis. RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze the differential expression of the FX 3864 clone transcriptome at 0 and 48 h post infection (hpi with the M. ulei isolate GCL012. A total of 158,134,220 reads were assembled using the de novo assembly strategy to generate 90,775 contigs with an N50 of 1672. Using a reference-based assembly, 76,278 contigs were generated with an N50 of 1324. We identified 86 differentially expressed genes associated with the defense response of FX 3864 to GCL012. Seven putative genes members of the AP2/ERF ethylene (ET-dependent superfamily were found to be down-regulated. An increase in salicylic acid (SA was associated with the up-regulation of three genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, as well as in the down-regulation of the putative gene CPR5. The defense response of FX 3864 against the GCL012 isolate was associated with the antagonistic SA, ET and jasmonic acid (JA pathways. These responses are characteristic of plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens.

  13. Lymphocutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Scoulica, Efstathia; Alpantaki, Kalliopi; Dialynas, Michael; Tselentis, Yannis

    2003-09-01

    Nocardia species are Gram-positive bacteria responsible for systemic or cutaneous infections in humans. Nocardia brasiliensis is the most common infective agent in the cutaneous form of nocardiosis. We describe a case of a previously healthy man, who presented with lymphocutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection, and was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The identification of the isolate was confirmed by nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene.

  14. Identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by gold nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaciara F. S.; Castilho, Maiara L.; Cardoso, Maria A. G.; Carreiro, Andrea P.; Martin, Airton A.; Raniero, Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (P. brasiliensis) is a thermal dimorphic fungus and causal agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. Epidemiological data shows that it is mainly concentrated in Central and South America countries, with most registered cases in Colombia, Brazil, and Venezuela. The histopathological similarity with others fungal infection makes the diagnosis of P. brasiliensis more complicated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find a positive and negative test for P. brasiliensis using gold nanoprobes as a new tool for P. brasiliensis detection. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of gold chloride with sodium citrate. The results of this procedure is a wine-red solution with a maximum absorption in the range of ~520-530nm. A specific P. brasiliensis sequence of oligonucleotide was bonded to the nanoparticles, which maintained the wine-red color. The color changes from red to blue for negative diagnostic and is unchanged for a positive test. The H-bond interaction of DNA with the complementary DNA keeps strands together and forms double helical structure, maintaining the colloid stability. However, for non-complimentary DNA sequence the nanoprobes merge into a cluster, changing the light absorption.

  15. What is Cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate Home Cloning What is Cloning What is Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. ... clones made through modern cloning technologies. How Is Cloning Done? Many people first heard of cloning when ...

  16. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  17. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, V; Rai, S; Kharbanda, P; Kabra, S; Gur, R; Sharma, V K

    2006-01-01

    The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  18. Biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets of three rubber tree clones Ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae em folíolos de três clones de seringueira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo José Fazzio Feres

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker (Acari, Tenuipalpidae on leaflets from three rubber tree clones. The biological cycle of Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, a potential rubber tree pest mite, was studied by the observation of individuals reared on leaflets of the clones GT 1, PB 235 and RRIM 600, in controlled environmental conditions. Three daily observations were done of 60 eggs on leaflets from each clone in order to verify the development of immature stages and the female oviposition. The fertility life table was constructed based in the collected data. Mites reared on PB 235 had faster rate of development, requiring less time in days, to double its population in number (TD, and had the highest values for egg production, female longevity, net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m and finite rate of increase (λ. Lower reproductive values and the longest time necessary to reach adult stage were recorded for the mites on GT 1. In all studied clones, the deutonymphal phase had the highest viability, while the larval phase had the lowest, highlighted by the survivorship curve that indicated high mortality during this life stage. The clone PB 235 allowed the most suitable conditions for the development of T. heveae, followed by RRIM 600, while GT 1 was the less suitable substratum to rear this mite species.O ciclo de vida de Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945 (Tenuipalpidae, um potencial ácaro-praga da seringueira, foi estudado a partir de indivíduos criados sobre folíolos destacados dos clones GT 1, PB 235 e RRIM 600, em condições controladas. Três observações diárias foram realizadas, acompanhando-se o desenvolvimento de 60 ovos e de sua prole em folíolos de cada um dos clones, para verificação da oviposição das fêmeas e dos estágios de desenvolvimento. A partir dos dados obtidos, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Os ácaros criados sobre folíolos de PB 235 apresentaram r

  19. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. Cement-bonded particleboard of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki Okino

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totalizando oito tratamentos, sendo em cada um destes, com quatro repetições, avaliadas as propriedades mecânicas e físicas das chapas, segundo a norma ASTM D 1037 - 96a. De forma geral, os melhores resultados de propriedades físicas e mecânicas foram obtidos nas chapas com partículas do clone AVROS 1301. No teste de hidratação do cimento, a madeira de seringueira in natura foi classificada como de "inibição extrema", porém com a adição de CaCl2 o foi como de "baixa inibição". Essa madeira se mostrou tecnicamente viável à produção de chapas de cimento-madeira, independentemente do clone.Cement-bonded particleboards of rubberwood were manufactured with four clones of Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (rubberwood: IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 and AVROS 1301. Boards of 450 x 450 x 13 mm were manufactured in a ratio of 1:4:1 (wood/cement/water, weight basis, with 1.4 g/cm³ density and 4% calcium chloride dihydrated - CaCl2.2H2O as accelerator. The particles of four clones were tested in treated and untreated conditions, totaling eight treatments. In each treatment with four replicates, the physical and mechanical properties were evaluated according to ASTM D 1037 - 96a standard. Overall, the best mechanical and physical results were obtained with the cement-bonded particleboard made with particles from clone AVROS 1301. Rubberwood has shown to be "highly inhibitory" in the hydration test, however when CaCl2 was added the inhibition index decreased and

  20. Parasitism of Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae) eggs, in rubber tree plantation (Hevea brasiliensis Mueell. Arg.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rodrigo S.; Freitas, Sergio de

    2008-01-01

    The rubber tree lace bug, Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor occurs in high populations in rubber tree plantations and it is a limiting factor in rubber production due to the loss of photosynthetic tissue. The control of the pest has been made mainly with chemical products, which cause environmental contamination. The alternative would be the use of biological control agents, however, information about L. heveae natural enemies are scarce. The parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) parasitize eggs of the rubber tree lace bug. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of E. tingitiphagus in plantations of several rubber tree clones, located in Itiquira town, Mato Grosso State. The plant leaflets of the clones RRIM 600, PR 255, GT 1, PB 235 and PB 217 were collected weekly from October 2005 to February 2006. Parasitism was recorded during the entire study period. The parasitism rate of L. heveae eggs in the different clones ranged from 16.8 to 20.6%. (author)

  1. Chapa aglomerada de cimento-madeira de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.

    OpenAIRE

    Okino,Esmeralda Yoshico Arakaki; Souza,Mário Rabelo de; Santana,Marcos Antonio Eduardo; Sousa,Maria Eliete de; Teixeira,Divino Eterno

    2004-01-01

    Chapas de partículas de cimento-madeira foram confeccionadas com a madeira de quatro clones de Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. (seringueira): IAN 717, IAN 873, GT 711 e AVROS 1301. Confeccionaram-se as chapas na proporção de 1:4:1 (madeira:cimento:água) por peso e nas dimensões de 450 x 450 x 13 mm e densidade nominal de 1,4 g/cm³, com a adição de 4% de cloreto de cálcio di-hidratado (CaCl2.2H2O) como acelerador. Foram testadas partículas fervidas e não-fervidas dos quatro clones, totaliza...

  2. Micetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis: reporte de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Guevara R

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un paciente peruano, agricultor, con una infección cutánea de origen traumático causada por Nocardia brasiliensis, que evolucionó hacia la amputación del miembro inferior afectado. El diagnóstico se realizó por examen directo y cultivo del espécimen.

  3. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alison M; Sluzevich, Jason C; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis . Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  4. A fatal pulmonary infection by Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadhwa V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported case is of primary pulmonary nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia brasiliensis , in a immunocompromised patient, which ended fatally despite appropriate treatment. The partially acid fast filamentous bacterium was predominant on direct examination of the sputum. It was cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and by paraffin baiting technique. The bacterium was resistant to cotrimoxazole, the drug of choice for nocardiosis.

  5. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Alison M.; Sluzevich, Jason C.; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing p...

  6. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions.

  7. Nocardia brasiliensis-associated femorotibial osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Samuel; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael; Cicero, Antonio; López-Jácome, Esaú; Colin, Claudia; Hernández, Melissa

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of femorotibial osteomyelitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardia spp are a rare cause of bone infections, and the majority of such cases are associated with the spine. This type of osteomyelitis is uncommon, and in the immunocompetent host, is more often related to a chronic evolution following direct inoculation of the microorganism. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Inactivation of rifampin by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazawa, K; Mikami, Y; Maeda, A; Akao, M; Morisaki, N; Iwasaki, S

    1993-01-01

    Rifampin was glycosylated by a pathogenic species of Nocardia, i.e., Nocardia brasiliensis. The structures of two glycosylated compounds (RIP-1 and RIP-2) isolated from the culture broth of the bacterium were determined to be 3-formyl-23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifamycin SV and 23-(O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl])rifampin, respectively. Both compounds lacked antimicrobial activity against other gram-positive bacteria as well as the Nocardia species.

  9. Parasitism of Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae) eggs, in rubber tree plantation (Hevea brasiliensis Mueell. Arg.); Parasitismo de Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) em ovos de Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), em plantios de seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Mueell. Arg.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rodrigo S.; Freitas, Sergio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade]. E-mail: santos_rss@hotmail.com; serfre@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-09-15

    The rubber tree lace bug, Leptopharsa heveae Drake and Poor occurs in high populations in rubber tree plantations and it is a limiting factor in rubber production due to the loss of photosynthetic tissue. The control of the pest has been made mainly with chemical products, which cause environmental contamination. The alternative would be the use of biological control agents, however, information about L. heveae natural enemies are scarce. The parasitoid Erythmelus tingitiphagus (Soares) parasitize eggs of the rubber tree lace bug. The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of E. tingitiphagus in plantations of several rubber tree clones, located in Itiquira town, Mato Grosso State. The plant leaflets of the clones RRIM 600, PR 255, GT 1, PB 235 and PB 217 were collected weekly from October 2005 to February 2006. Parasitism was recorded during the entire study period. The parasitism rate of L. heveae eggs in the different clones ranged from 16.8 to 20.6%. (author)

  10. Genetic Diversity of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis Isolated in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hwan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant pathogenic bacterial genus Pectobacteirum consists of heterogeneous strains. The P. carotovorum species is a complex strain showing divergent characteristics, and a new subspecies named P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis has been identified recently. In this paper, we re-identified the P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates from those classified under the subspecies carotovorum and newly isolated P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis strains. All isolates were able to produce plant cell-wall degrading enzymes such as pectate lyase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and protease. We used genetic and biochemical methods to examine the diversity of P. carotovorum subsp. brasiliensis isolates, and found genetic diversity within the brasiliensis subsp. isolates in Korea. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis based on the recA gene revealed a unique pattern for the brasiliensis subspecies. The Korean brasiliensis subsp. isolates were divided into four clades based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. However, correlations between clades and isolated hosts or year could not be found, suggesting that diverse brasiliensis subsp. isolates existed.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Perez-Maya, Antonio Ali; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2012-05-01

    In Mexico, actinomycetoma is mainly caused by Nocardia brasiliensis, which is a soil inhabitant actinobacterium. Here, we report for the first time the draft genome of a strain isolated from a human case that has largely been found in in vitro and experimental models of actinomycetoma, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1.

  12. Academic Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikula, John P.; Sikula, Andrew F.

    1980-01-01

    The authors define "cloning" as an integral feature of all educational systems, citing teaching practices which reward students for closely reproducing the teacher's thoughts and/or behaviors and administrative systems which tend to promote like-minded subordinates. They insist, however, that "academic cloning" is not a totally…

  13. ADUBAÇÃO NPK E PRODUÇÃO DE BORRACHA SECA PELA SERINGUEIRA (Hevea brasiliensis NPK FERTILIZATION AND DRY RUBBER PRODUCTION BY Hevea brasiliensis TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Murbach

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Instalou-se um experimento, na região de Garça, SP, em um solo Latossolo Vermelho escuro, A moderado, textura arenosa, com o objetivo de se avaliar a influência da adubação NPK sobre a produtividade de borracha seca da seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis clone "PB 235", com 13 anos de idade. O experimento foi instalado em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial fracionário (1/443, totalizando 16 tratamentos e 4 repetições, onde se utilizaram 4 níveis de N (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1, 4 de K2O (0, 80, 160, 320 kg ha-1 e 4 de P2O5 (0, 40, 80, 160 kg ha-1. A produção foi avaliada entre os mêses de outubro de 1995 a junho de 1996. Conclui-se que a adubação potássica aumentou a produtividade de borracha seca, o mesmo não ocorrendo com a adubação nitrogenada e fosfatada.An experiment was carried out to study the effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizations on dry rubber yield of Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg., clone PB 235 growing on a Dark Red-Yellow Latosol, in Garça-SP, Brazil. The experiment consisted of a (1/443 fractional factorial of randomized block design, with 16 treatments and 4 replicates, utilizing 4 levels of N (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1, 4 of P2O5 (0, 40, 80 and 160 kg ha-1 and 4 of K (0, 80, 160 and 320 kg ha-1. The rubber yield was evaluated monthly from October 1995 to June 1996. Results showed that potassium fertilization increased dry rubber yield, which was not affected by nitrogen and phosphate fertilizations.

  14. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva; Young, Maria Claudia Marx

    2005-01-01

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-β-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-β-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  15. Why Clone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than expected. Could we really clone dinosaurs? In theory? Yes. You would need: A well-preserved source ... it raises a number of ethical, legal, and social challenges that need to be considered. The vast ...

  16. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  17. Nocardia brasiliensis in Italy: a nine-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Andrini, Laura; Bruno, Gianfranco; Sarti, Mario; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Boiron, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the past, no case reports concerning N. brasiliensis infections were published from Italy. We now report 4 cases observed during 1998-2006 in 4 Italian patients, 1 immunosuppressed and 3 immunocompetent.

  18. Mammalia, Rodentia, Sigmodontinae, Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819: Distribution extention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formoso, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the southernmost record for the marsh rats Holochilus brasiliensis 20 km S of Pedro Luro on Hwy3, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina (39°41’31.13”S, 62°40’23.5”W extending the range of the species ca. 110 km S.This represents the first contemporaneous record of H. brasiliensis in Patagonia, and also the only species of sigmodontinerodent with amphibious habits reported in Patagonia.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, T; Díaz, A M; Zlotnik, H

    1990-01-01

    Nocardia asteroides and Nocardia brasiliensis whole-cell extracts were used as antigens to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Six stable hybrid cell lines secreting anti-Nocardia spp. MAbs were obtained. These were characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot (immunoblot), and immunofluorescence assay. Although all the MAbs exhibited different degrees of cross-reactivity with N. asteroides and N. brasiliensis antigens as well as with culture-filtrate antigens from Myco...

  20. Involvement of Ethylene in the Latex Metabolism and Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Herlinawati, Eva; Rio, Maryannick; Leclercq, Julie; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Gohet, Eric; Sanier, Christine; Oktavia, Fetrina; Pirrello, Julien; Kuswanhadi; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Ethephon, an ethylene releaser, is used to stimulate latex production in Hevea brasiliensis. Ethylene induces many functions in latex cells including the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The accumulation of ROS is responsible for the coagulation of rubber particles in latex cells, resulting in the partial or complete stoppage of latex flow. This study set out to assess biochemical and histological changes as well as changes in gene expression in latex and phloem tissues from trees grown under various harvesting systems. The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) susceptibility of Hevea clones was found to be related to some biochemical parameters, such as low sucrose and high inorganic phosphorus contents. A high tapping frequency and ethephon stimulation induced early TPD occurrence in a high latex metabolism clone and late occurrence in a low latex metabolism clone. TPD-affected trees had smaller number of laticifer vessels compared to healthy trees, suggesting a modification of cambial activity. The differential transcript abundance was observed for twenty-seven candidate genes related to TPD occurrence in latex and phloem tissues for ROS-scavenging, ethylene biosynthesis and signalling genes. The predicted function for some Ethylene Response Factor genes suggested that these candidate genes should play an important role in regulating susceptibility to TPD. PMID:26247941

  1. Aspectos operacionais do controle do Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diotaiuti Liléia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O controle de triatomíneos é dificultado pela capacidade de reinvasão das casas por exemplares silvestres. Entre agosto/96 e dezembro/97 realizou-se, no Ceará, um estudo a respeito da reinfestação das casas após borrifação. Das 277 Unidades Domiciliares ­ UD ­ pesquisadas, 40,8% estavam infestadas (21,7% dos intradomicílios e 35,4% dos peridomicílios. Dos 433 triatomíneos capturados, 207 eram Triatoma brasiliensis (48,8% no intradomicílio, média de 1,8 insetos/casa e 226 Triatoma pseudomaculata (97,3% no peridomicílio. Ocorre um único ciclo anual do T. brasiliensis, e dois ciclos anuais do T. pseudomaculata. Quatro meses após a borrifação, 9,7% das unidades domiciliares permaneciam positivas, principalmente no peridomicílio; 10,3% das UD foram positivas em todas as avaliações. O teste de suscetibilidade biológica à deltametrina revelou a persistência do inseticida no intradomicílio até nove meses após a borrifação. A prevalência global da infecção humana foi de 5,7%, tendo sido positivas cinco crianças menores de dez anos. Considerando-se a alta pressão de recolonização a partir de exemplares silvestres, propõe-se, como metodologia de controle, um sistema misto da avaliação tradicional e a vigilância epidemiológica.

  2. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis; Triterpenoides pentaciclicos das folhas de Terminalia brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2005-11-15

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3{beta},6{beta}-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3{beta}-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, {beta}-amyrenone, {alpha}-amyrenone, lupeol, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and {alpha}-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  3. Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae); Saponinas triterpenicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamerski, Lidilhone; Carbomezi, Carlos Alberto; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2005-07-15

    The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-{beta}-D quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds. (author)

  4. Saponinas triterpênicas de Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae Triterpenoid saponins from Tocoyena brasiliensis Mart. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidilhone Hamerski

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The present communication reports the isolation and identification of four triterpenoid saponins from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Tocoyena brasiliensis: 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl quinovic acid, 3-O-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl cincholic acid, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl quinovic acid and the 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester derivative of quinovic acid as binary mixtures, respectively. From the ethanol extract a flavonoid identified as ramnazin-3-O-rutinoside was obtained. The structures of these compounds were assigned by data analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectrometry and comparison with data recorded in the literature for these compounds.

  5. Morfoanatomia vegetativa de Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw / Vegetative morphology and anatomy of Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Firmino de Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia brasiliensis (Willd Haw. é uma Cactaceae nativa do Brasil utilizada como ornamental, que apresenta caracteres morfológicos semelhantes a outras espécies do gênero, o que dificulta sua identificação. Dessa forma, foi realizado uma descrição morfoanatômica de O. brasiliensis com o objetivo de ampliar o conhecimento sobre a organização estrutural do gênero e fornecer subsídios para a identificação da espécie, bem como observar caracteres importantes na adaptação a ambientes xerófilos. Foram feitas secções transversais e paradérmicas da raiz, caule principal e cladódios com espécimes coletados na zona rural da cidade de Serra Branca (PB, localizada na região do cariri ocidental. O. brasiliensis apresenta raiz ramificada e caule clorofilado formando um eixo principal de onde partem inúmeros cladódios delgados. Observamse pelos e epiderme unisseriada irregular na raiz, que possui córtex formado por parênquima, seguido de endoderme multisseriada e periciclo. No cilindro central da raiz, ocorrem tecidos vasculares formando cinco pólos seguidos de medula. O caule e o cladódio apresentam epiderme com paredes sinuosas, em que encontram-se estômatos paralelocíticos que apresentam câmara subestomática; e na camada subsequente, hipoderme com grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. O córtex é formado por parênquimas clorofiliano e aquífero, onde observam-se feixes vasculares, com raios de floema voltados para o lado externo, seguido de xilema helicoidal. Porém, nos cladódios, o parênquima clorofiliano é bem mais denso e os feixes vasculares são dispostos irregularmente, enquanto no caule estão distribuídos no sentido radial. O. brasiliensis apresenta várias características importantes na sua identificação, bem como adaptações estruturais a ambientes xerófilos

  6. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  7. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  8. Actinomycetoma Due To Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Pankajalakshmi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia Brasiliensis in Tamilians are reported. Both presented with multiple sinuses discharging serosanguinous material without any granules. In the first case, the lesion was located in the thigh and leg and the specific diagnosis was made by histopathology and isolation of N. brasiliensis. In the other, in addition to thigh and leg, the foot was also affected and the causative agent was isolated in pure culture. The geographic distribution of the organism and its incidence and prevalence are discussed.

  9. In Vitro Activities of New Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Choi, Sung H.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro sensitivities of 30 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis to DA-7867, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and BMS-284756 (garenoxacin) were determined using the broth microdilution method. All N. brasiliensis strains were sensitive to these antimicrobials. The most active drug in vitro was DA-7867, with a MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.03 μg/ml and a MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited of 0.06 μg/ml. PMID:14742215

  10. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis.

  11. Inmunoglobulinas en pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis Immunoglobulins in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma

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    L. J. Méndez-Tovar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que algunos autores han reportado un aumento en la cantidad de algunas inmunoglobulinas en los pacientes con actinomicetoma, en este trabajo nos propusimos determinar diferencias en la producción de IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 e IgM en 25 pacientes con actinomicetoma por Nocardia brasiliensis y 25 personas sanas provenientes de una zona endémica de micetoma. La determinación de inmunoglobulinas se realizó por medio de la técnica de ELISA. Para sensibilizar las placas se emplearon 6 antígenos de N. brasiliensis: un antígeno crudo denominado NB y cinco derivados del mismo (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 y NB10 separados por punto isoeléctrico. Los niveles de las cuatro subclases de IgG fueron mayores en los sueros de los pacientes que en el suero de los controles, con una diferencia máxima en IgG3 e IgG4; para esta última subclase, los seis antígenos fueron altamente reactivos. La concentración de IgM fue igual en ambos grupos. Es probable que como ocurre en otras infecciones, en la fisiopatogenia del actinomicetoma influya no sólo el aumento o deficiencia de una clase de inmunoglobulina, sino la relación que existe entre las diferentes subclases.Considering that some authors have reported an increasing of some immunoglobulins in actinomycetoma patients, in this study we propose to determine differential production of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 and IgGM in 25 patients with actinomycetoma and 25 healthy individuals from a mycetoma endemic area. Immunoglobulins were determined by ELISA technique. To sensibilize the plates, six Nocardia brasiliensis antigens were used: a crude antigen denominated NB and five derivatives (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8 and NB10 obtained by their isoelectric point. Results showed that all IgG subclasses were higher in the patients’ sera than in control sera, with a maximal difference to IgG3 and IgG4. To the latter subclass, six antigens were highly reactives. IgM levels were similar in both groups. As it occurs in other

  12. Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-03-16

    Mar 16, 2016 ... developing tolerance to drought stress in Hevea brasiliensis. In the present study, a partial .... First strand cDNA was synthesized from total RNA by reverse transcription with oligo (dT) ..... Genetic engineering of the glyoxalase ...

  13. Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings under varied stress conditions. MVP Siraj, A Thulaseedharan, Anu Augustine. Abstract. Drought is one of the most important stress factors which adversely affect plants' growth and productivity. Global climate change may make this situation more serious in the ...

  14. An overview of the potentials of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... brasiliensis) engineering for the production of valuable proteins ... years gestation period and economic life of about 25 years. ... reactors) involve processes well entrenched in industry. ... plant (low cost of maintenance, simple clonal propaga- .... such as industrial enzymes or proteins used in personal.

  15. Gamma irradiation induced ultrastructural changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Marina C.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Goes, Alfredo Miranda

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans with high prevalence in Latin America. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. Ionizing radiation can be used to attenuate pathogens for vaccine development and we have successfully attenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation. The aim of the present study was to examine at ultrastructural level the effects of gamma irradiation attenuation on the morphology of P. brasiliensis yeast cells. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated with a dose of 6.5 kGy. The irradiated cells were examined by scanning and also transmission electron microscopy. When examined two hours after the irradiation by scanning electron microscopy the 6.5 kGy irradiated cells presented deep folds or were collapsed. These lesions were reversible since examined 48 hours after irradiation the yeast have recovered the usual morphology. The transmission electron microscopy showed that the irradiated cells plasma membrane and cell wall were intact and preserved. Remarkable changes were found in the nucleus that was frequently in a very electrodense form. A extensive DNA fragmentation was produced by the gamma irradiation treatment. (author)

  16. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  17. The Clone Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  18. Phenotypic stability and genetic gains in six-year girth growth of Hevea clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] budgrafts of seven clones were evaluated on five contrasting sites in the plateau region of the São Paulo State, Brazil. The objective of this work was to study the phenotypic stability for girth growth. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications and seven treatments. Analysis of variance of girth at six-year plant growth indicated a highly significant clone x site interaction. Only linear sites and clone x site components of clone x year interaction were significant, indicating that the performance of clones over sites for this trait could be predicted. The clones GT 1 and PB 235 showed the greatest stability in relation to girth growth, with foreseen responses to change, introduced in the sites. The clones PB 235 and IAN 873 showed significative difference in relation to regression coefficient, representing clones with specific adaptability on favorable and unfavorable sites respectively. The clone GT 1 became the most promissory one in the study of stability and adaptability even showing low girth growth. Expected genetic gains from planting sites, along with estimates of clonal variance and repeatability of clonal means are generally greatest or close to the greatest when selection is done at the same site.

  19. Cloning of observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G A

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analysed. (letter to the editor)

  20. Cloning of observables

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Alessandro; Galbiati, Matteo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of cloning for classes of observables and classify cloning machines for qubit systems according to the number of parameters needed to describe the class under investigation. A no-cloning theorem for observables is derived and the connections between cloning of observables and joint measurements of noncommuting observables are elucidated. Relationships with cloning of states and non-demolition measurements are also analyzed.

  1. Brasilien Vervain (Verbena brasiliensis Vell. in Colkheti flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sh. Mikeladze

    2017-06-01

    In this work the current condition, invasive indicators, bio morphological characteristics and growth-development properties of new invasive species, South American origin Verbena Brasiliensis spread in Colkheti flora (Western Georgia's seaside part is given. In Colkheti it is mainly spread in the seaside, along the roads, along the railroad, on the ruderal places, near channels and rivers, deserted building sites, landfills, non-agricultural lands. Verbena Brasiliensis is a perennial, erect, branched, 50–210 cm height. The plant starts flowering in April–May and lasts till November. It is distinguished with high reproductivity. Fully grown plant in the second year develops about 90000–100000 seeds. Consequently the area of plant spread is gradually growing.

  2. Heavy metals phytoremediation potential of Hevea brasiliensis in Bentong, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Muhammad Jefri Mohd; Latif, Mohd Talip; Yusoff, Siti Fairus Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Biomonitoring uses living organisms to assess environmental quality and being preferred over conventional methods that use fully or semi-automatic gauges for its lower cost and practicality. Recently, higher plants are widely used for biomonitoring purposes by means of their species identification simplicity, larger availability of biological substantial, and easy to sample. In this study, samples of Hevea brasiliensis (i.e leaves, barks, and latex as well as surrounding soils) from outskirts of Pelangai, Bentong were tested for heavy metals by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Enrichment factor of soils indicated that some metals (B, Ca, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, As and Na) were anthropogenic which most likely originated from traffic emissions. In addition, leaves trapped the most heavy metals compared to barks and latex. The accumulation of pollutants in those samples has identified biomonitoring abilities of Hevea brasiliensis.

  3. Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier (Hymenoptera, Apidae infected with Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Plischuk

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Heavy infections caused by a microsporidium were detected in midgut epithelium cells of two adult workers of the bumble bee Bombus brasiliensis Lepeletier collected near Puerto Iguazú, Misiones province, Argentina. Microsporidium rRNA (16S small subunit was amplified by 218MITOC primers and produced amplicons indicating presence of Nosema ceranae Fries et al., a virulent pathogen of more than 20 bee species, possibly involved in Apis mellifera L. Colony Collapse Disorder. Campaigns in search of B. brasiliensis between 2008 and 2015 have revealed a possible narrower range in the southeastern area of its known distribution. Effects of N. ceranae infections could be modulating their populations and should not be overlooked. In addition, the wide host range of this microsporidium makes it a potential threat to several endemic bees such as stingless (Meliponini and orchid bees (Euglossini.

  4. ESTUDIO PRELIMINAR DE LA FITOHEMOAGLUTININA DE LA CANAVALIA BRASILIENSIS

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    Gerardo Perez Gómez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se establecio la presencia de una lectina en semillas de Canavalia brasiliensis. Esta proteina que es una globulina, presenta una alta actividad aglutinante respecto a eritrocitos equinos y caninos; esta aglutinacion es inhibida considerable mente por melezitosa (7mg/ml y en menor grado por sacarosa, fructosa y glucosa. Los ensayos realizados con eritrocitos humanos, bovinos o de carnero, demuestra que la lectina es capaz de aglutinarlos solo despues de una tripsinizacion.

  5. Matrix metalloproteinases with gelatinolytic activity induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Ribeiro, Luciana Cristina; Molina, Raphael Fagnani Sanchez; Albe, Bernardo Paulo; Cunha, Cláudia da Silva; Burger, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modulate extracellular matrix turnover, inflammation and immunity. We studied MMP-9 and MMP-2 in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis. At 15 and 120 days after infection (DAI) with virulent Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, MMP-9 was positive by immunohistochemistry in multinucleated giant cells, in mononuclear cells with macrophage and lymphocyte morphologies and also in fungal cells in the lesions of susceptible and resistant mice. Using gelatin zymography, pro- and active MMP-9 and active MMP-2 were detected in all infected mice, but not in controls. Gelatinolytic activity was not observed in P. brasiliensis extracts. Semiquantitative analysis of gelatinolytic activities revealed weak or absent MMP-2 and strong MMP-9 activity in both mouse strains at 15 DAI, declining at 120 DAI. Avirulent P. brasiliensis-infected mice had residual lesions with MMP-9-positive pseudoxantomatous macrophages, but no gelatinase activity at 120 DAI. Our findings demonstrate the induction of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, suggesting a possible influence in the pattern of granulomas and in fungal dissemination. PMID:19765107

  6. Immunomodulatory effect of diethylcarbamazine in mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, M; Castro-Corona, M A; Segoviano-Ramírez, J C; Brattig, N W; Medina-De la Garza, C E

    2014-11-01

    We tested whether diethylcarbamazine (DEC) or ivermectin (IVM), both antiparasitic drugs with reported immunomodulatory properties, were able to affect the immune system to potentiate host defense mechanisms and protect against actinomycetoma in a mouse model. Male BALB/c mice of 10-12 weeks of age were injected with either Nocardia brasiliensis or saline solution. Recorded were the effects of a treatment by DEC (6 mg/kg per os daily for one week) or IVM (200 μg/kg subcutaneously on days 1 and 3) on (i) the development of mycetoma lesion, (ii) the expression of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) by phagocytes, (iii) the proliferation index of lymphocytes and (iv) antibody production of IgG and IgM. After an initial lesion in all mice, DEC inhibited a full development and progression of actinomycetoma resulting in a reduced lesion size (p brasiliensis antigens and concanavalin A in DEC-treated group was higher than in non-treated group at day 21 and 28 postinfection (p brasiliensis leading to retrogression of the mycetoma and increasing cellular immune responses. Our findings may indicate a potential use of DEC as a putative adjuvant in infectious disease or vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury bioaccumulation and elimination by Xenomelanires brasiliensis - radioactive tracers technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malagrino, Waldir; Mesquita, Carlos Henrique de; Sousa, Eduinetty Ceci P.M. de

    2002-01-01

    The present work has as main objective to emphasized the importance of using radioactive tracers as well as to establish a methodology for the utilization of 203 Hg in the bioaccumulation study of mercury by X enomelanires brasiliensis. The exposure time was 168 hours. The bioaccumulation of mercury from the water as well as the elimination of the metal previously absorbed were determined by measuring the activity of 203 Hg, which was added to the water in the beginning of the experiments. The technique chosen is suitable to study the behavior of the stable mercury since the radioisotope used is an isotope of the same element and therefore presents the same chemical properties. The results obtained show that the absorption and elimination of mercury by Xenomelanires brasiliensis is slow, 168 hours being necessary for the elimination of 38 % of the previously absorbed mercury. The results are of main concern if it is considered that the literature about bioaccumulation of mercury by the Brazilian ichthyofauna is scarce. Furthermore the species Xenomelanires brasiliensis is part of the food chain and the results can be used in the evaluation of the potential risk of the mercury bioaccumulation by fishes of higher trophic levels and by men who are the final link of the food chain. (author)

  8. Plasticidade anatômica das folhas de Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae Leaf anatomical plasticity of Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Filomena Justo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A anatomia foliar do gênero Xylopia ainda é pouco explorada. A espécie Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, vulgarmente conhecida como pindaíba, ocorre tanto em mata primária como em vegetação modificada num amplo espectro de condições ambientais. O presente estudo descreve algumas características anatômicas da folha de X. brasiliensis e avalia quantitativamente o limbo foliar em função das diferenças ambientais, sazonais e de estatura das plantas. Verificou-se que a espécie apresenta plasticidade anatômica.Leaf anatomy of Xylopia is still poorly explored. The species Xylopia brasiliensis Sprengel, commonly known as pindaíba occurs in primary forest and in modified vegetation in a wide range of environmental conditions. The present study describes some leaf anatomical characteristics of this species and quantitatively evaluates them in function of environmental, seasonal and plant height differences. This species has anatomical plasticity.

  9. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M A clones with fidelity F A and another set of M B clones with fidelity F B , the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N→M A +M B cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1→1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized

  10. Ecotopes, Natural Infection and Trophic Resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979. In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911, it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941, the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956, the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness

  11. Quantum cloning and signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, C.; Weihs, G.; Zeilinger, A.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the close connections between cloning of quantum states and superluminal signaling. We present an optimal universal cloning machine based on stimulated emission recently proposed by the authors. As an instructive example, we show how a scheme for superluminal communication based on this cloning machine fails. (Authors)

  12. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission.

  13. [Nocardia brasiliensis leg ulcer and nodular lymphangitis in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, M; Friedel, J; Siré, C; Semon, J

    2005-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a very rarely reported cause of chronic phagedenic ulcerations. We report the case of an elderly woman who developed such an infection after falling on her right leg on the road in the Bresse country (an essentially agricultural and bovine-cattle breading region) and developed a chronic phagedenic ulcer secondarily complicated by nodular lymphangitis of the thigh. A 75 year-old woman fell on her right leg on the side of the main road outside her hamlet in the Bresse country and secondarily developed a chronique phagedenic ulceration. We first considered her as suffering from pyoderma gangrenosum. A complete scanning only revealed an autoimmune thyroiditis and a rapidly healing gastric ulceration, and none of the treatments, either local or systemic, helped the skin condition to heal. After 3 weeks of application of a local corticoid ointment, the patient developed fever, general malaise, an exacerbation of her wound and an infiltration of the skin round her knee, together with nodular lymphangitic dissemination. A supplementary bacterial swab disclosed massive proliferation of a slow-growing Gram-positive bacillus, which proved to be Nocardia brasiliensis, together with a methicillino-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. The treatment with sulfamethoxazole-trimetoprim gave a rash after 12 hours and was changed to amoxicillin and clavulanic acid, which rapidly proved to be permanently effective. The revelation of this particular slow-growing bacteria is difficult and requires bacterial swabs. Nocardia brasiliensis is relatively rare in primary skin ulcerations and we discuss the reasons why an elderly women should find this bacteria on the road outside her hamlet in the French countryside. This particular infectious condition requires general scanning, to make sure that the primary skin condition does not extend to other organs. We review the therapeutical options for patients who exhibit allergic reactions to the classically effective

  14. Gas exchange in young Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Ex A. Juss. Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae plants in Antioquia (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar de Jesús Cordoba Gaona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the behavior of Hevea brasiliensis from a study of photosynthetic performance in the environmental conditions of the rubber regions in northeast and lower Cauca of the department of Antioquia (Colombia as a baseline for future studies of clonal performance between different environments. Photosynthetic parameters were recorded by an infrared gas analysis, and for each of the photosynthetic parameters was estimated the area under the curve (AUC from 7 Hevea genotypes (clones. The maximum value of photosynthetic rates was reached at 8 hours in San Roque (10.97 µmol [CO2] m-2s-1 and 9 hours in Caucasia (7.84 µmol [CO2] m-2s-1. The maximum transpiration rates was 3.55 mmol [H2O] m-2s-1, in San Roque, and 5.16 mmol [H2O] m-2s-1 in Caucasia, while the maximum stomatal conductance was 0.18 mol [H2O] m-2s-1 y 0.16 mol [H2O] m-2s-1 in San Roque, and Caucasia respectively. The Caucasia-based rubber plants had higher cumulative net assimilation rates 271,934 µmol [CO2] m-2day-1, being higher than San Roque 226,287 µmol [CO2] m-2day-1. The mean carbon accumulation was obtained in San Roque (697,638 µmol [CO2] µmol photon-1day1. Hevea brasiliensis showed greater environmental adaptation with respect to gas exchange and the use of light energy in San Roque.

  15. Exploring virulence and immunogenicity in the emerging pathogen Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2017-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic chronic infection of humans and animals classically acquired after traumatic inoculation with soil and plant material contaminated with Sporothrix spp. propagules. An alternative and successful route of transmission is bites and scratches from diseased cats, through which Sporothrix yeasts are inoculated into mammalian tissue. The development of a murine model of subcutaneous sporotrichosis mimicking the alternative route of transmission is essential to understanding disease pathogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. To explore the impact of horizontal transmission in animals (e.g., cat-cat) and zoonotic transmission on Sporothrix fitness, the left hind footpads of BALB/c mice were inoculated with 5×106 yeasts (n = 11 S. brasiliensis, n = 2 S. schenckii, or n = 1 S. globosa). Twenty days post-infection, our model reproduced both the pathophysiology and symptomology of sporotrichosis with suppurating subcutaneous nodules that progressed proximally along lymphatic channels. Across the main pathogenic members of the S. schenckii clade, S. brasiliensis was usually more virulent than S. schenckii and S. globosa. However, the virulence in S. brasiliensis was strain-dependent, and we demonstrated that highly virulent isolates disseminate from the left hind footpad to the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, heart, and brain of infected animals, inducing significant and chronic weight loss (losing up to 15% of their body weight). The weight loss correlated with host death between 2 and 16 weeks post-infection. Histopathological features included necrosis, suppurative inflammation, and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates. Immunoblot using specific antisera and homologous exoantigen investigated the humoral response. Antigenic profiles were isolate-specific, supporting the hypothesis that different Sporothrix species can elicit a heterogeneous humoral response over time, but cross reaction was observed

  16. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Delton Servulo; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2005-01-01

    Eleven oleanane, ursane and lupane-type triterpenes were isolated from the leaves of Terminalia brasiliensis Camb, daturadiol (3β,6β-dihydroxy-olean-12-ene), 3β-hydroxy-30-norlupan-20-one, lupenone, β-amyrenone, α-amyrenone, lupeol, β-amyrin, α-amyrin, betulin, erythrodiol and uvaol, in addition to squalene, sitosterol and α-tocopherol. The structures of these compounds were identified by 1 H and 13 C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data. (author)

  17. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L 35 S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C 57 Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- 35 S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  18. Diallel analysis of fruit set in Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. Omokhafe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The clonal and inter-clonal combining ability of fruit set in a Hevea brasiliensis four-parent diallel mating was evaluated using a randomized complete block experimental design with three replicates. Twelve main and reciprocal crosses were hand pollinated and percentage fruit set was recorded. The raw data were subjected to an arc-sine transformation for analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability. There was significant variation of each of fruit set for the various crosses, general combining ability and reciprocal effect. The breeding implications of these results are also discussed.

  19. Monitoramento das propriedades térmicas das borrachas naturais de novos clones: IAC 301 e IAC 303

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério M. B. Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A borracha natural (BN de três clones de seringueira [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. exAdr. de Juss. Muell.-Arg.] de um período de sete meses foi obtida por coagulação do látex com solução de ácido acético a 10% e seca a 65°C. As curvas TG-DTG foram utilizadas para monitorar as propriedades térmicas da BN. Os resultados indicaram pequenas variações entre clones e coletas, exceto no valor de Tf-T0, indicando que o clone IAC 301 sofre degradação mais rápida durante o processo termo degradação da BN seca. Não houve diferenças significativas nos valores de Tg entre clones e coletas.

