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Sample records for brasilienses isolates obtained

  1. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

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    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the

  2. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense.

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    Gomez-Verjan, J C; Estrella-Parra, E A; Gonzalez-Sanchez, I; Rivero-Segura, N A; Vazquez-Martinez, R; Magos-Guerrero, G; Mendoza-Villanueva, D; Cerbón-Cervantes, M A; Reyes-Chilpa, R

    2015-12-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae) is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1) was administered orally to male mice (CD-1) at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA) and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  3. Toxicogenomic analysis of pharmacological active coumarins isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense

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    J.C. Gomez-Verjan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense (Calophyllaceae is a tropical rain forest tree, mainly distributed in South and Central America. It is an important source of bioactive natural products like, for instance soulatrolide, and mammea type coumarins. Soulatrolide is a tetracyclic dipyranocoumarins and a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mammea A/BA and A/BB coumarins, pure or as a mixture, are highly active against several leukemia cell lines, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis. In the present work, a toxicogenomic analysis of Soulatrolide and Mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1 mixture was performed in order to validate the toxicological potential of this type of compounds. Soulatrolide or mixture of mammea A/BA + A/BB (3:1 was administered orally to male mice (CD-1 at dose of 100 mg/kg/daily, for 1 week. After this time, mice were sacrificed, and RNA extracted from the liver of treated animals. Transcriptomic analysis was performed using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 1.0 ST Array. Robust microarray analysis (RMA and two way ANOVA test revealed for mammea mixture treatment 46 genes upregulated and 72 downregulated genes; meanwhile, for soulatrolide 665 were upregulated and 1077 downregulated genes. Enrichment analysis for such genes revealed that in both type of treatments genetic expression were mainly involved in drug metabolism. Overall results indicate a safety profile. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and are deposited in GEO under accession number GSE72755.

  4. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

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    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  5. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae

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    Arquimedes Gasparotto Jr.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (- mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR ¹H, NMR 13C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (- mammea A/BB showed LD50 = 0.67 ppm and LD90 = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV.

  6. Antiproliferative activity of the hexanic extract and phloroglucinols from Hypericum brasiliense

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    Hildegardo Seibert França

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are regarded as major and important sources of molecules used in chemotherapy. Hypericum brasiliense Choisy, Hypericaceae, is an annual bush, native in the southern and southeastern Brazil. This species has been used in Brazilian folk medicine the anti-spasmodic and for the treatment of infectious diseases. H. brasiliense is chemically composed by flavonoids and xanthones. In addition, this species contain phloroglucinols, a class of substances with citotoxity effects against tumor cells lines. On the present study, hexanic extract and derivatives phloroglucinols obtained from H. brasiliense were tested against some human tumor cell lines. Hexanic extract presented a potent antiproliferative activity, with selective action on OVCAR-03 (ovarian, NCIADR/ RES (ovarian resistant and UACC-62 (melanoma tumor cell lines. Uliginosin B was the most active derivative phloroglucinol, presenting selectivity against NCI-ADR/ RES ( resistant ovarian and OVCAR-03 (ovarian tumor cell lines. Analysis of the results suggests that phloroglucinol derivatives with isoprenyl unit closed in the 9' position increases antiproliferative activity. Furthermore, this study contributes to identification of anti-tumor molecules and valorization of Hypericum brasiliense.

  7. The antidepressant-like effect of Hedyosmum brasiliense and its sesquiterpene lactone, podoandin in mice: evidence for the involvement of adrenergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic systems.

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    Gonçalves, Ana Elisa; Bürger, Cristiani; Amoah, Solomon K S; Tolardo, Rogério; Biavatti, Maique W; de Souza, Márcia M

    2012-01-15

    We have recently shown that the ethanol extract of the leaves of Hedyosmum brasiliense exhibits an antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension and forced swimming tests in mice. The present study investigates the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effect of H. brasiliense extract, together with the antidepressant potential of podoandin, an isolated sesquiterpenoid. H. brasiliense (50mg/kg, i.p.) and podoandin (10mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test, without any accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test. The anti-immobility effect of the H. brasiliense extract was prevented by pre-treating the mice with ondansetron, NAN 190, pindolol, prazosin, yohimbine, haloperidol, SCH23390, and sulpiride. On the other hand, pre-treating the mice with: p-chlorophenylalanine (4 consecutive days), ketanserin, naloxone, naltrindole, bicuculline, phaclofen, or l-arginine did not block the antidepressant-like effect of H. brasiliense. In addition, pre-treatment of the animals with methylene blue, NG-nitro-l-arginine or 7-nitroindazole, at subeffective doses, did not cause a synergistic effect with H. brasiliense extract at an effective dose in the forced swimming test. The anti-immobility effect of podoandin was also prevented by pre-treating the mice with NAN-190, ondansetron, prazosin, yohimbine, sulpiride and haloperidol. The results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of H. brasiliense (and podoandin) is dependent on the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, but not on the GABAergic, opioid and oxidonitrergic systems.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

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    Karoline Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus. In addition, six fungal species (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were included. Among the determined constituents, α-terpineol (10.2%, curzerene (8.9%, pinocarvone (8.4% and β-thujene (7.1% were found as the main components. The essential oil has only low activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, is remarkable active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 2.5% (v/v.Óleo essencial de Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae: composição e atividade antimicrobiana. Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq. Chloranthaceae, é uma espécie endêmica no Brasil, conhecida como "cidrão". Embora H. brasiliense seja utilizada como calmante na medicina popular, não foi ainda caracterizada quanto aos constituintes químicos. Este trabalho apresenta a composição do óleo essencial, obtido pela destilação de folhas frescas e de amostra de óleo essencial armazenada por três meses, analisadas por GC-FID e CG-MS. Os efeitos inibitórios do óleo essencial foram testados pelo método da diluição em agar, contra seis espécies de bactérias (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e S. saprophyticus. Adicionalmente, seis espécies de fungos (Candida albicans

  9. Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense (Cambess.) from nodal segments.

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    Silveira, S S; Cordeiro-Silva, R; Degenhardt-Goldbach, J; Quoirin, M

    2016-05-03

    Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae) is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year.

  10. Micropropagação de pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Micropropagation of "pequizeiro" (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    Breno Régis Santos

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Por apresentar dormência em suas sementes, a propagação do pequizeiro necessita de estudos para a obtenção de mudas por via assexuada. Este trabalho teve como objetivo contribuir para o estabelecimento de um protocolo de micropropagação de pequizeiro. Para indução de brotações, os explantes foram inoculados em meio WPM com diferentes concentrações de BAP e ANA. Para a indução de raízes, brotações obtidas in vitro foram transferidas para meio WPM suplementado com diferentes concentrações de AIB e na presença ou ausência de carvão ativado. As plantas obtidas foram transferidas para sacos de polietileno contendo o substrato, cobertas com uma garrafa tipo pet para auxiliar no processo de aclimatização. O melhor tratamento para a indução de brotações foi aquele que utilizou 0,05mg L-1 de ANA combinado com 0,75mg L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se uma média de 6 brotações por explante, induzindo maior número de gemas por explante (17,4, o que proporcionou a maior taxa de multiplicação (8,7. A utilização de 3mg L-1 de AIB proporcionou a indução de raízes em 100% dos explantes, gerando um número médio de 12,87 raízes por brotação. As raízes desenvolvidas no meio de cultivo contendo carvão ativado foram maiores (33,16 mm, com maior número de raízes secundárias (19,53 e com maior taxa de sobrevivência na fase de aclimatização.Due the presence of seed dormancy, the propagation of Caryocar brasiliense requires studies in order to obtain young asexually plants. This work had as objective contribute to the establishment of a "pequizeiro" micropropagation protocol. For shoot induction, explants were inoculated in WPM medium with different concentrations and interactions of BAP and NAA. For rooting induction, shoots obtained in vitro were transferred to WPM medium supplemented with different concentrations of IBA in the presence or absence of activated charcoal. The best treatment for shoot induction was the use of 0

  11. Application and analysis of the folin ciocalteu method for the determination of the total phenolic content from Limonium brasiliense L.

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    Blainski, Andressa; Lopes, Gisely Cristiny; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo

    2013-06-10

    Limonium brasiliense is a common plant on the southern coast of Brazil. The roots are traditionally used for treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disturbances and genito-urinary infections. Pharmaceutical preparations obtained from its roots and used for these purposes were marketed in Brazil in the 1980s and 1990s. Currently, the Brazilian Drug Agency (National Health Surveillance Agency, ANVISA) has canceled the registration of these products, and their use was discontinued because of a lack of studies to characterize the plant raw material and ensure the effectiveness and safety of its use. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP) in an extract from L. brasiliense roots, by the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. L. brasiliense roots were extracted in acetone:water (7:3, v/v-10% w/v). The crude extract was used to develop a method for TP assay. The method was validated according to national and international guidelines. The optimum conditions for analysis time, wavelength, and standard substance were 30 min, 760 nm, and pyrogallol, respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved the method to be linear, specific, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform. This methodology complies with the requirements for analytical application and to ensure the reliability of the results.

  12. Tyrosinase Inhibition Type of Isolated Compounds Obtained from Pachyrhizus erosus

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    Endang Lukitaningsih

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, Bengkoang (Phacyrhizus erosus have been used as one of cosmetics especially as sun screening and skin whitening materials. Six active compounds in Bengkoang with antioxidant and skin whitening activities have been isolated, namely daidzein, daidzin, genistin, (8,9-furanyl-pterocarpan-3-ol, 4-(2-(furane-2-ylethyl-2-methyl-2,5-dihydro-furane-3-carbaldehyde and 2-butoxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl-tetrahydrofurane-3,4-diol. According to literatures, the type of their tyrosinase inhibitory activity has not yet reported. The determination of whitening activity of each compound was evaluated by the evaluation of Lineweaver-Burk plot. The result showed that five compounds had competitive inhibitory activity and 8,9-furanyl-pterocarpan-3-ol showed a non-competitive inhibition.

  13. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and cytotoxicity of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Clusiaceae

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    Claudia Terencio Agostinho Pires

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and the cytotoxicity of dichloromethane extract and pure compounds from the leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense. Purification of the dichloromethane extract yielded the pure compounds (- mammea A/BB (1, (- mammea B/BB (2 and amentoflavone (3. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric data. The contents of bioactive compounds in the extracts were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet detector. The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of the extracts and the pure compounds was evaluated using a resazurin microtitre assay plate. The cytotoxicity assay was performed in J774G.8 macrophages using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colourimetric method. The quantification of the dichloromethane extract showed (1 and (2 at concentrations of 31.86 ± 2.6 and 8.24 ± 1.1 µg/mg of extract, respectively. The dichloromethane and aqueous extracts showed anti-M. tuberculosis H37Rv activity of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Coumarins (1 and (2 showed minimal inhibitory concentration ranges of 31.2 and 62.5 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates. Compound (3 showed no activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The selectivity index ranged from 0.59-1.06. We report the activity of the extracts and coumarins from the leaves of C. brasiliense against M. tuberculosis.

  14. Laboratory invesitgations of variability of Ascochyta fabae Speg. isolates obtained from horse bean

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    Antoni Józef Filipowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fifty five isolates of Ascochyta fabae Speg. were investigated. They were selected from 1650 isolates of this fungus obtained from horse bean seeds in 1974-1976. All the isolates grew and sporulated on Potato Dextrose Agar, Malt Agar and Horse Bean Agar. The rate of their growth amounted to 1-4 mm per 24 hours. The variability of isolates in size of pycnidia and conidia and number of sepia was noticed. A few spores with untypical shapes were observed as well.

  15. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from potted plants.

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    Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2011-01-01

    We study the growth of different isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from potted plants which were affected by Botrytis blight in southern Spain during recent years. These isolates, which show widely phenotypic differences when grown in vitro, are differentially affected by growth temperature, gibberellic acid applications and paclobutrazol, an efficient plant growth retardant and fungicide at the same time. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) dose (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/plate) on the growth of the collection of B. cinerea isolates obtained from the following potted plants: Cyclamen persicum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Lantona camara, and Lonicera japonica. B. cinerea produces indolacetic acid, but so far the precise biosynthetic pathway and some effects on this fungal species are still unclear, although recent studies have revealed an antifungal activity of IAA on several fungi, including B. cinerea isolated from harvested fruits. Mycelial growth curves and growth rates assessed from difference in colony areas during the both linear and deceleration phase, conidiation (measured as time of appearance), conidia length (microm), and sclerotia production (number/plate) were evaluated in the isolates, which were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar for up to 35 days. Mycelial growth curves fitted a typical kinetic equation of fungi grown on solid media. B. cinerea isolates showed a high degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate and auxin dose. This plant growth substance delayed mycelial growth during the linear phase in an isolate-dependent manner, thus isolates from C. persicum, H. macrophylla and L. camara were more affected by IAA than L. japonica. On the other hand, 100 mg of IAA was the critical dose to significantly reduce the growth rate in all isolates and to promote brown-striped hyphae development, especially in isolate from C. persicum. 10 and 100 mg

  16. Polyphasic characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates obtained from different sugarcane varieties.

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    Guedes, Helma V; Dos Santos, Samuel T; Perin, Liamara; Teixeira, Kátia R Dos S; Reis, Veronica M; Baldani, José I

    2008-10-01

    A polyphasic approach was applied to characterize 35 G. diazotrophicus isolates obtained from sugarcane varieties cultivated in Brazil. The isolates were analyzed by phenotypic (use of different carbon sources) and genotypic tests (ARDRA and RISA-RFLP techniques). Variability among the isolates was observed in relation to the carbon source use preference. Glucose and sucrose were used by all isolates in contrast to myo-inositol, galactose and ribose that were not metabolized. The results of the analysis showed the presence of two groups clustered at 68% of similarity. The genetic distance was higher when RISA-RFLP analysis was used. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from isolates showed that all of them belonged to the G. diazotrophicus species. Neither effect of the plant part nor sugarcane variety was observed during the cluster analysis. The observed metabolic and genetic variability will be helpful during the strain selection studies for sugarcane inoculation in association with sugarcane breeding programs.

  17. Gamma radiation effects on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

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    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz L.; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia], e-mail: mramatiz@eafce.gov.br, e-mail: vaarthur@cena.usp.br; Salgado, Jocelem M.; Spoto, Marta H. Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: jmsalgad@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: mhfspoto@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The irradiation process using gamma rays from Co{sup 60} was effective to protect pequi fruits in postharvest period. (author)

  18. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

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    Volmir Pitt Benedetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2% and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%. The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated.

  19. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

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    Benedetti, Volmir Pitt; Savi, Daiani Cristina; Aluizio, Rodrigo; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia V; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2%) and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%). The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated. PMID:27276363

  20. Experimental infections with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis obtained from armadillos: comparison to clinical isolates

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    Angela Satie Nishikaku

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM that is one of the most prevalent systemic human mycoses in Latin America. Armadillos show a high incidence of PCM infection and could, therefore, be a natural reservoir for this fungus. In this study were compared the virulence profiles of isolates obtained from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus (PbT1 and PbT4 and isolates from PCM patients (Pb265 and Bt83. Pathogenicity was evaluated by fungal load and analysis of colony morphology. Immunity against the fungus was tested by delayed type hypersensitivity test (DTH and antibody quantification by ELISA. The higher virulence of PbT1 and PbT4 was suggested by higher fungal load in spleen and lungs. Armadillo isolates and Bt83 presented a cotton-like surface contrasting with the cerebriform appearance of Pb265. All isolates induced cellular and humoral immune responses in infected BALB/c mice. DTH reactions were similarly induced by the four isolates, however, a great variability was observed in specific antibody levels, being the highest ones induced by Bt83 and PbT4. The present work confirms that armadillos harbor P. brasiliensis, whose multiplication and induced immunity in experimentally infected mice are heterogeneous, resembling the behavior of isolates from human PCM. This study reinforces the possibility that armadillos play an important role in the biological cycle of this pathogen.

  1. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance of Toxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio Bs; Meurer, Ywlliane Sr; Andrade, Joelma Ma; Costa, Maria Esm; Andrade, Milena Mc; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel Cf; Vítor, Ricardo Wa; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondii isolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities.

  2. Identification of virulence genes carried by bacteriophages obtained from clinically isolated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasartova, Djursun; Cavusoglu, Zeynep Burcin; Turegun, Buse; Ozsan, Murat T; Şahin, Fikret

    2016-12-01

    Bacteriophages play an important role in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) either by carrying accessory virulence factors or several superantigens. Despite their importance, there are not many studies showing the actual distribution of the virulence genes carried by the prophages obtained from the clinically isolated Staphylococcus. In this study, we investigated prophages obtained from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains isolated from hospital- and community-associated (HA-CA) infections for the virulence factors. In the study, 43 phages isolated from 48 MRSA were investigated for carrying toxin genes including the sak, eta, lukF-PV, sea, selp, sek, seg, seq chp, and scn virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to analyze phage genomes to investigate the relationship between the phage profiles and the toxin genes' presence. MRSA strains isolated from HA infections tended to have higher prophage presence than the MRSA strains obtained from the CA infections (97% and 67%, respectively). The study showed that all the phages with the exception of one phage contained one or more virulence genes in their genomes with different combinations. The most common toxin genes found were sea (83%) followed by sek (77%) and seq (64%). The study indicates that prophages encode a significant proportion of MRSA virulence factors.

  3. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  4. Characterization of rhizobia isolates obtained from nodules of wild genotypes of common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Aline Assis; Andraus, Michel de Paula; Borba, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Martin-Didonet, Claudia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Enderson Petrônio de Brito

    This study aimed to evaluate the tolerance to salinity and temperature, the genetic diversity and the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia isolates obtained from wild genotypes of common bean cultivated in soil samples from the States of Goiás, Minas Gerais and Paraná. The isolates were subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) at different temperatures (28°C, 33°C, 38°C, 43°C and 48°C). Genotypic characterization was performed based on BOX-PCR, REP-PCR markers and 16S rRNA sequencing. An evaluation of symbiotic efficiency was carried out under greenhouse conditions in autoclaved Leonard jars. Among 98 isolates about 45% of them and Rhizobium freirei PRF81 showed a high tolerance to temperature, while 24 isolates and Rhizobium tropici CIAT899 were able to use all of the carbon sources studied. Clustering analysis based on the ability to use carbon sources and on the tolerance to salinity and temperature grouped 49 isolates, R. tropici CIAT899 and R. tropici H12 with a similarity level of 76%. Based on genotypic characterization, 65% of the isolates showed an approximately 66% similarity with R. tropici CIAT899 and R. tropici H12. About 20% of the isolates showed symbiotic efficiency similar to or better than the best Rhizobium reference strain (R. tropici CIAT899). Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA revealed that two efficient isolates (ALSG5A1 and JPrG6A8) belong to the group of strains used as commercial inoculant for common bean in Brazil and must be assayed in field experiments.

  5. The mortality of Caryocar brasiliense in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil =Mortalidade de Caryocar brasiliense no norte do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Nilza de Lima Pereira Sales

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study the percentage of healthy trees, living trees and healthy branches and the renewal (natural propagation of Caryocar brasiliense associated with the properties of soil, the floristic diversity and the canopy size of this plant. Lower proportions of live C. brasiliense trees and of healthy branches were found in the Savanna of Ibiracatu, where only 30% of the trees were healthy and without visible signs of attack by wood borers and by Phomopsis sp. We observed that C. brasiliense trees in areas where the soils contained higher levels of summed chemical bases and total sand (fine + gross were less healthy. Moreover, the areas whose soils contained higher levels of aluminum and clay had a higher percentage of healthy C. brasiliense trees and branches. Smaller percentages of live and healthy trees and healthy branches were noted in areas with higher floristic diversity. Overall, the higher mortality of C. brasiliense trees may be associated with a higher pH and a lower content of aluminum, silt and clay, with competition with other tree species for nutrients, water and light, with the attack of Cossidae and particularly with the attack of fungi, Phomopsis sp.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a percentagem de árvores sadias, vivas, galhos sadios e taxa natural de regeneração (propagação natural de Caryocar brasiliense, associando com propriedades do solo, diversidade florística e tamanho de copa desta planta. As menores percentagens de árvores vivas de C. brasiliense e de galhos sadios foram observadas no cerrado de Ibiracatu, onde somente 30% destas estavam saudáveis, sem sinais visíveis de ataque do broqueador de tronco (Lepidoptera: Cossidae e do fungo Phomopsis sp. As árvores de C. brasiliense localizadas em áreas cujos solos continham maiores níveis de soma de bases e areia total (fina + grossa estavam menos saudáveis. Além disso, as áreas cujos solos continham maiores níveis de alum

  6. Isolation and identification of acetogenic bacteria obtained from deer rumen and their potential for methanogenesis inhibitor

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    Amlius Thalib

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenesis can be inhibited by various chemicals through different mechanism reaktion. The use of acetogenic bacteria as H2 sink is assumed to be a promising approach. Isolation and identification of acetogenic bacteria obtained from deer rumen had been conducted. Two types of media used for isolation were hydrogen-carbondioxide utilizing acetogens and carbonmonoxide utilizing acetogens. Identification of species of acetogens isolates was based on descriptions of morphology, Gram type, motility, bioreaction results, and oksygen requirement. The compositions of methane and volatile fatty acids (VFA were determined on minimal media or added with sheep rumen liquid innoculated with pure isolates. The identification results showed that the isolate cultured on media of hydrogen-carbondioxide utilizing acetogens was Acetoanaerobium noterae and the ones cultured on media of carbonmonoxide utilizing acetogens was Acetobacterium woodii. Inoculumn of A. noterae and A. woodii could decreased the composition of methane resulted from substrate fermented by fresh rumen liquid of sheep (CRDF, that is culture of A. noterae added FPM and defaunator decreased methane production by 28.8% (P CH3COOH + 2H2O by which reduction of CO2 with H2 producing CH4 can be inhibited or decreased. Their function as methanogenesis inhibitor would be more significant when they are combined with microbial growth factors and defaunator.

  7. Pathogenicity and phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance ofToxoplasma gondii isolates obtained from livestock in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Claudio BS; Meurer, Ywlliane SR; Andrade, Joelma MA; Costa, Maria ESM; Andrade, Milena MC; Silva, Letícia A; Lanza, Daniel CF; Vítor, Ricardo WA; Andrade-Neto, Valter F

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causative protozoan agent of toxoplasmosis, which is a common infection that is widely distributed worldwide. Studies revealed stronger clonal strains in North America and Europe and genetic diversity in South American strains. Our study aimed to differentiate the pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance of three T. gondiiisolates obtained from livestock intended for human consumption. The cytopathic effects of the T. gondii isolates were evaluated. The pathogenicity was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using a CS3 marker and in a rodent model in vivo. Phenotypic sulfadiazine resistance was measured using a kinetic curve of drug activity in Swiss mice. IgM and IgG were measured by ELISA, and the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene sequence was analysed. The cytopathic effects and the PCR-RFLP profiles from chickens indicated a different infection source. The Ck3 isolate displayed more cytopathic effects in vitro than the Ck2 and ME49 strains. Additionally, the Ck2 isolate induced a differential humoral immune response compared to ME49. The Ck3 and Pg1 isolates, but not the Ck2 isolate, showed sulfadiazine resistance in the sensitivity assay. We did not find any DHPS gene polymorphisms in the mouse samples. These atypical pathogenicity and sulfadiazine resistance profiles were not previously reported and served as a warning to local health authorities. PMID:27276184

  8. Atividade antibacteriana de floroglucinóis e do extrato hexânico de Hypericum brasiliense Choysi Antibacterial activity of the phloroglucinols and hexanic extract from Hypericum brasiliense Choysi

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    Hildegardo Seibert França

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phloroglucinols were obtained from Hypericum brasiliense: japonicine A (1, isouliginosin B (2 and uliginosin B (3. Bioautography and disk diffusion methods were used to determine antibacterial activity of the hexanic extract. Strains of the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and American Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones showed a growth inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 12 mm and 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values were used to measure antistaphylococcal activity for all phloroglucinols. Isouliginosin B and uliginosin B presented MIC values of 1.5 and 3.0 µg/mL, respectively, while japonicine A displayed MIC value of 50.0 µg/mL.

  9. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known...... components. Here we present a novel strategy for a short, gentle and non-denaturing isolation of skim milk-derived membrane vesicles. Methods: Untreated fresh bovine milk was defatted to remove milk fat globules. The resulting skim milk was subjected to ultracentrifugation. The resulting ochre...... fraction can be obtained from skim milk by ultracentrifugation. Casein micelle remnants as well as smaller protein components in the crude vesicle fraction can be successfully removed by size chromatography. Electron microscopy of the vesicle isolate reveals circular structures with membrane vesicle...

  10. A novel isolation strategy for obtaining crude membrane vesicles from bovine skim milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blans, Kristine; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Wiking, Lars

    Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known...... components. Here we present a novel strategy for a short, gentle and non-denaturing isolation of skim milk-derived membrane vesicles. Methods: Untreated fresh bovine milk was defatted to remove milk fat globules. The resulting skim milk was subjected to ultracentrifugation. The resulting ochre...... fraction can be obtained from skim milk by ultracentrifugation. Casein micelle remnants as well as smaller protein components in the crude vesicle fraction can be successfully removed by size chromatography. Electron microscopy of the vesicle isolate reveals circular structures with membrane vesicle...

  11. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-01-01

    on a porous membrane was superior to the other methods applied [P cultivated cells. CM had similar viability supporting effects to FCS. Other supplements had......Few comparative and validated reports exist on the isolation and growth of colonoscopically obtained colonic epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for the cultivation of colonoscopically obtained colonocytes. Forty patients, who underwent routine colonoscopy...... and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different...

  12. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-01-01

    on a porous membrane was superior to the other methods applied [P cultivated cells. CM had similar viability supporting effects to FCS. Other supplements had no effects......Few comparative and validated reports exist on the isolation and growth of colonoscopically obtained colonic epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for the cultivation of colonoscopically obtained colonocytes. Forty patients, who underwent routine colonoscopy...... and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different...

  13. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-12-01

    Few comparative and validated reports exist on the isolation and growth of colonoscopically obtained colonic epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for the cultivation of colonoscopically obtained colonocytes. Forty patients, who underwent routine colonoscopy and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different conditions: 1) on a collagen coating, 2) embedded in a collagen gel, or 3) embedded in a gel put on a porous well insert. The effect of conditioned medium (CM), insulin, transferrin, selenium, and the oxygen content was assessed. Viability was tested by the metabolic dimethylthiazol-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, by flowcytometry, by phase contrast microscopy, and by transmission electron microscopy. Incubation at 21 degrees C for 75 min gave an optimal yield of 3 x 10(6) (2.0-3.8 x 10(6)) viable epithelial cells in intact crypts per seven biopsies. Embedding of crypts in a collagen gel put on a porous membrane was superior to the other methods applied [P coat-cultivated cells. CM had similar viability supporting effects to FCS. Other supplements had no effects. A simple method is presented, which makes cultivation of colonocytes obtained at endoscopy possible for up to 72 h.

  14. Biocide and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella isolates obtained before and after cleaning at six Danish pig slaughterhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Pedersen, Karl; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-01-01

    . The susceptibility toward three different biocides, triclosan and two commercial disinfection products: Desinfect Maxi, a quaternary ammonium compound, and Incimaxx DES, an acetic compound, was determined. We found no resistance toward the biocides tested, but we did find that isolates obtained after cleaning had...... that there was a weak statistical correlation between MICs toward the biocides and some antibiotics, but no difference in log(MIC)s toward antibiotics between isolates obtained before and after cleaning, nor did we find any difference in the number of resistances of isolates obtained before and after cleaning...

  15. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  16. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Martinus; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  17. Molecular analysis of Mycobacterium isolates from extrapulmonary specimens obtained from patients in Mexico

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    Portillo-Gómez Leopoldo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little information is available on the molecular epidemiology in Mexico of Mycobacterium species infecting extrapulmonary sites in humans. This study used molecular methods to determine the Mycobacterium species present in tissues and body fluids in specimens obtained from patients in Mexico with extrapulmonary disease. Methods Bacterial or tissue specimens from patients with clinical or histological diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis were studied. DNA extracts from 30 bacterial cultures grown in Löwenstein Jensen medium and 42 paraffin-embedded tissues were prepared. Bacteria were cultured from urine, cerebrospinal fluid, pericardial fluid, gastric aspirate, or synovial fluid samples. Tissues samples were from lymph nodes, skin, brain, vagina, and peritoneum. The DNA extracts were analyzed by PCR and by line probe assay (INNO-LiPA MYCOBACTERIA v2. Innogenetics NV, Gent, Belgium in order to identify the Mycobacterium species present. DNA samples positive for M. tuberculosis complex were further analyzed by PCR and line probe assay (INNO-LiPA Rif.TB, Innogenetics NV, Gent, Belgium to detect mutations in the rpoB gene associated with rifampicin resistance. Results Of the 72 DNA extracts, 26 (36.1% and 23 (31.9% tested positive for Mycobacterium species by PCR or line probe assay, respectively. In tissues, M. tuberculosis complex and M. genus were found in lymph nodes, and M. genus was found in brain and vagina specimens. In body fluids, M. tuberculosis complex was found in synovial fluid. M. gordonae, M. smegmatis, M. kansasii, M. genus, M. fortuitum/M. peregrinum complex and M. tuberculosis complex were found in urine. M. chelonae/M. abscessus was found in pericardial fluid and M. kansasii was found in gastric aspirate. Two of M. tuberculosis complex isolates were also PCR and LiPA positive for the rpoB gene. These two isolates were from lymph nodes and were sensitive to rifampicin. Conclusion 1 We describe the

  18. Genetic diversity of Japanese encephalitis virus isolates obtained from the Indonesian archipelago between 1974 and 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Amy J; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B; Barrett, Alan D T

    2013-07-01

    Five genotypes (GI-V) of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) have been identified, all of which have distinct geographical distributions and epidemiologies. It is thought that JEV originated in the Indonesia-Malaysia region from an ancestral virus. From that ancestral virus GV diverged, followed by GIV, GIII, GII, and GI. Genotype IV appears to be confined to the Indonesia-Malaysia region, as GIV has been isolated in Indonesia from mosquitoes only, while GV has been isolated on three occasions only from a human in Malaysia and mosquitoes in China and South Korea. In contrast, GI-III viruses have been isolated throughout Asia and Australasia from a variety of hosts. Prior to this study only 13 JEV isolates collected from the Indonesian archipelago had been studied genetically. Therefore the sequences of the envelope (E) gene of 24 additional Indonesian JEV isolates, collected throughout the archipelago between 1974 and 1987, were determined and a series of molecular adaptation analyses were performed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that over a 14-year time span three genotypes of JEV circulated throughout Indonesia, and a statistically significant association between the year of virus collection and genotype was revealed: isolates collected between 1974 and 1980 belonged to GII, isolates collected between 1980 and 1981 belonged to GIV, and isolates collected in 1987 belonged to GIII. Interestingly, three of the GII Indonesian isolates grouped with an isolate that was collected during the JE outbreak that occurred in Australia in 1995, two of the GIII Indonesian isolates were closely related to a Japanese isolate collected 40 years previously, and two Javanese GIV isolates possessed six amino acid substitutions within the E protein when compared to a previously sequenced GIV isolate collected in Flores. Several amino acids within the E protein of the Indonesian isolates were found to be under directional evolution and/or co-evolution. Conceivably, the tropical climate

  19. Proteases (caseinase and elastase, hemolysins, adhesion and susceptibility to antimicrobials of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates obtained from clinical specimens

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    Garcia Doroti de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-six S. maltophilia isolates obtained from hospital clinical specimens were studied for protease (caseinase and elastase production, hemolytic activity, adhesion to HEp-2 cells, plastic and glass. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was also evaluated. The majority of isolates were obtained from respiratory tract secretions of patients using medical devices. All the isolates grown overnight were able to hydrolyze casein at 30masculineC and 37masculineC. After 72h, all the isolates hydrolyzed elastase at 30masculineC and 40 isolates (87% at 37masculineC. Most of the isolates presented hemolytic activity after 96h of incubation at both temperatures. Rabbit blood showed the hightest hemolytic activity, after 96h 61% and 98% of tested isolates presented beta-hemolysis at 30masculineC and 37masculineC, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole and were resistant to most beta-lactams tested. By the dilution method, S. maltophilia showed a high susceptibility to ticarcillin-clavulanate and a lower susceptibility to ciprofloxacin than the agar diffusion. The isolates showed adhesion to HEp-2 cells, plastic and glass. The proteolytic activities and adhesion to inanimate surfaces detected in S. maltophilia can be related to the pathogenesis of this bacterium and/or medical device colonization which favors the development of nosocomial infections.

  20. Molecular characterization of Pasteurella multocida isolates obtained from poultry, ruminant, cats and dogs using RAPD and REP-PCR analysis

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    Hesamaddin Shirzad-Aski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA‌ (RAPD and Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic sequence-based Polymerase Chain Reaction (REP-PCR were used to characterize 131 isolates of Pasteurella multocida, originating from different healthy and diseased animal species obtained from several geographical regions of Iran. The RAPD and REP-PCR generated amplified products in the range of 300 to 3400 bp and 200 to 2850 bp, respectively. Among all of the P. multocida isolates, cluster analysis revealed that 63 clusters and nine untypable isolates and 81 clusters and six untypable isolates were produced with RAPD and REP-PCR methods, respectively. The results indicated that the REP-PCR method showed a slightly higher level of discrimination power in differentiating of P. multocida isolates as compared with RAPD. The results showed that a considerable level of genetic diversity exists among P. multocida isolates even in the isolates with the same animal or geographical origins. There was no host- and region-specific pattern. In addition, the isolates obtained from the healthy and diseased animal did not reveal any correlation genotypic profiles, which could be supported by the hypothesis that P. multocida is a strictly opportunistic pathogen. In conclusion, because of a large amount of genetic heterogeneityin the P. multocida isolates, Pasteurellosis may be caused by different clones in the same herd or animal.

  1. Influência da secagem do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. na qualidade do óleo extraído Influence of pequi drying (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. on the quality of the oil extracted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Pereira Aquino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. tem se destacado por ser um fruto oleaginoso e rico em carotenoides. A secagem é um processo utilizado na extração do óleo por hexano, mas a degradação dos carotenoides e óleo podem ocorrer. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes métodos de secagem (ao sol, estufa ventilada a 40 e a 60 °C e do tempo (4 horas e até peso constante no rendimento e na qualidade do óleo extraído por hexano no extrator Soxhlet. Quando a polpa de pequi foi seca, 3% ou conteúdo menor de umidade e maior rendimento do óleo foi obtido (52 a 59%, base seca. Carotenoides totais foram maiores e índice de peróxido menores para a polpa desidratada a 40 °C em estufa ventilada, quando comparada com a secagem da polpa em estufa a 60 °C e ao sol. Estes resultados indicaram que a secagem em estufa a 40 °C por 19 horas resultou num maior rendimento do óleo e menor degradação térmica.Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb has stood out for being an oleaginous fruit rich in carotenoids. Drying is widely used technique in the oil extraction process using hexane, but the degradation of oil and carotenoids may occur. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different drying methods (sun, air-circulated drier at 40 and 60 °C and time (4 hours and up to constant weight on the yield and quality of the oil extracted using hexane using a soxhlet apparatus. When the pequi pulp was dried up to 3% or even lower, more oil yield was obtained (52-59%, dry basis. The total carotenoids contents obtained were higher and the peroxide index was lower for the pulp dried at 40 °C in an air-circulated drier when compared to drying at 60 °C in an air-ventilated drier and to sun drying technique. These results indicate that drying in an air-circulated drier at 40 °C for 19 hours resulted in higher oil yields with less heat degradation.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States (2001-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolates obtained from horses in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to select antimicrobials over time. SAMPLE 462 Salmonella isolates from horses. PROCEDURES Retrospective data were collected for all Salmonella isolates obtained from equine specimens that were submitted to the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2013. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella isolates were investigated for each of 13 antimicrobials by use of the Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS The prevalence of resistant isolates varied among antimicrobials and ranged from 0% (imipenem) to 51.5% (chloramphenicol). During the observation period, the prevalence of resistant isolates decreased significantly for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline and remained negligible for amikacin and enrofloxacin. Of the 337 isolates for which the susceptibility to all 13 antimicrobials was determined, 138 (40.9%) were pansusceptible and 192 (57.0%) were multidrug resistant (resistant to ≥ 3 antimicrobial classes). The most common serovar isolated was Salmonella Newport, and although the annual prevalence of that serovar decreased significantly over time, that decrease had only a minimal effect on the observed antimicrobial resistance trends. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that current antimicrobial use in horses is not promoting the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella strains in the region served by the laboratory.

  3. Identification of xanthans isolated from sugarcane juices obtained from scalded plants infected by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaniella, Blanca; Rodríguez, C W; Piñón, Dolores; Vicente, C; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2002-04-25

    The exudate gum produced by Xanthomonas albilineans, a specific sugarcane pathogen, has been isolated from juices of diseased sugarcane stalks, hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, and the hydrolysate analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Sucrose. cellobiose, mannose, glucose, glucose-1-P and glucuronic acid were identified as the major components of the polysaccharide isolated from diseased stalks. Juices from healthy stalks contained maltose instead of cellobiose. The chemical nature of this polysaccharide is discussed.

  4. Characterization of Enterobacteriaceae isolates obtained from a tertiary care hospital in Mexico, which produces extended-spectrum β-lactamase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Mendoza-Olazarán, Soraya; Silva-Sánchez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Laca-Díaz, Jorge; Tinoco-Carrillo, Perla; Petersen, Luis; López, Perla; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Alcantar-Curiel, Dolores; Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Garza-González, Elvira

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence and genetic characteristics of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) were examined. Between October 2010 and March 2011, E. coli (n=460) and K. pneumoniae (n=78) isolates were collected at a tertiary care hospital in Guadalajara, Mexico. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each isolate was determined using a broth microdilution method, and ESBL production was assayed. The presence of β-lactamase genes, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaTLA-1, was detected by PCR and confirmed with sequencing. Only ESBL-producing isolates were further subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and plasmid profiling. All of the ESBL isolates were multidrug resistant and 75/460 (16.3%) E. coli isolates and 21/78 (26.9%) K. pneumoniae isolates were found to produce ESBL. For the E. coli isolates, >95% susceptibility to amikacin, meropenem, fosfomycin, imipenem, and nitrofurantoin was observed. For K. pneumoniae, similar results were obtained, with discrepancies observed for gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. PFGE further identified eleven pulsotypes for E. coli and three clusters of K. pneumoniae. CTX-M-15 was detected in 85% of ESBL-producing E. coli and in 76% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. In contrast, SHV-5 ESBL was identified in 17% of E. coli isolates and in 86% of K. pneumoniae isolates. The bla-TLA-1 gene was not detected in any of the 96 isolates analyzed. Overall, CTX-M-15 and SHV-5 were found to have a high rate of spread throughout the hospital and were associated with strong multidrug resistance.

  5. Genome Sequences of 12 Bacterial Isolates Obtained from the Urine of Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Cory M.; Deitzler, Grace E.; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Park, SoEun; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The presence of bacteria in urine can pose significant risks during pregnancy. However, there are few reference genome strains for many common urinary bacteria. We isolated 12 urinary strains of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Citrobacter, Gardnerella, and Lactobacillus. These strains and their genomes are now available to the research community. PMID:27688327

  6. Biofilm Formation by Drug Resistant Enterococci Isolates Obtained from Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manjula; Sood, Shaveta; Sharma, Jyoti

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Enterococci are an important cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections and several multidrug resistant strains have emerged. The severity of periodontal diseases is managed by reduction in the pathogenic bacteria. There is a need to assess the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of enterococci colonizing the periodontal pocket and correlate its biofilm formation ability because oral biofilms provide a protective environment and are a reservoir of bacterial colonization of the gingival crevice. Aim To investigate possible association between antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation in enterococci isolates from chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Dr. Harvansh Singh Judge Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Punjab University, Chandigarh from January 2015 to October 2015. Sterile paper points were inserted in the periodontal pocket of 100 subjects and put in a transport media. Forty -six isolates were identified as enterococci. The isolates were further examined for their ability to form biofilm by microtitre plate assay and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method for clinically relevant antibiotics. Results Significant relationship (p<0.001) was found between biofilm production with antibiotic resistance to Vancomycin, Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Tiecoplanin, Amoxycillin and Gentamycin. Conclusion The study demonstrates a high propensity among the isolates of Enterococci to form biofilm and a significant association of biofilm with multiple drug resistance. PMID:28273964

  7. Obtaining freshly isolated and cultured mesenchymal stem cells from human adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquest, Andrew C; Collas, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The stromal compartment of adipose tissue harbors mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (also called stromal stem cells) that display extensive proliferative capacity and multilineage differentiation potential. Such cells offer a practical avenue of generating patient-matched tissue for use in regenerative medicine. It is relatively easy to isolate these cells from adipose tissue in large enough quantities (tens of millions) to allow for their clinical use in a native, uncultured form. Alternatively, MSCs from adipose tissue can be expanded and differentiated into the desired tissue type in vitro using straightforward cell culture techniques. In this chapter, we outline procedures for isolating large numbers of highly purified MSCs from human adipose tissue in their native, uncultured form and methods for their subsequent expansion and differentiation in vitro.

  8. Isolation and Purification of an Early Pregnancy Factor–Like Molecule from Culture Supernatants Obtained from Lymphocytes of Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Purpose:Our purpose was to determine whether lymphocytes synthesize proteins during pregnancy, to observe whether one of the proteins synthesized has early pregnancy factor (EPF)–like activity and to isolate and purify this molecule from culture supernatants obtained from stimulated lymphocytes of pregnant women.

  9. Virulence attenuation and phenotypic variation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolates obtained from armadillos and patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAG Macoris

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America. The virulence profiles of five isolates of P. brasiliensis were studied in two different moments and correlated with some colonial phenotypic aspects. We observed a significant decrease in the virulence and an intense phenotypic variation in the mycelial colony. The recognition of all ranges of phenotypic and virulence variation of P. brasiliensis, as well as its physiological and genetic basis, will be important for a better comprehension of its pathogenic and epidemiological features.

  10. Xiphinema brasiliense, nova espécie de nematóide do Brasil, parasita de Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gonzaga E. Lordello

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiphinema brasiliense, a new opistodelphic species of Brazilian nematode, was found in soil around potato roots at Sapecado (State of São Paulo, Brazil. It differs from the other known opistodelphic species of the genus, by its type of tail end, which is digitate. It contrasts most strongly with X. ensiculiferum (Cobb, 1893, in which the shape of the extremity is decidedly hemispheroidal. The species most closely resembling X. brasiliense isX. chambersi Thorne, 1939, from which it is distinguished by its longer stylet and the mentioned characteristic form of the end of the tail. The X. brasiliense amphids are also very short and wide, unlike those of X. chambersi.

  11. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of crude extracts obtained from Brazilian Chromobacterium sp isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezes, C.B.A.; Silva, B.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo, Interunidades em Biotecnologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sousa, I.M.O.; Ruiz, A.L.T.G.; Spindola, H.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cabral, E.; Eberlin, M.N. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Laboratório Thomson Mass Spectrometry, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tinti, S.V.; Carvalho, J.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Foglio, M.A.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Químicas, Biológicas e Agrícolas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo, Interunidades em Biotecnologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-10-23

    Natural products produced by microorganisms have been an important source of new substances and lead compounds for the pharmaceutical industry. Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative β-proteobacterium, abundant in water and soil in tropical and subtropical regions and it produces violacein, a pigment that has shown great pharmaceutical potential. Crude extracts of five Brazilian isolates of Chromobacterium sp (0.25, 2.5, 25, and 250 µg/mL) were evaluated in an in vitro antitumor activity assay with nine human tumor cells. Secondary metabolic profiles were analyzed by liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry resulting in the identification of violacein in all extracts, whereas FK228 was detected only in EtCE 308 and EtCE 592 extracts. AcCE and EtCE 310 extracts showed selectivity for NCI/ADR-RES cells in the in vitro assay and were evaluated in vivo in the solid Ehrlich tumor model, resulting in 50.3 and 54.6% growth inhibition, respectively. The crude extracts of Chromobacterium sp isolates showed potential and selective antitumor activities for certain human tumor cells, making them a potential source of lead compounds. Furthermore, the results suggest that other compounds, in addition to violacein, deoxyviolacein and FK228, may be involved in the antitumor effect observed.