  20. Taxonomic and Functional Microbial Signatures of the Endemic Marine Sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade-Silva, Amaro E.; Rua, Cintia; Silva, Genivaldo G. Z.; Dutilh, Bas E.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Edwards, Robert A.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Lobo-Hajdu, Gisele; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Berlinck, Roberto G. S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis (Porifera, Demospongiae, Haplosclerida) is a known source of secondary metabolites such as arenosclerins A-C. In the present study, we established the composition of the A. brasiliensis microbiome and the metabolic pathways associated with this community. We used 454 shotgun pyrosequencing to generate approximately 640,000 high-quality sponge-derived sequences (∼150 Mb). Clustering analysis including sponge, seawater and twenty-three other metagenomes derived from marine animal microbiomes shows that A. brasiliensis contains a specific microbiome. Fourteen bacterial phyla (including Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Cloroflexi) were consistently found in the A. brasiliensis metagenomes. The A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for Betaproteobacteria (e.g., Burkholderia) and Gammaproteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas and Alteromonas) compared with the surrounding planktonic microbial communities. Functional analysis based on Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) indicated that the A. brasiliensis microbiome is enriched for sequences associated with membrane transport and one-carbon metabolism. In addition, there was an overrepresentation of sequences associated with aerobic and anaerobic metabolism as well as the synthesis and degradation of secondary metabolites. This study represents the first analysis of sponge-associated microbial communities via shotgun pyrosequencing, a strategy commonly applied in similar analyses in other marine invertebrate hosts, such as corals and algae. We demonstrate that A. brasiliensis has a unique microbiome that is distinct from that of the surrounding planktonic microbes and from other marine organisms, indicating a species-specific microbiome. PMID:22768320

  1. Attenuation of yeast form of Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis by gamma irradiation; Atenuacao da forma leveduriforme do Paraccocidioides Brasiliensis por irradicao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demicheli, Marina Cortez

    2006-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America, and currently there is no effective vaccine. The aim of this work was to attenuate the yeast form of P. brasiliensis by gamma irradiation for further studies on vaccine research. P. brasiliensis (strain Pb-18) cultures were irradiated at doses between 0.5 and 8.0 kGy. After each dose the fungal cells were plated and after 10 days the colony forming units (CFU) counted. The viability of the irradiated cells was measured using the dyes Janus green and methylene blue, and protein synthesis by incorporation of L {sup 35}S methionine. The comparison between the antigenic profile of irradiated and control yeast was made by Western blot and the virulence evaluated by the inoculation in C{sub 57}Bl/J6 and Balb/c mice. Morphological changes in irradiated yeast were evaluated by electronic microscopy and DNA integrity by electrophoresis in agarose gel. At 6.5 kGy the yeast lost the reproductive capacity. The viability and the incorporation of L- {sup 35}S methionine were the same in control and up to 6.5 kGy irradiated cells, but 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast secreted 40% less proteins. The Western blot profile was clearly similar in control and 6.5 kGy irradiated yeast. No CFU could be recovered from the tissues of the mice infected with the radio attenuated yeast. At the dose of 6.5 kGy the DNA was degraded and this damage was not repaired. The transmission electronic microscopy showed significant alterations in the nucleus of the irradiated cells. The scanning electronic microscopy showed that two hours after the irradiation the cells were collapsed or presented deep folds in the surface, however these injury were reversible. We concluded that for P. brasiliensis yeast cells it was possible to find a dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability and virulence, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and the antigenic profile. (author)

  2. Immunoglobulins and C3 in the P. brasiliensis granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. V. Biagioni

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis induced in mice by the intravenous injection of yeast-forms of P. brasiliensis (Bt2 strain; 1 x 10(6 viable fungi/animal was used to evaluate sequentially 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20 weeks after inoculation: 1. The presence of immunoglobulins and C3 in the pulmonary granuloma-ta, by direct immunofluorescence; 2. The humoral (immunodiffusion test and the cellular (footpad sweeling test immune response; 3. The histopathology of lesions. The cell-immune response was positive since week 2, showing a transitory depression at week 16. Specific antibodies were first detected at week 4 and peaked at week 16. At histology, epithelioid granulomas with numerous fungi and polymorphonuclear agreggates were seen. The lungs showed progressive involvement up to week 16, with little decrease at week 20. From week 2 on, there were deposits of IgG and C3 around fungal walls within the granulomas and IgG stained cells among the mononuclear cell peripheral halo. Interstitital immunoglobulins and C3 deposits in the granulomas were not letected. IgG and C3 seen to play an early an important role in. the host defenses against P. brasiliensis by possibly cooperating in the killing of parasites and blocking the antigenic diffusion.

  3. Preparation of nanocellulose from Imperata brasiliensis grass using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Kelly Cristina Coelho de Carvalho; Voorwald, Herman Jacobus Cornelis; Cioffi, Maria Odila Hilário; Rezende, Mirabel Cerqueira; Arantes, Valdeir

    2018-07-15

    Cellulose nanoparticles (CNs) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of the cellulose pulp extracted from the Brazilian satintail (Imperata Brasiliensis) plant using a conventional and a total chlorine free method. Initially, a statistical design of experiment was carried out using Taguchi orthogonal array to study the hydrolysis parameters, and the main properties (crystallinity, thermal stability, morphology, and sizes) of the nanocellulose. X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out to characterize the physical-chemical properties of the CNs obtained. Cellulose nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 10 to 60 nm and length between 150 and 250 nm were successfully obtained at sulfuric acid concentration of 64% (m/m), temperature 35 °C, reaction time 75 min, and a 1:20 (g/mL) pulp-to-solution ratio. Under this condition, the Imperata Brasiliensis CNs showed good stability in suspension, crystallinity index of 65%, and a cellulose degradation temperature of about 117 °C. Considering that these properties are similar to those of nanocelluloses from other lignocellulosics feedstocks, Imperata grass seems also to be a suitable source for nanocellulose production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of thermostable β-xylosidase activities produced by Aspergillus brasiliensis and Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads; Lauritzen, Henrik Klitgaard; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Twenty Aspergillus strains were evaluated for production of extracellular cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities. Aspergillus brasiliensis, A. niger and A. japonicus produced the highest xylanase activities with the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains producing thermostable beta......-xylosidases. The beta-xylosidase activities of the A. brasiliensis and A. niger strains had similar temperature and pH optima at 75 degrees C and pH 5 and retained 62% and 99%, respectively, of these activities over 1 h at 60 degrees C. At 75 degrees C, these values were 38 and 44%, respectively. Whereas A. niger...

  5. Cutaneous Type of Nocardiosis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yi Su

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute soft tissue infection with Nocardia brasiliensis is an uncommon manifestation in the elderly. A case of cellulitis and an abscess on the foot due to N. brasiliensis in a 77-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is reported. N. brasiliensis was isolated from fluid from the bulla. Treatment with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole for 6 months led to complete resolution and no evidence of recurrence was noted. Nocardia infection must be considered in the differential diagnosis for elderly patients with soft tissue infection, especially in those with severe underlying diseases, and we suggest that trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole is an effective and safe treatment.

  6. Nocardia brasiliensis endophthalmitis in a patient with an exposed Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Bendel, Rick E

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis in an eye with an exposed, infected Ahmed glaucoma drainage implant (GDI). Retrospective case report. A patient with an exposed GDI experienced recurrent episodes of endophthalmitis despite repeated intravitreal injections of antibiotics and steroids. The tube was initially repositioned and finally removed. Whereas repeated cultures from the anterior chamber and vitreous were negative, cultures from the removed tube grew Nocardia brasiliensis. Despite oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and intravitreal amikacin the eye became phthisical and lost light perception. An exposed GDI may lead to endophthalmitis due to Nocardia brasiliensis and may require explantation to establish a diagnosis.

  7. In vitro activities of DA-7157 and DA-7218 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gonzalez, Eva; Rendon, Adrian; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Welsh, Oliverio; Velazquez-Moreno, Victor M; Choi, Sung Hak; Molina-Torres, Carmen

    2006-09-01

    The in vitro activities of DA-7157, a novel oxazolidinone, against clinical isolates of Nocardia brasiliensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were determined. Equal MIC(50)s and MIC(90)s (0.25 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively) were found for susceptible and multidrug-resistant isolates of M. tuberculosis. The N. brasiliensis isolates showed an MIC(90) of 1 microg/ml and an MIC(50) of 1 microg/ml. The DA-7157 prodrug, DA-7218, exhibited similar MICs for M. tuberculosis but fivefold-higher MICs for N. brasiliensis.

  8. Statement on Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as our understanding of this technology advances. Support Stem Cell Research (including Research Cloning) AAAS supports stem cell research, including the use of nuclear transplantation techniques (also ...

  9. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch

    2017-01-01

    their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal...

  10. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEVROSIMA STEVANOVIC

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy. Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  11. The effect of Agaricus brasiliensis extract supplementation on honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Stanimirovic, Zoran; Simeunovic, Predrag; Lakic, Nada; Radovic, Ivica; Sokovic, Marina; Griensven, Leo J L D VAN

    2018-01-01

    This study was done to discover any beneficial effect of a medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis extract on the honey bee. Firstly, a laboratory experiment was conducted on 640 bees reared in 32 single-use plastic rearing cups. A. brasiliensis extract proved safe in all doses tested (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/day) irrespective of feeding mode (sugar syrup or candy). Secondly, a three-year field experiment was conducted on 26 colonies treated with a single dose of A. brasiliensis extract (100 mg/kg/day) added to syrup. Each year the colonies were treated once in autumn and twice in spring. The treatments significantly increased colony strength parameters: brood rearing improvement and adult population growth were noticed more often than the increase in honey production and pollen reserves. These positive effects were mainly observed in April. In conclusion, A. brasiliensis extract is safe for the bees and helps maintaining strong colonies, especially in spring.

  12. Magnesium affects rubber biosynthesis and particle stability in Ficus elastica, Hevea brasiliensis and Parthenium argentatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural rubber biosynthesis occurs in laticifers of Ficus elastica and Hevea brasiliensis, and in parenchyma cells of Parthenium argentatum. Natural rubber is synthesized by rubber transferase using allylic pyrophosphates as initiators, isopentenyl pyrophosphate as monomeric substrate and magnesium ...

  13. Construction of a Nocardia brasiliensis fluorescent plasmid to study Actinomycetoma pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rocha-Pizaña, María R

    2011-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis, is a bacteria that lives as saprophyte in soil and causes a disease called actinomycetoma in both human and animals. Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular, facultative bacterium that replicates and survives within host macrophages. The mechanisms involved in the evasion of the microbicidal actions of macrophages remain unclear. The filamentous growth of N. brasiliensis is resistant to unicellular preparations, leading to inaccurate quantification of bacterial numbers by means of colony forming units (CFU). As successful survival studies with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing bacterial strains have been reported, we constructed a recombinant GFP-expressing strain of N. brasiliensis. The virulence of the modified strain is maintained because it induces mycetoma in BALB/c mice. This new strain can be used for bacterial survival assays using cytometry and to elucidate the pathogenicity mechanisms in Actinomycetoma infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rabadán, Josué S; Miranda-Ríos, Juan; Espín-Ocampo, Guadalupe; Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Maya-Pineda, Héctor Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Many bacterial non-coding RNAs are regulators of genes associated with virulence factors. The aim of this work was to identify non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) expressed during infection conditions and in free-living form ( in vitro ) in Nocardia brasiliensis . The N. brasiliensis transcriptome (predominately brasiliensis infection compared with the in vitro conditions. The results of this work suggest a possible role for these transcripts in the regulation of virulence genes in actinomycetoma pathogenesis.

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis induces an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors chronic infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Perez-Liñan, Amira R; Bocanegra-Ibarias, Paola; Perez-Rivera, Luz I; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-07-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is an intracellular microorganism and the most common etiologic agent of actinomycetoma in the Americas. Several intracellular pathogens induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment through increases in CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), thus downregulating other T-cell subpopulations and assuring survival in the host. In this study, we determined whether N. brasiliensis modulates T-lymphocyte responses and their related cytokine profiles in a murine experimental model. We also examined the relationship between N. brasiliensis immunomodulation and pathogenesis and bacterial survival. In early infection, Th17/Tc17 cells were increased at day 3 (P 1 log) was also observed (P brasiliensis modulates the immune system to induce an immunosuppressive microenvironment that benefits its survival during the chronic stage of infection.

  16. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Faveri Pitz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. Results The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. Conclusions The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  17. An optimized one-tube, semi-nested PCR assay for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Amanda de Faveri; Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Tavares, Eliandro Reis; Andrade, Fábio Goulart de; Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Venancio, Emerson José

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a one-tube, semi-nested-polymerase chain reaction (OTsn-PCR) assay for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We developed the OTsn-PCR assay for the detection of P. brasiliensis in clinical specimens and compared it with other PCR methods. The OTsn-PCR assay was positive for all clinical samples, and the detection limit was better or equivalent to the other nested or semi-nested PCR methods for P. brasiliensis detection. The OTsn-PCR assay described in this paper has a detection limit similar to other reactions for the molecular detection of P. brasiliensis, but this approach is faster and less prone to contamination than other conventional nested or semi-nested PCR assays.

  18. Cloning-free CRISPR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arbab, Mandana; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Geijsen, Niels; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    We present self-cloning CRISPR/Cas9 (scCRISPR), a technology that allows for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic mutation and site-specific knockin transgene creation within several hours by circumventing the need to clone a site-specific single-guide RNA (sgRNA) or knockin homology construct for each

  19. Cloning, killing, and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, J

    1999-01-01

    One potentially valuable use of cloning is to provide a source of tissues or organs for transplantation. The most important objection to this use of cloning is that a human clone would be the sort of entity that it would be seriously wrong to kill. I argue that entities of the sort that you and I essentially are do not begin to exist until around the seventh month of fetal gestation. Therefore to kill a clone prior to that would not be to kill someone like you or me but would be only to prevent one of us from existing. And even after one of us begins to exist, the objections to killing it remain comparatively weak until its psychological capacities reach a certain level of maturation. These claims support the permissibility of killing a clone during the early stages of its development in order to use its organs for transplantation. PMID:10226909

  20. Agaricus brasiliensis (sun mushroom) affects the expression of genes related to cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Aline Mayrink; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Souza E Silva, Lorena; Dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    The sun mushroom (Agaricus brasiliensis) is considered a major source of bioactive compounds with potential health benefits. Mushrooms typically act as lipid-lowering agents; however, little is known about the mechanisms of action of A. brasiliensis in biological systems. This study aimed to determine the underlying mechanism involved in the cholesterol-lowering effect of A. brasiliensis through the assessment of fecal and serum lipid profiles in addition to gene expression analysis of specific transcription factors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Twenty-four albino Fischer rats approximately 90 days old, with an average weight of 205 g, were divided into four groups of 6 each and fed a standard AIN-93 M diet (C), hypercholesterolemic diet (H), hypercholesterolemic diet +1 % A. brasiliensis (HAb), or hypercholesterolemic diet +0.008 % simvastatin (HS) for 6 weeks. Simvastatin was used as a positive control, as it is a typical drug prescribed for lipid disorders. Subsequently, blood, liver, and feces samples were collected for lipid profile and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction gene expression analyses. Diet supplementation with A. brasiliensis significantly improved serum lipid profiles, comparable to the effect observed for simvastatin. In addition, A. brasiliensis dietary supplementation markedly promoted fecal cholesterol excretion. Increased expression of 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), ATP-binding cassette subfamily G-transporters (ABCG5/G8), and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) was observed following A. brasiliensis administration. Our results suggest that consumption of A. brasiliensis improves the serum lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats by modulating the expression of key genes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

  1. Actinomycetoma in arm disseminated to lung with grains of Nocardia brasiliensis with peripheral filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Hernández, Bertha; Noyola, María Cecilia; Palma-Cortés, Gabriel; Rosete, Dora Patricia; Galván, Miguel Angel; Manjarrez, María Eugenia

    2009-07-01

    Actinomycetomas represent 97.8% of mycetomas in Mexico, where 86.6% are produced by Nocardia brasiliensis. We report a case of actinomycetoma in the arm by Nocardia brasiliensis disseminated to lung. Uncommon grains were observed which present outside peripheral filaments and also numerous filaments loosing the grains. These characteristics of the grains are due probably because for the long treatment with antibiotics of the patient. In situ antibiotic action against the microcolonies is discussed.

  2. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis.

  3. Reptilia, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Gomesophis brasiliensis (Gomes, 1918: Distribution extension in state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes, V. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian burrowing snake, Gomesophis brasiliensis, occurs in aquatic habitats such as swamps, from MinasGerais and Distrito Federal until Rio Grande do Sul. In spite of this wide distribution, the species’ geographic range stillremains unclear. This note reports the occurrence of G. brasiliensis in the municipality of Vargem Bonita, state of SantaCatarina, south Brazil, extending the species’ range ca. 80 km to the west in this state.

  4. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole.

  5. Actinomycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis in a girl with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Martha; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Valencia, Adriana; Araiza, Javier; Mejia, Silvia Anett; Mena-Cedillos, Carlos

    2008-08-15

    We describe the case of a 14-year-old girl with Down syndrome and a large cutaneous plaque localized to the right neck and shoulder that had enlarged over five years after a minor traumatic injury. The plaque was characterized by numerous inflammatory nodules and fistulae that secreted purulent discharge. Nocardia grains were identified and Nocardia brasiliensis was identified by culture. Histopathology examination showed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with granuloma development. The treatment scheme was with Diaminodiphenylsulfone 50/mg/d and Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg BID. Therapy was continued over 1(1/2) years, with a tapering dose. After 2(1/2) years of continuous treatment, clinical and microbiological healing was achieved.

  6. Clotrimazole is highly effective in vitro against feline Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagini, Thalita; Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Messias Rodrigues, Anderson; Pires de Camargo, Zoilo; Rozental, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis, the most virulent species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex, is responsible for the ongoing epidemics of human and animal sporotrichosis in Brazil. Feline outbreaks are usually driven by S. brasiliensis and followed by extensive transmission to humans. Itraconazole is the first-line treatment for both feline and human sporotrichosis; however, reduced sensitivity is an emerging issue. Thus, we investigated the effect of the widely used antifungal clotrimazole - alone or in combination with itraconazole - against the pathogenic (yeast) form of feline and human S. brasiliensis isolates, in vitro. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were determined for treatment with clotrimazole and itraconazole, as monotherapy or in combination. In addition, the effect of the drugs on neutral lipid levels and the yeast ultrastructure were evaluated by flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The MIC and MFC values show that clotrimazole was more effective than itraconazole against feline S. brasiliensis isolates, while human isolates were more sensitive to itraconazole. Similarly to itraconazole, treatment with clotrimazole induced statistically significant neutral lipid accumulation in S. brasiliensis yeasts, and treated yeasts displayed irregularities in the cell membrane and a thicker cell wall when observed by TEM. Clotrimazole increased the antifungal activity of itraconazole in combination assays, with a synergistic effect for two feline isolates. The strong activity of clotrimazole against feline S. brasiliensis isolates suggests that this drug is potentially a new alternative for the treatment of feline sporotrichosis, alone or in combination with itraconazole.

  7. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Maciel Garcia

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  8. Automated cloning methods.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collart, F.

    2001-01-01

    Argonne has developed a series of automated protocols to generate bacterial expression clones by using a robotic system designed to be used in procedures associated with molecular biology. The system provides plate storage, temperature control from 4 to 37 C at various locations, and Biomek and Multimek pipetting stations. The automated system consists of a robot that transports sources from the active station on the automation system. Protocols for the automated generation of bacterial expression clones can be grouped into three categories (Figure 1). Fragment generation protocols are initiated on day one of the expression cloning procedure and encompass those protocols involved in generating purified coding region (PCR)

  9. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  10. Enzyme free cloning for high throughput gene cloning and expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, R.N.; Daniëls, M.; Kaptein, R.; Folkers, G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural and functional genomics initiatives significantly improved cloning methods over the past few years. Although recombinational cloning is highly efficient, its costs urged us to search for an alternative high throughput (HTP) cloning method. We implemented a modified Enzyme Free Cloning

  11. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  12. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  13. Do Managers Clone Themselves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Alma S.

    1981-01-01

    A recent questionnaire survey provides statistics on male managers' views of female managers. The author recommends that male managers break out of their cloning behavior and that the goal ought to be a plurality in management. (Author/WD)

  14. Asymmetric quantum cloning machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerf, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    A family of asymmetric cloning machines for quantum bits and N-dimensional quantum states is introduced. These machines produce two approximate copies of a single quantum state that emerge from two distinct channels. In particular, an asymmetric Pauli cloning machine is defined that makes two imperfect copies of a quantum bit, while the overall input-to-output operation for each copy is a Pauli channel. A no-cloning inequality is derived, characterizing the impossibility of copying imposed by quantum mechanics. If p and p ' are the probabilities of the depolarizing channels associated with the two outputs, the domain in (√p,√p ' )-space located inside a particular ellipse representing close-to-perfect cloning is forbidden. This ellipse tends to a circle when copying an N-dimensional state with N→∞, which has a simple semi-classical interpretation. The symmetric Pauli cloning machines are then used to provide an upper bound on the quantum capacity of the Pauli channel of probabilities p x , p y and p z . The capacity is proven to be vanishing if (√p x , √p y , √p z ) lies outside an ellipsoid whose pole coincides with the depolarizing channel that underlies the universal cloning machine. Finally, the tradeoff between the quality of the two copies is shown to result from a complementarity akin to Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  15. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  16. Detection of Anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antibodies in suspected tuberculosis patients = Detecção de anticorpos anti-Paracoccidioides brasiliensis em pacientes suspeitos de tuberculose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Dias Fraga Peron

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an important systemic mycosis in LatinAmerica that occurs as active disease in 1-2% of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected people. Like PCM, tuberculosis (TB affects mainly the lungs and the clinical and radiological aspects do notalways allow differentiation between them. The aim of this study was to carry out serological investigation for detecting anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies, by three serological methods, in patientswith symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB. From August 2005 to September 2006, 76 patients with pulmonary symptoms suspected for TB were attended at the Regional Specialties Center Laboratory in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná, Brazil and submitted to microbiological TB research, ELISA, immunodiffusion and immunoblotting for PCM. Of all the individuals, 21 (27.63% were reactive to P. brasiliensis by ELISA and 11 (14.47% showed a laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Of all the individuals serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis, by ELISA, none had positive results by immunodiffusion and one reacted with antigen 43 kDa when Immunobloting was carried out. Our results lead us to reflect a necessity to obtain a more specific serologic test for diagnosis of PCM disease in patients with respiratory symptoms considering the high number of individuals reactive to P. brasiliensis especially in endemic areas.Paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é importante micose sistêmica na América Latina, que ocorre como doença ativa em 1-2% dos indivíduos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Assim como a PCM, a tuberculose (TB afeta principalmente os pulmões, porém os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos nem sempre permitem a diferenciação entreessas doenças. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inquérito sorológico para a detecção de anticorpos anti-P. brasiliensis, utilizando três métodos sorológicos, em pacientes com sintomassugestivos de tuberculose pulmonar. De agosto de 2005 a setembro de

  17. Geographic variation in ectoparasitic mites diversity in Tadarida Brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae

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    Tatiana C. Pesenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tadarida brasiliensis (Geoffroy, 1824, the Brazilian free-tailed bat, is an insectivorous bat that occurs from southern United States of America to southern South America. In this study we present the first data on diversity of ectoparasitic mites of T. brasiliensis in Brazil. A compilation and analysis of the studies of mite diversity conducted in different points the geographic distribution this bat species are provided. The mites were collected from March 2010 to November 2011 on 160 T. brasiliensis adult bats captured in southern Brazil. Four species of mites have been found: Chiroptonyssus robustipes (Ewing, 1925, Ewingana longa (Ewing, 1938, Ewingana inaequalis (Radford, 1948, and specimens of Cheyletidae. Chiroptonyssus robustipes was the most prevalent species (100%, followed by E. longa (20%, E. inaequalis (10%, and specimens of Cheyletidae (1.25%. The data currently available show that C. robustipes parasitizes T. brasiliensis throughout its region of occurrence, and this mite is highly prevalent and abundant. The two species of Ewingana accompany the geographical distribution of T. brasiliensis, but with much lower prevalence and abundance.

  18. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navas) (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae), in laboratory, with different natural diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirian, Giani L.B. [Centro Universitario da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Curso de Ciencias Biologicas; Uchoa-Fernandes, Manoel A. [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados, MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Biologicas e Ambientais]. E-mail: uchoa.fernandes@ufgd.edu.br; Fischer, Erich [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2006-07-01

    Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp.), fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae)] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navas, 1914) and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days) of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm), the mean weight (mg) or the mean body size (mm) in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments. (author)

  19. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis is associated with atypical clinical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-09-01

    There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole.

  20. Keratitis caused by the recently described new species Aspergillus brasiliensis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vágvölgyi Csaba

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Human infections caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis have not yet been reported. We describe the first two known cases of fungal keratitis caused by Aspergillus brasiliensis. Case presentations A 49-year-old Indian Tamil woman agricultural worker came with pain and defective vision in the right eye for one month. Meanwhile, a 35-year-old Indian Tamil woman presented with a history of a corneal ulcer involving the left eye for 15 days. The fungal strains isolated from these two cases were originally suspected to belong to Aspergillus section Nigri based on macro- and micromorphological characteristics. Molecular identification revealed that both isolates represent A. brasiliensis. Conclusion The two A. brasiliensis strains examined in this study were part of six keratitis isolates from Aspergillus section Nigri, suggesting that this recently described species may be responsible for a significant proportion of corneal infections caused by black Aspergilli. The presented cases also indicate that significant differences may occur between the severities of keratitis caused by individual isolates of A. brasiliensis.

  1. Evidence for positive selection in putative virulence factors within the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R Matute

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Recently, the existence of three genetically isolated groups in P. brasiliensis was demonstrated, enabling comparative studies of molecular evolution among P. brasiliensis lineages. Thirty-two gene sequences coding for putative virulence factors were analyzed to determine whether they were under positive selection. Our maximum likelihood-based approach yielded evidence for selection in 12 genes that are involved in different cellular processes. An in-depth analysis of four of these genes showed them to be either antigenic or involved in pathogenesis. Here, we present evidence indicating that several replacement mutations in gp43 are under positive balancing selection. The other three genes (fks, cdc42 and p27 show very little variation among the P. brasiliensis lineages and appear to be under positive directional selection. Our results are consistent with the more general observations that selective constraints are variable across the genome, and that even in the genes under positive selection, only a few sites are altered. We present our results within an evolutionary framework that may be applicable for studying adaptation and pathogenesis in P. brasiliensis and other pathogenic fungi.

  2. No significant transfer of N and P from Pueraria Phaseoloides to Hevea Brasiliensis via Hyphal links of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikram, A.; Jensen, E.S.; Jakobsen, I.

    1994-01-01

    The possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the transfer of nitrogen and phosphorus from Pueraria phaseoloides (donor) to Hevea brasiliensis (receiver) was examined. P. phaseoloides is used as a cover crop in rubber tree (H. brasiliensis) plantations. Roots of donor and receiver plants...

  3. Drimys brasiliensis essential oil as a source of drimenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers is a native plant species to the Atlantic Forest, commonly known as cataia, and used as a stimulant, anti-diahrreal, antipyretic, among other properties. Dried and fresh leaves of cataia were collected in autumn/2012, submitted to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger graduated apparatus over a period of 4 hours after reaching the boiling point, then essential oil was collected. In oil from green leaves, 49 compounds were identified, being 65.0% sesquiterpenes, 12.0% monoterpenes and 23.0% other substances. In oil from dry leaves, 40 compounds were identified, being 76.1% sesquiterpenes, 2.0% monoterpenes and 21.9% other compounds. The main constituents in green leaves were germacrene D (8.9%, bicyclegermacrene (5.3%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.1%, alpha-cadinol (6.0%, and drimenol (9.3%. In dry leaves the main constituents were germacrene D (6.3%, (E-nerodidol (5.4%, spathulenol (9.5%, epi-alpha-cadinol (5.5%, alpha-cadinol (6.7%, and drimenol (11.6% Due to its composition, antibacterial, antimycotic, insectifuge and molluscicide activities are proven, together with the pharmacological properties that this species may present.

  4. Sporothrix brasiliensis outbreaks and the rapid emergence of feline sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchotene, Karine Ortiz; Madrid, Isabel Martins; Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Bergamashi, Mariana; Della Terra, Paula Portella; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski

    2015-11-01

    Sporotrichosis is the main subcutaneous mycosis in Brazil, and is caused by Sporothrix schenckii and allied species. Sporothrix propagules present on soil and plant debris may be traumatically inoculated into the cutaneous/ subcutaneous tissues of the warm-blooded host. An alternative route involves direct animal-animal and animal-human transmissions through deep scratches and bites of diseased cats. Sporotrichosis is much more common than previously appreciated with several cases emerging over the years especially in South and Southeast Brazil. We conducted an epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas of feline sporotrichosis in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Over the last 5-year period the number of feline sporotrichosis in Rio Grande increased from 0.75 new cases per month in 2010 to 3.33 cases per month in 2014. The wide geographic distribution of diagnosed cases highlights the dynamics of Sporothrix transmission across urban areas with high population density. Molecular identification down to species level by PCR-RFLP of cat-transmitted Sporothrix revealed the emergence of the clonal offshoot S. brasiliensis during feline outbreaks; this scenario is similar to the epidemics taking place in the metropolitan areas of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Controlling and preventing sporotrichosis outbreaks are essential steps to managing the disease among humans and animals. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Activation of the Na+,K+-ATPase in Narcine brasiliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, H.; Nioka, Shoko; Johnson, R.G. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo activation and turnover rates of the sodium pump (Na + ,K + -ATPase) were investigated in the electrocytes of the electric organ of the elasmobranch Narcine brasiliensis. The Narcine electric organ appears to be an excellent model for the study of sodium pump activation in an excitable tissue. The sodium transmembrane gradient and high-energy phosphagens were concurrently measured by 23 Na and 31 P NMR spectroscopy. The resting electric organ, which depends primarily on anaerobic metabolism displays a high concentration of phosphocreatin (PCr). It has an intracellular sodium concentration ([Na + ] i ) of 20±10 milliequivalents/liter as estimated by NMR. Electrical stimulation of the nerves innervating the electric organ results in an increase in [Na + ] i in the electrolyte and rapid depletion of PCr. Ouabain causes an 85% decrease in utilization of high-energy phosphagens, indicating that rapid PCr turnover in this tissue is mainly due to Na + ,K + -ATPase activity. From these data the authors can determine that the rate of sodium pump turnover increases by >3 orders of magnitude within several hundred milliseconds. The authors conclude that cholinergic stimulation of the electric organ causes a rapid and extremely large increase in sodium pump turnover, which is regulated predominantly by factors other than [Na + ] i

  6. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  7. Lovely clone of coconuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branton, R.; Blake, J.

    1983-05-01

    It has taken over 10 years research and development to clone oil palms and coconut palms successfully. Unilever has recently built a tissue culture factory in England with a potential capacity for producing half a million clonal oil palms a year for export. Research on the cloning of coconut palms is reported here. Cloned palms may increase yields from oil palms by 20 to 30 percent and yields from coconut could be as high as five-fold over unselected stock. Improved yields would not only increase the yield of oil and copra but also the harvests of husk and shell which are immense potential sources of energy; the 1978 Philippine harvest of over 12 million nuts is equivalent in terms of energy to 3.8 billion litres of petrol (31 x 10/sup 12/ kcal).

  8. Diversity and antimicrobial potential of culturable heterotrophic bacteria associated with the endemic marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia P.J. Rua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges are the oldest Metazoa, very often presenting a complex microbial consortium. Such is the case of the marine sponge Arenosclera brasiliensis, endemic to Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. In this investigation we characterized the diversity of some of the culturable heterotrophic bacteria living in association with A. brasiliensis and determined their antimicrobial activity. The genera Endozoicomonas (N = 32, Bacillus (N = 26, Shewanella (N = 17, Pseudovibrio (N = 12, and Ruegeria (N = 8 were dominant among the recovered isolates, corresponding to 97% of all isolates. Approximately one third of the isolates living in association with A. brasiliensis produced antibiotics that inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that bacteria associated with this sponge play a role in its health.

  9. Increase in virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis over five years in a patient with chronic disseminated sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Dayvison F S; Santos, Suelen S; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel M E; do Valle, Antonio C F; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M; Nosanchuk, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro is hyperendemic for cat-associated sporotrichosis. This study aimed to assess the virulence of serial Sporothrix isolates from a 61-year-old male patient with chronic, destructive disseminated sporotrichosis. Five Sporothrix isolates were cultured from skin exudates and bone samples over a 5-year period, and all were molecularly identified as Sporothrix brasiliensis. The final isolate was significantly more virulent in Galleria mellonella larvae compared to earlier isolates. We conclude that S. brasiliensis has the capacity to increase in virulence in vivo. This finding is significant to clinicians caring for individuals with S. brasiliensis disease and it suggests that further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying pathogenicity enhancement during chronic disease.

  10. Chromosome homogeneity in populations of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva 1911 (Hemiptera - Reduviidae - Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panzera Francisco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important vector of Chagas disease in the semiarid zone of the Northeast of Brazil. Several authors have reported the occurrence of four chromatic patterns with morphological, ecological, and genetic differences. In order to determine the existence of cytogenetic differentiation between these chromatic forms, we analyzed their karyotypes and the chromosome behavior during the male meiotic process. Triatoma brasiliensis shows distinct and specific chromosome characteristics, which differ from those observed in all other triatomine species. However, no cytogenetic differences were observed between the four chromatic forms of T. brasiliensis. The lack of chromosome differentiation among them could indicate that the populations of this species are in a process of differentiation that does not involve their chromosomal organization.

  11. Proteomic analysis reveals that iron availability alters the metabolic status of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana F A Parente

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermodimorphic fungus and the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. The ability of P. brasiliensis to uptake nutrients is fundamental for growth, but a reduction in the availability of iron and other nutrients is a host defense mechanism many pathogenic fungi must overcome. Thus, fungal mechanisms that scavenge iron from host may contribute to P. brasiliensis virulence. In order to better understand how P. brasiliensis adapts to iron starvation in the host we compared the two-dimensional (2D gel protein profile of yeast cells during iron starvation to that of iron rich condition. Protein spots were selected for comparative analysis based on the protein staining intensity as determined by image analysis. A total of 1752 protein spots were selected for comparison, and a total of 274 out of the 1752 protein spots were determined to have changed significantly in abundance due to iron depletion. Ninety six of the 274 proteins were grouped into the following functional categories; energy, metabolism, cell rescue, virulence, cell cycle, protein synthesis, protein fate, transcription, cellular communication, and cell fate. A correlation between protein and transcript levels was also discovered using quantitative RT-PCR analysis from RNA obtained from P. brasiliensis under iron restricting conditions and from yeast cells isolated from infected mouse spleens. In addition, western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays validated the differential regulation of proteins identified by 2-D gel analysis. We observed an increase in glycolytic pathway protein regulation while tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate and methylcitrate cycles, and electron transport chain proteins decreased in abundance under iron limiting conditions. These data suggest a remodeling of P. brasiliensis metabolism by prioritizing iron independent pathways.

  12. Detection of antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis melanin in in vitro and in vivo studies during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J; Gómez, Beatriz L; Cano, Luz E

    2011-10-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice.

  13. A Seminar on Human Cloning: Cloning in Reproductive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Illmensee, Karl

    2001-01-01

    This review article summarizes the historical development of mammalian cloning, presents current advances and presumed risk factors in the field of reproductive cloning, discusses possible clinical applications of therapeutic and diagnostic cloning and outlines prospective commercial trends in pharmacytical cloning. Predictable progress in biotechnology and stem cell engineering should prove to be advantageous for patients' health and for novel benefits in reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  14. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Colauto, Nelson Barros; Universidade Paranaense; Aizono, Patrícia Midori; Universidade Paranaense; Carvalho, Lis Ribeiro Magalhães de; Universidade Paranaense; Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia Doretto; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Linde, Giani Andrea; Universidade Paranaense

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens) basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3....

  15. In Vitro Activity of PNU-100766 (Linezolid), a New Oxazolidinone Antimicrobial, against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Gómez-Flores, Alejandra; Escalante-Fuentes, Wendy G.; Welsh, Oliverio

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of a novel oxazolidinone, linezolid, was studied by comparing the activity of linezolid with those of amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid against 25 strains of Nocardia brasiliensis isolated from patients with mycetoma. All N. brasiliensis strains tested were sensitive to linezolid (MIC at which 90% of strains are inhibited [MIC90], 2 μg/ml; MIC50, 1 μg/ml). This antimicrobial might constitute a good alternative for treatment of actinomycetoma. PMID:11709356

  16. Cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection in an immunocompetent host after ovarian cystectomy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manideepa SenGupta

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia brasiliensis is a rare human pathogen that is usually associated with localised cutaneous infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection causing delayed wound healing that developed after ovarian cystectomy in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old woman. The patient was initially treated with cotrimoxazole, however due to intolerance intravenous amikacin was given and gradually the wound healed. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating the causative organism in exudates, and cultures. Early diagnosis as well as early institution of chemotherapy is effective in most patients, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolate should be performed to identify the best treatment options.

  17. Cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection in an immunocompetent host after ovarian cystectomy: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Sarkar; Saha, Puranjay; Sengupta, Manideepa

    2011-01-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a rare human pathogen that is usually associated with localised cutaneous infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection causing delayed wound healing that developed after ovarian cystectomy in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old woman. The patient was initially treated with cotrimoxazole, however due to intolerance intravenous amikacin was given and gradually the wound healed. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstrating the causative organism in exudates, and cultures. Early diagnosis as well as early institution of chemotherapy is effective in most patients, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the isolate should be performed to identify the best treatment options.

  18. Myths about Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging normally. In fact, the first cattle clones ever produced are alive, healthy, and are 10 years old as of January 2008. Back to the ... until we finish assessing their safety. To the best of our knowledge, they have done so. After years of detailed study and analysis, FDA has concluded ...

  19. Clip, connect, clone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujima, Jun; Lunzer, Aran; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    using three mechanisms: clipping of input and result elements from existing applications to form cells on a spreadsheet; connecting these cells using formulas, thus enabling result transfer between applications; and cloning cells so that multiple requests can be handled side by side. We demonstrate...

  20. [Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ming; Lei, An-Min; Hua, Jin-Lian; Dou, Zhong-Ying

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning have widespread and attractive prospects in animal agriculture and biomedical applications. We reviewed that the quality of oocytes and nuclear reprogramming of somatic donor cells were the main reasons of the common abnormalities in cloned animals and the low efficiency of cloning and showed the problems and outlets in therapeutic cloning, such as some basic problems in nuclear transfer affected clinical applications of therapeutic cloning. Study on isolation and culture of nuclear transfer embryonic stem (ntES) cells and specific differentiation of ntES cells into important functional cells should be emphasized and could enhance the efficiency. Adult stem cells could help to cure some great diseases, but could not replace therapeutic cloning. Ethics also impeded the development of therapeutic cloning. It is necessary to improve many techniques and reinforce the research of some basic theories, then somatic nuclear transfer and therapeutic cloning may apply to agriculture reproduction and benefit to human life better.

  1. The First Human Cloned Embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Jose B.; Lanza, Robert P.; West, Michael D.; Ezzell, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes a process known as parthenogenesis which produces cloned, early-stage embryos and human embryos generated only from eggs. Speculates that this technology puts therapeutic cloning within reach. (DDR)

  2. Fungal Colitis by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Galeazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PBM is an infection caused by a dimorphic fungus called Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It occurs in Latin America, with incidence of 1 to 3 per 100,000 inhabitants in endemic areas. The digestive tract is usually not affected, but when it occurs, it may lead to events similar to colorectal neoplasm and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is a case report of a 68-year-old female patient, with diarrhea without blood or mucus for 6 months, weight loss of 8 kg over the period. Abdominal ultrasonography showed some mass in the right colon, suggestive of cancer and liver perihilar lymph node. Colonoscopy showed lesions suggestive of Crohn's disease. Biopsy showed chronic granulomatous colitis of fungal etiology: Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient did not tolerate oral treatment with itraconazole and subsequently sulfadiazine, requiring hospital admission for the treatment with amphotericin B. The presence of Paracoccidioidomycosis in the digestive tract may be associated with bloody diarrhea, mucus, rectal hemorrhage, abdominal pain, malabsorption syndrome. Histopathological studies show the fungus and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate and granulation tissue. The differential diagnoses are tuberculosis, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The treatment is oral antifungal (itraconazole, sulfadiazine or intravenous (amphotericin B based. The case has caused diagnostic confusion between colon cancer (clinical and US and Crohn's disease (colonoscopy.Paracoccidioidomicose (PBM é uma infecção causada por um fungo dimórfico: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Ocorre na América Latina, com incidência de 1 a 3 por 100.000 habitantes em áreas endêmicas. O acometimento do trato digestivo é infrequente, sendo que pode levar a manifestações semelhantes à neoplasia colorretal e doença inflamatória intestinal (DII. Relatamos o caso da paciente feminina, 68 anos, com diarreia sem sangue ou muco há seis meses, com

  3. Human cloning. Fact or fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abushama, Mandy D.; Ahmed, Badreldeen I.

    2003-01-01

    Cloning is the production of one or more individual plants or animals that are genetically identical to other plant, animal or human. Scientists even demonstrated that they were able to clone frog tadpoles from frog embryonic cells using nuclear transfer.Many animals have been cloned from adult cells using nuclear transfer. Somatic cell nuclear transfer which refers to the transfer of the nucleous from a somatic cell to an egg cell. Article further deals with benefits and misuses of human cloning

  4. Three concepts of cloning in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ke-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Human cloning, organ cloning and tissue cloning are various types of cloning that occur at different levels with different methodologies. According to three standards of terminology for an embryo (fertilization through germ cells, development in the uterus and having the potential to produce a human life), tissue cloning and type I organ cloning will not produce an embryo. In contrast, human cloning and type II organ cloning will produce an embryo. Thus, only non-germinal tissue cloning and type I organ cloning are beyond the ethical question and will not change human beings as a species. Using cloned tissues to make new tissues or organs is promising for the future of medicine.

  5. Recombinational Cloning Using Gateway and In-Fusion Cloning Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Andrea L.; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive study of protein structure and function, or proteomics, depends on the obtainability of full-length cDNAs in species-specific expression vectors and subsequent functional analysis of the expressed protein. Recombinational cloning is a universal cloning technique based on site-specific recombination that is independent of the insert DNA sequence of interest, which differentiates this method from the classical restriction enzyme-based cloning methods. Recombinational cloning enables rapid and efficient parallel transfer of DNA inserts into multiple expression systems. This unit summarizes strategies for generating expression-ready clones using the most popular recombinational cloning technologies, including the commercially available Gateway® (Life Technologies) and In-Fusion® (Clontech) cloning technologies. PMID:25827088

  6. Optimally cloned binary coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C. R.; Leuchs, G.; Marquardt, Ch.; Andersen, U. L.

    2017-10-01

    Binary coherent state alphabets can be represented in a two-dimensional Hilbert space. We capitalize this formal connection between the otherwise distinct domains of qubits and continuous variable states to map binary phase-shift keyed coherent states onto the Bloch sphere and to derive their quantum-optimal clones. We analyze the Wigner function and the cumulants of the clones, and we conclude that optimal cloning of binary coherent states requires a nonlinearity above second order. We propose several practical and near-optimal cloning schemes and compare their cloning fidelity to the optimal cloner.

  7. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Cerataphis brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the palm aphid, Cerataphis brasiliensis, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures...

  8. Crystallization of Hevamine, an Enzyme with Lysozyme/Chitinase Activity from Hevea brasiliensis Latex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROZEBOOM, HJ; BUDIANI, A; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1990-01-01

    Hevamine, an enzyme with both lysozyme and chitinase activity, was isolated and purified from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) latex. The enzyme (molecular weight 29,000) is homologous to certain “pathogenesis-related” proteins from plants, but not to hen egg-white or phage T4 lysozyme. To

  9. Black thread disease, control measures and yield stimulation in Hevea brasiliensis in Liberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, J.

    1972-01-01

    Described are investigations, carried out in 1963 to 1971 in Hevea brasiliensis at the Firestone Plantation at Harbel in Liberia. Studied was the tapping panel disease, black thread, caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora. The emphasis of the

  10. Anorexia in rats infected with the nematode, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: experimental manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J G; Mitchell, P I; Moar, K M; Bissett, A; Geissler, S; Bruce, K; Chappell, L H

    2000-06-01

    Nippostrongylus brasiliensis induces a biphasic anorexia in laboratory rats, the first phase coincident with lung invasion (ca day 2) and the second when the worms mature in the intestine (ca day 8). Using the anthelminthic, mebendazole (MBZ), N. brasiliensis infections of the rat were eliminated between the first and second anorexic episodes. This intervention prevented the expression of the second phase of anorexia. Rats exposed to a second infection with N. brasiliensis, 3 weeks after the primary infection, exhibited only a first phase anorexic response which was not influenced by MBZ termination of the primary infection. The lower cumulative food intake and weight gain of all infected rats after 8 days of infection were accompanied by elevated plasma insulin and, in some individuals, by elevated plasma leptin, compared with uninfected controls and previously-infected MBZ-treated rats. Messenger RNA levels for neuropeptide Y were higher in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of 8-day infected rats than in recovering MBZ-treated animals. Inoculation of rats with heat-killed N. brasiliensis larvae failed to induce anorexia and did not alter the severity of biphasic anorexia on subsequent injection of viable larvae. The first anorexic episode is therefore dependent upon viable migrating larvae. The second phase of anorexia clearly requires the continuing presence of the parasite beyond the lung phase. Viable migrating larvae are also required to confer 'resistance' to reinfection.

  11. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in Feline sporotrichosis outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; de Melo Teixeira, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Pacheco Schubach, T.M.; Pereira, S.A.; Ferreira Fernandes, G.; Lopes Bezerra, L.M.; Felipe, M.S.; Pires de Camargo, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics

  12. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high prevalence of Sporothrix brasiliensis in feline sporotrichosis outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Teixeira, M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schubach, T.M.P.; Pereira, S.A.; Fernandes, G.F.; Bezerra, L.M.; Felipe, M.S.; Camargo, Z.P.

    2013-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, previously assumed to be the sole agent of human and animal sporotrichosis, is in fact a species complex. Recently recognized taxa include S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, and S. luriei, in addition to S. schenckii sensu stricto. Over the last decades, large epidemics

  13. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB, itraconazole (ITR, ketoconazole (KET, posaconazole (POS, and terbinafine (TRB against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  14. Comparative genomics of the major agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, M.M.; de Almeida, L.G.P.; Kubitschek-Barreira, P.; Alves, F.L.; Kioshima, E.S.; Abadio, A.K.R.; Fernandes, L.; Derengowski, L.S.; Ferreira, K.S.; Souza, R.C.; Ruiz, J.C.; de Andrade, N.C.; Paes, H.C.; Nicola, A.M.; Albuquerque, P.; Gerber, A.L.; Martins, V.P.; Peconick, L.D.F.; Neto, A.V.; Chaucanez, C.B.; Silva, P.A.; cunha, O.L.; de Oliveira, F.F.M.; dos Santos, T.C.; Barros, A.L.N.; Soares, M.A.; de Oliveira, L.M.; Marini, M.M.; Villalobos-Duno, H.; Cunha, M.M.L.; de Hoog, S.; da Silveira, J.F.; Henrissat, B.; Niño-Vega, G.A.; Cisalpino, P.S.; Mora-Montes, H.M.; Almeida, S.R.; Stajich, J.E.; Lopes-Bezerra, L.M.; Vasconcelos, A.T.R.; Felipe, M.S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on

  15. Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov., a biseriate black Aspergillus species with world-wide distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Tóth, Beáta

    2007-01-01

    to produce ochratoxin A, kotanins, funalenone or pyranonigrins. The novel species was most closely related to A. niger, and was isolated from soil from Brazil, Australia, USA and The Netherlands, and from grape berries from Portugal. The type strain of Aspergillus brasiliensis sp. nov. is CBS 101740(T) (=IM...

  16. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virgínia B; Bosco, Sandra M G; Theodoro, Raquel C; Barrozo, Lígia; Pedrini, Silvia C B; Rosa, Patrícia S; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2009-11-17

    Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla), by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i) from road-killed animals (n = 6); ii) from naturally dead animals (n = 8); iii) from animals that died in captivity (n = 9); and iv) from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2). Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus) and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla). The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  17. THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF HEVAMINE, AN ENZYME WITH LYSOZYME CHITINASE ACTIVITY FROM HEVEA-BRASILIENSIS LATEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JEKEL, PA; HARTMANN, JBH; BEINTEMA, JJ

    1991-01-01

    The primary structure of hevamine, an enzyme with lysozyme/chitinase activity from Hevea brasiliensis latex, has been determined predominantly with conventional non-automatic methods. The positions of three disulfide bridges have been determined. The sequence has about 60% identity with that of a

  18. Enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Evert; Barends, Thomas; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    2000-01-01

    The enzyme kinetics of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, were studied in detail with a new enzyme assay. In this assay, the enzyme reaction products were derivatized by reductive coupling to a chromophore, Products mere separated by HPLC and the amount of product was

  19. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  20. IL-4Rα-associated antigen processing by B cells promotes immunity in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G C Horsnell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, B cell function in protective T(H2 immunity against N. brasiliensis infection was investigated. Protection against secondary infection depended on IL-4Rα and IL-13; but not IL-4. Protection did not associate with parasite specific antibody responses. Re-infection of B cell-specific IL-4Rα⁻/⁻ mice resulted in increased worm burdens compared to control mice, despite their equivalent capacity to control primary infection. Impaired protection correlated with reduced lymphocyte IL-13 production and B cell MHC class II and CD86 surface expression. Adoptive transfer of in vivo N. brasiliensis primed IL-4Rα expressing B cells into naïve BALB/c mice, but not IL-4Rα or IL-13 deficient B cells, conferred protection against primary N. brasiliensis infection. This protection required MHC class II compatibility on B cells suggesting cognate interactions by B cells with CD4⁺ T cells were important to co-ordinate immunity. Furthermore, the rapid nature of these protective effects by B cells suggested non-BCR mediated mechanisms, such as via Toll Like Receptors, was involved, and this was supported by transfer experiments using antigen pulsed Myd88⁻/⁻ B cells. These data suggest TLR dependent antigen processing by IL-4Rα-responsive B cells producing IL-13 contribute significantly to CD4⁺ T cell-mediated protective immunity against N. brasiliensis infection.

  1. In vivo therapeutic effect of gatifloxacin on BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw-Garza, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Waksman de Torres, Noemi; Rocha, Norma Cavazos; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, we evaluated the effect of gatifloxacin on the evolution of experimental murine infection with Nocardia brasiliensis using linezolid as a control. Gatifloxacin was injected subcutaneously at 100 mg/kg body weight every 8 h for 4 weeks. This compound was equally as efficient as linezolid in reducing the production of lesions.

  2. Nocardia brasiliensis primary pulmonary nocardiosis with subcutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, R; Koirala, R; Khanal, B; Dhakal, S S

    2011-01-01

    This is a report of an unusual case of Nocardia brasiliensis causing primary pulmonary nocardiosis with disseminated subcutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with pulmonary and cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure.

  3. A life-threatening case of disseminated nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramythiotou, Elisabeth; Papadomichelakis, Evangelos; Vrioni, Georgia; Pappas, Georgios; Pantelaki, Maria; Kontos, Fanourios; Zerva, Loukia; Armaganidis, Apostolos

    2012-10-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare disease caused by infection with Nocardia species, aerobic actinomycetes with a worldwide distribution. A rare life-threatening disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis infection is described in an elderly, immunocompromised patient. Microorganism was recovered from bronchial secretions and dermal lesions, and was identified using molecular assays. Prompt, timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment ensured a favorable outcome.

  4. Nocardia brasiliensis primary pulmonary nocardiosis with subcutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amatya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of an unusual case of Nocardia brasiliensis causing primary pulmonary nocardiosis with disseminated subcutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent patient. This case highlights the importance of considering nocardiosis as a differential diagnosis in patients with pulmonary and cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure.

  5. Development of CD4 T cell dependent immunity against N. brasiliensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eHarvie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Of all the microbial infections relevant to mammals the relationship between parasitic worms and what constitutes and regulates a host protective immune response is perhaps the most complex and evolved. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis is a tissue migrating parasitic roundworm of rodents that exemplifies many of the salient features of parasitic worm infection, including parasite development through sequential larval stages as it migrates through specific tissue sites. Immune competent hosts respond to infection by N. brasiliensis with a rapid and selective development of a profound Th2 immune response that appears able to confer life long protective immunity against reinfection. This review details how the lung can be the site of migrating nematode immune killing and the gut a site of rapid immune mediated clearance of worms. Furthermore it appears that N. brasiliensis induced responses in the lung are sufficient for conferring immunity in lung and gut while infection of the gut only confers immunity in the gut. This review also covers the role of IL-4, STAT6 and the innate cytokines IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in the generation of CD4-mediated immunity against N. brasiliensis reinfection and discusses what cytokines might be involved in mediated killing or expulsion of helminth parasites.

  6. Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. C. Nyaka Ngobisa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2, the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15 containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

  7. [Media, cloning, and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S I; Diniz, D

    2000-01-01

    This article was based on an analysis of three hundred articles from mainstream Brazilian periodicals over a period of eighteen months, beginning with the announcement of the Dolly case in February 1997. There were two main objectives: to outline the moral constants in the press associated with the possibility of cloning human beings and to identify some of the moral assumptions concerning scientific research with non-human animals that were published carelessly by the media. The authors conclude that there was a haphazard spread of fear concerning the cloning of human beings rather than an ethical debate on the issue, and that there is a serious gap between bioethical reflections and the Brazilian media.

  8. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis Are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Martínez-Álvarez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis are usually associated to sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis worldwide distributed. Comparative analyses between these two species indicate they contain genetic and physiological differences that are likely to impact the interaction with host cells. Here, we study the composition of the cell wall from conidia, yeast-like cells and germlings of both species and found they contained the same sugar composition. The carbohydrate proportion in the S. schenckii sensu stricto wall was similar across the three cell morphologies, with exception in the chitin content, which was significantly different in the three morphologies. The cell wall from germlings showed lower rhamnose content and higher glucose levels than other cell morphologies. In S. brasiliensis, the wall sugars were constant in the three morphologies, but glucose was lower in yeast-like cells. In S. schenckii sensu stricto cells most of chitin and β1,3-glucan were underneath wall components, but in S. brasiliensis germlings, chitin was exposed at the cell surface, and β1,3-glucan was found in the outer part of the conidia wall. We also compared the ability of these cells to stimulate cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The three S. schenckii sensu stricto morphologies stimulated increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when compared to S. brasiliensis cells; while the latter, with exception of conidia, stimulated higher IL-10 levels. Dectin-1 was a key receptor for cytokine production during stimulation with the three morphologies of S. schenckii sensu stricto, but dispensable for cytokine production stimulated by S. brasiliensis germlings. TLR2 and TLR4 were also involved in the sensing of Sporothrix cells, with a major role for the former during cytokine stimulation. Mannose receptor had a minor contribution during cytokine stimulation by S. schenckii sensu stricto yeast-like cells and

  9. Probabilistic cloning of equidistant states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Roa, Luis; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of equidistant states. These states are such that the inner product between them is a complex constant or its conjugate. Thereby, it is possible to study their cloning in a simple way. In particular, we are interested in the behavior of the cloning probability as a function of the phase of the overlap among the involved states. We show that for certain families of equidistant states Duan and Guo's cloning machine leads to cloning probabilities lower than the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability of equidistant states. We propose an alternative cloning machine whose cloning probability is higher than or equal to the optimal unambiguous discrimination probability for any family of equidistant states. Both machines achieve the same probability for equidistant states whose inner product is a positive real number.

  10. Biodiversity versus cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo T, Jose Hernan

    1998-01-01

    The announcement has been made on the cloning of mice in these days and he doesn't stop to miss, because the world lives a stage where conscience of the protection is creating that should be given to the biodiversity. It is known that alone we won't subsist and the protection of the means and all that contains that environment is of vital importance for the man. But it is also known that the vegetables and animal transgenic that they come to multiply the species have appeared that we prepare. The transgenic has been altered genetically, for substitution of one or more genes of other species, inclusive human genes. This represents an improvement compared with the investigations that gave origin to the cloning animal. But it is necessary to notice that to it you arrived through the cloning. This year 28 million hectares have been sowed in cultivations of transgenic seeds and there is around 700 bovine transgenic whose milk contains a necessary protein in the treatment of the man's illnesses

  11. In vitro susceptibility of antifungal drugs against Sporothrix brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-03-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous mycosis of humans and animals. Classically, the disease is acquired upon traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules from contaminated soil and plant debris. In addition, the direct horizontal transmission of Sporothrix among animals and the resulting zoonotic infection in humans highlight an alternative and efficient rout of transmission through biting and scratching. Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex and is responsible for the long-lasting outbreak of feline sporotrichosis in Brazil. However, antifungal susceptibility data of animal-borne isolates is scarce. Therefore, this study evaluated the in vitro activity of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, and ketoconazole against animal-borne isolates of S. brasiliensis. The susceptibility tests were performed through broth microdilution (M38-A2). The results show the relevant activity of itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole against S. brasiliensis, with the following MIC ranges: 0.125-2, 0.125-4 and 0.0312-2 μg/ml, respectively. Caspofungin was moderately effective, displaying higher variation in MIC values (0.25-64 μg/ml). Voriconazole (2-64 μg/ml) and fluconazole (62.5-500 μg/ml) showed low activity against S. brasiliensis strains. This study contributed to the characterization of the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of strains of S. brasiliensis recovered from cats with sporotrichosis, which have recently been considered the main source of human infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  13. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  14. Ethical issues in animal cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2005-01-01

    The issue of human reproductive cloning has recently received a great deal attention in public discourse. Bioethicists, policy makers, and the media have been quick to identify the key ethical issues involved in human reproductive cloning and to argue, almost unanimously, for an international ban on such attempts. Meanwhile, scientists have proceeded with extensive research agendas in the cloning of animals. Despite this research, there has been little public discussion of the ethical issues raised by animal cloning projects. Polling data show that the public is decidedly against the cloning of animals. To understand the public's reaction and fill the void of reasoned debate about the issue, we need to review the possible objections to animal cloning and assess the merits of the anti-animal cloning stance. Some objections to animal cloning (e.g., the impact of cloning on the population of unwanted animals) can be easily addressed, while others (e.g., the health of cloned animals) require more serious attention by the public and policy makers.

  15. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal anti...

  16. Extratos de Curcuma longa L. e Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. no tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Fonseca

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a utilização dos extratos aquosos das plantas Curcuma longa e Kalanchoe brasiliensis na terapêutica tópica complementar do envenenamento botrópico experimental em camundongos, visando a antagonização dos efeitos locais (edema, hemorragia e necrose provocados pelo veneno. O experimento mostrou que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

  17. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  18. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Teste de especificidade hospedeira de Phaedon confinis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, um potencial agente de biocontrole de Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. Less when ingested by cattle and horses, the plant causes seneciosis, a serious poisoning. Due to the great financial losses to cattle ranchers, controlling the plant using insects has become attractive. Systematic survey efforts have revealed that Phaedon confinis Klug causes serious damage to the plant, and may be a great biocontrol agent. The object was to extend the tests of host specificity to 52 plants using 1st larval instar and adult chrysomelid bettles. The insects were submitted to “no-choice” and “multiple-choice” tests. The following results were obtained: “NO-CHOICE” L1 – 52 plants tested: null 90.39%; negligible damage 5.77%; light 1.92%; and normal in only S. brasiliensis 1.92%, where 31.67% of larvae obtained an adult phase. “NO-CHOICE” ADULTS – 46 plants. Null damage was recorded in 82.60%; 13.04% showed negligible damage; 2.17% light; 2.17% normal in S. brasiliensis. The chysomelids oviposited during observation days only on S. brasiliensis leaves. 615 eggs were oviposited with 73.01% viability. “MULTIPLE CHOICE” LARVAE – nine plants tested. 66.67% null; 11.11% weak; 11.11% negligible damage; and 11.11% normal in S. brasiliensis. The results indicate that the normal diet, oviposition, survival and development of P. confinis is restricted to S. brasiliensis and corroborates its potential as a biocontrol agent.

  20. Macrophage Interaction with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Yeast Cells Modulates Fungal Metabolism and Generates a Response to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Alves Parente-Rocha

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players during Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. However, the relative contribution of the fungal response to counteracting macrophage activity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the P. brasiliensis proteomic response to macrophage internalization. A total of 308 differentially expressed proteins were detected in P. brasiliensis during infection. The positively regulated proteins included those involved in alternative carbon metabolism, such as enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids catabolism. The down-regulated proteins during P. brasiliensis internalization in macrophages included those related to glycolysis and protein synthesis. Proteins involved in the oxidative stress response in P. brasiliensis yeast cells were also up-regulated during macrophage infection, including superoxide dismutases (SOD, thioredoxins (THX and cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP. Antisense knockdown mutants evaluated the importance of CCP during macrophage infection. The results suggested that CCP is involved in a complex system of protection against oxidative stress and that gene silencing of this component of the antioxidant system diminished the survival of P. brasiliensis in macrophages and in a murine model of infection.

  1. Interação de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis com células endoteliais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J.S. Mendes-Giannini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A paracoccidioidomicose apresenta um amplo espectro de manifestações clínicas e Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, seu agente etiológico, pode atingir vários tecidos com ênfase ao pulmão. A migração de fungos patogênicos através da camada de células endoteliais é considerada pré-requisito para a invasão de múltiplos órgãos e sua disseminação. No presente estudo verificou-se a adesão de P. brasiliensis às células endoteliais in vitro e se esta adesão poderia representar um mecanismo para a disseminação do fungo. Para tanto, além da técnica convencional de microscopia ótica, uma outra metodologia foi desenvolvida, emblocando os cordões umbilicais em parafina, no intuito de detectar o fungo presente no material (in vivo. Experimento de migração de P. brasiliensis através da monocamada de células endoteliais também foi realizado, e nos poços sem células, a migração de células leveduriformes foi maior em menor período de tempo. Os fungos conseguiram passar através da monocamada, quando comparados com o controle sem as células, mas com redução em torno de 30%. Isso mostra que a monocamada foi parcialmente impediente para o fungo, mas que este foi capaz de migrar através dessas células. Em nossos experimentos com estas células, houve grande dificuldade de se encontrar P. brasiliensis aderido ao tapete celular nos períodos de tempo padronizados. Sugere-se com esses resultados que o fungo atravessa as células endoteliais de uma maneira muito rápida, que não pode ser detectada através do cultivo in vitro. Portanto, P. brasiliensis teria capacidade de atravessar rapidamente as células endoteliais e provavelmente alcançar tecidos mais profundos. Palavras-chave: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, células endoteliais, migração.

  2. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated

  3. Human cloning and child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, J; Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an objection to human cloning which appeals to the welfare of the child. This objection varies according to the sort of harm it is expected the clone will suffer. The three formulations of it that we will consider are: 1. Clones will be harmed by the fearful or prejudicial attitudes people may have about or towards them (H1); 2. Clones will be harmed by the demands and expectations of parents or genotype donors (H2); 3. Clones will be harmed by their own awareness of their origins, for example the knowledge that the genetic donor is a stranger (H3). We will show why these three versions of the child welfare objection do not necessarily supply compelling reasons to ban human reproductive cloning. The claim that we will develop and defend in the course of our discussion is that even if it is the case that a cloned child will suffer harms of the type H1-H3, it is none the less permissible to conceive by cloning so long as these cloning-induced welfare deficits are not such as to blight the existence of the resultant child, whoever this may be. PMID:10226914

  4. Identification and Evaluation of Clinically Significant Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum Strains Using Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry (PyMS)

    OpenAIRE

    IŞIK, Kamil; KARİPTAŞ, Ergin; ŞAHİN, Nevzat

    2001-01-01

    Out of a total of thirty-nine Nocardia strains, eight species of N. brasiliensis, seventeen species of N. farcinica and fourteen species of N. otitidiscaviarum were identified using Pyrolysis mass spectrometry. N428, N477 N. brasiliensis; N669, N233 N. farcinica; and N231, N232 N. otitidiscaviarum duplicated strains were clustered in their own groups. Strains belonging to Nocardia brasiliensis, Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia otitidiscaviarum formed distinct pyrogroups corresponding to cluste...

  5. Age and growth of the southeastern Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Anita Saccardo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian sardine datawere collected between September 1981 and August 1982 from the southeastern Brazilian waters. Otoliths were read using reflected ligth on the surface of the whole structure. Three methods were used to determine the time of ring formation, being the mean length per ring the best one. There are two annual rings clearly visible, one laid down in November/December, and the other one laid down in March/April. A method of age determination is described, being the maximum age 3 years.A idade da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis foi determinada pelo exame de otólitos de exemplares provenientes de desembarques da pesca comercial e artesanal, na área compreendida entre 22ºS (Cabo Frio, RJ e 28ºS (Cabo de Santa Marta, Grande, SC, durante o período 1981-83. Este estudo e parte de um programa mais amplo de nominado "Programa Integrado de Estu dos Biológicos sobre Sardinha", desenvolvido na região sudeste do Brasil desde 1981, objetivando conhecer as variações dos parâmetros biológicos da espécie, e fornecer subsídios a avaliação pesqueira do recurso. Foram contados os anéis translúcidos dos otolitos, colocados inteiros em recipientes de fundo preto, imersos em álcool 70% e iluminados com luz incidente sob estereomicroscópio binocular. Além das contagens, foram efetuadas medidas das distancias do núcleo do otolito ao bordo, e do núcleo a cada anél translúcido, bem como observações da natureza do bordo. Foram utilizados três métodos para determinar a época e periodicidade de formação dos anéis. Os parâmetros de crescimento L, K e t0 foram estimados, e as curvas ajustadas usando-se a equação de von Bertalanffy. Os resultados mostraram que os otolitos possuem de 0 a 7 anéis, sendo formados dois anéis por ano: um entre novembro-dezembro, e outro entre março-abril. Estas épocas estão intimamente ligadas ao período de reprodução. Descreveu-se um método para a determinação da idade de sardinha, tendo

  6. Lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis: a case report and review of primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis reported in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hidetsugu; Saotome, Atsuko; Usami, Nao; Urushibata, Osamu; Mukai, Hideki

    2008-06-01

    Nocardiosis is a mixed suppurative and granulomatous inflammatory disease caused by infection with Nocardia organisms, a group of aerobic actinomycetes. We recently encountered a 25-year-old woman with posttraumatic nocardiosis of the lower extremities. The clinical symptoms noted during her first visit included erythematous swelling of the right knee accompanied by white maceration of the center of the knee and erosions, shallow ulcers and satellite pustules. In addition, multiple erythematous areas (up to the size of the tip of the thumb) were linearly distributed on the right thigh. These lesions were painful, and right inguinal lymphadenopathy was also noted. No lesion was found in internal organs such as the lungs. Histopathologically, signs of nonspecific granulomatous inflammation were observed, as well as several filamentous branching bacilli positive on Grocott stain. The organisms isolated from culture of pus were acid-fast, Gram-positive long rods. The isolated strain was finally identified as Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient was therefore diagnosed with lymphocutaneous type of primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by N. brasiliensis. Drip infusion of flomoxef sodium was initially performed to treat her condition. Because of exacerbation of erythematous swelling of the right knee and an increase in number of pustules, treatment was switched to oral minocycline hydrochloride therapy. The disease healed 9 weeks after the start of oral minocycline hydrochloride therapy. Our patient was free of systemic immunosuppression and was neither under 10 nor over 65 years of age. She may therefore be considered a rare case of lymphocutaneous type of nocardiosis. We present this case and discuss reported cases of primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to N. brasiliensis in Japan.

  7. Transcript Profiling of Hevea brasiliensis during Latex Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinquan Chao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Latex exploitation enhances latex regeneration in rubber trees. The latex exploitation-caused latex flow lasts from 10 min to a few hours, which is convenient for exploring the transcript profiling of latex metabolism-related genes at the different stages of latex flow. In the present study, the expression pattern of 62 latex metabolism-related genes involved in water transportation, carbohydrate metabolism, natural rubber biosynthesis, hormone signaling, ROS generation and scavenging, and latex coagulum across three stages of latex flow between rubber tree clones CATAS7-33-97 and CATAS8-79 were comparatively analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The two clones show differences in latex regeneration and have a different duration of latex flow. The results showed that the expression levels of 38 genes were significantly higher in CATAS8-79 latex than in CATAS7-33-97 during latex regeneration, while 45 genes had a notably higher expression level in CATAS8-79 latex during latex flow. Together with the activation of the MEP pathway and jasmonate pathway in CATAS8-79 latex, HbPIP1;3, HbPIP1;4, HbSUT3, HbSus3, HbHMGS1-2, HbMK should contribute to the high latex regeneration ability. The up-regulation of ethylene signaling and Hb44KD and the down-regulation of latex coagulation-related genes in CATAS8-79 latex might contribute to its longer latex flow duration. This study provides some cues for revealing the regulation of latex metabolism in rubber trees.

  8. PCR with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis specific primers: potential use in ecological studies PCR com «primers» específicos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: uso potencial em estudos ecológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DÍEZ

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The precise microenvironment of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has not yet been discovered perhaps because the methods used are not sensitive enough. We applied to this purpose the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using three sets of specific primers corresponding to two P. brasiliensis genes. This fungus as well as several other fungi, were grown and their DNA obtained by mechanical disruption and a phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol-based purification method. The DNA served for a PCR reaction that employed specific primers from two P. brasiliensis genes that codify for antigenic proteins, namely, the 27 kDa and the 43 kDa. The lowest detection range for the 27 kDa gene was 3 pg. The amplification for both genes was positive only with DNA from P. brasiliensis; additionally, the mRNA for the 27 kDa gene was present only in P. brasiliensis, as indicated by the Northern analysis. The standardization of PCR technology permitted the amplification of P. brasiliensis DNA in artificially contaminated soils and in tissues of armadillos naturally infected with the fungus. These results indicate that PCR technology could play an important role in the search for P. brasiliensis’ habitat and could also be used in other ecological studies.O microambiente adequado do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis não foi ainda bem esclarecido, talvez porque os métodos utilizados não sejam suficientemente sensíveis. Aplicamos com este propósito, a reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR usando três jogos de primers específicos do P. brasiliensis, correspondendo a dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis. Este fungo, assim como outros fungos, foram cultivados e seus DNAs obtidos por ruptura mecânica e purificados com mistura de fenol-clorofórmio com álcool isoamílico. Os DNAs serviram para a reação de PCR utilizando-se primers específicos para dois dos genes do P. brasiliensis que codificam para as proteínas antigênicas, denominadas, 27 kDa e 43 kDa. O limite mínimo de

  9. Adherencia de levaduras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a proteínas de matriz extracelular: resultados preliminares

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    Luz Elena Cano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La adhesión de los microorganismos a células del hospedero o a proteínas de matriz extracelular (PMEC, representa el primer paso
    para establecer un proceso infeccioso (1. Así, se ha determinado que
    propágulas de hongos de importancia clínica se unen a diferentes
    PMEC. Recientemente se ha demostrado que conidias y micelios de
    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis se unen a PMEC tales como laminina,
    fibrinógeno y fibronectina (2. Hasta el momento no se conoce cuál
    es la interacción entre levaduras de P. brasiliensis y PMEC.

  10. Microsatellites for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a useful species for agroforestry and ecosystem conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Flora; Alves, Jackeline S; Gaiotto, Fernanda A

    2015-12-01

    We developed microsatellite markers for Carpotroche brasiliensis (Flacourtiaceae), a dioecious tree that is used as a food resource by midsize animals of the Brazilian fauna. We designed 30 primer pairs using next-generation sequencing and classified 25 pairs as polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.5 to 1.0, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.418 to 0.907. The combined probability of exclusion was greater than 0.999 and the combined probability of identity was less than 0.001, indicating that these microsatellites are appropriate for investigations of genetic structure, individual identification, and paternity testing. The developed molecular tools may contribute to future studies of population genetics, answering ecological and evolutionary questions regarding efficient conservation strategies for C. brasiliensis.

  11. In Vitro Comparison of Activities of Terbinafine and Itraconazole against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R. C.; Fontes, C. J. F.; Batista, R. D.; Hamdan, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro, terbinafine is highly active against a broad spectrum of pathogenic fungi. We evaluated the activities of terbinafine and itraconazole against 31 isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The tests were conducted by using a broth macrodilution procedure. MICs, in micrograms per milliliter, were as follows: terbinafine, 0.015 to 1.0 (geometric mean, 0.1188); itraconazole, 0.007 to 0.5 (geometric mean, 0.03165). The usual therapy for paracoccidioidomycosis is sulfonamides, amphotericin B, and azole derivatives (ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole). In comparison to amphotericin B, azole derivatives allow shorter treatment courses, can be administered orally, and are equally effective. Itraconazole has as high efficacy as ketoconazole, but with superior tolerance. It is the current drug of choice for treatment of paracoccidioidomycosis. The data obtained in this study indicate that terbinafine is active against P. brasiliensis in vitro and suggest that this allylamine can be considered a new option as drug therapy for paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:12149337

  12. Studies in the genus Hevea. VIII. Notes on Infraspecific variants of Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, R.E.

    Supplying 98% of the world's natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis has transformed life around the world in only a century. This species - one of 10 in its genus - gives the best natural rubber, but much more remains to be studied concerning the numerous localized strains of the species. The British introduced to the orient seeds from the lower Amazon - representatives of a not superior ecotype of the species but, at that time a century ago, the only available germ plasm. The time for study of the intraspecific variants of H. brasiliensis and their use in programs of genetic manipulation of the genus is long overdue. But basic to this desired program is a clear taxonomic understanding of infraspecific variants, still awaiting evaluation. Although numerous taxonomic treatments of subspecific variants have been offered, there is little available to give genetic programs concrete information.

  13. Metal pollution assessment in a Brazilian hydroelectric reservoir: Geophagus brasiliensis as a suitable bioindicator organism

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    Halina Binde Doria

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Vossoroca is a reservoir in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Although it is located near big cities and can be used as a human water supply, it has remained unstudied. Concentrations of toxic metals and arsenic in sediments, water, liver, gills, and muscle of Geophagus brasiliensis from the reservoir were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Histological analyses were performed on the gills and the livers using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, respectively. The results showed that Vossoroca sediments were moderately polluted by copper, chromium, nickel and arsenic. Cadmium was above legal limits in the water. Histopathological assessment revealed epithelial alterations in the secondary lamella to be the most common abnormality observed in the gills and necrosis, melanomacrophage centers in the livers. In conclusion, although the reservoir is located in an Environmental Protection Area, it is negatively affected by human activity. Further, Geophagus brasiliensis was a suitable bioindicator for metal pollution studies.

  14. Activity of novel oxazolidinones against Nocardia brasiliensis growing within THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Espinoza-González, Nelly A; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2009-11-01

    Nocardia are organisms that can escape the effects of both immune response and antimicrobial agents, due to their potential capacity to grow intracellularly. In previous studies, we found that experimental oxazolidinones, DA-7157 and DA-7218, are active both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we compare the ability of linezolid, DA-7157 and DA-7218 to inhibit intracellular growth of Nocardia brasiliensis within the human monocyte cell line THP-1. The addition of oxazolidinones to the infected macrophage monolayer at concentrations 0.25x, 1x, 4x and 16x the MIC for N. brasiliensis resulted in an inhibitory effect on bacterial growth as follows DA-7157 > or = DA-7218 > linezolid. The excellent intracellular antimicrobial activity detected suggests that these compounds could be effective in the treatment of actinomycetoma. However, more studies are needed both in vitro and in vivo, including clinical trials, to confirm this issue.

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of Antimicrobials against Nocardia brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Flores, Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Tavarez-Alejandro, Roman Erick; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2004-01-01

    In Mexico mycetomas are mostly produced by Nocardia brasiliensis, which can be isolated from about 86% of cases. In the present work, we determined the sensitivities of 30 N. brasiliensis strains isolated from patients with mycetoma to several groups of antimicrobials. As a first screening step we carried out disk diffusion assays with 44 antimicrobials, including aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, penicillins, quinolones, macrolides, and some others. In these assays we observed that some antimicrobials have an effect on more than 66% of the strains: linezolid, amikacin, gentamicin, isepamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, minocycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, nitroxolin, and spiramycin. Drug activity was confirmed quantitatively by the broth microdilution method. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, linezolid, and amikacin, which have been used to treat patients, were tested in an experimental model of mycetoma in BALB/c mice in order to validate the in vitro results. Linezolid showed the highest activity in vivo, followed by the combination amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amikacin. PMID:14982772

  16. Phytotoxic potential of Drimys brasiliensis Miers for use in weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Anese

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the phytotoxicity potential of leaf and root extracts of Drimys brasiliensis on the germination and seedling growth of Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla and its influence on metaxylem cell size in the seedling roots of the latter specie. The leaf and root extracts were fractionated by partition chromatography, and the hexane and ethyl acetate fractions obtained from each organ were evaluated at different concentrations for phytotoxic activity in several bioassays. In seedling growth tests, we compared the effects of these fractions with the herbicide oxyfluorfen. The hexane fraction of the root extracts showed a higher inhibitory potential on the germination and growth of weeds and reduced the average size of the metaxylem cells of E. heterophylla roots by more than 50%.The inhibitory effects of the root hexane fraction on seedling growth was similar to the herbicide, indicating that D. brasiliensis is a possible alternative form of control for the weed species examined.

  17. Preliminary Investigation into Tree Dryness in Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. Ex Adr. De Juss Muell. Arg. by Path Analysis of Tree Dryness and Latex Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokhafe, KO.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlative path analysis between tree dryness and four latex parameters was studied in eleven clones of Hevea brasiliensis. The latex parameters used for evaluation were initial volume, initial flow rate, final volume and plugging index with tree dryness as the dependent factor. Estimates of direct and indirect effects of each of the latex parameters on tree dryness were calculated through linear correlation and path analysis. The correlation coefficient between initial volume and initial flow rate was 1.00 and both characters had the same correlation coefficients with other latex parameters and tree dryness. This implies that initial volume and initial flow rate are alternatives for evaluation of correlation between latex parameters and tree dryness. There was significant correlation between initial volume, initial flow rate and tree dryness at V = -0.52 and high indirect effect of initial volume and initial flow rate through final volume. In addition, despite the low correlation coefficient of V = -0.20 between final volume and tree dryness, the direct effect of final volume on tree dryness was high at 0.812. Final volume is therefore an important factor in the incidence of tree dryness.

  18. [The discrete horror of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibourg, Ricardo A

    2009-01-01

    The author raises the topic of cloning after the decision of the Argentine government, which concerned for the "dignity of the human person", passed a decree of need and urgency, No. 200/97 (Annex), prohibiting cloning experiments with human beings. Therefore, considering that the topic is so terribly urgent and necessary, the author feels it is timely to consider it.

  19. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Dias, Maria Adelaide Galvão; da Silva, Elisabete Aparecida; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-11-19

    Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas. We describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic. The fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis

  20. Cathepsin L of Triatoma brasiliensis (Reduviidae, Triatominae): sequence characterization, expression pattern and zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniek, Peter J; Pacheco Costa, Juliana E; Jansen, Ana M; Costa, Jane; Araújo, Catarina A C

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the main vectors of Chagas disease commonly found in semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil. These insects use proteases, such as carboxypeptidase B, aminopeptidases and different cathepsins for blood digestion. In the present study, two genes encoding cathepsin L from the midgut of T. brasiliensis were identified and characterized. Mature T. brasiliensis cathepsin L-like proteinases (TBCATL-1, TBCATL-2) showed a high level of identity to the cathepsin L-like proteinases of other insects, with highest similarity to Rhodnius prolixus. Both cathepsin L transcripts were highly abundant in the posterior midgut region, the main region of the blood digestion. Determination of the pH in the whole intestine of unfed T. brasiliensis revealed alkaline conditions in the anterior midgut region (stomach) and acidic conditions in the posterior midgut region (small intestine). Gelatine in-gel zymography showed the activity of at least four distinct proteinases in the small intestine and the cysteine proteinase inhibitors transepoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and cathepsin B inhibitor and N-(l-3-trans-propylcarbamoyl-oxirane-2-carbonyl)-l-isoleucyl-l-proline (CA-074) were employed to characterize enzymatic activity. E-64 fully inhibited cysteine proteinase activity, whereas in the samples treated with CA-074 residual proteinase activity was detectable. Thus, proteolytic activity could at least partially be ascribed to cathepsin L. Western blot analysis using specific anti cathepsin L antibodies confirmed the presence of cathepsin L in the lumen of the small intestine of the insects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Importance of xenarthrans in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Pedrini Silvia CB

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several pathogens that cause important zoonotic diseases have been frequently associated with armadillos and other xenarthrans. This mammal group typically has evolved on the South American continent and many of its extant species are seriously threatened with extinction. Natural infection of armadillos with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in hyperendemic areas has provided a valuable opportunity for understanding the role of this mammal in the eco-epidemiology of Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Findings This study aimed to detect P. brasiliensis in different xenarthran species (Dasypus novemcinctus, Cabassous spp., Euphractus sexcinctus, Tamandua tetradactyla and Myrmecophaga tridactyla, by molecular and mycological approaches, in samples obtained by one of the following strategies: i from road-killed animals (n = 6; ii from naturally dead animals (n = 8; iii from animals that died in captivity (n = 9; and iv from living animals captured from the wild (n = 2. Specific P. brasiliensis DNA was detected in several organs among 7/20 nine-banded armadillos (D. novemcinctus and in 2/2 anteaters (M. tridactyla. The fungus was also cultured in tissue samples from one of two armadillos captured from the wild. Conclusion Members of the Xenarthra Order, especially armadillos, have some characteristics, including a weak cellular immune response and low body temperature, which make them suitable models for studying host-pathogen interaction. P. brasiliensis infection in wild animals, from PCM endemic areas, may be more common than initially postulated and reinforces the use of these animals as sentinels for the pathogen in the environment.