  12. Equine preantral follicles obtained via the Biopsy Pick-Up method: histological evaluation and validation of a mechanical isolation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Fonseca, G R; Wischral, A; Gastal, M O; King, S S; Jones, K L; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2013-03-15

    The aims of this study in mares were to: (1) compare preantral follicle parameters between in vitro Biopsy Pick-Up (BPU) and scalpel blade collection methods and between histological and mechanical isolation processing (experiment 1); (2) histologically evaluate preantral follicles (experiment 2); and (3) compare histological analysis with a previously established mechanical isolation technique using a tissue chopper (experiment 3) for ovarian cortical fragments obtained in vivo using a BPU instrument. In experiment 1, preantral follicles were analyzed (N = 220; 90% primordial and 10% primary). Proportions of primordial and primary follicles did not differ (P > 0.05) between tissue collection (BPU vs. scalpel blade dissection) or processing (mechanical isolation vs. histology) methods. Follicle viability and morphology rates were similar (P > 0.05) between tissue collection methods, but mechanical isolation produced more (P 0.05) by processing methods. In conclusion, most parameters evaluated for preantral follicles were similar between histological and tissue chopper processing techniques; hence, mechanical isolation efficiently dissociated equine preantral follicles from the ovarian cortex. Therefore, the tissue chopper could be used to isolate large numbers of morphologically normal equine preantral follicles for cryopreservation and/or in vitro culture.

  13. [A Large Number of Circulating Tumor Cells(CTCs)Can Be Isolated from Samples Obtained by Using Leukapheresis Procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soya, Ryoko; Taguchi, Jyunichi; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Takahashi, Osamu; Sandoh, Norimasa; Hosokawa, Yuichi; Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Umeda, Naoki; Okamoto, Masato; Tsujitani, Shunichi; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that a large number of circulating tumor cells(CTCs)may be isolated from samples obtained by using the leukapheresis procedures that are utilized to collect peripheral blood mononuclear cells for dendritic cell vaccine therapy. We utilized the CellSearch System to determine the number of CTCs in samples obtained by using leukapheresis in 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In all patients, a large number of CTCs were isolated. The mean number of CTCs per tumor was 17.1(range 10-34)in colorectal cancer, 10.0(range 2-27)in breast cancer, and 24.0(range 2-42)in gastric cancer. We succeeded in culturing the isolated CTCs from 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, compared to conventional methods, a large number of CTCs can be obtained by using leukapheresis procedures. The molecular analyses of the CTCs isolated by using this method should be promising in the development of personalized cancer treatments.

  14. Identification and Characterization of Imipenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Susceptible Klebsiella variicola Isolates Obtained from the Same Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Ramos, Ulises; Moreno-Dominguez, Stephania; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Silva-Sanchez, Jesús; Barrios, Humberto; Reyna-Flores, Fernando; Sanchez-Perez, Alejandro; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Sanchez-León, María Carmen; Moncada-Barron, David

    2016-04-01

    Klebsiella variicola, a bacterium closely genetically related to Klebsiella pneumoniae, is commonly misidentified as K. pneumoniae by biochemical tests. To distinguish between the two bacteria, phylogenetic analysis of the rpoB gene and the identification of unique genes in both bacterial species by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provide the means to reliably identify and genotype K. variicola. In recent years, K. variicola has been described both as the cause of an intrahospital outbreak in a pediatric hospital, which resulted in sepsis in inpatients, and as a frequent cause of bloodstream infections. In the present study, K. pneumoniae and K. variicola were isolated from a unique patient displaying different antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes and different genotypes of virulence determinants. Eight clinical isolates were obtained at different time intervals; all during a 5-month period. The isolates were identified as K. pneumoniae by an automated identification system. The clinical (biochemical test) and molecular (multiplex-PCR and rpoB gene) characterization identified imipenem resistance in the first six K. pneumoniae ST258 isolates, which encode the SHV-12 cephalosporinase and KPC-3 carbapenemase genes. The two last remaining isolates corresponded to susceptible K. variicola. The bacterial species showed a specific profile of virulence-associated determinants, specifically the fimA, fimH, and ecpRAB fimbrial-encoding genes identified only in K. pneumoniae isolates. However, the entb (enterobactin), mrkD (fimbrial adhesin), uge (epimerase), ureA (urease), and wabG (transferase) genes were shared between both bacterial species. Recent studies attribute a higher mortality rate to K. variicola than to K. pneumonia. This work highlights the identification of K. pneumoniae and the closely related K. variicola isolated from the same patient. The value of distinguishing between these two bacterial species is in their clinical significance, their

  15. CAMP-reaction among skin isolates obtained from a dog with an acute squamous eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückler, J; Wibawan, I W; Lämmler, C

    1990-12-01

    The primary culture of a clinical specimen obtained from a dog with an acute squamous eczema revealed 3 different bacterial cultures. Two of these cultures, a beta-hemolytic Staphylococcus aureus and a group B streptococcal culture, demonstrated synergistic hemolytic activities on this primary culture plate. The group B streptococcus had the serotype surface antigens Ib/c, protein antigen c in its c beta component.

  16. Isolation and characterization of starch obtained from Brosimum alicastrum Swarts seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pacheco, E; Moo-Huchin, V M; Estrada-León, R J; Ortiz-Fernández, A; May-Hernández, L H; Ríos-Soberanis, C R; Betancur-Ancona, D

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the Ramon starch was isolated and its chemical composition and physical and microscopic characteristics were determined. Corn starch was used as reference. In general, the proximal composition was similar between starches studied. Ramon starch granules were oval-spherical and rounded with sizes between 6.5 and 15 μm. Starch purity was high (92.57%) with amylose content of 25.36%. The gelatinization temperature was 83.05°C and transition enthalpy was 21.423 J/g. At 90°C, solubility was 20.42%, swelling power 17.64 g water/gstarch and water absorption capacity was 13 gwater/gstarch. The pH, clarity and color (Hue angle) of Ramon starch were higher to those reported for corn starch. The results achieved suggest that Ramon starch has potential for application in food systems requiring high processing temperatures and it is also a promising option for use in the manufacture of biodegradable materials.

  17. Isolation, expansion and differentiation of cellular progenitors obtained from dental pulp of agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha Wagler, 1831

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    Yulla K.P. de Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The study aimed to isolate, expand, differentiate and characterize progenitor cells existent in the dental pulp of agouti. The material was washed with PBS solution and dissociated mechanically with the aid of a scalpel blade on plates containing culture medium D-MEM/F-12, and incubated at 5% CO2-37⁰C. The growth curve, CFU assay, osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation and characterization were obtained from the isolation. The cells began to be released from the explant tissue around the 7th day of culture. By day 22 of culture, cells reached 80% confluence. At the UFC test, 81 colonies were counted with 12 days of cultivation. The growth curves before and after freezing showed a regular growth with intense proliferation and clonogenic potential. The cell differentiation showed formation of osteoblasts and fat in culture, starting at 15 days of culture in a specific medium. Flow cytometry (FACs was as follows: CD34 (positive, CD14 (negative, CD45 (negative, CD73 (positive, CD79 (negative, CD90 (positive, CD105 (positive, demonstrating high specificity and commitment of isolated cells with mesenchymal stem cells strains. These results suggest the existence of a cell population of stem cells with mesenchymal features from the isolated tissue in the explants of agouti dental pulp, a potential model for study of stem cell strains obtained from the pulp tissue.

  18. Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Hypericum polyanthemum extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnin, Simone Tasca; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Cibulski, Samuel; Cassel, Eduardo; Vargas, Rubem Mário Figueiró; Montanha, Jarbas; Roehe, Paulo; Tasca, Tiana; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2013-04-01

    The anti-Trichomonas vaginalis activity of Hypericum polyanthemum extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (50°C, 150bar) and the chemical compounds isolated and purified from this extract (benzopyrans HP1, HP2, HP3, and phloroglucinol derivative uliginosin B) were assessed. All samples had anti-T. vaginalis activity; however, HP1 demonstrated the best selectivity against this protozoan (metronidazole-resistant and susceptible isolates), with no cytotoxicity on mammalian cells (selectivity index of 73.97). Moreover, HP1 had activity against a metronidazole-resistant isolate (52% of viable trophozoites), and this effect was higher when tested with a low concentration of metronidazole (23% of viable trophozoites). Experiments demonstrated that all isolated compounds caused damage to the parasites' membrane (>90% of LDH release) and do not present a notable hemolytic effect, although HP2 and uliginosin B exhibited cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Therefore, the analyzed molecules are promising prototypes for new antiprotozoal drugs, especially HP1, which seems to improve metronidazole's effect on a resistant T. vaginalis isolate.

  19. DISTRIBUTION OF A LEAF VEIN GALL IN Caryocar brasiliense (CARYOCARACEAE TREE

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    GERMANO LEÃO DEMOLIN LEITE

    2011-01-01

    did not differ statistically among the three leaflets of C. brasiliense (right = 0.79, central = 0.78, left = 0.84. Galls/leaflet were most abundant on the distal (0.46 and median (0.52 regions compared to the proximal (0.24 longitudinal region of the leaflet. This gall/leaflet insect was most frequent on the central (1.01 portion than in the leaf margin (0.05 or near mid vein (0.14 on transversal regions of a leaflet.

  20. Isolation, characterization and formulation properties of a new plant gum obtained from Cissus refescence

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    Emeje Martins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the physical, thermal, sorption and functional properties of a gum obtained from the stem of Cissus refescence (CRG. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Particle size analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD, Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA, Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC, Fourier transmittance infra red (FTIR, and Elemental analysis were used to characterize the gum sample. Tablets were prepared by incorporating an anti asthmatic drug; theophylline. In vitro drug release was carried out in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. Effect of gum concentration on release kinetics was evaluated. CRG had a glass transition (Tg and melting peak of 233.5 and 270 o C respectively. This material showed a 10.59 % loss in weight at 195 o C. The sample had very strong peaks at approximately 14 o , 15 o , 23 o , 24 o , and 29 o 2θ degrees of 2-theta (θ in the X-Ray Powder Diffraction pattern. Elemental analysis showed that CRG contains 44.1, 7.1, 48.5, and 0.3% Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen respectively. Release of theophylline under simulated biologic conditions varied between 2 to 12 hours depending on the concentration of the gum used in formulation. Drug release was found to be erosion-controlled initially (i.e. in SGF, but at later stage, it became swelling -controlled (i.e. in SIF. The results obtained in this study establish the fundamental characteristics of CRG. The matrices were pH sensitive and can potentially be used for intestinal drug delivery.

  1. Binding of isolated plant lectin by rhizobia during episodes of reduced gravity obtained by parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. L.; Green, P. D.; Wong, P. P.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Development of a legume root nodule is a complex process culminating in a plant/bacterial symbiosis possessing the capacity for biological dinitrogen fixation. Formation of root nodules is initiated by the binding and stabilization of rhizobia to plant root hairs, mediated in part by a receptor/ligand recognition system composed of lectins on the plant root surface and lectin-binding sites on the rhizobial cell surface. The dinitrogen fixation activity of these root nodules may be an important feature of enclosed, space-based life support systems, and may provide an ecological method to recycle nitrogen for amino acid production. However, the effects on nodule development of varied gravitational fields, or of root nutrient delivery hardware, remain unknown. We have investigated the effects of microgravity on root nodule formation, with preliminary experiments focused upon the receptor/ligand component. Microgravity, obtained during parabolic flight aboard NASA 930, has no apparent effect on the binding of purified lectin to rhizobia, a result that will facilitate forthcoming experiments using intact root tissues.

  2. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Escherichia coli isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform risk analyses and guide public policy regarding antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Escherichia coli isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents over time. We collected data retrospectively for all bovine E. coli isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. We investigated temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant E. coli for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3373 bovine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 2.7% (enrofloxacin) to 91.3% (oxytetracycline). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents: chlortetracycline, florfenicol, neomycin, oxytetracycline, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to enrofloxacin was also evident. These results do not support the idea that current antimicrobial use practices on dairy operations are driving a general increase in the emergence and dissemination of drug-resistant E. coli in the region served by the laboratory. However, resistance to some drugs remained consistently high during the study period, and increasing resistance to enrofloxacin is a key area of concern.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance trends among Salmonella isolates obtained from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States, 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Perkins, Gillian A; Khatibzadeh, Sarah M; Warnick, Lorin D; Altier, Craig

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends among bacteria isolated from food animals and people is necessary to inform public policy regarding appropriate antimicrobial use. Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial resistance status of Salmonella isolates from dairy cattle in the northeastern United States and to identify trends in resistance to various antimicrobial agents over time. Data were collected retrospectively for all bovine Salmonella isolates that were obtained from samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. Temporal trends in the prevalence of resistant Salmonella were investigated for each antimicrobial agent using the Cochran-Armitage trend test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 2745 bovine Salmonella isolates from clinical samples submitted during the study period. Overall resistance to each antimicrobial agent ranged from 0% (amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid) to 72.0% (sulfadimethoxine). There was evidence of a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of resistance to most agents: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AUG), ampicillin (AMP), cefoxitin (FOX), ceftiofur (TIO), ceftriaxone (AXO), chloramphenicol (CHL), chlortetracycline (CTET), florfenicol (FFN), kanamycin (KAN), neomycin (NEO), oxytetracycline (OXY), spectinomycin (SPE), streptomycin (STR), sulfadimethoxine (SDM), sulfisoxazole (FIS), and tetracycline (TET). Among the 265 isolates that were tested using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel, the most common resistance patterns were pansusceptible (54.0%), AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-KAN-STR-FIS-TET (18.1%), and AUG-AMP-FOX-TIO-AXO-CHL-STR-FIS-TET (12.1%). Increasing prevalence of S. enterica serovar Cerro over the course of the study period presumably had an impact on the observed resistance trends. Nevertheless, these results do not support the notion that the current level of antimicrobial

  4. Draft genome of a South African strain of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khayalethu Ntushelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb which causes blackleg of potato was submitted to the NCBI and released with reference number NZ_LGRF00000000.1. The estimated genome size based on the draft genome assembly is 4,820,279 bp from 33 contigs ranging in length from 444 to 1,660,019 nucleotides. The genome annotation showed 4250 putative genes, 4114 CDS and 43 pseudo-genes. Three complete rRNA gene species were detected: nine 5S, one 16S and one 23S. Other partial rRNA gene fragments were also identified, nine 16S rRNA and three 23S rRNA. A total of 69 tRNA genes and one ncRNA gene were also annotated in this genome.

  5. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

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    N.B.R. Colombo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  6. Identification of lactic acid bacteria with bio-preservative potential isolated from contaminated avian blood obtained at the slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MV Zbrun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood is a common by-product of the meat industry, which has several potential applications in the animal feed industry. However, since blood is highly susceptible to microbial spoilage, blood and its fractions are often not suitable ingredients for the feed industry. Biopreservation appears as an alternative for the improvement of blood's quality towards its use as an ingredient in foodstuff. The objective of this work was to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB in avian blood obtained from industrial slaughterhouses and evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Ninety-six LAB were isolated from avian blood and genotyped. Eleven Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis groups were identified. Between two and five different species were detected in each blood sample (31 strains in all blood samples which were selected to study antagonistic activity. Twenty-eight of them produced antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, 11 strains produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and two released bacteriocin-like compounds. The latter, identified as Lactobacillus salivarius (DSPV 027SA and Enterococcus faecalis (DSPV 008SA, inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some serotypes of Salmonella spp. These two LAB strains would be candidates for potential application as a blood biopreservation system. This biotechnological tool is cheaper than others sanitation techniques and could reduce the risk of pathogens transmission thought food chain.

  7. Effect of replacement of corn starch by whey protein isolate in biodegradable film blends obtained by extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Viviane Machado; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Marconcini, José Manoel; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Neto, Alfredo Rodrigues Sena; Pereira, Tamara Coelho; Pereira, Camila Ferreira Gonçalves

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn starch by whey protein isolated (WPI) in biodegradable polymer blends developed by extrusion. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of a Vh-type crystalline arrangement. The films were homogeneous, indicating strong interfacial adhesion between the protein and the thermoplastic starch matrix (TPS) as observed in scanning electron microscopy. The addition of WPI on TPS matrix promoted an increase in the thermal stability of the materials. It was observed 58.5% decrease in the water vapor permeability. The effect of corn starch substitution by WPI on mechanical properties resulted in a more resistant and less flexible film when compared the TPS film. The addition of WPI caused greenish yellow color and less transparent films. The substitution of corn starch by WPI made it possible to obtain polymer blends with improved properties and represents an innovation for application as a packaging material.

  8. In Vitro Antiophidian Mechanisms of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy Standardized Extract: Quercetin-Dependent Neuroprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cháriston André Dal Belo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotection induced by Hypericum brasiliense Choisy extract (HBE and its main active polyphenol compound quercetin, against Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt venom and crotoxin and crotamine, was enquired at both central and peripheral mammal nervous system. Cdt venom (10 μg/mL or crotoxin (1 μg/mL incubated at mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation (PND induced an irreversible and complete neuromuscular blockade, respectively. Crotamine (1 μg/mL only induced an increase of muscle strength at PND preparations. At mouse brain slices, Cdt venom (1, 5, and 10 μg/mL decreased cell viability. HBE (100 μg/mL inhibited significantly the facilitatory action of crotamine (1 μg/mL and was partially active against the neuromuscular blockade of crotoxin (1 μg/mL (data not shown. Quercetin (10 μg/mL mimicked the neuromuscular protection of HBE (100 μg/mL, by inhibiting almost completely the neurotoxic effect induced by crotoxin (1 μg/mL and crotamine (1 μg/mL. HBE (100 μg/mL and quercetin (10 μg/mL also increased cell viability in mice brain slices. Quercetin (10 μg/mL was more effective than HBE (100 μg/mL in counteracting the cell lysis induced by Cdt venom (1 and 10 μg/mL, resp.. These results and a further phytochemical and toxicological investigations could open new perspectives towards therapeutic use of Hypericum brasiliense standardized extract and quercetin, especially to counteract the neurotoxic effect induced by snake neurotoxic venoms.

  9. Detection of sul1, sul2 and sul3 in sulphonamide resistant Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy humans, pork and pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Anette Marie; Sandvag, Dorthe; Andersen, Sigrid R.;

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of sulphonamide resistance was investigated in 998 Escherichia coli isolates, obtained from pig faeces collected at slaughter, Danish pork collected at retail outlets and from faeces from healthy persons in Denmark. In total 18% (n = 35), 20% (n = 38) and 26% (n = 161) of the E. coli...... isolates obtained from humans, pork and pigs, respectively, were resistant to sulphonamide. All sulphonamide resistant E. coli isolates were investigated for the presence of sul1, sul2, sul3 and intl1 genes by PCR. The sul1 gene was detected in 40% (n = 14), 29% (n = 11) and 55% (n = 88......) of the sulphonamide resistant isolates from humans, pork and pigs, respectively. The sul2 gene was detected in 80% (n = 28), 76% (n = 29) and 50% (n = 81) of isolates from humans, pork and pigs, respectively. None of the human isolates were PCR-positive for sul3, whereas sul3 was present in 5% of the pork isolates...

  10. Detection of sul1, sul2 and sul3 in sulphonamide resistant Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy humans, pork and pigs in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerum, Anette M; Sandvang, Dorthe; Andersen, Sigrid R; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Heuer, Ole E

    2006-02-01

    The occurrence of sulphonamide resistance was investigated in 998 Escherichia coli isolates, obtained from pig faeces collected at slaughter, Danish pork collected at retail outlets and from faeces from healthy persons in Denmark. In total 18% (n=35), 20% (n=38) and 26% (n=161) of the E. coli isolates obtained from humans, pork and pigs, respectively, were resistant to sulphonamide. All sulphonamide resistant E. coli isolates were investigated for the presence of sul1, sul2, sul3 and intI1 genes by PCR. The sul1 gene was detected in 40% (n=14), 29% (n=11) and 55% (n=88) of the sulphonamide resistant isolates from humans, pork and pigs, respectively. The sul2 gene was detected in 80% (n=28), 76% (n=29) and 50% (n=81) of isolates from humans, pork and pigs, respectively. None of the human isolates were PCR-positive for sul3, whereas sul3 was present in 5% of the pork isolates and 11% of the pig isolates. Of the 113 sul1 positive isolates, 97 carried the integron-associated integrase gene intI1. All 20 sul3 positive isolates were positive for intI1, and in 12 of these isolates sul3 was the only sulphonamide resistance gene detected. The origin of sul1 and sul2 found in isolates from healthy humans is speculative, but their spread from pigs to humans via the food chain is possible.

  11. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de Hypericum brasiliense Choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum brasiliense Choisy, planta da família Guttiferae, ocorre principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Em trabalhos anteriores foram isolados e identificados nesta espécie, dentre outras classes de compostos, xantonas, floroglucinóis e flavonóides. Apesar da presença de óleos essenciais ser uma característica do gênero, ainda não há registros na literatura da composição química do óleo essencial desta espécie. Neste trabalho foi realizado o estudo químico da fração volátil de H. brasiliense visando identificar e quantificar as substâncias químicas presentes através da cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas equipado com banco de dados.

  12. Structure and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Protein Isolate-Dextran Conjugates Obtained by TiO2 Photocatalysis

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    Bei Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI- dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P<0.05. Higher photocatalytic power could promote the extent of glycation and the formation of high molecular weight SPI-dextran conjugates, which were evidenced by free amino group content and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra suggested that the amide I, II, and III bands of SPI were altered by the glycation induced by TiO2 photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation.

  13. Structure and antioxidant activity of soy protein isolate-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bei; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Bing; Chen, Caiyan; Zhang, Xiaosa; Chen, Siqiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI-) dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P TiO2 photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation.

  14. Effects of environmental and architechtural diversity of Caryocar brasiliense (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae on Edessa ruformaginata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and its biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leao Demolin Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of environmental complexity and plant architecture on the abundance of the Edessa rufomarginata bugs in pastures and cerrado areas and its biology. We observed higher number of bugs on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the cerrado than pasture areas. Bugs were more abundant on leaves and branches rather than fruits. Caryocar brasiliense had greatest fruit production on pasture than in the cerrado areas. The abundance of bugs was correlated positively with aluminum, organic matter, and tree height, but negatively correlated by soil pH. Productivity of C. brasiliense were negatively correlated with aluminum, pH, and number of bugs, but positively correlated with phosphorus and calcium. The number of eggs per clutch was 14.3, their viability was 93% and the embryonic period was 6.9 days. The respective length and width of each instar were: first instar 3.3 mm and 2.4 mm, second 4.1 mm and 3.0 mm, third 6.7 mm and 3.0mm, and fourth 11.5 mm and 3.5 mm. The respective length and width of adults were: males, 15.8 mm and 8.6 mm and females, 17.3 mm and 9.1 mm. The sex ratio was 0.43, and the total duration of the life cycle of E. rufomarginata was 156 days.

  15. Growth, morphology, ammonium uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess. under high NH₄⁺ concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunkaew, Piyanart; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    2011-11-01

    The effects of high NH(4)(+) concentration on growth, morphology, NH(4) (+) uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense were investigated in hydroponic culture. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 4 weeks using four levels of NH(4)(+) concentration: 1, 5, 10 and 15 mM. M. brasiliense grew well with a relative growth rate of c.0.03 day(-1) at NH(4)(+) concentration up to 5 mM. At the higher NH(4)(+) concentrations the growth of the plants was stunted and the plants had short roots and few new buds, especially when grown in 15 mM NH(4)(+) where the submerged leaves were lost and there were rotten roots and submerged stems. To avoid NH(4)(+) toxicity, the plants may have a mechanism to prevent cytoplasmic NH(4)(+) accumulation in plant cells. The net uptake of NH(4)(+) significantly decreased and the total N significantly increased in the plants treated with 10 and 15 mM NH(4)(+), respectively. The plant may employ NH(4)(+) assimilation and extrusion as a mechanism to compensate for the high NH(4)(+) concentrations. However, the plants may show nutrient deficiency symptoms, especially K deficiency symptoms, after they were exposed to NH(4)(+) concentration higher than 10 mM. The present study provides a basic ecophysiology of M. brasiliense that it can grow in NH(4)(+) enriched water up to concentrations as high as 5 mM.

  16. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effect of Butanolic Fraction from Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Moraes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caryocar brasiliense Camb. “pequi” is a native plant from the Cerrado region of Brazil that contains bioactive components reported to be antioxidant agents. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes. We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE of C. brasiliense leaves relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and that the butanolic fraction (BF produced an effect similar to that of the CHE. Aortic relaxation induced by BF was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylatecyclase inhibitor ODQ. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had no effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with BF, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after incubation with L-NAME. In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a reversible hypotension. The results reveal that C. brasiliense possesses both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of BF involves stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

  17. Efeitos de diferentes tratamentos na germinação do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Effects of different treatments in the germination of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Sá e Carvalho

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. provenientes de frutos coletados do chão e "de vez", foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: choques térmicos úmido (80ºC/15 min e seco (80ºC/15 min e 50ºC/30, 60, 90 e 120 min, ácido giberélico 100mg/l e 6 benzil aminopurina 10-4M durante 24 horas, ácido sulfúrico conc./ 1 hora e lavagem em água corrente/48 horas. Sementes provenientes de frutos coletados do chão, com parte do mesocarpo removido, e "de vez", com mesocarpo íntegro, foram armazenadas a 5º C durante 30 dias, seguido ou não pela adição de GA3 100 mg/l. Observou-se que a germinação do pequi começa consistentemente a partir do 9.º mês após o plantio não havendo diferença significativa entre a porcentagem de germinação de sementes provenientes de frutos colhidos "de vez" (85% e completamente maduros (67%. Tratamentos das sementes com temperatura de 80ºC durante 15 min. com ácido sulfúrico concentrado durante 1 hora e estratificação a 5ºC durante 30 dias prejudicaram o processo germinativo. Os demais tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças em relação ao controle.Seeds of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. collected from fallen fruits on the soil surface under the tree and those from maturing fruits still on the tree were submitted to the following treatments: humid heating (80ºC/15 min, dry heating (80ºC/15 min and 50ºC during 30,60,90 and 120 min, gibberellic acid 100 mg/1 (24h and 6-benzylamynopurine 10-4M (24h, concentrated sulphuric acid (1 h and running tap water (48h. Seeds of fruits collected from the soil surface, with part of the mesocarp removed, and those maturing fruits from the tree, with intact mesocaip, were stored at 5ºC during 30 days, followed or not by addition of GA3 100mg/l. It was observed that seed germination started consistently 9 months after sowing and that there was no significant difference between germination of seed proceeding from maturing fruits (85% and those

  18. Ultrastructural study of the mycelial phase of clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii obtained from feline, canine and human cases of sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins Madrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied the presence of melanin and cell wall thickness of clinical isolates of Sporothrix schenckii obtained from cats, dogs and humans as compared to reference strains. We detected differences regarding presence of the melanin among the clinical isolates of S. schenckii and a correlation between presence of melanin and cell wall thickness.

  19. Germinação e crescimento de Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae, uma espécie típica de florestas inundadas Seed germination and growth of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae, a typical species of flooded forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A saturação hídrica do solo e a conseqüente diminuição na quantidade de oxigênio disponível para o sistema radicular selecionaram, ao longo do processo evolutivo, plantas capazes de sobreviverem à inundação sazonal ou permanente. Nas espécies neotropicais as adaptações que permitem suportar este estresse são bastante diversificadas. Neste trabalho foram estudados a germinação das sementes e o crescimento inicial das plantas de Calophyllum brasiliense, em condições de hipoxia. As sementes de C brasiliense não são fotoblásticas, sobrevivem ao menos três meses submersas, mas germinam apenas em solo bem drenado. A inundação não inibe o crescimento da planta. Não houve mudanças morfológicas na parte aérea das plantas, mas a substituição das raízes formadas no período pré-inundação por um sistema radicular eficiente talvez seja o principal motivo que permita o crescimento normal das plantas em áreas inundadas. Ao contrário de algumas espécies de locais sujeitos ao alagamento, cujas plantas têm o crescimento inibido pelo estresse, o ciclo de vida de C brasiliense está adaptado à inundação temporária ou permanente. A diversificação da forma de dispersão, a indiferença em relação à luz e a capacidade de sobreviver e crescer em solo inundado são características que contribuem para a ampla distribuição geográfica da espécie, sempre associada a áreas alagáveis.Soil waterlogging and the subsequent reduction in the amount of oxygen available for the respiration of the root system selected, along the evolutive process, plants able to thrive in seasonally or permanently flooded areas. In neotropical plants there are many types of adaptations to flooding. In this paper we present the results of the work carried out with seeds and seedlings of C brasiliense subjected to hypoxia during germination and early development. C brasiliense seeds are not photoblastic and survive up to three months burried in a

  20. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov.

  1. Molecular characterization and phylogeny of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates obtained from two Dutch regions using whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, M; Friedrich, A W; Grundmann, H; de Boer, R F; Croughs, P D; Islam, M A; Kluytmans-van den Bergh, M F Q; Kooistra-Smid, A M D; Rossen, J W A

    2016-07-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the major causes of human gastrointestinal disease and has been implicated in sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome worldwide. In this study, we determined the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic relationship of STEC isolates, and their genetic diversity was compared to that of other E. coli populations. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 132 clinical STEC isolates obtained from the faeces of 129 Dutch patients with gastrointestinal complaints. STEC isolates of this study belonged to 44 different sequence types (STs), 42 serogenotypes and 14 stx subtype combinations. Antibiotic resistance genes were more frequently present in stx1-positive isolates compared to stx2 and stx1 + stx2-positive isolates. The iha, mchB, mchC, mchF, subA, ireA, senB, saa and sigA genes were significantly more frequently present in eae-negative than in eae-positive STEC isolates. Presence of virulence genes encoding type III secretion proteins and adhesins was associated with isolates obtained from patients with bloody diarrhoea. Core genome phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates clustered according to their ST or serogenotypes irrespective of stx subtypes. Isolates obtained from patients with bloody diarrhoea were from diverse phylogenetic backgrounds. Some STEC isolates shared common ancestors with non-STEC isolates. Whole genome sequencing is a powerful tool for clinical microbiology, allowing high-resolution molecular typing, population structure analysis and detailed molecular characterization of strains. STEC isolates of a substantial genetic diversity and of distinct phylogenetic groups were observed in this study.

  2. Genetic diversity demonstrated by pulsed field gel electrophoresis of Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from diverse sources in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic diversity of Salmonella isolates recovered from a variety of sources using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their possible relatedness. Salmonella was isolated from ca. 52% of samples from a pepper var. Bell production system. A to...

  3. Genetic Relatedness of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) Obtained from Wet Markets and Ponds in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiati, Titik; Rusul, Gulam; Wan-Abdullah, Wan Nadiah; Chuah, Li-Oon; Ahmad, Rosma; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2016-04-01

    A total of 43 Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to different serovars (Salmonella Albany, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Stanley, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Mikawasima, and Salmonella Bovismorbificans) were isolated from catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds in Penang, Malaysia. Thirteen, 19, and 11 isolates were isolated from 9 of 32 catfish, 14 of 32 tilapia, and 11 of 44 water samples, respectively. Fish reared in ponds were fed chicken offal, spoiled eggs, and commercial fish feed. The genetic relatedness of these Salmonella isolates was determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) using primer OPC2, repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Composite analysis of the RAPD-PCR, REP-PCR, and PFGE results showed that the Salmonella serovars could be differentiated into six clusters and 15 singletons. RAPD-PCR differentiated the Salmonella isolates into 11 clusters and 10 singletons, while REP-PCR differentiated them into 4 clusters and 1 singleton. PFGE differentiated the Salmonella isolates into seven clusters and seven singletons. The close genetic relationship of Salmonella isolates from catfish or tilapia obtained from different ponds, irrespective of the type of feed given, may be caused by several factors, such as the quality of the water, density of fish, and size of ponds.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Mobile Genetic Elements from Microbial Assemblages Obtained from the Field Research Center Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Sobecky; Cassie Hodges; Kerri Lafferty; Mike Humphreys; Melanie Raimondo; Kristin Tuttle; Tamar Barkay

    2004-03-17

    Considerable knowledge has been gained from the intensive study of a relatively limited group of bacterial plasmids. Recent efforts have begun to focus on the characterization of, at the molecular level, plasmid populations and associated mobile genetic elements (e.g., transposons, integrons) occurring in a wider range of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Surprisingly, however, little information is available regarding the incidence and distribution of mobile genetic elements extant in contaminated subsurface environments. Such studies will provide greater knowledge on the ecology of plasmids and their contributions to the genetic plasticity (and adaptation) of naturally occurring subsurface microbial communities. We requested soil cores from the DOE NABIR Field Research Center (FRC) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The cores, received in February 2003, were sampled from four areas on the Oak Ridge Site: Area 1, Area 2, Area 3 (representing contaminated subsurface locales) and the background reference sites. The average core length (24 in) was subdivided into three profiles and soil pH and moisture content were determined. Uranium concentration was also determined in bulk samples. Replicate aliquots were fixed for total cell counts and for bacterial isolation. Four different isolation media were used to culture aerobic and facultative microbes from these four study areas. Colony forming units ranged from a minimum of 100 per gram soil to a maximum of 10,000 irrespective of media composition used. The vast majority of cultured subsurface isolates were gram-positive isolates and plasmid characterization was conducted per methods routinely used in the Sobecky laboratory. The percentage of plasmid incidence ranged from 10% to 60% of all isolates tested. This frequency appears to be somewhat higher than the incidence of plasmids we have observed in other habitats and we are increasing the number of isolates screened to confirm this observation. We are also

  5. Comparison of host cell invasion and proliferation among Neospora caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and from clinical cases of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellarupe, A; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Jiménez-Ruiz, E; Schares, G; Unzaga, J M; Venturini, M C; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study we have shown that the in vitro invasion rate (IR) and tachyzoite yield (TY) are associated with the virulence phenotypes of Neospora caninum isolates of bovine origin. In addition, we recently observed marked differences in virulence when canine isolates were compared in a pregnant BALB/c mouse model. In this study, we investigated whether invasion and proliferation capacities could be used as virulence-related N. caninum phenotypic traits. Of the isolates compared in mice, four canine isolates obtained from oocysts (Nc-Ger2, Nc-Ger3, Nc-Ger-6, Nc-6 Arg) had shown a low-moderate virulence, and two further isolates obtained from dogs with neurological signs (Nc-Bahia, Nc-Liv) were highly virulent. The IR for each isolate was determined by a plaque assay and the counting of immunofluorescence-labeled parasitophorous vacuoles at 3 days post-inoculation (p.i.). The TY was determined by the quantification of tachyzoites at 56 h p.i. by real-time PCR. Most of the canine isolates showed similar IR values under controlled invasion conditions for 4h and 72 h p.i., indicating a limited time period for invasion similar to that observed for bovine isolates. The Nc-Ger3, Nc-Bahia, and Nc-Liv isolates showed a significantly higher IR and TY than the Nc-Ger2 and Nc-Ger6 isolates (P0.885, P0.8117, P<0.058) in mice. These results demonstrate the importance both the invasive and proliferative capacities have on the virulence of canine N. caninum isolates.

  6. Hypoglycemic effect of formulation containing hydroethanolic extract of Calophyllum brasiliense in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helison de Oliveira Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and severe metabolic dysfunction, it's slow and progressive evolution interferes directly in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, causing hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polydipsia, hyperlipidaemia, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of hydroethanolic extract and granulated of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Clusiaceae, species in diabetic rats as well as it's biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that both the pharmaceutical forms, hydroethanolic extract and granulated, were able to reduce significantly (p < 0.001 hyperglycemia and glycosuria, in addition to improve polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss. Treatments using hydroethanolic extract and granulated were also able to reduce significantly levels of triacylglycerides, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, as well as the transaminases, urea and creatinine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that these pharmaceutical forms have anti-diabetic effect and act improving the biochemical parameters, this effect is probably due to the high content of polyphenolic compounds found in the formulations.

  7. ROOTING OF GUANANDI (Calophyllum brasiliense CAMBESS CUTTINGS USING INDOLE-BUTYRIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ciriello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial reforestation of Brazilian native species to produce hardwood for sawmills has been recently intensified in the country. Among the potential species planted by the logging industry is guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess because it is widely distributed in the country, highly adapted to different soil and climate conditions, good bole form and high quality timber. The development of genetic improvement programs should prioritize gains in productivity and yields in the medium and long term. For such programs to be successful, the study of vegetative propagation techniques to abbreviate steps in forest improvement and allow its mass production is fundamental. To assess the viability of vegetative propagation of the species, two successive experiments were carried out during two years testing the best type of cutting, hormone concentration and management. Different cuttings types submitted to increasing doses of indole-butyric acid (IBA were tested to evaluate survival, sprouting, rooting and callus formation. Results indicate that the species is viable for vegetative propagation with 85 to 90% rooting of cuttings from seedlings in the IBA concentrations of 3000 to 7000 mg.L-1. For the cuttings, sprouting from the base of adult trees 3000 mg.L-1 was the best concentration of IBA.

  8. MORPHO-ANATOMICAL CHANGES OF PEQUI LEAVES (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. EXPOSED TO SIMULATED DRIFT OF GLYPHOSATE

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    Lailla Queiroz Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of this research was to examine phytotoxicity and leaf anatomy of pequi plants (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. exposed to simulated drift of glyphosate. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine replications. Each experimental unit was composed by one 18-L pot with one plant. The treatments consisted of different doses of glyphosate sprayed: 0 (control, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 g ae ha-1 of glyphosate. Phytotoxicity visual ratings were carried out at 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying (DAS by scores expressed in a percentage scale, within which zero and one hundred represent no symptom and plant death, respectively. Description of symptoms, changes in leaf anatomy and micromorphometric analysis were performed on leaves taken from plant top and middle third at 23 DAS. Poisoning symptoms were wilting, chlorosis followed by necrosis, winding of top leaves and leaf senescence, being intensified with increasing doses. Leaf anatomical changes were detected from the dose of 250 g ha-1. The observed damages consisted of plasmolized cells, epidermal disruption, distorted cells, hyperplasia, cell collapsing, necrotic tissue and accumulation of phenolic compounds.

  9. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Davis, F.J.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Miller, J.; O' Brien, D.G.; Ramsey, J.L.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shinta, A.; Smith, L.N.; Stockman, C.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) is located in southeastern New Mexico and is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A detailed performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP was carried out in 1996 and supports an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. The 1996 WIPP PA uses a computational structure that maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period that applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the PA are known. Important parts of this structure are (1) the use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (2) the use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (3) the efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The use of Latin hypercube sampling generates a mapping from imprecisely known analysis inputs to analysis outcomes of interest that provides both a display of the uncertainty in analysis outcomes (i.e., uncertainty analysis) and a basis for investigating the effects of individual inputs on these outcomes (i.e., sensitivity analysis). The sensitivity analysis procedures used in the PA include examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, and partial correlation analysis. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained as part of the 1996 WIPP PA are presented and discussed. Specific topics considered include two phase flow in the vicinity of the repository, radionuclide release from the repository, fluid flow and radionuclide

  10. Presence of superantigen genes and antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus isolates obtained from the uteri of dairy cows with clinical endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J-L; Ding, Y-X; Zhao, H-X; He, X-L; Li, P-F; Li, Z-F; Guan, H; Guo, X

    2014-10-11

    Clinical endometritis is an important disease of dairy cattle and results in decreased reproductive performance. This disease is caused by contamination of the uterus with a broad spectrum of microorganisms after calving. In this study, staphylococcal isolates from the uterus of dairy cows with clinical endometritis were tested for their distribution of superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial resistance. Between the 127 staphylococcal isolates collected in this study, 10 species were identified. The predominant strain identified was Staphylococcus aureus (n=53), followed by Staphylococcus saprophyticus (n=38) and Staphylococcus chromogenes (n=22). PCR analysis demonstrated that most isolates (63.0 per cent) harboured at least one SAg gene. The most commonly observed SAg gene and genotype was selj (38.6 per cent) and sec-selj-seln (24.0 per cent), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to penicillin (79.5 per cent), ampicillin (71.7 per cent), erythromycin (56.7 per cent), and tetracycline (52.0 per cent). PCR analysis demonstrated that the antimicrobial resistance determinants ermA, ermB, ermC, tetK, tetM and blaZ were detected in 0 per cent, 44.4 per cent, 51.4 per cent, 68.2 per cent, 13.6 per cent and 86.1 per cent of the erythromycin, tetracycline and β-lactam resistant isolates, respectively. There were 22 (17.3 per cent of all isolates) coagulase-negative staphylococci shown to be methicillin resistant. In the methicillin-resistant isolates, significant resistances to ampicillin, erythromycin and penicillin were observed (P<0.01). The results of this study demonstrate that staphylococci recovered from dairy cows with clinical endometritis contain an extensive and complex prevalence of SAg genes. Significant resistances to antibiotics were also seen, highlighting the need for the rational appliance of antibiotics in veterinary medicine.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms and drug susceptibility in four isolates of Leishmania tropica obtained from Canadian soldiers returning from Afghanistan.

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    Marie Plourde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a vector-borne parasitic disease characterized by the presence of one or more lesions on the skin that usually heal spontaneously after a few months. Most cases of CL worldwide occur in Southwest Asia, Africa and South America, and a number of cases have been reported among troops deployed to Afghanistan. No vaccines are available against this disease, and its treatment relies on chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to characterize parasites isolated from Canadian soldiers at the molecular level and to determine their susceptibility profile against a panel of antileishmanials to identify appropriate therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasites were isolated from skin lesions and characterized as Leishmania tropica based on their pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles and pteridine reductase 1 (PTR1 sequences. Unusually high allelic polymorphisms were observed at several genetic loci for the L. tropica isolates that were characterized. The drug susceptibility profile of intracellular amastigote parasites was determined using an established macrophage assay. All isolates were sensitive to miltefosine, amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam and paromomycin, but were not susceptible to fluconazole. Variable levels of susceptibility were observed for the antimalarial agent atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone. Three Canadian soldiers from this study were successfully treated with miltefosine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows high heterogeneity between the two L. tropica allelic versions of a gene but despite this, L. tropica isolated from Afghanistan are susceptible to several of the antileishmanial drugs available.

  12. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates obtained from 2010 to 2012 from chickens with necrotic enteritis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Young; Kim, Sara; Oh, Jae Young; Kim, Hye Ryoung; Jang, Il; Lee, Hee Soo; Kwon, Yong Kuk

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens produces diverse virulent toxins that cause necrotic enteritis in poultry, resulting in a great negative impact on the poultry industry. To study the characteristics of C. perfringens in chickens, we isolated 88 strains from chickens (1 strain per flock) with necrotic enteritis. The isolated bacterial strains were screened for toxin type and antimicrobial susceptibility. Necropsy of 17 chickens that died from necrotic enteritis revealed that their intestines were dilated with inflammatory exudates and characterized by mucosal necrosis. All the isolated strains were identified as toxin type A using multiplex PCR for toxin typing. We found that the rate of netB-positive strains isolated from dead chickens was significantly higher (8 of 17) than the rate among healthy chickens (2 of 50). We performed antimicrobial susceptibility test with 20 selected antimicrobial agents using the disk diffusion test and found that 30 tested strains were completely resistant to 5 antibiotics and partially resistant to 6 antibiotics whereas all the strains were susceptible to 9 antimicrobial agents. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, the 17 strains were divided into 13 genetic clusters showing high genetic diversity. In conclusion, C. perfringens strains isolated from Korean poultry showed a high resistance to antimicrobial drugs and high genetic diversity, suggesting that continuous monitoring is essential to prevent outbreaks of necrotic enteritis in chickens.