  2. Radiometric detection of metabolic activity of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and its susceptibility to amphotericin B and Diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Sato, M.K.; Del Negro, G.M.B.; Lacaz, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been applied to study the metabolic activity and the effect of drugs (amphotericin B and diethylstilbestrol) on the fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis ''in vitro''. The Y form of the yeast, grown in liquid Sabouraud medium was inoculated into sterile reaction vials containing the 6B aerobic medium along with 2.0μCi of 14 C-substrates. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. [Scientific ethics of human cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Carlos Y

    2005-01-01

    True cloning is fission, budding or other types of asexual reproduction. In humans it occurs in monozygote twinning. This type of cloning is ethically and religiously good. Human cloning can be performed by twinning (TWClo) or nuclear transfer (NTClo). Both methods need a zygote or a nuclear transferred cell, obtained in vitro (IVTec). They are under the IVTec ethics. IVTecs use humans (zygotes, embryos) as drugs or things; increase the risk of malformations; increase development and size of abnormalities and may cause long-term changes. Cloning for preserving extinct (or almost extinct) animals or humans when sexual reproduction is not possible is ethically valid. The previous selection of a phenotype in human cloning violates some ethical principles. NTClo for reproductive or therapeutic purposes is dangerous since it increases the risk for nucleotide or chromosome mutations, de-programming or re-programming errors, aging or malignancy of the embryo cells thus obtained.

  4. Preserving and Maintaining Culinary-Medicinal Royal Sun Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), in Sterile Distilled Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Del-Rlo, L M; Montoya, Sandra; Sepulveda-Arias, J C

    2017-01-01

    Strains of Agaricus brasiliensis require special procedures for conservation. Thus, the objective of this research was to establish conservation and maintenance procedures A. brasiliensis strain PSWC838 from the University of Pennsylvania (ABWC838) and an A. brasiliensis strain from the Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (ABC). The medium in which mycelia grew the quickest for both strains was selected using a multifactorial design with 2 strains, 4 culture media, and incubation for 5 different times; the growth rate (mm/day) was the response variable. Analysis of variance showed that the potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and potato extract did not display a significantly different growth rate, and PDA was selected for safety reasons. We also evaluated the viability of the strains grown on PDA and 0.2% activated carbon after 3 months of storage in sterile distilled water. A factorial design was applied with 2 factors, the strain and incubation for 10 different times. The Tukey post hoc test indicated that ABC showed quicker and more homogeneous growth than ABWC838. Finally, the results showed that pieces of mycelium of ABC and ABWC838 strains inoculated on the PDA medium with 0.2% activated carbon and preserved in sterile distilled water at 18 ± 1°C showed 100% viability after 3 months of storage. Moreover, the results of semiquantitative biochemical tests confirmed that the production of laccases and amylases was preserved in these strains after storage in sterile water, enhancing their ability to degrade substrates containing lignin and starchy waste.

  5. Royal Sun Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Agaricomycetes), Supplement in Training Capacity Improvement Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flávio F; de Oliveira, Guilherme A C; Costa, Hugo C Martins; Regis, Wiliam C B

    2017-01-01

    People seek a greater quality of life and healthy aging that culminates in improved self-esteem and vitality in the performance of daily activities; this is generating a growing number of people enrolled in gyms in search of quick results. However, this training can result in physical and metabolic damage. During physical exercise, under conditions of oxidative stress, changes take place that lead to the onset of fatigue. The Agaricus brasiliensis mushroom is native to Brazil and has therapeutic potential, with widely studied antioxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities. However, little is known about its potential benefits regarding muscular strength. Therefore, this study evaluated the possible effects of supplementation with this mushroom with respect to strength performance before and after a resistance training session. A blinded randomized trial was performed with male volunteers (n = 5) randomly divided into 2 groups (placebo and treatment with A. brasiliensis). Perceptions of muscle soreness and performance were assessed before and after high-intensity resistance training sessions. The study was executed over a 24-day period. Promising results were found related to intrasession rapid strength, most likely a result of antioxidant action and redox balance. The bioactive compounds in A. brasiliensis revealed the potential to improve conditions of muscle fatigue without altering other parameters. Thus, this mushroom has become a target of great expectations in the fields of fitness and athletics.

  6. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

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    Tito Aureliano

    Full Text Available Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force. The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.

  7. Ecotope effect in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) suggests phenotypic plasticity rather than adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, V S P; Fernandes, F A; Cordeiro-Estrela, P; Sarquis, O; Lima, M M

    2013-09-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is an important vector of Chagas' disease in both sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes. Discriminating between these populations of Triatominae has been proposed as a means of investigating re-infestation rates of human dwellings. Geometric morphometrics have been widely applied in the study of Triatominae polymorphisms at species and population levels. This study characterizes morphometric differences between sylvatic and peridomestic populations, as well as between sexes in T. brasiliensis specimens from Jaguaruana, Ceará, in northeastern Brazil. No differences in either the shape or size of the cephalic capsule were apparent between sexes or ecotopes. However, the wings showed differentiation in shape and size. Sexual dimorphism was detected, with females presenting significantly higher values and conformations. Size differentiation was also evident, with sylvatic specimens being generally larger than peridomestic examples. These results indicate that differences in the wings of T. brasiliensis may be related to the existence of phenotypic plasticity, and variations in size and shape may be associated with different ecotopes, possibly as a result of conditions in each micro-habitat, such as temperature, relative humidity, food supply and density. © 2012 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Dendritic Cells Primed with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Peptide P10 Are Therapeutic in Immunosuppressed Mice with Paracoccidioidomycosis

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    Leandro B. R. Silva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America, with the highest prevalence in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. Fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus are etiologic agents of the disease. The 15 amino acid peptide P10 is derived from gp43, the main diagnostic antigen of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. We previously reported that P10-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs induce a protective response against P. brasiliensis. Presently, dexamethasone-treated BALB/c mice were intratracheally infected with P. brasiliensis Pb18 to establish the therapeutic efficacy of P10-pulsed DCs. Immunosuppressed and infected animals that received DCs had a reduction in their fungal burden, and this result was most pronounced in mice receiving DCs primed with P10. The efficacy of therapeutic DCs was significantly augmented by concomitant treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Additionally, primed-DCs with or without the antifungal drug induced a beneficial Th1-biased immune response and significantly reduced tissue damage. In conclusion, these studies with immunocompromised mice demonstrate that P10-pulsed DCs with or without concomitant antifungal drugs are potently effective in combating invasive PCM. These findings support further translational studies to validate the use of P10-primed DCs for PCM in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts.

  9. Exploring potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates of varying virulence through quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Daniele G; Chaves, Alison F A; Xander, Patricia; Zelanis, André; Kitano, Eduardo S; Serrano, Solange M T; Tashima, Alexandre K; Batista, Wagner L

    2014-10-03

    Few virulence factors have been identified for Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis. In this study, we quantitatively evaluated the protein composition of P. brasiliensis in the yeast phase using minimal and rich media to obtain a better understanding of its virulence and to gain new insights into pathogen adaptation strategies. This analysis was performed on two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles in B10.A mice. Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis, we identified and quantified 316 proteins in minimal medium, 29 of which were overexpressed in virulent Pb18. In rich medium, 29 out of 295 proteins were overexpressed in the virulent fungus. Three proteins were found to be up-regulated in both media, suggesting the potential roles of these proteins in virulence regulation in P. brasiliensis. Moreover, genes up-regulated in virulent Pb18 showed an increase in its expression after the recovery of virulence of attenuated Pb18. Proteins up-regulated in both isolates were grouped according to their functional categories. Virulent Pb18 undergoes metabolic reorganization and increased expression of proteins involved in fermentative respiration. This approach allowed us to identify potential virulence regulators and provided a foundation for achieving a molecular understanding of how Paracoccidioides modulates the host-pathogen interaction to its advantage.

  10. Anatomy of the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis (Cuvier, 1817 (Pisces, Characidae, Salmininae

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    Eliane Menin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The bucco-pharyngeal cavity of Salminus brasiliensis, an ichthyophagous species of fresh water, is anatomically adapted to predation. The wide buccal rift, the oral-aboral enlargement of the buccal cavity and the reduced thickness of the pharyngeal mastigatory apparatus favor the capture and deglutition of larger prey. In function of the oral and pharyngeal dentition type, pre-digestive food preparation does not occur. The pointed and curved teeth, together with the tongue which is relatively mobile, prevent the prey’s escape from the buccopharyngeal cavity. The passage of the food is facilitated by the absence of pronounced folds in the mucous membrane of this cavity and by the disposition of the oral and pharyngeal teeth. The characteristics of flat and thin lips, developed oral dentition, relatively mobile tongue, mucous membrane without folds, pharynx with denticules disposed in dentigerous areas and plates, and short and sharp gill-rackers are anatomical adaptations which are shared by S. brasiliensis and other ichthyophagous Characiformes species such as Salminus maxillosus, Salminus hilarii, Hoplias malabaricus, Hoplias lacerdae, Acestrorhynchus lacustris and Acestrorhynchus britskii. However, different to the mentioned species, except other Salmininae, S. brasiliensis possesses oral teeth of an unique type, present only in the jawbones and distributed in two series.

  11. Nocardia brasiliensis induces formation of foamy macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Meester

    Full Text Available Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM or DC (BMDC were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE. Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection.

  12. Immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis extracellular antigens in patients with mycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Matteotti, Bárbara; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Rendón, Adrián; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Welsh, Oliverio

    2008-03-01

    The ability of culture-filtrate proteins to induce a cellular immune response in infected mice and humans was investigated. A crude extract culture filtrate of Nocardia brasiliensis (CFA) and five semi-purified CFA fractions (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5) were used to stimulate BALB/c mice spleen-cell cultures. The animals were divided into three groups: the first group was infected with 1 x 10(7) CFU of N. brasiliensis in the footpad, the second group was immunized with heat-killed bacteria, and the third was injected with sterile saline. IFN-gamma, IL-1alpha, and IL-4 concentrations were determined in culture supernatants. Protein fractions eliciting IFN-gamma production in mice, as well as the CFA, were used to stimulate IFN-gamma production and in vitro cell proliferation assays with peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with actinomycetoma by N. brasiliensis, individuals with pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy controls. In mice, CFA and three of the protein fractions (P3, P4 and P5) induced significant IFN-gamma production in the infected group. In humans, only the CFA-induced IFN-gamma production and cell proliferation in the group of patients with actinomycetoma. There was no stimulation in tuberculosis patients nor healthy controls. These results suggest that some culture-filtrate antigens are recognized by patients with active actinomycetoma and do not cross-react with M. tuberculosis antigens, being therefore potential candidates to develop a diagnostic test.

  13. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer-Chávez, Janeth A; Welsh, Oliverio; Lozano-Garza, Hector G; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Romero-Díaz, Víktor J; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2011-10-26

    Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130). The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  14. Nocardia brasiliensis induces formation of foamy macrophages and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meester, Irene; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Foamy cells have been described in various infectious diseases, for example in actinomycetoma induced by Nocardia brasiliensis. These cells are generally considered to be macrophages, although they present dendritic cell (DC)-specific surface markers. In this study, we determined and confirmed the lineage of possible precursors of foamy cells in vitro and in vivo using an experimental actinomycetoma model in BALB/c mice. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) or DC (BMDC) were infected in vitro with N. brasiliensis or labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Both, macrophages and DC, differentiated into foamy cells after in vitro infection. CFSE-labeled BMDM or BMDC were tested for phagocytosis and CD11c/CD11b receptors markers expression before being transferred into the actinomycetoma lesion site of infected mice. In vivo studies showed that BMDM and BMDC were traced at the site where foamy cells are present in the experimental actinomycetoma. Interestingly, many of the transferred BMDM and BMDC were stained with the lipid-droplet fluorophore Nile Red. In conclusion, macrophages and DC cells can be differentiated into foamy cells in vitro and in vivo during N. brasiliensis infection.

  15. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  16. Animal cloning: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, D N

    2005-04-01

    An efficient animal cloning technology would provide many new opportunities for livestock agriculture, human medicine, and animal conservation. Nuclear cloning involves the production of animals that are genetically identical to the donor cells used in a technique known as nuclear transfer (NT). However, at present it is an inefficient process: in cattle, only around 6% of the embryos transferred to the reproductive tracts of recipient cows result in healthy, longterm surviving clones. Of concern are the high losses throughout gestation, during birth and in the post-natal period through to adulthood. Many of the pregnancy losses relate to failure of the placenta to develop and function correctly. Placental dysfunction may also have an adverse influence on postnatal health. These anomalies are probably due to incorrect epigenetic reprogramming of the donor genome following NT, leading to inappropriate patterns of gene expression during the development of clones. Whilst some physiological tests on surviving clones suggest normality, other reports indicate a variety of post-natal clone-associated abnormalities. This variability in outcome may reflect species-specific and/or cloning methodological differences. Importantly, to date it appears that these clone-associated phenotypes are not transmitted to offspring following sexual reproduction. This indicates that they represent epigenetic errors, rather than genetic errors, which are corrected during gametogenesis. Whilst this needs confirmation at the molecular level, it provides initial confidence in the first application of NT in agriculture, namely, the production of small numbers of cloned sires from genetically elite bulls, for natural mating, to effectively disseminate genetic gain. In addition to the animal welfare concerns with the technology, the underlying health of the animals and the consequential effect on food safety are critical aspects that require investigation to gain regulatory and consumer

  17. Human cloning: can it be made safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, Susan M; Taylor, Jane E; De Sousa, Paul A; King, Tim J; McGarry, Michelle; Wilmut, Ian

    2003-11-01

    There are continued claims of attempts to clone humans using nuclear transfer, despite the serious problems that have been encountered in cloning other mammals. It is known that epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are involved in clone failure, but we still do not know exactly how. Human reproductive cloning is unethical, but the production of cells from cloned embryos could offer many potential benefits. So, can human cloning be made safe?

  18. Nocardia brasiliensis cell wall lipids modulate macrophage and dendritic responses that favor development of experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Villarreal, J Humberto; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Valero-Guillén, Pedro L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C

    2012-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium frequently isolated from human actinomycetoma. However, the pathogenesis of this infection remains unknown. Here, we used a model of bacterial delipidation with benzine to investigate the role of N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids in experimental actinomycetoma. Delipidation of N. brasiliensis with benzine resulted in complete abolition of actinomycetoma without affecting bacterial viability. Chemical analyses revealed that trehalose dimycolate and an unidentified hydrophobic compound were the principal compounds extracted from N. brasiliensis with benzine. By electron microscopy, the extracted lipids were found to be located in the outermost membrane layer of the N. brasiliensis cell wall. They also appeared to confer acid-fastness. In vitro, the extractable lipids from the N. brasiliensis cell wall induced the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CCL-2 in macrophages. The N. brasiliensis cell wall extractable lipids inhibited important macrophage microbicidal effects, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) production, phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) expression in response to gamma interferon (IFN-γ). In dendritic cells (DCs), N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated extractable lipids suppressed MHC-II, CD80, and CD40 expression while inducing tumor growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Immunization with delipidated N. brasiliensis induced partial protection preventing actinomycetoma. These findings suggest that N. brasiliensis cell wall-associated lipids are important for actinomycetoma development by inducing inflammation and modulating the responses of macrophages and DCs to N. brasiliensis.

  19. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  20. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  1. Human therapeutic cloning (NTSC): applying research from mammalian reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew J; Wood, Samuel H; Trounson, Alan O

    2006-01-01

    Human therapeutic cloning or nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSC) to produce patient-specific stem cells, holds considerable promise in the field of regenerative medicine. The recent withdrawal of the only scientific publications claiming the successful generation of NTSC lines afford an opportunity to review the available research in mammalian reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with the goal of progressing human NTSC. The process of SCNT is prone to epigenetic abnormalities that contribute to very low success rates. Although there are high mortality rates in some species of cloned animals, most surviving clones have been shown to have normal phenotypic and physiological characteristics and to produce healthy offspring. This technology has been applied to an increasing number of mammals for utility in research, agriculture, conservation, and biomedicine. In contrast, attempts at SCNT to produce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have been disappointing. Only one group has published reliable evidence of success in deriving a cloned human blastocyst, using an undifferentiated hESC donor cell, and it failed to develop into a hESC line. When optimal conditions are present, it appears that in vitro development of cloned and parthenogenetic embryos, both of which may be utilized to produce hESCs, may be similar to in vitro fertilized embryos. The derivation of ESC lines from cloned embryos is substantially more efficient than the production of viable offspring. This review summarizes developments in mammalian reproductive cloning, cell-to-cell fusion alternatives, and strategies for oocyte procurement that may provide important clues facilitating progress in human therapeutic cloning leading to the successful application of cell-based therapies utilizing autologous hESC lines.

  2. Proteins Potentially Involved in Immune Evasion Strategies in Sporothrix brasiliensis Elucidated by Ultra-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossato, Luana; Moreno, Leandro Ferreira; Jamalian, Azadeh; Stielow, Benjamin; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério; de Hoog, Sybren; Freeke, Joanna

    2018-06-27

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the prevalent agent of a large zoonotic outbreak in Brazil. With the involvement of several thousands of cases, this is the largest cohort of human and animal sporotrichosis on record in the world. Infections are characterized by local cutaneous dissemination in humans without underlying disease. S. brasiliensis has shown a high degree of virulence in a mouse model compared to the remaining Sporothrix species, including the ancestral species, Sporothrix schenckii The present paper investigates a genomic and expressed-proteome comparison of S. brasiliensis to S. schenckii Using bottom-up proteomics, we found 60 proteins exclusively expressed in S. brasiliensis No significant genomic differences were found among the genes coding for this protein set. A comparison with literature data identified nine proteins that are known to be involved in virulence and immune evasion in other species, several of which had not yet been reported for the Sporothrix species analyzed. IMPORTANCE Sporotrichosis is an important disease in Brazil that is caused by fungi of the genus Sporothrix and affects cats and humans. Our work investigated the proteins differentially expressed by S. brasiliensis in order to find out why this species is more virulent and pathogenic than S. schenckii We verified a set of proteins that may be related to immune escape and that can explain the high virulence. Copyright © 2018 Rossato et al.

  3. The malate synthase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a linked surface protein that behaves as an anchorless adhesin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Maristela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM. This is a pulmonary mycosis acquired by inhalation of fungal airborne propagules that can disseminate to several organs and tissues leading to a severe form of the disease. Adhesion and invasion to host cells are essential steps involved in the internalization and dissemination of pathogens. Inside the host, P. brasiliensis may use the glyoxylate cycle for intracellular survival. Results Here, we provide evidence that the malate synthase of P. brasiliensis (PbMLS is located on the fungal cell surface, and is secreted. PbMLS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibody was obtained against this protein. By using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, PbMLS was detected in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall of the mother, but mainly of budding cells of the P. brasiliensis yeast phase. PbMLSr and its respective polyclonal antibody produced against this protein inhibited the interaction of P. brasiliensis with in vitro cultured epithelial cells A549. Conclusion These observations indicated that cell wall-associated PbMLS could be mediating the binding of fungal cells to the host, thus contributing to the adhesion of fungus to host tissues and to the dissemination of infection, behaving as an anchorless adhesin.

  4. Oenothein B inhibits the expression of PbFKS1 transcript and induces morphological changes in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Glaciane D; Ferri, Pedro H; Santos, Suzana C; Bao, Sônia N; Soares, Célia M A; Pereira, Maristela

    2007-11-01

    The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), the most prevalent human systemic mycosis in Latin America. Drug toxicity and the appearance of resistant strains have created the need to search for new therapeutic approaches. Plants with reputed antimicrobial properties represent a rich screening source of potential antifungal compounds. In this work, the growth of P. brasiliensis yeast cells was evaluated in the presence of oenothein B extracted from Eugenia uniflora. The oenothein B dosage that most effectively inhibited the development (74%) of P. brasiliensis yeast cells in vitro was 500 microg/ml. To verify if oenothein B interferes with cell morphology, we observed oenothein B-treated yeast cells by electron microscopy. The micrographs showed characteristic cell changes noted with glucan synthesis inhibition, including squashing, rough surface, cell wall rupture and cell membrane recess. The expression of P. brasiliensis genes was evaluated in order to investigate the action of oenothein B. Here we report that oenothein B inhibits 1,3-beta-glucan synthase (PbFKS1) transcript accumulation. The results indicate that oenothein B interferes with the cell morphology of P. brasiliensis, probably by inhibiting the transcription of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase gene, which is involved in the cell wall synthesis.

  5. Nocardia brasiliensis Modulates IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-12 cytokine production by macrophages from BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Zúñiga, Juan M; Pérez-Rivera, Luz I; Segoviano-Ramírez, Juan C; Vázquez-Marmolejo, Anna V

    2009-05-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is a critical cytokine involved in control of different infections. Actinomycetoma is a chronic infectious disease mainly caused by the bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, which destroys subcutaneous tissue, including bone. Currently, the mechanism of pathogenesis in N. brasiliensis infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate that N. brasiliensis induced an IFN-gamma response in serum after 24 h of infection, while, in infected tissue, positive cells to IFN-gamma appeared in 2 early peaks: the first was present only 3 h after infection, then transiently decreased; and the second peak appeared 12 h after infection and was independent of interleukin-10. Resident macrophages produced an immediate IFN-gamma response 1 h after in vitro infection, and spleen-positive cells began later. The phase of growth of N. brasiliensis affected cytokine production, and exposure of macrophages to Nocardia opsonized with either polyclonal anti-Nocardia antibodies or anti-P61 monoclonal antibody led to a suppression of cytokine production. Our report provides evidence that N. brasiliensis as an intracellular bacterium modulates macrophage cytokine production, which helps survival of the pathogen. Modulation of these cytokines may contribute to pathogenesis once this bacterium is inside the macrophage.

  6. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila; Trevizani, Nathália Abreu Borges; Dias, Letícia Sena; Bezerra, Claudia Mendonça de; Melo, Bernardino Vaz de; Diotaiut, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD) to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL) was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph) of the SRL. The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50) that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  7. Efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis in vitro and in an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Moreno, Brenda Edith; Welsh, Oliverio; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; de la Luz Salazar-Cavazos, Maria; Garza-Lozano, Hector Gerardo; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of ciprofloxacin and moxifloxacin against Nocardia brasiliensis was evaluated by applying 25 mg of each drug/kg subcutaneously every 8 h in BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. A statistically significant difference was observed only with moxifloxacin. A moxifloxacin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole combination was as active as when each compound was used alone.

  8. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic effects of the royal sun mushroom, agaricus brasiliensis (Higher basidiomycetes) in human lymphocytes treated with thymol in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radaković, Milena; Stevanović, Jevrosima; Soković, Marina; Radović, Dejan; Griensven, Van Leo J.L.D.; Stanimirović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the possible protective activity of Agaricus brasiliensis (=A. blazei sensu Murrill) ethanol extract against thymol-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Before we studied the possible interaction of thymol and A. brasiliensis extract, each

  9. Acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Richardia brasiliensis Accumulation of biomass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Richardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.F. Pedrinho Júnior

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em condições de casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca, assim como a distribuição e o acúmulo de macronutrientes durante os ciclos de vida de plantas de soja cultivar BR16, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca, uma planta daninha de elevada importância para esta cultura no Brasil, especialmente em áreas de plantio direto, no período de outubro de 1998 a fevereiro de 1999. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Quatro plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros, preenchidos com areia de rio lavada, peneirada e irrigada diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem, realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 22, 36, 50, 64, 78, 92, 106, 120, 134, 148, 162 e 176 dias após a emergência (DAE das plantas de R. brasiliensis; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105 e 119 DAE das plantas de soja cv. BR-16 (precoce. Em ambas as plantas, as folhas tiveram a maior partição de biomassa durante sete semanas. Para este dado, a partição foi maior para as estruturas reprodutivas em soja e nos caules para a poaia-branca. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 104 DAE para a soja (36,6 g por planta e aos 146 DAE para a poaia-branca (16,4 g por planta. Da emergência até aos 50 DAE as folhas apresentaram maior participação no acúmulo de massa seca, nas duas espécies. Após 50 DAE notou-se, em ambas as espécies, uma inversão na representatividade das folhas por caules, para a espécie daninha, e por caules e posteriormente por estruturas reprodutivas, para a cultura. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 69 e 87 DAE para a soja e entre 106 a 111 DAE

  10. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal

    2011-01-01

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1→2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1→2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1→2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1→2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  11. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  12. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  13. Cloning of a quantum measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Sedlak, Michal [QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' and INFN, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); QUIT Group, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' A. Volta' ' via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy) and Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, SK-845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-10-15

    We analyze quantum algorithms for cloning of a quantum measurement. Our aim is to mimic two uses of a device performing an unknown von Neumann measurement with a single use of the device. When the unknown device has to be used before the bipartite state to be measured is available we talk about 1{yields}2 learning of the measurement, otherwise the task is called 1{yields}2 cloning of a measurement. We perform the optimization for both learning and cloning for arbitrary dimension d of the Hilbert space. For 1{yields}2 cloning we also propose a simple quantum network that achieves the optimal fidelity. The optimal fidelity for 1{yields}2 learning just slightly outperforms the estimate and prepare strategy in which one first estimates the unknown measurement and depending on the result suitably prepares the duplicate.

  14. A Clone of Your Own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Kirsten

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity used at the Washington Park Arboretum that helps students understand cloning through plant propagation. Students also learn how to make a pot from recycled newspapers and how to make soil that is appropriate for the plants. (DDR)

  15. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... safe to eat as food from conventionally bred animals. This conclusion stems from an extensive study of ...

  16. Islamic perspectives on human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mahmoud

    2007-01-01

    The present paper seeks to assess various views from Islamic jurists relating to human cloning, which is one of the controversial topics in the recent past. Taking Islamic jurisprudence principles, such as the rule of necessity for self preservation and respect for human beings, the rule of la darar wa la dirar ('the necessity to refrain from causing harm to oneself and others') and the rule of usr wa haraj, one may indicate that if human cloning could not be prohibited, as such, it could still be opposed because it gives way to various harmful consequences, which include family disorder, chaos in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers. However with due attention to the fact that the reasons behind the prohibition of abortion only restrict the destruction of human embryos in their post-implantation stages, human cloning for biomedical research and exploitation of stem cells from cloned embryos at the blastocyst stage for therapeutic purposes would be acceptable.

  17. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  18. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki

    2002-01-01

    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  19. Structured Review of Code Clone Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, W.T.B.; Ponisio, Laura; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a structured review of code clone literature. The aim of the review is to assemble a conceptual model of clone-related concepts which helps us to reason about clones. This conceptual model unifies clone concepts from a wide range of literature, so that findings

  20. Antibodies against glycolipids enhance antifungal activity of macrophages and reduce fungal burden after infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Amelia eBueno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  1. Growth trends, genotype-environment interaction and genetic gains in six-year-old rubber tree clones (Hevea in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Gonçalves Paulo de Souza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Budwood from seven different clones of rubber tree [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss. Müell. Arg.] was planted in replicated trials in four different test sites in the plateau region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The clones represented a range of imported germplasm, whereas the locations were selected to represent a range of rubber growing areas. Girths were measured for six years consecutively, before the initiation of tapping for latex. Total number of latex vessel rings (lvr and bark thickness (bt were measured at six years. The largest average for all characters was observed in Matão. Overall means for girth, total number of latex vessel rings and bark thickness at six years were 35.26 cm, 11.30 units and 4.83 mm, respectively. Both the test sites and clones showed statistically significant differences in girth, lvr and bt values. There were significant clone x site interactions. Girth at one year was not a reliable predictor of future field performance. Broad sense heritability for girth was 0.16, and for lvr and bt it was 0.28 and 0.40, respectively, at six years. Repeatability was quite high, from 0.52 to 0.75 for all characters in all years. When two clones out of seven were selected, expected genetic gain in girth was about 2.0%; for lvr and bt it was 7.0% and 14.6%, respectively.

  2. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  3. Differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and gp70 expression correlate with the virulence of Sporothrix brasiliensis clinical isolates.

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    Rafaela A Castro

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a chronic infectious disease affecting both humans and animals. For many years, this subcutaneous mycosis had been attributed to a single etiological agent; however, it is now known that this taxon consists of a complex of at least four pathogenic species, including Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis. Gp70 was previously shown to be an important antigen and adhesin expressed on the fungal cell surface and may have a key role in immunomodulation and host response. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphometry, cell surface topology and gp70 expression of clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis compared with two reference strains of S. schenckii. Several clinical isolates related to severe human cases or associated with the Brazilian zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis were genotyped and clustered as S. brasiliensis. Interestingly, in a murine subcutaneous model of sporotrichosis, these isolates showed a higher virulence profile compared with S. schenckii. A single S. brasiliensis isolate from an HIV-positive patient not only showed lower virulence but also presented differences in cell morphometry, cell wall topography and abundant gp70 expression compared with the virulent isolates. In contrast, the highly virulent S. brasiliensis isolates showed reduced levels of cell wall gp70. These observations were confirmed by the topographical location of the gp70 antigen using immunoelectromicroscopy in both species. In addition, the gp70 molecule was sequenced and identified using mass spectrometry, and the sequenced peptides were aligned into predicted proteins using Blastp with the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes.

  4. Detection of Antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Melanin in In Vitro and In Vivo Studies during Infection ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urán, Martha E.; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Restrepo, Angela; Hamilton, Andrew J.; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Cano, Luz E.

    2011-01-01

    Several cell wall constituents, including melanins or melanin-like compounds, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of microbial diseases caused by diverse species of pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and helminthes. Among these microorganisms, the dimorphic fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis produces melanin in its conidial and yeast forms. In the present study, melanin particles from P. brasiliensis were injected into BALB/c mice in order to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). We identified five immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) κ-chain and four IgM melanin-binding MAbs. The five IgG1 κ-chain isotypes are the first melanin-binding IgG MAbs ever reported. The nine MAbs labeled P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast cells both in vitro and in pulmonary tissues. The MAbs cross-reacted with melanin-like purified particles from other fungi and also with commercial melanins, such as synthetic and Sepia officinalis melanin. Melanization during paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) was also further supported by the detection of IgG antibodies reactive to melanin from P. brasiliensis conidia and yeast in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from P. brasiliensis-infected mice, as well as in sera from human patients with PCM. Serum specimens from patients with other mycoses were also tested for melanin-binding antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cross-reactivities were detected for melanin particles from different fungal sources. These results suggest that melanin from P. brasiliensis is an immunologically active fungal structure that activates a strong IgG humoral response in humans and mice. PMID:21813659

  5. Decomposition of the Rubber Tree Hevea brasiliensis Litter at Two Depths Descomposición del Mantillo del Árbol del Caucho Hevea brasiliensis en Dos Profundidades

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    Thiago Claudino Gréggio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of soil litter contributes to maintaining agricultural sustainability, since the nutrients released by microbial activity are determinants of the net productivity of the agroecosystem. The decomposition of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. leaves located on the surface and buried in at 10 cm depth in Forest and Savannah (Cerradão soils (Oxisols was studied, with emphasis on the production of CO2 and the monthly variation of the remaining amounts of litter mass, soluble substances, cellulose and lignin. To evaluate CO2 production, H. brasiliensis leaves were incubated for 30 days in soils from the 0-2 cm and 10-12 cm layers. CO2 production increased in the 0-2 cm layer in comparison to the 10-12 cm layer. Litter mass and soluble substance loss was of 62 and 72% at the end of nine months of incubation, and of 38 and 65%, respectively, in the first three months, being greater in the deeper (71-74% than in surface layer (48-55%. Forest soil stimulated more litter mass loss and cellulose decomposition (only in the surface layer than Savannah soil. The cellulose (25% content decreased and lignin (30% increased in the initial months of incubation, however, at the end of the period of this study the same content (29% was found.La descomposición del mantillo del suelo contribuye a mantener la sostenibilidad agrícola, puesto que los nutrientes liberados por la actividad microbiana son determinantes para la productividad del ecosistema. La descomposición de hojas del árbol del caucho (Hevea brasiliensis [Willd. ex A. Juss.] Müll. Arg. colocadas en la superficie y enterradas en la profundidad de 10 cm en los suelos de Bosque y Cerradão (Oxisols se estudió con énfasis en la producción de CO2 y la variación mensual de las cantidades remanentes de masa foliar (MF, substancias solubles (SS, celulosa y lignina. Para evaluar la producción de CO2, se incubaron hojas del H. brasiliensis por 30 días en

  6. Sinopse das espécies neotropicais do grupo brasiliensis do gênero Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae Synopsis of neotropical species of brasiliensis group genus Apenesia (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae

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    Magno S Ramos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritas e ilustradas Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov. e A. recta sp. nov. da região Neotropical. São adicionados dados novos de variações estruturais e distribuição geográfica de A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 e A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002. Duas sinonímias novas são propostas: A. peruana Evans, 1963 como sinônimo junior de A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 como sinônimo junior de A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, esta ultima considerada dentro ao grupo nitida. É fornecida uma chave de identificação para as espécies do grupo, baseada em machos.Apenesia longa sp. nov., A. peccata sp. nov., A. magna sp. nov., A. permaxima sp. nov., A. perconcava sp. nov., and A. recta sp. nov., from Neotropical region are described and illustrated. Additional material of A. transversa Evans, 1963, A. spinipes Evans, 1969, A. tlahuicana Evans, 1963, A. triangula Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. megaventris Azevedo & Batista, 2002, A. venezuelana Evans, 1963, A. acia Lanes & Azevedo, 2004 and A. ventosa Azevedo & Batista, 2002 had their structural variations and known distribution broadened. Two new synonyms are proposed: A. peruana Evans, 1963 as junior synonym of A. brasiliensis (Kieffer, 1910; A. subangulata Azevedo & Batista, 2002 as junior synonym of A. fulvicollis (Westwood, 1874, and the latter considered in the nitida group. An identification key to species of the group based on males is provided.

  7. Local cloning of two product states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhengfeng; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    Local quantum operations and classical communication (LOCC) put considerable constraints on many quantum information processing tasks such as cloning and discrimination. Surprisingly, however, discrimination of any two pure states survives such constraints in some sense. We show that cloning is not that lucky; namely, probabilistic LOCC cloning of two product states is strictly less efficient than global cloning. We prove our result by giving explicitly the efficiency formula of local cloning of any two product states

  8. Purification of an Immunoadjuvant Saponin Fraction from Quillaja brasiliensis Leaves by Reversed-Phase Silica Gel Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna C A; de Costa, Fernanda; Kauffmann, Carla; Fleck, Juliane D; Gosmann, Grace; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2017-01-01

    Saponins include a large variety of molecules that find several applications in pharmacology. The use of Quillaja saponaria saponins as immunological adjuvants in vaccines is of interest due to their capacity to stimulate both humoral and cellular responses. The congener species Q. brasiliensis has saponins with chemical similarities and adjuvant activity comparable to that of Q. saponaria fraction Quil-A ® , with additional advantages of showing lower toxicity and reduced hemolytic activity. Here we describe in detail the methods for preparing the aqueous extract from Q. brasiliensis leaves, as well as the purification of the bioactive saponin fraction QB-90 using silica reversed-phase chromatography.

  9. Resposta imune humoral a antígenos de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e P. Lutzii na paracoccidioidomicose humana

    OpenAIRE

    Adriane Lenhard-Vidal

    2013-01-01

    A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM) é uma micose sistêmica causada pelo fungo termodimórfico Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (espécies filogenéticas S1, PS2 e PS3), sendo conhecida uma nova espécie, P. lutzii. Considerando-se que a diversidade genética do Paracoccidioides sp. possivelmente gera diferenças na resposta imune do hospedeiro, esta pesquisa objetivou determinar e correlacionar níveis de anticorpos IgG a antígenos de P. brasiliensis (S1, PS2) e P. lutzii em pacientes com PCM. Foram obtidos ...

  10. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M.; Prado, Angelo P. do

    2007-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  11. First record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Jane; Almeida, Carlos E.; Esperanca, Gleidson M.; Morales, Ninive [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept.de Entomologia. Lab. da Colecao Entomologica; Mallet, Jacenir R. dos S.; Goncalves, Teresa C.M. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Transmissores de Leishmanioses. Nucleo de Ultraestrutura; Prado, Angelo P. do [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Parasitologia

    2007-11-15

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew) is a cosmopolitan and synanthropic scuttle fly, eclectic in its feeding habits and acts as detritivore, parasite, facultative parasite, and parasitoid. Here we report for the first time M. scalaris infesting laboratory colonies of Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, the most important Chagas disease vector in semiarid areas of Brazil. M. scalaris larvae were found feeding inside bugs; pupae were found in the esophagus and intestinal regions of T. brasiliensis through dissection. Other relevant information about this finding is also described in this note, including some preventive measures to avoid laboratory colonies infestations. (author)

  12. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Alejandra González-Martínez

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1, an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae.In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT, at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity.These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  13. Refractory sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis in humans appears to be unrelated to in vivo resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi do; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute to chronic infection caused by members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. Itraconazole is the first choice antifungal drug for treating this infection, with terbinafine and potassium iodide as alternatives and amphotericin B used in cases of severe infections. Correlation of antifungal susceptibility data with the clinical outcome of the patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and mycological data in patients with refractory sporotrichosis. In this work, antifungal susceptibilities, determined according to the reference M38-A2 CLSI protocol, of 25 Sporothrix strains, isolated from seven human cases of sporotrichosis with adversities in the treatment, are presented. Tested drugs included itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine, and amphotericin B. Fungi were identified using the T3B PCR fingerprinting. This method identified all strains as Sporothrix brasiliensis and also demonstrated a high degree of similarity between the strains. In general, voriconazole was ineffective against all strains, and elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were observed for amphotericin B. High itraconazole and terbinafine MICs were not observed in S. brasiliensis isolates from patients of this study. Moreover, a significant increase in itraconazole and terbinafine MIC values from strains isolated from the same patient in different periods was not observed. The results suggest that the antifungal susceptibility to terbinafine and itraconazole determined by the reference method does not play an important role in therapeutic failure of sporotrichosis and that acquisition of resistance during prolonged antifungal treatment is not likely to occur in S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels.

  15. Decrease of virulence for BALB/c mice produced by continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo-Candiani Jorge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subculturing has been extensively used to attenuate human pathogens. In this work we studied the effect of continuous subculturing of Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 on virulence in a murine model. Methods Nocardia brasiliensis HUJEG-1 was subcultured up to 130 times on brain heart infusion over four years. BALB/c mice were inoculated in the right foot pad with the bacteria subcultured 0, 40, 80, 100 and 130 times (T0, T40, T80 T100 and T130. The induction of resistance was tested by using T130 to inoculate a group of mice followed by challenge with T0 12 weeks later. Biopsies were taken from the newly infected foot-pad and immunostained with antibodies against CD4, CD8 and CD14 in order to analyze the in situ immunological changes. Results When using T40, T80 T100 and T130 as inoculums we observed lesions in 10, 5, 0 and 0 percent of the animals, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. In contrast, their controls produced mycetoma in 80, 80, 70 and 60% of the inoculated animals. When studying the protection of T130, we observed a partial resistance to the infection. Immunostaining revealed an intense CD4+ lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrate in healing lesions. Conclusions After 130 in vitro passages of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 a severe decrease in its virulence was observed. Immunization of BALB/c mice, with these attenuated cells, produced a state of partial resistance to infection with the non-subcultured isolate.

  16. In-depth proteome analysis of the rubber particle of Hevea brasiliensis (para rubber tree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longjun; Kang, Guijuan; Li, Yu; Nie, Zhiyi; Duan, Cuifang; Zeng, Rizhong

    2013-05-01

    The rubber particle is a special organelle in which natural rubber is synthesised and stored in the laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis. To better understand the biological functions of rubber particles and to identify the candidate rubber biosynthesis-related proteins, a comprehensive proteome analysis was performed on H. brasiliensis rubber particles using shotgun tandem mass spectrometry profiling approaches-resulting in a thorough report on the rubber particle proteins. A total of 186 rubber particle proteins were identified, with a range in relative molecular mass of 3.9-194.2 kDa and in isoelectric point values of 4.0-11.2. The rubber particle proteins were analysed for gene ontology and could be categorised into eight major groups according to their functions: including rubber biosynthesis, stress- or defence-related responses, protein processing and folding, signal transduction and cellular transport. In addition to well-known rubber biosynthesis-related proteins such as rubber elongation factor (REF), small rubber particle protein (SRPP) and cis-prenyl transferase (CPT), many proteins were firstly identified to be on the rubber particles, including cyclophilin, phospholipase D, cytochrome P450, small GTP-binding protein, clathrin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor, annexin, ABC transporter, translationally controlled tumour protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and several homologues of REF, SRPP and CPT. A procedure of multiple reaction monitoring was established for further protein validation. This comprehensive proteome data of rubber particles would facilitate investigation into molecular mechanisms of biogenesis, self-homeostasis and rubber biosynthesis of the rubber particle, and might serve as valuable biomarkers in molecular breeding studies of H. brasiliensis and other alternative rubber-producing species.