  13. Caracterização genética de Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. em duas populações de mata ciliar Genetic charactezation of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. in two populations of riparian forest

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    Maria Carolina Gaspar Botrel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. é uma espécie predominante de áreas com alta saturação hídrica, sendo comum nos ambientes cilares do sul de Minas Gerais. Com o intuito de se estudar a variabilidade genética dessa espécie, 20 indivíduos reprodutivos de C. brasiliense foram amostrados de duas populações localizadas a montante do Reservatório Hidroelétrico do Funil, localizado no Município de Lavras,MG. A análise de eletroforese isoenzimática permitiu a obtenção de 17 alelos, distribuídos entre oito locos, sendo estes representados em cinco sistemas enzimáticos: alfa-esterase, beta-esterase, fosfatase ácida, glutamato oxalacetato, malato desidrogenase e transaminase. Os índices de diversidade revelaram um baixo número de alelos por loco em ambas as populações (1,75 e 1,50. A porcentagem de locos polimórficos (P foi de 37,5% e 50% nas populações I e II, respectivamente. A heterozigosidade média observada foi de 0,119 e 0,111 e a esperada, de 0,131 e 0,112. O número de migrantes (Nm encontrado entre as populações foi de 2,70. O tamanho efetivo estimado foi de 18 indivíduos para a população I e 19 para a II.Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. is a predominant species in areas with high water saturation such as the riparian forests in southern Minas Gerais State. The objective of this research was to study the genetic variability of C. brasiliense populations. Twenty individuals were sampled from two populations located in Funil Dam in Lavras-MG. Isozyme eletrophoresis analysis provided evidence of 17 alleles distributed in 8 loci, which were represented in five enzymatic systems: alpha-esterase, beta esterase, acid phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase and transaminase oxalacetatum glutamate. The diversity indexes showed a low number of alleles per loci in both populations, pop I (1.75 and pop II (1.50. The polymorphic loci percentage (P were 37.5% and 50% in populations I and II respectively. The mean heterozygosities were 0

  14. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Hypericum brasiliense (Willd standardized extract Atividades anti-inflamatória e analgésica de extratos padronizados de Hypericum brasiliense (Willd

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    Fábio F. Perazzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the standardized leaves extract (HBSE of Hypericum brasiliense (Guttiferae were evaluated in animal models. Male Wistar rats were treated with H. brasiliense extract (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. in 3% Tween 80 0.9% saline solution. The treatment of the edema induced by carrageenin with HBSE (500 mg/kg showed significant inhibition when compared to the control group. At this dose, the edema decreased by 31.25% in the third hour after treatment (edema peak, but the dose of 50 mg/kg has inhibited the edema by 53.13% (p As atividades antiinflamatória e antinociceptiva do extrato padronizado de Hypericum brasiliense (HBSE (Guttiferae foi avaliada em modelos animais. Ratos Wistar machos foram tratados com extrato de H. brasiliense (50, 250 e 500 mg/kg, v.o. em solução 3% Tween 80 0,9% NaCl. O tratamento com HBSE (500 mg/kg mostrou inibição significativa sobre o edema induzido por carragenina comparado ao grupo controle. Nessa dose, o edema foi reduzido em 31,25% na terceira hora (pico do edema após o tratamento, mas na dose de 50 mg/kg, o edema apresentou redução de 53,13% (p < 0,05. Ainda com a dose de 50 mg/kg, a diminuição do edema induzido por dextrana foi similar ao controle positivo, ciproeptadina. Houve diminuição na formação do tecido granulomatoso (6,6% comparável ao grupo controle. O HBSE também inibiu o número de contorções abdominais em 46,4%, estatisticamente igual ao controle positivo, tratado com indometacina (42,9%. Na dose de 250 mg/kg, houve inibição do número de contorções em 70,7% quando comparado ao grupo controle (p < 0,001. No teste da placa-quente, foi verificado aumento no tempo de latência com a dose de 50 mg/kg. Os resultados demonstram que o HBSE possui atividade antiinflamatória sobre processos agudos, principalmente quando sua gênese está relacionada à síntese dos derivados do ácido araquidônico, e seu efeito analgésico provavelmente

  15. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution of Candida species in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype of Candida albicans in vaginal swab. A total of 115 Candida albicans strains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115 Candida albicans strains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicans was the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance among Candida albicans isolated from VVC patients.

  16. Drug Susceptibility and Genetic Evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum Isolates Obtained in Four Distinct Geographical Regions of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mbaisi, Abigael; Liyala, Pamela; Eyase, Fredrick; Achilla, Rachel; Akala, Hosea; Wangui, Julia; Mwangi, Josphat; Osuna, Finnley; Alam, Uzma; Smoak, Bonnie L.; Davis, Jon M.; Kyle, Dennis E.; Coldren, Rodney L; Mason, Carl; Waters, Norman C.

    2004-01-01

    The drug resistance profiles of Plasmodium falciparum isolated from four regions in Kenya were analyzed for drug resistance profiles. We observed variability in resistance to a broad range of antimalarial drugs across Kenya as determined from in vitro drug susceptibility screening and genotyping analysis.

  17. Estabilidade da microestrutura e do teor de carotenóides de pós obtidos da polpa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. liofilizada Stability of the microstructure and carotenoids contents of the freeze-dried pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulp in the powdered form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina de Oliveira Alves

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pós obtidos a partir da polpa (mesocarpo interno de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. liofilizada, elaborados com adição de alcoóis (etanol e isopropanol, em concentrações de 0, 5 e 10% e de açúcares (sacarose e frutose, em concentrações de 0, 5 e 10%, foram desenvolvidos neste trabalho. Análises microestruturais por microscopia fotônica dos pós de pequi liofilizados foram feitas para visualizar o grau de cristalinidade. Também foram feitas análises de cor usando colorímetro Minolta e dos teores de carotenóides totais por espectrofotometria. Os resultados mostraram que tratamentos constituídos da combinação de sacarose e etanol foram os que apresentaram formação de estruturas cristalinas e melhor preservação dos carotenóides. O teor de carotenóides nos pós obtidos da polpa de pequi liofilizada é mais bem preservado quanto maior for a concentração do álcool adicionado nos pré-tratamentos. Tratamentos com frutose e isopropanol produziram pós tipicamente amorfos, com ocorrência do fenômeno de caking. Pré-tratamentos com sacarose e etanol são os indicados para a produção de pós de pequi liofilizados com estabilidade físico-química e microestrutural.In this study, food powders obtained from the freeze-dried pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulps (internal mesocarp were developed by adding alcohols (ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in concentrations of 0, 5, and 10% and sugars (sucrose and fructose in concentrations of 0, 5, and 10%. Microstructure analyses by photonic microscopy of the freeze-dried powders were used to evaluate the degree of crystallization. Color analyses using a Minolta colorimeter and the total carotenoid values using a spectrophotometer were also done. The results show that treatments with a sucrose and ethanol combination presented the formation of crystalline structures and the best preservation of the carotenoid contents. The higher the concentration of the alcohol added in the pre

  18. Risk factors for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae from milk culture obtained approximately 6 days post calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterås, Olav; Whist, Anne Cathrine; Sølverød, Liv

    2008-02-01

    Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post calving were assessed in a 2-year retrospective single-cohort study in 178 Norwegian herds. A combined teat dipping and selective antibiotic therapy trial was performed in these herds where cows with composite milk somatic cell count (CMSCC) >100,000 cells/ml before drying-off (geometric mean of the last three CMSCC test-days) and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae were selected for either short-acting lactation antibiotic treatment or long-acting dry cow antibiotic treatment. Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post-calving were available from 437 treated cows and 3061 non-treated cows before drying-off and separate multivariable logistic regression models were ran for these two groups. Risk factors associated with isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calving for non-treated cows were CMSCC >400,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 200,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 50,000 cells/ml compared with teat disinfection (PMTD) did not influence the isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calvin, but it was less likely to isolate Str. dysgalactiae 6 d post calving if iodine PMTD was used regularly rather than irregularly. The external teat sealant had no effect on either of the two bacteria. This study indicates that the CMSCC limit for sampling cows before drying-off can be reduced to 50,000 cells/ml in herds with a Str. dysgalactiae problem. Iodine PMTD should also be recommended in these herds. Cows with a CMSCC > 400,000 cells/ml prior to drying-off should receive long-acting dry cow formula irrespective of the milk result.

  19. Virulence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense on potato compared with that of other Pectobacterium and Dickeya species under climatic conditions prevailing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Haan, de E.G.; Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Velvis, H.; Mendes, O.; Kooman-Gersmann, M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In western Europe, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is emerging as a causal agent of blackleg disease. In field experiments in the Netherlands, the virulence of this pathogen was compared with strains of other Dickeya and
    Pectobacterium species. In 2013 and 2014, seed potato tubers w

  20. The genus Sphaerocavum and the dominance of S. brasiliense and Microcystis wesenbergii (Microcystaceae, Cyanophyceae in the algae bloom of Huacachina lagoon, Peru

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    Leonardo H. Mendoza-Carbajal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work registers for the first time the cyanobacteria Sphaerocavum brasiliense Azevedo y Sant’Anna and Microcystis wesenbergii (Komárek Komárek in Kondrateva (Microcystaceae, Cyanophyceae in an algal bloom on Huacachina lagoon (Ica, including the first report of Sphaerocavum for Peru. We suggest the necessity of monitoring these bloom-forming cyanobacteria.

  1. Nutritional evaluation of the germ meal and its protein isolate obtained from the carob seed (Ceratonia siliqua) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouliscos, N J; Malefaki, V

    1980-01-01

    1. Evaluation of the germ meal (CGM) of carob seed (Ceratonia siliqua) and its protein isolate was carried out with weanling rats. Comparisons were made with casein, soya-bean meal, whole defatted egg and a soya-bean protein isolate (Promine-D) as protein sources. The growth-promoting effects and certain biological indices were evaluated using the protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) bioassay procedures. 2. The unsupplemented CGM had a PER of 1.66 +/- 0.09 and an NPU of 0.58 +/- 0.013. Addition of DL-methionine at 4, 8 and 12 g/kg diet resulted in a PER of 1.95 +/- 0.11, 2.01 +/- 0.11 and 1.90 +/- 0.11 respectively. The corresponding BV values were 0.80 +/- 0.003, 0.78 +/- 0.015 and 0.74 +/- 0.011, and those for NPU 0.69 +/- 0.013, 0.66 +/- 0.026 and 0.63 +/- 0.020 respectively. The addition of amino acids improved the PER (2.24--2.59), BV (0.78--0.79) and NPU (0.71--0.73) values. 3. The BV and NPU assays for the unsupplemented carob germ isolate were low (BV 0.36 +/- 0.016, NPU 0.35 +/- 0.015). Supplementation with amino acids resulted in a positive increase with values of 0.66 +/- 0.013 and 0.64 +/- 0.013 for BV and NPU respectively.

  2. Anticlastogenic potential and antioxidant effects of an aqueous extract of pulp from the pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb

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    Juliana Khouri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of an aqueous extract of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae Camb pulp, popularly known in Brazil as pequi, against clastogenicity induced by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin was evaluated using an in vivo mouse bone marrow cell micronuclei test, an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO-K1 chromosome aberration test and an in vitro antioxidant assay based on the oxidative damage to 2-deoxy-D-ribose (2-DR induced by hydroxyl radicals (•OH generated by the reaction between ascorbic acid and (Fe III-EDTA. In mouse bone marrow cells the extract showed a protective effect against micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin but did not interfere with polychromatic bone marrow erythrocyte proliferation, except when the mice had been treated with the highest dose of cyclophosphamide. When CHO-K1 cells were pretreated by adding 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mL of extract per mL of cell culture medium 24 or 48 h before bleomycin or cyclophosphamide there was a protective effect against chromosome breaks and a significant decrease in the mitotic index (a measure of cytotoxicity of the CHO-K1 cells. The extract also had a protective effect against oxidative hydroxyl radical damage to 2-DR. This study suggests that C. brasiliense pulp aqueous extract has anticlastogenic potential, possibly due to its antioxidative properties.

  3. Immunostimulatory acivity of Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae and Matayba elaeagnoides demonstrated by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Marina Elisa; Duarte, Bruna Momm; Da Silva, Carolina Vieira; De Souza, Michel Thomaz; Niero, Rivaldo; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Bueno, Edneia Casagranda

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of methanol extracts of three Brazilian medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human mononuclear cells. Lymphoproliferation assay was carried out by incubating human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors (1 x 10(6) cells/mL) with extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense (roots), Ipomoea pes-caprae (whole plant) and Matayba elaeagnoides (bark), both at 10, 50, 100 and 200 microg/mL, alone or with phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 microg/mL), in 96-well microplates at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2, for 72 h. The quantification of cell proliferation assay was performed by blue tetrazolium (MTT) reduction with reading at 540 nm. Cells incubated with only the culture medium were used as negative control for cell proliferation, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The results suggest that the extracts of all three studied plants induce T lymphocyte proliferation. I. pes-caprae showed immunostimulatory activity three times higher than the C. brasiliense extract, while that of the M. elaeagnoides extract was 1.5 times higher. The results demonstrate immunostimulatory effects of these three plants, therefore the continuity of these studies is recommended, in order to determine the active principles.

  4. Isolation and identification of zoonotic species of genus arcobacter from chicken viscera obtained from retail distributors of the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Edgar García; Jaramillo, Heriberto Fernández; Ulate, Carolina Chaves; Echandi, María Laura Arias

    2013-05-01

    Arcobacter is a genus of growing importance worldwide; some of its species are considered emerging enteropathogens and potential zoonotic agents. In Costa Rica, as well as in other countries, its isolation has been reported, so the objective of this project was to evaluate and identify the presence of Arcobacter in chicken viscera sold in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns associated with it. One hundred fifty samples of chicken viscera including heart, liver, and other gastrointestinal organs were purchased from 15 supermarkets and 15 local retailers. De Boer and Houf broths were used as enrichment media; isolation was done with Arcobacter-selective medium and with membrane filtration with blood agar. Typical colonies were identified with genus-specific PCR, and species identification was made with multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline was done with the Epsilometer test. The isolation frequency of Arcobacter genus obtained in this study was of 17.3%. A total of 33 isolates were obtained from the poultry samples, and according to the multiplex PCR methodology, 22 (66.7%) isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, 8 (24.2%) as Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 1 (3.1%) as Arcobacter skirrowii. Two strains were not identified. No statistical significant difference was found when the source of samples was compared. Resistance toward chloramphenicol was 68.75%, followed by ampicillin (43.75%) and ciprofloxacin (18.75%); all strains were susceptible to tetracycline.

  5. Temperatura, nitrato de potássio e fotoperíodo na germinação de sementes de Hypericum perforatum L. e H. Brasiliense Choisy Light, temperature and potassium nitrate in the germination of Hypericum. perforatum L. and H. Brasiliense Choisy seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Bertelle Faron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum L. e H. brasiliense Choisy, da família Clusiaceae, são espécies de plantas de considerável valor medicinal. A primeira é comercialmente cultivada na Europa e largamente utilizada como fitoterápico para tratamento da depressão. A segunda é nativa do Brasil e, recentemente, vem sendo objeto de muitos estudos por possuir o mesmo potencial farmacológico. Neste trabalho, as sementes de ambas as espécies foram investigadas com relação à massa de mil sementes e a diversas condições de germinação, combinando-se quatro temperaturas, ou seja, 20, 25, 30 e 20-30 ºC, em presença ou ausência de luz e com ou sem umedecimento do substrato de germinação com solução aquosa de nitrato de potássio a 0,2%. O diminuto tamanho das sementes ficou bem revelado pelos valores da massa de mil sementes que foram de 0,13 g (7.692 sementes por grama e 0,02 g (50.000 sementes por grama para H. perforatum e H. brasiliense respectivamente. As temperaturas mais benéficas à germinação foram as alternadas de 20-30 ºC, para as duas espécies, ou as constantes de 20 ºC, para H. perforatum e de 30 ºC, para H. brasiliense. A luz foi necessária para a germinação das sementes das duas espécies, porém seu efeito foi mais pronunciado em H. brasiliense. Em H. perforatum o efeito da luz foi mais evidente a 20-30 ºC enquanto em H. brasiliense esse efeito acentuou-se em todas as temperaturas estudadas. A aplicação de nitrato de potássio a 0,2% foi eficaz para as sementes de H. brasiliense porém não afetou as de H. perforatum.Hypericum perforatum L. and H. brasiliense Choisy, both belonging to the Clusiaceae family, are plant species of remarkable medicinal value. The former is commercially grown in Europe, and widely used as a phytotherapic for depression treatment while the latter, native to Brazil, has been recently studied as to its similar pharmacological potential. In this research work, seeds of both species were

  6. Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypic Profiles of Sulfadiazine-Resistant and Sensitive Toxoplasma gondii Isolates Obtained from Newborns with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Letícia Azevedo; Reis-Cunha, João Luís; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous Toxoplasma gondii studies revealed that mutations in the dhps (dihydropteroate synthase) gene are associated with resistance to sulfonamides. Although Brazilian strains are genotypically different, very limited data are available regarding the susceptibility of strains obtained from human to sulfonamides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of sulfadiazine (SDZ) against Brazilian isolates of T. gondii and verify whether isolates present polymorphisms in the dhps gene. We also investigated whether the virulence-phenotype and/or genotype were associated with the profile of susceptibility to SDZ. Methods Five T. gondii isolates obtained from newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis were used to verify susceptibility. Mice were infected with 104 tachyzoites and orally treated with different doses of SDZ. The mortality curve was evaluated by the Log-rank test. The presence of polymorphisms in the dhps gene was verified using sequencing. A descriptive analysis for 11 Brazilian isolates was used to assess the association between susceptibility, genotype, and virulence-phenotype. Results Statistical analysis showed that TgCTBr03, 07, 08, and 16 isolates were susceptible to SDZ, whereas TgCTBr11 isolate presented a profile of resistance to SDZ. Nineteen polymorphisms were identified in dhps exons. Seven polymorphisms corresponded to non-synonymous mutations, with four being new mutations, described for the first time in this study. No association was found between the profile of susceptibility and the virulence-phenotype or genotype of the parasite. Conclusions There is a high variability in the susceptibilities of Brazilian T. gondii strains to SDZ, with evidence of drug resistance. Despite the large number of polymorphisms identified, the profile of susceptibility to SDZ was not associated with any of the dhps variants identified in this study. Other genetic factors, not yet determined, may be associated with the resistance to SDZ; thus

  7. Sequentially Integrated Optimization of the Conditions to Obtain a High-Protein and Low-Antinutritional Factors Protein Isolate from Edible Jatropha curcas Seed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-López, Liliana; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is a protein-rich byproduct of oil extraction which could be used to produce protein isolates. The purpose of this study was the optimization of the protein isolation process from the seed cake of an edible provenance of J. curcas by an alkaline extraction followed by isoelectric precipitation method via a sequentially integrated optimization approach. The influence of four different factors (solubilization pH, extraction temperature, NaCl addition, and precipitation pH) on the protein and antinutritional compounds content of the isolate was evaluated. The estimated optimal conditions were an extraction temperature of 20°C, a precipitation pH of 4, and an amount of NaCl in the extraction solution of 0.6 M for a predicted protein content of 93.3%. Under these conditions, it was possible to obtain experimentally a protein isolate with 93.21% of proteins, 316.5 mg 100 g−1 of total phenolics, 2891.84 mg 100 g−1 of phytates and 168 mg 100 g−1 of saponins. The protein content of the this isolate was higher than the content reported by other authors. PMID:25937971

  8. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  9. KDNA genetic signatures obtained by LSSP-PCR analysis of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum isolated from the new and the old world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Sousa Campos Alvarenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL caused by species from the Leishmania donovani complex is the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated. VL caused by Leishmania infantum is a zoonosis with an increasing number of human cases and millions of dogs infected in the Old and the New World. In this study, L. infantum (syn. L.chagasi strains were isolated from human and canine VL cases. The strains were obtained from endemic areas from Brazil and Portugal and their genetic polymorphism was ascertained using the LSSP-PCR (Low-Stringency Single Specific Primer PCR technique for analyzing the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA minicircles hypervariable region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: KDNA genetic signatures obtained by minicircle LSSP-PCR analysis of forty L. infantum strains allowed the grouping of strains in several clades. Furthermore, LSSP-PCR profiles of L. infantum subpopulations were closely related to the host origin (human or canine. To our knowledge this is the first study which used this technique to compare genetic polymorphisms among strains of L. infantum originated from both the Old and the New World. CONCLUSIONS: LSSP-PCR profiles obtained by analysis of L. infantum kDNA hypervariable region of parasites isolated from human cases and infected dogs from Brazil and Portugal exhibited a genetic correlation among isolates originated from the same reservoir, human or canine. However, no association has been detected among the kDNA signatures and the geographical origin of L. infantum strains.

  10. A Novel Approach for Ovine Primary Alveolar Epithelial Type II Cell Isolation and Culture from Fresh and Cryopreserved Tissue Obtained from Premature and Juvenile Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkiewicz, Mariola M; Baker, Sandy T; Wu, Jichuan; Hubert, Terrence L; Wolfson, Marla R

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo ovine model provides a clinically relevant platform to study cardiopulmonary mechanisms and treatments of disease; however, a robust ovine primary alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell culture model is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and optimize ovine lung tissue cryopreservation and primary ATII cell culture methodologies for the purposes of dissecting mechanisms at the cellular level to elucidate responses observed in vivo. To address this, we established in vitro submerged and air-liquid interface cultures of primary ovine ATII cells isolated from fresh or cryopreserved lung tissues obtained from mechanically ventilated sheep (128 days gestation-6 months of age). Presence, abundance, and mRNA expression of surfactant proteins was assessed by immunocytochemistry, Western Blot, and quantitative PCR respectively on the day of isolation, and throughout the 7 day cell culture study period. All biomarkers were significantly greater from cells isolated from fresh than cryopreserved tissue, and those cultured in air-liquid interface as compared to submerged culture conditions at all time points. Surfactant protein expression remained in the air-liquid interface culture system while that of cells cultured in the submerged system dissipated over time. Despite differences in biomarker magnitude between cells isolated from fresh and cryopreserved tissue, cells isolated from cryopreserved tissue remained metabolically active and demonstrated a similar response as cells from fresh tissue through 72 hr period of hyperoxia. These data demonstrate a cell culture methodology using fresh or cryopreserved tissue to support study of ovine primary ATII cell function and responses, to support expanded use of biobanked tissues, and to further understanding of mechanisms that contribute to in vivo function of the lung.

  11. EL ÁRBOL TROPICAL Calophyllum brasiliense: UNA REVISIÓN BOTÁNICA, QUÍMICA Y FARMACOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César GARCÍA-ZEBADÚA; Ricardo REYES-CHILPA; Maira HUERTA-REYES; Jorge Iván CASTILLO-ARELLANO; Sandra SANTILLÁN-HERNÁNDEZ; Beatriz VÁZQUEZ-ASTUDILLO; José Alberto MENDOZA-ESPINOZA

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. Es un árbol de la familia Calophyllaceae, separada recientemente de Clusiaceae (Guttiferae). Se distribuye ampliamente en selvas tropicales lluviosas del continente americano, desde Brasil hasta México. Esta especie sintetiza diversos metabolitos secundarios en hojas, flores, frutos, corteza y raíz, tales como cumarinas, cromanonas, xantonas, terpenos, flavonoides y compuestos fenólicos, los cuales presentan múltiples propiedades biológicas. Obje...

  12. Variation of TTC Repeat Pattern In The Dna of Mycobacterium Leprae Isolates Obtained from Archeological Bones and Leprosy Patients From East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinar Adriaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The existence of leprosy or kusta or Morbus Hansen or Hansen’s disease has been known for years, including in Indonesia. Starting from the discovery of Mycobacterium leprae isolates from ancient bone (about 1.000 years B.C, the archaeological excavations results in East Nusa Tenggara, interesting questions arise about how the development of leprosy in eastern Indonesia is. Biology molecular study would become a powerful tool to investigate the presence of leprosy bacillary whether there are similarities between the genomes of M. leprae isolates in the primeval and the present. PCR examinations were performed on mandibular bone fragments from ancient human who lived 1000 years B.C. discovered in archaeological surveys on the island of Lembata and three leprosy patients from East Nusa Tenggara. The DNA extraction was performed using a kit from Qiagen products and its TTC repeating pattern was seen with the method of direct sequencing. It turned out that the TTC profile obtained from samples of archaeological was as many as 13 copies, while the repetition of TTC in three samples of leprosy patients were 15, 17 and 26 copies. The different number of TTC repetition shows the different isolates of M. leprae between in the ancient times and the present. Further studies are needed to verify the differences in the genome that occur, for example from the study of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms.

  13. An optimised protocol to isolate high-quality genomic DNA from seed tissues streamlines the workflow to obtain direct estimates of seed dispersal distances in gymnosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, C; Escribano-Ávila, G

    2016-05-01

    Genotyping of maternally derived seed tissues from georefered seeds that moved away from their source tree yield direct estimates of seed dispersal distances when the location and the genotype of the fruiting tree are available. These estimates are instrumental in forecasting the response of plant communities to drivers of global change, such as fragmentation or the expansion of invasive species. Obtaining robust assessments of seed dispersal distances requires comparing reliable multilocus genotypes of maternally derived seed tissues and fruiting trees, as previously shown for angiosperm species. However, robust estimates of seed dispersal distances based on direct methods are rare in non-model gymnosperms due to the difficulty in isolating high quality DNA from inconspicuous maternally derived seed tissues. These tissues tend to yield low DNA quantities that increase the frequency of genotyping errors. Here, we deliver a step-by-step visual protocol used to identify and isolate different seed tissues of interest for dispersal studies: embryos (2n, bi-parentally derived), seed coats (2n, maternally derived), and megagametophytes (n, maternally derived). We also provide an optimised lab protocol used to obtain multilocus genotypes from the target seed tissue. These broadly applicable protocols proved successful both in avoiding contamination among different seed tissues and providing reliable multilocus genotypes.

  14. Selection, isolation and growth kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from the Potengi mangrove in the presence of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, C.C.; Vaz, M.R.F.; Santos, E.S.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], E-mail: natcintia@gmail.com; Costa, J.G. da [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Coari, AM (Brazil). Inst. de Saude e Biotecnologia

    2011-10-15

    The selection, isolation and kinetic study of a bacterial consortium obtained from a sample of soil from the Potengi mangrove, located in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, has been carried out using the enrichment culture technique to observe aspects such as the evaluation of main growth parameters. The kinetic study used a rotary incubator shaker at 150rpm, under 30 deg C. The bacterial consortium isolated from the estuary of the Potengi River showed a good acclimation in minimum mineral medium with 1% (v/v) of oil. The cell concentration reached 2.55 g/L at 16h of cultivation and surface tension dropped. The maximum productivity in cells obtained was of 0.3 g/L.h, the specific velocity of growth was of 0.075h{sup -1}, with a generation time (tg) of 9.24h. This study seeks to demonstrate that the consortium can be used as inoculants in biological treatments, capable of reducing the waste's degradation time. (author)

  15. Extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Extration, drying, and toasting of the pequi almond (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria da Silva Rabêlo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. possui em seu interior amêndoa comestível pouco explorada. Objetivou-se avaliar o processo de extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi. Foram utilizadas sementes de pequi fornecidas pela Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado, localizada na cidade de Damianópolis-GO. Para a extração da amêndoa, foi adaptado equipamento tipo guilhotina, com a finalidade de cortar a semente ao meio. O equipamento é composto por uma lâmina fixa em um suporte de madeira, recoberto com placa de Policloreto de Vinila (PVC e apresentou desempenho satisfatório. Para a secagem das amêndoas, sugeriu-se o binômio tempo/temperatura de 70 °C por 60 minutos, pois conferiu ao produto atividade de água em torno de 0,60 em menor tempo secagem. As amêndoas torradas a 130 °C durante 15 e 30 minutos apresentaram melhores características sensoriais, não diferindo significativamente entre si (p > 0,05 pelo Teste de Friedman. No tempo de 30 minutos, observaram-se tendências de melhores características sensoriais, como cor e crocância, no produto final.The Pequi (caryocar brasiliense Camb. edible almond seed is little used. The aim of this study is to evaluate almond seeds of pequi supplied by the "Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado" (Cerrado fruit supply association, located in the city of Damianópolis-GO. For the extration of the almond, a guillotine like equipment was used with the purpose of cutting the seed in half. The equipment was composed of a fixed blade placed in a wooden support, recovered with Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and it presented satisfactory performance. For the almonds drying, the temperature of 70 ºC for 60 minutes was suggested since it allowed water activity of around 0,60 in shorter drying time. The almonds roasted at 130 °C for 15 and 30 minutes presented better sensorial characteristics, and proved not significantly different among themselves (P > 0,05 in

  16. Phenotypic and genotypic characters of isolates of Pasteurella multocida obtained from back-yard poultry and from two outbreaks of avian cholera in avifauna in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Bisgaard, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two outbreaks of fowl cholera in the avifauna in Denmark, affecting primarily elders but also cormorants, gulls and oyster-catchers were shown to be caused by the same clone of Pasteurella multocida ssp, multocida by restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping, using the enzymes HpaII and Hha...... difference between the outbreak clone and some of these strains concerned the size of one fragment. These results indicate a possible exchange of P. multocida ssp, multocida between populations of wild birds and back-yard poultry. Among the DNA fingerprinting methods used, restriction enzyme analysis offered...... the highest discrimination among thirty strains obtained from back-yard poultry, The restriction enzymes HpaII and HhaI generated almost the same number of profile types, 17 and 15 respectively, but only HpaII differentiated the outbreak clone from the group of closely related strains isolated from back...

  17. Hexane Extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense Inhibit the Development of Gastric Preneoplasia in Helicobacter felis Infected INS-Gas Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Larissa M. S.; Miyajima, Fabio; Castilho, Geovane R. C.; Martins, Domingos Tabajara O.; Pritchard, D. Mark; Burkitt, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Indigenous Latin American populations have used extracts from Calophyllum brasiliense, a native hardwood, to treat gastrointestinal symptoms for generations. The hexane extract of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark (HECb) protects against ethanol-mediated gastric ulceration in Swiss–Webster mice. We investigated whether HECb inhibits the development of gastric epithelial pathology following Helicobacter felis infection of INS-Gas mice. Materials and Methods: Groups of five male, 6-week-old INS-Gas mice were colonized with H. felis by gavage. From 2 weeks after colonization their drinking water was supplemented with 2% Tween20 (vehicle), low dose HECb (33 mg/L, lHECb) or high dose HECb (133 mg/L, hHECb). Equivalent uninfected groups were studied. Animals were culled 6 weeks after H. felis colonization. Preneoplastic pathology was quantified using established histological criteria. Gastric epithelial cell turnover was quantified by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and active-caspase 3. Cytokines were quantified using an electrochemiluminescence assay. Results: Vehicle-treated H. felis infected mice exhibited higher gastric atrophy scores than similarly treated uninfected mice (mean atrophy score 5.6 ± 0.87 SEM vs. 2.2 ± 0.58, p < 0.01). The same pattern was observed following lHECb. Following hHECb treatment, H. felis status did not significantly alter atrophy scores. Gastric epithelial apoptosis was not altered by H. felis or HECb administration. Amongst vehicle-treated mice, gastric epithelial cell proliferation was increased 2.8-fold in infected compared to uninfected animals (p < 0.01). Administration of either lHECb or hHECb reduced proliferation in infected mice to levels similar to uninfected mice. A Th17 polarized response to H. felis infection was observed in all infected groups. hHECb attenuated IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF production following H. felis infection [70% (p < 0.01), 67% (p < 0.01), and 41% (p < 0.05) reduction vs. vehicle, respectively

  18. Vigilance for Salmonella in Feedstuffs Available in Costa Rica: Prevalence, Serotyping and Tetracycline Resistance of Isolates Obtained from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Andrea; Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Jiménez, Marisol; Acuña-Calvo, María Teresa; Alfaro, Margarita; Chavarría, Guadalupe

    2016-03-01

    Relevant epidemiological information is provided in this report for Salmonella based on data obtained from a Costa Rican surveillance program for animal feeds. In addition to prevalence, a description in terms of serotypes and tetracycline (TET) resistance of the isolates is included. A total of 1725 feed and feed ingredients samples were analyzed during 2009 and 2014, from which 110 Salmonella strains were recovered (76 from poultry, 23 from meat and bone meal [MBM], 3 from pet foods, and 8 from other feed). Retrieved isolates were serotyped and tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against TET. Salmonella strains were found mainly from poultry feed (different growth stages, n = 76/110; 69.1%) and MBM (n = 23/109; 21.1%). The rest of the isolates were recovered from feather meal, pet food, fish meal (n = 3/110; 2.3% each) and swine feed (n = 1/110; 0.9%). From the different serotypes recovered (n = 21), the most common were Salmonella Give (n = 18; 13.8%) and Salmonella Rissen (n = 6; 4.6%) for MBM and Salmonella Havana (n = 14; 10.8%), Salmonella Rissen, Salmonella Soerenga, and Salmonella Schwarzengrund (n = 8; 6.2% each) in poultry feed. Recovered strains were regarded to be sensitive or have an intermediate resistance to TET as evidenced by their MIC50 and MIC90 concentrations of 4 and 8 μg/mL for MBM and poultry feed, respectively. Compound feed and MBM samples exhibited strains characterized by 86.8 and 88.9% of the isolates classified (according to CLSI, 2015 ) as sensitive, 7.7 and 3.7% as intermediate, and 5.5% (with >256 μg/mL as the highest concentration) and 7.4% (with 64 μg/mL as the highest concentration) as resistant to TET, respectively. Salmonella serovars Anatum and Havana exhibited the highest resistance profile >256 and 128 μg/mL, respectively. Hence, MBM and poultry feed seem to be a target of interest if Salmonella incidence is to be controlled. Serotypes recovered have in the past

  19. Indução de metabólitos secundários em plântulas de Hypericum brasiliense Choisy crescendo in vitro Induction of secondary metabolites in plantlets of Hypericum brasiliense Choisy in vitro

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    Mariella Araújo Luna Velloso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A produção de rutina, quercetina, 1,5-diidroxixantona e ácido betulínico foi investigada em plântulas de H. brasiliense crescendo in vitro, sob a influência de ácido salicílico, polietilenoglicol, NaCl, 24-epibrassinolídeo, benzotiadiazole (BION, metiljasmonato e concentrações aumentadas de boro e nitrogênio no meio líquido de cultura. As avaliações foram feitas após 5 e 10 dias do início dos tratamentos. Os maiores aumentos de conteúdo foram observados com quercetina para boro e ácido salicílico aos 5 dias, e 24-epibrassinolídeo e BION aos 10 dias.The production of rutin, quercetin, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone and betulinic acid was investigated in plantlets of H. brasieliense in vitro, and exposed to salycilic acid, poliethylene glycol, NaCl, 24-epibrassinolide, benzothiadiazole (BION, methyljasmonate and increased concentrations of boron and nitrogen in the liquid culture medium. Evaluations of the contents were carried out after 5 and 10 days of treatments. The highest increase was observed in quercetin in the salycilic acid and B treatments after 5 days of exposure, and in 24-epibrassinolide and BION after 10 days.

  20. Comparative Properties of Amazonian Oils Obtained by Different Extraction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Galuppo Diniz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Mart., buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis oils were studied to determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, as well as their total phenol and carotenoid contents. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.

  1. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of aqueous extract of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Flávia A; Fonseca, Leydiana D; da Silva, Rayana B; de Paiva Ferreira, Adriano V; Nery, Patrícia S; Geraseev, Luciana C; Duarte, Eduardo R

    2012-07-01

    A major problem faced in sheep rearing has been the rapid acquisition of anthelminthic-resistant populations of gastrointestinal nematodes. In the search for alternatives, aqueous extract of the peel of Caryocar brasiliense was evaluated for larval development inhibition, egg-hatching inhibition, and fecal nematode egg count reduction in sheep. For in vivo analysis, the doses were calculated according to a 10% lethal dose derived from acute toxicity tests in mice, and the efficacy was evaluated for two periods following oral administration of the extract. Egg-hatching inhibition at concentrations of 15 and 7.5 mg/ml was significantly higher than observed in negative controls with distilled water. For larval development inhibition, all concentrations showed anthelminthic activity significantly higher than controls and were not significantly different from ivermectin treatment. The LC(90) of larval development inhibition was 53.19 mg/ml. In vivo analysis for first and second weeks after treatment found 32.2% and 33% anthelminthic efficacy, respectively.

  2. Influence of pH on viscoelastic properties of heat-induced gels obtained with a β-Lactoglobulin fraction isolated from bovine milk whey hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Natalia; Fuciños, Pablo; Bargiela, Verónica; Picó, Guillermo; Valetti, Nadia Woitovich; Tovar, Clara Asunción; Rúa, M Luisa

    2017-03-15

    A β-Lactoglobulin fraction (r-βLg) was isolated from whey hydrolysates produced with cardosins from Cynara cardunculus. The impact of the hydrolysis process on the r-βLg structure and the rheological properties of heat-induced gels obtained thereafter were studied at different pH values. Differences were observed between r-βLg and commercial β-Lg used as control. Higher values for the fluorescence emission intensity and red shifts of the emission wavelength of r-βLg suggested changes in its tertiary structure and more solvent-exposed tryptophan residues. Circular dichroism spectra also supported these evidences indicating that hydrolysis yielded an intermediate (non-native) β-Lg state. The thermal history of r-βLg through the new adopted conformation improved the microstructure of the gels at acidic pH. So, a new microstructure with better rheological characteristics (higher conformational flexibility and lower rigidity) and greater water holding ability was founded for r-βLg gel. These results were reflected in the microstructural analysis by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Genetic profiles of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates obtained from patients with cystitis: phylogeny, virulence factors, PAIusp subtypes, and mutation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akira; Muratani, Tetsuro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Takahashi, Satoshi; Monden, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kiyohito; Kiyota, Hiroshi; Arakawa, Soichi; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Shima, Hiroki; Kurazono, Hisao; Yamamoto, Shingo

    2009-03-01

    The low virulence of quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli strains is known, although the reasons for this remain unclear. We surveyed the mutation patterns of quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), phylogenetic distribution, prevalence of 18 urovirulence genes, and PAIusp subtypes in 89 fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (FQREC) isolates obtained from patients with cystitis and compared them with those of their fluoroquinolone-susceptible counterparts (FQSEC). Phylogenetic group B2 was significantly less prevalent in FQREC than in FQSEC (49% versus 78%; P=0.0138), but it still dominated, followed by phylogroup D (35%), in FQREC. When the prevalences of virulence factor (VF) genes were compared between FQREC and FQSEC, sfa/foc, cnf1, hly, kpsMT, ompT, ibeA, usp, and iroN showed significantly lower prevalences in FQREC than in FQSEC (1.1% versus 24% [Presistance, e.g., mutations in QRDRs, might be a specific event in limited strains, such as those that possess PAIusp subtype 2a in phylogroup B2.

  4. Crenosoma brasiliense sp. n. (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) parasitic in lesser grison, Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil, with a key to species of Crenosoma Molin, 1861.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luis C; de Souza, Lima Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Gonçalves, Pamela R; Luque, José L

    2012-09-01

    This study describes Crenosoma brasiliense (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), a new species parasitic in bronchi and bronchioles of Galictis cuja (Molina) (Carnivora, Mustelidae) from Brazil. This species differs from other 11 species of Crenosoma by having a cuticular projection at the distal end of the spicules, forming a prominent blade at the tip of the spicule, a vulval cuticular appendage with a triangular shape and prominent vulval lips. There are no previous records of species of Metastrongyloidea in G. cuja or species of Crenosoma in South America. Therefore, the new species represents the first host record and first geographical record of species of Crenosoma in South America.

  5. Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associado ao superbrotamento do hibisco (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. no Estado de São Paulo Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associated with hibiscus witches' broom in the State of São Paulo-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de hibisco com superbrotamento e definhamento seguido de morte têm sido observadas nos municípios de São Paulo, Campinas e Piracicaba. Como os sintomas são sugestivos daqueles induzidos por fitoplasmas, o presente trabalho buscou identificar o possível fitoplasma associado com a doença. Assim, 14 plantas sintomáticas de hibisco foram coletadas em Piracicaba (SP e submetidas ao PCR duplo com os primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 e ao exame em microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. A identificação foi realizada por análise de RFLP com as enzimas de restrição BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI e TaqI. Testes de transmissão foram conduzidos com enxertia de ramos e uso de Cuscuta subinclusa. Os resultados de nested-PCR revelaram a presença consistente de fitoplasmas em todas as plantas sintomáticas e foram confirmados pela observação de corpúsculos pleomórficos no floema, através da microscopia eletrônica. A análise de RFLP mostrou que o fitoplasma encontrado em hibisco pertence ao grupo 16SrXV, o mesmo grupo do Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense. O fitoplasma foi transmitido de planta doente para sadia, tanto pela enxertia como pela C. subinclusa, demonstrando ser o agente do superbrotamento do hibisco.Ornamental hibiscus have been affected by shoot proliferation and decline followed by death in several cities in São Paulo State, especially São Paulo, Campinas and Piracicaba. As the symptoms are suggestives of those induced by phytoplasmas, the present work aimed to identify the possible phytoplasma associated with the disease. Fourteen symptomatic hibiscus were sampled in Piracicaba, submitted to nested-PCR with the primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 and processed by transmission electron microscopy. The identification was made by RFLP analyses with the restriction enzymes BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI, and TaqI. Transmission assays were performed by grafting and Cuscuta subinclusa. The presence

  6. Efeito do tipo de corte e sanificantes no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado Effect of the cut type and sanitizers on the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Frutos e hortaliças minimamente processados devem apresentar atributos de conveniência e qualidade do produto fresco. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos sanificantes hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 4% e 6%, sobre os processos envolvidos no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado submetido a dois tipos de processamento: "caroço fatiado" e "caroço inteiro" e armazenado a 6 ± 1ºC e 90% a 95% UR, durante 15 dias. A cada três dias foram avaliados: perda de massa, firmeza, pectina total, pectina solúvel, atividade de pectinametilesterase (PME e atividade de poligalacturonase (PG. O pequi minimamente processado apresentou perda de massa e decréscimo de firmeza ao longo do período de armazenamento, concomitante ao aumento da atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, bem como solubilização de substâncias pécticas. Não foi verificada atividade de PME no pequi minimamente processado avaliado. Os caroços fatiados apresentaram maior teor de pectina solúvel, do 3° ao 6° dia e atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, do 3° ao 12° dia de armazenamento, em relação aos caroços inteiros. A sanificação com NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm, H2O2 4% e 6% determinou maior solubilização péctica em pequis minimamente processados, ao longo do armazenamento, não sendo observada influência dos sanificantes sobre as variáveis firmeza, perda de massa e atividade de poligalacturonase.Fresh cut fruits and vegetables should present convenience and quality features of the fresh produce. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the sanitizers 50ppm and 100ppm sodium hypochloride (NaClO and 4% and 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the involved processes in the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. submitted to two types of processing: "sliced stone" and "whole stone" stored at 6 ± 1°C and 90% to 95% of RH during 15 days

  7. PROPAGAÇÃO SEXUADA DO PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. ESTIMULADA POR ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO SEXED PROPAGATION OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. INDUCED BY GIBBERELLIC ACID

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A espécie Caryocar brasiliense (Camb., conhecida como pequi, apresenta baixa porcentagem e baixo tempo médio de emergência de plântulas. Buscando-se solucionar esse problema,o presente trabalho propôs-se a avaliar diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3 em sementes de pequi sem endocarpo. Os frutos maduros, após coletados, foram armazenados por 27 dias, em sacos plásticos, e,posteriormente, retirou-se a casca, o mesocarpo e os espinhos. Após sete dias, a amêndoa foi extraída do endocarpo. Os tratamentos constituiram-se de: água destilada, GA3 a 75 mg L-1, GA3 a 150 mg L-1, GA3 a 300 mg L-1 e GA3 a 600 mg L-1, embebidas por 24 horas. Foram utilizadas 26 sementes por parcela, em cinco tratamentos e cinco epetições. Avaliaramse a porcentagem e tempo médio de emergência das plântulas, a altura, o diâmetro e a massa fresca e seca das raízes e da parte aérea das plântulas de pequi. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análises de variância e regressão linear. O ácido giberélico, nas condições e concentrações estudadas, influenciou, significativamente, a porcentagem e o tempo médio de emergência das plântulas de pequi. Obteve-se, em média, 24% de emergência, aos quarenta dias após a semeadura. O uso de ácido giberélico (GA3 em sementes de pequi sem endocarpo, na concentração estimada de 345 mg L-1, proporciona maior porcentagem de emergência, em relação aos demais tratamentos avaliados.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Pequi; hôrmonio vegetal; emergência.