  17. Immunogenic evaluation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells in murine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Fernandes, Viviane Cristina; Morais, Elis Araujo; Goes, Alfredo M.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de

    2011-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), a chronic systemic disease prevalent in Latin American, which is characterized by the formation of granulomatous lesions. To date, there is no effective vaccine to PCM or to any systemic mycosis. In an attempt to induce an efficient response to such agent in an animal model, gamma radiation attenuated P. brasiliensis yeast cells (LevRad) were developed at the Radiobiology Laboratory from CDTN/CNEN. A gamma radiation dose was defined in which the pathogen loses its ability to multiply, while retaining its viability, metabolic activity and antigenic profile. The prophylactic potential of LevRad was assessed after its intravenous administration in male Balb/C mice, challenged 45 days after immunization with intratracheal administration of 3x105 cells of a highly virulent non-radiated P.brasiliensis isolate. At 30 and 90 days post challenge (dpc), lungs, spleen and liver were collected to analyse CFU (colony forming units) recovery, histology, cell proliferation, cytokine (IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) and iNOS production. The sera were used to evaluate the immunization efficacy, and to assess IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG3) and total IgG levels. The present data show that there was no significant decrease in the CFU counts of the lungs of immunized animals 30 dpc. Nevertheless, no CFU or histopathological alterations were visualized at the organs of immunized animals at 90 dpc. During the same period, IgG2a, IgG2b, IFN-alpha and iNOS levels raised while IL-10, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta and IL-4 maintained low levels, suggesting the prevalence of Th1 response profile. Our results confirmed the protective (author)

  18. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  19. ESTUDIO EPIDEMIOLÓGICO DEL CONEJO SILVESTRE Sylvilagus brasiliensis EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL LOS NEVADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Insuasty Osorio, Julián Alejandro; Ramírez Benavides, Ginés Fernando; Mejía Morales, Luis Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Este estudio epidemiológico se realizó con el objeto de identificar los agentes etiológicos responsables de las afecciones presentes en las poblaciones de conejo silvestre Sylvilagus brasiliensis, en la zona amortiguadora del Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados. Con un enfoque en Medicina de la Conservación, bajo el concepto "Triada Ecológica de la Enfermedad" y por medio del análisis multivariado "Análisis Factorial de Correspondencias Múltiples" con el programa "SPAD-WIN"; se determinó y an...

  20. Parasitism of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend (Diptera: Tachinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Castro-Guedes

    2018-04-01

    Resumo. Harmonia axyridis (Pallas é uma espécie de Coccinellidae originária do Nordeste da Ásia e utilizada como agente de controle biológico de afídeos. Como é uma espécie invasora é muito importante conhecer seus inimigos naturais. Dessa forma, este trabalho fornece o primeiro registro de Strongygaster brasiliensis (Towsend(Diptera: Tachinidae parasitando H. axyridis no sul do Brasil.

  1. Data in support of quantitative proteomics to identify potential virulence regulators in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Keiji Tashima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides genus are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Few virulence factors have been identified in these fungi. This paper describes support data from the quantitative proteomics of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis attenuated and virulent isolates [1]. The protein compositions of two isolates of the Pb18 strain showing distinct infection profiles were quantitatively assessed by stable isotopic dimethyl labeling and proteomic analysis. The mass spectrometry and the analysis dataset have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with identifier PXD000804.

  2. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  3. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis) dengan Perekat Glyserin

    OpenAIRE

    I Wayan Wawan Mariki; Slamet Wahyudi; Denny Widhiyanuriyawan

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each...

  4. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit Dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis) Dengan Perekat Glyserin

    OpenAIRE

    Mariki, I Wayan Wawan; Wahyudi, Slamet; Widhiyanuriyawan, Denny

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each...

  5. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidaein a focus of Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis in northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alexander

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The phlebotomine sand fly fauna of two coffee plantations in a Leishmania-endemic area of Norte de Santander, Colombia was studied. Regular insect collections using a variety of methods were made for three and a half years. Information was obtained on diurnal resting sites, host range and seasonal abundance for 17 species, of wich five (Lutzomyia spinicrassa, Lu. serrana,Lu. shannoni, Lu. ovallesi and Lu. gomezi were far more numerous than the others, anthropophilic and present throughout the year. The behaviour of these and the remaining 12 species is discussed in relation to their potential role in transmission of Leishmania (Viannia brasiliensis in the area.

  6. Quantum cloning without external control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, G. de; Fazio, R.; Macchiavello, C.; Montangero, S.; Palma, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this work we present an approach to quantum cloning with unmodulated spin networks. The cloner is realized by a proper design of the network and a choice of the coupling between the qubits. We show that in the case of phase covariant cloner the XY coupling gives the best results. In the 1 → 2 cloning we find that the value for the fidelity of the optimal cloner is achieved, and values comparable to the optimal ones in the general N → M case can be attained. If a suitable set of network symmetries are satisfied, the output fidelity of the clones does not depend on the specific choice of the graph. We show that spin network cloning is robust against the presence of static imperfections. Moreover, in the presence of noise, it outperforms the conventional approach. In this case the fidelity exceeds the corresponding value obtained by quantum gates even for a very small amount of noise. Furthermore we show how to use this method to clone qutrits and qudits. By means of the Heisenberg coupling it is also possible to implement the universal cloner although in this case the fidelity is 10 % off that of the optimal cloner. (author)

  7. [Cloning and law in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julesz, Máté

    2015-03-01

    Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited. In Hungary, according to Article 174 of the Criminal Code, total human cloning constitutes a crime. Article 180, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian Act on Health declares that embryos shall not be brought about for research purposes; research shall be conducted only on embryos brought about for reproductive purposes when this is authorized by the persons entitled to decide upon its disposal, or when the embryo is damaged. Article 180, paragraph (5) of the Hungarian Act on Health stipulates that multiple individuals who genetically conform to one another shall not be brought about. According to Article 181, paragraph (1) of the Hungarian Act on Health, an embryo used for research shall be kept alive for not longer than 14 days, not counting the time it was frozen for storage and the time period of research.

  8. [Mystery and problems of cloning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V A

    2010-01-01

    The attention of investigators is attracted to the fact that, in spite of great efforts in mammalian cloning, advances that have been made in this area of research are not great, and cloned animals have developmental pathologies often incompatible with life and/or reproduction ability. It is yet not clear what technical or biological factors underlie this, and how they are connected or interact with each other, which is more realistic strategically. There is a great number of articles dealing with the influence of cloning with the nuclear transfer on genetic and epigenetic reprogramming of donor cells. At the same time we can see the practical absence of analytical investigations concerning the technology of cloning as such, its weak points, and possible sources of cellular trauma in the course of microsurgery of nuclear transfer or twinning. This article discusses step by step several nuclear transfer techniques and the methods of dividing early preimplanted embryos for twinning with the aim to reveal possible sources of cell damage during micromanipulation that may have negative influence on the development of cloned organisms. Several new author's technologies based on the study of cell biophysical characteristics are described, which allow one to avoid cellular trauma during manipulation and minimize the possibility of cell damage at any rate.

  9. The topsy-turvy cloning law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassington, Iain; Oultram, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    In debates about human cloning, a distinction is frequently drawn between therapeutic and reproductive uses of the technology. Naturally enough, this distinction influences the way that the law is framed. The general consensus is that therapeutic cloning is less morally problematic than reproductive cloning--one can hold this position while holding that both are morally unacceptable--and the law frequently leaves the way open for some cloning for the sake of research into new therapeutic techniques while banning it for reproductive purposes. We claim that the position adopted by the law has things the wrong way around: if we accept a moral distinction between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, there are actually more reasons to be morally worried about therapeutic cloning than about reproductive cloning. If cloning is the proper object of legal scrutiny, then, we ought to make sure that we are scrutinising the right kind of clone.

  10. Public perceptions of animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Vincentsen, Ulla; Andersen, Ida-Elisabeth

    What was from the outset meant to be a survey testing predefined categories of ethical positions related to new biotechnologies with animal cloning as an example was subsequently developed into a process of broader involvement of groups of citizens in the issue. The survey was conducted at meetings...... in four different cities in Denmark. The participants were introduced to animal cloning and after that they filled out the questionnaire. Finally, the issue was discussed in focus groups. The process as a whole was run in a dialogue oriented way. Through the information they received in combination...... with reflecting on the survey questions the participants were well prepared for discussions in the focus groups. This approach made it possible, on the one hand to get a measure of the citizen's perceptions of the ethical aspects of animal cloning, but also to go deeper into their own thoughts of the issue...

  11. Sequence and expression analyses of ethylene response factors highly expressed in latex cells from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyanuch Piyatrakul

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily encodes transcription factors that play a key role in plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stress. In Hevea brasiliensis, ERF genes have been identified by RNA sequencing. This study set out to validate the number of HbERF genes, and identify ERF genes involved in the regulation of latex cell metabolism. A comprehensive Hevea transcriptome was improved using additional RNA reads from reproductive tissues. Newly assembled contigs were annotated in the Gene Ontology database and were assigned to 3 main categories. The AP2/ERF superfamily is the third most represented compared with other transcription factor families. A comparison with genomic scaffolds led to an estimation of 114 AP2/ERF genes and 1 soloist in Hevea brasiliensis. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, functions were predicted for 26 HbERF genes. A relative transcript abundance analysis was performed by real-time RT-PCR in various tissues. Transcripts of ERFs from group I and VIII were very abundant in all tissues while those of group VII were highly accumulated in latex cells. Seven of the thirty-five ERF expression marker genes were highly expressed in latex. Subcellular localization and transactivation analyses suggested that HbERF-VII candidate genes encoded functional transcription factors.

  12. Desarrollo de un sistema de transformación genética en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corredor

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La transformación genética es una alternativa para el conocimiento de genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de los hongos. A la fecha se han transformado algunos hongos utilizando técnicas como luz ultravioleta para obtener mutantes auxotróficas. Así mismo, se ha empleado la transformación basada en la introducción de plásmidos que confieren resistencia a antibióticos bien sea por medio de electroporación o imitando un evento que se presenta naturalmente entre plantas y el bacilo gram negativo Agrobacterium tumefaciens y que consiste en la transferencia del T-DNA del plásmido Ti bacteriano a la célula vegetal, con la consecuente aparición de un tumor en el tallo de
    la planta. Este mecanismo se ha reproducido con éxito en hongos
    filamentosos y en levaduras. En el caso de Paraco ccidioides brasiliensis aún no se dispone de un modelo de transformación. Considerando esta carencia y la necesidad de conocer los genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de este microorganismo, pretendemos desarrollar un sistema de transformación genética para P. brasiliensis utilizando A. tumefaciens.

     

     

  13. Reproductive phenology and pollination biology of Canavalia brasiliensis Mart. ex Benth (Fabaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the phenology and biology of the pollination of C. brasiliensis in an area of its natural occurrence (Pocinhos – PB. Fifteen plants were marked and observed every two weeks for the study of phenology. For the study of floral biology and morphology, flowers and inflorescences were marked and observed until fruit appeared. Visitors to flowers were observed throughout the experiment, and the frequency, time and behavior of their visits was registered. Canavalia brasiliensis demonstrated a pattern of annual flowering which was continuous, of long duration, with periods of greater flowering activity in the dry season. The inflorescence is of the paniculatum type, with flowers whose attributes are related to the syndrome of melittophily. Anthesis occurs during the day, beginning at 05h00. Nectar is produced from the phase of pre-anthesis, with a concentration of sugars around 44-60%. Visits by bees (Xylocopa frontalis, X. suspecta and X. sp., Apis mellifera and Centris similis and birds (Phaethornis ruber, Chlorostilbon aureoventris, Eupetomena macroura and Coereba flaveola were observed. Xylocopa frontalis acted as an effective pollinator.

  14. Secretomic Insight into Glucose Metabolism of Aspergillus brasiliensis in Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volke-Sepulveda, Tania; Salgado-Bautista, Daniel; Bergmann, Carl; Wells, Lance; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-10-07

    The genus Aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature and includes various species extensively exploited industrially due to their ability to produce and secrete a variety of enzymes and metabolites. Most processes are performed in submerged fermentation (SmF); however, solid-state fermentation (SSF) offers several advantages, including lower catabolite repression and substrate inhibition and higher productivity and stability of the enzymes produced. This study aimed to explain the improved metabolic behavior of A. brasiliensis ATCC9642 in SSF at high glucose concentrations through a proteomic approach. Online respirometric analysis provided reproducible samples for secretomic studies when the maximum CO 2 production rate occurred, ensuring consistent physiological states. Extracellular extracts from SSF cultures were treated by SDS-PAGE, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of 531 sequences identified, 207 proteins were analyzed. Twenty-five were identified as the most abundant unregulated proteins; 87 were found to be up-regulated and 95 were down-regulated with increasing glucose concentration. Of the regulated proteins, 120 were enzymes, most involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates (51), amino acids (23), and nucleotides (9). This study shows the high protein secretory activity of A. brasiliensis under SSF conditions. High glucose concentration favors catabolic activities, while some stress-related proteins and those involved in proteolysis are down-regulated.

  15. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  16. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  17. Systemic increased immune response to Nocardia brasiliensis co-exists with local immunosuppressive microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario Cesar; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian Geovanni; Welsh, Oliverio

    2012-10-01

    Human diseases produced by pathogenic actinomycetes are increasing because they may be present as opportunistic infections. Some of these microbes cause systemic infections associated with immunosuppressive conditions, such as chemotherapy for cancer, immunosuppressive therapy for transplant, autoimmune conditions, and AIDS; while others usually cause localized infection in immunocompetent individuals. Other factors related to this increase in incidence are: antibiotic resistance, not well defined taxonomy, and a delay in isolation and identification of the offending microbe. Examples of these infections are systemic disease and brain abscesses produced by Nocardia asteroides or the located disease by Nocardia brasiliensis, named actinomycetoma. During the Pathogenic Actinomycetes Symposium of the 16th International Symposium on Biology of Actinomycetes (ISBA), held in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, several authors presented recent research on the mechanisms by which N. brasiliensis modulates the immune system to survive in the host and advances in medical treatment of human actinomycetoma. Antibiotics and antimicrobials that are effective against severe actinomycetoma infections with an excellent therapeutic outcome and experimental studies of drugs that show promising bacterial inhibition in vivo and in vitro were presented. Here we demonstrate a systemic strong acquired immune response in humans and experimental mice at the same time of a local dominance of anti inflammatory cytokines environment. The pathogenic mechanisms of some actinomycetes include generation of an immunosuppressive micro environment to evade the protective immune response. This information will be helpful in understanding pathogenesis and to design new drugs for treatment of actinomycetoma.

  18. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Aldilane Gonçalves; Ribeiro Dantas, Luzia Leiros Sena Fernandes; Fernandes, Júlia Morais; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Lima, Adley Antoninni Neves; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Rocha, Hugo Alexandre Oliveira; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura

    2018-01-01

    The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis , known as "Saião , " has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis . The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL) in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal) and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma), showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo , the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  20. In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Hydroethanolic Extract of Kalanchoe brasiliensis (Crassulaceae Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldilane Gonçalves Fonseca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Kalanchoe brasiliensis, known as “Saião,” has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antihistamine activities. It also has the quercetin and kaempferol flavonoids, which exert their therapeutic activities. With extensive popular use besides the defined therapeutical properties, the study of possible side effects is indispensable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity in vitro and in vivo from the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of K. brasiliensis. The action of the extract (concentrations from 0.1 to 1000 uL/100 uL in normal and tumor cells was evaluated using the MTT method. Acute toxicity and subchronic toxicity were evaluated in mice with doses of 250 to 1000 mg/kg orally, following recognized protocols. The in vitro results indicated cytotoxic activity for 3T3 cell line (normal and 786-0 (kidney carcinoma, showing the activity to be concentration-dependent, reaching 92.23% cell inhibition. In vivo, the extract showed no significant toxicity; only liver changes related to acute toxicity and some signs of liver damage, combining biochemical and histological data. In general, the extract showed low or no toxicity, introducing itself as safe for use with promising therapeutic potential.

  1. Estudio sobre las relaciones filogenéticas entre diversos aislamientos del hongo Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan McEwen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aunque es poco lo que se conoce acerca de la biología evolutiva
    del hongo P. brasiliensis, varios estudios moleculares han demostrado que existen variaciones en secuencias de ADN entre sus aislamientos, las que se correlacionan con el origen geográfico de las mismas y con diferencias en su virulencia para modelos murinos (1,2. Se desconoce si estas variaciones son el resultado final de un proceso de especiación alopátrica que daría origen a especies aisladas genéticamente provistas de características fenotípicas (patogenicidad, inmunogenicidad y genotípicas diferentes, las que podrían ser usadas como una alternativa para mejorar e innovar los métodos actuales de diagnóstico. Por lo tanto, proponemos como objetivo general estudiar un aspecto fundamental de la biología evolutiva del hongo patógeno humano P. brasiliensis como es la especiación.

  2. An immunoproteomic approach revealing peptides from Sporothrix brasiliensis that induce a cellular immune response in subcutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, José Roberto Fogaça; Jannuzzi, Grasielle Pereira; Kaihami, Gilberto Hideo; Breda, Leandro Carvalho Dantas; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2018-03-08

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent fungus of the Sporothrix complex and is the main species recovered in the sporotrichosis zoonotic hyperendemic area in Rio de Janeiro. A vaccine against S. brasiliensis could improve the current sporotrichosis situation. Here, we show 3 peptides from S. brasiliensis immunogenic proteins that have a higher likelihood for engaging MHC-class II molecules. We investigated the efficiency of the peptides as vaccines for preventing subcutaneous sporotrichosis. In this study, we observed a decrease in lesion diameters in peptide-immunized mice, showing that the peptides could induce a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis. ZR8 peptide is from the GP70 protein, the main antigen of the Sporothrix complex, and was the best potential vaccine candidate by increasing CD4 + T cells and higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A and IL-1β characterizing a strong cellular immune response. This immune environment induced a higher number of neutrophils in lesions that are associated with fungus clearance. These results indicated that the ZR8 peptide induces a protective immune response against subcutaneous sporotrichosis and is a vaccine candidate against S. brasiliensis infection.

  3. Expression and characterization of active site mutants of hevamine, a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokma, Evert; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Sibbald, Mark; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Beintema, Jaap J.

    Hevamine is a chitinase from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis. Its active site contains Asp125, Glu127, and Tyr183, which interact with the -1 sugar residue of the substrate. To investigate their role in catalysis, we have successfully expressed wild-type enzyme and mutants of these residues as

  4. Enzymic and structural studies on processed proteins from the vacuolar (lutoid-body) fraction of latex of Hevea brasiliensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, T; de Vries, H; Schuringa, JJ; Soedjanaatmadja, UMS; Hofsteenge, J; Jekel, PA; Beintema, JJ

    2001-01-01

    The lutoid-body (bottom) fraction of latex from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) contains a limited number of major proteins. These are the chitin-binding protein hevein, its precursor and C-terminal fragment of the precursor, a basic chitinase/lysozyme, and a beta-1,3-glucanase. The content and

  5. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata Pers under light and temperature levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2011-12-01

    This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight) at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.

  6. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  7. Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae poisoning in Murrah buffaloes in Rio Grande do Sul Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em bubalinos no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M.R. Corrêa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen (14.4% out of 90 Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis became ill after con-sumption of Senecio brasiliensis, and 11 (12.2% of them died. The buffaloes were kept in a highly Senecio brasiliensis infested area. The poisoning occurred in June-August 2006 on a farm in the county of Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Clinical signs included weakness, apathy, progressive weight loss, permanent decubitus, and diarrhea. Necropsy was performed in 2 of the 11 buffaloes that died. The pathological findings were typical of poisoning by pyrrolizidine alkaloids. High infestation of pastures with S. brasiliensis, severe drought, and consequent starvation were the main epidemiological factors associated with the poisoning here described.Descreve-se a ocorrência de um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Senecio brasiliensis em búfalos Murrah (Bubalus bubalis em uma propriedade localizada no município de Nova Prata, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de junho a agosto de 2006. De um total de 90 búfalos, 13 adoeceram e 11 morreram. Os animais eram mantidos em áreas de pastoreio altamente infestadas por S. brasiliensis. Os principais sinais clínicos relatados foram letargia, apatia, emagrecimento progressivo, diarréia e decúbito permanente. Necropsia foi feita em dois dos 11 animais mortos. As lesões foram características de intoxicações por alcalóides pirrolizidínicos. A grande quantidade da planta, forte estiagem e desnutrição conseqüente foram os principais achados epidemiológicos associados com a mortalidade.

  8. Desarrollo embrionariolarval y tiempo de metamorfosis del pez tropical Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica del Río

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el desarrollo embrionario y larval hasta la metamorfosis de Xenomelaniris brasiliensi. Un total de 29 ejemplares sexualmente maduros, 16 hembras (10.86 ± 1.01 cm y 7.63 ± 2.62 g y 13 machos (10.43 ± 0.57 cm y 6.54 ± 1.44 g, liberaron sus productos sexuales mediante masaje abdominal. Los huevos fértiles fueron esféricos de 1.18 ± 0.44 mm de diámetro, verdosos, translúcidos, bentónicos, ricos en vitelo, corion rugoso y estriado, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos, distribuidos aleatoriamente por toda la superficie externa y numerosas gotas lipídicas con un diámetro de 0.11 ± 0.07 mm. El desarrollo embrionario se realizó a 26.36 ± 2.03 ºC, 39.67 ± 0.58 PSU y pH 8.30 ± 0.10 eclosionando larvas de 4.56 ± 0.97 mm a las 143 hrs: 19 min, con vestigios del saco vitelino y una gota lipídica interna. Las larvas fueron alimentadas diariamente con Brachionus plicatilis e Isochrysis galbana, a partir de la segunda semana se incorporó nauplios de Artemia, manteniendo la adición diaria de I. galbana. A los 13 días después de la eclosión de larvas (6.10 ± 1.54 mm se inició la flexión, completándose a los 32 días (11.25 ± 1.87 mm con un complejo hipural completamente desarrollado. Se concluye que X. brasiliensis presentó desarrollo larval directo, iniciándose la metamorfosis de larva (13.08 ± 2.07 a juvenil a los 40 días de edad.Development of the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Pisces: Atherinidae from embryo to larva and time to metamorphosis. Embryoniclarval development, and metamorphosis larval time, were studied in the tropical fish Xenomelaniris brasiliensis. Twenty nine sexually mature specimens were used, 16 females (10.86 ± 1.01 cm and 7.63 ± 2.62 g and 13 males (10.43 ± 0.57 cm and 6.54 ± 1.44 g which produced gametes through abdominal massage. Fertilized eggs were spherical (1.18 ± 0.44 mm diameter, greenish, transparent, benthonic and vitelusrich; rugose striated chorion with numerous

  9. Sporothrix brasiliensis produces the highest levels of oxidative stress in a murine model among the species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex

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    Débora Nunes Mario

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: We compared indicators of oxidative stress in the tissue of mice infected with strains from Sporothrix schenckii complex. METHODS: Mice were inoculated with Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix mexicana or Sporothrix albicans. The activity of catalase and glutathione were accessed in the liver and spleen. RESULTS: Animals infected with S. brasiliensis exhibited splenomegaly and significant decrease in catalase activity, and protein and non-protein thiol content compared to animals infected with the other species. CONCLUSIONS: Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibits higher pathogenicity compared to other species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex by increasing oxidative stress in animal tissue.

  10. Comparative genomics of the major fungal agents of human and animal Sporotrichosis: Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Marcus M; de Almeida, Luiz G P; Kubitschek-Barreira, Paula; Alves, Fernanda L; Kioshima, Erika S; Abadio, Ana K R; Fernandes, Larissa; Derengowski, Lorena S; Ferreira, Karen S; Souza, Rangel C; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; de Andrade, Nathalia C; Paes, Hugo C; Nicola, André M; Albuquerque, Patrícia; Gerber, Alexandra L; Martins, Vicente P; Peconick, Luisa D F; Neto, Alan Viggiano; Chaucanez, Claudia B; Silva, Patrícia A; Cunha, Oberdan L; de Oliveira, Fabiana F M; dos Santos, Tayná C; Barros, Amanda L N; Soares, Marco A; de Oliveira, Luciana M; Marini, Marjorie M; Villalobos-Duno, Héctor; Cunha, Marcel M L; de Hoog, Sybren; da Silveira, José F; Henrissat, Bernard; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A; Cisalpino, Patrícia S; Mora-Montes, Héctor M; Almeida, Sandro R; Stajich, Jason E; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Vasconcelos, Ana T R; Felipe, Maria S S

    2014-10-29

    The fungal genus Sporothrix includes at least four human pathogenic species. One of these species, S. brasiliensis, is the causal agent of a major ongoing zoonotic outbreak of sporotrichosis in Brazil. Elsewhere, sapronoses are caused by S. schenckii and S. globosa. The major aims on this comparative genomic study are: 1) to explore the presence of virulence factors in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis; 2) to compare S. brasiliensis, which is cat-transmitted and infects both humans and cats with S. schenckii, mainly a human pathogen; 3) to compare these two species to other human pathogens (Onygenales) with similar thermo-dimorphic behavior and to other plant-associated Sordariomycetes. The genomes of S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis were pyrosequenced to 17x and 20x coverage comprising a total of 32.3 Mb and 33.2 Mb, respectively. Pair-wise genome alignments revealed that the two species are highly syntenic showing 97.5% average sequence identity. Phylogenomic analysis reveals that both species diverged about 3.8-4.9 MYA suggesting a recent event of speciation. Transposable elements comprise respectively 0.34% and 0.62% of the S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis genomes and expansions of Gypsy-like elements was observed reflecting the accumulation of repetitive elements in the S. brasiliensis genome. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons showed the presence of group-I intron encoding homing endonucleases (HE's) exclusively in S. brasiliensis. Analysis of protein family expansions and contractions in the Sporothrix lineage revealed expansion of LysM domain-containing proteins, small GTPases, PKS type1 and leucin-rich proteins. In contrast, a lack of polysaccharide lyase genes that are associated with decay of plants was observed when compared to other Sordariomycetes and dimorphic fungal pathogens, suggesting evolutionary adaptations from a plant pathogenic or saprobic to an animal pathogenic life style. Comparative genomic data suggest a unique ecological shift in the

  11. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Heng, E-mail: hfan@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yue, Jie-Dong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-11-20

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results.

  12. Quantum cloning machines and the applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Heng; Wang, Yi-Nan; Jing, Li; Yue, Jie-Dong; Shi, Han-Duo; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Mu, Liang-Zhu

    2014-01-01

    No-cloning theorem is fundamental for quantum mechanics and for quantum information science that states an unknown quantum state cannot be cloned perfectly. However, we can try to clone a quantum state approximately with the optimal fidelity, or instead, we can try to clone it perfectly with the largest probability. Thus various quantum cloning machines have been designed for different quantum information protocols. Specifically, quantum cloning machines can be designed to analyze the security of quantum key distribution protocols such as BB84 protocol, six-state protocol, B92 protocol and their generalizations. Some well-known quantum cloning machines include universal quantum cloning machine, phase-covariant cloning machine, the asymmetric quantum cloning machine and the probabilistic quantum cloning machine. In the past years, much progress has been made in studying quantum cloning machines and their applications and implementations, both theoretically and experimentally. In this review, we will give a complete description of those important developments about quantum cloning and some related topics. On the other hand, this review is self-consistent, and in particular, we try to present some detailed formulations so that further study can be taken based on those results

  13. EasyClone-MarkerFree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Mathew Malcolm Jessop; Jakociunas, Tadas; Stovicek, Vratislav

    2016-01-01

    Clone-MarkerFree. The integration of linearized expression cassettes into defined genomic loci is facilitated by CRISPR/Cas9. Cas9 is recruited to the chromosomal location by specific guide RNAs (gRNAs) expressed from a set of gRNA helper vectors. Using our genome engineering vector suite, single and triple insertions are obtained...

  14. Clone Poems and the Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Estelle

    1989-01-01

    Describes how students can use the computer to study and create clone poems (altering original Spanish-language poems by substituting words and expressions), and how students can gain a deeper appreciation of the original poem's poetic structure and semantics. (CB)

  15. Amphotericin B, alone or followed by itraconazole therapy, is effective in the control of experimental disseminated sporotrichosis by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kelly; de Castro, Rafaela Alves; Borba Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Morphological Studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae Genital Structures and Eggs of Different Chromatic Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Costa

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma brasiliensis is considered one of the most important Chagas disease vectors being a widespread species in semiarid areas of northeastern Brazil. The species displays distinct chromatic patterns of the cuticle in different localities. Four populations were analyzed in this study: 1-Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, it will be called the brasiliensis population; 2-Espinosa, Minas Gerais, the melanica population; 3-Petrolina, Pernambuco, the macromelasoma population, and 4-Juazeiro, Bahia, the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the Juazeiro population. In order to differentiate the four populations of T. brasiliensis, a comparative morphological analysis of external genital structures and of eggs were carried out. The analysis of the male genital structures evidenced minor individual structural variations that did not correlate with chromatic differences or the geographical origins, emphasizing the importance of examining sufficiently large and representative samples before using minor genital variations for taxonomic diagnosis. By scanning electron microscopy of the egg exochorion, each chromatic population presented a distinct ornamentation pattern. The melanica population differed mainly from the other populations studied since it had about 40.6%, 69.6% and 76.6% more perforations, on each cell exochorion, than the brasiliensis, the Juazeiro and the macromelasoma populations respectively. In the melanica population the perforation layout is also peculiar, with densely distributed perforations over all the egg surface. Morphometric measures of the eggs showed statistically significant differences: the macromelasoma population presented the longest length (2.43 mm while the shortest was recorded in the brasiliensis population (2.29 mm.

  17. Genomic Changes Associated with the Loss of Nocardia brasiliensis Virulence in Mice after 200 In Vitro Passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Carrillo, Carolina; Millan-Sauceda, Cassandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Elizondo-Gonzalez, Ramiro; Welsh, Oliverio; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2016-09-01

    Nocardia species, particularly Nocardia brasiliensis, are etiologic agents of mycetoma, a chronic subcutaneous infection. Until now, little has been known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in nocardial infection. Traditionally, subculture in rich media has been a simple way to induce attenuation. In this work, we report the changes in virulence toward mice and in genomic constitution of N. brasiliensis produced after 200 continuous subcultures in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium (P-200 strain). The ability of the N. brasiliensis P-200 strain to produce experimental infection was tested using BALB/c mice. P-200 was also used to immunize mice to determine whether it could induce resistance against a challenge with a nonsubcultured isolate (P-0). Comparative proteomic analysis between N. brasiliensis P-0 and P-200 was performed by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, and the genome sequence was obtained through Roche 454 sequence analysis. Virulence in BALB/c mice was completely lost, and BALB/c mice immunized with P-200 bacterial cells were resistant to mycetoma production by the nonsubcultured strain. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed that P-200 lost a total of 262,913 bp distributed in 19 deleted regions, involving a total of 213 open reading frames (ORFs). The deleted genes included those encoding bacterial virulence factors, e.g., catalase, nitrate reductase enzymes, and a group of mammalian cell entry (MCE) family proteins, which may explain the loss of virulence of the isolate. Thus, completely attenuated N. brasiliensis was obtained after 200 passages in BHI medium, and putative Nocardia virulence genes were identified for the first time. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Toxicological profile of deltamethrin in Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila Pessoa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Triatoma brasiliensis is the species of greatest epidemiological relevance in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This species is predominantly found in domestic environments, and it has the ability to build large colonies with high levels of natural infection via Trypanosoma cruzi. Thus, T. brasiliensis is one of the most efficient transmitters of Chagas disease (CD to humans. Despite household spraying with residual insecticides, many areas report persistent reinfestations for reasons that remain poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the toxicological profile of deltamethrin in T. brasiliensis from areas with persistent reinfestation in State of Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage (SRL was derived from Umari. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied to the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed mortality in response to a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (0.851 nanograms of active ingredient per treated nymph of the SRL. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. brasiliensis populations revealed 50% resistance ratios (RR50 that ranged from 0.32 to 1.21. The percentage of mortality in response to the diagnostic dose was 100%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that T. brasiliensis was highly susceptible to deltamethrin. The control difficulties found might be related to the recolonization of the triatomines originating from neighboring environments and the possible operational failures related to the process of spraying that enabled specimens less susceptible to deltamethrin to survive.

  19. Domestic, peridomestic and wild hosts in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Caatinga area colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mendonça Bezerra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The role played by different mammal species in the maintenance of Trypanosoma cruzi is not constant and varies in time and place. This study aimed to characterise the importance of domestic, wild and peridomestic hosts in the transmission of T. cruzi in Tauá, state of Ceará, Caatinga area, Brazil, with an emphasis on those environments colonised by Triatoma brasiliensis. Direct parasitological examinations were performed on insects and mammals, serologic tests were performed on household and outdoor mammals and multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used on wild mammals. Cytochrome b was used as a food source for wild insects. The serum prevalence in dogs was 38% (20/53, while in pigs it was 6% (2/34. The percentages of the most abundantly infected wild animals were as follows: Thrichomys laurentius 74% (83/112 and Kerodon rupestris 10% (11/112. Of the 749 triatomines collected in the household research, 49.3% (369/749 were positive for T. brasiliensis, while 6.8% were infected with T. cruzi (25/369. In captured animals, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with T. laurentius, K. rupestris, Didelphis albiventris, Monodelphis domestica, Galea spixii, Wiedomys pyrrhorhinos, Conepatus semistriatus and Mus musculus. In animals identified via their food source, T. brasiliensis shares a natural environment with G. spixii, K. rupestris, Capra hircus, Gallus gallus, Tropidurus oreadicus and Tupinambis merianae. The high prevalence of T. cruzi in household and peridomiciliar animals reinforces the narrow relationship between the enzootic cycle and humans in environments with T. brasiliensis and characterises it as ubiquitous.

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast form to antifungal agents Susceptibilidad in vitro de la forma levaduriforme de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis a los agentes antifungicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Restrepo

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of P. brasiliensis yeast form to amphotericin B (A, ketoconazole (K, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC and rifampin (R. The three isolates tested produced minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs (mcg/ml in the following range: A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 and R: 40-80. The minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC were several times higher than the corresponding MICs. Precise MFC for 5-FC were not obtained (> 500 mcg/ml. Combination of K plus A proved synergic, with the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC indices revealing synergy when the drugs were combined at the 1 to 1 and 1 to 5 MIC ratios. R (40 mcg/ml appeared to antagonize K. These results indicate promise for the combined use of K plus A as a therapeutical regimen.Se realizó un estudio con el objeto de determinar la susceptibilidad de la fase levaduri-forme del P. brasiliensis a la Anfotericina B (A, el Ketoconazol (K, la 5-fluorocitosina (5-FC y la rifampicina. Las 3 cepas estudiadas tuvieron las siguientes concentraciones inhibitorias mínimas (MIC (mcg/ml A: 0.09-0.18; K: 0.001-0.007; 5-FC: 62.5-250 y R: 40-80. Las concentraciones fungicidas mínimas (MFC resultaron más altas que las MICs correspondientes. En el caso de la 5-FC no se obtuvo una cifra MFC precisa (> 500 mcg/ml. La combinación de K más A mostró ser sinérgica al combinarse las drogas en relación 1:1 y 1:5 de los MICs respectivos. R (40 mcg/ml se mostró antagonista del K. Los resultados indican que la combinación A + K pudiera constituir un adecuado régimen terapéutico en ciertos pacientes.

  1. Probabilistic cloning and deleting of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yuan; Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We construct a probabilistic cloning and deleting machine which, taking several copies of an input quantum state, can output a linear superposition of multiple cloning and deleting states. Since the machine can perform cloning and deleting in a single unitary evolution, the probabilistic cloning and other cloning machines proposed in the previous literature can be thought of as special cases of our machine. A sufficient and necessary condition for successful cloning and deleting is presented, and it requires that the copies of an arbitrarily presumed number of the input states are linearly independent. This simply generalizes some results for cloning. We also derive an upper bound for the success probability of the cloning and deleting machine

  2. Human reproductive cloning: a conflict of liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havstad, Joyce C

    2010-02-01

    Proponents of human reproductive cloning do not dispute that cloning may lead to violations of clones' right to self-determination, or that these violations could cause psychological harms. But they proceed with their endorsement of human reproductive cloning by dismissing these psychological harms, mainly in two ways. The first tactic is to point out that to commit the genetic fallacy is indeed a mistake; the second is to invoke Parfit's non-identity problem. The argument of this paper is that neither approach succeeds in removing our moral responsibility to consider and to prevent psychological harms to cloned individuals. In fact, the same commitment to personal liberty that generates the right to reproduce by means of cloning also creates the need to limit that right appropriately. Discussion of human reproductive cloning ought to involve a careful and balanced consideration of both the relevant aspects of personal liberty - the parents' right to reproductive freedom and the cloned child's right to self-determination.

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular cloning and functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-11-25

    Nov 25, 2016 ... Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two novel ... Currently, many variants of HMW-GSs have been cloned from bread wheat .... SDS sedimentation tests were conducted using the methods described by Gao et ...

  4. Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2003-01-01

    We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation

  5. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  6. Development of Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, in laboratory, with different natural diets Desenvolvimento de Myrmeleon brasiliensis (Navás (Neuroptera, Myrmeleontidae, em laboratório, com diferentes dietas naturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani L. B. Missirian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Antlions larvae are sit-and-wait predators that capture arthropod prey in conical sand pits. The aim of this paper were to determine the effect of different natural diets [leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp., fruit fly larvae (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata and mixed diet (Atta spp. plus fruit fly larvae] on the development of larvae and pupae of M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 and to estimate the number and size of prey caught in each instar and on each kind of diet. The average duration (days of the second and third instars of M. brasiliensis was longer when larvae of antlion were fed with leaf-cutting ants. The diets did not affect the duration of the pupal stage nor the pupae size. The different diets did not affect the mean width of head capsule (mm, the mean weight (mg or the mean body size (mm in the different instars of M. brasiliensis. In the second and third instars, the larvae of M. brasiliensis fed with leaf-cutting ants consumed more prey than larvae kept on other diets. Adults whose larvae were fed fruit fly larvae were larger than adults on other diets. Although Myrmeleontidae are few studied in Brazil, these results contribute to knowledge of M. brasiliensis biology, but also suggest the need of studies about the development of larvae and pupae in natural environments.Larvas de formiga-leão são conhecidas por suas armadilhas ("funis" que constroem em solo arenoso, sob as quais esperam por suas presas. Este trabalho teve como objetivos verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas naturais [formigas-cortadeiras (Atta spp., larvas de moscas-das-frutas (Anastrepha spp. e Ceratitis capitata e dieta mista (Atta spp. e larvas de moscas-das-frutas] sobre o desenvolvimento larval e pupal de M. brasiliensis (Navás, 1914 e estimar o número e tamanho de presas capturadas, por instar larval, em cada dieta. No segundo e terceiro instares, as larvas de M. brasiliensis alimentadas com formigas-cortadeiras consumiram um número maior de presas e a

  7. Biologia floral e visitantes de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - uma espécie com anteras poricidas polinizada por beija-flores Floral biology and visitors of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae - a poricidal anther species pollinated by hummingbirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielle Paulina de Araújo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia floral de Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae foi estudada na borda de uma mata de galeria na reserva ecológica do Clube de Caça e Pesca Itororó de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. G. brasiliensis é um arbusto que pode alcançar de 0,3 a 3,0 m de altura e ocorre de forma isolada ou agregada. Apresenta floração contínua e possui inflorescências racemosas, axilares com flores pendentes. As flores são hermafroditas, vermelhas, de corola urceolada, apresentam antese diurna e ausência odor. O néctar apresentou volume de cerca de 3,0 μL e concentração de açúcares por volta de 13%. G. brasiliensis é autocompatível, não apresenta autopolinização espontânea e nem apomixia. Os polinizadores foram os beijaflores: Chlorostlibon lucidus (Shaw, Amazilia fimbirata (Gmelin, Hylocharis chrysura (Shaw (Throchilinae e Phaethornis pretrei (Lesson & DeLattre (Phaethornithinae. G. brasiliensis apresenta anteras poricidas com poros amplos e os beija-flores, quando adejam com o bico inserido nas flores em busca de néctar, fornecem a vibração necessária para a liberação dos grãos de pólen. Apesar de apresentar volume e concentração de açúcar no néctar relativamente pequenos, os agrupamentos de indivíduos com muitas flores parecem atrair beija-flores com comportamento territorial.The floral biology of Gaylussacia brasiliensis (Spr. Meissner (Ericaceae was studied on swampy edges of a gallery forest in Uberlandia, Minas Gerais. Gaylussacia brasiliensis is a shrub 0.3 to 3.0 m tall that occurs isolated or aggregated and has continuous flowering. The axillary racemose inflorescences produce four to dozens of pendulous flowers. The flowers are hermaphroditic, red, urceolate, odorless and have diurnal anthesis. Concentration of sugars in nectar was c. 13% and volume c. 3.0 μL. G. brasiliensis is a self-compatible, non apomictic species, which does not present spontaneous self-pollination. The pollinators of G

  8. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  9. A study of the life history of brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis.: III. development of sardine larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Larvae and juveniles of S. brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879, ranging from 6.4 mm to 35.5 mm, were identified from plankton samples taken in waters off the southern Brazilian coast from 1969 through 1971. Changes in the pattern of pigmentation, body proportions and formation of fin rays are described. During transformation stage a considerable advancement of the dorsal and anal fins was observed. Changes in body proportions are pronounced at the size of 19 mm. Complete ossification of all fin rays is attained at the size of 20 mm, but ossification of the ventral scutes is delayed and completed only at the size of 30 mm. Ossification of the vertebral column was completed at the size of about 16 mm.O presente trabalho é parte do projeto SOL e tem por objetivo descrever a morfologia das larvas da sardinha verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis (=S. aurita, com o intuito de determinar um padrão que possibilite a identificação das mesmas. São feitas considerações sobre a morfologia das larvas de outros clupeídeos existentes na região e ressaltadas as diferenças com relação as larvas de S. brasiliensis. Os resultados, posteriormente, serão usados como base para o estudo quantitativo da abundância de larvas de sardinha. O material foi coletado na costa sul do Brasil de 1969 a 1971, com uma rede de plâncton do tipo cônico-cilíndrico. Durante o desenvolvimento das larvas, foi observado um considerável deslocamento das bases das nadadeiras dorsal e anal, para uma posição mais anterior. Com o tamanho de 19 mm (comprimento padrão, ocorre uma mudança geral, considerável, nas proporções corporais. A ossificação de todos os raios das nadadeiras completa-se quando a larva atinge 20 mm, mas a ossificação dos escudos ventrais só se completa quando ela atinge 30 mm de comprimento. A ossificação das vertebras completa-se a 16 mm de comprimento. O tamanho de 19 mm foi considerado como o fim do estagio larval, e, apos este comprimento

  10. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt.

  11. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A.brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product – natural preservatives in yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojkovic, D.S.; Reis, F.S.; Glamoclija, J.; Ciric, A.; Barros, L.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Sokovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic

  12. Tratamentos térmicos do calxisto para uso como camada de cobertura no cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis Thermal treatments on lime schist casing layer for Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Barros Colauto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A escolha da camada de cobertura é uma das mais importantes etapas do cultivo de Agaricus brasiliensis. Apesar dessa importância, poucos estudos relatam o uso de diferentes tratamentos térmicos para o controle da microbiota em camadas de cobertura alternativas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da pasteurização e da autoclavagem do material alternativo calxisto para utilização como camada de cobertura no cultivo de A. brasiliensis. O fungo foi inicialmente crescido em grãos de trigo e transferido para meio de cultivo previamente compostado. Após a completa colonização, a camada de cobertura (calxisto pasteurizada ou autoclavada foi adicionada. Avaliaram-se a eficiência biológica, o número e a biomassa de cogumelos produzidos e o fluxo de produção. Concluiu-se que a camada de cobertura com calxisto autoclavado reduzem o tempo de produção, a eficiência biológica e o número e a biomassa de cogumelos cultivados. Entretanto, a camada de cobertura com o calxisto pasteurizado é a mais eficiente para o cultivo de A. brasiliensis.Casing layer choice is one of the most important phases on Agaricus brasiliensis cultivation. Besides the importance of it few studies report the use of different heat treatments to control the microbiota in alternative casing layers. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist as an alternative casing layer on A. brasiliensis cultivation. The fungus was previously grown on wheat grains and transferred to a substratum previously composted. After substratum mycelium colonization a pasteurized or autoclaved lime schist casing layer was added on. It was evaluated the biological efficiency, the number and mass of produced mushroom and the production flush along cultivation. It was concluded that autoclaved lime schist casing layer decreases period of production, biological efficiency, number and mass of cultivated mushrooms. However

  13. DNA cloning: a practical approach. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, D M [ed.

    1985-01-01

    This book is written for the advanced molecular biologist who needs a detailed discussion of cloning technology. Topics of discussion include: genomic library cloning (size of a genomic library, screening methods, chromosome walking, host cell genetics, and general features of bacteriophage Iambda); use of gt10 and gt11 cDNA lambda vectors and general cDNA cloning; RNase H-Pol I cDNA synthesis; method of detecting fusion proteins produced in bacteria; pEMBL family of double-stranded plasmid vectors that can be used to generate single strands; Escherichia coli transformation; production of mutations in cloned sequences; and cloning in gram negative bacteria.

  14. No-cloning theorem on quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyadera, Takayuki; Imai, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the no-cloning theorem in a logicoalgebraic approach. In this approach, an orthoalgebra is considered as a general structure for propositions in a physical theory. We proved that an orthoalgebra admits cloning operation if and only if it is a Boolean algebra. That is, only classical theory admits the cloning of states. If unsharp propositions are to be included in the theory, then a notion of effect algebra is considered. We proved that an atomic Archimedean effect algebra admitting cloning operation is a Boolean algebra. This paper also presents a partial result, indicating a relation between the cloning on effect algebras and hidden variables.

  15. Therapeutic and reproductive cloning: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a critical examination of the science and ethics of human cloning. It summarises the key scientific milestones in the development of nuclear transplantation, explains the importance of cloning to research into the medical potential of embryonic stem cells, and discusses the well-worn distinction between 'therapeutic' and 'reproductive' cloning. Suggesting that this distinction will be impossible to police, it goes on to consider the ethics of full human cloning. It is concluded that it represents an unacceptable form of parental despotism, and that the genetic engineering and cloning of future human beings will fracture the foundations of modern humanism.

  16. Clone DB: an integrated NCBI resource for clone-associated data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A.; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Clausen, Cliff; Meric, Peter A.; Zhou, Zhigang; Bouk, Nathan; Husain, Nora; Maglott, Donna R.; Church, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Clone DB (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clone/) is an integrated resource providing information about and facilitating access to clones, which serve as valuable research reagents in many fields, including genome sequencing and variation analysis. Clone DB represents an expansion and replacement of the former NCBI Clone Registry and has records for genomic and cell-based libraries and clones representing more than 100 different eukaryotic taxa. Records provide details of library construction, associated sequences, map positions and information about resource distribution. Clone DB is indexed in the NCBI Entrez system and can be queried by fields that include organism, clone name, gene name and sequence identifier. Whenever possible, genomic clones are mapped to reference assemblies and their map positions provided in clone records. Clones mapping to specific genomic regions can also be searched for using the NCBI Clone Finder tool, which accepts queries based on sequence coordinates or features such as gene or transcript names. Clone DB makes reports of library, clone and placement data on its FTP site available for download. With Clone DB, users now have available to them a centralized resource that provides them with the tools they will need to make use of these important research reagents. PMID:23193260

  17. Tourism values for Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Widerholdt, Ruscena

    2013-01-01

    Migratory species provide diverse ecosystem services to people, but these values have seldom been estimated rangewide for a single species. In this article, we summarize visitation and consumer surplus for recreational visitors to viewing sites for the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) throughout the Southwestern United States. Public bat viewing opportunities are available at 17 of 25 major roosts across six states; on an annual basis, we estimate that over 242,000 visitors view bats, gaining over $6.5 million in consumer surplus. A better understanding of spatial mismatches between the areas where bats provide value to people and areas most critical for maintaining migratory populations can better inform conservation planning, including economic incentive systems for conservation.

  18. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  19. A case of an immunocompetent young man obtaining community-acquired disseminated Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinna; Cao, Jie; Wu, Yueqing; Wan, Nansheng; Pan, Li; Chen, Yuanbao

    2014-01-01

    Nocardiosis is a rare but severe pyogenic or granulomatous disease and caused by Nocardia that mainly infects immunocompromised patients. We report here a case of an immunocompetent 24-year-old male student with community-acquired pneumonia with asymptomatic disseminated cerebral abscess by Brasiliensis nocardiosis. The patient was fully recovered after receiving optimized antimicrobial therapy without relapse. This case suggests the health professionals such as the physicians of pulmonary, infection, neurology department and et al should always think about unusual cause of community acquired pneumonia, even in immunocompetent patients and when having pulmonary nocardiosis we should do a radiological neurological work up, even with the absence of neurological finding or symptom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergence of co-trimoxazole resistant Nocardia brasiliensis causing fatal pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Vineeta; Gupta, Prashant; Himanshu, D; Kumar, Deepak

    2013-04-17

    An 85-year-old man was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with a 10-day history of severe breathlessness, fever and cough. The patient was known to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and had been receiving corticosteroids in the preceding 18 months. He had been treated for tuberculosis 2.5 years previously. On examination he was febrile, tachycardic with a respiratory rate of 46/min. Auscultation revealed bilateral crepitation's and wheeze. Chest radiograph revealed patchy infiltrates on right lung. The patient developed respiratory depression and was mechanically ventilated. His sputum and endotracheal aspirates revealed Nocardia brasiliensis on culture which was found to be co-trimoxazole resistant. Once this became known imipenem was substituted for co-trimoxazole but unfortunately condition of the patient did not improve and he died following a cardiac arrest.

  1. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection isolated in an immunosuppressed patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kimberly W; Brodell, Lindsey A; Lambert, Emily; Menegus, Marilyn; Scott, Glynis A; Tu, John H

    2012-02-01

    Cutaneous nocardiosis is a rare infection that may manifest as a superficial skin lesion, lymphocutaneous infection, mycetoma, or diffuse cutaneous infection from a disseminated systemic infection. We report a case of a 65-year-old immunocompromised man with persistent primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis infection following a motor vehicle collision. A high degree of suspicion is needed to diagnose Nocardia infection because of its resemblance to other bacterial infections. Nocardiosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic cutaneous infections, especially when the response to antibiotics is inadequate or when the patient is immunocompromised. Because Nocardia may take several weeks to grow in standard bacterial culture media, laboratories should be notified of the suspicion so that culture plates are held for longer time periods. Long-term therapy, usually with sulfonamides, often is necessary.

  3. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana P. Ruas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro, leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis-infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  4. Effect of ArtinM on Human Blood Cells During Infection With Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas, Luciana P; Genaro, Livia M; Justo-Junior, Amauri S; Coser, Lilian O; de Castro, Lívia F; Trabasso, Plinio; Mamoni, Ronei L; Roque-Barreira, Maria-Cristina; Blotta, Maria-Heloisa S L

    2018-01-01

    Infections caused by fungi are prominent in our environment and can be potentially fatal. paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is the most frequent systemic mycosis in Brazil and the main cause of death among immunocompetent individuals. The antifungal therapy for PCM is usually effective but side effects and relapses are often reported. The latter could be avoided with alternative or complementary therapies aimed at boosting the immune response to combat this pathogen. Recent reports have pointed at the importance of an effective cellular immune response, with the participation of Th1 cells, in the resistance to and control of Paracoccidioides infection. The ArtinM lectin, extracted from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus ) seeds, exhibits immunomodulatory activity against several intracellular pathogens, including Paracoccidioides brasiliensis , by promoting the development of a Th1 immune response. The aim of this work was to characterize the effect of ArtinM on peripheral blood cells of patients with PCM and on those of control individuals infected with fungal yeasts cells in vitro . Our results demonstrate that ArtinM activates human neutrophils in vitro , leading to an increase in cytokine production and CD54 expression. ArtinM activated P. brasiliensis -infected neutrophils from both healthy individuals and patients with PCM. This activation was not dependent on the dectin-1 receptor, because pre-incubation with laminarin, a dectin-1 receptor blocker, did not reverse the activated state of the cells. ArtinM also stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to secrete pro-inflammatory Th1-related cytokines, which are protective against Paracoccidioides infection. These data support the immunostimulatory action of ArtinM and encourage new studies using the lectin for the immunotherapy of PCM.

  5. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maichak De Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters (salinity, chlorophyll, pH and water temperature. Collections were conducted between August 2010 and July 2011, at 17 sites in the north-south axis of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, Brazil. CTD profiling was carried out every month to measure the environmental parameters. At each month and sampling site, a paralel trawling 30 m long was carried out using a beach seine net 5 m long, 2 m high and 2.5 mm between opposite knots. After collection, fish were identified, measured for total length, weighed and the ages were estimated according von Bertalanffy. We caught 10024 individuals with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Our results evidenced that all age classes of A. brasiliensis are present in shallow areas. This species shows different habitat use between age classes, which is caused by changes in feeding habits and higher availability of favorable environments, besides specific characteristics.

  6. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  7. In situ detection and distribution of inflammatory cytokines during the course of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis-Soto, J M; Quintanilla-Rodriguez, L E; Meester, I; Segoviano-Ramirez, J C; Vazquez-Juarez, J L; Salinas Carmona, M C

    2008-05-01

    Actinomycetoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Nocardia brasiliensis, is characterized by an infiltration of several inflammatory cell populations. To explore aspects of the immune response in the pathogenesis of these bacteria we injected 10(6) CFU in footpads of BALB/c mice. After 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 30 and 90 days immunohistochemistry was performed to compare presence and distribution of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta. Analysis of serial paraffin tissue sections showed strong participation and differences in distribution of cytokine-producing cells during the course of infection. Several TNF-alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes of the dermis were present during the course of the infection, but absent in the site of inflammation. During the first 4 days, IL-1 beta immunoreactivity was observed in dendritic epidermal cells and in cells surrounding the neutrophils around the grain. In later stages of infection, immunoreactive cells to this cytokine were mainly in the periphery of the microabscesses. Strong immunoreactivity was observed with IL-6 during the course of infection. Some cells in the epidermis and dermis, as well as muscle cells and several cells at the periphery of the microabscesses, showed strong IL-6 immunoreactivity. Cells immunoreactive to IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma and TGF-beta were present at the site of infection and, in later stages, in cells at the periphery of the microabscesses. In conclusion a mix of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines are produced at the same time by host cells. According to their distribution, inflammatory cytokines seems to have different functions during the course of infection with the intracellular bacterium N. brasiliensis.

  8. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning Expeditions: Risky but Rewarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, a good part of my laboratory was using the then-new recombinant DNA techniques to clone and characterize many important cell surface membrane proteins: GLUT1 (the red cell glucose transporter) and then GLUT2 and GLUT4, the red cell anion exchange protein (Band 3), asialoglycoprotein receptor subunits, sucrase-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, and two of the subunits of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor. These cloned genes opened many new fields of basic research, including membrane insertion and trafficking of transmembrane proteins, signal transduction by many members of the cytokine and TGF-β families of receptors, and the cellular physiology of glucose and anion transport. They also led to many insights into the molecular biology of several cancers, hematopoietic disorders, and diabetes. This work was done by an exceptional group of postdocs and students who took exceptionally large risks in developing and using novel cloning technologies. Unsurprisingly, all have gone on to become leaders in the fields of molecular cell biology and molecular medicine. PMID:24061478

  10. Variación temporal a Microcyclus ulei en los clones de caucho FX 3864 y FX 4098 en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Sterling Cuellar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Variación temporal a Microcyclus ulei en los clones de caucho FX 3864 y FX 4098 en condiciones controladas Título en ingles: Temporal variation to Microcyclus ulei in rubber tree clones FX 3864 and FX 4098 under controlled conditions Título corto: Variación temporal a Microcyclus ulei Resumen:  Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la variación temporal de los principales componentes fisiológicos asociados a la reacción de dos clones (FX 3864 y FX 4098de Hevea brasiliensis a Microcyclus ulei en condiciones controladas. Las inoculaciones se realizaron en cámara húmeda a 23 ºC, una humedad relativa superior al 90% y un fotoperíodo de 12 h. Con un modelo de medidas repetidas en el tiempo y mediante correlaciones se analizaron cuatro variables: severidad de ataque (SA, intensidad de esporulación conidial (IE, tamaño de lesión (TL y frecuencia de infección (FI. M. ulei generó síntomas en los dos clones a los 4 días después de la inoculación. Los signos de la enfermedad (IE= 3 se manifestaron a los 8 días en el clon FX 3864 y a los 12 días en el clon FX 4098. FX 3864 presentó la mayor susceptibilidad a M. ulei (mayor severidad y una esporulación alta, IE= 4. En general, se observó una influencia del tiempo en la reacción de cada clon para las variables SA, IE y TL. Altas correlaciones significativas se encontraron entre SA y las variables IE, TL y FI, excepto en el día 12 para IE. Este estudio permite concluir que en condiciones controladas la intensidad  y la frecuencia de los síntomas así como el grado de esporulación  producidos por M. ulei cambian significativamente a través del tiempo y esta variación está influenciada a su vez por el nivel de susceptibilidad a M. ulei presentado por cada clon de H. brasiliensis.  Palabras clave: Hevea brasiliensis, mal suramericano de las hojas, severidad, esporulación. Abstract:  This study aimed to evaluate the effect of temporal variation on the

  11. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džunková, Mária; D'Auria, Giuseppe; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Moya, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb) cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs) with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  12. Hybrid sequencing approach applied to human fecal metagenomic clone libraries revealed clones with potential biotechnological applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Džunková

    Full Text Available Natural environments represent an incredible source of microbial genetic diversity. Discovery of novel biomolecules involves biotechnological methods that often require the design and implementation of biochemical assays to screen clone libraries. However, when an assay is applied to thousands of clones, one may eventually end up with very few positive clones which, in most of the cases, have to be "domesticated" for downstream characterization and application, and this makes screening both laborious and expensive. The negative clones, which are not considered by the selected assay, may also have biotechnological potential; however, unfortunately they would remain unexplored. Knowledge of the clone sequences provides important clues about potential biotechnological application of the clones in the library; however, the sequencing of clones one-by-one would be very time-consuming and expensive. In this study, we characterized the first metagenomic clone library from the feces of a healthy human volunteer, using a method based on 454 pyrosequencing coupled with a clone-by-clone Sanger end-sequencing. Instead of whole individual clone sequencing, we sequenced 358 clones in a pool. The medium-large insert (7-15 kb cloning strategy allowed us to assemble these clones correctly, and to assign the clone ends to maintain the link between the position of a living clone in the library and the annotated contig from the 454 assembly. Finally, we found several open reading frames (ORFs with previously described potential medical application. The proposed approach allows planning ad-hoc biochemical assays for the clones of interest, and the appropriate sub-cloning strategy for gene expression in suitable vectors/hosts.

  13. A model based on spectrofluorimetry to study the interaction between glyphosate and serum albumin of Salminus brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Marta Araujo Cyrino; Cortez, Celia Martins; Silva, Dilson; Neto, Jayme da Cunha Bastos

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this work is to initiate an investigation on the albumin of Salminus brasiliensis (gold fish) as a biomarker of environmental actions of glyphosate. We started using a mathematical-computational model based on spectrofluorimetric measurements to study the interaction of glyphosate with gold fish albumin and human serum albumin. Salminus brasiliensis is a migratory freshwater fish species found in southern and central-western Brazil, mainly in the Prata river basin, where most of soybean plantations are set. Glyphosate is a very used herbicide in this type of crop. Differently from the organophosphorate methyl parathion, glyphosate does not form complex with HSA, and the quenching constants estimated for its binding with gold fish albumin at 20 °C and 25 °C is 1.3(± 0.3) × 104 / M e 2.5 (± 0.3) × 104 / M, respectively.

  14. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos

  15. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis Catalase Gene Fragment in Members of the Genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Johnson, Wendy M.; Welsh, Oliverio; Resendiz-Uresti, Francisco L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.

    1999-01-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  16. Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Genomic Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for ...

  17. Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Cleiton B; Lima, Aline L; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2013-07-01

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Susana; Sá, Nívea P; Lima, Luciana A R S; Cisalpino, Patricia S; Cota, Betania B; Alves, Tânia M A; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Zani, Carlos L

    2010-10-12

    The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol (1), a new biphenyl compound, namely, 4'-ethyl-4-methyl-2,2',6,6'-tetrahydroxy[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-dicarboxylate (2), quercetin (3), and kaempferol (4). Compounds 1 and 2 were active against different strains of P. brasiliensis, showing a minimal inhibitory concentration value against the isolate Pb B339 of 15.6 μg/ml. The isolate Pb 1578 was more sensitive to compound 1 with a MIC value of 7.5 μg/ml. Schinol presented synergistic effect only when combined with itraconazole. The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were not able to inhibit cell wall synthesis or assembly using the sorbitol assay. This work reveals for the first time the occurrence of compound 2 and discloses activity of compounds 1 and 2 against several clinical isolates of P. brasiliensis. These results justify further studies to clarify the mechanisms of action of these compounds.

  19. Population genetic structure of Brazilian shrimp species (Farfantepenaeus sp., F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis and Litopenaeus schmitti: Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Gusmão

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimps are important resources for worldwide fisheries and aquaculture. In the Southwest Atlantic, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, F. paulensis, F. subtilis, Farfantepenaeus sp. and Litopenaeus schmitti are among the most important commercially exploited species. Despite their high commercial value, there is little information available on the different aspects of their biology or genetics and almost no data on their stock structure. We used allozymes to estimate variability levels and population genetic structure of F. brasiliensis, F. paulensis, L. schmitti and the recently detected species Farfantepenaeus sp. along as much as 4,000 km of Brazilian coastline. No population heterogeneity was detected in F. brasiliensis or L. schmitti along the studied area. In contrast, F ST values found for Farfantepenaeus sp. and F. paulensis indicate that the populations of those two species are genetically structured, comprising different fishery stocks. The largest genetic differences in F. paulensis were found between Lagoa dos Patos (South and the two populations from Southeast Brazil. In Farfantepenaeus sp., significant differences were detected between the population from Recife and those from Fortaleza and Ilhéus.

  20. Molecular Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the H(+)-Pyrophosphatase from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumei; Luo, Zhu; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Chang; Gong, Ming; Zou, Zhurong

    2016-04-01

    H(+)-pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) is a primary pyrophosphate (PPi)-energized proton pump to generate electrochemical H(+) gradient for ATP production and substance translocations across membranes. It plays an important role in stress adaptation that was intensively substantiated by numerous transgenic plants overexpressing H(+)-PPases yet devoid of any correlated studies pointing to the elite energy plant, Jatropha curcas. Herein, we cloned the full length of J. curcas H(+)-PPase (JcVP1) complementary DNA (cDNA) by reverse transcription PCR, based on the assembled sequence of its ESTs highly matched to Hevea brasiliensis H(+)-PPase. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 765 amino acids that was predicted as a K(+)-dependent H(+)-PPase evolutionarily closest to those of other Euphorbiaceae plants. Many cis-regulatory elements relevant to environmental stresses, molecular signals, or tissue-specificity were identified by promoter prediction within the 1.5-kb region upstream of JcVP1 coding sequence. Meanwhile, the responses of JcVP1 expression to several common abiotic stresses (salt, drought, heat, cold) were characterized with a considerable accordance with the inherent stress tolerance of J. curcas. Moreover, we found that the heterologous expression of JcVP1 could significantly improve the salt tolerance in both recombinant Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and this effect could be further fortified in yeast by N-terminal addition of a vacuole-targeting signal peptide from the H(+)-PPase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

  1. Novel cloning machine with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Daowen

    2006-01-01

    Probabilistic cloning was first proposed by Duan and Guo. Then Pati established a novel cloning machine (NCM) for copying superposition of multiple clones simultaneously. In this paper, we deal with the novel cloning machine with supplementary information (NCMSI). For the case of cloning two states, we demonstrate that the optimal efficiency of the NCMSI in which the original party and the supplementary party can perform quantum communication equals that achieved by a two-step cloning protocol wherein classical communication is only allowed between the original and the supplementary parties. From this equivalence, it follows that NCMSI may increase the success probabilities for copying. Also, an upper bound on the unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal pure product states is derived. Our investigation generalizes and completes the results in the literature

  2. Unified universal quantum cloning machine and fidelities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yinan; Shi Handuo; Xiong Zhaoxi; Jing Li; Mu Liangzhu [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ren Xijun [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 4750011 (China); Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-09-15

    We present a unified universal quantum cloning machine, which combines several different existing universal cloning machines together, including the asymmetric case. In this unified framework, the identical pure states are projected equally into each copy initially constituted by input and one half of the maximally entangled states. We show explicitly that the output states of those universal cloning machines are the same. One importance of this unified cloning machine is that the cloning procession is always the symmetric projection, which reduces dramatically the difficulties for implementation. Also, it is found that this unified cloning machine can be directly modified to the general asymmetric case. Besides the global fidelity and the single-copy fidelity, we also present all possible arbitrary-copy fidelities.

  3. Effective and efficient model clone detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Code clones are a major source of software defects. Thus, it is likely that model clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of models) have a significant negative impact on model quality, and thus, on any software created based on those models, irrespective of whether the software is generated fully...... automatically (“MDD-style”) or hand-crafted following the blueprint defined by the model (“MBSD-style”). Unfortunately, however, model clones are much less well studied than code clones. In this paper, we present a clone detection algorithm for UML domain models. Our approach covers a much greater variety...... of model types than existing approaches while providing high clone detection rates at high speed....

  4. Telomeres and the ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In search of a potential problem with cloning, I investigate the phenomenon of telomere shortening which is caused by cell replication; clones created from somatic cells will have shortened telomeres and therefore reach a state of senescence more rapidly. While genetic intervention might fix this problem at some point in the future, I ask whether, absent technological advances, this biological phenomenon undermines the moral permissibility of cloning.

  5. Species-specific challenges in dog cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G A; Oh, H J; Park, J E; Kim, M J; Park, E J; Jo, Y K; Jang, G; Kim, M K; Kim, H J; Lee, B C

    2012-12-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is now an established procedure used in cloning of several species. SCNT in dogs involves multiple steps including the removal of the nuclear material, injection of a donor cell, fusion, activation of the reconstructed oocytes and finally transfer to a synchronized female recipient. There are therefore many factors that contribute to cloning efficiency. By performing a retrospective analysis of 2005-2012 published papers regarding dog cloning, we define the optimum procedure and summarize the specific feature for dog cloning. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Human cloning: Eastern Mediterranean Region perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdur Rab, M; Khayat, M H

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in genomics and biotechnology have ushered in a new era in health development. Therapeutic cloning possesses enormous potential for revolutionizing medical and therapeutic techniques. Cloning technology, however, is perceived as having the potential for reproductive cloning, which raises serious ethical and moral concerns. It is important that the Islamic countries come to a consensus on this vital issue. Developing science and technology for better health is a religious and moral obligation. There is an urgent need for Muslim scholars to discuss the issue of stem cell research and cloning rationally; such dialogue will not only consider the scientific merits but also the moral, ethical and legal implications.

  7. Intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welden Panziera

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Intoxicações por plantas do gênero Senecio representam uma importante causa de morte em animais de produção, sendo Senecio brasiliensis a espécie mais envolvida nos casos de intoxicação espontânea. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação natural por Senecio brasiliensis em equinos. Dois equinos, de um total de dezoito, foram afetados. Os casos ocorreram em uma propriedade rural no município de São Martinho da Serra, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Grande quantidade de exemplares de Senecio brasiliensis em estágio de brotação foi encontrada na área onde os equinos estavam. Os animais eram da raça Crioula, sendo uma égua com quatro anos e um potro com cinco meses. A égua apresentou evolução aguda da doença com duração de três dias e o potro evolução crônica de dois meses. As principais manifestações clínicas observadas em ambos os equinos incluíam apatia, anorexia, emagrecimento, desidratação e sinais neurológicos. Além disso, havia moderado edema subcutâneo na região ventral do abdômen e marcada icterícia nas mucosas ocular, oral e vulvar da égua e palidez das mucosas no potro. Na avaliação bioquímica do potro, havia acentuado aumento da atividade sérica da gamaglutamil transferase (119 U/L, aumento da fosfatase alcalina (434 U/L e hipoalbuminemia (2,1g/dL. No hemograma do mesmo, observou-se leve anemia normocítica e normocrômica (30% de hematócrito; VCM: 39,5 fL; HCM: 15,3pg. As alterações presentes em ambas as necropsias foram observadas principalmente no fígado, que estava difusamente aumentado de tamanho, escuro e firme. Na superfície de corte, observaram-se acentuação do padrão lobular e hemorragia. Histologicamente, no fígado dos equinos, havia graus variados de necrose coagulativa, hemorragia, fibrose, proliferação de ductos biliares, hepatomegalocitose e bilestase. Nas diferentes seções analisadas

  8. Cloning human DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeggo, P.A.; Carr, A.M.; Lehmann, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    Many human genes involved in the repair of UV damage have been cloned using different procedures and they have been of great value in assisting the understanding of the mechanism of nucleotide excision-repair. Genes involved in repair of ionizing radiation damage have proved more difficult to isolate. Positional cloning has localized the XRCC5 gene to a small region of chromosome 2q33-35, and a series of yeast artificial chromosomes covering this region have been isolated. Very recent work has shown that the XRCC5 gene encodes the 80 kDa subunit of the Ku DNA-binding protein. The Ku80 gene also maps to this region. Studies with fission yeast have shown that radiation sensitivity can result not only from defective DNA repair but also from abnormal cell cycle control following DNA damage. Several genes involved in this 'check-point' control in fission yeast have been isolated and characterized in detail. It is likely that a similar checkpoint control mechanism exists in human cells. (author)

  9. Therapeutic effect of a novel oxazolidinone, DA-7867, in BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Daw-Garza, Alejandra; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Rocha, Norma Cavazos; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Choi, Sung-Hak; Welsh, Oliverio

    2008-09-10

    Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of tropical and subtropical countries. It is produced by true fungi and actinobacteria. In México, Nocardia brasiliensis is the main causative agent of mycetoma, producing about 86% of the cases; the gold standard for the therapy of mycetoma by N. brasiliensis is the use of sulfonamides which give a 70% cure rate. The addition of amikacin to this regime increases to 95% the cure rate; however, the patients have to be monitored for creatinine clearance and audiometry studies because of the potential development of side effects. Because of that it is important to search for new active compounds. In the present work, we evaluated the in vivo effect of DA-7867, an experimental oxazolidinone, on the development of experimental mycetomas by N. brasiliensis in BALB/c mice. In order to determine the optimal dose utilized to apply to the animals, we first determined by HPLC the plasma levels using several concentrations of the compounds. Based on these results, we used 10 and 25 mg/kg subcutaneously every 24 hr; DA-7867 was also supplied in the drinking water at a calculated dose of 25 mg/kg. As a control we utilized linezolid at 25 mg/kg, a compound active in murine and human infections, three times a day. The mice were infected in the right footpad with a young culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1, and one week later we started the application of the antimicrobials for six more weeks. After that we compared the development of lesions in the groups injected with saline solution or with the antimicrobials; the results were analyzed by the variance ANOVA test. DA-7867 was able to reduce the production of lesions at 25 mg/kg, when given either subcutaneously or in the drinking water. The experimental oxazolidinone DA-7867 is active in vivo against N. brasiliensis, which opens the possibility of using this drug once it is accepted for human application. Since oxazolidinones seem to be active against a wide spectrum of actinobacteria, it

  10. Therapeutic effect of a novel oxazolidinone, DA-7867, in BALB/c mice infected with Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vera-Cabrera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease of tropical and subtropical countries. It is produced by true fungi and actinobacteria. In México, Nocardia brasiliensis is the main causative agent of mycetoma, producing about 86% of the cases; the gold standard for the therapy of mycetoma by N. brasiliensis is the use of sulfonamides which give a 70% cure rate. The addition of amikacin to this regime increases to 95% the cure rate; however, the patients have to be monitored for creatinine clearance and audiometry studies because of the potential development of side effects. Because of that it is important to search for new active compounds. In the present work, we evaluated the in vivo effect of DA-7867, an experimental oxazolidinone, on the development of experimental mycetomas by N. brasiliensis in BALB/c mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to determine the optimal dose utilized to apply to the animals, we first determined by HPLC the plasma levels using several concentrations of the compounds. Based on these results, we used 10 and 25 mg/kg subcutaneously every 24 hr; DA-7867 was also supplied in the drinking water at a calculated dose of 25 mg/kg. As a control we utilized linezolid at 25 mg/kg, a compound active in murine and human infections, three times a day. The mice were infected in the right footpad with a young culture of N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1, and one week later we started the application of the antimicrobials for six more weeks. After that we compared the development of lesions in the groups injected with saline solution or with the antimicrobials; the results were analyzed by the variance ANOVA test. DA-7867 was able to reduce the production of lesions at 25 mg/kg, when given either subcutaneously or in the drinking water. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The experimental oxazolidinone DA-7867 is active in vivo against N. brasiliensis, which opens the possibility of using this drug once it is accepted for human

  11. Behavior and demography in an urban colony of Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera: Molossidae in Rosario, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C Romano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bat colonies were sampled in the city of Rosario to increase the understanding of bat ecology in urban areas of the southern cone of South America. Seven species were recorded, of which three are new records for Rosario. One representative colony was chosen for intensive ecological study. Approximately 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formed a maternity colony in the attic of an old building. Most of the bats were pregnant or lactating females and their young.. Adults arrive in the colony in mid-September and leave in February, no bats were present at this site from the beginning of March to mid-September. Births occur between mid-November and mid-December. Pups roosted in compact clusters in the nursery areas, spatially segregated from adults. Densities of these aggregations were 643 + 76 bats/m2 (p Con el objetivo de incrementar el conocimiento de la ecología de los murciélagos en áreas urbanas, se muestrearon colonias en la ciudad de Rosario. Fueron registradas siete especies, de las cuales tres son nuevos registros. Se seleccionó una colonia que se consideró más representativa, para realizar un intensivo estudio ecológico. Se realizaron conteos poblacionales, que arrojaron aproximadamente 64 000 Tadarida brasiliensis formando una colonia maternal en el ático de un antigüo edificio. Se hicieron registros de comportamiento (fechas de arribo y partida, patrones diarios de actividad, pariciones, etc.. Los adultos arrivan al refugio a mediados de septiembre y lo abandonan en febrero. Las pariciones ocurren entre mediados de noviembre y mediados de diciembre. Las crías se ubicaron en grupos compactos en áreas separadas de los adultos, siendo su densidad de 643 + 76 /m2 (p < 0.20. y la de los adultos de 161 + 21 /m2 (p < 0.20. 182 animales capturados fueron identificados, sexados y pesados. Los registros incluyeron patrones diarios de actividad.. Se detectó predación por "lechuza de campanario" (Tyto alba y gatos domésticos. La b

  12. Quantum cloning machines and their implementation in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Fang Bao-Long

    2013-01-01

    We review the basic theory of approximate quantum cloning for discrete variables and some schemes for implementing quantum cloning machines. Several types of approximate quantum clones and their expansive quantum clones are introduced. As for the implementation of quantum cloning machines, we review some design methods and recent experimental results. (topical review - quantum information)

  13. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like effect of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) in the tail suspension test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, André R S; Machado, Daniele G; Bettio, Luis E B; Colla, Guilherme; Magina, Michele D A; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2012-09-28

    Several species of Eugenia L. are used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Eugenia brasiliensis is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, whereas Eugenia. uniflora is used for the treatment of symptoms related to depression and mood disorders, and is used in Brazil by the Guarani Indians as a tonic stimulant. To investigate the antidepressant-like effect of hydroalcoholic extracts of different plant species of genus Eugenia and to characterize the participation of the monoaminergic systems in the mechanism of action of the specie that afforded the most prominent antidepressant-like efficacy. In the first set of experiments, the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Eugenia beaurepaireana, Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae, Eugenia umbelliflora and Eugenia uniflora and the antidepressant fluoxetine (positive control) administered acutely by p.o. route were evaluated in the tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity was assessed in the open-field test in mice. In the second set of experiments, the involvement of the monoaminergic systems in the antidepressant-like activity of Eugenia brasiliensis was evaluated by treating mice with several pharmacological agonists and antagonists. The effects of the combined administration of sub-effective doses of Eugenia brasiliensis and the antidepressants fluoxetine, imipramine and bupropion were also evaluated. The administration of the extracts from Eugenia brasiliensis, Eugenia catharinae and Eugenia umbelliflora, but not Eugenia beaurepaireana and Eugenia uniflora, exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect, without altering locomotor activity. The behavioral profile was similar to fluoxetine. Pre-treatment of mice with ketanserin, haloperidol, SCH23390, sulpiride, prazosin and yohimbine prevented the reduction of immobility time induced by Eugenia brasiliensis. Treatment with sub-effective doses of WAY100635, SKF38393, apomorphine, phenylephrine, but not clonidine, combined

  14. Cloning and superluminal signaling£

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cloning; cloning fidelity; superluminal signaling; state discrimination. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. .... The possibility of superluminal signaling in quantum mechanics stems from the concept .... quantum mechanics and relativity [13]. .... [13] A Shimony, in Foundations of quantum mechanics in the light of new technology edited by.

  15. The ethics of human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Carson

    2005-03-01

    This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable if, at some future time, cloning becomes possible without an elevated risk of anomalies. It is argued that freedom to use cloning is a form of procreative freedom and, as such, deserves respect. All of the objections that have been raised against human reproductive cloning fall under three main categories: those that appeal to the interests of the child, those based on consequences for society, and those arising from teleological views. Objections that appeal to the child's interests are, in turn, of two main kinds: consequentialist and deontological. All of these types of objections are examined, and it is found that each involves serious problems that prevent it from being a reasonable objection in the context of the infertility cases considered. It is concluded that human reproductive cloning would be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples, provided that it could be performed without an elevated risk of anomalies.

  16. Reversibility of continuous-variable quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Marek, Petr; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    We analyze a reversibility of optimal Gaussian 1→2 quantum cloning of a coherent state using only local operations on the clones and classical communication between them and propose a feasible experimental test of this feature. Performing Bell-type homodyne measurement on one clone and anticlone, an arbitrary unknown input state (not only a coherent state) can be restored in the other clone by applying appropriate local unitary displacement operation. We generalize this concept to a partial reversal of the cloning using only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) and we show that this procedure converts the symmetric cloner to an asymmetric cloner. Further, we discuss a distributed LOCC reversal in optimal 1→M Gaussian cloning of coherent states which transforms it to optimal 1→M ' cloning for M ' < M. Assuming the quantum cloning as a possible eavesdropping attack on quantum communication link, the reversibility can be utilized to improve the security of the link even after the attack

  17. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Code clones - that is, duplicate fragments of code - have been studied for a long time. There is strong evidence that code clones are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon is not restricted to code, but occurs in models in a very similar way. So it is...

  18. Recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Jacques; Alvarez, Emilia; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.

    2014-01-01

    No molecular cloning technique is considered universally reliable, and many suffer from being too laborious, complex, or expensive. Restriction-free cloning is among the simplest, most rapid, and cost-effective methods, but does not always provide successful results. We modified this method to enhance its success rate through the use of exponential amplification coupled with homologous end-joining. This new method, recombination-assisted megaprimer (RAM) cloning, significantly extends the application of restriction-free cloning, and allows efficient vector construction with much less time and effort when restriction-free cloning fails to provide satisfactory results. The following modifications were made to the protocol:•Limited number of PCR cycles for both megaprimer synthesis and the cloning reaction to reduce error propagation.•Elimination of phosphorylation and ligation steps previously reported for cloning methods that used exponential amplification, through the inclusion of a reverse primer in the cloning reaction with a 20 base pair region of homology to the forward primer.•The inclusion of 1 M betaine to enhance both reaction specificity and yield. PMID:26150930

  19. Challenges in regulating farm animal cloning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunning, Jennifer; Hartlev, Mette; Gamborg, Christian

    Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety......Report from the project Cloning in Public: A specific support action within the 6th framework programme, priority 5: Food quality and safety...

  20. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, R S A; Groombridge, J J; Zambrana Rojas, V D; Van Damme, P; Gottelli, D; Kundu, S; Bodmer, R; Ariani, C V; Iyengar, A; Jordan, W C

    2011-12-01

    The giant otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, occupies a range including the major drainage basins of South America, yet the degree of structure that exists within and among populations inhabiting these drainages is unknown. We sequenced portions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (612bp) and control region (383 bp) genes in order to determine patterns of genetic variation within the species. We found high levels of mtDNA haplotype diversity (h = 0.93 overall) and support for subdivision into four distinct groups of populations, representing important centers of genetic diversity and useful units for prioritizing conservation within the giant otter. We tested these results against the predictions of three hypotheses of Amazonian diversification (Pleistocene Refugia, Paleogeography, and Hydrogeology). While the phylogeographic pattern conformed to the predictions of the Refugia Hypothesis, molecular dating using a relaxed clock revealed the phylogroups diverged from one another between 1.69 and 0.84 Ma, ruling out the influence of Late Pleistocene glacial refugia. However, the role of Plio-Pleistocene climate change could not be rejected. While the molecular dating also makes the influence of geological arches according to the Paleogeography Hypothesis extremely unlikely, the recent Pliocene formation of the Fitzcarrald Arch and its effect of subsequently altering drainage pattern could not be rejected. The data presented here support the interactions of both climatic and hydrological changes resulting from geological activity in the Plio-Pleistocene, in shaping the phylogeographic structure of the giant otter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimon Jumat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh, mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth and ethanol (RSOeth were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. Results FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn’t show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSOh, RSOchl+mth and RSOeth and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively. Conclusions This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  2. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) seed oil toxicity effect and Linamarin compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimon, Jumat; Abdullah, Bashar Mudhaffar; Salih, Nadia

    2012-06-13

    The lipid fraction of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis (kunth. Muell)) seed was extracted and analyzed for toxicological effect. The toxicological compound such as linamarin in rubber seed oil (RSO) extracted using different solvents, such as hexane (RSOh), mixture of chloroform + methanol (RSOchl+mth) and ethanol (RSOeth) were also studied. Various methods analysis such as Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and colorimetric methods were carried out to determine the present of such compounds. FTIR spectrum of RSO did not show any presence of cyanide peak. The determination of cyanide by using colorimetric method was demonstrated no response of the cyanide in RSO and didn't show any colored comparing with commercial cyanide which observed blue color. The results showed that no functional groups such as cyanide (C ≡ N) associated with linamarin were observed. Toxicological test using rats was also conducted to further confirm the absence of such compounds. RSO did not show any toxic potential to the rats. Bioassay experiments using shrimps had been used as test organisms to evaluate the toxicity of linamarin extract from RSO(h,) RSO(chl+mth) and RSO(eth) and LC50 were found to be (211.70 %, 139.40 %, and 117.41 %, respectively). This can be attributed no hazardous linamarin were found in RSO.