  1. Molecular characterization of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from cattle during a four-month period in 2001 in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phologane, B S; Dwarka, R M; Haydon, D T; Gerber, L J; Vosloo, W

    2008-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. The virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that has a high rate of nucleotide mutation and amino acid substitution. In southern Africa the South African Territories (SAT) 1-3 serotypes of FMD virus are maintained by large numbers of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer), which provide a potential source of infection for domestic livestock and wild animals. During February 2001, an outbreak of SAT-2 was recorded in cattle in the FMD control zone of South Africa, adjacent to the Kruger National Park (KNP). They had not been vaccinated against the disease since they form the buffer between the vaccination and free zones but in the face of the outbreak, they were vaccinated as part of the control measures to contain the disease. The virus was, however, isolated from some of them on several occasions up to May 2001. These isolates were characterized to determine the rate of genetic change in the main antigenic determinant, the 1 D/2A gene. Nucleotide substitutions at 12 different sites were identified of which five led to amino acid changes. Three of these occurred in known antigenic sites, viz. the GH-loop and C-terminal part of the protein, and two of these have previously been shown to be subject to positive selection. Likelihood models indicated that the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous changes among the outbreak sequences recovered from cattle was four times higher than among comparable sequences isolated from wildlife, suggesting that the virus may be under greater selective pressure during rapid transmission events.

  2. Estudio de la germinación y la conservación de semillas de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Semilla de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense) se recolectó en Volcán de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, con el fin de determinar el punto de madurez fisiológica, las mejores técnicas de procesamiento, el efecto de la humedad de la semilla, el sustrato, el fotoperíodo y la temperatura sobre la germinación y su almacenamiento. La madurez fisiológica se alcanzó 92 días después de la antesis. Se evaluaron cinco contenidos de humedad (4,8%, 10,5%, 21,3%, 26,3% y 40,3%). Se encontró que la semilla ger...

  3. Project in determination of crystal structure of nitrogen fixation proteins from azospirilum brasiliense and herbaspirilum seropedicae by synchrotron x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Valma M.; Leggs, Luciana A.; Delboni, Luis F.; Chubatsu, LedaS.; Souza, Emanuel M.; Machado, Hidevaldo B.; Yates, Geoffrey M.; Pedrosa, Fabio O. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1996-12-31

    Full text. Biological nitrogen fixation is essential for maintaining the nitrogen cycle on earth and of high importance for Brazilian agriculture. The nitrogenase enzyme system, which provides the biochemical machinery for nitrogen fixation, consists of two component metalloproteins, the molybdenumiron (Mo Fe) protein and the iron (Fe) protein. Nitrogen fixation is a very energy-intensive process, requiring around 16 moles of ATP for each mol of N{sub 2} fixed (reduced). As a consequence, synthesis and activity of nitrogenase is tighty regulated at two levels: general and specific. The general level regulation is mediated by the ntr (nitrogen regulation) system. Two gene products are involved: the ntrB gene product (NtrB) is responsible for the activation of the ntrC gene product (NtrC) by phosphorylating a conserved Asp54, which activates the expression of the nifA gene. The nif specific control system is mediated by the NifA protein, which binds to a DNA specific sequence (UAS, Upstream Activator Sequence) and activates nif promoter transcriptions by RNA polymerase-{sup {alpha}54}, following ATP hydrolysis. The aim of this project is to solve the crystal structure of dinitrogenase reductase (iron protein) and dinitrogenase (molybdenum-iron protein) from Azospirilim brasiliense and the regulatory proteins NifA from Herbaspirillum seropedicae and NtrC Azospirillum brasiliense. The three dimensional structure of the proteins involved in this project will allow a better understanding of the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation. To this end, the data collection will probably be done at the LNLS facilities which will be available in the near future. (author)

  4. Estudio de la germinación y la conservación de semillas de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense

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    Jorge Herrera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Semilla de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense se recolectó en Volcán de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, con el fin de determinar el punto de madurez fisiológica, las mejores técnicas de procesamiento, el efecto de la humedad de la semilla, el sustrato, el fotoperíodo y la temperatura sobre la germinación y su almacenamiento. La madurez fisiológica se alcanzó 92 días después de la antesis. Se evaluaron cinco contenidos de humedad (4,8%, 10,5%, 21,3%, 26,3% y 40,3%. Se encontró que la semilla germina en menor tiempo y mayor porcentaje con el contenido de humedad más elevado. De los sustratos de germinación evaluados (arena, vermiculita y suelo, el mejor fue arena. Con respecto a las temperaturas de germinación evaluadas (24, 28 y 32 °C, los mayores porcentajes de germinación se obtuvieron a 28 ºC. No se encontró efecto debido al fotoperíodo. La viabilidad de la semilla disminuyó rápidamente después de un mes de almacenamiento y esta disminución se intensificó conforme se redujo el contenido de humedad. La sensibilidad de semillas de C. brasiliense a las bajas temperaturas y contenidos de humedad, corroboraron su carácter recalcitrante.

  5. [In vitro susceptibilities to levofloxacin and various antibacterial agents of 12,919 clinical isolates obtained from 72 centers in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Iwata, Morihiro; Kanda, Makoto; Akizawa, Kouji; Shimizu, Chikara; Kon, Shinichirou; Nakamura, Kastushi; Matsuda, Keiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Nakagawa, Takuo; Sugita, Akihiro; Ito, Tatsumi; Kato, Jun; Suwabe, Akira; Yamahata, Kumiko; Kawamura, Chizuko; Tashiro, Hiromi; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Katayama, Yosei; Kondou, Shigemi; Misawa, Shigeki; Murata, Misturu; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Okamoto, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Kenichiro; Okada, Motoi; Haruki, Kosuke; Kanno, Harushige; Aihara, Masanori; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Hashikita, Giichi; Miyajima, Eiji; Sumitomo, Midori; Saito, Takefumi; Yamane, Nobuo; Kawashima, Chieko; Akiyama, Takahisa; Ieiri, Tamio; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Okamoto, Yuki; Okabe, Hidetoshi; Moro, Kunihiko; Shigeta, Masayo; Yoshida, Haruyoshi; Yamashita, Masanobu; Hida, Yukio; Takubo, Takayuki; Kusakabe, Tadashi; Masaki, Hiroya; Heijyou, Hitoshi; Nakaya, Hideo; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Sano, Reiko; Matsuo, Syuji; Kono, Hisashi; Yuzuki, Yosuke; Ikeda, Norio; Idomuki, Masayo; Soma, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Go; Kinoshita, Syohiro; Kawano, Seiji; Oka, Mikio; Kusano, Nobuchika; Kang, Dongchon; Ono, Junko; Yasujima, Minoru; Miki, Makoto; Hayashi, Masato; Okubo, Syunji; Toyoshima, Syunkou; Kaku, Mitsuo; Sekine, Imao; Shiotani, Joji; Horiuchi, Hajime; Tazawa, Yoko; Yoneyama, Akiko; Kumasaka, Kazunari; Koike, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Ozaki, Yukio; Uchida, Takashi; Murakami, Masami; Inuzuka, Kazuhisa; Gonda, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Ikuo; fujimoto, Yoshinori; Iriyama, Junji; Asano, Yuko; Genma, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Nakatani, Kaname; Baba, Hisashi; Ichiyama, Satoshi; Fujita, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Masao; Okazaki, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Hiromitsu; Ota, Hiromi; Nagai, Astushi; Fujita, Jun; Negayama, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Kamioka, Mikio; Murase, Mitsuharu; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Okayama, Akihiko; Aoki, Yosuke; Kusaba, Koji; Nakashima, Yukari; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Matsuda, Junichi; Kohno, Shigeru; Mashiba, Koichi

    2009-08-01

    We have reported in this journal in vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates to antibiotics every year since 1992. In this paper, we report the results of an analysis of in vitro susceptibilities of 12,919 clinical isolates from 72 centers in Japan to selected antibiotics in 2007 compared with the results from previous years. The common respiratory pathogens, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae maintained a high susceptibility to fluoroquinolones (FQs). The resistance of S. pyogenes to macrolides has been increasing every year and this was especially clear this year. Most strains of Enterobacteriaceae except for Escherichia coli showed a high susceptibility to FQs. Almost 30% of E. coli strains were resistant to FQs and the resistance increased further this year. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was approximately 95% with the exception of 45% for sitafloxacin (STFX). FQs resistance of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was low at about 10%. FQs resistance of methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS) was higher than that of methicillin-susceptible coagulase negative Staphylococci (MSCNS), but it was lower than that of MRSA. However, FQs resistance of MSCNS was higher than that of MSSA. FQs resistance of Enterococcus faecalis was 22.5% to 29.6%, while that of Enterococcusfaecium was more than 85% except for STFX (58.3%). In clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa derived from urinary tract infections, FQs resistance was 21-27%, which was higher than that of P. aeruginosa from respiratory tract infections at 13-21%, which was the same trend as in past years. Multidrug resistant strains accounted for 5.6% in the urinary tract and 1.8% in the respiratory tract. Acinetobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to FQs. The carbapenem resistant strains, which present a problem at present, accounted for 2.7%. Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed high

  6. Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidaea gill parasite of the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidae um parasito de guelras do tubarão, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. from the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, 1950, from Rio Grande do Sul, State, Brazil, is described on the basis of 14 adult females. The new species is superficially similar to Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Olivier, 2000, but differs from it in the following characters. The maxillipeds of the new species are large and project well beyond the lateral margins of the cephalothorax. Those of K. deetsi are much smaller. The third endopodal segments of K. deetsi are twice as long as the second endopodal segments and are provided with prominent marginal denticles. The second and third endopodal segments of the new species are rounded, of similar length and lack teeth.Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. proveniente de guelras de G. vitaminicus de Buen, 1950 do Rio Grande do Sul, é descrita baseada em 14 fêmeas adultas. A nova espécie aproxima-se de Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Oliver, 2000, mas a nova espécie se distingue por apresentar os maxilípedes grandes e estendendo-se bem além das margens do cefalotorax. Os terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos de K. deetsi são duas vezes mais cumpridos que os segundos e têm dentículos marginais proeminentes. Os segundos e terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos da nova espécie são arredondados, de tamanhos parecidos e carecem de dentículos.

  7. Effects of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of Pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz Lima dos; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia]. E-mails: ramatiz@cena.usp.br; varthur@cena.usp.br; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Salgado, Jocelem Mastrodi [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)]. E-mails: jmsalgad@esalq.usp.br; alencar@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    ones and its antioxidant function. The results obtained showed that antioxidant capacity of pequi fruits were considerably modified to researched doses. (author)

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism for Rapid Detection of TR34/L98H- and TR46/Y121F/T289A-Positive Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates Obtained from Patients in Iran from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Faezeh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Zoll, Jan; Melchers, Willem J G; Rafati, Haleh; Dehghan, Parvin; Rezaie, Sasan; Tolooe, Ali; Tamadon, Yalda; van der Lee, Henrich A; Verweij, Paul E; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba

    2015-11-02

    We employed an endpoint genotyping method to update the prevalence rate of positivity for the TR34/L98H mutation (a 34-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with a substitution at codon L98) and the TR46/Y121F/T289A mutation (a 46-bp tandem repeat mutation in the promoter region of the cyp51A gene in combination with substitutions at codons Y121 and T289) among clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates obtained from different regions of Iran over a recent 5-year period (2010 to 2014). The antifungal activities of itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole against 172 clinical A. fumigatus isolates were investigated using the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) broth microdilution method. For the isolates with an azole resistance phenotype, the cyp51A gene and its promoter were amplified and sequenced. In addition, using a LightCycler 480 real-time PCR system, a novel endpoint genotyping analysis method targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms was evaluated to detect the L98H and Y121F mutations in the cyp51A gene of all isolates. Of the 172 A. fumigatus isolates tested, the MIC values of itraconazole (≥16 mg/liter) and voriconazole (>4 mg/liter) were high for 6 (3.5%). Quantitative analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed the TR34/L98H mutation in the cyp51A genes of six isolates. No isolates harboring the TR46/Y121F/T289A mutation were detected. DNA sequencing of the cyp51A gene confirmed the results of the novel endpoint genotyping method. By microsatellite typing, all of the azole-resistant isolates had genotypes different from those previously recovered from Iran and from the Dutch TR34/L98H controls. In conclusion, there was not a significant increase in the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates harboring the TR34/L98H resistance mechanism among isolates recovered over a recent 5-year period (2010 to 2014) in Iran. A quantitative assay detecting a single

  9. A loucura na fronteira entre a medicina e o direito: a elite médica em busca da legitimação socioprofissional nas páginas do Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina (1860-1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique de Siqueira Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o papel estratégico desempenhado pelo Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina - órgão oficial da Academia Imperial de Medicina -, na busca da elite médica pela legitimação socioprofissional no campo da medicina mental, visando a expansão de suas prerrogativas no âmbito das relações entre loucura, responsabilidade penal, direitos civis e medicina legal de 1860 a 1880.

  10. Estádio de maturação dos frutos e fatores relacionados aos aspectos nutritivos e de textura da polpa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Maturity stage of fruits and factors related to nutritive and texture characters of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Neudes Sousa de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de obter informações sobre a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento do fruto (época de coleta e do tipo de congelamento sobre os componentes nutricionais e de textura da polpa de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.. Os frutos foram coletados na árvore, antes da queda natural; no chão, após a queda natural, e após a queda natural, mantidos três dias em condição ambiente. Em cada época de coleta, após a retirada da casca dos frutos, um grupo de putamens foi congelado diretamente em freezer, e outro, congelado em nitrogênio líquido, antes do congelamento em freezer. Após seis meses, foi retirada a polpa dos putamens para a análise dos teores de carotenóides totais, ß -caroteno, licopeno, vitamina A, proteínas e lipídios; teor de celulose, hemicelulose, pectinas total, cálcio ligado à parede celular e total, atividade da pectinametilesterase e poligalacturonase. Os resultados indicaram que os teores de pigmentos, lipídios, proteínas e atividade da PG aumentaram com o avanço do estádio de maturação dos frutos. Por outro lado, houve diminuição no teor da celulose com avanço do estádio de maturação, enquanto os teores de hemicelulose e cálcio não foram influenciados pela idade do fruto. O tipo de congelamento interferiu nos teores de pigmentos, maiores na polpa congelada em nitrogênio líquido, e na atividade da PG, maior na polpa congelada apenas em freezer. Por último, os resultados mostraram que os frutos coletados na árvore são nutricionalmente inferiores aos coletados após a queda natural.The experiment was carried out with the purpose to obtain information about changes in the constituents responsible for nutritive and texture traits of pequi pulp related with harvest time and types of freezing. Fruits were collected in the tree before natural fall, in the ground after natural fall and in the ground three days after natural fall. In each harvest time, while one

  11. Isolation of bacteriophages to multi-drug resistant Enterococci obtained from diabetic foot: A novel antimicrobial agent waiting in the shelf?

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    C S Vinodkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While foot infections in persons with diabetes are initially treated empirically, therapy directed at known causative organisms may improve the outcome. Many studies have reported on the bacteriology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs, but the results have varied and have often been contradictory. The purpose of the research work is to call attention to a frightening twist in the antibiotic-resistant Enterococci problem in diabetic foot that has not received adequate attention from the medical fraternity and also the pharmaceutical pipeline for new antibiotics is drying up. Materials and Methods: Adult diabetic patients admitted for lower extremity infections from July 2008 to December 2009 in the medical wards and intensive care unit of medical teaching hospitals were included in the study. The extent of the lower extremity infection on admission was assessed based on Wagner′s classification from grades I to V. Specimens were collected from the lesions upon admission prior to the initiation of antibiotic therapy or within the first 48 h of admission. Results: During the 18-month prospective study, 32 strains of Enterococcus spp. (26 Enterococcus faecalis and 06 E. faecium were recovered. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby-Bauer′s disk diffusion method. Isolates were screened for high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR. A total of 65.6% of Enterococcus species showed HLAR. Multidrug resistance and concomitant resistance of HLAR strains to other antibiotics were quite high. None of the Enterococcus species was resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: Multidrug-resistant Enterococci are a real problem and continuous surveillance is necessary. Today, resistance has rendered most of the original antibiotics obsolete for many infections, mandating the development of alternative anti-infection modalities. One of such alternatives stemming up from an old idea is the bacteriophage therapy. In the present study, we could

  12. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections of outpatients from a university hospital in Recife - PE, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraciolo, Fabiana Beserra; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira; dos Santos, Josemir Belo; Rabelo, Marcelle Aquino; Magalhães, Vera

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has a notable ability to acquire resistance to antibiotics, and methicillin resistance represents a growing public health problem. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has also become important outside the hospital environment, particularly in the United States. In Brazil, since 2005, cases of community skin infections caused by MRSA have been reported, but resistance studies involving outpatients are scarce. OBJECTIVE To know the resistance profile of S. aureus involved in skin and soft tissue infections of patients seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. METHODS Prospective study involving 30 patients with skin and soft tissue infections, seen at the Dermatology outpatient clinic from May until November 2011. To evaluate the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotics, the disk diffusion method and oxacillin screening agar were used. RESULTS From a total of 30 samples of skin lesions, 19 (63%) had positive culture for S. aureus. The following resistance patterns of S. aureus were observed: penicillin, 95%; tetracycline, 32%; erythromycin, 21%; gentamicin, 16%; cefoxitin, 11%; oxacillin, 11%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 11%; chloramphenicol, 11%; clindamycin, 5% ; and ciprofloxacin, 0%. One of the identified MRSA was obtained from a patient without risk factors for its acquisition, and was resistant, beyond to the beta-lactams, only to tetracycline. CONCLUSIONS With regard to the resistance patterns of S. aureus, resistances to tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were the highest. It was documented, for the first time in Pernambuco, a case of skin infection caused by community-associated MRSA. PMID:23197204

  13. Crescimento in vitro de isolados de Armillaria sp. obtidos de Pinus elliottii var: elliottii sob várias temperaturas In vitro growth of Armillaria sp. isolates obtained from Pinus elliottii var: elliottii under several temperatures

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    Nei Sebastião Braga Gomes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A armilariose tem sido considerada a principal doença em Pinus no Brasil. Os sintomas e danos consistem no amarelecimento de acículas, declínio, podridão de raízes, exsudação de resina e morte. A temperatura é um dos fatores ambientais que influencia patógenos, doença de plantas ou ambos. Este trabalho avaliou o comportamento de três isolados de Armillaria sp. obtidos de P. elliottii var. elliottii, submetidos a uma faixa de temperatura de 16 a 26 ºC, utilizando a biomassa seca produzida em meio líquido como parâmetro de análise. Verificou-se que todos os isolados apresentaram máxima produção de biomassa a 22 ºC. Utilizando-se de regressão cúbica encontrou-se temperaturas de máximo crescimento entre 21,79 e 23,19 ºC. De acordo com os resultados, a melhor temperatura para crescimento dos isolados testados situou-se em 22 ºC.Armillaria root rot is the major pine disease in Brazil. Symptoms of this disease are yellowing of the needles, decline, root rot, resin exsudation and plant death. Temperature is an environmental factor that affects pathogens, the disease or both. This work evaluated the behaviour of three isolates of Armillaria sp. obtained from P. elliottii var. elliottii. The fungus isolates were submitted to temperature ranging from 16 to 26 ºC, by using dry biomass production in liquid medium as a measureable variable. All isolates produced higher amount of biomass at 22 ºC. A cubic regression showed a maximum point of temperatures between 21,8 e 23,2 ºC. The best temperature for fungus isolates growth was around 22 ºC.

  14. Characterization and classification of pequi trees (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. based on the profile of volatile constituents using headspace solid-phase microextraction - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis Caracterização e classificação de pequizeiros (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. baseadas no perfil de constituintes voláteis usando microextração em fase sólida no modo headspace - cromatografia a gás - espectrometria de massas e análise multivariada

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    Renata França Cassimiro Belo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the variability of pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. populations, volatile compounds from fruits of eighteen trees representing five populations were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-seven compounds were identified, including esters, hydrocarbons, terpenoids, ketones, lactones, and alcohols. Several compounds had not been previously reported in the pequi fruit. The amount of total volatile compounds and the individual compound contents varied between plants. The volatile profile enabled the differentiation of all of the eighteen plants, indicating that there is a characteristic profile in terms of their origin. The use of Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis enabled the establishment of markers (dendrolasin, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-octenoate and β-cis-ocimene that discriminated among the pequi trees. According to the Cluster Analysis, the plants were classified into three main clusters, and four other plants showed a tendency to isolation. The results from multivariate analysis did not always group plants from the same population together, indicating that there is greater variability within the populations than between pequi tree populations.A fim de determinar a variabilidade de populações de pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., compostos voláteis de frutos de dezoito árvores representando cinco populações foram extraídos por microextração em fase sólida no modo headspace e analisados por cromatografia a gás acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Setenta e sete compostos foram identificados, incluindo ésteres, hidrocarbonetos, terpenoides, cetonas, lactonas e álcoois. Vários compostos não haviam sido encontrados anteriormente no fruto. A quantidade total e a composição de voláteis variaram entre as plantas. O perfil volátil permitiu a diferenciação de todas as dezoito plantas, indicando que há um

  15. Nanocomposite biofilms obtained from Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) protein isolate and Montmorillonite: evaluation of the physical, mechanical and barrier properties; Biofilmes nanocompositos obtidos de isolado proteico de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri) e Montmorilonita: avaliacao das propriedades fisicas, meanicas e de barreira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez-Vega, William Renzo, E-mail: williamvega@ufgd.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), MS (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Bagatini, Daniela Cardozo; Souza, Juliana Tais Andreghetto de; Prentice, Carlos, E-mail: danielabagatini@hotmail.com, E-mail: ju.andreghetto@hotmail.com, E-mail: dqmprent@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos

    2013-06-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of nanocomposite biofilms based on Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) protein isolate with organophilic clays. Initially the croaker protein isolate (CPI) was obtained using the pH shifting process from by-products of croaker industrialization. A Box and Behnken experimental design was used to develop the films, with three levels of CPI (2, 3.5 and 5 g.100 g{sup -1} solution), montmorillonite MMT clay (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 g.100 g{sup -1} solution) and glycerol (25, 30 and 35 g.100g{sup -1} CPI). The polymeric films were produced by the 'casting technique'. The tensile strength values ranged from 7.2 to 10.7 MPa and the elongation values from 39.6 to 45.8 %. The water vapor permeability (WVP) values ranged from 3.2 to 5.5 (g.mm.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}) and the CPI had an average protein content of 97.87 % protein (d. b.). It was concluded that the nanocomposite films produced from CPI with MMT were promising from the standpoint of their mechanical properties, visual appearance and easy handling, as well as for their low water vapor permeability and low water solubility. With respect to their mechanical properties, the concentrations of CPI and MMT were the main factors influencing the development of the nanocomposite films. The results obtained from the experimental design indicated that 3.5 g of CPI.100 g{sup -1}solution, 0.5 g of MMT.100 g{sup -1} solution and 30 g of glycerol.100 g{sup -1} CPI would be the ideal parameters for the development of nanocomposite films by 'casting'. (author)

  16. Microbiological study of naturally fermented Algerian green olives: isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts along with the effects of brine solutions obtained at the end of olive fermentation on Lactobacillus plantarum...

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    Nour-Eddine, Karam

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of naturally fermented green olives produced in Western Algeria was studied over 15, 60 and 90 day fermentation periods. Different microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli, enterococci, yeasts, psychrotrophs and lipolytic bacteria were recorded at 15 and 60 days of fermentation. After 90 days (pH 4.40 of fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria population became dominant and persisted together with yeasts throughout the fermentation period. The lactic acid bacteria isolated (343 isolates were identified as L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. lactis subsp. lactis, E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. durans. The dominant species was L. plantarum. Yeasts were isolated from all samples (32 isolates and were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Candida parapsilosis. Also, in this study we reported that brine solutions obtained at the end of olive fermentation were able to stimulate the growth of several L. plantarum strainsLa microflora de las aceitunas verdes fermentadas naturalmente elaboradas en Argelia Occidental fue estudiada en períodos de fermentación de 15, 60 y 90 días. Diferentes microorganismos (bacterias aeróbicas, coliformes, estafilococos, bacterias del ácido láctico, lactobacilos, enterococos, levaduras, psicotrofos y bacterias lipolíticas fueron detectados a los 15 y 60 días de fermentación. Después de 90 días de fermentación (pH 4.40, la población de bacterias lácticas se hizo dominante y persistió junto con las levaduras a lo largo de todo el proceso. Las bacterias lácticas aisladas (343 fueron identificadas como L. casei, L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. lactis subsp. lactis, E. faecalis, E. faecium y E. durans. La especie dominante fue L. plantarum. Las levaduras aisladas (32 de todas las muestras fueron identificadas como Saccharomyces cerevisiae o Candida parapsilosis. También se recoge en este estudio que las

  17. Production of high quality brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) RNA from isolated populations of rat spinal cord motor neurons obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prachi; Premkumar, Brian; Morris, Renée

    2016-08-03

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is composed of multiple cellular elements, making it challenging to segregate one particular cell type to study their gene expression profile. For instance, as motor neurons represent only 5-10% of the total cell population of the spinal cord, meaningful transcriptional analysis on these neurons is almost impossible to achieve from homogenized spinal cord tissue. A major challenge faced by scientists is to obtain good quality RNA from small amounts of starting material. In this paper, we used Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) techniques to identify and isolate spinal cord motor neurons. The present analysis revealed that perfusion with paraformaldehyde (PFA) does not alter RNA quality. RNA integrity numbers (RINs) of tissue samples from rubrospinal tract (RST)-transected, intact spinal cord or from whole spinal cord homogenate were all above 8, which indicates intact, high-quality RNA. Levels of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or for its tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) were not affected by rubrospinal tract (RST) transection, a surgical procedure that deprive motor neurons from one of their main supraspinal input. The isolation of pure populations of neurons with LCM techniques allows for robust transcriptional characterization that cannot be achieved with spinal cord homogenates. Such preparations of pure population of motor neurons will provide valuable tools to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying spinal cord injury and neuromuscular diseases. In the near future, LCM techniques might be instrumental to the success of gene therapy for these debilitating conditions.

  18. Isolation, morphological identification and pathogenicity of Cylindrocladium scoparium and C. clavatum isolates obtained from plants rhizosphere cultivated in Pernambuco State Isolamento, identificação morfológica e patogenicidade de isolados de Cylindrocladium scoparium e C. clavatum da rizosfera de plantas cultivadas no Estado de Pernambuco

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    Vitorina Nerivânia Covello Rehn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Twelve isolates of Cylindrocladium scoparium and 4 isolates of C. clavatum were obtained from the rhizosphere of various species of plants by baiting with Ricinus communis leaves. The isolates of C. scoparium developed conidia of 32-(45-60 x 3 -(4-5 µm, and pyriform to ellipsoidal vesicles. C. clavatum showed conidia of 36-(44-49 x 2-(4-6 µm and clavate vesicles. All isolates induced necrosis on leaves and hypocotyls of eucalypt seedlings, with varying expression of symptoms.Doze isolados de Cylindrocladium scoparium e 4 isolados de C. clavatum foram obtidos da rizosfera de diversas plantas usando folhas de Ricinus communis como isca. A primeira espécie mostrou conídios com dimensões de 32-(45-60 x 3 -(4-5 µm e vesícula piriforme a elipsoidal. Os conídios de C. clavatum apresentaram dimensões entre 36-(44-49 x 2-(4-6 µm e vesícula clavada. Em plântulas de eucalipto todos os isolados induziram necrose em folhas e hipocótilos, variando apenas na expressão dos sintomas.

  19. Protocols for obtainment and isolation of two mesenchymal stem cell sources in sheep Protocolos para obtenção e isolamento de células tronco mesenquimais de duas fontes em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fadel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate different protocols to isolate stem cells from ovine umbilical cord blood and adipose tissue. METHODS: There were used 5 samples of umbilical blood and 5 samples of perirenal adipose tissue from 10 female sheep. All the samples were obtained through surgery, to harvest aseptic samples. There were used 3 protocols for obtainment and culture of umbilical cord blood stem cells and 4 protocols for ovine adipose tissue stem cells. RESULTS: It was possible to observe only one successful protocol for the obtainment of umbilical cord blood stem cells. When analyzing the techniques used to obtain adipose tissue stem cells, only one of the methods was effective as well. Through colony forming unit assay, there were obtained 58 colonies of cells after seven days in culture. Flow citometry tests revealed the cells were positive to CD44 and exhibited negative reaction to CD38, CD45, CD41/61. These cells showed a growth curve with very well defined phases LOG, LAG and PLATEAU. This phases are typically seem in mesenchymal stem cells growth curves. CONCLUSIONS: The isolation and culture of mesenchymal stem cells from ovine umbilical cord blood are complex and request more detailed assays. Stem cells from fat tissue sheep showed mesenchymal characteristics, according to their cell growth curve, ability to origin colonies of fibroblastoid cells and positive reactivity with the antibody CD44 by flow citometry.OBJETIVO: Testar diferentes protocolos para o isolamento de células tronco a partir de sangue de cordão umbilical e tecido adiposo de ovinos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas cinco amostras de sangue de cordão umbilical e cinco amostras de tecido adiposo perirrenal de 10 fêmeas de ovelha. A coleta das amostras foi realizada através de procedimento cirúrgico para coleta do material de forma mais asséptica possível. Foram realizados três protocolos de isolamento e cultivo das células-tronco do cordão umbilical e quatro protocolos para

  20. 分离自我国蜜蜂的一株新的致病螺原体及其基本特性%A new pathogenic spiroplasma isolate obtained from honeybee in China and its basic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 张杰; 马云龙; 于汉寿

    2012-01-01

    [目的]通过分析分离自我国患病蜜蜂体内的螺原体MF1006的基本生物学特征,初步确定其分类地位及致病性.[方法]应用暗视野显微镜和透射电子显微镜观察螺原体形态,运用常规螺原体分离和培养方法、分子生物学方法和血清学方法研究螺原体分离菌株可能的分类地位,并采用饲喂接种法研究其致病性.[结果]菌株MF 1006具有典型的螺旋形和运动性,能通过0.22μm孔径的滤膜,与我国之前发现的引起蜜蜂螺原体病的参比菌株Spiroplasma melliferum CH-1的基本生物学特征差异较大.S.melliferum CH-1抗血清对其没有抑制作用.根据16S rDNA、ITS序列构建系统发育树显示,菌株MF1006与在法国发现的引起蜜蜂“五月病”的Spiroplasma apis的亲缘关系最近.此外,菌株MF1006对供试意蜂有较强的致病性.[结论]分离菌株MF1006是在我国蜜蜂体内发现的除S.melliferum以外的另一种致病螺原体.%[Objective] The purpose of this study was to characterize the isolate MF1006, andto determine the taxonomy and pathogenicity of the spiroplasma obtained from diseased honeybees in China. [Methods] The spiroplasma morphology was examined by dark-field microscope and transmission electron microscope. The biological characteristic of the spiroplasma was investigated by using conventional culture-dependent method and molecular biology and serological methods. We determined the spiroplasma pathogenicity through feeding tests. [Results] MF1006 exhibited typical properties of spiral morphology and mobility. It was able to pass through membrane filters with pores size of 220 nm. This isolate was very different from the previous reported domestic isolate Spiroplasma melliferum CH-1 which caused honeybee spiroplasmosis seriously. S. Melliferum CH-1 antiserum could not inhibit MF1006. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rDNA and ITS revealed that MF1006 was close to S. Apis which was found in France and associated

  1. Uso do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense em emulsões cosméticas: desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade física Use of pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense in cosmetics emulsions: development and evaluate of physical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rocha Pianovski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade física de emulsões O/A contendo óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense. Emulsões O/A contendo 10,0% (p/p de óleo de pequi foram preparadas e, para promover a estabilidade, a adição de carbomer, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride e sorbitan oleate, foram estudadas. O tipo de emulsão foi verificado pelo método de diluição e o aspecto, homogeneidade e características organolépticas avaliadas através de análises macroscópicas. Como testes preliminares foram utilizados a centrifugação, ciclo gela-degela e o estresse térmico. Para avaliar a estabilidade acelerada as amostras foram submetidas em diferentes condições de estresse e analisadas a partir do valor de pH, análises macroscópicas e comportamento reológico. As emulsões preparadas com óleo de pequi, 0,3% (p/p de Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrilate Crosspolymer e 0,2% (p/p de carbomer apresentaram-se estáveis com propriedades pseudoplásticas e tixotrópicas. As características macroscópicas e valores obtidos de pH, viscosidade aparente, índices de fluxo e de consistência da área de histerese durante a estocagem indicaram estabilidade da formulação.The aims of this study were to development and evaluated the physical stability of O/W emulsions containing "Pequi" oil (Caryocar brasiliense. O/W emulsions containing 10.0% (w/w of Pequi oil were prepared, and to improve the stability, the carbomer, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride and sorbitan oleate were added and studied. The direction of the emulsions was evaluated by dilution method and by macroscopic analysis, the appearance, homogeneity and organoleptic properties were evaluated. The centrifugation, freeze/defrost cycles and stress thermal were used to investigate the preliminary stability. To evaluate the accelerated stability, the samples were stored at different stress conditions and evaluated the pH value, macroscopic analysis and rheological

  2. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E QUÍMICA DE FRUTOS DO PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. ORIUNDOS DE DUAS REGIÕES NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. FRUITS FROM TWO AREAS IN THE GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar características físicas e químicas de frutos de pequizeiro, oriundos das regiões de Araguapaz e Mambaí, Estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas cinco repetições, com dezesseis frutos para cada determinação, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os critérios avaliados foram: as massas do fruto, da casca e das sementes não desenvolvidas (frutilhos, as dimensões dos frutos e dos pirênios (mesocarpo interno, endocarpo e amêndoa, o número de pirênios, as massas totais de pirênios, de polpa e de amêndoas, os teores de umidade, de extrato etéreo e de proteínas na polpa e o pH da polpa. Observou-se que houve diferenças (p<0,05 entre os frutos das duas regiões, exceto na média da massa de frutilhos por fruto (p>0,05. Os frutos provenientes de Araguapaz apresentaram menores massas e dimensões de fruto e pirênios, e maiores rendimentos de polpa e amêndoas, bem como maiores teores de proteínas e extrato etéreo, do que os frutos oriundos de Mambaí. Conclui-se que os frutos de pequizeiro de Araguapaz têm maior valor nutricional e são mais apropriados para uso nas indústrias processadoras do que os frutos da região de Mambaí.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Valor nutricional; pequi; cerrado.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of Caryocar brasiliense fruits originated from Araguapaz and Mambaí regions, Goiás State, Brazil. Five replicates, with sixteen fruits for each determination were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The evaluated quality criteria were: fruit, peel, and not developed seed (fruitlet masses; fruit and pit (internal mesocarp, endocarp, and nut number and dimensions; pit, pulp, and nut total dimensions, and moisture content; pulp ethereal

  3. Enzymatic technology to improve oil extraction from Caryocar brasiliense camb. (Pequi Pulp. Tecnologia enzimática para melhorar a extração do óleo da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense (pequi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes de Brito Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare yield and quality of pequi pulp oil when applying two distinct processes: in the first, pulp drying in a tray dryer at 60ºC was combined with enzymatic treatment and pressing to oil extraction; in the second, a simple process was carried out by combining sun-drying pulp and pressing. In this study, raw pequi fruits were collected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The fruits were autoclaved at 121ºC and stored under refrigeration. An enzymatic extract with pectinase and CMCase activities was used for hydrolysis of pequi pulp, prior to oil extraction. The oil extractions were carried out by hydraulic pressing, with or without enzymatic incubation. The oil content in the pequi pulp (45% w/w and the physicochemical characteristic of the oil was determined according to standard analytical methods. Free fatty acids, peroxide values, iodine and saponification indices were respectively 1.46 mgKOH/g, 2.98 meq/kg, 49.13 and 189.40. The acidity and peroxide values were lower than the obtained values in commercial oil samples, respectively 2.48 mgKOH/g and 5.22 meq/kg. Aqueous extraction has presented lower efficiency and higher oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, pequi pulp pressing at room temperature has produced better quality oil. However its efficiency is still smaller than the combined enzymatic treatment and pressing process. This combined process promotes cellular wall hydrolysis and pulp viscosity reduction, contributing to at least 20% of oil yield increase by pressing.O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar o rendimento e a qualidade do óleo da polpa de pequi obtido por dois processos distintos: no primeiro, a secagem da polpa, conduzida em secador de bandeja a 60ºC, foi combinada com tratamento enzimático e prensagem para extração de óleo, no segundo, um processo mai simples foi realizado combinando-se a secagem da polpa ao sol seguida da prensagem a frio. Neste estudo, frutos de

  4. Investigation of plasmid profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern multiple antibiotic resistance index calculation of Escherichia coli isolates obtained from different human clinical specimens at tertiary care hospital in Bareilly-India

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    Ajay Francis Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Escherichia coli is well known as noninvasive commensal and has been established as etiological agent of various human infections. E. coli also contributes to high rate of resistance to several antibiotics due to multiresistant antibiotic plasmid genes e.g., extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL. Material and Methods: To analyse the situation of antibiotic resistance, a total of 77 E.coli isolates from urine, pus, sputum and endotracheal aspirate were screened for their antibiograms for antibiotic resistance, multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index for evaluating the spread of resistance and plasmid profiles for the presence and characterization of plasmids. Results: Very high resistance level (> 90% was detected against ampicillin, amoxycillin, ceftazidime, norfloxacin, tetracycline while imipenem and amikacin recorded the least resistance levels of 2.3% and 13.9%, respectively, among the isolates. An increased resistance to amoxycillin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole and norfloxacin were observed in this geographical area which however displayed a lower resistance in other countries. The MAR index varied considerably, the lowest was 0.18 and the highest was 0.89. Plasmids of 10 size ranges were detected in the isolates. Some isolates possessed single-sized plasmid while other possessed multiple plasmids. Isolates with high MAR profiles were found to possess multiple plasmids. Conclusion: Regular antimicrobial sensitivity surveillance is necessary and acquisition of plasmid could greatly contribute in the antibiotic resistance and poses a significant risk of the spread of microbial resistance in this community. Also, it was observed that route of administration of antibiotics perhaps reduced its misuse and hence led to the reduction in the emergence of resistant bacterial strains.

  5. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  6. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Löfström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types......, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude...

  7. Isolation and characterization of Wharton’s jelly-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells obtained from bovine umbilical cord and maintained in a defined serum-free three-dimensional system

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    Cardoso Tereza C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility for isolating bovine mesenchymal multipotent cells (MSCs from fetal adnexa is an interesting prospect because of the potential for these cells to be used for biotechnological applications. Bone marrow and adipose tissue are the most common sources of MSCs derived from adult animals. However, little knowledge exists about the characteristics of these progenitors cells in the bovine species. Traditionally most cell cultures are developed in two dimensional (2D environments. In mammalian tissue, cells connect not only to each other, but also support structures called the extracellular matrix (ECM. The three-dimensional (3D cultures may play a potential role in cell biotechnology, especially in tissue therapy. In this study, bovine-derived umbilical cord Wharton’s jelly (UC-WJ cells were isolated, characterized and maintained under 3D-free serum condition as an alternative of stem cell source for future cell banking. Results Bovine-derived UC-WJ cells, collected individually from 5 different umbilical cords sources, were successfully cultured under serum-free conditions and were capable to support 60 consecutive passages using commercial Stemline® mesenchymal stem cells expansion medium. Moreover, the UC-WJ cells were differentiated into osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and neural-like cells and cultured separately. Additionally, the genes that are considered important embryonic, POU5F1 and ITSN1, and mesenchymal cell markers, CD105+, CD29+, CD73+ and CD90+ in MSCs were also expressed in five bovine-derived UC-WJ cultures. Morphology of proliferating cells typically appeared fibroblast-like spindle shape presenting the same viability and number. These characteristics were not affected during passages. There were 60 chromosomes at the metaphase, with acrocentric morphology and intense telomerase activity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of T cells in response to a mitogen stimulus was suppressed when

  8. Composição química e compostos bioativos presentes na polpa e na amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds in the pulp and almond of pequi fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro de Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da composição química dos alimentos é fundamental para se avaliarem a disponibilidade de nutrientes e o seu consumo por populações. Neste trabalho, o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. foi caracterizado pela composição centesimal e pela presença de compostos bioativos na polpa e na amêndoa. Os dados do perfil lipídico mostram alto teor de lípides tanto na polpa quanto na amêndoa, destacando-se nos mesmos a presença dos ácidos graxos insaturados, predominando o ácido oléico como principal componente entre os ácidos graxos. Foi observada também a relação entre os elevados teores de ácidos graxos insaturados com os compostos fenólicos e carotenóides presentes, tendo a polpa quantidades mais expressivas dessas substâncias quando comparada à amêndoa, além de conter uma quantidade superior de fibra alimentar. Os resultados obtidos abrem a perspectiva de se utilizar o pequi como fruto que apresenta, na sua composição, compostos importantes para a formulação de uma dieta saudável.The knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is basic for evaluate the nutrients availability and its consumption for the population. In this work, the pulp and the almond of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. were characterized by the centesimal composition and the presence of nutrients. The results showed high amount of lipids and in the fatty acids profile, the oleic fatty acid was the main component. The presence between high unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids and carotenoids was correlated with the fruit protection. In the pulp was observed too high amount of alimentary fiber. These results are suggesting the pequi utilization in a healthful diet preparation.

  9. Características físicas, composição químico-nutricional e dos óleos essenciais da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense nativo do estado de Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison Willy Silva Cordeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O fruto do pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. apresenta considerável variabilidade em suas características físicas e químicas, segundo a região de origem, e pesquisas com frutos procedentes do Estado de Mato Grosso são escassas na literatura. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as características físicas, a composição químico-nutricional e os constituintes voláteis da polpa de pequi coletado em diferentes locais do Estado de Mato Grosso. Os frutos foram analisados quanto à cor (L*, a*, b*, hº e C*, à massa e ao rendimento do mesocarpo externo, pirênios e polpa. Foram determinados a composição centesimal, os teores de carotenoides totais, o perfil de ácidos graxos e de constituintes voláteis da polpa, e analisada a composição físico-química do solo dos locais de coleta.. Constatou-se que o fruto é composto por 80-85% de mesocarpo externo, 11-15% de pirênios e 4-7% de polpa, que é rica em lipídios (46-51g 100g-1, carotenoides totais (15-27mg 100g-1 - que foram associados à tonalidade e à intensidade da cor (hº e C* da polpa - e fibra alimentar (8-15g 100g-1. Os principais constituintes voláteis da polpa de pequi foram o hexanoato de etila, (E-β-ocimeno e octanoato de etila. O isobutirato de alila, 3-hexanol, 4-metil-2-pentanol, mirceno, (Z-di-hidroapofarnesol, β-eudesmol e (E-E geranilalinalool foram descritos pela primeira vez nos óleos essenciais da polpa de C. brasiliense. Grande parte da variância total dos voláteis foi explicada pelo conjunto de variáveis do solo, destacando-se o silte, o P e o Mg2+.

  10. First insight into genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Albania obtained by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and spoligotyping reveals the presence of beijing multidrug-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaj, Silva; Zhang, Jian; Hauck, Yolande; Pourcel, Christine; Hafizi, Hasan; Zoraqi, Grigor; Sola, Christophe

    2009-05-01

    We characterized a set of 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) patients in Albania, typing them with a 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat-spoligotyping scheme. Depending on the cluster definition, 43 to 49 patients were distributed into 15 to 16 clusters which were likely to be epidemiologically linked, indicative of a recent transmission rate of 28 to 34%. This result suggests that TB is under control in Albania. However, two multidrug-resistant (MDR) Beijing genotypes harboring the same S531A mutation on the rpoB gene were also found, suggesting a potential recent transmission of MDR TB. Three brand new genotypes, Albania-1 to Albania-3, are also described.

  11. Antifungal suscepitibility profile of candida spp. oral isolates obtained from denture wearers Perfil de sensibilidade antifungica de isolados de candida sp obtidos de usuários de prótese total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Lyon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition that occurs in denture wearers and is frequently associated with Candida yeasts. Antifungal susceptibility profiles have been extensively evaluated for candidiasis patients or immunosupressed individuals, but not for healthy Candida carriers. In the present study, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosin were tested against 109 oral Candida spp. isolates. All antifungal agents were effective against the samples tested except for terbinafine. This work might provide epidemiological information about Candida spp. drug susceptibility in oral healthy individuals.A estomatite protética é uma condição inflamatória que ocorre em usuários de prótese total e está frequentemente associada a leveduras do gênero Candida, Os perfis de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos têm sido extensivamente estudados em pacientes com candidíase ou em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, mas não em portadores sadios de Candida. No presente estudo, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, terbinafina e 5-flucitosina foram testados contra 109 isolados orais de Candida spp. Todos os agentes antifúngicos mostraram-se eficazes contra as amostras avaliadas, exceto a Terbinafina. O presente trabalho pode fornecer dados epidemiológicos com relação à susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida spp em indivíduos com saúde oral.

  12. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Knegt, Leonardo V; Pires, Sara M; Löfström, Charlotta; Sørensen, Gitte; Pedersen, Karl; Torpdahl, Mia; Nielsen, Eva M; Hald, Tine

    2016-03-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude that loci schemes STTR5/STTR10/STTR3 for S. Typhimurium and SE9/SE5/SE2/SE1/SE3 for S. Enteritidis can be used in microbial subtyping-based source attribution models. Based on the results, we discuss that an adjustment of the discriminatory level of the subtyping method applied often will be required to fit the purpose of the study and the available data. The issues discussed are also considered highly relevant when applying, e.g., extended multi-locus sequence typing or next-generation sequencing techniques.

  13. Insetos aquáticos associados a macrófitas da região litoral da represa do Ribeirão das Anhumas (município de Américo Brasiliense, São Paulo, Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Peiró,Douglas Fernando; Alves,Roberto da Gama

    2006-01-01

    As pesquisas sobre insetos aquáticos vem sendo muito difundidas nos últimos anos. Entretanto, existem lacunas sobre o conhecimento de suas relações com macrófitas aquáticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a composição e estrutura da entomofauna associada a seis gêneros de macrófitas da represa do Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense/SP), avaliar as categorias funcionais tróficas dos insetos, comparar as similaridades faunísticas entre os períodos de coletas e entre as macrófitas ...

  14. Obtaining carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants in isolated microspore cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecka, K; Kowalska, U; Krzyzanowska, D; Kiszczak, W

    2010-01-01

    Microspores were cultured on the modified B5 liquid medium containing 2.4D (0.1 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.1 mg L(-1)), L-glutamine (500 mg L(-1), L-serine (100 mg L(-1)), and sucrose (100 g L(-1)). The developmental stages of microspores and divisions were observed. Initially, the formation of binuclear and multicellular structures was noticed. Plants regenerated in the cultures in which the tetrad stage of microsporogenesis had predominated. Embryoids were still forming 24 weeks after the cultures were set up. Six weeks after the transfer of androgenetic embryos onto the B5 regeneration medium, they were converted into complete plants. Out of 90 androgenetic plants planted in a growth chamber, 42 plants adapted to the new conditions. All of those plants proved to be diploids in cytometric analysis.

  15. Inhibition of gastric H+,K+-ATPase activity by flavonoids, coumarins and xanthones isolated from Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Alavez-Solano, Dagoberto; Estrada-Muñiz, Elizabeth; Kauffman, Frederick C; Sanchez, Rosa I; Mesia-Vela, Sonia

    2006-04-21

    Medicinal plants are commonly used in Latin American folk medicine for the treatment of gastric problems. In order to understand the properties of some of their chemical constituents, four natural xanthones, an acetylated derivative, two coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea C/OA) isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess and two flavonoids (minimiflorin and mundulin) isolated from Lonchocarpus oaxacensis Pittier, and the chalcone lonchocarpin isolated from Lonchocarpus guatemalensis Benth were tested for their activities on gastric H+,K+-ATPase isolated from dog stomach. All the compounds tested inhibited H+,K+-ATPase activity with varied potency. The xanthones inhibited the H+,K+-ATPase with IC50 values ranging from 47 microM to 1.6 mM. Coumarins inhibited H+,K+-ATPase with IC50 values of 110 and 638 microM. IC50 values for the flavonoids ranged from 9.6 to 510 microM among which minimiflorin was the most potent. The results suggest that H+,K+-ATPase is sensitive to inhibition by several types of structurally different natural compounds. The potency of the effects on gastric H+,K+-ATPase depends on the presence, position and number of hydroxyls groups in the molecule. Collectively, these results suggest a potential for important pharmacological and toxicological interactions by these types of natural products at the level of H+,K+-ATPase which may explain, at least in part, the gastroprotective properties, indicated by traditional medicine, of the plants from which these compounds were isolated.

  16. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.

  17. Complete atrioventricular block on isolated guinea pig heart induced by an aqueous fraction obtained from Psidium guajava L. leaf Bloqueio atrioventricular completo em coração isolado de cobaia produzido por uma fração aquosa obtida das folhas de Psidium guajava L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio N.S. Gondim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to study the electrocardiographic effect produced by the aqueous fraction (AqF obtained from the acetic extract of Psidium guajava L. leaf on the isolated guinea pig heart. Electrocardiographic records (ECG were obtained on isolated hearts beating spontaneously or under regular electrical stimulation. The hearts were mounted in a constant flow Langendorff perfusion system. Until 20 mg/mL, AqF did not change the spontaneous cardiac rate (control: 180 ± 9 bpm, test: 182 ± 10 bpm; N = 3; p > 0.05. Concentrations equal or greater then 20 mg/mL induced complete atrioventricular block (AVB. However, this effect promptly disappeared when AqF was removed from the perfusion fluid (N = 3 hearts. The AVB induced by AqF involves heart muscarinic receptors because atropine sulfate (1.5 mM could prevent the appearance of such disturbance.O presente trabalho visou estudar o efeito eletrocardiográfico produzido pela fração aquosa (AqF obtida do extrato acético das folhas de Psidium guajava L. em coração isolado de cobaia. Os traçados eletrocardiográficos foram obtidos em corações batendo espontaneamente ou então sob estimulação elétrica. Os corações foram montados em uma sistema de perfusão do tipo Langendoff de fluxo constante. A AqF, usada em concentrações menores que 20 mg/mL, não alterou a freqüência espontânea do coração (controle: 180 ± 9 bpm, teste: 182 ± 10 bpm; N = 3; p > 0,05. Todavia, concentrações iguais ou maiores que 20 mg/mL produziram bloqueio atrioventricular completo (BAV. Este efeito, contudo, desapareceu prontamente quando se removeu a AqF do fluido de perfusão coronariana (N = 3 corações. O BAV promovido pela AqF se faz mediado pelos receptores muscarínicos porque o sulfato de atropina (1,5 mM impediu o aparecimento deste efeito.

  18. Isolation and Amplification Genomic DNA from Endometriotic Cells Obtained by Laser Capture Microdissection%激光显微切割技术用于子宫内膜异位组织DNA的提取及其完整性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵路阳; 李小雷; 张燕; 赵亚力; 韩为东; 孟元光

    2013-01-01

    目的::探索一套激光显微切割(LCM)分离子宫内膜异位症腺体细胞后提取微量DNA并进行完整性分析的操作流程。方法:分别对20例石蜡标本及20例冰冻标本进行LCM,收集切割后的腺体细胞;2组标本各取10例提取微量DNA,检测DNA浓度并通过PCR扩增进行验证;余20例标本分别进行全基因组扩增,检测产物浓度并利用8种常见管家基因作为引物通过PCR扩增进行验证,对比分析其结果。结果:石蜡标本与冰冻标本在LCM获取腺体细胞及提取微量DNA两个环节中均可获得满意效果;但经全基因组扩增后,石蜡标本无法保留完整DNA信息。结论:LCM获取子宫内膜异位症腺体细胞提取微量DNA是一种操作简单、结果稳定的方法,可作为日后子宫内膜异位症基因组研究的常规方法;冰冻切片相对石蜡切片,更能保留完整的DNA信息。%Objective: To detect a standard protocol for isolation of low amount DNA from the endometriotic cells obtained by laser capture microdissection(LCM). Methods: Using LCM to collect endometriotic cells from 20 paraffin specimens and 20 frozen specimens. 10 cases of each group were used to extract DNA. The others were used to do whole genome amplification. The production was validated by spectrophotometer and PCR was per-formed with housekeeping genes in different chromosomes. Results: Both the frozen samples and formalin-fixed par-affin embedded tissue can extract DNA production. However, after whole genome amplification, paraffin specimens can not remain intact DNA information. Conclusion: Isolation the genomic DNA from endometriotic cells obtained by LCM is a simple and stable method, which can be used as a routine approach for the future genome research of endometriosis.

  19. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  20. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.B.Cardoso; N.G.de Almeida

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes(TSI)and study its statistical features,making an analogy with dynamical systems theory(DST).As a specific example,we have studied TSI for the doubring and the logistic functions,which are standard functions in studying chaos.TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST.

  1. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo de Almeida; Maria Helena Amaral; Paulo Lobão

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV) as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA tec...

  2. 高速离心生牛乳所得4种分离物的感官及干燥失重分析%Sensory evaluation and dry matter analysis on 4 isolates obtained from high-speed centrifugation of raw milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 李宏梁; 张莉; 魏莉娟; 黄峻榕

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过高速离心发现了牛乳一个被忽视的简单现象,可用于鉴别牛乳的掺假问题。方法本实验以奶牛场不同泌乳期的正常生牛乳为对象,通过10000 r/min的转速进行高速离心20 min,对离心产物进行感官和干燥失重分析。结果高速离心能快速使生牛乳形成4种分离物,分别为:上层悬浮的奶皮,静置20 min后会溶解消失、离心管壁上半部分附着的半圆形稀奶油、脱脂乳液体、离心管底部的沉淀物。对于泌乳期为2、4、6个月的正常乳,4种产物的感官评定无显著差异,4种产物的干物质占生牛乳总干物质质量百分比的平均值分别为8.2%、15.3%、72.0%、4.5%。结论此方法为牛乳的掺假鉴别提出了一种新思路,简单、快速、成本低、重现性好。%ObjectiveA simple phenomenon after high-speed centrifugation of raw milk was used to eva-luate milk adulteration.MethodsNormal raw milk during different lactation period, obtained from dairy farm, was high-speed centrifuged at 10000 r/min for 20 min. Samples after centrifugation were analyzed upon dry mat-ter and sensory evaluation.Results Four isolates appeared rapidly after the high-speed centrifugation of raw milk: the upper suspended milk skin, which was dissolved after standing for 20 min, the semicircle cream that ad-hered to the upper half wall of centrifuge tube, the liquid skim milk, and the sediment at the bottom of centrifuge tube. For normal raw milk during 2, 4, and 6 months of lactation, on average, sensory evaluation of the4 products showed no significant differences, the dry matter of these 4 isolates were accounted for 8.2%, 15.3%, 72.0%, and 4.5% (w:w), respectively, of the total dry matter of raw milk.Conclusion This is a new method for evaluation of milk adulteration which is simple and fast, with low cost and good reproducibility.

  3. Truncated states obtained by iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, W B

    2007-01-01

    Quantum states of the electromagnetic field are of considerable importance, finding potential application in various areas of physics, as diverse as solid state physics, quantum communication and cosmology. In this paper we introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST. A general method to engineer TSI in the running-wave domain is employed, which includes the errors due to the nonidealities of detectors and photocounts.

  4. Biofilmes nanocompósitos obtidos de isolado proteico de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri e Montmorilonita: avaliação das propriedades físicas, mecânicas e de barreira Nanocomposite biofilms obtained from Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri protein isolate and Monmorilonite: Evaluation of the physical, mechanical and barrier properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Renzo Cortez-Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as propriedades de biofilmes nanocompósitos de isolado proteico de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri com argila organofílica. Inicialmente, foi obtido isolado proteico de corvina (IPC utilizando-se o processo de mudança de pH. O IPC foi obtido a partir de subprodutos da industrialização de corvina. Para o desenvolvimento dos filmes, foi executado um planejamento experimental de Box e Behnken, com três níveis de IPC (2; 3,5; 5 g.100 g-1 de solução, argila montmorilonita MMT (0,3; 0,5; 0,7 g.100 g-1 de solução e glicerol (25, 30, 35 g.100 g-1 IPC. Os filmes poliméricos foram desenvolvidos pela técnica de casting. Os valores de resistência à tração variaram entre 7,2 e 10,7 MPa, e os valores de alongamento, de 39,6 a 45,8%. Os valores de permeabilidade ao vapor de água (PVA variaram entre 3,2 e 5,5 g mm m-2 d-1kPa-1. O IPC apresentou teor médio de proteína de 97,87% (b. s.. Pode-se concluir que os filmes nanocompósitos produzidos a partir de IPC com MMT foram promissores, desde o ponto de vista das propriedades mecânicas, da aparência visual e do fácil manuseio até a baixa permeabilidade ao vapor de água e a baixa solubilidade. Com relação às propriedades mecânicas, as concentrações de IPC e MMT foram os principais fatores que influenciaram o desenvolvimento dos filmes nanocompósitos. Os resultados obtidos no planejamento experimental utilizado indicaram que 3,5 g de IPC.100 g-1 de solução, 0,5 g de MMT.100 g-1 de solução e 30 g de glicerol.100 g-1 IPC seriam os parâmetros ideais para a preparação de filmes nanocompósitos por casting.The objective of this study was to evaluate the properties of nanocomposite biofilms based on Whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri protein isolate with organophilic clays. Initially the croaker protein isolate (CPI was obtained using the pH shifting process from by-products of croaker industrialization. A Box and Behnken experimental

  5. Drugs obtained by biotechnology processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Almeida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the number of drugs of biotechnological origin available for many different diseases has increased exponentially, including different types of cancer, diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases (e.g. AIDS Virus / HIV as well as cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, among others. The pharmaceutical industry has used different technologies to obtain new and promising active ingredients, as exemplified by the fermentation technique, recombinant DNA technique and the hybridoma technique. The expiry of the patents of the first drugs of biotechnological origin and the consequent emergence of biosimilar products, have posed various questions to health authorities worldwide regarding the definition, framework, and requirements for authorization to market such products.Nos últimos anos, tem aumentado exponencialmente o número de fármacos de origem biotecnológica ao dispor das mais diversas patologias, entre elas destacam-se, os diferentes tipos de cancêr, as doenças infecciosas (ex. vírus AIDS/HIV, as doenças autoimunes, as doenças cardiovasculares, a Diabetes Mellitus, as doenças neurológicas, as doenças respiratórias, entre outras. A indústria farmacêutica tem recorrido a diferentes tecnologias para a obtenção de novos e promissores princípios ativos, como são exemplo a fermentação, a técnica de DNA Recombinante, a técnica de hidridoma, entre outras. A queda das patentes dos primeiros fármacos de origem biotecnológica e o consequente aparecimento dos produtos biossimilares têm colocado diferentes questões às autoridades de saúde mundiais, sobre a definição, enquadramento e exigências para a autorização de entrada no mercado deste tipo de produtos.

  6. ISOLATED MOLECULES IN METALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, some results obtained on the formation of isolated molecules of composition SnOx in silver and SnFx in copper-are reviewed. Hyperfine interaction and ion beam interaction techniques were used for the identification of these molecules.

  7. Isolamento, caracterização e diferenciação de células-tronco mesenquimais do líquido amniótico equino obtido em diferentes idades gestacionais Isolation, characterization and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine amniotic fluid obtained from different gestacional ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna De Vita

    2013-04-01

    potencial de diferenciação em linhagens extra mesodermais já relatados na literatura.The interest in stem cells derived from fetal annexes of many species has exponentially increased during the last decades, because they are adult stem cell sources with potential of differentiation in several cell lineages; which present little or no immunogenicity and are an alternative with great importance for storage cell banks. Despite the rising interest, studies for the equine species are still rare. The aim of this study was to isolate, characterize and differentiate mesenchymal stem cells derived from equine amniotic fluid obtained from initial, middle and late third of gestation (AF-MSCs, and compare their results. Twenty three samples from equine amniotic fluid were evaluated by morphological, immunocytochemical and immunophenotypical (Flow cytometer assays and osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. All samples demonstrated plastic adhesion and fibroblastoid morphology. The immunocytochemical assay demonstrated cells from all the studied groups were positive for CD44, PCNA and vimentin and negative for cytokeratin and Oct-4. Flow cytometry demonstrated expression of CD44 and CD90 and no expression of CD34, where CD44 and CD90 markers presented decreasing pattern of expression in relation to the gestational development. All samples collected from all gestational phases were capable to differentiate in osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. Thus, cells obtained from equine amniotic fluid presented morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics and potential of differentiation typical of MSCs showing that the collection can be performed at any stage of pregnancy. However, more studies should be performed about the expression of pluripotent markers as Oct-4 and the differentiation potential for extra mesodermal lineages prior demonstrated in the literature.

  8. ANTIBIOTICS SUSCEPTIBILITY AND RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF CAMPYLOBACTER OBTAINED FROM HUMANS AND CHICKENS IN OSOGBO

    OpenAIRE

    O.C Adekunle

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence of gastroenteritis due to Campylobacter species has been established in both humans and chickens Osogbo. This study was done to compare antibiotic susceptibility and resistance patterns in both humans and chickens. Twenty three Campylobacter isolates were obtained from humans and twenty isolates from chickens. The isolates were also subjected to the antimicrobial sensitivity testing. All the isolates exhibited varying degree of sensivity to the antimicrobial agents with ciprofloxac...

  9. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  10. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of isolates of Staphylococcus spp. obtained from sheep milk Chapecó-SCCaracterização fenotípica e molecular de isolados de Staphylococcus spp. obtidos de leite de ovelhas do Município de Chapecó-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Manta Bragança

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and to assess the presence of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus spp. (n=36 isolated from mastitis in sheep’s Chapecó-SC. The potential for biofilm production was determined by phenotypic tests of Congo Red Agar, DAPI and Gentian Violet and by PCR for the detection of icaD gene. To evaluate the antimicrobial resistance testing was performed disk diffusion and detection of resistance genes blaZ, mecA, ermA, ermB and ermC and msrA also performed by PCR.The pump test was conducted by efuxo crop growth Muller Hinton agar containing ethidium bromide. The results showed that 1 (2,78%, 36 (100% and 10 (27,78% isolates were considered to produce a biofilm on Congo Red Agar test, Gentian Violet and DAPI, respectively, while the gene icaD was observed in only 2 (5.55% isolates. The lowest percentage of sensitivity was observed for ampicillin (58.33% and penicillin (58.33%. All strains tested were negative for the mecA, ermA, ermB and ermC genes. However, the isolates were positive for other resistance genes, being the blaZ and the msrA, with percentages of positivity of 58.33% and 11.11% respectively. Only one sample was positive for efflux pump test.O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e avaliar a presença de mecanismos de resistência antimicrobiana em Staphylococcus spp. (n=36 isolados de mastite em ovelhas do município de Chapecó-SC. O potencial para produção de biofilme foi determinado pelos testes fenotípicos de Agar Vermelho Congo, DAPI e Violeta de Genciana e por teste molecular pela técnica de PCR para a detecção do gene icaD. Para determinar o perfil de resistência aos antimicrobianos, foi realizado o teste de difusão em disco e detecção dos genes de resistência blaZ, mecA, erm (A, B e C e msrA. O teste da bomba de efuxo foi realizado através do crescimento das culturas em Agar

  11. Análisis molecular de una cepa de virus de Newcastle de origen vacunal aislada a partir de un hisopado cloacal de aves sanas en Costa Rica - Molecular analysis of an isolated Newcastle disease virus strain obtained from cloacal swabs in healthy poultry farm in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Rodríguez, Bernal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl virus de Newcastle (VNC es un paramyxovirus tipo 1 (APMV-1 quepertenece a la familia Paramyxoviridae, género Avulavirus, los cualesson virus de ARN no segmentados de una sola hebra de polaridadnegativa. En Costa Rica, se vacuna con cepas de baja patogenicidad y nunca se ha detectado brotes de cepas de alta patogenicidad. En el artículo se informa sobre el aislamiento de una cepa de VNC la cual se hizo a partir de un huevo embrionado inoculado con un hisopado cloacal de una muestra de una parvada de aves que no presentó signos clínicos de la enfermedad. La cepa fue identificada por la prueba de inhibición de la hemaglutinación y confirmada por PCR. posteriormente, se secuenció un fragmento de 310 pares de bases que incluyó el dominio de corte del gen F0 (posición 112 a 117 de la proteína, se demostró por análisis filogenéticos que la cepa aislada era de baja patogenicidad y de origen vacunal.SummaryA Newcastle Disease Virus was isolated from an embryonated egginoculated with a cloacal swab specimen fluid received for testing from a poultry flock without clinical signs. The sample was identify by the Hemagglutination-Inhibition Assay and confirmed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR. Subsequently, a region of the fusion protein gene F0 of 310 base pairs (that included the cut site at position 112 to 117 of the protein was sequenced and was demonstrated by phylogenetic and molecular analysis that the isolated strain was low pathogenic and vaccine origin.

  12. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  13. [Biological decontamination of the imprints obtained from different dental materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekhlichuk, P P; Petrov, V O; Bati, V V; Levchuk, O B; Boĭko, N V

    2013-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of the imprints made of alginate ("Ypeen") and silicone material ("Speedex") with and without the correction supplement has been investigated. Streptococcus and Staphylococcus have been estimated to be the most survivable species on the imprint surface, however their concentration differ depending on the type of imprints' material. The strains resistant to antibiotics dominated among all the isolated microorganisms. Bacterial preparations based on Bacillus - Biosporin and Subalin and some extracts of edible plants, fruits and berries can be used in dentistry for the decontamination of imprints obtained by the use of different materials.

  14. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  15. Serological comparison of tospovirus isolates using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, G.; Peters, D.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    A test was conducted to compare tospovirus isolates using different poly- and monoclonal antibodies. All isolates and antibodies were compared under identical conditions. From 130 tospovirus isolates, which were obtained from all over the world and included well-characterized isolates from all four

  16. Bacterial contamination in cold water samples obtained from water dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a basic study in order to evaluate the bacterial contamination in water dispensers. Water samples were obtained from water dispensers from October 2012 to November 2013, and standard plate counts (at 36˚C, 24 h) of the samples, as well as heterotrophic plate counts (at 25˚C, 7 d), were estimated with the standard methods for the examination of drinking water in Japan. Standard plate counts exceeding the water-quality standard (1.0×10(2) CFU/ml) were observed in 42 of the 140 samples (30.0%), with a maximum detected bacterial count of 2.1×10(5) CFU/ml. The rate of the standard plate counts exceeding the water quality standard tended to be higher when using a one-way type method or water dispensers with natural water. Ralstonia spp. was most commonly isolated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in a few cases. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated, suggesting that we should be more concerned about bacterial contamination in cold water supplied from water dispensers.

  17. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time.

  18. Palladium nanoparticles obtained by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampedro, B.; Hernando, A. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado (RENFE-UCM-CSIC), P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rojas, T.C.; Fernandez, A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, Centro mixto CSIC-UNIV, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2006-05-15

    Opposed to the existing chemical methods, we have used a physical one in order to obtain palladium nanoparticles. In this work we present the HRTEM observation of Pd nanoparticles obtained by mechanical milling. These particles are around 6 nm in size. The Pd milled samples have exhaustively been structurally characterized. We have also studied its magnetic properties as a function of the milling time and magnetic measurements are according to those previously carried out by us in palladium nanoparticles obtained by chemical methods. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7. Mammea-type coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana (Clusiaceae are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. brasiliense. Mammea A/AA was obtained from the fruit peels of M. americana. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The most potent compounds were mammea A/BA, A/BB, A/AA, A/BD and B/BA, with MC100 values in the range of 15 to 90 g/ml. Coumarins with a cyclized ,-dimethylallyl substituent on C-6, such as mammea B/BA, cyclo F + B/BB cyclo F, and isomammeigin, showed MC100 values > 200 g/ml. Several active coumarins were also tested against normal human lymphocytes in vitro, which showed that mammea A/AA and A/BA were not toxic. Other compounds from C. brasiliense, such as the triterpenoids, friedelin, canophyllol, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, and protocatechuic and shikimic acids, were inactive against the epimastigotes. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds.

  20. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  1. Obtaining breathers in nonlinear Hamiltonian lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Flach, S

    1995-01-01

    Abstract We present a numerical method for obtaining high-accuracy numerical solutions of spatially localized time-periodic excitations on a nonlinear Hamiltonian lattice. We compare these results with analytical considerations of the spatial decay. We show that nonlinear contributions have to be considered, and obtain very good agreement between the latter and the numerical results. We discuss further applications of the method and results.

  2. Critical Heegaard surfaces obtained by amalgamation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jung Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Critical surfaces are defined by Bachman as topological index 2 surfaces, generalizing incompressible surfaces and strongly irreducible surfaces. In this paper we give a condition to obtain critical Heegaard surfaces by amalgamation. As a special case, we obtain critical Heegaard surfaces by boundary stabilization. It gives critical Heegaard surfaces of non-minimal genus, for 3-manifolds which do not admit distinct Heegaard splittings (up to isotopy).

  3. Experimental murine chromoblastomycosis obtained from Fonsecaea pedrosoi isolate cultured for a long periodt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AP Machado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe F. pedrosoi propagules capable of causing chronic murine disease. Several changes in F. pedrosoi hyphae were identified in fungal cells cultured for a long period. Optical microscopy found many rounded cells with double-rigid melanin-rich walls. Terminal and intercalary chlamydoconidia were also frequently observed. Analyses of images from transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed several cells with walls composed of at least three layers and an outer layer enriched with melanin. Two groups of twenty BALB/c mice were subcutaneously infected in their footpads with F. pedrosoi cells at an inoculum concentration of approximately 1 x 10(4 cells/mL. In one group, long-term cultured F. pedrosoi cells were inoculated in one footpad, whereas in the other group, both footpads were infected. Active lesions were observed up to seven months post-infection, particularly in mice inoculated at two sites. After this period, animals were killed. Histological sections revealed characteristics bearing a strong resemblance to the human form of the disease such as tissue hyperplasia, granulomas with microabscesses and sclerotic cells. Based on this study, we identified fungal cells from old cultures capable of provoking chronic chromoblastomycosis under experimental conditions, especially when more than one site is infected.

  4. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes. During these episodes the person is unable to move ...

  5. Obtaining Funding and Support for Undergraduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorff, Michael; Narayan, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in undergraduate research activities at colleges and universities nationwide. However, this comes at a time when budgets are being tightened and some institutions do not have the resources to pursue new initiatives. In this article we present some ideas for obtaining funding and support for…

  6. Obtaining exact value by approximate computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-zhong ZHANG; Yong FENG

    2007-01-01

    Numerical approximate computations can solve large and complex problems fast. They have the advantage of high efficiency. However they only give approximate results, whereas we need exact results in some fields. There is a gap between approximate computations and exact results.In this paper, we build a bridge by which exact results can be obtained by numerical approximate computations.

  7. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... non-profit entity that falls within one of the seven categories set forth in the definition of health... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  8. Obtaining the Andersen's chart, triangulation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    Andersen’s chart (Andersen & Berre, 1999) is a graphical method of observing cyclic soil response. It allows observing soil response to various stress amplitudes that can lead to liquefaction, excess plastic deformation or stabilizing soil response. The process of obtaining the original chart has...

  9. Strategies for obtaining unpublished drug trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, Nicole; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Bero, Lisa Anne

    2013-01-01

    Authors of systematic reviews have difficulty obtaining unpublished data for their reviews. This project aimed to provide an in-depth description of the experiences of authors in searching for and gaining access to unpublished data for their systematic reviews, and to give guidance on best practi...

  10. Obtaining exact value by approximate computations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Numerical approximate computations can solve large and complex problems fast.They have the advantage of high efficiency.However they only give approximate results,whereas we need exact results in some fields.There is a gap between approximate computations and exact results. In this paper,we build a bridge by which exact results can be obtained by numerical approximate computations.

  11. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil Influência do método de extração e do tempo de armazenamento sobre as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenóides do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.Este estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenoides totais do óleo de pequi (OP obtido por diferentes métodos de extração, bem como avaliar a conservação dessas propriedades e dos pigmentos durante o armazenamento. O OP foi obtido por extração com solventes, extração mecânica e flotação com água quente, e armazenado por 180 dias em frascos âmbar sob condições ambientes. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos índices de acidez, peróxido, saponificação e iodo, da coloração e do teor de carotenoides totais e de β-carotenos. Verificou-se que a extração com solventes promoveu um maior rendimento em óleo e o maior valor de carotenoides totais. A extração mecânica resultou em um óleo com acidez (5,44 mg KOH.g-1 e índice de peróxido (1,07 mEq.kg-1 elevados. Ao longo do armazenamento do OP, houve aumento da

  12. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated in 1965 are more susceptible to triclosan than current isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Sissel; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Larsen, Marianne Halberg;

    2013-01-01

    pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis with isolates collected in the 1960s prior to introduction of triclosan to the market. Of 64 current S. epidermidis isolates 12.5% were found to have tolerance towards triclosan defined as MIC≥0.25 mg/l compared to none of 34 isolates obtained in the 1960s. When passaged...... in the laboratory in the presence of triclosan, old and current susceptible isolates could be adapted to the same triclosan MIC level as found in current tolerant isolates. DNA sequence analysis revealed that laboratory-adapted strains carried mutations in fabI encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase...

  13. Method for Obtaining Committed Adult Mesenchymal Precursors from Skin and Lung Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Aurora Bernal; María Fernández; Pérez, Laura M.; Nuria San Martín; Gálvez, Beatriz G.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The present study reports an easy and efficient method for obtaining adult mesenchymal precursors from different adult mouse tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the isolation and expansion of mesenchymal precursors from skin and lung by a non-enzymatic method. Skin and lung mesenchymal precursors isolated by a modified explant technique were characterized in vitro by defined morphology and by a specific gene expression profile and surface markers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our re...

  14. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  15. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  16. Dehydration of fructose to obtain hydroxymethylfurfural

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Schaeffer, A.; Departamento Académico de Química Orgánica, FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Linares F., T.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Otiniano C., M.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, FQIQ Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Armijo C., J.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Ugarte T., N.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is the transformation of fructose to 4-hydroxymethylfurfural by a dehydratation process using the 4-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst . The reaction was carried out using solutions of fructose in water and fructose in water-acetone (50% volume) in a batch reactor at temperatures of 372 K and 348 K respectively. The yield reached a maximum of 16% to hydroxymethylfurfural, an intermediate for obtaining fuel furan. El objetivo del presente trabajo es la transformació...

  17. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakaroun, M. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France); Antony, R. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)], E-mail: remi.antony@unilim.fr; Taillepierre, P.; Moliton, A. [XLIM-MINACOM-UMR 6172, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, 123 av. Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges cedex (France)

    2007-09-15

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H{sub 2}O and O{sub 2}. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances.

  18. Obtaining Collagen Scaffolds for the Restoration of Myocardium Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Figueroa Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shown an update in the development of collagens for the manufacture of scaffold which are used in tissue regeneration. The steps to obtain collagen scaffolds such as isolation, acid solubilization, purification, precipitation, lyophilization and fibrillogenesis were described. As collagen sources, which provide collagen, Type I such as skin and tendon of mammalians, fish, and birds were mentioned. The physics-chemical characterization using several methods by electrophoresis analysis, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, thermogravimet-ric and mechanical assay were described. These tests permits to know the behavior of scaffolds. Applied cross-link method to improve physically stabilized to collagen were explained. Emphasis is placed on the limitations encountered during cell therapies and on the restoration of myocardial tissue using scaffolding, which are a challenge to be overcome by tissue engineering.

  19. Luminescent hybrid porphyrinosilica obtained by sol gel chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Cláudio Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel process is a methodology used to obtain organic-inorganic hybrid solids, which open new possibilities in the field of material science. The sol-gel technique offers a low temperature attractive approach for introducing organic molecules into amorphous materials. In order to introduce tetrakis (2-hydroxy-5-nitrophenylporphyrin covalently bounded to a silicate matrix, the inorganic precursor 3-isocyanatopropyltriethoxysilane was added (molar ratio 2:1 to the porphyrin solution in anhydrous dimethylformamide and triethylamine. The isolated porphyrin and the hybrid porphyrinosilica have excitation maximum centred at 400 nm and 424 nm, respectively and the emission spectra for both materials has bands centred at 650 nm and 713 nm. The formation of hybrid matrix was investigated by FTIR.

  20. Nanotwinned gold nanowires obtained by chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marco; Raja, Shilpa N; Lim, Sung Keun

    2010-07-16

    We demonstrate a facile method for synthesizing and isolating Au nanowires with a high density of twin boundary defects normal to the growth axis. In this process, oleylamine conveniently plays the role of the solvent, the reducing agent and the ligand. The geometry of the twin boundaries in the nanowires is in sharp contrast with the pentagonal twinning commonly observed in metal nanowires, and is of particular interest for its ultrahigh tensile strength. The nanostructure geometry and twin-twin average spacing were characterized using high-resolution electron microscopy, and the tensile strength of the nanowires was estimated in solution using a Ti ultrasonication probe. We present a model for explaining the role of the bulky ligand oleylamine in the formation of the twin boundaries that could be extended to include elastic terms in the ligand shell. Our work demonstrates that the use of bulky, asymmetric ligands can induce extensive formation of twin boundary defects that in turn control the mechanical properties at the nanoscale.

  1. Isolation of Leptospira noguchii from sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Everton F; Brod, Claudiomar S; Cerqueira, Gustavo M; Bourscheidt, Débora; Seyffert, Núbia; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Cleiton S; Ko, Albert I; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2007-03-31

    The main goal of this study was to obtain new isolates of Leptospira spp. from sheep. A total of 10 kidney samples and 44 blood samples were collected from sheep slaughtered in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. One isolate was obtained which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and serogrouping to be Leptospira noguchii serogroup Autumnalis. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) evaluation revealed that 4.5% of the sheep sera reacted against the Autumnalis serogroup. This is the first report of isolation of L. noguchii from sheep. Together these findings indicate that L. noguchii infections may be a potentially important veterinary problem in this domestic animal species.

  2. Analysis of data obtained from the liquid metal diffusion experiments on the MIR space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhanzadeh, Morteza

    Recent liquid metal diffusion data obtained using the Canadian Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) onboard the MIR space station have led to the proposal that suppression of gjitter may change the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient from a square law to a linear dependence. On the basis of these results, it was further concluded that the long capillary diffusion experiments in space were sensitive to vibration at levels below the current ISS specification for ARIS isolated racks. A thorough reanalysis of the original data leads to two principal findings: (i) a linear temperaturedependence does not emerge when all available diffusion data obtained on MIR in the isolation mode are considered in the analysis. This finding suggests that the linear relation that has been claimed for a number of dilute alloy systems may simply arise because very limited numbers of data were considered for analysis for each system; (ii) the measured diffusion coefficients obtained with MIM operating in isolation mode are widely scattered and the diffusion coefficient values are not consistently below the corresponding data obtained with MIM operating in non-isolated or driven modes. These facts suggest there is an uncontrolled source of experiment variation that is much stronger than the innate effect of g-jitter on the experiments. On the basis of these new findings, it is proposed that the results from the liquid metal diffusion experiments conducted on MIR do not support the conclusions drawn.

  3. Entropy of Isolated Horizons revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Rudranil; Majumdar, Parthasarathi

    2009-01-01

    The decade-old formulation of the isolated horizon classically and within loop quantum gravity, and the extraction of the microcanonical entropy of such a horizon from this formulation, is reviewed, in view of recent renewed interest. There are two main approaches to this problem: one employs an SU(2) Chern-Simons theory describing the isolated horizon degrees of freedom, while the other uses a reduced U(1) Chern-Simons theory obtained from the SU(2) theory, with appropriate constraints imposed on the spectrum of boundary states `living' on the horizon. It is shown that both these ways lead to the same infinite series asymptotic in horizon area for the microcanonical entropy of an isolated horizon. The leading area term is followed by an unambiguous correction term logarithmic in area with a coefficient $-\\frac32$, with subleading corrections dropping off as inverse powers of the area.

  4. Antimicrobial coatings — obtaining and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cornelia Guran; Alexandra Pica; Denisa Ficai; Anton Ficai; Cezar Comanescu

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present inorganic–organic hybrid coatings with polymer matrix (water soluble) that contain silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The structure and morphology of coating materials were determined by infrared spectroscopy (FT–IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore, the antimicrobial activities and mechanisms of coatings for several pathogenic bacteria (Bacilius cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) were investigated. It was demonstrated that the obtained material with silver nanoparticles keep their antimicrobial effect even if they are subjected to several cycles of washing with water and detergent.

  5. Erroneous laboratory values obtained from central catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J B; Messina, M

    1991-01-01

    Serious analytic errors in potassium measurements have been identified in blood specimens obtained from newly inserted central catheters. Erroneous elevated readings have been related to interactions of chemistry analyzer electrodes and substances fixed to external and intraluminal walls of the central catheter. Anecdotal summaries of this phenomenon are presented to enable the nurse to recognize potential problems when sampling blood from central catheters. Studies were performed to determine the amount of flush necessary to clear the catheter of interfering residue. To eliminate this potentially hazardous occurrence, recommended flush volumes, nursing implications, and actions are described.

  6. Base isolation system and verificational experiment of base isolated building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mikio; Harada, Osamu; Aoyagi, Sakae; Matsuda, Taiji

    1987-05-15

    With the objective of rationalization of the earthquake resistant design and the economical design based thereupon, many base isolation systems have been proposed and its research, development and application have been made in recent years. In order to disseminate the system, it is necessary to accumulate the data obtained from vibration tests and earthquake observations and verify the reliability of the system. From this viewpoint, the Central Research Institute of Electric power Industry and Okumura Corporation did the following experiments with a base isolated building as the object: 1) static power application experiments, 2) shaking experiments, 3) free vibration experiments, 4) regular slight vibration observations and 5) earthquake response observations (continuing). This article reports the outline of the base isolation system and the base isolated building concerned as well as the results of the verification experiments 1) through 3) above. From the results of these verification experiments, the basic vibration characteristics of the base isolation system consisting of laminated rubber and plastic damper were revealed and its functions were able to be verified. Especially during the free vibration experiments, the initial displacement even up to a maximum of 10cm was applied to the portion between the foundation and the structure and this displacement corresponds to the responded amplitude in case of the earthquake of seismic intensity of the 6th degree. It is planned to continue the verification further. (18 figs, 3 tabs, 3 photos, 6 refs)

  7. Experimental methodology for obtaining sound absorption coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Macía M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the authors propose a new methodology for estimating sound absorption coefficients using genetic algorithms. Methodology: sound waves are generated and conducted along a rectangular silencer. The waves are then attenuated by the absorbing material covering the silencer’s walls. The attenuated sound pressure level is used in a genetic algorithm-based search to find the parameters of the proposed attenuation expressions that include geometric factors, the wavelength and the absorption coefficient. Results: a variety of adjusted mathematical models were found that make it possible to estimate the absorption coefficients based on the characteristics of a rectangular silencer used for measuring the attenuation of the noise that passes through it. Conclusions: this methodology makes it possible to obtain the absorption coefficients of new materials in a cheap and simple manner. Although these coefficients might be slightly different from those obtained through other methodologies, they provide solutions within the engineering accuracy ranges that are used for designing noise control systems.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Pollulan Produced by a Local Isolate of Aureobasidium Pullulans

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [محمد بشيراسماعيل قاسم

    2000-01-01

    A local isolate of Aureobasidium pullulans was obtained from fig leaves surface. The isolate was identified as A. pullulans on the basis of appearance of polymorphism in the colonies, melanin pigment and pullulan production in shake flask cultures. Pullulan production by the local isolate of A pullulans was two thirds of that produced by ATCC 42023. The studies of physico — chemical properties, chemical analysis, sugar composition periodate oxidation and smith degradation showed that the pull...

  9. Mg based alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, S. [Univ. de Santiago de Chile (Chile). Fac. de Ingenieria; Garcia, G.; Serafini, D.; San Martin, A.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work, we studied the production of magnesium alloys, of stoichiometry 2Mg + Ni, by mechanical alloying (MA) and the behavior of the alloys under hydrogen in a Sievert`s type apparatus. The elemental powders were milled under argon atmosphere in a Spex 8000 high energy ball mill. The milled materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Only minimum amounts of the Mg{sub 2}Ni intermetallic compound was obtained after 22 h of milling time. Most of the material was sticked to the inner surface of the container as well as to the milling balls. Powders milled only for 12 hours transforms to the intermetallic at around 433 K. Effects of the MA on the hydrogen absorption kinetics were also studied. (orig.) 10 refs.

  10. Polypropylene obtained through zeolite supported catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queli C. Bastos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Propylene polymerizations were carried out with f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind2ZrCl2 catalysts supported on silica, zeolite sodic mordenite (NaM and acid mordenite (HM. The polymerizations were performed at different temperatures and varying aluminium/zirconium molar ratios ([Al]/[Zr]. The effect of these reaction parameters on the catalyst activity was investigated using a proposed statistical experimental planning. In the case of f2C(Flu(CpZrCl2, SiO2 and NaM were used as support and the catalyst performance evaluated using toluene and pentane as polymerization solvent. The molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, melting point and crystallinity of the polymers were examined. The results indicate very high activities for the syndiospecific heterogeneous system. Also, the polymers obtained had superior Mw and stereoregularity.

  11. Ferroelectric perovskite nanopowders obtained by mechanochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Szafraniak-Wiza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple perovskite nanopowders were fabricated by mechanochemical synthesis. High-energy milling process of respective oxides, leading to production of ferroelectric perovskites, was carefully investigated and characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been found that: (i the powder consists of loosely packed grains with a broad distribution of sizes between a few nm and 45 nm, (ii the grains possess core/shell structure, (iii the grain core of sizes larger than about 20 nm exhibits well developed crystalline structure, (iv the grains are coated by structurally disordered (amorphous shell. Intermediate phases have been found in the process of PbTiO3 mechanosynthesis only. The obtained nanopowders were used for preparation of dense ceramics.

  12. Obtaining Reliable Feedback for Sanctioning Reputation Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Faltings, B; 10.1613/jair.2243

    2011-01-01

    Reputation mechanisms offer an effective alternative to verification authorities for building trust in electronic markets with moral hazard. Future clients guide their business decisions by considering the feedback from past transactions; if truthfully exposed, cheating behavior is sanctioned and thus becomes irrational. It therefore becomes important to ensure that rational clients have the right incentives to report honestly. As an alternative to side-payment schemes that explicitly reward truthful reports, we show that honesty can emerge as a rational behavior when clients have a repeated presence in the market. To this end we describe a mechanism that supports an equilibrium where truthful feedback is obtained. Then we characterize the set of pareto-optimal equilibria of the mechanism, and derive an upper bound on the percentage of false reports that can be recorded by the mechanism. An important role in the existence of this bound is played by the fact that rational clients can establish a reputation for...

  13. Obtaining tetraploid plants of ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza de Oliveira Timbó

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to induce chromosome doubling in genotypes of Brachiaria ruziziensis with potential for production of good-quality biomass and tolerance/resistance to stress caused by aluminum and spittlebugs. Germinated seeds of B. ruziziensis were immersed in 0.1% colchicine solution for 2 or 3 hours. Ploidy level was determined by flow cytometry and confirmed by chromosome count. Fertility of the tetraploid plants was assessed through evaluation of pollen viability by staining. There was no statistical difference with regard to seedling survival and number of duplicate seedlings between the treatments. Survival rate was 8%, of which 11.45% were tetraploid genotypes. The mean viability of pollen grains from the evaluated tetraploid plants ranged from 51.75 to 55.50%. So, the tetraploids plants obtained from genotypes of a bred population of ruzigrass produce fertile pollen, in percentages that render crosses viable in genetic breeding programs.

  14. Speaker Identification From Youtube Obtained Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Kumar Chaudhary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient, and intuitive algorithm is presented for the identification of speakers from a long dataset (like YouTube long discussion, Cocktail party recorded audio or video.The goal of automatic speaker identification is to identify the number of different speakers and prepare a model for that speaker by extraction, characterization and speaker-specific information contained in the speech signal. It has many diverse application specially in the field of Surveillance , Immigrations at Airport , cyber security , transcription in multi-source of similar sound source, where it is difficult to assign transcription arbitrary. The most commonly speech parameterization used in speaker verification, K-mean, cepstral analysis, is detailed. Gaussian mixture modeling, which is the speaker modeling technique is then explained. Gaussian mixture models (GMM, perhaps the most robust machine learning algorithm has been introduced to examine and judge carefully speaker identification in text independent. The application or employment of Gaussian mixture models for monitoring & Analysing speaker identity is encouraged by the familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience that Gaussian spectrum depict the characteristics of speaker's spectral conformational pattern and remarkable ability of GMM to construct capricious densities after that we illustrate 'Expectation maximization' an iterative algorithm which takes some arbitrary value in initial estimation and carry on the iterative process until the convergence of value is observed We have tried to obtained 85 ~ 95% of accuracy using speaker modeling of vector quantization and Gaussian Mixture model ,so by doing various number of experiments we are able to obtain 79 ~ 82% of identification rate using Vector quantization and 85 ~ 92.6% of identification rate using GMM modeling by Expectation maximization parameter estimation depending on variation of parameter.