  3. Estudo comparativo da imuno-antigenicidade de 8 amostras de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. V. Biagioni

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Para se detectar diferenças imuno-antigênicas entre 8 amostras de P. brasiliensis isoladas de diferentes áreas endêmicas (Botucatu: Pb 1, 2 e 3; São Paulo: Pb: 18, 192 e 265; Venezuela: Pb 9 e 73, esutdaram-se: 1. A reatividade antigênica de cada amostra nas reações de imunofluorescência indireta (II e de imunodifusão dupla em gel de agar (ID contra painel de 20 soros controles positivos para paracoccidioidomicose; 2. A capacidade de induzir resposta imune humoral (medida por imunodifusão e celular (medida pelo teste de coxim plantar em camundongos imunizados com an-tígenos de cada amostra. Observamos: 1. As amostras Pb 265 e Pb 9 mostraram-se mais reativas na II; 2. Os antígenos das amostras Pb 192 e Pb 73 foram significativamente mais reativas na ID; 3. Estes dados demonstram diferenças de antigenicidade entre estas amostras; 4. A amostra Pb 18 mostrou baixo poder indutor de resposta imune celular e alta capacidade de indução de resposta imune humoral em camundongos imunizados, revelando dissociação de sua imunogenicidade. Estas diferenças podem indicar a existência de cepas distintas do fungo ou refletir modificações do parasita no hospedeiro ou du rante seu cultivo.

  4. Effects of DDE on experimentally poisoned free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Kroll, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Adult female free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected at Bracken Cave, Texas, and shipped to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Treated mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing 107 ppm DDE were fed to 17 bats; five other bats were fed untreated mealworms. After 40 days on dosage, during which one dosed bat was killed accidentally, four dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 17 were starved to death. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE to lethality and measure these concentrations. After the feeding period, dosed bats weighed less than controls. After starvation, the body condition of dosed bats was poorer than that of controls even though there was no difference in the amounts of carcass fat. During starvation, dosed bats lost weight faster than controls. Also, four dosed bats exhibited the prolonged tremoring that characterizes DDE poisoning. DDE increased in brains of starving bats as fat was metabolized. The estimated mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was 519 ppm with a range of 458-564 ppm. These values resemble diagnostic levels known for two species of passerine birds, but they exceed published levels for two free-tailed bats from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico.

  5. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in Patos lagoon, extreme south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lopes Rassier

    Full Text Available Abstract This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2% and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9% and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9% were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time.

  6. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  7. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies. PMID:27031728

  8. Inhibitory effect of verbascoside isolated from Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng on prolyl oligopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Augusto G; Morel, Ademir F; Adolpho, Luciana; Ilha, Vinícius; Giralt, Ernest; Tarragó, Teresa; Dalcol, Ionara I

    2012-10-01

    The phenylpropanoid glycoside verbascoside [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl)-1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-(4-O-caffeyl)-glucopyranoside] (1) has been isolated as the main constituent of the crude extract of Buddleja brasiliensis Jacq. ex Spreng from Southern Brazil. The crude extract, main fractions and the compound 1 were evaluated for inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Compound 1 showed weak activity against DPP-IV with an IC(50) > 150 µM and was inactive against AChE, with a pMIQ determined by bioautography of 9.6. In contrast, 1 displayed significant inhibition of POP in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 1.3 ± 0.2 µM, similar to the positive control, baicalin, with a POP IC(50) of 12 ± 3 µM. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Physicochemical Evaluation of Oil from Hevea brasiliensis Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn C. Creencia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis is exploited mainly for latex in view of its economic importance. However, one of its auxiliary products, the rubber seed, does not find any major applications, and hence, even the natural production of seeds itself remains underutilized. In this study, microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction is used as a green alternative to extract the oil from seeds at a reaction time of 90 min and microwave power of 300 W. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the processing conditions, including drying time, temperature, solid–solvent ratio, and extraction solvent, on the yield of rubber seed oil. Moreover, the microwave-assisted aqueous extraction (MAAE under acidic conditions is also investigated. Based on the results, n-hexane gave the best yield at an optimized 1:20 seed–hexane ratio at 72 °C compared with the conventional Soxhlet method and the acidic MAAE. Furthermore, the chemical characteristics of the oil showed a high value of free fatty acids (% FFA (1.15–7.61% and an iodine value (IV that ranges from 100–150. As a semi-drying oil, rubber seed oil (RSO can be used as an ingredient for surface coating and in the formulation of products where the presence of unsaturation is important.

  10. Dicer-like Proteins Regulate the Growth, Conidiation, and Pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiannan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Hevea brasiliensis is the hemibiotrophic fungi which could cause anthracnose in rubber trees. Dicer like proteins (DCL were the core enzymes for generation of small RNAs. In the present study, the knocking-out mutants of two dicer like proteins encoding genes of C. gloeosporioides were constructed; and functions of two proteins were investigated. The results showed that DCL play important roles in regulating the growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of C. gloeosporioides; and there is a functional redundancy between DCL1 and DCL2. Microscopy analysis and DAB staining revealed that loss of penetration ability into the host cells, instead of the decreased growth rate, was the main cause for the impaired pathogenicity of the ΔDcl1ΔDcl2 double mutant. Proteomics analysis suggested that DCL proteins affected the expression of functional proteins to regulating multiple biological processes of C. gloeosporioides. These data lead to a better understanding of the functions of DCL proteins in regulating the development and pathogenesis of C. gloeosporioides.

  11. Habitat use by Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825 in intertidal zones of a subtropical estuary, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Maichak de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Habitat use is different along the ontogenetic development of some species and may be influenced by environmental parameters. This study described the interaction of Atherinella brasiliensis caught in intertidal areas of the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex with environmental parameters. We caught 10024 individuals between August 2010 and July 2011, with total mean length of 44.32 mm (SD ± 25.37 mm, variation range between 12 and 142 mm, and weight between 0.01 and 73 g, averaging 1.35 g (SD ± 2.66 g and ages estimated between < 1 and 22 months. Significant differences were detected between sectors and periods for number of individuals and weight at capture, with higher mean values in the mean sector during the rainy period. The spatial and temporal distribution of ages was statistically different, individuals between < 1 and 3 months were more abundant in the sector 2 during the rainy period, and individuals older than 7 months were evenly distributed throughout the sampling area, and with higher mean abundance at the beginning and end of the dry period. Environmental variables that most influenced the distribution of age classes were temperature and salinity.

  12. Anticancer activity of 7-epiclusianone, a benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis, in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Leilane; Pezuk, Julia Alejandra; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Brassesco, María Sol; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos, Marcelo Henrique; Ionta, Marisa; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Carvalho

    2015-10-30

    Glioblastoma is the most common tumor of the central nervous system and one of the hardest tumors to treat. Consequently, the search for novel therapeutic options is imperative. 7-epiclusianone, a tetraprenylated benzophenone isolated from the epicarp of the native plant Garcinia brasiliensis, exhibits a range of biological activities but its prospect anticancer activity is underexplored. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of 7-epiclusianone on proliferation, clonogenic capacity, cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis in two glioblastoma cell lines (U251MG and U138MG). Cell viability was measured by the MTS assay; for the clonogenic assay, colonies were stained with Giemsa and counted by direct visual inspection; For cell cycle analysis, cells were stained with propidium iodide and analyzed by cytometry; Cyclin A expression was determined by immunoblotting; Apoptotic cell death was determined by annexin V fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling and Caspase-3 activity in living cells. Viability of both cell lines was drastically inhibited; moreover, the colony formation capacity was significantly reduced, demonstrating long-term effects even after removal of the drug. 7-epiclusianone treatment at low concentrations also altered cell cycle progression, decreased the S and G2/M populations and at higher concentrations increased the number of cells at sub-G1, in concordance with the increase of apoptotic cells. The present study demonstrates for the first time the anticancer potential of 7-epiclusianone against glioblastoma cells, thus meriting its further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent.

  13. Melanins Protect Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix schenckii from the Antifungal Effects of Terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Silva, Fernando; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2016-01-01

    Terbinafine is a recommended therapeutic alternative for patients with sporotrichosis who cannot use itraconazole due to drug interactions or side effects. Melanins are involved in resistance to antifungal drugs and Sporothrix species produce three different types of melanin. Therefore, in this study we evaluated whether Sporothrix melanins impact the efficacy of antifungal drugs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFC) of two Sporothrix brasiliensis and four Sporothrix schenckii strains grown in the presence of the melanin precursors L-DOPA and L-tyrosine were similar to the MIC determined by the CLSI standard protocol for S. schenckii susceptibility to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole or terbinafine. When MICs were determined in the presence of inhibitors to three pathways of melanin synthesis, we observed, in four strains, an increase in terbinafine susceptibility in the presence of tricyclazole, a DHN-melanin inhibitor. In addition, one S. schenckii strain grown in the presence of L-DOPA had a higher MFC value when compared to the control. Growth curves in presence of 2×MIC concentrations of terbinafine showed that pyomelanin and, to a lesser extent, eumelanin were able to protect the fungi against the fungicidal effect of this antifungal drug. Our results suggest that melanin protects the major pathogenic species of the Sporothrix complex from the effects of terbinafine and that the development of new antifungal drugs targeting melanin synthesis may improve sporotrichosis therapies.

  14. Natural membranes of Hevea brasiliensis latex as delivery system for Casearia sylvestris leaf components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio A. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Natural latex from Hevea brasiliensis (Wild. ex A.Juss Müll.Arg., Euphorbiaceae, showed angiogenic action and Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaf derivatives presented anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities. Therefore, an association of these effects was interesting for wound healing applications. The aims of this study were the development of membranes of natural latex incorporated with C. sylvestris leaf derivatives (ethanolic extract, diterpene concentrated fraction and casearin J, their chemical and physical characterization, and the evaluation of in vitro skin permeation and retention of C. sylvestris bioactive secondary metabolites (diterpenes and phenolic compounds. The membranes were developed mixing hydroethanolic solutions of C. sylvestris derivatives with latex and drying them in a desiccator. They were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability and mechanical resistance assays, demonstrating that all membranes were permeable, resistant and homogeneous in surfaces. The permeation and retention assays demonstrated dermal penetration of phenolic compounds for ethanolic extract membrane and of casearin-like clerodane diterpenes for all membranes, indicating that these membranes have great potential for therapeutical application as a topical system for C. sylvestris components releasing.

  15. Efectividad de siete productos antimancha contra ceratocystis sp. en madera de hevea brasiliensis muell arg. (hule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fuentes Salinas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objeto de conocer la eficacia de siete productos antimancha que se comercializan en México, contra el hongo manchador Ceratocystis sp. en madera aserrada de Hevea brasiliensis (hule, mediante el método de los discos, conjuntamente con la norma ASTM D 4445-91. Los productos están elaborados a partir de pentaclorofenato de sodio, tres de ellos, siendo Osmotox, Pentatox y Biotox; tres más están hechos a base de metil bistiocianato y 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol y son Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071, y el séptimo solamente contiene 2-tiocianometiltio benzotiazol, siendo el Busan 1118. La concentración mínima observada para evitar el manchado de la madera (crecimiento cero en un tiempo de 4 semanas, para cada uno de los productos ensayados se obtuvo para Osmotox de 4.68 %, para Pentatox de 2.82 %, para Biotox de 3.24 %, para Busan 1118 de 2.00 % y para Busan 1009, Busan 1450 y Busan 1071 una concentración menor a 0.25%. Tomando en cuenta los precios comerciales de cada producto y de acuerdo con las concentraciones mínimas efectivas para crecimiento cero obtenidas, el tratamiento con Busan 1071 es el más económico y más efectivo.

  16. Cryopreservation of nucellar cells of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) by vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Kobayashi, S; Oiyama, I

    1990-06-01

    The nucellar cells of navel orange(Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification. In this method, cells were sufficiently dehydrated with highly concentrated cryoprotective solution(PVS2) prior to direct plunge in liquid nitrogen. The PVS2 contains(w/v) 30% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol and 15% DMSO in Murashige-Tucker medium(MT) containing 0.15 M sucrose. Cells were treated with 60% PVS2 at 25°C for 5 min and then chilled PVS2 at 0°C for 3 min. The cell suspension of about 0.1 ml was loaded in a 0.5 ml transparent plastic straw and directly plunged in liquid nitrogen for 30 min. After rapid warming, the cell suspension was expelled in 2 ml of MT medium containing 1.2 M sucrose. The average rate of survival was about 80%. The vitrified cells regenerated plantlets. This method is very simple and the time required for cryopreservation is only about 10 min.

  17. Rubber elongation factor (REF, a major allergen component in Hevea brasiliensis latex has amyloid properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Berthelot

    Full Text Available REF (Hevb1 and SRPP (Hevb3 are two major components of Hevea brasiliensis latex, well known for their allergenic properties. They are obviously taking part in the biosynthesis of natural rubber, but their exact function is still unclear. They could be involved in defense/stress mechanisms after tapping or directly acting on the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. The structure of these two proteins is still not described. In this work, it was discovered that REF has amyloid properties, contrary to SRPP. We investigated their structure by CD, TEM, ATR-FTIR and WAXS and neatly showed the presence of β-sheet organized aggregates for REF, whereas SRPP mainly fold as a helical protein. Both proteins are highly hydrophobic but differ in their interaction with lipid monolayers used to mimic the monomembrane surrounding the rubber particles. Ellipsometry experiments showed that REF seems to penetrate deeply into the monolayer and SRPP only binds to the lipid surface. These results could therefore clarify the role of these two paralogous proteins in latex production, either in the coagulation of natural rubber or in stress-related responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amyloid formed from a plant protein. This suggests also the presence of functional amyloid in the plant kingdom.

  18. Activation of the Na sup + ,K sup + -ATPase in Narcine brasiliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, H.; Nioka, Shoko; Johnson, R.G. Jr. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The in vivo activation and turnover rates of the sodium pump (Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase) were investigated in the electrocytes of the electric organ of the elasmobranch Narcine brasiliensis. The Narcine electric organ appears to be an excellent model for the study of sodium pump activation in an excitable tissue. The sodium transmembrane gradient and high-energy phosphagens were concurrently measured by {sup 23}Na and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy. The resting electric organ, which depends primarily on anaerobic metabolism displays a high concentration of phosphocreatin (PCr). It has an intracellular sodium concentration ((Na{sup +}){sub i}) of 20{plus minus}10 milliequivalents/liter as estimated by NMR. Electrical stimulation of the nerves innervating the electric organ results in an increase in (Na{sup +}){sub i} in the electrolyte and rapid depletion of PCr. Ouabain causes an 85% decrease in utilization of high-energy phosphagens, indicating that rapid PCr turnover in this tissue is mainly due to Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase activity. From these data the authors can determine that the rate of sodium pump turnover increases by >3 orders of magnitude within several hundred milliseconds. The authors conclude that cholinergic stimulation of the electric organ causes a rapid and extremely large increase in sodium pump turnover, which is regulated predominantly by factors other than (Na{sup +}){sub i}.

  19. Karakteristik Pembakaran Biobriket Kulit dan Cangkang Karet (Hevea Brasiliensis dengan Perekat Glyserin

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    I Wayan Wawan Mariki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some studies have been done on utilizing biomass from agriculture such as the leather and shell of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis were not used optimally in Indonesia as an alternative energy which developed by making biobriquet to achieved the higher energy that could be used in the combustion process. In this study, the biobriquet was made of the leather and the shell of rubber by comparisson of the leather and shell were: 0%: 91%; 45.5%: 45.5%; 55%: 36%; 64%: 27%; 91%: 0%.Glyserin 9% for each percentage of biobriquet was used as adhesive material and the drying temperature of 110 C. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of biobriquet combustion which made of the leather and shell of rubber. The results shows that the biobriquet combustion process which made of 64% rubber leather and 27% rubber shell has a calorific value of 5313,923 Kal/gr. In 20 seconds of initial ignition, the combustion process shows the improvement such as increased concentrations of the flammable leather, bluish red fire.

  20. Probabilistic cloning with supplementary information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Koji; Shimamura, Junichi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We consider probabilistic cloning of a state chosen from a mutually nonorthogonal set of pure states, with the help of a party holding supplementary information in the form of pure states. When the number of states is 2, we show that the best efficiency of producing m copies is always achieved by a two-step protocol in which the helping party first attempts to produce m-1 copies from the supplementary state, and if it fails, then the original state is used to produce m copies. On the other hand, when the number of states exceeds two, the best efficiency is not always achieved by such a protocol. We give examples in which the best efficiency is not achieved even if we allow any amount of one-way classical communication from the helping party

  1. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  2. Chorioallantoic placenta defects in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Kohda, Takashi; Inoue, Kimiko; Ogonuki, Narumi; Miki, Hiromi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Mizutani, Eiji; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ogura, Atsuo; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer technology has been applied to produce live clones successfully in several mammalian species, but the success rates are very low. In mice, about half of the nuclear transfer embryos undergo implantation, but very few survive to term. We undertook detailed histological analyses of placentas from cloned mouse embryos generated from cumulus cells at 10.5 dpc of pregnancy, by which stage most clones have terminated their development. At 10.5 dpc, the extraembryonic tissues displayed several defined histological patterns, each reflecting their stage of developmental arrest. The most notable abnormality was the poor development of the spongiotrophoblast layer of diploid cells. This is in contrast to the placental hyperplasia frequently observed in somatic clones at 12.5 dpc or later stages. A variety of structural abnormalities were also observed in the embryos. Both placental and embryonic defects likely contribute to the low success rate of the mouse clones

  3. "Goodbye Dolly?" The ethics of human cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J

    1997-01-01

    The ethical implications of human clones have been much alluded to, but have seldom been examined with any rigour. This paper examines the possible uses and abuses of human cloning and draws out the principal ethical dimensions, both of what might be done and its meaning. The paper examines some of the major public and official responses to cloning by authorities such as President Clinton, the World Health Organisation, the European parliament, UNESCO, and others and reveals their inadequacies as foundations for a coherent public policy on human cloning. The paper ends by defending a conception of reproductive rights of "procreative autonomy" which shows human cloning to be not inconsistent with human rights and dignity. PMID:9451604

  4. [Human cloning in Muslim and Arab law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeeb Abu-Sahlieh, Sami A

    2009-01-01

    Cloning is a modern medical procedure that Muslim religious authorities treat en resorting to the general principles established by classical Muslim law based on the Koran and the Sunnah of Muhhamad as the messenger of God. In this regard, human beings are not capable of deciding what is or what is not lawful without resorting to divine norms. Cloning clashes with several principles. Firstly, the principle of the respect for life in relation to surpernumeraries, but Muslim authors are not in unanimous agreement on the determination of the moment at which life begins. Secondly, is the respect of progeny: cloning could only take place between a married couple. But even if these two principles are respected, cloning poses two major problems: the diversity of species expounded by the Koran and the Sunnah and a lack of interest. Which explains the quasi-unanimous opposition of Muslim writings regarding cloning.

  5. Temperature and pH conditions for mycelial growth of Agaricus brasiliensis on axenic cultivation/ Condições de temperatura e pH para o crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis em cultivo axênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Doretto Paccola-Meirelles

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been done to determine Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei; A. subrufescens basic mycelial growth characteristics on axenic cultivation. This study aimed to determine the optimal temperature and initial pH for mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on malt extract agar medium to develop axenic cultivation techniques. Studied initial pH values for mycelial growth were adjusted to 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5, with HCl, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, with NaOH, and again 7.0 and 8.0, with CaCO3. Studied temperatures for mycelial growth were 22 ºC, 25 ºC, 28 ºC, 31 ºC and 34 ºC. It was concluded that A. brasiliensis can grow in axenic cultivation at temperature range from 22 oC to 34 ºC, with optimal temperature range from 28 oC to 31 ºC and optimal temperature value of 30.5 ºC ± 0.3 ºC. It also grows in initial pH range from 4.0 to 7.0, adjusted with HCl or NaOH but not CaCO3, with optimal initial pH range from 5.5 to 6.0 and optimal initial pH value of 5.56 ± 0.05. Mycelial growth is inhibited with pH of 3.0 or lower, 8.0 or higher, or when CaCO3 is used to adjust pH in the substratum to 7.0 or higher.Poucos estudos foram desenvolvidos para determinar as condições básicas de crescimento micelial do fungo Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei, A. subrufescens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a faixa ótima de temperatura e pH para o crescimento micelial, em agar-extrato-de-malte, de A. brasiliensis, visando o desenvolvimento de técnicas de cultivo axênica. Os valores de pH estudados foram 3,0, 4,0, 5,0 e 5,5, ajustados com HCl, 6,0, 7,0 e 8,0, ajustados com NaOH, e 7,0 e 8,0, ajustados com CaCO3. As temperaturas de crescimento estudadas foram 22 ºC; 25 ºC; 28 ºC; 31 ºC e 34 oC. Concluiu-se que A. brasiliensis cresce em uma faixa de temperatura ótima de 28 oC a 31 ºC, com valor ótimo de temperatura de 30,5 ºC ± 0,3 ºC. A faixa de pH inicial ótimo no substrato é de 5,5 a 6,0 e o valor de pH inicial

  6. Palinotaxonomia de Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker e Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae Palynotaxonomy of Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng., Eremanthus bicolor (DC. Baker and Vanillosmopsis erythropappa (DC. Sch. Bip. (Compositae-Vernonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Férras Peçanha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. tem sido, tradicionalmente, aceito como sinônimo de Eremanthus Less. e o gênero Albertinia Spreng. foi estabelecido para abrigar Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. O presente trabalho propõe a caracterização polínica de Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa e Eremanthus bicolor e fornece subsídios para futuros estudos taxonômicos. Foram utilizados grãos de pólen de espécimens coletados em diferentes herbários. As duas primeiras espécies são encontradas no Rio de Janeiro enquanto Eremanthus Less. não. Assim, optou-se por utilizar a espécie-tipo do gênero na análise polínica. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados usando microscopia de luz. Grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram usados para análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O resultado do estudo polínico mostrou que as espécies podem ser separadas utilizandose, principalmente, as características das aberturas e da ornamentação da exina e revelou uma gradação evolutiva interespecífica dos caracteres polínicos. Com relação à taxonomia das espécies estudadas, os dados palinológicos comprovam a posição taxonômica de Albertinia brasiliensis, porém não reforça a sinonimização de Vanillosmopsis em Eremanthus.Vanillosmopsis Sch. Bip. has been traditionally accepted as a synonym of Eremanthus Less., and Albertinia Spreng. was established to include Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng. This paper characterizes the pollen of Albertinia brasiliensis, Vanillosmopsis erythropappa and Eremanthus bicolor and provides information for future taxonomic studies. Pollen grains of specimens collected in different herbaria were used in this study. The two first species are found in Rio de Janeiro, but Eremanthus is not found in this state. For this reason, the type species of this genus was used for pollen analysis. Pollen grains were acetolysed, measured, described and illustrated using optical

  7. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

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    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  8. Temporal and spatial patterns on serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Teleostei, Scombridae, catches from the fisheries on the Maranhão coast, Brazil

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    BATISTA V. da

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The displacement pattern of the serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis, in North-eastern Brazil was analyzed from landing data recorded from the fleet fishing serra. Serra fishery has two seasons: from September to February (demersal species plus serra, and from March to August (almost only large amounts of serra. S. brasiliensis relative abundance increases similarly along the coast from March, but decreases first on the West coast from June. Records indicate that serra is near the coast at least until September/October in Eastern grounds. From October to March (strongest spawning season there is no record of shoals on the coast. We concluded that the Maranhão coast is just a part of the migration circuit of S. brasiliensis that may exceed 300 nautical miles.

  9. Chemical constituents and evaluation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of roots of Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae); Constituintes quimicos e avaliavao das atividades antioxidante e anti-inflamatoria das raizes de Sabicea brasiliensis Wernh (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Jucilene Cavalini; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira; Schuquel, Ivania T. Albrecht; Silva, Cleuza Conceicao da, E-mail: ccsilva@uem.br [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Oliveira, Cecilia Maria Alves de; Kato, Lucilia; Ferreira, Heleno Dias [Universidade Federal de Goais (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Sabicea brasiliensis roots led to the isolation of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5- and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinics acids, scopoletin, ursolic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, daucosterol and saccharose. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods and by comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions were analyzed. (author)

  10. Liver damages and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of Atherinella brasiliensis (Actynopterigii, Atherinopsidade from two beaches in Southeast of Brazil

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    Welingtom S. Fernandez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few environmental studies using biomarkers for the species Atherinella brasiliensis in Brazil. In the present work, the presence of hepatic histopathological lesions and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes were investigated in A. brasiliensis from Lamberto, a beach under influence of domestic wastes and marine activities. For comparison, fish were also sampled in Puruba, a non-polluted beach, located in the northeastern of São Paulo State. The frequency of lesions found in liver was in higher numbers in individuals from Lamberto than Puruba beach. The most critical injuries observed in A. brasiliensis were the presence of necrotic areas, leucocytes infiltration and piknotic nucleus. A high occurrence of cells with vacuolization was also observed. The hepatic lesion index of the fish from Lamberto beach showed significant high values (Iorg=13 when compared with fish from Puruba beach (Iorg=7 suggesting the influence of the several human activities in the studied site. Notched and blebed nucleous were observed in this study, and significant differences were found between the studied sites. However, these differences did not reflect the total nuclear alterations.Existem poucos estudos no Brasil usando biomarcadores em Atherinella brasiliensis. No presente trabalho foram investigadas a presença de lesões histopatológicas hepáticas e as alterações nucleares em eritrócitos de A. brasiliensis amostrados na praia do Lamberto, local submetido à influência de resíduos domésticos e atividades humanas. Para comparação, indivíduos da espécie foram também amostrados na praia de Puruba, local não impactado, localizado no noroeste do estado de São Paulo. Peixes provenientes da praia do Lamberto apresentaram lesões hepáticas em número maior do que aqueles da praia de Puruba. Áreas necróticas, infiltração de leucócitos e núcleos picnóticos foram os danos de maior importância observados em A. brasiliensis, apesar de uma

  11. Economical quantum cloning in any dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durt, Thomas; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2005-01-01

    The possibility of cloning a d-dimensional quantum system without an ancilla is explored, extending on the economical phase-covariant cloning machine for qubits found in Phys. Rev. A 60, 2764 (1999). We prove the impossibility of constructing an economical version of the optimal universal 1→2 cloning machine in any dimension. We also show, using an ansatz on the generic form of cloning machines, that the d-dimensional 1→2 phase-covariant cloner, which optimally clones all balanced superpositions with arbitrary phases, can be realized economically only in dimension d=2. The used ansatz is supported by numerical evidence up to d=7. An economical phase-covariant cloner can nevertheless be constructed for d>2, albeit with a slightly lower fidelity than that of the optimal cloner requiring an ancilla. Finally, using again an ansatz on cloning machines, we show that an economical version of the 1→2 Fourier-covariant cloner, which optimally clones the computational basis and its Fourier transform, is also possible only in dimension d=2

  12. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  13. First documented record of Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 and Calomys laucha (G. Fischer, 1814 in the state of Santa Catarina, south Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the richness of small mammals in the Brazilian South Region are recent and point out the need for using varied methods. This way, this paper contributes to knowledge on the fauna of small sigmodontinae rodents in Santa Catarina, including Holochilus brasiliensis and Calomys laucha in the list of species with confirmed occurrence in this state. The records of H. brasiliensis refer to Laguna (n = 2 and Timbe do Sul (n = 1. In turn, C. laucha presents 23 records from Capinzal. The entire material is represented by skull fragments from owl pellets samples collected from nests and feeding perches of the Tyto alba.

  14. In vitro antifungal activity of fatty acid methyl esters of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A.St.-Hil. (Annonaceae) against pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Alves Rodrigues dos Santos; Johann, Susana; Cisalpino, Patrícia Silva; Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Boaventura, Maria Amélia Diamantino

    2011-01-01

    Fatty acids are abundant in vegetable oils. They are known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following CLSI (formerly the NCCLS) guidelines against 16 fungal strains of clinical interest. In this work, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was able to inhibit 12 clinical strains of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and were also active in the bioautographic assay against Cladosporium sphaerospermum. FAME was a more potent antifungal than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against P. brasiliensis under the experimental conditions tested.

  15. Genetic Pattern and Demographic History of Salminus brasiliensis: Population Expansion in the Pantanal Region during the Pleistocene

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    Lívia A. de Carvalho Mondin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene climate changes were major historical events that impacted South American biodiversity. Although the effects of such changes are well-documented for several biomes, it is poorly known how these climate shifts affected the biodiversity of the Pantanal floodplain. Fish are one of the most diverse groups in the Pantanal floodplains and can be taken as a suitable biological model for reconstructing paleoenvironmental scenarios. To identify the effects of Pleistocene climate changes on Pantanal’s ichthyofauna, we used genetic data from multiple populations of a top-predator long-distance migratory fish, Salminus brasiliensis. We specifically investigated whether Pleistocene climate changes affected the demography of this species. If this was the case, we expected to find changes in population size over time. Thus, we assessed the genetic diversity of S. brasiliensis to trace the demographic history of nine populations from the Upper Paraguay basin, which includes the Pantanal floodplain, that form a single genetic group, employing approximate Bayesian computation (ABC to test five scenarios: constant population, old expansion, old decline, old bottleneck following by recent expansion, and old expansion following by recent decline. Based on two mitochondrial DNA markers, our inferences from ABC analysis, the results of Bayesian skyline plot, the implications of star-like networks, and the patterns of genetic diversity (high haplotype diversity and low-to-moderate nucleotide diversity indicated a sudden population expansion. ABC allowed us to make strong quantitative inferences about the demographic history of S. brasiliensis. We estimated a small ancestral population size that underwent a drastic fivefold expansion, probably associated with the colonization of newly formed habitats. The estimated time of this expansion was consistent with a humid and warm phase as inferred by speleothem growth phases and travertine records during

  16. In-silico gene co-expression network analysis in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with reference to haloacid dehalogenase superfamily hydrolase gene

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    Raghunath Satpathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic fungus is the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a disease globally affecting millions of people. The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD superfamily hydrolases enzyme in the fungi, in particular, is known to be responsible in the pathogenesis by adhering to the tissue. Hence, identification of novel drug targets is essential. Aims: In-silico based identification of co-expressed genes along with HAD superfamily hydrolase in P. brasiliensis during the morphogenesis from mycelium to yeast to identify possible genes as drug targets. Materials and Methods: In total, four datasets were retrieved from the NCBI-gene expression omnibus (GEO database, each containing 4340 genes, followed by gene filtration expression of the data set. Further co-expression (CE study was performed individually and then a combination these genes were visualized in the Cytoscape 2. 8.3. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean and standard deviation value of the HAD superfamily hydrolase gene was obtained from the expression data and this value was subsequently used for the CE calculation purpose by selecting specific correlation power and filtering threshold. Results: The 23 genes that were thus obtained are common with respect to the HAD superfamily hydrolase gene. A significant network was selected from the Cytoscape network visualization that contains total 7 genes out of which 5 genes, which do not have significant protein hits, obtained from gene annotation of the expressed sequence tags by BLAST X. For all the protein PSI-BLAST was performed against human genome to find the homology. Conclusions: The gene co-expression network was obtained with respect to HAD superfamily dehalogenase gene in P. Brasiliensis.

  17. Efficacy of a poly-aggregated formulation of amphotericin B in treating systemic sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kelly; Castro, Rafaela Alves; Torrado, Juan J; Serrano, Dolores Remedios; Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M

    2018-04-01

    In severe cases of sporotrichosis, it is recommended to use amphotericin B deoxycholate (D-AMB) or its lipid formulations and/or in association with itraconazole (ITC). Our aim was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of a poly-aggregated amphotericin B (P-AMB), a nonlipid formulation, compared with D-AMB on systemic sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis. In vitro assays showed that Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and S. brasiliensis yeast clinical isolates were susceptible to low concentrations of P-AMB and D-AMB. Although P-AMB presented a higher minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared to D-AMB, its cytotoxic effect on renal cells and erythrocytes was lower. For the in vivo assays, male BALB/c mice were intravenously infected with S. brasiliensis yeasts, and P-AMB or D-AMB was administered 3 days post-infection. The efficacy of five therapeutic regimens was tested: intravenous monotherapy with P-AMB or D-AMB, intravenous pulsed-therapy with P-AMB or D-AMB, and intravenous therapy with P-AMB, followed by oral ITC. These treatments increased murine survival and controlled the fungal burden in the liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. However, only D-AMB monotherapy or the pulsed-therapies with D-AMB or P-AMB led to 100% survival of the mice 45 days post-infection; only pulsed administration of D-AMB was able to control the fungal load in all organs 45 days post-infection. Accordingly, the histopathological findings showed reductions in the fungal burden and inflammatory reactions in these treatment regimens. Together, our results suggest that the P-AMB formulation could be considered as an alternative drug to D-AMB for treating disseminated sporotrichosis.

  18. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH Nocardia.

  19. Bacteriocinogenic effect of Lactobacillus sakei 2a on microbiological quality of fermented Sardinella brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton L. P. Espírito Santo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei 2a is a bacteriocin producer strain and, in this work, it's effects as a starter culture in the fermentation process of sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis fillets were observed at different concentrations of NaCl (2, 4 and 6% and glucose (2 and 4%, to determine it's ability to produce organic acids and consequent pH reduction. Experiments were carried out independently, with only one parameter (NaCl or glucose varying at a time. After 21 days of fermentation the deteriorative bacteria concentration reached 9.7 Log10 CFU. g-1 corresponding to 6% NaCl and 4% glucose. Little differences were observed in lactic acid production when 2 and 4% glucose were added, since total acidity was 1.32 and 1.34% respectively, the experiments with 6% NaCl presented the best results. Initial pH of sardine fillets was 6 and after 21 days pH values were 3.8, 3.9 and 4 for the experiments with 2, 4 and 6% NaCl. This may have been due to the inhibitory properties of NaCl over the deteriorative bacteria. After 21 days of the fermentation process lactic acid bacteria concentrations were 14.5 Log10 CFU.g-1. The ratio protein nitrogen and total soluble nitrogen was typical of a cured fish.Lactobacillus sakei é comprovadamente uma cepa produtora de bacteriocinas e, neste trabalho procurou-se observar seus efeitos como cultivo iniciador, na fermentação de filés de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis em diferentes concentrações de NaCl (2, 4 e 6% e glicose (2 e 4%, observando-se sua capacidade para produzir ácidos orgânicos e conseqüente redução do pH e microrganismos deterioradores. Os tratamentos foram desenvolvidos de forma independente, variando apenas um dos parâmetros operacionais (NaCl ou glicose. Ao término de 21 dias de fermentação, a concentração de microrganismos deterioradores atingiu 9,7 Log10 UFC.g-1, correspondente a 6% de NaCl e 4% de glicose. Poucas diferenças foram observadas na produção de ácido lático quando

  20. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  1. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  2. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  3. Gas exchange and hydraulics in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis during water stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2010-07-01

    The response of plants to drought has received significant attention, but far less attention has been given to the dynamic response of plants during recovery from drought. Photosynthetic performance and hydraulic capacity were monitored in seedlings of Hevea brasiliensis under water stress and during recovery following rewatering. Leaf water relation, gas exchange rate and hydraulic conductivity decreased gradually after water stress fell below a threshold, whereas instantaneous water use efficiency and osmolytes increased significantly. After 5 days of rewatering, leaf water relation, maximum stomatal conductance (g(s-max)) and plant hydraulic conductivity had recovered to the control levels except for sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity, photosynthetic assimilation rate and osmolytes. During the phase of water stress, stomata were almost completely closed before water transport efficiency decreased substantially, and moreover, the leaf hydraulic pathway was more vulnerable to water stress-induced embolism than the stem hydraulic pathway. Meanwhile, g(s-max) was linearly correlated with hydraulic capacity when water stress exceeded a threshold. In addition, a positive relationship was shown to occur between the recovery of g(s-max) and of hydraulic capacity during the phase of rewatering. Our results suggest (i) that stomatal closure effectively reduces the risk of xylem dysfunction in water-stressed plants at the cost of gas exchange, (ii) that the leaf functions as a safety valve to protect the hydraulic pathway from water stress-induced dysfunction to a larger extent than does the stem and (iii) that the full drought recovery of gas exchange is restricted by not only hydraulic factors but also non-hydraulic factors.

  4. Deterrent effect evaluation of vegetal extracts on Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cupertino de Souza Débora María

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A crescente preocupação mundial tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem alternativas consideradas saudáveis e que controlem insetos-praga e doenças. Dentre estas alternativas, destaca-se a utilização de aleloquímicos extraídos de plantas (Jacobson 1989, pois são produtos naturais que reduzem os efeitos negativos ocasionados pela aplicação descontrolada de inseticidas organossintéticos (Medeiros et al 2005, reduzindo o desenvolvimento de populações resistentes do inseto, e o aparecimento de novas pragas ou a ressurgência de outras (Souza 2004. O uso de extratos de plantas medicinais faz com que determinados componentes ativos presentes nos vegetais, quando utilizados de forma concentrada, atuem no controle de insetos, inibindo sua alimentação ou prejudicando-os após a ingestão (Costa et al 2004. Muitas apresentam sobre os insetos efeito tóxico, inibição de crescimento, redução de fecundidade, fertilidade e repelência dado os compostos metabólicos secundários que apresentam como alcalóides, terpenos, flavonóides e esteróides com propriedades medicinais comprovadas (Di Stasi 1996, se justificado, portanto, o uso delas no controle de pragas. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito deterrente de extratos de espécies medicinais de Atropa belladonna L. (belladona; Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (nim; Mikania glomerata Spreng. (guaco; Symphytum officinale L. (confrei; Ruta graveolens L. (arruda; sobre Papilio thoas brasiliensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae. Na presente pesquisa o destaque deve ser dado ao confrei e nim pelo efeito deterrente apresentado. No presente estudo foi possível determinar que houve deterrência, mas não há como informar se outros efeitos ocorreram somados a esse.

  5. PROBLEMATIC IN THE PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION IN RUBBER PLANTATIONS (Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. IN TABASCO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyra Izquierdo-Bautista

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify some of the basic problems presented in the production process in rubber plantations Hevea brasiliensis Muell Arg. in Tabasco, Mexico. The applied diagnosis technique was the randomized survey for 68 producers in plantations under rubber production. ANOVA and Duncan analyses were done (P< 0.05. Plantations under production were between 7 to 46 years old. The 24% of these are considered as young plantations (7 to 18 years old, 34% mature (19 to 30 years old, and 12% old growth (31 to 46 years old, according to the level of latex production. Latex collection is realized by 85% men and 15% women. An important detected problem is the incidence of insects and diseases over the 82% of the plantations. In Tabasco State, two types of raw material are generated: clot (solid and latex (liquid. The tapping systems are ½ S d/1 6d/7 (one cuts in an average spiral with daily tapping over the 49% of the plantations, and the system ½ S d/2 6d/7, cuts in semi-spirals with alternating tapping over 51% of the plantations. The producers that practiced daily tapped obtained yields of 1.588 kg per ha/yr of dry rubber, in the other hand, those that tapped every other day obtained a yield of 1.647 kg per ha/year of dry rubber. The yield in daily tapping was 3.54% lower than the system with alternating tapping. The income obtained by the producers of fresh rubber varied from $8.750, 00 (810, 2 USD ha/year to $27.870, 00 (2.580 USD ha/year in 2006 and the production of latex from $5.955, 00 (551, 4 USD to 16.568,00 (1.534 USD per ha/year.

  6. Characterization of Sugar Contents and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes in Developing Leaves of Hevea brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinheng Zhu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in plant leaves have hitherto been investigated mainly in temperate plants, and rarely conducted in tandem with gene expression and sugar analysis. Here, we investigated the sugar content, gene expression, and the activity of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in the leaves of Hevea brasiliensis, a tropical tree widely cultivated for natural rubber. Sucrose, fructose and glucose were the major sugars detected in Hevea leaves at four developmental stages (I to IV, with starch and quebrachitol as minor saccharides. Fructose and glucose contents increased until stage III, but decreased strongly at stage IV (mature leaves. On the other hand, sucrose increased continuously throughout leaf development. Activities of all sucrose-cleaving enzymes decreased markedly at maturation, consistent with transcript decline for most of their encoding genes. Activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS was low in spite of its high transcript levels at maturation. Hence, the high sucrose content in mature leaves was not due to increased sucrose-synthesizing activity, but more to the decline in sucrose cleavage. Gene expression and activities of sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in Hevea leaves showed striking differences compared with other plants. Unlike in most other species where vacuolar invertase predominates in sucrose cleavage in developing leaves, cytoplasmic invertase and sucrose synthase (cleavage direction also featured prominently in Hevea. Whereas SPS is normally responsible for sucrose synthesis in plant leaves, sucrose synthase (synthesis direction was comparable or higher than that of SPS in Hevea leaves. Mature Hevea leaves had an unusually high sucrose:starch ratio of about 11, the highest reported to date in plants.