  15. Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kargar, M. (PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium transferred by foods and is the agent of many sporadic and epidemic diseases in humans. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and to determinine their antibiotic resistance profile in red meats. Material and Methods: this cross-sectional study was performed on 400 red meat samples obtained from industrial slaughterhouses placed in Kerman, Iran. First, the samples were enriched with Simultaneous Enrichment Broth (SEB, and then plated onto Palcam agar and Tryptic Soy Broth Yeast Extract Broth (TSAYE. After identification of the isolates based on biochemical tests and PCR, the isolates were checked for their antibiotic resistance profile using disk Diffusion Results: of 400 samples, 12 samples (3% were contaminated with different species of Listeria. Using PCR, hly gene was recognized in eight samples (2% of L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in isolation rate of lamb samples compared to cow ones. While all of the isolates were resistant to clindamycin, amikacin and chloramphenicol, they were sensitive to penicillin. Conclusion: in spite of low rate of infection in red meat samples in Kerman city, due to high risk of Listeria contamination in red meats, we recommend applying a routine screening to identify this bacterium in our county

  16. WAYS OF OBTAINING FINANCING BY TOUR OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLAN ADRIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available domanin.Romania is a country with highly touristic potential that is not exploited to maximum. In order to reach a high quality level of tourism permanent development and modernization are needed and also the establishment of new businesses That conducts other activities other than those which takes place in our country. Ways of getting funds are multiple, depending on individual needs.To develop tourism activities it is necessary to require some funding that can come from various sources: auto-financing, loans from various banks or from third parties and grants offered by the European Union. There are many programs designed to support the development of tourism, such as ROP that allows people to access grants in order to implement projects for the establishment and the development of the activity in the touristic field. The purpose of this article is to highlight funding opportunities for the tourism operators and to assist them in choosing the appropriate form of financing of the current activity or the activity they want to implement in the future and description of how to obtain the necessary funds from various sources.

  17. HOW TO OBTAIN BOOKS FOR YOUR GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    Head Librarian

    2000-01-01

    The wide variety of scientific and technical activity engaged in by people working at CERN means that the Library cannot always provide a deep on-site coverage in areas which are outside the core subjects of particle physics and accelerators. As many of you have already experienced, one way of solving this is to borrow books from other libraries. Our Inter-Library Loan (ILL) service currently obtains about 1000 books on loan per year for readers at CERN. However, there may be books which groups need on a more permanent basis, in which case a loan from either our own collection or via ILL is not the appropriate solution. Instead, groups might prefer to purchase such books from their own budgets. To facilitate this, the CERN Library has set up a procedure with the SPL Division, by which you can submit your purchase request to us and be charged via a TID when you receive the book. In addition, via our database interface WebLib, we can provide you with a private virtual catalogue of your group's collection, which...

  18. Nanocrystalline magnetic materials obtained by flash annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Murakami

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to produce enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material by crystallizing amorphous or partially amorphous Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 alloys by the flash annealing process, also known as the dc-Joule heating process, and to determine the optimal conditions for obtaining good magnetic coupling between the magnetic phases present in this material. Ribbons of Pr4.5Fe77B18.5 were produced by melt spinning and then annealed for 10-30 s at temperatures 500 - 640 °C by passing current through the sample to develop the enhanced-remanence nanocrystalline magnetic material. These materials were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and magnetic measurements. Coercivity increases of up to 15% were systematically observed in relation to furnace-annealed material. Two different samples were carefully examined: (i a sample annealed at 600 °C which showed the highest coercive field Hc and remanence ratio Mr/Ms and (ii a sample annealed at 520 °C which showed phase separation in the second quadrant demagnetization curve. Our results are in agreement with other studies which show that flash annealing improves the magnetic properties of some amorphous ferromagnetic ribbons.

  19. Utilizing therapists to obtain death penalty verdicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, R

    1994-01-01

    As a result of recent decisions by the United States and California Supreme Courts, therapists now have been placed in a position in which they can be forced to testify in death penalty cases for the only purposes of achieving a conviction and a death penalty verdict. Zeal for the death penalty seems to have overcome any concern for the ethics of psychiatrists or even for the welfare of society. In California, therapists can now be forced to testify against their own patients in capital cases even if the patient does not tender his mental state as an issue, despite the presence of a psychotherapist-patient privilege in the state for criminal matters. In California, the only option for therapists who wish to treat potentially dangerous patients may be to conduct the therapy under the umbrella of attorney-client privilege. Otherwise they may not be able to avoid serious ethical problems and personal danger if the patient actually does kill someone during or after therapy. They may be unable honestly and ethically to treat such patients without obtaining truly informed consent to therapy under these potentially "undercover policeman" circumstances. Hopefully, professional organizations will take a more activist position, and courts will appreciate the folly of these decisions and reverse them. Otherwise, they may spread to other states, for which California frequently sets precedents.

  20. Obtaining cementitious material from municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macías, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to determine the viability of using incinerator ash and slag from municipal solid waste as a secondary source of cementitious materials. The combustion products used were taken from two types of Spanish MSW incinerators, one located at Valdemingómez, in Madrid, and the other in Melilla, with different incineration systems: one with fluidised bed combustion and other with mass burn waterwall. The effect of temperature (from 800 to 1,200 ºC on washed and unwashed incinerator residue was studied, in particular with regard to phase formation in washed products with a high NaCl and KCl content. The solid phases obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction and BET-N2 specific surface procedures.El principal objetivo del trabajo ha sido determinar la viabilidad del uso de las cenizas y escorias procedentes de la incineración de residuos sólidos urbanos, como materia prima secundaria para la obtención de fases cementantes. Para ello se han empleado los residuos generados en dos tipos de incineradoras españolas de residuos sólidos urbanos: la incineradora de Valdemingómez y la incineradora de Melilla. Se ha estudiado la transformación de los residuos, sin tratamiento previo, en función de la temperatura de calentamiento (desde 800 ºC hasta 1.200 ºC, así como la influencia del lavado de los residuos con alto contenido en NaCl y KCl en la formación de fases obtenidas a las diferentes temperaturas de calcinación. Las fases obtenidas fueron caracterizadas por difracción de rayos X y área superficial por el método BET-N2.

  1. Characterization of rough interfaces obtained by boriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos-Silva, I. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)], E-mail: icampos@ipn.mx; Balankin, A.S. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Sierra, A.H. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, UPIICSA, Av. Te 950, Col Granjas, Mexico D.F. 08400 (Mexico); Lopez-Perrusquia, N. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, SEPI-ESIME, U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Escobar-Galindo, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Cantoblanco, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Morales-Matamoros, D. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas Norte, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2008-12-30

    This study evaluates the morphology of borided interfaces by means of the fractal theory. The boride layers were formed in the AISI M2 steel by applying the paste boriding treatment at temperatures of 1253 and 1273 K and treatment times of 2 and 6 h, while a boron carbide paste thickness of 4 or 5 mm covered the samples surface in order to produce the boron diffusion. The morphology of interfaces formed between FeB and Fe{sub 2}B layers and between Fe{sub 2}B layer and steel substrate was analyzed by the rescaled-range (R/S), root-mean-square (RMS), and Fourier power spectrum (FPS) methods. Moreover, the multi-affine spectra of roughness exponent were obtained by calculating the q-order height-height correlation functions. We found that both interfaces are multi-affine, rather than self-affine. The multi-affine spectra of roughness exponents are found to be different for FeB/Fe{sub 2}B and Fe{sub 2}B/substrate interfaces, but independent on the treatment parameters (boron carbide paste thickness, temperature, and boriding time). Furthermore, we found that the multi-affine spectra of both interfaces behave as it is expected for 'universal multi-fractals' with the Levy index {gamma} = 1, associated with the multiplicative cascades with a log-Cauchy distribution. Furthermore, our data suggest a great homogeneity of the boron diffusion field, characterized by universal fractal dimension D{sub diff} = 2.90 {+-} 0.01. These findings provide a novel insight into the nature of phase formation during the boriding treatment.

  2. Uniform bases at non-isolated points and maps

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Fucai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors mainly discuss the images of spaces with an uniform base at non-isolated points, and obtain the following main results: (1)\\ Perfect maps preserve spaces with an uniform base at non-isolated points; (2)\\ Open and closed maps preserve regular spaces with an uniform base at non-isolated points; (3)\\ Spaces with an uniform base at non-isolated points don't satisfy the decomposition theorem.

  3. Bacterial isolates from the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea: influence of culture media on isolation and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, Herwig; Thiel, Vera; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F

    2012-03-01

    From specimens of the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea collected in the Baltic Sea, bacteria were isolated on four different media, which significantly increased the diversity of the isolated groups. All isolates were classified according to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and tested for antimicrobial properties using a panel of five indicator strains and six different media. Each medium featured a unique set of isolated phylotypes, and a phylogenetically diverse collection of isolates was obtained. A total of 96 isolates were assigned to 49 phylotypes and 29 genera. Only one-third of the members of these genera had been isolated previously from comparable sources. The isolates were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria. A comparable large portion of up to 22 isolates, i.e., 15 phylotypes, probably represent new species. Likewise, 47 isolates (approximately 50%) displayed antibiotic activities, mostly against grampositive indicator strains. Of the active strains, 63.8 % had antibiotic traits only on one or two of the growth media, whereas only 12.7 % inhibited growth on five or all six media. The application of six different media for antimicrobial testing resulted in twice the number of positive hits as obtained with only a single medium. The use of different media for the isolation of bacteria as well as the variation of media considered suitable for the production of antibiotic substances significantly enhanced both the number of isolates obtained and the proportion of antibiotic active cultures. Thus the approach described herein offers an improved strategy in the search for new antibiotic compounds.

  4. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discu

  5. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eide, Steven A. [Curtiss-Wright/Scietech, Ketchum, ID (United States); Cadwallader, Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  6. Overview of galactic results obtained by MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanin, Roberta

    2013-06-15

    MAGIC is a system of two atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes which explores the very-high-energy sky, from some tens of GeV up to tens of TeV. Located in the Canary island of La Palma, MAGIC has the lowest energy threshold among the instruments of its kind, well suited to study the still poorly explored energy band below 100 GeV. Although the space-borne gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT is sensitive up to 300 GeV, gamma-ray rates drop fast with increasing energy, so γ-ray collection areas larger than 10{sup 4}m{sup 2}, as those provided by grounds-based instruments, are crucial above a few GeV. The combination of MAGIC and Fermi/LAT observations have provided the first astrophysical spectra sampled in the inverse Compton peak region, resulting in a complete coverage from MeV up to TeV energies, as well as the discovery of a pulsed emission in the very-high-energy band. This paper focuses on the latest results on Galactic sources obtained by MAGIC which are highlighted by the detection of the pulsed gamma-ray emission from the Crab pulsar up to 400 GeV. In addition, we will present the morphological study on the W51 complex which allowed to pinpoint the location of the majority of the emission around the interaction point between the supernova remnant W51C and the star forming region W51B, but also to find a possible contribution from the associated pulsar wind nebula. Other important scientific achievements involve the Crab Nebula with an unprecedented spectrum covering three decades in energy starting from 50 GeV and a morphological study of the unidentified source HESS J1857+026 which supports the pulsar wind nebula scenario. Finally we will report on the searches of very-high-energy signals from gamma-ray binaries, mainly LS I 303+ and HESS J0632+057.

  7. Association between antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in Escherichia coli obtained from blood and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Sandvang, Dorthe; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli isolates obtained from faeces (n = 85) and blood (n = 123) were susceptibility tested against 17 antimicrobial agents and the presence of 9 virulence genes was determined by PCR. Positive associations between several antimicrobial resistances and 2 VF genes (iutA and traT) were...

  8. Isolation and Identification of Glucoamylase Producer Fungus from Sago Hampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Asben

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste of sago processing, notably hampas (ela still contains sago starch is waste that has not been utilized optimally yet  and causing pollution. Isolation and identification of glucoamylase producer fungus of sago hampas waste  were aims to obtain isolates that have gluco-amylolytic properties, and to know glucoamylase activity of selected fungus isolates after grown on artificial medium.  Indegeneous isolates that can produced glucoamylase will be use to get sugar hidrolysate from starch of sago hampas waste for bioetanol production. The study was conducted with the following stages: 1Take the sample from the tennis, 2 Isolation and Identification, 3 Characterization (clear zone, and 4 The production of glucoamylase from selected isolates, The results obtained are: 1 Isolation of fungi gluco-amylolytic from 2 sources sago hampas were produced 10 isolates. Ten isolates were divided into 4 genuses: Gliocladium (as dominant isolate, Aspergilus, Rizhopus and Geotrichum. Isolates of Gliocladium KE gaves the largest degradation of starch on PDA-Starch medium (clear zone, and followed by isolates of Aspergillus GA; 2 Production of glucoamylase on sago hampas with modificated Danial medium (1992 gave the highest activity of Gliocladium KE   on the fifth day of incubation, namely: 10.72 U / mL of crude enzyme   from the supernatant of fermentation substrate (S, and 17.16 U / mL for crude enzyme from the extract of isopropanol isolation (E.

  9. Mitochondria: isolation, structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; Taivassalo, Tanja; Gouspillou, Gilles; Hepple, Russell T

    2011-09-15

    Mitochondria are complex organelles constantly undergoing processes of fusion and fission, processes that not only modulate their morphology, but also their function. Yet the assessment of mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle often involves mechanical isolation of the mitochondria, a process which disrupts their normally heterogeneous branching structure and yields relatively homogeneous spherical organelles. Alternatively, methods have been used where the sarcolemma is permeabilized and mitochondrial morphology is preserved, but both methods face the downside that they remove potential influences of the intracellular milieu on mitochondrial function. Importantly, recent evidence shows that the fragmented mitochondrial morphology resulting from routine mitochondrial isolation procedures used with skeletal muscle alters key indices of function in a manner qualitatively similar to mitochondria undergoing fission in vivo. Although these results warrant caution when interpreting data obtained with mitochondria isolated from skeletal muscle, they also suggest that isolated mitochondrial preparations might present a useful way of interrogating the stress resistance of mitochondria. More importantly, these new findings underscore the empirical value of studying mitochondrial function in minimally disruptive experimental preparations. In this review, we briefly discuss several considerations and hypotheses emerging from this work.

  10. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis K. Jeppesen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. Methods: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder carcinoma FL3 cells. The fractions were evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA, total protein quantification and immunoblotting for CD81, TSG101, syntenin, VDAC1 and calreticulin. Results: NTA revealed the lowest background particle count in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium media devoid of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration and composition of the obtained fractions. In addition, HEK293 and FL3 vesicles displayed marked differences in sedimentation characteristics. Exosomes were pelleted already at 33,000×g, a g-force which also removed most contaminating microsomes. Optimal vesicle-to-protein yield was obtained at 67,000×g for HEK293 cells but 100,000×g for FL3 cells. Relative expression of exosomal markers (TSG101, CD81, syntenin suggested presence of exosome subpopulations with variable sedimentation characteristics. Conclusions: Specific g-force/k factor usage during differential centrifugation greatly influences the purity and yield of exosomes. The vesicle sedimentation profile differed between the 2 cell lines.

  11. The pathogenicity of different Botrytis cinerea Pers. isolates to apples and their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Bryk

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenicity of 80 isolates of Botrytis cinerea Pers. from different hosts to apple fruit was examined. Host specificity among isolates was not found. All of the isolates, independent of their derivation, caused apple fruit rot. Isolates from apple fruits showed moderate and strong pathogenicity to apple fruits. Only 1 of the 22 examined isolates showed weak pathogenicity. Tolerance to benomyl was compared among isolates obtained from apple fruits and from other hosts. It was found that ...

  12. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from seafood in Hat Yai City, Songkhla, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preeprem, Sutima; Mittraparp-arthorn, Pimonsri; Bhoopong, Phuangthip; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2014-11-01

    Seafood has been identified as an important source of Vibrio cholerae in Thailand, especially in the Southern coastal region. In this study, we isolated and characterized V. cholerae from seafood obtained from several markets in Hat Yai city, Southern Thailand. A total of 100 V. cholerae isolates were obtained from 55 of 125 seafood samples. The dominant serotype was non-O1/non-O139. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to detect the presence of pathogenesis-related genes. The stn/sto and hlyA El Tor virulence genes were detected in 20% and 96% of the isolates, respectively. None of the isolates were positive for the ctxA, tcpA, zot, and ace genes. Only 6% of the isolates carried the T3SS gene (vcsV2); however, the majority of the isolates (96%) carried the T6SS gene (vasH). Representative isolates (n=35) that exhibited various virulence gene patterns were randomly selected and analyzed for their hemolytic activity, antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, and genotype. Hemolytic activity using sheep red blood cells was detected in only one of the hlyA-negative isolates. Apart from ampicillin, all isolates were pansusceptible to five test antibiotics. Biofilm production was observed in most of the isolates, and there was no difference in the presence of a biofilm between the smooth and rugose isolates. Using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR method, clonal relationships were observed among the isolates that exhibited identical virulence gene patterns.

  13. Sugar Utilization Potential of Micropolyspora Isolated from Extreme Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Koli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Waste water of various industries contain large amount of organic compounds which are continuously added in sea via river which causes water pollution. There is need to degrade the organic content to abate water pollution. Approach: To stabilize the organic content in sea water, there was need to search such an organism which was efficient to degrade organic content. We had screened the actinomycetes having potential to degrade organic compounds. Results: Total six isolates of Micropolyspora were obtained, from which all isolates were found to utilize galactose, 50% isolates were able to utilize arabinose, fructose and xylose. 83% of isolates showed mannitol utilization while 67% isolates uses lactose as carbon source and 33% isolates utilizes rhamnose. Conclusion/Recommendation: From the study performed, we conclude that, obtained most of Micropolyspora isolate may be used for the stabilization of organic content and hence in abatement of pollution.

  14. Mutation and premating isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R C; Thompson, J N

    2002-11-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  15. Chemical and functional properties of fibre concentrates obtained from by-products of coconut kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalegama, L L W C; Nedra Karunaratne, D; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Jayasekara, Chitrangani

    2013-11-01

    The coconut kernel residues obtained after extraction of coconut milk (MR) and virgin coconut oil (VOR) were analysed for their potential as dietary fibres. VOR was defatted and treated chemically using three solvent systems to isolate coconut cell wall polysaccharides (CCWP). Nutritional composition of VOR, MR and CCWPs indicated that crude fibre, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and hemicelluloses contents were higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. MR contained a notably higher content of fat than VOR and CCWPs. The oil holding capacity, water holding capacity and swelling capacity were also higher in CCWPs than in VOR and MR. All the isolates and MR and VOR had high metal binding capacities. The CCWPs when compared with commercially available fibre isolates, indicated improved dietary fibre properties. These results show that chemical treatment of coconut kernel by-products can enhance the performance of dietary fibre to yield a better product.

  16. The pathogenicity of different Botrytis cinerea Pers. isolates to apples and their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Bryk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of 80 isolates of Botrytis cinerea Pers. from different hosts to apple fruit was examined. Host specificity among isolates was not found. All of the isolates, independent of their derivation, caused apple fruit rot. Isolates from apple fruits showed moderate and strong pathogenicity to apple fruits. Only 1 of the 22 examined isolates showed weak pathogenicity. Tolerance to benomyl was compared among isolates obtained from apple fruits and from other hosts. It was found that 35% of isolates from apples showed resistance to benomyl. There was no correlation between the pathogenicity of isolates and their resistance to benomyl.

  17. Isolated Galaxies and Isolated Satellite Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ann, H B; Choi, Yun-Young

    2009-01-01

    We search for isolated galaxies using a volume-limited sample of galaxies with 0.02r_{vir,nei} and \\rho <\\bar{\\rho} well segregates the CIG galaxies. We confirm the morphology conformity between the host and their satellites, which suggests importance of hydrodynamic interaction among galaxies within their virial radii in galaxy evolution.

  18. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.

    Denne SBI-meddelelse beskriver resultaterne af en undersøgelse af bygninger, hvor der er anvendt alternativ isolering. Undersøgelsen omfatter termografering og fugtmåling af udvendige bygningsdele isoleret med alternativ isolering. Endvidere rapporteres resultaterne af målinger af indholdet af tu...

  19. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  20. Thermolysin in human cultured keratinocyte isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gragnani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When treating extensively burned patients using cultured epidermal sheets, the main problem is the time required for its production. Conventional keratinocyte isolation is usually done using Trypsin. We used a modification of the conventional isolation method in order to improve this process and increase the number of colonies from the isolated epidermal cell population. PURPOSE: To compare the action of trypsin and thermolysin in the keratinocyte isolation using newborn foreskin. METHODS: This method used thermolysin as it selectively digests the dermo-epidermal junction. After dermis separation, the epidermis was digested by trypsin in order to obtain a cell suspension. RESULTS: Compared to the conventional procedure, these experiments demonstrated that in the thermolysin group, the epidermis was easily detached from the dermis, there was no fibroblast contamination and there were a larger number of keratinocyte colonies which had a significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The number of colonies in the thermolysin group was significantly greater than in the trypsin group.

  1. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara, Cristina; Beatriz CANCINO-MADARIAGA; Andrés RAMÍREZ-SALVO; Sáenz, Carmen; Robert, Paz; Lutz, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric) were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%), also containing poly...

  2. Total excitation of the isolated human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrer, D.; Dam, R.Th. van; Freud, G.E.; Janse, M.J.; Meijler, F.L.; Arzbaecher, R.C.

    1970-01-01

    To obtain information conceming the time course and instantaneous distribution of the excitatory process of the normal human healt, studies were made on isolated human hearts from seven individuals who died from various cerebral conditions, but who had no history of cardiac disease. Measurements wer

  3. ISOLATION OF CHICKEN FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the present study was to isolate chicken follicular dendritic cells (FDC). A combination of methods involving panning, iodixanol density gradient centrifugation, and magnetic cell separation technology made it possible to obtain functional FDC from the cecal tonsils from chickens, which h...

  4. New urea biosensor based on urease enzyme obtained from Helycobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Bahar; Karakuş, Emine; Abasıyanık, Fatih

    2011-11-01

    The urease enzyme of Helicobacter pylori was isolated from biopsy sample obtained from antrum big curvature cell extracts. A new urea biosensor was prepared by immobilizing urease enzyme isolated from Helicobacter pylori on poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) ammonium membrane electrode by using nonactine as an ammonium ionophore. The effect of pH, buffer concentration, and temperature for the biosensor prepared with urease from H. pylori were obtained as 6.0, 5 mM, and 25 °C, respectively. We also investigated urease concentration, stirring rate, and enzyme immobilization procedures in response to urea of the enzyme electrode. The linear working range of the biosensor extends from 1 × 10(-5) to 1 × 10(-2) M and they showed an apparent Nernstian response within this range. Urea enzyme electrodes prepared with urease enzymes obtained from H. pylori and Jack bean based on PVC membrane ammonium-selective electrode showed very good analytical parameters: high sensitivity, dynamic stability over 2 months with less decrease of sensitivity, response time 1-2 min. The analytical characteristics were investigated and were compared those of the urea biosensor prepared with urease enzyme isolated from Jack bean prepared at the same conditions. It was observed that rapid determinations of human serum urea amounts were also made possible with both biosensors.

  5. Clarification of purple cactus pear juice using microfiltration membranes to obtain a solution of betalain pigments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina VERGARA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary Betalains are fruit pigments possessing health-giving properties. To isolate the pigments, the juice must be separated from the fruit matrix, which contains biopolymers. The aim of this study was to clarify cactus pear juice by microfiltration to obtain a clarified juice containing betalains. For this purpose, two 0.2 µm pore size microfiltration membranes (ceramic and polymeric were tested. The permeates were clear, free of turbidity and high in betalains (20%, also containing polyphenols and antioxidant activity, whereas the retained fractions were high in mucilage. The best separation was obtained using the ceramic membrane.

  6. Pharmacological developments obtained from marine natural products and current pipeline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Elkin; Rojas, Jhon J; Martínez, Alejandro

    2011-02-01

    Marine organisms represent a new extensive source for bioactive molecules. They have the potential to provide new therapeutic alternatives to treat human diseases. In this paper, we describe and discuss a variety of isolated and semisynthetic molecules obtained from marine sources. These compounds are in phase II, phase III and at the commercialization stage of new drug development. A description of the mechanism of action, dosage used and side effects are also reported. The positive results obtained from these studies have triggered the development of new studies to evaluate the prospects for utilization of marine organisms.

  7. Base isolation: Fresh insight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shustov, V.

    1993-07-15

    The objective of the research is a further development of the engineering concept of seismic isolation. Neglecting the transient stage of seismic loading results in a widespread misjudgement: The force of resistance associated with velocity is mostly conceived as a source of damping vibrations, though it is an active force at the same time, during an earthquake type excitation. For very pliant systems such as base isolated structures with relatively low bearing stiffness and with artificially added heavy damping mechanism, the so called `damping`` force may occur even the main pushing force at an earthquake. Thus, one of the two basic pillars of the common seismic isolation philosophy, namely, the doctrine of usefulness and necessity of a strong damping mechanism, is turning out to be a self-deception, sometimes even jeopardizing the safety of structures and discrediting the very idea of seismic isolation. There is a way out: breaking with damping dependancy.

  8. Alternativ isolering i bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2001-01-01

    Resume af rapport om målinger på alternative isoleringsmaterialer i bygninger, udgivet af Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut (SBI meddelelse 128) under Energistyrelsens udviklingsprogram "Miljø- og arbejdsmiljøvenlig isolering"...

  9. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Jonbergen, H.P. van; Poolman, R. W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based discussion of treatment options. METHODS: A systematic computerized database search (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), and EMBASE...

  10. Isolated sleep paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Neena S.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Tambe, Ravindra

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a cardinal symptom of narcolepsy. However, little is available in the literature about isolated sleep paralysis. This report discusses the case of a patient with isolated sleep paralysis who progressed from mild to severe SP over 8 years. He also restarted drinking alcohol to be able to fall asleep and allay his anxiety symptoms. The patient was taught relaxation techniques and he showed complete remission of the symptoms of SP on follow up after 8 months.

  11. [Antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    titova, M E; Komolov, S A; Tikhomirova, N A

    2012-01-01

    The process of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in biological membranes of cells is carried out by free radical mechanism, a feature of which is the interaction of radicals with other molecules. In this work we investigated the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate, obtained by the cation-exchange chromatography on KM-cellulose from raw cow's milk, in vitro and in vivo. In biological liquids, which are milk, blood serum, fetal fluids, contains a complex of biologically active substances with a unique multifunctional properties, and which are carrying out a protective, antimicrobial, regenerating, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, regulatory and others functions. Contents of the isolate were determined electrophoretically and by its biological activity. Cationic whey protein isolate included lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, pancreatic RNase, lysozyme and angeogenin. The given isolate significantly has an antioxidant effect in model experimental systems in vitro and therefore may be considered as a factor that can adjust the intensity of lipid oxidation. In model solutions products of lipid oxidation were obtained by oxidation of phosphatidylcholine by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of a source of iron. The composition of the reaction mixture: 0,4 mM H2O2; 50 mcM of hemin; 2 mg/ml L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine from soybean (Sigma, German). Lipid peroxidation products were formed during the incubation of the reaction mixture for two hours at 37 degrees C. In our studies rats in the adaptation period immediately after isolation from the nest obtained from food given orally native cationic whey protein isolate at the concentration three times higher than in fresh cow's milk. On the manifestation of the antioxidant activity of cationic whey protein isolate in vivo evidence decrease of lipid peroxidation products concentration in the blood of rats from the experimental group receipt whey protein isolate in dos 0,6 mg/g for more than 20% (pwhey protein isolate has an

  12. CFD modeling of pharmaceutical isolators with experimental verification of airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, N; Akay, H U; Walsh, M R; Bell, W V; Troyer, G L; Dukes, R E; Mohan, P

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to predict the airflow in a transfer isolator using a commercial CFD code. In order to assess the ability of the CFD approach in predicting the flow inside an isolator, hot wire anemometry measurements and a novel experimental flow visualization technique consisting of helium-filled glycerin bubbles were used. The results obtained have been shown to agree well with the experiments and show that CFD can be used to model barrier systems and isolators with practical fidelity. This indicates that CFD can and should be used to support the design, testing, and operation of barrier systems and isolators.

  13. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species...... analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship for 90% of all paired blood and oral isolates. Patients exposed to azoles for ≥ 7 days (n = 93) had a significantly larger proportion of species intrinsically less susceptible to azoles (particularly Candida glabrata) among oral isolates than among initial blood...... isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (

  14. Isolation and identification of thermophilic and mesophylic proteolytic bacteria from shrimp paste "Terasi"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murwani, R.; Supriyadi, Subagio, Trianto, A.; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Terasi is a traditional product generally made of fermented shrimp. There were many studies regarding lactic acid bacteria of terasi but none regarding proteolitic bacteria. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the thermophilic and mesophylic proteolytic bacteria from terasi. In addition, the effect of different salt concentrations on the growth of the isolated proteolytic bacteria with the greatest proteolytic activity was also studied. Terasi samples were obtained from the Northern coast region of Java island i.e. Jepara, Demak and Batang. The study obtained 34 proteolytic isolates. Four isolates were identified as Sulfidobacillus, three isolates as Vibrio / Alkaligenes / Aeromonas, two isolates as Pseudomonas, 21 isolates as Bacillus, three isolates as Kurthia/ Caryophanon and one isolates as Amphibacillus. The growth of proteolytic bacteria was affected by salt concentration. The largest growth was found at 0 ppm salt concentrations and growth was declined as salt concentration increased. Maximum growth at each salt concentration tested was found at 8 hours incubation.

  15. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  16. 48 CFR 1815.403 - Obtaining cost or pricing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Obtaining cost or pricing... ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1815.403 Obtaining cost or pricing data....

  17. Isolation of technogenic magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catinon, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.catinon@gmail.com [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Ayrault, Sophie, E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.ispl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boudouma, Omar, E-mail: boudouma@ccr.jussieu.fr [Service du MEB, UFR928, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 75252 Paris VI (France); Bordier, Louise, E-mail: Louise.Bordier@lsce.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, UMR 8212, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ/IPSL, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Agnello, Gregory, E-mail: contact@evinrude.fr [Evinrude, Espace St Germain, 38200 Vienne (France); Reynaud, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.reynaud@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France); Tissut, Michel, E-mail: michel.tissut@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire LECA, UMR 5553, Equipe Pollution, Environnement, Ecotoxicologie et Ecoremédiation, Univ. J. Fourier, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2014-03-01

    Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) emitted by various industrial sources, such as smelting plants, end up after atmospheric transfer on the soil surface. In the present study, we characterised the origin and composition of such particles emitted by a large iron smelting plant and deposited on particular substrates, namely tombstones, which act as a very interesting and appropriate matrix when compared to soil, tree bark, lichens or attic dust. The isolation and subsequent description of TMPs require a critical step of separation between different components of the sample and the magnetic particles; here, we described an efficient protocol that fulfils such a requirement: it resorts to water suspension, sonication, repeated magnetic extraction, sedimentation, sieving and organic matter destruction at 550 °C in some instances. The isolated TMPs displayed a noticeable crystalline shape with variable compositions: a) pure iron oxides, b) iron + Cr, Ni or Zn, and c) a complex structure containing Ca, Si, Mg, and Mn. Using Scanning Electron Microscope Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX), we obtained profiles of various and distinct magnetic particles, which allowed us to identify the source of the TMPs. - Highlights: • The developed method offers a low-cost approach of large-scale dry deposition. • Tombstones are excellent supports for sampling these atmospheric deposits. • Smelted elements crystallise after cooling, giving typical technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs). • Coupling microscopic and bulk analyses allows identifying TMP origin. • Magnetic TMPs issued from steel industry were separated by a new technique.

  18. Genetic identification of rickettsiae isolated from ticks in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Fujita, Hiromi; Takada, Nobuhiro; Raoult, Didier

    2002-06-01

    Following the description in Japan of Japanese spotted fever, caused by Rickettsia japonica, a search for the vector of this disease led to the isolation of several rickettsiae from various tick species. Sixty-three rickettsial isolates were obtained from six different tick species, and six type strains were described by PCR and monoclonal antibody testing. We identified these six strains by amplification and sequencing of the genes encoding 16S rRNA and citrate synthase. We confirmed that the isolates from Dermacentor taiwanensis and Haemaphysalis flava ticks were R. japonica isolates. In Ixodes ovatus, Ixodes persulcatus, and Ixodes monospinosus, we identified a Rickettsia identical or closely related to Rickettsia helvetica, a species that is pathogenic for humans and that to date has only been found in Europe. Finally, we identified a new genotype of unknown pathogenicity, genotype AT, that was isolated from Amblyomma testudinarium ticks and that is closely related to a Slovakian genotype obtained from Ixodes ricinus ticks.

  19. 8 CFR 280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 280.6 Section 280.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a...

  20. 8 CFR 1280.6 - Bond to obtain clearance; form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bond to obtain clearance; form. 1280.6... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 1280.6 Bond to obtain clearance; form. A bond to obtain clearance of a vessel or aircraft under section 231, 237, 239, 243, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256,...

  1. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  2. 46 CFR 126.230 - How to obtain or renew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 126.230 Section 126.230 Shipping... CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 126.230 How to obtain or renew. (a) A builder, owner, master, or operator may begin to obtain or to renew a Certificate of Inspection by submitting an “Application...

  3. 46 CFR 115.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 115.105 Section 115.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Certificate of Inspection § 115.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate of Inspection is obtained...

  4. Discrete optimization of isolator locations for vibration isolation systems: An analytical and experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponslet, E.R.; Eldred, M.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-05-17

    An analytical and experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of isolator locations on the effectiveness of vibration isolation systems. The study uses isolators with fixed properties and evaluates potential improvements to the isolation system that can be achieved by optimizing isolator locations. Because the available locations for the isolators are discrete in this application, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used as the optimization method. The system is modeled in MATLAB{trademark} and coupled with the GA available in the DAKOTA optimization toolkit under development at Sandia National Laboratories. Design constraints dictated by hardware and experimental limitations are implemented through penalty function techniques. A series of GA runs reveal difficulties in the search on this heavily constrained, multimodal, discrete problem. However, the GA runs provide a variety of optimized designs with predicted performance from 30 to 70 times better than a baseline configuration. An alternate approach is also tested on this problem: it uses continuous optimization, followed by rounding of the solution to neighboring discrete configurations. Results show that this approach leads to either infeasible or poor designs. Finally, a number of optimized designs obtained from the GA searches are tested in the laboratory and compared to the baseline design. These experimental results show a 7 to 46 times improvement in vibration isolation from the baseline configuration.

  5. Screening of Azotobacter isolates for PGP properties and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Аmong 50 bacterial isolates obtained from maize rhizospherе, 13 isolates belonged to the genus Azotobacter. Isolates were biochemically characterized and estimated for pH and halo tolerance ability and antibiotic resistance. According to characterization, the six representative isolates were selected and further screened in vitro for plant growth promoting properties: production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, siderophores, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, exopolysaccharides, phosphate solubilization and antifungal activity (vs. Helminthosporium sp., Macrophomina sp., Fusarium sp.. Beside HCN production, PGP properties were detected for all isolates except Azt7. All isolates produced IAA in the medium without L-tryptophan and the amount of produced IAA increased with concentration of precursor in medium. The highest amount of IAA was produced by isolates Azt4 (37.69 and 45.86 μg ml-1 and Azt5 (29.44 and 50.38 μg ml-1 in the medium with addition of L-tryptophan (2.5 and 5 mM. The isolates showed the highest antifungal activity against Helminthosporium sp. and the smallest antagonistic effect on Macrophomina sp. Radial Growth Inhibition (RGI obtained by the confrontation of isolates with tested phytopathogenic fungi, ranged from 10 to 48%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31073

  6. Biological investigations of Indian phaeophyceae: 17. Seasonal variation of antibacterial activity of total sterols obtained from frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii Setchell et Gardner

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.P.S.

    From lipid fraction of frozen samples of Sargassum johnstonii unsaponifiable part was extracted with diethyl ether to isolate total sterols. The extracted sterols were obtained for a period of nine months and tested against test bacteria...

  7. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  8. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peil, Greice H S; Kuss, Anelise V; Rave, Andrés F G; Villarreal, José P V; Hernandes, Yohana M L; Nascente, Patrícia S

    2016-01-01

    The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml) however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  9. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  10. Isolation of bacteria from ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum Vittad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Gryndler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen different cultivation media were used to isolate bacteria with the idea to obtain taxa specifically associated with ectomycorrhizae of Tuber aestivum. Ectomycorrhizae were collected at the sampling points previously analyzed for bacterial molecular diversity. We isolated 183 bacterial strains and identified them on the basis of the partial sequence of 16S rDNA. Out of these isolates, only 4 corresponded to operational taxonomic units significantly associated with T. aestivum ectomycorrhizae in previous molecular study. Preliminary study of the effect of 12 selected isolates on growth of T. aestivum mycelium showed no stimulation and one isolate induced the damage of hyphae. Different isolation strategy has to be developed to increase the probability of cultivation of potentially important components of T. aestivum mycorrhizosphere.

  11. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis.

  12. Isolated lingual leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibzadeh F

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic in Fars Province, southern Iran. However, mucosal leishmaniasis is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a patient with isolated lingual leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent 40-year-old man. The lesion was totally excised. The patient was cured completely and is doing well after four years of follow-up, with no medical treatment

  13. Motion of isolated bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne [Academie des Sciences, 23 Quai de Conti, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Friedrich, Helmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2006-10-21

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  14. Motion of Isolated bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Choquet-Bruhat, Y; Choquet-Bruhat, Yvonne; Friedrich, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that sufficiently smooth initial data for the Einstein-dust or the Einstein-Maxwell-dust equations with non-negative density of compact support develop into solutions representing isolated bodies in the sense that the matter field has spatially compact support and is embedded in an exterior vacuum solution.

  15. Biological Isolation Garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  16. Isolated jejunal varices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagwat S

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolated jejunal varices are an uncommon manifestation of portal hypertension. A one and a half year old boy presented with recurrent, massive gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal varices. The bleeding site was identified at exploratory laparotomy. Jejunal resection and anastomosis resulted in complete resolution of the bleeding and there has been no recurrent bleeding over an eight month follow-up period.

  17. Proteoglycan isolation and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2001-01-01

    Proteoglycans can be difficult molecules to isolate and analyze due to large mass, charge, and tendency to aggregate or form macromolecular complexes. This unit describes detailed methods for purification of matrix, cell surface, and cytoskeleton-linked proteoglycans. Methods for analysis...

  18. Seismic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Damping Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Wun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic prevention issues are discussed much more seriously around the world after Fukushima earthquake, Japan, April 2011, especially for those countries which are near the earthquake zone. Approximately 1.8×1012 kilograms of explosive energy will be released from a magnitude 9 earthquake. It destroys most of the unprotected infrastructure within several tens of miles in diameter from the epicenter. People can feel the earthquake even if living hundreds of miles away. This study is a seismic simulation analysis for an innovated and improved design of viscoelastic damping isolator, which can be more effectively applied to earthquake prevention and damage reduction of high-rise buildings, roads, bridges, power generation facilities, and so forth, from earthquake disaster. Solidworks graphic software is used to draw the 3D geometric model of the viscoelastic isolator. The dynamic behavior of the viscoelastic isolator through shock impact of specific earthquake loading, recorded by a seismometer, is obtained via ANSYS finite element package. The amplitude of the isolator is quickly reduced by the viscoelastic material in the device and is shown in a time response diagram. The result of this analysis can be a crucial reference when improving the design of a seismic isolator.

  19. C0-Sufficiency, Kuiper-Kuo and Thom Conditions for Non-isolated Singularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu XU

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a criterion on the C0-sufficiency for a function germ with non-isolated singularity is obtained analogously to that of Kuiper-Kuo for the case of isolated singularities. Moreover,the Kuiper-Kuo condition and the Thom condition for an analytic function germ with non-isolated singularity are proved to be equivalent.

  20. Use of fiber helical coils to obtain polarization insensitive fiber devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentori, Diana; Garcia-Weidner, A.; Rodriguez-Garcia, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    Using a new model for the description of the birefringence of a helical coil, it is shown that the birefringence effect on the signal polarization introduced by a fiber device can be canceled out by introducing two helical coils at the required orientation. Experimental results obtained using this modification in a polarization insensitive device (optical isolator) and in a non-polarization insensitive device working at two different wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexer) are presented and discussed. Such modified devices were used in the construction of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) with a full control of the input signal and pump states of polarization.

  1. LIGNIN, STRUCTURE AND APPLICATIONS: DEPOLYMERIZATION METHODS FOR OBTAINING AROMATIC DERIVATIVES OF INDUSTRIAL INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin Chávez-Sifontes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article significant data related to the structural characteristics of lignin, the extraction and isolation processes from biomass, and also the characteristics of different types of commercial lignins are presented. The review focuses on the different depolymerization processes (hydrolysis, hydrogenolysis, hydrodeoxygenation, pyrolysis, among others up to now developed and investigated analyzing the different aromatic derivatives obtained in each case, as well as the interesting reactions some of them may undergo. Application possibilities for lignin and its derivatives in new industrial processes integrated into the bio-refinery of the future are finally assessed

  2. The Obtaining and Verification of Meticulous Climate Forecast Product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the obtaining method of meticulous climate forecast product and test its forecast effect. [Method] Based on the national standard surface observation data and secondary data bank obtained by means of distance weight interpolation method, the model of climate forecast was established, and the timing, fixed-point and quantitative meticulous climate forecast of meteorological elements was obtained by using many forecast methods and artificial revision, finally the forecast effe...

  3. Characterisation and foaming properties of hydrolysates derived from rapeseed isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larré, C.; Mulder, W.J.; Sánchez-Vioque, R.; Lazko, J.; Bérot, S.; Guéguen, J.; Popineau, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Two hydrolysis methods used to obtain rapeseed isolate derivates were compared: chemical hydrolysis performed under alkaline conditions and pepsic proteolysis performed under acidic conditions. The mean molecular weights obtained for the hydrolysates varied from 26 to 2.5 kDa, depending on the level

  4. Lifetime of metal rubber isolator with different vibration amplitudes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-yuan; XIA Yu-hong; AO Hong-rui; DONG Chun-fang; A.M.Ulanov

    2005-01-01

    The lifetime of metal rubber isolator and its characteristics during lifetime experiment were studied. The stepped-up test principle was adopted to study the lifetime of resonant frequency, the breakage form of metal rubber isolator was obtained, and the relation between the energy dissipation, resonant frequency and stiffness was obtained in available lifetime of the isolator. Furthermore, the reason for the changes of properties of metal rubber isolator was analyzed with contact model of metal rubber material. The results show that if the resonant amplitude is large, the stiffness of metal rubber isolator will be kept steadily for a long time, its resonant frequency will be stable and the effective working time in the protecting area will be long. The lifetime of metal rubber isolator is more than 1 376 h in the experiment. The main failure forms of metal rubber isolator are accumulative wear and breaking of metal wires and spirals. In protecting area the metal rubber isolator can work effectively for a long time, and the effective working time depends on the concrete working condition.

  5. Characterisation of successive Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from a deceased haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon Jin; Kil, Min Cheol; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Sun Ju; Park, Ki-Sup; Kim, Yae-Jean; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 38 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates successively isolated from blood, skin swabs and tracheal aspirates from a single patient who died from haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were investigated. The isolates were collected between March 2012 and August 2012. A. baumannii genotypes were determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and colistin heteroresistance and persistence were evaluated. The structure of AbaR resistance islands was explored, and serum sensitivity was determined. Based on MLST analysis, all 38 A. baumannii isolates showed the same sequence type (ST138). However, PFGE analysis showed that isolates from blood samples belonged to different genotypes depending on the isolation time: whilst blood isolates obtained at the early stages showed restriction patterns similar to those of isolates from other sources, isolates obtained at later stages exhibited a distinct pattern. All isolates were resistant to imipenem, cefepime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. Five isolates from tracheal aspirates and one from a skin swab were resistant to polymyxins, and two isolates from skin swabs and one from another source were non-susceptible to tigecycline. All colistin-susceptible isolates showed heteroresistance to colistin, and four were persisters. Isolates from blood showed higher survival rates against human serum than those from other sources. This study shows that the patient was infected with more than one A. baumannii strain. Heteroresistance, persistence or evasion of the innate immune response may explain the failure of antimicrobial treatments in this patient.

  6. Method for obtaining committed adult mesenchymal precursors from skin and lung tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Bernal

    Full Text Available AIMS: The present study reports an easy and efficient method for obtaining adult mesenchymal precursors from different adult mouse tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe the isolation and expansion of mesenchymal precursors from skin and lung by a non-enzymatic method. Skin and lung mesenchymal precursors isolated by a modified explant technique were characterized in vitro by defined morphology and by a specific gene expression profile and surface markers. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that these precursors express stem cell and mesenchymal surface markers as well as epithelial markers. However, they are negative for markers of endothelium, cardiac and skeletal muscle or adipose tissue, indicating that they have initiated commitment to the tissues from which were isolated. These precursors can migrate without any stimulus and in response to stimuli as SDF1, MCP1 and TNFα and can be differentiated into epithelial lineages. Based on the properties of these precursors from adult tissues, we propose their use as tools for regenerative biomedicine.

  7. METHOD OF OBTAINING AN ADDITIVE FOR LUBRICATING OILS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The method of obtaining an additive to lubricating oils , consisting of treating boron trifluoride with alkylphenol and alkylamine, is known. In this...case, (aminotrifluoralkyl)phenoxyborate is obtained which may be used as an antiwear additive for lubricating oils . The proposed method differs from

  8. 20 CFR 404.974 - Obtaining evidence from Appeals Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obtaining evidence from Appeals Council. 404.974 Section 404.974 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... and Decisions Appeals Council Review § 404.974 Obtaining evidence from Appeals Council. You...

  9. 42 CFR 405.1118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 405.1118 Section... Council Review § 405.1118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. A party may request and receive a copy of all... these items. If a party requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity to comment on that...

  10. 42 CFR 423.2118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 423.2118 Section..., MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. An enrollee may request... the costs of providing these items. If an enrollee requests evidence from the MAC and an...

  11. 46 CFR 176.105 - How to obtain or renew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to obtain or renew. 176.105 Section 176.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.105 How to obtain or renew. (a) A Certificate...

  12. Bismuth thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Teresa; Arronte, Miguel; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Ponce, Luis; Alonso, J. C.; Garcia, C.; Fernandez, M.; Haro, E.

    1999-07-01

    In the present work Bi thin films were obtained by Pulsed Laser Deposition, using Nd:YAG lasers. The films were characterized by optical microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and X-rays diffraction. It was accomplished the real time spectral emission characterization of the plasma generated during the laser evaporation process. Highly oriented thin films were obtained.

  13. Gratifications Sought and Obtained: Model Specification and Theoretical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Lawrence A.

    Uses of the gratifications sought and gratifications obtained distinction in explanations of media effects have taken two conceptually distinct forms. The discrepancy approach poses that the difference between what is sought and what is actually obtained, expressed effectively as a discrepancy score, significantly aids effects explanations. The…

  14. 10 CFR 503.35 - Inability to obtain adequate capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... capital investment, through tariffs, without unreasonably adverse economic effect on its service area... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inability to obtain adequate capital. 503.35 Section 503... New Facilities § 503.35 Inability to obtain adequate capital. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(a)(1)(D)...

  15. Obtaining the Electron Angular Momentum Coupling Spectroscopic Terms, jj

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, Hugo; Faria, Roberto B.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic procedure is developed to obtain the electron angular momentum coupling (jj) spectroscopic terms, which is based on building microstates in which each individual electron is placed in a different m[subscript j] "orbital". This approach is similar to that used to obtain the spectroscopic terms under the Russell-Saunders (LS) coupling…

  16. 13 CFR 142.36 - Can I obtain judicial review?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can I obtain judicial review? 142.36 Section 142.36 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Decisions and Appeals § 142.36 Can I obtain judicial review? If the...

  17. Isolation and molecular characterization of a new Neospora caninum isolate from cattle in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, L M; Venturini, M C; Moore, D P; Massola, L; Lagomarsino, H; García, B; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Leunda, M R; Schares, G; Campero, C M

    2015-08-01

    Neospora caninum is one of the most important causes of bovine abortion, but isolation of live parasites from infected tissue is difficult. The aims of the present study were to obtain new isolates of N. caninum from congenitally infected asymptomatic newborn cattle in Argentina and to perform characterization by multilocus-microsatellite analysis. Five clinically normal born calves, with demonstrable N. caninum antibodies in precolostrum serum by indirect fluorescent antibody test, were euthanized and their brain samples were processed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and for bioassay in γ-interferon knockout (GKO) mice. Although N. caninum DNA was detected in brain from all the calves by PCR, viable N. caninum was isolated in GKO mice from only one calf. Neospora caninum tachyzoites of this Argentinean isolate, designated NC-Argentina LP1, were propagated in VERO cell cultures seeded with tachyzoites from the infected GKO mice tissues. Multilocus-microsatellite typing on DNA derived from cell cultured tachyzoites revealed a unique genetic pattern, different from reported isolates. This is the first bovine isolation and genetic characterization of N. caninum in Argentina.

  18. Phylogenetic relationship of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Zain, Zaini; Kamsani, Nurul H; Ahmad, Norazah; Clarke, Stuart C

    2015-12-01

    The epidemiology of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) remains poorly understood. We therefore sought to determine the genetic relationship of 25 NTHi isolated from various states in Malaysia using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The majority of isolates were obtained from sputum. There were 24 novel sequence types (STs). Eight isolates were single-locus variants, the remainder being singletons. Clustering was not based on clinical site of isolation or geographical origin. Despite the limited number of isolates examined in this study, we demonstrate that NTHi isolates in Malaysia are diverse and warrant further investigation.

  19. Offset trench isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, S. S.; Cooper, K. J.; Ray, W.; Kirsch, H. C.; Grove, Charlotte

    1994-08-01

    Feasibility of a new, recessed isolation technique that utilizes an offset, shallow trench in combination with thermal oxidation for achieving near zero final encroachment with excellent planarity is demonstrated. Etch of the shallow trench is offset from the original hardmask by an oxide sidewall spacer. After trench etch, HF is used to remove the hardmask oxide and sidewall spacers and to form a cavity which is self-aligned to the nitride edge. Exposed silicon regions are then reoxidized and encapsulated with polysilicon. Field oxide is then grown. The final field oxide profile exhibits steep sidewall angles without inducing substrate defects as evidenced by low diode leakage. Other isolation sensitive device parametrics such as gate oxide quality and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor threshold voltage stability are presented and exhibit good characteristics.

  20. Identification of pathogens and virulence profile of Rhodococcus equi and Escherichia coli strains obtained from sand of parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of pathogens of viral (Rotavirus, Coronavirus, parasitic (Toxocara spp. and bacterial (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Rhodococcus equi origin shed in feces, and the virulence profile of R. equi and E. coli isolates were investigated in 200 samples of sand obtained from 40 parks, located in central region of state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using different diagnostic methods. From 200 samples analyzed, 23 (11.5% strains of R. equi were isolated. None of the R. equi isolates showed a virulent (vapA gene or intermediately virulent (vapB gene profiles. Sixty-three (31.5% strains of E. coli were identified. The following genes encoding virulence factors were identified in E. coli: eae, bfp, saa, iucD, papGI, sfa and hly. Phylogenetic classification showed that 63 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B1 (52.4%, A (25.4% and B2 (22.2%. No E. coli serotype O157:H7 was identified. Eggs of Toxocara sp. were found in three parks and genetic material of bovine Coronavirus was identified in one sample of one park. No Salmonella spp. and Rotavirus isolates were identified in the samples of sand. The presence of R. equi, Toxocara sp, bovine Coronavirus and virulent E. coli isolates in the environment of parks indicates that the sanitary conditions of the sand should be improved in order to reduce the risks of fecal transmission of pathogens of zoonotic potential to humans in these places.

  1. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varner P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema

  2. Isolated Pulmonary Valve Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hatamizadeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The outstanding clinical feature of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is the high incidence of right-sided valve infection, and the tricuspid valve is involved in 60% to 70% of the cases. We herein report a case of isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis with a native pulmonary valve.

  3. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    OpenAIRE

    Varner P

    2011-01-01

    Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papi...

  4. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Escherichia coli on Beef Trimmings Obtained from a Beef Packing Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Wang, Hui; Youssef, Mohamed K; Devos, Julia; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the immediate source of Escherichia coli on beef trimmings produced at a large packing plant by analyzing the E. coli on trimmings at various locations of a combo bin filled on the same day and of bins filled on different days. Ten 2,000-lb (907-kg) combo bins (B1 through B10) of trimmings were obtained from a large plant on 6 days over a period of 5 weeks. Thin slices of beef with a total area of approximately 100 cm(2) were excised from five locations (four corners and the center) at each of four levels of the bins: the top surface and 30, 60, and 90 cm below the top. The samples were enriched for E. coli in modified tryptone soya broth supplemented with 20 mg/liter novobiocin. The positive enrichment cultures, as determined by PCR, were plated on E. coli/coliform count plates for recovery of E. coli. Selected E. coli isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Of the 200 enrichment cultures, 43 were positive by PCR for E. coli, and 32 of these cultures yielded E. coli isolates. Two bins did not yield any positive enrichment cultures, and three PCR-positive bins did not yield any E. coli isolates. MLVA of 165 E. coli isolates (30, 62, 56, 5, and 12 from B6 through B10, respectively) revealed nine distinct genotypes. MLVA types 263 and 89 were most prevalent overall and on individual days, accounting for 49.1 and 37.6% of the total isolates, respectively. These two genotypes were also found at multiple locations within a bin. All nine genotypes belonged to the phylogenetic group A0 of E. coli, suggesting an animal origin. The finding that the trimmings carried very few E. coli indicates an overall effective control over contamination of beef with E. coli at this processing plant. The lack of strain diversity of the E. coli on trimmings suggests that most E. coli isolates may have come from common sources, most likely equipment used in the fabrication process.

  5. Genotypic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus obtained from humans and bovine mastitis samples in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that also causes important infections in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed to test genetic diversity among strains of S. aureus isolated from cattle (n=34 and humans (n=22 by DNA typing. Materials and Methods: Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP is the genotyping tool used in the study. The presence of the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genes among these strain groups was also checked. Results: A dendrogram deduced from FAFLP showed that all the strains clustered into 10 groups (A-J with a relative genetic divergence of less than 8%. Sixty-seven percent of the isolates from bovine sources clustered together in two clades (A and H, while another major cluster with 13 isolates (59% (Cluster G had all strains from a human host. The remaining strains from both the hosts clustered independently into smaller clusters with the exception of two strains of human origin, which clustered along with a bovine cluster. Thirteen strains belonging to cluster G were highly clonal. About 77% of strains obtained from human infections were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA, whereas only 29% of strains from bovine origin were MRSA. Only three strains from human origin showed PVL positive, while no strain from cattle had PVL genes. The complete absence of PVL genes in all the bovine strains in the study appears to be significant. Conclusions: FAFLP can be successfully applied to assess the genetic relationship of S. aureus isolates from different hosts. The study also provided the valuable epidemiological data on S. aureus from bovine sources in India, which is lacking.

  6. Quantification, morphology, and viability of equine preantral follicles obtained via the Biopsy Pick-Up method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, K T; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Fonseca, G R; Wischral, A; Gastal, M O; King, S S; Jones, K L; Figueiredo, J R; Gastal, E L

    2013-03-01

    A Biopsy Pick-Up (BPU) method was tested to determine the feasibility of retrieving preantral follicles from mare ovaries in vivo. A total of 33 ovarian biopsy procedures were performed on 18 mares during the breeding season. Mares were 5 to 21 years old and biopsies were performed during the estrous and/or diestrous phase, as confirmed by transrectal ultrasonography. Follicles were mechanically isolated using a tissue chopper, counted, and classified as normal or abnormal and primordial or primary. Viability of isolated follicles was determined by Trypan Blue dye. A total of 256 biopsy attempts were made resulting in 185 successful tissue sample collections (72% success rate). The mean weight of ovarian tissue collected per procedure was 25.0 ± 1.6 mg. Overall, 620 preantral follicles were collected and isolated (95% primordial and 5% primary). The mean (±SEM) number of follicles isolated per biopsy procedure was 18.8 ± 1.9. Primordial and primary follicles had an average diameter of 31.3 ± 6.2 and 41.1 ± 6.6 μm, respectively. Viability rate was higher (P 0.05) according to phase of the estrous cycle. Younger mares (5 to 7 years old) had more (P 0.05) by any biopsy procedure, and there were no adverse effects on cyclicity or general reproductive health. In conclusion, the BPU method provided large numbers of normal and viable preantral follicles for the study of early follicular development in mares. The BPU method might be used in the future to obtain preantral follicles for in vitro culture to enable the use of numerous oocytes present within the equine ovary. This could allow for the preservation of genetic material or large-scale embryo production.

  7. Isolation of Geobacter species from diverse sedimentary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaxes, J.D.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Lonergan, D.J.; Jenter, H.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) reduction in sedimentary environments, Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms were enriched for and isolated from freshwater aquatic sediments, a pristine deep aquifer, and a petroleum-contaminated shallow aquifer. Enrichments were initiated with acetate or toluene as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. Isolations were made with acetate or benzoate. Five new strains which could obtain energy for growth by dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction were isolated. All five isolates are gram- negative strict anaerobes which grow with acetate as the electron donor and Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence of the isolated organisms demonstrated that they all belonged to the genus Geobacter in the delta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Unlike the type strain, Geobacter metallireducens, three of the five isolates could use H2 as an electron donor fur Fe(III) reduction. The deep subsurface isolate is the first Fe(III) reducer shown to completely oxidize lactate to carbon dioxide, while one of the freshwater sediment isolates is only the second Fe(III) reducer known that can oxidize toluene. The isolation of these organisms demonstrates that Geobacter species are widely distributed in a diversity of sedimentary environments in which Fe(III) reduction is an important process.

  8. Genetic diversity among monoconidial and polyconidial isolates of Bipolaris sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Michele B; Minotto, Elisandra; Feltrin, Thaisa; Milagre, Luciana P; Spadari, Cristina; Van Der Sand, Sueli T

    2014-12-01

    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat-growing regions of the world. This fungus shows a high genetic diversity and morphological and physiologic variability. In this study, 19 polysporic and 57 monosporic isolates of B. sorokiniana were characterized using universal rice primers-URP-PCR. The results obtained when the dendrogram was constructed with all the data produced with the amplification products showed very distinct clusters. However, the similarity among the isolates was low where 37 and 26.3 % of the monosporic and polysporic isolates, respectively, showed similarity above 70 %. All primers amplified multiple DNA fragments of polysporic as well as the monosporic isolates. Isolates fingerprints were constructed based on binary characters revealed by the three primers. An amplified fragment of approximately 750 bp was observed among 40 % of the isolates, when primer URP-1F was used. When primers URP-4R and URP-2R were used, a fragment of 450 and 400 bp was present in 31.5 and 29 % of the isolates, respectively. It was expected a higher similarity among the isolates since the monosporic cultures were originated from the polysporic. The dendrogram did not enable the separation of B. sorokiniana isolates by their geographic origin. This low correlation suggests that gene transfer may have occurred by parasexual combination in this fungus population. However, in spite of the research efforts for that end, it has not been possible to establish patterns that characterize the profile of B. sorokiniana.

  9. Isolation by distance, web service

    OpenAIRE

    Bohonak Andrew J; Jensen Jeffrey L; Kelley Scott T

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The population genetic pattern known as "isolation by distance" results from spatially limited gene flow and is a commonly observed phenomenon in natural populations. However, few software programs exist for estimating the degree of isolation by distance among populations, and they tend not to be user-friendly. Results We have created Isolation by Distance Web Service (IBDWS) a user-friendly web interface for determining patterns of isolation by distance. Using this site, ...

  10. Quality assessment of electroencephalography obtained from a "dry electrode" system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jeremy D; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P; Hope, Omotola

    2012-07-15

    This study examines the difference in application times for routine electroencephalography (EEG) utilizing traditional electrodes and a "dry electrode" headset. The primary outcome measure was the time to interpretable EEG (TIE). A secondary outcome measure of recording quality and interpretability was obtained from EEG sample review by two blinded clinical neurophysiologists. With EEG samples obtained from 10 subjects, the average TIE for the "dry electrode" system was 139s, and for the conventional recording 873s (pdry electrode" system can be applied with more than an 80% reduction in the TIE while still obtaining interpretable EEG.

  11. [Isolation of enteropathogenic Vibrio in bivalves and mud from the Nicoya Gulf, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cortés, V; Antillón, F

    1990-11-01

    The presence of enteropathogenic Vibrio was evaluated in 36 sediment samples and 41 bivalve samples obtained from 3 collecting sites in the Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica. Isolation methods for halophilic and non halophilic Vibrio were used. The biochemical profiles of the strains obtained revealed the presence of the following isolates: 224 Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 3 V. furnissii, 1 V. damsela and 3 V. fluvialis. V. cholerae was not isolated, due principally to the use of TCBS agar.

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE SEEDLING REACTIONS OF TWENTY BARLEY CULTIVARS TO SIX ISOLATES OF DRECHSLERA TERES F. MACULATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pınar USTA; KARAKAYA, Aziz; OĞUZ, Arzu ÇELİK; MERT, Zafer; AKAN, Kadir; ÇETİN, Lütfi

    2014-01-01

    Seedling reactions of 20 barley cultivars grown in Turkey were determined under greenhouse conditions to six isolates of Drechslera teres f. maculata, the causal agent of spot form of barley net blotch disease. Isolates were obtained from different provinces of Turkey. Differences among the reactions of the cultivars to the isolates of the fungus were observed. Isolate differences in pathogenicity for each cultivar were also present. The reactions of cultivars to the isolates ranged betwee...

  13. Analgesic profile of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, M M; de Jesus, R A; Cechinel-Filho, V; Schlemper, V

    1998-04-01

    Marrubium vulgare L. is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to cure a variety of diseases. Recently we have demonstrated that a hydroalcoholic extract of this plant showed significant, nonspecific antispasmodic effects on isolated smooth muscle. In this report, we have investigated the possible analgesic effects of the same hydroalcoholic extract in different models of pain in mice. The results suggest that this extract exhibits significant analgesic activity, antagonizing chemically-induced acute pain. Such effects may be related to the presence of steroids and terpenes, which were detected by TLC analysis.

  14. Treatment of biomass to obtain a target chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Elander, Richard T.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2010-08-24

    Target chemicals were produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  15. Hydrolysis of starch and fermentable hydrolysates obtained therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, W.C.; Miller, F.D.

    1981-05-05

    Starch in slurry was liquefied by strong acid and a-amylase, saccharified in the presence of acid cation exchanger, and neutralized with NH/sub 4/OH to obtain an aqueous solution of fermentable sugar.

  16. Sensory cut-off point obtained from survival analysis statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Garitta, Lorena; Langohr, Klaus; Gómez Melis, Guadalupe; Hough, Guillermo; Beeren, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we applied interval-censored survival analysis techniques to estimate sensory cut-off points based on consumer’s decision to accept or reject food products taking into account the inherent variability in sensory measurements. We compared the values obtained using this survival analysis methodology with those obtained by applying a previous regression based method. Cut-off point (COP) estimations were made for acid flavor in yogurt, strawberry flavor in a strawberry flav...

  17. Perovskite type nanopowders and thin films obtained by chemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Fruth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the contribution of the authors, to the preparation of two types of perovskites, namely BiFeO3 and LaCoO3, by innovative methods. The studied perovskites were obtained as powders, films and sintered bodies. Their complex structural and morphological characterization is also presented. The obtained results have underlined the important influence of the method of preparation on the properties of the synthesized perovskites.

  18. Thermoluminescence properties of zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orante B, V. R.; Escobar O, F. M.; Cruz V, C. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Apdo. Postal 130, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Bernal, R., E-mail: victor.orante@polimeros.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    High-dose thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel zinc oxide obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, with a non-stoichiometric value of the elemental stoichiometric coefficient (Φ{sub c}) are presented in this work. Zn O powder samples obtained were annealed afterwards at 900 grades C during 2 h in air. Sintered particles of sizes between ∼ 0.5 and ∼ 2 μm were obtained, according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of the hexagonal phase of Zn O for the powder samples obtained, before and after thermal annealing, without any remaining nitrate peaks observed. Thermoluminescence glow curves of Zn O obtained after being exposed to beta radiation consists of two maxima; one located at ∼ 149 grades C and another at ∼ 308 grades C, being the latter the dosimetric component of the curve. Dosimetric characterization of non-stoichiometric zinc oxide provided experimental evidence like asymptotic behavior of the Tl signal fading for times greater than 16 h between irradiation and the corresponding Tl readout, as well as the linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied (from 12.5 up to 400 Gy). Such characteristics place Zn O phosphors obtained in this work as a promising material for high-dose radiation dosimetry applications (e.g., radiotherapy and food industry). (author)

  19. Performance of Variable Negative Stiffness MRE Vibration Isolation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run-pu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetorheological elastomer (MRE vibration isolation devices can improve a system’s vibration response via adjustable stiffness and damping under different magnetic fields. Combined with negative stiffness design, these MRE devices can reduce a system’s stiffness and improve the vibration control effect significantly. This paper develops a variable negative stiffness MRE isolation device by combining an improved separable iron core with laminated MREs. The relationship between the negative stiffness and the performance of the device is obtained by mathematical transformation. Its vibration response under simple harmonic excitation at small amplitude and the impact of the volume fraction of soft magnetic particles on the isolation system are also analyzed. The results show that the negative stiffness produced by the magnetic force is a major factor affecting the capacity of the isolation system. Compared to devices of the same size, the isolation system equipped with low-particle volume fraction MREs demonstrates better performance.

  20. Fungi isolated from Stewartia pseudocamellia Max. seeds and their pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Kurzawińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of studies was to determine typical composition of fungi occurring on seeds of Stewartia pseudocamellia.The studies conducted on 100 disinfected and 100 nondisinfected seeds of these plants.Isolates of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, Cylindrocarpon radicicola and Rhizoctonia solani were characterized by pathogenicity towards the investigated Stewartia pseudocamellia. In the laboratory experiment, 204 isolations of microorganisms were obtained that belonged to 20 species and form of fungi and bacteria. Among fungi there were both of parasite (Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani and typical saprophytic (Cladosporium spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp., Mucor spp.. The dominant fungus on seeds was Alternaria alternata. Among the investigated isolates only one isolate (R4 Rhizoctonia solani, was strongly pathogenic, isolates (A1 Alternaria alternata were weakly pathogenic to seedlings of Stewartia pseudocamellia.

  1. Distinct replicative and cytopathic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyö, E M; Morfeldt-Månson, L; Chiodi, F; Lind, B; von Gegerfelt, A; Albert, J; Olausson, E; Asjö, B

    1988-01-01

    According to their capacity to replicate in vitro, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates can be divided into two major groups, rapid/high and slow/low. Rapid/high viruses can easily be transmitted to a variety of cell lines of T-lymphoid (CEM, H9, and Jurkat) and monocytoid (U937) origin. In contrast, slow/low viruses replicate transiently, if at all, in these cell lines. Except for a few isolates, the great majority of slow/low viruses replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat-tatIII cells constitutively expressing the tatIII gene of HIV-1. The viruses able to replicate efficiently cause syncytium formation and are regularly isolated from immunodeficient patients. Poorly replicating HIV isolates, often obtained from individuals with no or mild disease, show syncytium formation and single-cell killing simultaneously or, with some isolates, cell killing only. Images PMID:2459416

  2. Infectivities of four isolates of Taenia taeniaeformis to various rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, N; Iwaki, T; Okamoto, M; Ooi, H K; Oku, Y; Ohbayashi, M; Kamiya, M

    1994-06-01

    Taenia taeniaeformis were isolated from Norway rats captured at Sapporo (SRN isolate) and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KRN) and from Bedford's gray red-backed voles at Toubetsu (TCR) and Abuta (ACR). SRN, KRN and TCR isolates showed similar degree of infectivity to various rodents in which cysticerci with hooks were obtained in laboratory rats, white tuberous lesions in mice and no cysts or lesions in Mongolian gerbils and voles. Contrary to this, inoculation with ACR isolate eggs resulted in strobilocerci formation in the liver of voles, but no cysts were observed in rats, mice or gerbils. This host specificity of ACR isolate to voles suggests that it might be a new species of Taenia.

  3. Genetic Characterization of Soybean Rhizobia Isolated from Different Ecological Zones in North-Eastern Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Safiullah; Ayubi, Abdul Ghani; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2017-03-31

    Seventy rhizobial isolates were obtained from the root nodules of two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars: Japanese cultivar Enrei and USA cultivar Stine3300, which were inoculated with different soil samples from Afghanistan. In order to study the genetic properties of the isolates, the DNA sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and symbiotic genes (nodD1 and nifD) were elucidated. Furthermore, the isolates were inoculated into the roots of two soybean cultivars, and root nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation abilities were subsequently evaluated in order to assess symbiotic performance. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Afghanistan isolates obtained from soybean root nodules were classified into two genera, Bradyrhizobium and Ensifer. Bradyrhizobium isolates accounted for 54.3% (38) of the isolates, and these isolates had a close relationship with Bradyrhizobium liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Five out of the 38 Bradyrhizobium isolates showed a novel lineage for B. liaoningense and B. yuanmingense. Thirty-two out of the 70 isolates were identified as Ensifer fredii. An Ensifer isolate had identical nodD1 and nifD sequences to those in B. yuanmingense. This result indicated that the horizontal gene transfer of symbiotic genes occurred from Bradyrhizobium to Ensifer in Afghanistan soil. The symbiotic performance of the 14 tested isolates from the root nodules of the two soybean cultivars indicated that Bradyrhizobium isolates exhibited stronger acetylene reduction activities than Ensifer isolates. This is the first study to genetically characterize soybean-nodulating rhizobia in Afghanistan soil.

  4. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Zavisic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1 and L. casei (G3. Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogenes, but not on the growth of Candida albicans. The bacteriocin activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6358-P was shown only by L. plantarum G1. Moreover, the isolates G1 and G3 showed good viability in the acid gastric environment and in the gut environment containing bovine bile salts. The viability of G1 and G3 isolates in the gastrointestinal tract, and the adhesion to the intestinal mucosa were also confirmed in vivo. The biochemical tests of blood samples revealed lower levels of serum triglycerides and cholesterol, as well as reduced activity of alkaline phosphatase in all lactobacilli-treated Wistar rats, compared to control ones. No toxicity for NMRI Ham mice was observed. According to our experimental results, these findings imply that L. plantarum G1 and L. casei G3 could be characterized as potential probiotics.

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  6. Diabetes in population isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  7. [Isolated Ledderhose fibromatosis plantaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Göhring, U; Friedl, W; Roeren, T

    1993-07-01

    Plantar fibromatosis or Ledderhose syndrome has rarely been discussed in the medical literature. This clinical entity includes nodular Dupuytren-like indurations of the plantar aponeurosis. We present a case of a young man with isolated disease of his right foot and describe the clinical and pathomorphological features of this disease as well as its characteristic findings at magnetic resonance tomography. The therapy of choice is a subtotal resection of the plantar aponeurosis to prevent irreversible contractions of the toes. The prognosis following fascietomy is good.

  8. NORMOLIPEMIC ISOLATED XANTHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sankar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Xanthomas are often a manifestation of underlying lipid abnormalities.A 17 - year - old female presented to our hospital with pain and swelling over t he left knee joint.Routine investigations and lipid profile were normal. Dermatological examination and Psychiatric examination were done and found to be normal. Histopathology from the lesion revealed macrophages and Touton type of giant cells. We present a case of normolipemic isolated xanthoma, which not only is an an uncommon occurrence but also needs a regular follow up because a high association with reticuloendothelial malignancies has also been reported.

  9. Journey from isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the Ottawa Consultation in 1982, the relationship between the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA and the World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC was nonexistent. In the NHKA it became progressively clear that it would be impossible to travel the road of faith alone. This article examined the factors which contributed to the growing isolation of the NHKA, especially nationalism, a particularistic ecclesiology and the rejection of Apartheid by international ecumenical bodies. It also reflected on efforts of the NHKA to return to the international ecumenical movement.

  10. Molecular typing and antifungal susceptibility of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans species complex isolates in Goiania, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L K H; Souza Junior, A H; Costa, C R; Faganello, J; Vainstein, M H; Chagas, A L B; Souza, A C M; Silva, M R R

    2010-01-01

    A total of 124 Cryptococcus isolates, including 84 clinical strains obtained from cerebrospinal fluid from AIDS patients and 40 environmental isolates from pigeon excreta and from Eucalyptus trees, were studied. The varieties, serotypes, phospholipase activity and molecular profile of these isolates were determined. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii serotype A was identified in 120 isolates and Cryptococcus gattii serotype B in four isolates. The clinical isolates showed higher phospholipase activity than environmental isolates. Similar patterns of in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and no resistance were found for all isolates. Molecular type VNI (C. neoformans var. grubii) was recovered in 80 clinical and 40 environmental isolates while the type VGIII (C. gattii) was found in four clinical isolates. This study demonstrated for the first time the molecular types of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus isolates in the midwest Brazil region.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from Turkey flocks fed virginiamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, L A; Thal, L A; Perri, M B; Donabedian, S; McMahon, J; Chow, J W; Zervos, M J

    1998-03-01

    From 125 separate cloacal cultures from three turkey flocks fed virginiamycin, 104 Enterococcus faecium and 186 Enterococcus faecalis isolates were obtained. As the turkeys aged, there was a higher percentage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium isolates, with isolates from the oldest flock being 100% resistant. There were no vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated there were 11 PFGE types of E. faecalis and 7 PFGE types of E. faecium that were in more than one group of flock cultures.

  12. Distribution of Clostridium perfringens Isolates from Piglets in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Ki-Eun; Lim, Seong-In; SHIN, Seong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Kim, Ha-Young; Song, Jae-Young; An, Dong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium perfringens causes various digestive system disease symptoms in pigs. In the present study, 11 C. perfringens isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets and 18 from healthy piglets. All of the C. perfringens isolates were shown to be type A using a multiplex PCR assay. The β2 toxin gene was detected in 27/29 C. perfringens isolates, i.e., 81% (9/11) of diarrheic piglets and 100% (18/18) of healthy piglets, and all of the genes had the same sequence. In conclusion, the ...

  13. Divergence among an international population of Trichophyton tonsurans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Sugita, Takashi; González, Gloria M; Ellis, David; Arabatzis, Michalis; Vella-Zahra, Loranne; Viguié-Vallanet, Calude; Hiruma, Masataro; Leeder, J Steven; Preuett, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Trichophyton tonsurans is a widely distributed pathogen that demonstrates a significant degree of genetic and phenetic heterogeneity. To date, the degree of genetic relatedness among geographically segregated isolates has not been explored. This investigation evaluates the extent of genetic variation among an international population of T. tonsurans isolates and examines the relatedness of isolates within and between countries. Molecular strain typing was performed on 198 isolates obtained from 14 countries. A mixed-marker strategy utilizing 27 sequence variations in 13 gene loci was applied to all isolates and cluster analysis was performed to examine the relationship between strains. Phylogenetic analysis was used to corroborate the findings of the cluster analysis with T. equinum strains serving as an out-group. In total, 47 distinct strain types were identified represented by seven clusters and one singleton. There appeared to be a moderate degree of clustering among isolates obtained from North America, Asia and Australia, although European isolates were uniformly distributed among the majority of clusters. The degree of genetic variation observed in this study coupled with the geographic localization would support the argument for allopatric divergence within this species.

  14. Comparison of different methodologies for obtaining nickel nanoferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, R.; Menendez, N. [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Crespo, P.; Velasco, V. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM, ADIF CSIC, E-28230 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, O.; Díaz-Fernández, D. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto Nicolás Cabrera, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Herrasti, P., E-mail: pilar.herrasti@uam.es [Departamento de Química Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    Nickel nanoferrites were obtained by means of four different synthetic wet-routes: co-precipitation (CP), sonochemistry (SC), sonoelectrochemistry (SE) and electrochemistry (E). The influence of the synthesis method on the structural and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite nanoparticles is studied. Although similar experimental conditions such as temperature, pH and time of synthesis were used, a strong dependence of composition and microstructure on the synthesis procedure is found, as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies reveal. Whereas by means of the CP and SC methods particles of a small size around 5–10 nm, respectively, and composed by different phases are obtained, the electrochemical routes (E and SE) allow obtaining monodisperse nanoparticles, with sizes ranging from 30 to 40 nm, and very close to stoichiometry. Magnetic characterization evidences a superparamagnetic behavior for samples obtained by CP and SC methods, whereas the electrochemical route leads to ferromagnetic ferrite nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Electrochemical synthesis produces pure NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanonoparticles with 40 nm particle size. • Coprecipitation and sonochemistry techniques generate NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with impurities. • Nanoparticles obtained by coprecipitation and sonochemistry are superparamagnetic. • Electrochemical and sonoelectrochemical methods produce ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

  15. SIGNIFICATIVE ANO PROBLEM BASED LEARNING IN IMMUNOLOGY: OBTAINING A KIT TO TYPE NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Miguez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng have been classified serologically on the basis of the antigenicity of the major porin (Por. Por! occurs in two immunochemically distinct serogroups: PorlA and Porffi. Because the diagnostic, therapeutic, social, and legal corisequences of misidentification of a nongonococcal Neisseria isolate as Ng can be substantial, the accurate and rapid identification of this organism is important. Typifying of Ng is done by techniques baséd on phenotypic characteristics and plasmidic content that individually don't reach an adequate discrimination, and so combination of techniques ·must be used. The aim of this work is to obtain polyclonal specificAb that discriminate Ng types Por!Aand Porffi. For this purpose, weimmunized two rabbits with sonicated PorlA and Porm strains ofNg (isolated from clínica! samples and serologically classified. The Ab response was analyzed along the protocol by ELISAand by direct agglutination with latex coated with sonicated Ng. With these data, we selected the bleeding providing the serum with maximum specific Ab ti ter to prepare the typing reagents. Unwanted Ab directed against shared epitopes were removed by adsorption with Ng latex. The typing reagents were obtained by coating latex with each depleted sera. Our results suggest that high titers of specific Ab be obtained for both strains ofNg and the depleted sera be discriminated between both strains. These results suggest that these diagnostic reagents could be useful to confirrn presumptive identification by a simple and rapid method.

  16. Isolation of Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-08-03

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments.

  17. Schizosaccharomyces isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the optimization of a selective and differential medium which would facilitate the isolation of Schizosaccharomyces (a genus with a low incidence compared to other microorganisms to select individuals from this genus for industrial purposes, especially in light of the recent recommendation of the use of yeasts from this genus in the wine industry by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine, or to detect the presence of such yeasts, for those many authors who consider them food spoilers. To this end, we studied various selective differential agents based on the main physiological characteristics of these species, such as their high resistances to high concentrations of sugar, sulfur dioxide, sorbic acid, benzoic acid, acetic acid or malo ethanolic fermentation. This selective medium is based on the genus resistance to the antibiotic actidione and its high resistance to inhibitory agents such as benzoic acid. Malic acid was used as a differential factor due to the ability of this genus to metabolise it to ethanol, which allows detecting of the degradation of this compound. Lastly, the medium was successfully used to isolate strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe from honey and honeycombs.

  18. Functionality of porous starch obtained by amylase or amyloglucosidase treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, A; Błaszczak, W; Rosell, C M

    2014-01-30

    Porous starch is attracting very much attention for its absorption and shielding ability in many food applications. The effect of two different enzymes, fungal α-amylase (AM) or amyloglucosidase (AMG), on corn starch at sub-gelatinization temperature was studied as an alternative to obtain porous starch. Biochemical features, thermal and structural analyses of treated starches were studied. Microscopic analysis of the granules confirmed the enzymatic modification of the starches obtaining porous structures with more agglomerates in the case of AMG treated starches. Several changes in thermal properties and hydrolysis kinetics were observed in enzymatically modified starches. Hydration properties were significantly affected by enzymatic modification being greater influenced by AMG activity, and the opposite trend was observed in the pasting properties. Overall, results showed that enzymatic modification at sub-gelatinization temperatures really offer an attractive alternative for obtaining porous starch granules to be used in a variety of foods applications.

  19. Structure and properties of carbonaceous adsorbents obtained from furanformolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Y.B.; Oleinik, M.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1982-12-10

    We have shown previously (1) that a new copolycondensate based on petroleum residues -- fuaranformolite -- is a valuable carbon-containing raw material by the use of which carbonaceous adsorbents have been obtained. The latter can be used as catalysts and catalyst supports and also for the fine purification and separation of gases. The present paper is devoted to the study of the porous structure and sorption characteristics of the adsorbents obtained. High-strength carbonaceous adsorbents obtained from new copolymers of asphaltite -- fuaranformolites may, depending on the degree of burn-off, be used for the adsorption of poorly sorbed gases, of vapors of organic solvents, and of substances from solution. By varying the composition of the copolymer it is possible to direct the formation of the porous structure of the adsorbents in a desired manner.

  20. Nanostructured films of metal particles obtained by laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz-Miranda, M., E-mail: muniz@unifi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Gellini, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giorgetti, E.; Margheri, G.; Marsili, P. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Lascialfari, L.; Becucci, L. [Dipartimento di Chimica “U. Schiff”, Università di Firenze, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Trigari, S. [Istituto Sistemi Complessi (CNR), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Giammanco, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “E. Fermi”, Università di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-09-30

    Colloidal dispersions of silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained in pure water by ablation with nanosecond pulsed laser. Then, by filtration of the metal particles on alumina, we fabricated nanostructured films, whose surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and related to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) after adsorption of adenine. - Highlights: • Ag and Au colloidal nanoparticles were obtained by laser ablation. • Nanostructured Ag and Au films were fabricated by filtration of metal nanoparticles. • Surface morphology of metal films was investigated by atomic force microscopy. • Surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of adenine on metal films were obtained. • SERS enhancements were related to the surface roughness of the metal films.

  1. Nanocrystalline and ultrafine grain copper obtained by mechanical attrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rodríguez Baracaldo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method for the sample preparation and characterisation of bulk copper having grain size lower than 1 μm (ultra-fine grain and lower than 100 nm grain size (nanocrystalline. Copper is initially manufactured by a milling/alloying me- chanical method thereby obtaining a powder having a nanocrystalline structure which is then consolidated through a process of warm compaction at high pressure. Microstructural characterisation of bulk copper samples showed the evolution of grain size during all stages involved in obtaining it. The results led to determining the necessary conditions for achieving a wide range of grain sizes. Mechanical characterisation indicated an increase in microhardness to values of around 3.40 GPa for unconsolida- ted nanocrystalline powder. Compressivee strength was increased by reducing the grain size, thereby obtaining an elastic limit of 650 MPa for consolidated copper having a ~ 62 nm grain size.

  2. Modelling of classical ghost images obtained using scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, S.; Castelletto, S.; Aruldoss, C.; Scholten, R. E.; Roberts, A.

    2007-08-01

    The images obtained in ghost imaging with pseudo-thermal light sources are highly dependent on the spatial coherence properties of the incident light. Pseudo-thermal light is often created by reducing the coherence length of a coherent source by passing it through a turbid mixture of scattering spheres. We describe a model for simulating ghost images obtained with such partially coherent light, using a wave-transport model to calculate the influence of the scattering on initially coherent light. The model is able to predict important properties of the pseudo-thermal source, such as the coherence length and the amplitude of the residual unscattered component of the light which influence the resolution and visibility of the final ghost image. We show that the residual ballistic component introduces an additional background in the reconstructed image, and the spatial resolution obtainable depends on the size of the scattering spheres.

  3. Comparison of metaheuristics for obtaining fuzzy predicates: a curious case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymi Ceruto-Cordovés

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of three metaheuristics on the problem of obtaining fuzzy predicates with high truth value. According to the No Free Lunch Theorem (NFL cannot establish any general superiority of any metaheuristic over the others. This work demonstrates that even within the same type of problem can be difficult to establish the superiority of a metaheuristic. In this case, each metaheuristic is the best at least in one of the four variants of fuzzy operator employed and normal form of the obtained predicate. This curious case reveals the importance of the experimental comparison of metaheuristics, before assuming the superiority of one over the other.

  4. Vibrational properties of gold nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Bueno, L. Oscar Neira; Britto Hurtado, R.; Rocha-Rocha, O.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Serrano-Corrales, Luis Ivan; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the synthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles through an ecological method to obtain nanostructures from the extract of the plant Opuntia ficus-indica. Colloidal nanoparticles show sizes that vary between 10-20 nm, and present various geometric morphologies. The samples were characterized through optical absorption, Raman Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Additionally, low energy metallic clusters of Aun (n=2-20 atoms) were modeled by computational quantum chemistry. The theoretical results were obtained with Density Functional Theory (DFT). The predicted results of Au clusters show a tendency and are correlated with the experimental results concerning the optical absorption bands and Raman spectroscopy in gold nanoparticles.

  5. Obtaining shape memory alloy thin layer using PLD technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimpoeşu N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-based shape memory alloy (SMA was obtained through a classic melting method. The material was analyzed in heat treated and deformed states using scanning electrons microscopy (SEM, dilatometry (DIL, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA and energy dispersive X-ray analyze (EDAX to establish the material microstructure, memory properties like martensitic transformation domain and rate or damping capacity. The material exhibits a good shape memory effect and high internal friction and it is proposed as target in a pulsed laser deposition (PLD process for obtaining thin films. The deposition process is described in this paper through presented experimental results on the layer.

  6. GHM method for obtaining rationalsolutions of nonlinear differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the application of the general homotopy method (GHM) to obtain rational solutions of nonlinear differential equations. It delivers a high precision representation of the nonlinear differential equation using a few linear algebraic terms. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, three nonlinear problems are solved and compared against other semi-analytic methods or numerical methods. The obtained results show that GHM is a powerful tool, capable to generate highly accurate rational solutions. AMS subject classification 34L30.

  7. Comparative analysis of discrete exosome fractions obtained by differential centrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Hvam, Michael L; Primdahl-Bengtson, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cells release a mixture of extracellular vesicles, amongst these exosomes, that differ in size, density and composition. The standard isolation method for exosomes is centrifugation of fluid samples, typically at 100,000×g or above. Knowledge of the effect of discrete...... ultracentrifugation speeds on the purification from different cell types, however, is limited. METHODS: We examined the effect of applying differential centrifugation g-forces ranging from 33,000×g to 200,000×g on exosome yield and purity, using 2 unrelated human cell lines, embryonic kidney HEK293 cells and bladder...... of phenol red and cleared by 200,000×g overnight centrifugation. The centrifugation tube fill level impacted the sedimentation efficacy. Comparative analysis by NTA, protein quantification, and detection of exosomal and contamination markers identified differences in vesicle size, concentration...

  8. Use of the isolator 1.5 microbial tube for culture of synovial fluid from patients with septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagupsky, P; Press, J

    1997-09-01

    Synovial fluid specimens obtained from patients with arthritis were plated onto solid media (conventional cultures) or inoculated into an Isolator 1.5 microbial tube (Isolator cultures), and the yield and time to detection of organisms were compared. Overall, 144 specimens obtained from 137 patients were processed, and 31 (21.5%) cultures obtained from 29 patients were positive by at least one method. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 12 patients, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Kingella kingae were isolated from 4 patients each, group G streptococci were isolated from 3 patients, Staphylococcus epidermidis and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from 2 patients each, and Streptococcus mitis and Peptostreptococcus prevotii were isolated from 1 patient each. Overall, the causative organism was detected in 31 of 31 (100.0%) Isolator cultures and 24 of 31 (77.4%) conventional cultures (P septic arthritis.

  9. Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated in 1965 are more susceptible to triclosan than current isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissel Skovgaard

    Full Text Available Since its introduction to the market in the 1970s, the synthetic biocide triclosan has had widespread use in household and medical products. Although decreased triclosan susceptibility has been observed for several bacterial species, when exposed under laboratory settings, no in vivo studies have associated triclosan use with decreased triclosan susceptibility or cross-resistance to antibiotics. One major challenge of such studies is the lack of strains that with certainty have not been exposed to triclosan. Here we have overcome this challenge by comparing current isolates of the human opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis with isolates collected in the 1960s prior to introduction of triclosan to the market. Of 64 current S. epidermidis isolates 12.5% were found to have tolerance towards triclosan defined as MIC≥0.25 mg/l compared to none of 34 isolates obtained in the 1960s. When passaged in the laboratory in the presence of triclosan, old and current susceptible isolates could be adapted to the same triclosan MIC level as found in current tolerant isolates. DNA sequence analysis revealed that laboratory-adapted strains carried mutations in fabI encoding the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase isoform, FabI, that is the target of triclosan, and the expression of fabI was also increased. However, the majority of the tolerant current isolates carried no mutations in fabI or the putative promoter region. Thus, this study indicates that the widespread use of triclosan has resulted in the occurrence of S. epidermidis with tolerance towards triclosan and that the adaptation involves FabI as well as other factors. We suggest increased caution in the general application of triclosan as triclosan has not shown efficacy in reducing infections and is toxic to aquatic organisms.