  7. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  8. Coding sequence of human rho cDNAs clone 6 and clone 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chardin, P; Madaule, P; Tavitian, A

    1988-03-25

    The authors have isolated human cDNAs including the complete coding sequence for two rho proteins corresponding to the incomplete isolates previously described as clone 6 and clone 9. The deduced a.a. sequences, when compared to the a.a. sequence deduced from clone 12 cDNA, show that there are in human at least three highly homologous rho genes. They suggest that clone 12 be named rhoA, clone 6 : rhoB and clone 9 : rhoC. RhoA, B and C proteins display approx. 30% a.a. identity with ras proteins,. mainly clustered in four highly homologous internal regions corresponding to the GTP binding site; however at least one significant difference is found; the 3 rho proteins have an Alanine in position corresponding to ras Glycine 13, suggesting that rho and ras proteins might have slightly different biochemical properties.

  9. Observações sobre stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis calman, 1917 na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul Observation on the Stamatopoda Squilla brasiliensis Calman, 1917 on the continental shelf of the Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Tommasi

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available O Stomatopoda Squilla brasiliensis ocorreu em 60 estações na plataforma continental do Rio Grande do Sul. É aparentemente, bastante freqüente entre 19 e 285 m de profundidade, mas especialmente entre 100 e 150 m, temperatura da água de fundo de 12,22 a 24,45ºC, salinidade de 30,20 a 36,16º/.., fundo de areia fina e lodo com baixo teor de calcario (0-20% na fração menor do que 44µ. Ocorreu especialmente em fundos sob influencia da massa de água Subtropical. As maiores abundancias ocorreram entre 30º e 31ºS e entre 49º e 50ºW. Vários exemplares, tanto machos como fêmeas, apresentaram telso com bordos entumescidos, o que sugere não ser essa uma característica ligada ao sexo nesta espécie .The distribution of Squilla brasiliensis Caiman, 1917 (Crustacea Stomatopoda is by the first time discussed in the continental plataform in the region of Rio Grande do Sul State, in relationship with depth, temperature and salinity. Apparently the distribution of that species is more related to salinity than to depth and temperature, and specially to the water mass of Subtropical origin. The largest densities were found between 84 and 128 m depth.

  10. Optimal cloning of mixed Gaussian states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Madalin; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    We construct the optimal one to two cloning transformation for the family of displaced thermal equilibrium states of a harmonic oscillator, with a fixed and known temperature. The transformation is Gaussian and it is optimal with respect to the figure of merit based on the joint output state and norm distance. The proof of the result is based on the equivalence between the optimal cloning problem and that of optimal amplification of Gaussian states which is then reduced to an optimization problem for diagonal states of a quantum oscillator. A key concept in finding the optimum is that of stochastic ordering which plays a similar role in the purely classical problem of Gaussian cloning. The result is then extended to the case of n to m cloning of mixed Gaussian states

  11. The Shiite Pluralistic Position on Human Cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyid Hasan Islami Ardekani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to human cloning or artificial human reproduction – and contrary to the opinions of Sunni scholars - Shiite thinkers have not held a unified position. After having surveyed a number of Shiite fatwas and analyses on the subject, this essay will classify them into four groups. The first group states that we are granted absolute permission to engage in human cloning; while the second group believes that there is limited permission; the third group argues that cloning as such is primarily permitted but because of its consequences and secondary grounds it is prohibited and unlawful; and the fourth group is of the view that cloning as such and by itself is prohibited and unlawful. In what follows, the author has examined these four views, ending in support of the permission theory.

  12. DNA microarrays : a molecular cloning manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sambrook, Joseph; Bowtell, David

    2002-01-01

    .... This manual, designed to extend and to complement the information in the best-selling Molecular Cloning, is a synthesis of the expertise and experience of more than 30 contributors all innovators in a fast moving field...

  13. Towards Clone Detection in UML Domain Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Code clones (i.e., duplicate fragments of code) have been studied for long, and there is strong evidence that they are a major source of software faults. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this phenomenon occurs similarly in models, suggesting that model clones are as detrimental to model quality...... as they are to code quality. However, programming language code and visual models have significant differences that make it difficult to directly transfer notions and algorithms developed in the code clone arena to model clones. In this article, we develop and propose a definition of the notion of “model clone” based...... we believe that our approach advances the state of the art significantly, it is restricted to UML models, its results leave room for improvements, and there is no validation by field studies....

  14. Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.

    2002-01-01

    It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs

  15. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Sho; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Ohgane, Jun; Hattori, Naka; Tanaka, Satoshi; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Shiota, Kunio

    2004-01-01

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  16. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normile, D

    2000-12-08

    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  17. Endangered wolves cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hwang, Woo Suk; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim; Kim, Joung Joo; Shin, Nam Shik; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2007-01-01

    Over the world, canine species, including the gray wolf, have been gradually endangered or extinct. Many efforts have been made to recover and conserve these canids. The aim of this study was to produce the endangered gray wolf with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for conservation. Adult ear fibroblasts from a female gray wolf (Canis lupus) were isolated and cultured in vitro as donor cells. Because of limitations in obtaining gray wolf matured oocytes, in vivo matured canine oocytes obtained by flushing the oviducts from the isthmus to the infundibulum were used. After removing the cumulus cells, the oocyte was enucleated, microinjected, fused with a donor cell, and activated. The reconstructed cloned wolf embryos were transferred into the oviducts of the naturally synchronized surrogate mothers. Two pregnancies were detected by ultrasonography at 23 days of gestation in recipient dogs. In each surrogate dog, two fetal sacs were confirmed by early pregnancy diagnosis at 23 days, but only two cloned wolves were delivered. The first cloned wolf was delivered by cesarean section on October 18, 2005, 60 days after embryo transfer. The second cloned wolf was delivered on October 26, 2005, at 61 days postembryo transfer. Microsatellite analysis was performed with genomic DNA from the donor wolf, the two cloned wolves, and the two surrogate female recipients to confirm the genetic identity of the cloned wolves. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci confirmed that the cloned wolves were genetically identical to the donor wolf. In conclusion, we demonstrated live birth of two cloned gray wolves by nuclear transfer of wolf somatic cells into enucleated canine oocyte, indicating that SCNT is a practical approach for conserving endangered canids.

  18. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy. PMID:29565982

  19. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  20. Emotional reactions to human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Extant surveys of people's attitudes towards human reproductive cloning focus on moral judgements alone, not emotional reactions or sentiments. This is especially important given that some (especially Leon Kass) have argued against such cloning on the ground that it engenders widespread negative emotions, like disgust, that provide a moral guide. To provide some data on emotional reactions to human cloning, with a focus on repugnance, given its prominence in the literature. This brief mixed-method study measures the self-reported attitudes and emotions (positive or negative) towards cloning from a sample of participants in the USA. Most participants condemned cloning as immoral and said it should be illegal. The most commonly reported positive sentiment was by far interest/curiosity. Negative emotions were much more varied, but anxiety was the most common. Only about a third of participants selected disgust or repugnance as something they felt, and an even smaller portion had this emotion come to mind prior to seeing a list of options. Participants felt primarily interested and anxious about human reproductive cloning. They did not primarily feel disgust or repugnance. This provides initial empirical evidence that such a reaction is not appropriately widespread. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Clone tag detection in distributed RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaludin, Hazalila; Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal H

    2018-01-01

    Although Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is poised to displace barcodes, security vulnerabilities pose serious challenges for global adoption of the RFID technology. Specifically, RFID tags are prone to basic cloning and counterfeiting security attacks. A successful cloning of the RFID tags in many commercial applications can lead to many serious problems such as financial losses, brand damage, safety and health of the public. With many industries such as pharmaceutical and businesses deploying RFID technology with a variety of products, it is important to tackle RFID tag cloning problem and improve the resistance of the RFID systems. To this end, we propose an approach for detecting cloned RFID tags in RFID systems with high detection accuracy and minimal overhead thus overcoming practical challenges in existing approaches. The proposed approach is based on consistency of dual hash collisions and modified count-min sketch vector. We evaluated the proposed approach through extensive experiments and compared it with existing baseline approaches in terms of execution time and detection accuracy under varying RFID tag cloning ratio. The results of the experiments show that the proposed approach outperforms the baseline approaches in cloned RFID tag detection accuracy.

  2. Cloning: Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Breakthroughs in Bioscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Berardino, Marie A.

    This document explores the history of cloning by focusing on Dolly the Sheep, one of the first large animal clonings. The disadvantages and advantages of transgenic clones are discussed as well as the future implications of cloning from the perspective of human health. (Contains 10 resources.) (YDS)

  3. Public perceptions of farm animal cloning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    This report presents a picture of European opinion on farm animal cloning. In the report, both agricultural and biomedical applications of farm animal cloning are considered. With the arrival of Dolly, animal cloning became an integral part of the biotech debate, but this debate did not isolate...... animal cloning as a single issue....

  4. Alterations in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 membranes associated to metabolism modifications during application of low-intensity electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Alvarez, Nancy; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Mariano; González, Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    The effects of electric current on membranes associated with metabolism modifications in Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 9642 were studied. A 450-mL electrochemical cell with titanium ruthenium-oxide coated electrodes and packed with 15g of perlite, as inert support, was inoculated with A. brasiliensis spores and incubated in a solid inert-substrate culture (12 d; 30°C). Then, 4.5days after starting the culture, a current of 0.42mAcm -2 was applied for 24h. The application of low-intensity electric current increased the molecular oxygen consumption rate in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in high concentrations of reactive oxygen species, promoting high lipoperoxidation levels, according to measured malondialdehyde, and consequent alterations in membrane permeability explained the high n-hexadecane (HXD) degradation rates observed here (4.7-fold higher than cultures without current). Finally, cell differentiation and spore production were strongly stimulated. The study contributes to the understanding of the effect of current on the cell membrane and its association with HXD metabolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Clinical features, fungal load, coinfections, histological skin changes, and itraconazole treatment response of cats with sporotrichosis caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Elaine Waite; Borba, Cintia de Moraes; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Langohr, Ingeborg Maria; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; da Cunha, Camila Rocha; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; de Miranda, Luisa Helena Monteiro; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2018-06-13

    Zoonotic sporotrichosis caused by the fungus Sporothrix brasiliensis is usually severe in cats. This study investigated the associations between clinical features, fungal load, coinfections, histological skin changes, and response to itraconazole in cats with sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. Fifty-two cats with skin lesions and a definitive diagnosis of sporotrichosis were treated with itraconazole for a maximum period of 36 weeks. The animals were submitted to clinical examination and two subsequent collections of samples from the same skin lesion for fungal diagnosis and histopathology, as well as serology for feline immunodeficiency (FIV) and leukaemia (FeLV) viruses. Thirty-seven (71%) cats were clinically cured. Nasal mucosa lesions and respiratory signs were associated with treatment failure. Cats coinfected with FIV/FeLV (n = 12) had a lower neutrophil count in the lesion. A high fungal load in skin lesions was linked to young age and treatment failure, as well as to a longer time of wound healing, poorly formed granulomas and fewer neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in these lesions. These results indicate that itraconazole is effective, but nasal mucosal involvement, respiratory signs and high fungal loads in skin lesions are predictors of treatment failure that will assist in the development of better treatment protocols for cats.

  6. Effect of the addition of nitrogen sources to cassava fiber and carbon-to-nitrogen ratios on Agaricus brasiliensis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, T R D; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B

    2007-01-01

    The same substratum formulation to grow Agaricus bisporus has been used to grow Agaricus brasiliensis since its culture started in Brazil. Despite being different species, many of the same rules have been used for composting or axenic cultivation when it comes to nitrogen content and source in the substrate. The aim of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis in different ammonium sulfate and (or) urea concentrations added to cassava fiber and different carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratios to increase the efficiency of axenic cultivation. Two nitrogen sources (urea and (or) ammonium sulfate) added to cassava fiber were tested for the in vitro mycelial growth in different C:N ratios (ranging from 2.5:l to 50:l) in the dark at 28 degrees C. The radial mycelial growth was measured after 8 days of growth and recorded photographically at the end of the experiment. Nitrogen from urea enhanced fungal growth better than ammonium sulfate or any mixture of nitrogen. The best C:N ratios for fungal growth were from 10:l to 50:l; C:N ratios below 10:l inhibited fungal growth.

  7. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G., E-mail: joao.lago@unifesp.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Carvalho, Larissa A.C.; Silva, Flavia S. da; Romoff, Paulete [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude

    2010-07-01

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg{sup -1}) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg{sup -1}) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  8. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  9. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory evaluation of essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Carvalho, Larissa A.C.; Silva, Flavia S. da; Romoff, Paulete; Toyama, Daniela de O.; Favero, Oriana A.

    2010-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and stem barks from Drimys brasiliensis Miers (Winteraceae) were individually obtained by hydrodistillation and their compounds characterized by use of GC/FID and GC/MS. The main identified derivatives were monoterpenes (leaves 4.31% and stem barks 90.02%) and sesquiterpenes (leaves 52.31% and stem barks 6.35%). Additionally, the sesquiterpene polygodial was isolated from hexane extract from stem barks of D. brasiliensis after chromatographic steps and characterized by spectroscopic means, mainly NMR. Aiming the evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential, the crude essential oils and the sesquiterpene polygodial were subjected to bioassays to evaluate the acute toxicity of these compounds as well as the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities induced by carrageenan and formalin in mice. Ours results showed that essential oil obtained from the stem barks significantly reduced the oedema induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by stem barks oil (at 200 mg kg -1 ) was similar to observed for indomethacin (at 10 mg kg -1 ) and superior for polygodial (at 200 mg kg -1 ) in 30 and 60 min after the administration of essential oils. The inflammatory response induced by formalin was effective to the stem barks oil (62.5%) in comparison to polygodial (50.0%). (author)

  11. Efficacy of DA-7218, a new oxazolidinone prodrug, in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma produced by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-González, Nelly Alejandra; Welsh, Oliverio; de Torres, Noemi Waksman; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Said-Fernandez, Salvador; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Choi, Sung-Hak; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2008-01-11

    Two recently synthesized oxazolidinones: (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyloxazolidin-2-one (DA-7157) and its corresponding pro-drug (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl disodium phosphate (DA-7218), have shown very good activity against several Gram positive bacteria, including Nocardia and Mycobacterium. In the present work we evaluated the therapeutic in vivo effects of DA-7218 on Nocardia brasiliensis. We first determined the plasma concentration of the prodrug in BALB/c mice using several doses and then tested its activity in an in vivo experimental actinomycetoma murine model. At the end of treatment, there was a statistically significant difference between the three drug receiving groups (25, 12.5 and 5 mg/kg) and the control group(saline solution) (p=0.001), proving that DA-7218 is effective for the treatment of experimental murine actinomycetoma. This compound could be a potential option for patients affected with mycetoma by Nocardia brasiliensis.

  12. In situ TLR2 and TLR4 expression in a murine model of mycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán-Chiu, Blanca Edith; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Pérez-Torres, Armando; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; López-Martínez, Rubén

    2011-04-01

    Actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis is a common disease in tropical regions. This ailment is characterized by a localized chronic inflammation that mainly affects the lower limbs. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, inducing the production of proinflammatory mediators. The role of TLRs in the immune response against N. brasiliensis is unknown. The aim of this work was to locate and quantify in a murine model the expression of TLR2 and TLR4 in the infection site using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that TLR2 expression increased in the infected tissue, whereas TLR4 expression decreased. The presence of TLR2 and TLR4 was demonstrated in different cell populations throughout the chronic infectious process. In the early stages of this process, TLR2 was expressed in neutrophils and macrophages in direct contact with the inoculum, whereas TLR4 was observed in mast cells. In the advanced stages of the infection, TLR2 was expressed in foam cells and fibroblasts and was likely associated with bacterial containment, while TLR4 was downregulated, probably resulting in an imbalance between the host immune response and the bacterial load that favoured chronic disease. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ASPECTOS DA BIOLOGIA REPRODUTIVA DE Drimys brasiliensis Miers (WINTERACEAE EM FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA, SUL DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Mariot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis Miers, locally known as “cataia” or “casca-de-anta”, is a native tree of “Floresta Ombrófila Mista”, in Brazil. Its bark has been used for medicine, through the exploitation of plants of natural populations. The present work aimed to study aspects of reproductive biology of Drimys brasiliensis in order to establish strategies for sustainable management and conservation, in order to generate alternative income from the exploitation of this non-timber forest product. Studies about reproductive phenology (296 plants during 2 years and a half, pollination and dispersal ecology, and floral biology were realized. The flowering season occurred the summer, with its peak in January. There are unripe fruits throughout the year, becoming ripe fruits as the temperature increases. There is a superposition of unripe and ripe fruit phenology from different flowering seasons. Ripe fruits are then, available for animals throughout the year. Hymenopteras are flower visitors with major potential for gene flow via pollen, but their frequency is low, like others flowers visitors, despite the high flowers production and pollen viability. Therefore, the highest fruit production which was seen comes from self-fecundation. The primary fruit dispersers are rare, birdsbeing observed. However, the secondary dispersal of seeds that reach the ground by barocory is high.

  14. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk.) Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna P; Chedier, Luciana M; Peixoto, Paulo H P; Fabri, Rodrigo L; Pimenta, Daniel S

    2012-03-01

    This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.

  15. Survey of pathogens in threatened wild red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) nestlings in Rasa Island, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico Fontanelli; Serafini, Patrícia Pereira; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Meurer, Rafael; Durigon, Edison Luiz; de Araújo, Jansen; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumiya; Ometto, Tatiana; Sipinski, Elenise Angelotti Bastos; Sezerban, Rafael Meirelles; Abbud, Maria Cecília; Raso, Tânia Freitas

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is a threatened species of psittacine bird that inhabit coastal regions of Brazil. In view of the threat of this species, the aim of this study was to perform a health evaluation in wild nestlings in Rasa Island, determining the prevalence of enterobacteria and infectious agents according to type of nest. Blood samples were collected from 64 birds and evaluated for antibodies of Chlamydia psittaci by commercial dot-blot ELISA. Cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs samples were collected from 23 birds from artificial wooden nests, 15 birds from PVC nests and 2 birds from natural nests for microbiological analysis. Swab samples were collected from 58 parrots for C. psittaci detection by PCR and from 50 nestlings for Avian Influenza, Newcastle Disease and West Nile viruses' detection analysis by real-time RT-PCR. Ten bacterial genera and 17 species were identified, and the most prevalent were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. There was no influence of the type of nest in the nestlings' microbiota. All samples tested by ELISA and PCR were negative. There is currently insufficient information available about the health of A. brasiliensis and data of this study provide a reference point for future evaluations and aid in conservation plans. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone

  17. The epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis as a Chagas disease vector in Brazil: a revision of domiciliary captures during 1993-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Jane

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the epidemiologic importance of Triatoma brasiliensis, the most important Chagas disease vector in the Northeastern of Brazil, capture data related to this species, its distribution, capture index, and percentages of natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi were examined in 12 different Brazilian states. The Brazilian National Health Foundation collected these data from 1993 to 1999, a period during which a total of 1,591,280 triatomines (21 species were captured in domiciles within the geographic range of T. brasiliensis. Of this total, 422,965 (26.6% were T. brasiliensis, 99.8% of which were collected in six states, and 54% in only one state (Ceará. The percentage of bugs infected with T. cruzi varied significantly among states, ranging from 0% (Goiás, Maranhão, Sergipe, and Tocantins to more than 3% (Alagoas, Minas Gerais, and Rio Grande do Norte with an average of 1.3%. This latter value represents a dramatic reduction in the natural infection percentages since 1983 (6.7% suggesting that, despite the impossibility of eradicating this native species, the control measures have significantly reduced the risk of transmission. However, the wide geographic distribution of T. brasiliensis, its high incidence observed in some states, and its variable percentages of natural infection by T. cruzi indicate the need for sustained entomological surveillance and continuous control measures against this vector.

  18. Comparison of the Sequences of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions and PbGP43 Genes of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from Patients and Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebeler-Barbosa, Flavia; Morais, Flavia V.; Montenegro, Mario R.; Kuramae, Eiko E.; Montes, Beatriz; McEwen, Juan G.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Puccia, Rosana

    2003-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates from 10 nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) were comparable with 19 clinical isolates by sequence analysis of the PbGP43 gene and ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS2 and by random amplified polymorphic DNA. In this original ITS study, eight isolates differed by one or three sites among five total substitution sites. PMID:14662970

  19. Whole-transcriptome survey of the putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family genes in the latex-producing laticifers of Hevea brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyi, Nie; Guijuan, Kang; Yu, Li; Longjun, Dai; Rizhong, Zeng

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins or transporters constitute a large protein family in plants and are involved in many different cellular functions and processes, including solute transportation, channel regulation and molecular switches, etc. Through transcriptome sequencing, a transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of the ABC protein genes were carried out using the laticiferous latex from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree). A total of 46 putative ABC family proteins were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex. These consisted of 12 'full-size', 21 'half-size' and 13 other putative ABC proteins, and all of them showed strong conservation with their Arabidopsis thaliana counterparts. This study indicated that all eight plant ABC protein paralog subfamilies were identified in the H. brasiliensis latex, of which ABCB, ABCG and ABCI were the most abundant. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that gene expression of several latex ABC proteins was regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid or bark tapping (a wound stress) stimulation, and that HbABCB15, HbABCB19, HbABCD1 and HbABCG21 responded most significantly of all to the abiotic stresses. The identification and expression analysis of the latex ABC family proteins could facilitate further investigation into their physiological involvement in latex metabolism and rubber biosynthesis by H. brasiliensis.

  20. IgM but not IgG monoclonal anti-Nocardia brasiliensis antibodies confer protection against experimental actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Suarez, Maria L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular microorganism that produces a human chronic infection known as actinomycetoma. Human and mouse anti-N. brasiliensis antibody response identify P24, P26 and P61 immunodominant antigens. In this work, we generated immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to immunodominant P61 antigen. The monoclonal IgM (NbM1) and IgG2a (NbG1) antibodies were assessed for their in vitro bactericidal activity, in vivo protective effect and ability to block catalase activity. These mAbs specifically recognized P61, but they did not inhibit its enzyme activity. The in vitro bactericidal effect of NbG1 was higher than the killing ability of the IgM mAb. In vivo experiments with a murine model of experimental infection with N. brasiliensis injected into rear footpads was used to test the effect of NbM1 and NbG1. The negative untreated group developed a chronic actinomycetoma within 4 weeks. IgM mAbs conferred protection to BALB/c mice infected with N. brasiliensis. IgG mAb lacked this protective effect. IgM mAb showed a dose-response correlation between antibody concentration and lesion size. These results demonstrate that humoral immune response mediated by antigen-specific IgM antibody protects against an intracellular bacterial infection.

  1. The effect of royal sun agaricus, agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., Extract on methyl Methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savic, T.; Patenkovic, A.; Sokovic, M.; Glamoclija, J.; Andjelkovic, M.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination

  2. The effect of royal sun agaricus, Agaricus brasiliensis S. Wasser et al., extract on methyl methanesulfonate caused genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Tatjana; Patenković, Aleksandra; Soković, Marina; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Andjelković, Marko; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2011-01-01

    The effect of culinary-medicinal Royal Sun Agaricus (Agaricus brasiliensis) hot water extract on methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced mutagenicity/genotoxity in Drosophila melanogaster was studied using a quick and broadly applicable in vivo assay, i.e., the wing somatic mutation and recombination test. We used 2nd instar larvae, trans-heterozygous for the third chromosome recessive markers, i.e., multiple wing hairs (mvh) and flare-3 [flr (3)], and fed them for 24 h with the aqueous extract of A. brasiliensis. For antigenotoxicity studies a 24-h pretreatment with the extract was done, followed by a 48-h treatment of the then 3rd instar larvae with MMS. The frequency of mutations of the wing blade changes (i.e., of the number of wing spots of different sizes) induced in somatic cells was determined as a parameter of genetic changes of the wing imaginal discs. The results showed that A. brasiliensis extract did not cause any genotoxic or mutagenic effects. No antigenotoxic and/or protective effect against the induction of mutations by MMS was observed. Instead, a possible enhanced mitotic recombination frequency by MMS was seen after pretreatment of the larvae with A. brasiliensis extract. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed.

  3. Blood parameter analysis and morphological alterations as biomarkers on the health of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Romão

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the influence of the environment on fish health. Samples of Hoplias malabaricus and Geophagus brasiliensis, were collected from three different environments: area I was urban and areas II and III were rural. Analyses of red blood cell count, microhematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count and differential white cell count in blood smear were carried out. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were calculated. To analyze morphological alterations, gills, liver, kidney and gonads were submitted to routine histological processing. Individuals collected from area III had slightly lower blood indices than collected from area I . Severe kidney changes, degeneration of and crystallization within kidney tubules were observed. In area I, crystallization was observed in 92% of the specimens of G. brasiliensis. These results suggested that such alterations were related with poor water circulation in the place.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência do ambiente sobre a higidez dos peixes. Animais, das espécies Hoplias malabaricus e Geophagus brasiliensis foram coletados em três ambientes distintos, sendo ambiente I região urbana e ambientes II e III em região rural. Foram realizadas análises do número total de eritrócitos por microlitro de sangue, microhematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina, porcentagem de leucócito e contagem diferencial de leucócitos em extensão sanguínea. Calcularam-se os índices hematimétricos absolutos: volume corpuscular médio e concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média. Para análises das alterações morfológicas, brânquias, fígado, gônadas e rim seguiram processamento histológico de rotina. Foram observados índices hematológicos ligeiramente menores em indivíduos coletados no ambiente III em relação aos animais coletados no ambiente I. As análises histológicas de brânquias, fígado e gônadas das espécies G

  4. Quantum cloning of mixed states in symmetric subspaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-cloning machine for arbitrary mixed states in symmetric subspaces is proposed. This quantum-cloning machine can be used to copy part of the output state of another quantum-cloning machine and is useful in quantum computation and quantum information. The shrinking factor of this quantum cloning achieves the well-known upper bound. When the input is identical pure states, two different fidelities of this cloning machine are optimal

  5. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell walls of the dimorphic fungal pathogens Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibit bilaminate structures and sloughing of extensive and intact layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila M Lopes-Bezerra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species. To analyze the components of the cell wall, we also used infrared and 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy and the sugar composition was determined by quantitative high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Our ultrastructural data revealed a bi-layered cell wall structure for both species, including an external microfibrillar layer and an inner electron-dense layer. The inner and outer layers of the S. brasiliensis cell wall were thicker than those of S. schenckii, correlating with an increase in the chitin and rhamnose contents. Moreover, the outer microfibrillar layer of the S. brasiliensis cell wall had longer microfibrils interconnecting yeast cells. Distinct from those of other dimorphic fungi, the cell wall of Sporothrix spp. lacked α-glucan component. Interestingly, glycogen α-particles were identified in the cytoplasm close to the cell wall and the plasma membrane. The cell wall structure as well as the presence of glycogen α-particles varied over time during cell culture. The structural differences observed in the cell wall of these Sporothrix species seemed to impact its uptake by monocyte-derived human macrophages. The data presented here show a unique cell wall structure of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii during the yeast parasitic phase. A new cell wall model for Sporothrix spp. is therefore proposed that suggests that these fungi molt sheets of intact cell wall layers. This observation may have significant

  7. Cell walls of the dimorphic fungal pathogens Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis exhibit bilaminate structures and sloughing of extensive and intact layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A.; Niño-Vega, Gustavo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.; Neves, Gabriela W. P.; Villalobos-Duno, Hector; Barreto, Laura; Garcia, Karina; Franco, Bernardo; Martínez-Álvarez, José A.; Munro, Carol A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species. To analyze the components of the cell wall, we also used infrared and 13C and 1H NMR spectroscopy and the sugar composition was determined by quantitative high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Our ultrastructural data revealed a bi-layered cell wall structure for both species, including an external microfibrillar layer and an inner electron-dense layer. The inner and outer layers of the S. brasiliensis cell wall were thicker than those of S. schenckii, correlating with an increase in the chitin and rhamnose contents. Moreover, the outer microfibrillar layer of the S. brasiliensis cell wall had longer microfibrils interconnecting yeast cells. Distinct from those of other dimorphic fungi, the cell wall of Sporothrix spp. lacked α-glucan component. Interestingly, glycogen α-particles were identified in the cytoplasm close to the cell wall and the plasma membrane. The cell wall structure as well as the presence of glycogen α-particles varied over time during cell culture. The structural differences observed in the cell wall of these Sporothrix species seemed to impact its uptake by monocyte-derived human macrophages. The data presented here show a unique cell wall structure of S. brasiliensis and S. schenckii during the yeast parasitic phase. A new cell wall model for Sporothrix spp. is therefore proposed that suggests that these fungi molt sheets of intact cell wall layers. This observation may have significant effects on localized and

  8. Cloning Mice and Men: Prohibiting the Use of iPS Cells for Human Reproductive Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation.

  9. Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cedars, Marcelle; Conklin, Bruce; Fisher, Susan; Gates, Elena; Giudice, Linda; Halme, Dina Gould; Hershon, William; Kriegstein, Arnold; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Wagner, Richard

    2010-01-08

    The use of iPSCs and tetraploid complementation for human reproductive cloning would raise profound ethical objections. Professional standards and laws that ban human reproductive cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer should be revised to also forbid it by other methods, such as iPSCs via tetraploid complementation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Update on the First Cloned Dog and Outlook for Canine Cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Goo; Lee, ByeongChun

    2015-10-01

    As man's best friend, dogs have an important position in human society. Ten years ago, we reported the first cloned dog, and his birth has raised various scientific issues, such as those related to health, reproduction, and life span. He has developed without any unique health issues. In this article, we summarize and present perspectives on canine cloning.

  11. Estaquia caulinar herbácea e semilenhosa de Drimys brasiliensis1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele Milani Zem

    Full Text Available Drimys brasiliensis conhecida como cataia, é uma espécie arbórea nativa da Mata Atlântica. Tem importância fitoquímica, fitoterapêutica, aromática e econômica, utilizada na fabricação de licores, condimentos, dentre outros. É considerada uma espécie de difícil multiplicação via sementes, apresentando dormência por imaturidade embrionária. Assim, objetivou-se estudar a propagação vegetativa por meio da indução do enraizamento de estacas herbáceas e semilenhosas submetidas a diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, coletadas em duas épocas do ano (junho/2011 e dezembro/2011. Foram utilizados os tratamentos: testemunha (100% água, 0 (50% água e 50% álcool; 1.500; 3.000 e 6.000 mg L-1IBA (em solução hidroalcoólica 50% para o inverno e, no verão, os mesmos tratamentos, exceto 0 mg L-1IBA. Foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial de 5 concentrações x 2 tipos de estacas em junho/2011; e outro experimento com 4 concentrações x 2 épocas de coleta (estacas de junho/2011 e estacas de dezembro/2011 Após 120 dias em casa de vegetação, avaliou-se a porcentagem de estacas enraizadas, número de raízes/estaca, comprimento médio de raízes/estaca, porcentagem estacas vivas, com calos, mortas, com novas brotações e que mantiveram as folhas iniciais. A aplicação de IBA não influenciou nenhuma das variáveis estudadas. Estacas herbáceas apresentaram melhor enraizamento (46,75% quando comparadas às semilenhosas (34,44%. A coleta realizada em dezembro/2011 apresentou maior número de raízes/estaca (5,47 porém maior mortalidade (29,05% que em junho/2011 (4,25 e 12,19%, respectivamente. Sendo assim, para o enraizamento de cataia é indicada a utilização de estacas caulinares herbáceas, coletadas em épocas frias.

  12. Natural and vaccine-mediated immunity to Salmonella Typhimurium is impaired by the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeda Bobat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of exposure to multiple pathogens concurrently or consecutively on immune function is unclear. Here, immune responses induced by combinations of the bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium (STm and the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nb, which causes a murine hookworm infection and an experimental porin protein vaccine against STm, were examined.Mice infected with both STm and Nb induced similar numbers of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes compared with singly infected mice, as determined by flow cytometry, although lower levels of secreted Th2, but not Th1 cytokines were detected by ELISA after re-stimulation of splenocytes. Furthermore, the density of FoxP3+ T cells in the T zone of co-infected mice was lower compared to mice that only received Nb, but was greater than those that received STm. This reflected the intermediate levels of IL-10 detected from splenocytes. Co-infection compromised clearance of both pathogens, with worms still detectable in mice weeks after they were cleared in the control group. Despite altered control of bacterial and helminth colonization in co-infected mice, robust extrafollicular Th1 and Th2-reflecting immunoglobulin-switching profiles were detected, with IgG2a, IgG1 and IgE plasma cells all detected in parallel. Whilst extrafollicular antibody responses were maintained in the first weeks after co-infection, the GC response was less than that in mice infected with Nb only. Nb infection resulted in some abrogation of the longer-term development of anti-STm IgG responses. This suggested that prior Nb infection may modulate the induction of protective antibody responses to vaccination. To assess this we immunized mice with porins, which confer protection in an antibody-dependent manner, before challenging with STm. Mice that had resolved a Nb infection prior to immunization induced less anti-porin IgG and had compromised protection against infection.These findings demonstrate that co-infection can radically alter

  13. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  14. Production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and analyses of the results by image processing; Producao de interleucinas RNAm em camundongos BALB/c infectados por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, com analises dos resultados atraves de processamento de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Adriana; Pietro, Rosemeire C.L. Rodrigues; Silva, Celio L. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Parasitologia, Microbiologia e Imunologia; Rodrigues, Evandro L.L.; Franca, Celso A. de [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1996-12-31

    The production of mRNA cytokines in BALB/c mice infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is studied. It is reported that in the beginning of the disease with P. brasiliensis stimulated mice showed an analogous production between IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, however, there is a predominance of IL-2 mRNA in the lung and of IL-10 mRNA in the liver cells. In this model, there is a dynamic change in the levels of IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA, suggesting the presence of both CD4+ T helper cells 7 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Food and feeding ecology of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae from the southeastern Brazilian Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico W. Kurtz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from depth integrated and vertically stratified plankton samples collected in the southeastern Brazilian Bight were used to study the feeding behavior of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae. Sampling of the ichthyoplankton was carried out with 60 cm Bongo nets in the Bight during the spawning seasons of 1991/92 and 1992/93. The sampling of microzooplankton was carried out in the coastal region off Ubatuba, using the closing-type plankton net, in December 1995. The feeding study was based on a total of 901 captured larvae. Gut content analysis of the sardine larvae showed a diurnal pattern of food intake. Copepod nauplii dominated the diet of the preflexion and flexion larvae, but they were the second in abundance for the postflexion larvae which fed preferentially on copepodites and adults of Oncaea spp. Averaged feeding incidence of the 901 larvae was 37.6%, but it increased to 58.5% for day-caught larvae. Seventy percent of the food particles were found in the mid-gut and food eaten showed a natural increase in digestion from fore-gut to hind-gut. Vertical distribution of microzooplankton revealed that copepod nauplii were present in densities of 10-20 ind. L-1, mainly in the upper mixed layer (0-20 m depth, but higher densities of copepodite and adult of Oncaea, Oithona and Paracalamis were found within and beneath the thermocline. These results show that Brazilian sardine larvae can successfully adapt their diet, feeding on the most abundant food particles in the upper mixed layer of the survey area.Plâncton amostrado na região sudeste do Brasil, em coletas integradas verticalmente e estratificadas, foi utilizado no estudo do comportamento alimentar das larvas de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis. As coletas de ictioplâncton foram realizadas com rede tipo Bongo de 60 cm de diâmetro durante os períodos de desova de 1991/92 e 1992/93. Microzooplâncton foi amostrado na região costeira ao largo de Ubatuba

  16. ∆24-sterol methyltransferase plays an important role in the growth and development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Pereira Borba-Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of ∆24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3-ol (H3 were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors were completely replaced by 14-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective towards these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of

  17. Δ(24)-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana P; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M; de Camargo, Zoilo P; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ(24)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker(®) Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  18. Desarrollo embrionario-larval del pez tropical Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae a partir de huevos recolectados del medio natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rosas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la formación del embrión y el desarrollo larval del pez Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758, a partir de huevos en estado de mórula, recolectados en el alga parda Sargassum sp. Los huevos eran esféricos con un diámetro de 1923.54 ±72.35 µm, con numerosos filamentos coriónicos y estrías en su superficie. Durante las primeras 48 h, el embrión desarrolló la vesícula cefálica, los miomeros y el corazón, el cual se ubicó en el exterior de cuerpo impulsando sangre incolora, la cual se pigmentó de rojo posteriormente. Antes de la eclosión se desarrollaron el riñón, estómago, hígado y la vesícula biliar, las aletas pectorales, cuatro pares de arcos branquiales y la boca. Las larvas eclosionaron a la 114 h, presentando el cuerpo robusto en forma de torpedo, verde-amarillo con melanoforos dendriformes. Al nacer ingirieron metanauplios de Artemia. A las 72 h después de la eclosión se observó el esbozo de la aleta pélvica y a las 240 h se completó la metamorfosis.Embrionary-larval development of the tropical fish Hemirhamphus brasiliensis (Beloniformes: Hemirhamphidae from eggs collected in the wild. The embryo formation and larval development of Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Pisces: Hemirhamphidae is described from morula stage eggs collected on Sargassum sp. Thalii in the field (10°50’55.2" N y 64°09’467" W. The eggs were spherical, 1 923.54 ±72.35 µm diameter with several corionic filaments, and are striated. During the first 48 h the embryo developed cephalic vesicle, miomers, and a heart located on the external body surface, beating strongly and circulating colorless blood which became pigmented red later. Before hatching, the larva developed kidney, gut tract, liver and biliar vesicle, pectoral fins, four pairs of gill arches and the mouth. The larva hatched at 114 h, the body was torpedo-shaped, yellow-green, with several dendriform melanophores; the pelvic fin was observed 72 h post

  19. Δ24-Sterol Methyltransferase Plays an Important Role in the Growth and Development of Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana P.; Visbal, Gonzalo; Gagini, Thalita; Rodrigues, Anderson M.; de Camargo, Zoilo P.; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M.; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of Δ24-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMT) in Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis was investigated in vitro. The effects on fungal growth and sterol composition of the 24-SMT inhibitor 22-hydrazone-imidazolin-2-yl-chol-5-ene-3β-ol (H3) were compared to those of itraconazole. MIC and MFC analysis showed that H3 was more effective than itraconazole against both species in both their filamentous and yeast forms. H3 showed fungistatic activity in a time-kill assay, with inhibitory activity stronger than that of itraconazole. GC analysis of cell sterol composition showed that sterols present in control cells (ergosterol and precursors) were completely replaced by 14α-methylated sterols after H3 exposure. Itraconazole only partially inhibited ergosterol synthesis but completely arrested synthesis of other sterols found in control cells, promoting accumulation of nine 14α-methyl sterols. Based on these results, we propose a schematic model of sterol biosynthesis pathways in S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Effects on cell morphology due to 24-SMT inhibition by H3 as analyzed by SEM and TEM included irregular cell shape, reduced cytoplasmic electron-density, and reduced thickness of the microfibrillar cell wall layer. Moreover, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 promoted mitochondrial disturbance, as demonstrated by alterations in MitoTracker® Red CMXRos fluorescence intensity evaluated by flow cytometry. When used in conjunction with itraconazole, H3 enhanced the effectiveness of itraconazole against all tested strains, reducing at least half (or more) the MIC values of itraconazole. In addition, cytotoxicity assays revealed that H3 was more selective toward these fungi than was itraconazole. Thus, 24-SMT inhibition by H3 was an effective antifungal strategy against S. schenckii and S. brasiliensis. Inhibition of the methylation reaction catalyzed by 24-SMT has a strong antiproliferative effect via disruption of ergosterol homeostasis

  20. Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeong Chun; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Oh, Hyun Ju; Yuda, Fibrianto; Kim, Hye Jin; Hossein, M Shamim; Shamim, M Hossein; Kim, Jung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Schatten, Gerald; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-04

    Several mammals--including sheep, mice, cows, goats, pigs, rabbits, cats, a mule, a horse and a litter of three rats--have been cloned by transfer of a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell (oocyte) that has had its nucleus removed. This technology has not so far been successful in dogs because of the difficulty of maturing canine oocytes in vitro. Here we describe the cloning of two Afghan hounds by nuclear transfer from adult skin cells into oocytes that had matured in vivo. Together with detailed sequence information generated by the canine-genome project, the ability to clone dogs by somatic-cell nuclear transfer should help to determine genetic and environmental contributions to the diverse biological and behavioural traits associated with the many different canine breeds.