  10. Clinical significance of Bacillus species isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1989-06-01

    To determine the clinical significance of blood isolates of Bacillus, we reviewed all blood cultures obtained at North Carolina Memorial Hospital between 1981 and 1985. Over the five-year study period the number of patients (incidence per 10,000 hospital admissions) from whom Bacillus was isolated increased from 4.97 in 1981 to 12.5 in 1985. The incidence per 1,000 blood cultures also increased from 1.12 in 1981 to 2.33 in 1985. Review of the medical records of 78 of the 95 patients (82%) with positive cultures allowed retrospective classification of five isolates (6.4%) as clinically significant, 33 isolates (42.3%) as possibly significant, and 40 isolates (51.3%) as nonsignificant. Underlying diseases in patients with clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia included burn trauma in two, leukemia in one, carcinoma in one, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in one. All isolates judged to be clinically significant and the majority of possibly significant isolates were B cereus. We conclude that the isolation of Bacillus species from blood cultures is clinically significant in 5% to 10% of cases, that the incidence of Bacillus bacteremia is increasing, and that burn trauma should be added to the list of conditions known to predispose to clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia.

  11. Genotypes of Invasive Pneumococcal Isolates Recently Recovered from Italian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicuonzo, Giordano; Gherardi, Giovanni; Gertz, Robert E.; D'Ambrosio, Fabio; Goglio, Antonio; Lorino, Giulia; Recchia, Simona; Pantosti, Annalisa; Beall, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    We examined 73 recent invasive pneumococcal isolates within selected areas of Italy for genotypic variability. Thirty-three genomic macrorestriction types were found, three of which represented multiple serotypes. Restriction fragment patterns of pbp2b, pbp2x, and pspA were conserved within the majority of isolates that shared macrorestriction types. Of the nine macrorestriction types found among the 22 penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococus pneumoniae (PNSP) isolates, seven comprised isolates with allelic profiles showing five to seven allelic matches to profiles in the multilocus sequence typing database (www.mlst.net); however, three of the seven profiles represented serotypes not previously associated with these clonal clusters. Two PNSP macrorestriction types represented new clones with unique allelic profiles. Allelic profiles obtained from isolates of 3 of the 25 macrorestriction types found among the 51 penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) isolates were closely related to previously described profiles. One PSSP isolate was a novel type 24F isolate related to the multiresistant clone France9V-3. This work reports new PNSP strains and new serotype-clone associations. PMID:12354862

  12. Morphology, physiology, and virulence of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloni, A; Pessi, I S; Frazzon, A P G; Van der Sand, S T

    2009-09-01

    Bipolaris sorokiniana is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes diseases in cereal crops. The high morphological, physiological, and genetic variability makes the control of this fungus a difficult task. The aim of this work was to study the virulence, morphological, and physiological variability of B. sorokiniana isolates. For this, 35 B. sorokiniana isolates from different geographic regions in Brazil and other countries were used. The isolates were evaluated for their morphological variability, considering mycelium color, sector formation, and growth rate. Based on these morphological characteristics, the isolates were grouped in five different morphological groups. Extracellular enzymes activity in solid medium, virulence in wheat seeds and seedlings, and analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE were evaluated for all isolates. Variations among the isolates were found for enzymatic activity, and esterase was the enzyme that showed the highest activity indices. The results obtained from infection of seeds and seedlings showed that isolates from the same geographical region and morphological group had different degrees of virulence. The total protein profile shown by the isolates varied in the number of bands and intensity, where some of them may be used to characterize the specie.

  13. Helicobacter apri sp. nov., isolated from wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoni, Renato Giulio; Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Bassi, Patrizia; Mion, Domenico; Cnockaert, Margo; Luchetti, Andrea; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Three isolates (A19T, C21 and F12) with spiral-shaped cells and one bipolar sheathed flagellum were obtained from gastric mucosa and caecal contents of three different wild boars (Sus scrofa) and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. A genus-specific PCR showed that these isolates belonged to the genus Helicobacter. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA, 60-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP60) and atpA genes demonstrated they formed a novel lineage within this genus. Pairwise 16S rRNA, HSP60 and atpA gene sequence comparisons of the three isolates revealed 99.7, 99.4 and 99.9 % similarity, respectively, among the three isolates; the 16S rRNA gene of isolate A19T shared 98.5 % sequence similarity with its nearest validly named neighbouring species, Helicobacter mastomyrinus (to the type strain MIT 97-5577T). The taxonomic uniqueness of the wild boar isolates was confirmed by protein analysis performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS and by a distinctive biochemical profile. These data indicated that isolates A19T, C21 and F12 represent a novel taxon, for which the name Helicobacter apri sp. nov. is proposed, with isolate A19T (=DSM 28990T=LMG 28471T) as the type strain.

  14. Differences among isolates of simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravell, M; London, W T; Leon, M E; Palmer, A E; Hamilton, R S

    1986-01-01

    Simian hemorrhagic fever (SHF) virus is a member of the Togaviridae family which currently is unclassified to genus. We have studied the relatedness of four different SHF virus isolates obtained from infected macaque or patas monkeys. Differences were found among isolates in type and severity of disease produced in patas monkeys, cell sensitivity to infection, viral antigens, and levels of specific antibody induced in patas monkeys. Based on these criteria, the four isolates have been grouped in two categories: those producing acute infections in patas monkeys (LVR, P-180) and those producing persistent infections (P-248, P-741). The P-180 isolate induced the most severe disease in experimentally infected patas monkeys, but only occasionally were their infections fatal. Persistently infected patas monkeys were viremic over a period of years, but showed no signs or symptoms of infection. All four isolates were found to be antigenically related by use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); the P-248 isolate showing the weakest antigenic relationship. However, none of the four isolates induced cross-neutralizing antibodies in infected patas monkeys. High titers of specific IgG antibody (up to 31,250 as determined by ELISA) were induced in acutely infected patas monkeys (LVR, P-180), but antibody was barely detectable (less than or equal to 50) in persistently infected patas monkeys (P-248, P-741). LVR lytically infected USU-104 cells, patas monkey peritoneal macrophages (PMAC), and rhesus monkey PMAC. The P-180 isolate lytically infected both patas monkey PMAC and rhesus monkey PMAC, but not USU-104 cells. The isolates producing persistent infections (P-248, P-741) lytically infected only rhesus monkey PMAC. These results show that marked differences exist among isolates of SHF virus from naturally infected animals. These differences should be useful in categorizing new isolates.

  15. 15 CFR 711.6 - Where to obtain forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Where to obtain forms. 711.6 Section 711.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS...

  16. Using Weighted Least Squares Regression for Obtaining Langmuir Sorption Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the most commonly used models for describing phosphorus (P) sorption to soils is the Langmuir model. To obtain model parameters, the Langmuir model is fit to measured sorption data using least squares regression. Least squares regression is based on several assumptions including normally dist...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6315 - Alternative methods for obtaining property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative methods for obtaining property. 35.6315 Section 35.6315 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions...

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.308 - Obtaining filing cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Obtaining filing cabinets. 101-26.308 Section 101-26.308 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES...

  19. Obtaining the Weyl tensor from the Bel-Robinson tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrando, Joan J; 10.1007/s10714-009-0921-8

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic study of the Bel-Robinson tensor proposed and initiated in a previous work (Gen. Relativ. Gravit. {\\bf 41}, see ref [11]) is achieved. The canonical form of the different algebraic types is obtained in terms of Bel-Robinson eigen-tensors. An algorithmic determination of the Weyl tensor from the Bel-Robinson tensor is presented.

  20. RESEARCH ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF ECOLOGIC FURS OBTAINED BY TUFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan – Pavel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional textiles are goods obtained by methods other than the classic spinning, weaving and knitting. They are manufactured by mechanically or chemically reinforcing a fabric consisting of fiber layers or a combination of fiber, weaving, yarn or textile layers. Also, unconventional textiles can be obtained by mechanically or chemically reinforcing a yarn pattern or multiple yarn patterns. The tendency of the industry to increase production of synthetic fibers în comparison to natural fibers is also visible în the field of unconventional textiles. Additionally, there is more and more emphasis on using fibers recovered from recycled materials and products which resulted from a classic textile manufacturing process. A TUFTING product is made from a backing fabric, usually cloth, reinforced with yarn introduced through the fabric in loops spaced equally relative to the stitches, and raised at the ends. The fur substitutes can also be obtained with unconventional TUFTING technologies, by reinforcing a backing cloth and then undergoing a final reinforcement by raising and felting on one side. The TUFTING product obtained by reinforcing and weaving can be used în the manufacturing process because it is predisposed to unraveling and has an inadequate aspect. For an optimal uniformity în Tufting fur substitutes, it is recommended that the backing cloth has a mean apparent density of 300Kg/m3 with a 5% irregularity. It is recommended to use the goods for manufacturing childen's clothing, coat linings and children's hats.

  1. Test Beam Results Obtained with the Q4 Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Cerrada, M.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; Fouz, M. c.; Marin, J.; Mocholi, J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta, J.; Romero, L.; Salicio, J. M.

    2000-07-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built at CIEMAT using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented here. (Author)

  2. The mass of (1 Ceres obtained from four close encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Anđelka B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of asteroid mass determination from perturbation during close approach requires as many as possible different close approaches in order to derive reliable mass of a perturber. Here are presented some results for the mass of (1 Ceres obtained using newly found close approaches.

  3. Production of inflammatory mediators by human macrophages obtained from ascites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Pruimboom (Wanda); A.P.J. van Dijk (Arie); C.J.A.M. Tak (Corné); I.L. Bonta; J.H.P. Wilson (Paul); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAscites is a readily available source of human macrophages (Mø), which can be used to study Mø functions in vitro. We characterized the mediators of inflammation produced by human peritoneal Mø (hp-Mø) obtained from patients with portal hypertension and ascites. The production of the cy

  4. Data Obtained from Prototype Wave Dragon in Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James William; Curie, Marie; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the Project: Sea Testing and Optimisation of Power Production on a Scale 1:4.5 Test Rig of the Offshore Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon. This report aims to provide access for the project partners to the raw data obtained from the testing period in Nissum Bredning...

  5. Stoichiometric hydroxyapatite obtained by precipitation and sol gel processes

    OpenAIRE

    C. Guzmán Vázquez; C. Piña Barba; N. Munguía

    2005-01-01

    Three methods for obtaining hydroxiapatite (HA) are described. HA is a very interesting ceramic because of its many medical applications. The first two precipitation methods start from calcium and phosphorous compounds, whereas the third method is a sol-gel process that uses alcoxides. The products were characterized and compared. The observed differences are important for practical applications.

  6. 24 CFR 3286.307 - Process for obtaining trainer's qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... trainer must submit to HUD a list of all states in which the applicant has had a similar training... be a qualified trainer or the adequacy of any training curriculum that is challenged by HUD. (e... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process for obtaining...

  7. Glass transition temperatures of liquid prepolymers obtained by thermal penetrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, J. E., Jr.; Ashcraft, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal penetrometry is experimental technique for detecting temperature at which frozen prepolymer becomes soft enough to be pierced by weighted penetrometer needle; temperature at which this occurs is called penetration temperature. Apparatus used to obtain penetration temperatures can be set up largely from standard parts.

  8. 34 CFR 682.102 - Obtaining and repaying a loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining and repaying a loan. 682.102 Section 682.102 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Purpose and Scope §...

  9. Influence of pansharpening techniques in obtaining accurate vegetation thematic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Ulzurrun, Edurne; Gonzalo-Martin, Consuelo; Marcello-Ruiz, Javier

    2016-10-01

    In last decades, there have been a decline in natural resources, becoming important to develop reliable methodologies for their management. The appearance of very high resolution sensors has offered a practical and cost-effective means for a good environmental management. In this context, improvements are needed for obtaining higher quality of the information available in order to get reliable classified images. Thus, pansharpening enhances the spatial resolution of the multispectral band by incorporating information from the panchromatic image. The main goal in the study is to implement pixel and object-based classification techniques applied to the fused imagery using different pansharpening algorithms and the evaluation of thematic maps generated that serve to obtain accurate information for the conservation of natural resources. A vulnerable heterogenic ecosystem from Canary Islands (Spain) was chosen, Teide National Park, and Worldview-2 high resolution imagery was employed. The classes considered of interest were set by the National Park conservation managers. 7 pansharpening techniques (GS, FIHS, HCS, MTF based, Wavelet `à trous' and Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps) were chosen in order to improve the data quality with the goal to analyze the vegetation classes. Next, different classification algorithms were applied at pixel-based and object-based approach, moreover, an accuracy assessment of the different thematic maps obtained were performed. The highest classification accuracy was obtained applying Support Vector Machine classifier at object-based approach in the Weighted Wavelet `à trous' through Fractal Dimension Maps fused image. Finally, highlight the difficulty of the classification in Teide ecosystem due to the heterogeneity and the small size of the species. Thus, it is important to obtain accurate thematic maps for further studies in the management and conservation of natural resources.

  10. Isolated hepatosplenic tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinay Kumar; Durgatosh Pandey

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis rarely involves the liver and spleen and when it does so, it is usually associated with disseminated disease. METHOD:We report a patient with isolated tuberculosis of the liver and spleen. RESULTS:A 50-year-old man presented with weakness and loss of weight for two months. CT scan of the abdomen showed multiple small hypodense lesions in the liver and spleen. Image-guided biopsy of liver lesion was inconclusive as it showed normal hepatocytes with interspersed lymphocytes. On laparotomy, the liver and spleen were studded with multiple small nodules. A 5-cm wedge of the liver was resected. Histopathological examination conifrmed the diagnosis of tubercular hepatitis. A detailed work-up failed to identify any other focus of tuberculosis. CONCLUSION:Although rare, tuberculosis should also be considered in the differential diagnosis for multiple nodules in the liver and spleen, along with lymphoproliferative diseases and metastatic lesions.

  11. CHARACTERISATION OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM SHINGLES PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine R. et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Even after treating Shingles patients with antiviral drugs, they are found to suffer from secondary bacterial infections. With this background as a guide, we undertook an investigation to isolate the bacterial pathogens from the pus of Shingles patients. Among the isolates obtained during the one year study period, Staphylococcus aureus sp. was found to be multi drug resistant and hence it was chosen for the study. The antibiogram pattern of the methicillin resistant S. aureus was obtained, since this could serve as a tool for suggesting useful drugs.

  12. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with food intoxication with isolates from human nasal carriers and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattinger, L; Stephan, R; Layer, F; Johler, S

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents an organism of striking versatility. While asymptomatic nasal colonization is widespread, it can also cause serious infections, toxinoses and life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide, results from oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins leading to violent vomiting, diarrhea and cramps shortly upon ingestion. The aim of the present study was to compare isolates associated with SFP to isolates collected from cases of human nasal colonization and clinical infections in order to investigate the role of S. aureus colonizing and infecting humans as a possible source of SFP. Spa typing and DNA microarray profiling were used to characterize a total of 120 isolates, comprising 50 isolates collected from the anterior nares of healthy donors, 50 isolates obtained from cases of clinical infections in humans and 20 isolates related to outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning. Several common spa types were found among isolates of all three sources (t015, t018, t056, t084). DNA microarray results showed highly similar virulence gene profiles for isolates from all tested sources. These results suggest contamination of foodstuff with S. aureus colonizing and infecting food handlers to represent a source of SFP.

  13. Patients experience of source isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kamilla; Pedersen, Didde; Kragbak, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Patients´ experience of source isolation - a literature review Title: Patients experience of source isolation – a literature review Authors: Nina Kragbak*, Didde Pedersen*, Kamilla Johansen* and Peter E. Jensen** *students, **lecturer, bachelor in science and Ph.D., at VIA University College......, Nursing education in Århus, Hedeager 2, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Background: Medical treatment and care of patients with infections may include source isolation of the patient, to avoid spreading of the infection. However, isolation is a potential physiological and psychological stress factor...... of the patients perspectives of being isolated to identify areas of potential interest for developing new caring strategies to minimize the negative side effects of isolation. Methods: Literature was systematically searched in CINAHL, Nursing Reference Center, Social Care Online, SveMed+, The Cochrane Library...

  14. Mechanism of antiulcerogenic activity of semi-synthetic crotonin obtained from Croton cajucara Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz A. Almeida

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Croton cajucara Benth. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Transdehydrocrotonin (DHC isolated from the bark of Croton cajucara has antiulcerogenic activity25. The presence of similar activity in semi-synthetic crotonin obtained from dehydrocrotonin from Croton cajucara was observed in gastric ulcer-induced models (HCl/ethanol, ethanol, indomethacin, stress and pylorus ligature. The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanisms involved in the antiulcerogenic activity of semi-synthetic crotonin. We investigated the effects of semi-synthetic crotonin on the response to histamine of right atria isolated from guinea pigs and on the response to carbachol of stomach fundus strips from rats. Semi-synthetic crotonin (3, 10 or 30 mM induced a shift to the right in the concentrationresponse curves to carbachol in the isolated rat stomach at the pD2 level (pD2: 5.42±0.05, 5.76±0.061, 5.77±0.076, 6.48±0.012, respectively, without any alteration in the maximum response. Semi-synthetic crotonin also induced a shift to the right in the concentration-response curves to histamine in guinea pig right atria, pD2 (5.54±0.06, 6.01±0.06, 5.89±0.06, 5.92±0.03 and (% maximum response (80±6.18, 118±6.18, 114±6.18, 122±1.4, respectively. Thus, the protective effect of semi-synthetic crotonin on induced gastric lesions could be due to antagonism of histaminergic and cholinergic effects on gastric secretion.

  15. Bacteria obtained from a sequencing batch reactor that are capable of growth on dehydroabietic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, W W

    1995-06-01

    Eleven isolates capable of growth on the resin acid dehydroabietic acid (DhA) were obtained from a sequencing batch reactor designed to treat a high-strength process stream from a paper mill. The isolates belonged to two groups, represented by strains DhA-33 and DhA-35, which were characterized. In the bioreactor, bacteria like DhA-35 were more abundant than those like DhA-33. The population in the bioreactor of organisms capable of growth on DhA was estimated to be 1.1 x 10(6) propagules per ml, based on a most-probable-number determination. Analysis of small-subunit rRNA partial sequences indicated that DhA-33 was most closely related to Sphingomonas yanoikuyae (Sab = 0.875) and that DhA-35 was most closely related to Zoogloea ramigera (Sab = 0.849). Both isolates additionally grew on other abietanes, i.e., abietic and palustric acids, but not on the pimaranes, pimaric and isopimaric acids. For DhA-33 and DhA-35 with DhA as the sole organic substrate, doubling times were 2.7 and 2.2 h, respectively, and growth yields were 0.30 and 0.25 g of protein per g of DhA, respectively. Glucose as a cosubstrate stimulated growth of DhA-33 on DhA and stimulated DhA degradation by the culture. Pyruvate as a cosubstrate did not stimulate growth of DhA-35 on DhA and reduced the specific rate of DhA degradation of the culture. DhA induced DhA and abietic acid degradation activities in both strains, and these activities were heat labile. Cell suspensions of both strains consumed DhA at a rate of 6 mumol mg of protein-1 h-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

  17. Research on Hybrid Isolation System for Micro-Nano-Fabrication Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain better vibration suppression effect, this paper designs a semiactive/fully active hybrid isolator by using magnetorheological elastomer (MRE and piezoelectric material. Combined with multimode control scheme, full frequency vibration suppression is achieved. Firstly, series type structure is determined for the hybrid isolator, and the structure of hybrid isolator is designed. Next, the dynamic model of hybrid isolator is derived, the dynamic characteristics measurement for MRE isolator and piezoelectric stack actuator (PSA is established, and parameters such as voltage-displacement coefficient, stiffness and damping constant are identified from the experimental results, respectively. Meanwhile, the switch frequency is determined by experimental results of PSA and MRE isolator. Lastly, influence of the stiffness of MRE, control voltage of PSA, and intermediate mass on hybrid isolator system is analyzed by simulations, and the results show that the hybrid isolator proposed is effective.

  18. Characterization of a Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, a pathogen of grasshoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the Peruvian isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, CG 863, obtained from the grasshopper Schistocerca interrita, a crop pest in Peru. The characterization was done by comparing this isolate with two other ones of M. anisopliae var. acridum, from Brazil and Australia, and with an isolate of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. The three M. anisopliae var. acridum isolates had similar growth profiles in agar plates at 25°C and 37°C, and similar RAPD patterns according to the analysis of three primers. However, regarding these parameters and conidial size, these isolates were very distinct when compared to M. anisopliae var. anisopliae isolate. Bioassays indicated that the Peruvian isolate is as pathogenic as the Brazilian isolate against nymphs of Rhammatocerus schistocercoides.

  19. Isolation and characterization of bacteria with antibacterial properties from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemez, Miray; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    One hundred and twenty bacterial isolates were obtained from the intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and screened for antagonistic activity and adherence abilities. Based on in vitro antagonism against two pathogens (Streptococcus iniae and Edwardsiella piscicida), five isolates were selected and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All antagonistic isolates were affiliated to the genus Bacillus, which showed inhibitory activity against S. iniae. Only the isolate B191 (closely related to Bacillus mojavensis) inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Moreover, isolate B191 adhered significantly better to fish intestinal mucus than other antagonistic isolates. According to our results, these bacterial isolates, particularly isolate B191, should be further studied to explore their probiotic effects under in vivo conditions.

  20. Isolation and the parish ministry

    OpenAIRE

    Irvine, Andrew R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to examine the concept of isolation as it occurs within the profession of ministry. Isolation, for the purpose of this thesis, is defined social-psychologically. Within the field research isolation is considered as evidenced professionally, socially and spiritually. This study utilized as its sample base 200 hundred Church of Scotland ministers (15% of total population) which provided 159 usable responses to an extensive mail survey. The mai...

  1. Protein loss during nuclear isolation

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Cryomicrodissection makes possible the measurement of the entire in vivo protein content of the amphibian oocyte nucleus and provides a heretofore missing baseline for estimating protein loss during nuclear isolation by other methods. When oocyte nuclei are isolated into an aqueous medium, they lose 95% of their protein with a half-time of 250 s. This result implies an even more rapid loss of protein from aqueously isolated nuclei of ordinary-size cells.

  2. A hybrid base isolation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, G.C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lobo, R.F.; Srinivasan, M. [Hart Consultant Group, Santa Monica, CA (United States); Asher, J.W. [kpff Engineers, Santa Monica, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This paper proposes a new analysis procedure for hybrid base isolation buildings when considering the displacement response of a base isolated building to wind loads. The system is considered hybrid because of the presence of viscous dampers in the building above the isolator level. The proposed analysis approach incorporates a detailed site specific wind study combined with a dynamic nonlinear analysis of the building response.

  3. Biomedical applications of X-ray absorption and vibrational spectroscopic microscopies in obtaining structural information from complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Jade B.; Carter, Elizabeth A.; Eastgate, Harold; Hackett, Mark J.; Harris, Hugh H.; Levina, Aviva; Lee, Yao-Chang; Chen, Ching-Iue; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Lay, Peter A.

    2010-02-01

    Protein crystallography and NMR spectroscopy took decades to emerge as routine techniques in structural biology. X-ray absorption spectroscopy now has reached a similar stage of maturity for obtaining complementary local structural information around metals in metalloproteins. However, the relatively recent emergence of X-ray and vibrational spectroscopic microprobes that build on these techniques has enabled the structural information obtained from the "mature" techniques on isolated biomolecules to be translated into in situ structural information from inhomogeneous complex systems, such as whole cells and tissues.

  4. Expansion of activated lymphocytes obtained from renal cell carcinoma in an automated hollow fiber bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, G G; Wolf, M L; Montecillo, E; Younes, E; Ali, E; Pontes, J E; Haas, G P

    1994-01-01

    Immunotherapy using IL-2 alone or combined with activated lymphocytes has been promising for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cytotoxic lymphocytes can be isolated from tumors, expanded in vitro with IL-2, and adoptively transferred back into the tumor-bearing host. These cells can also be transduced with the genes coding for cytokines for local delivery to tumor sites. A major drawback in adoptive immunotherapy is the cumbersome and expensive culture technology associated with the growth of large numbers of cells required for their therapeutic effect. To reduce the cost, resources, and manpower, we have developed the methodology for lymphocyte activation and expansion in the automated hollow fiber bioreactor IMMUNO*STAR Cell Expander (ACT BIOMEDICAL, INC). Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from human renal cell carcinoma tumor specimens were inoculated at a number of 10(8) cells in a small bioreactor of 30 ml extracapillary space volume. We have determined the medium flow rates and culture conditions to obtain a significant and repeated expansion of TIL at weekly intervals. The lymphocytes cultured in the bioreactor demonstrated the same phenotype and cytotoxic activity as those expanded in parallel in tissue culture plates. Lymphocyte expansion in the hollow fiber bioreactor required lower volumes of medium, human serum, IL-2 and minimal labor. This technology may facilitate the use of adoptive immunotherapy for the treatment of refractory malignancies.

  5. Molecular Identification of Leishmania Species Using Samples Obtained from Negative Stained Smears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Mohaghegh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic skin disease. Diagnosis primarily is based on clinical signs and microscopic observation of parasite on direct stained smears or tissue sections. Sensitivity of direct smear is not as high as molecular methods. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize Leishmania species among the negative direct smears obtained from skin ulcers sus­pected to CL by PCR method.Methods: Among 81 patients with suspicious skin lesions to CL referred to the Parasitology lab, nega­tive Giemsa stained smears were collected. DNA extraction performed by scraping stained smears, then PCR was performed.Results: Among the DNA extracted from smears, L. tropica was isolated from 9 (11.1% of the smears and L.major was not isolated from any samples.Conclusion: Direct microscopy on stained smears for diagnosis of leishmaniasis is not enough accu­rate. PCR is recommended for clinically suspected lesions with negative result of direct smear.

  6. Physiochemical characterization of mucilage obtained from the fresh fruits of Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amutha Gnana Arasi Michael Antony Samy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: The current study is focused to explore the physiochemical characterization of mucilage obtained from fresh fruits of Psidium guajava L. Study includes phytochemical screening, physiochemical characterization and micromeritic properties. Methods: Water based extraction procedure was adopted to extract mucilage from Psidium guajava fruit. Pharmacopoeial procedures were adopted to study the melting point, solubility, loss on drying and ash values. Swelling index of the mucilage is determined in 0.1N Hydrochloric acid, Phosphate buffer (pH 6.8 and water. Micomertitic properties of the isolated mucilage are also discussed in this study. Flame emission scanning electron microscope was used to study morphology and elemental analysis. Structure of the Psidium guajava mucilage was discussed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum. Results:Results of this study show that the used procedure is efficient to extract the mucilage from Psidium guajava fruit. The isolated mucilage is insoluble and pH sensitive, has got high swelling index and good flow properties. Conclusions:The fundamental characteristics of Psidium guajava mucilage have been established. The large particle size and high swellability, gel like appearance and pore in structure indicates that it has got wider applications in food and Pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Obtaining and Characterization of Flux-Based Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmina Maria Bogăţean

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of creating this assortment was to remind the public of a long forgotten sugar based product, with a high energy value and which can be easily associated both with plain or mineral water consumption. Also we have taken into consideration the well-known '' home-made'' and ''vintage'' concepts. The purpose of this scientific research is to obtain a laboratory created product, as well as obtaining both the cocoa and the lemon sorbet. In the technological process this type of products can be redefined under a new form. The great advantage comes with the fact that it dosen't currently exit on the market and so it can be considered as being a brand new product. The anbalyses both on the raw materials and on the final deliverable product were done in the Faculty's laboratories and it was proven to meet the standars.

  8. Accuracy of impressions obtained with dual-arch trays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöstmann, Bernd; Rehmann, Peter; Balkenhol, Markus

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the accuracy resulting from dual-arch impressions when compared to conventional impressions in complex preparations (ie, inlay and partial crown). One hundred eighty impressions were made using two different dual-arch trays; conventional trays served as the control. The accuracy of the dies obtained (Fuji-Rock EP, GC Europe) was assessed indirectly from the change of 59 transversal dimensions. Statistical analysis (t test, analysis of variance) revealed that less rigid dual-arch trays performed better than rigid ones. Though the inlay preparation was more difficult to reproduce with dual-arch trays, it can be concluded that the accuracy obtainable with nonrigid dual-arch trays is comparable to impressions taken from full-arch trays.

  9. Biocomposites obtained from wood saw dust using ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Catalin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of wood composites obtaining, as a potential alternative to traditional non-ecological processes involving the use of phenol-based resins. The novelty of the method consists in using only two components, namely wood and an alkylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid. A fraction of wood sawdust dissolves in the ionic liquid, and by water addition it precipitates, acting as a natural binder for the remaining wood particles. FTIR and XRD spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the dominating amorphous cellulose II anomer in the structure of the wood composites. By comparing to the reference, the obtained composites present lower wettability and higher resistance to compression

  10. LINKING MARKETING AND HUMAN RESOURCES RECRUITMENT TO OBTAIN ORGANIZATIONAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In times of rapid change and technical change, in a complex and dynamic environment, organizations must strive for superiority, in order to survive and to serve the clients who want more quality and lower price. Corporate leaders and human resources strategists have to take up this challenge of changing work attitudes across the organization. This involves guiding, leading, enabling and motivating people. This article is looking at aligning marketing with recruitment efforts, to obtain organizational performance. Anticipating customers’ needs, the organization develop specific plans of recruitment, selection and retention of those candidates who satisfy these needs at the highest level. Only anticipating and retaining those “right people at the right time”, an organization may obtain success into a global, dynamic and changing environment.

  11. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  12. Chemical deinking of prints obtained by non-impact printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bolanca

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of efficiency investi-gation of chemical deinking of non-impact prints, where the principle of electrophotography is used for obtaining the latent image, on which the toner could adhere. The basis of scientific prepositions of deinking flotation and the mechanism for particle separation in the explanation of the results of experiment are given. The optical properties of hand-sheets in relation to the particle separation mechanism, their size, form and structure are discussed.The results obtained by deinking flotation of a mixed sample from the prints of non-impact printing and the conventional offset printing show clearly the influence of the specific characteristic of printing techniques and the chemical composition of toner, i.e. of printing inks on the quality of recycled fibers.

  13. An Overview on the Installation of Obtaining Aluminum Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Suárez Lisca

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the instrumentation required for obtaining metallic powder by combining the thermal and mechanical impact between the liquid and other fluid. A brief review of existing methods for the production of aluminum powder is made, and then a calculation methodology for the design and dimensioning of an atomization tower is elaborated, which will be used to obtain the diameter of particles ranging from 100 to 300 micrometer in an argon atmosphere of a discontinuous process. In the designed atomization tower the liquid metal is broken up by the action of a flow of pressurized gas supplied from a blower to spray nozzles, and then the liquid metal enters the granulation chamber impelled by a piston. The total cost of the installation is determined and the general aspects on how to operate and maintain the facility expounded.

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of ozonated sunflower oils obtained by different procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, M. F.; Sanchez, Y.; Gomez, M.; Hernandez, F.; Veloso, M. C.; Pereira, P. A.; Mangrich, A. S.; Andrade, J. B.

    2012-07-01

    Two ozonation procedures for sunflower oils at different applied ozone dosages were carried out. Ozone was obtained from medicinal oxygen and from air. Peroxide, acidity, and iodine indexes, along with density, viscosity and antimicrobial activity were determined. The fatty acid compositions of the samples were analyzed using GC. The content of oxygen was determined using an elemental analysis. Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance was used to measure the organic free radicals. The reactions were achieved up to peroxide index values of 658 and 675 mmolequiv kg1 using medicinal oxygen and air for 5 and 8 hours, respectively. The samples of ozonized sunflower oil did not present organic free radicals, which is a very important issue if these oils are to be used as drugs. The ozonation reaction is more rapid with medicinal oxygen (5 hours) than with air (8 hours). Ozonized sunflower oil with oxygen as an ozone source was obtained with high potential for antimicrobial activity. (Author) 34 refs.

  15. Chlorination of Carbon Nanotubes Obtained on the Different Metal Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pełech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a chlorination method is proposed for simultaneous purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes, thus increasing their ability to use. Carbon nanotubes were obtained by CVD method through ethylene decomposition on the nanocrystalline iron or cobalt or bimetallic iron-cobalt catalysts. The effects of temperature (50, 250, and 450°C in the case of carbon nanotubes obtained on the Fe-Co catalyst and type of catalyst (Fe, Co, Fe/Co on the effectiveness of the treatment and functionalization were tested. The phase composition of the samples was determined using the X-ray diffraction method. The quantitative analysis of metal impurity content was validated by means of the thermogravimetric analysis. Using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS analysis, and also Mohr titration method, the presence of chlorine species on the surface of chlorinated samples was confirmed.

  16. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

    2008-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay.

  17. Application of polymers to modify bitumen obtained from waxy oils

    OpenAIRE

    Гринишин, Олег Богданович; Фридер, Ірина Вікторівна

    2013-01-01

    The article describes one of the ways of solution of the actual problem of obtaining quality bituminous materials from residues of paraffin oil recycling. The authors examined the modification of bitumen with polymers, in particular with petroleum resins, polyethylene, and industrial modifiers Elvaloy 4170 and Butonal NS 198. The study was carried out in two ways. We have studied the basic regularities of the joint oxidation of paraffin tar and oil polymerous resins. It was found that the pre...

  18. Results obtained by investigating saffron ussing FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Andronie

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological activity and the pharmaceutical properties of plants are strongly dependent on their structure. The FT-IR spectra of saffron (commercial have been obtained. The vibrational fundamentals from the IR spectrum, were analyzed  and assigned acoording to the available literature. In the present research work the genus saffron is selected because it is famous in wold as foods and also as medicine.

  19. Thermogravimetric characteristics of char obtained at high heat rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-05-01

    700°C, 800°C and 900°C to obtain their combustion profiles. Characteristic temperatures (ignition, peak and final tempe- ratures were determined by non-isothermal thermogravimetry; it was found that chars from La Yolanda coal gave the highest figures for the characteristic temperatures. Isothermal thermogravimetry revealed that the combustion rate for the three coals decreased with increased devolatilisation time and combustion temperature.

  20. Structure of Al-CF composites obtained by infiltration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the composites obtained in infiltration processes 2D and 3D carbon preform by liquid Al alloy have been presented in thispaper. An aluminum alloy with silicon and manganese AlSi9Mn (trimal 37-TR37 was applied in the researches. As the reinforcementused carbon perform prepared with various protective barriers such as the nickel coating, the coating of silicon carbide and pyrolyticcarbon coating. Carbon preforms was prepared at the Institute for Lightweight Structures and Polymer Technology (ILK TU Dresden andat the Institute of Technology and Ceramic Systems (Fraunhofer-IKTS. The process of infiltration of carbon perform by liquid aluminiumalloy was carried out using a pressure-vacuum infiltration on the Degussa press and gas-pressure infiltration (GPI in an autoclavedesigned and built at the Department of Materials Technology at the Silesian University of Technology. The obtained composites werecharacterized by a regular shape, with no surface casting defects. The best connection of components was observed in AlSi9Mn/Cf(Nicomposite, obtained by gas-pressure infiltration method (GPI. On metallographic specimens, good interface between fibres and thealuminium matrix were observed. The obtained research results justify the application of nickel coatings on the fibres. During the failurecrack propagated across fiber. There was no presence of aluminum carbide on the fiber-matrix. It can be assumed that the composite willbe characterized by the good mechanical properties. However, this requires further experimental verification planned in the next stage of research, in the project realized within the DFG program: "3D textile reinforced aluminium matrix composites for complex loadingsituations in lightweight automobile and machine parts".

  1. Optical phonons in Ge quantum dots obtained on Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Talochkin, A B

    2002-01-01

    The light combination scattering on the optical phonons in the Ge quantum dots, obtained on the Si surface of the (111) orientation through the molecular-beam epitaxy, is studied. The series of lines, connected with the phonon spectrum quantization, was observed. It is shown, that the phonon modes frequencies are well described by the elastic properties and dispersion of the voluminous Ge optical phonons. The value of the Ge quantum dots deformation is determined

  2. Prospects for obtaining metallic hydrogen with spherical presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, I. L.; Ishizaki, K.; Marchello, J. M.; Paauwe, J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a split-sphere apparatus modified for use at low temperature and affording a possible method for compressing molecular hydrogen to a pressure in excess of 1 Mbar and for converting it to the metallic state. The construction costs of the apparatus are relatively low and the amount of liquid helium required for low-temperature operation is readily obtainable with modern liquefiers.

  3. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, Sergey Nikolaevich

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by...

  4. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  5. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  6. System for obtaining biogas. System zur Gewinnung von Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-01-17

    The invention refers to a system for obtaining biogas from organic substances in at least one drum reactor, which is situated in a container accepting a liquid and which is driven so that it rotates preferably around its horizontal drum axis. It is distinguished by the fact that for at least one drum reactor acting as the main reactor there is at least one further reactor ahead of it for the pre-treatment or pre-fermentation of the substances.

  7. A New Attempt to Obtain Bulk Nanocrystalline Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengjie Yao; Linxiu Du; Xianghua Liu; Guodong Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bulk nanocrystalline steel sample was obtained in laboratory through refining of austenite grains and controlled rolling. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs show that some textures are evolved in the process of the treatment and two typical carbides are classified according to their size and location. The tensile strength of the nanocrystalline sample is obviously lower than conventional consideration, and scanning electron microscopy observation shows that the existence of the first type of carbide is considered as the main reason for the failure.

  8. Tailoring approach for obtaining molecular orbitals of large systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anuja P Rahalkar; Shridhar R Gadre

    2012-01-01

    Molecular orbitals (MO’s) within Hartree-Fock (HF) theory are of vital importance as they provide preliminary information of bonding and features such as electron localization and chemical reactivity. The contemporary literature treats the Kohn-Sham orbitals within density functional theory (DFT) equivalently to the MO's obtained within HF framework. The high scaling order of ab initio methods is the main hurdle in obtaining the MO's for large molecular systems. With this view, an attempt is made in the present work to employ molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for obtaining the complete set of MO's including occupied and virtual orbitals, for large molecules at HF and B3LYP levels of theory. The energies of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, and hence the band gaps, are accurately estimated by MTA for most of the test cases benchmarked in this study, which include -conjugated molecules. Typically, the root mean square errors of valence MO's are in range of 0.001 to 0.010 a.u. for all the test cases examined. MTA shows a time advantage factor of 2 to 3 over the corresponding actual calculation, for many of the systems reported.

  9. The analysis of experimental data obtained from automotives tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, R. M.; Radulescu, V. J.; Neagu, D.; Trocan, C.; Copae, I.

    2016-08-01

    The paper highlights the three important and inseparably aspects of the systemic approach of automotives dynamics: taking into account the human-vehicle-field interaction, dealing movement with algorithms specific to system theory and analysis of experimental data with algorithms specific to signals theory.Within the paper, the systemic approach regarding vehicles dynamics is based on experimental data obtained from tests, whereby it is analyzed the movement and there are obtained movement mathematical models through algorithms of systems identification.Likewise, there are shown main analysis methods for experimental data, which uses probability theory, information theory, correlation analysis and variance analysis;in addition, there are highlighted possibilities given by time analysis, frequency analysis and data time-frequency analysis. Identification algorithms and highlighted analysis procedures assure the study of automotives dynamics and fuel saving,by directly using experimental data, or by using mathematical models and applying concepts and algorithms specific to systems theory. Experimental data were obtained by testing automotives with electronic control devices and by using acquisition and storage equipmentsfor data given by the on-board computer and taken from embedded sensors.

  10. New approach for porous materials obtaining using centrifugal casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălţătescu, O.; Axinte, M.; Barbu, G.; Manole, V.

    2015-11-01

    It has been presented different methods for obtaining porous materials, (mainly used for metallic foams) and highlighting a new technology developed in the Faculty of Materials science and engineering, of Iasi. Our technology for obtaining porous materials is called centrifugal casting for porous materials. This technology is included in the method number 8: co-pressing of a metal powder with a leachable powder being in the same time a newer approach in the porous materials field. This technology is currently in the developmental phase. Since now we made experiments on the metallic materials, aluminum alloys. The technology is briefly described in this paper. The obtained parts were used for making samples in order to characterize the properties of the materials. The cellular structure of metallic foams requires special precautions that must be taken in characterization and testing. In this paper we have characterized the samples structurally by its cell topology (open cells, closed cells), relative density, cell size and cell shape and anisotropy. Also it was used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which is straightforward; the only necessary precaution is that relating to surface preparation.

  11. Antimycobacterial action of a new glycolipid-peptide complex obtained from extracellular metabolites of Raoultella ornithinolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiołka, Marta J; Grzywnowicz, Krzysztof; Mendyk, Ewaryst; Zagaja, Mirosław; Szewczyk, Rafał; Rawski, Michał; Keller, Radosław; Rzymowska, Jolanta; Wydrych, Jerzy

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an antimycobacterial component of extracellular metabolites of a gut bacterium Raoultella ornithinolytica from D. veneta earthworms was isolated and its antimycobacterial action was tested using Mycobacterium smegmatis. After incubation with the complex obtained, formation of pores and furrows in cell walls was observed using microscopic techniques. The cells lost their shape, stuck together and formed clusters. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis showed that, after incubation, the complex was attached to the cell walls of the Mycobacterium. Analyses of the component performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated high similarity to a bacteriocin nisin, but energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed differences in the elemental composition of this antimicrobial peptide. The component with antimycobacterial activity was identified using mass spectrometry techniques as a glycolipid-peptide complex. As it exhibits no cytotoxicity on normal human fibroblasts, the glycolipid-peptide complex appears to be a promising compound for investigations of its activity against pathogenic mycobacteria.

  12. Genotyping of Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) based on the glycoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W-S; Oh, M-J; Nishizawa, T; Park, J-W; Kurath, G; Yoshimizu, M

    2007-01-01

    Glycoprotein (G) gene nucleotide sequences of four Korean isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates. All Korean isolates were closely related to Japanese isolates of genogroup JRt rather than to those of North American and European genogroups. It is believed that Korean IHNV has been most likely introduced from Japan to Korea by the movement of contaminated fish eggs. Among the Korean isolates, phylogenetically distinct virus types were obtained from sites north and south of a large mountain range, suggesting the possibility of more than one introduction of virus from Japan.

  13. Isolated Pelvic Hyperthermochemotherapeutic Perfusion -An Experimental Study on Isolating Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion model through isolated pelvic vessels was developed to evaluate the leakage of hyperthermia and drugs (such as adriamycin) from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation and its associated side/toxic effects. The isolated pelvic circulation was perfused through a femoral artery catheter with hyperthermic (48 ℃ to 55 ℃) adriamycin solution (50 μg/ml) for 30 min. The efflux was drained through a femoral vein catheter. And the pelvic temperature was kept at the level of 43±0.5 ℃. The temperature of pelvic circulation was kept at 4 ℃ to 5 ℃ greater than the systemic/core temperature. The adriamycin concentration of pelvic efflux was 12 to 46 folds of that of systemic serum. The difference between them was very significant (P<0.001). As the perfusion pressure was increased, which kept lower than the mean systemic artery pressure, the leakage of the adriamycin from the isolated pelvic circulation to systemic circulation was increased, but there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). During isolated perfusion, the systemic blood dynamics remained stable and there were no organic injuries on the important organs. It was suggested that the isolating efficacy of the modality of isolated pelvic hyperthermochemotherapeutic perfusion through vessels was rather high. The hyperthermia and drugs could be effectively limited in the isolated pelvic region with minor side effects on the systemic circulation and important organs.

  14. An Efficient Method to Obtain Dedifferentiated Fat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Kazama, Tomohiko; Hagikura, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Chii; Kazama, Minako; Nagaoka, Yuki; Matsumoto, Taro

    2016-07-15

    Tissue engineering and cell therapy hold great promise clinically. In this regard, multipotent cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be used therapeutically, in the near future, to restore function to damaged organs. Nevertheless, several technical issues, including the highly invasive procedure of isolating MSCs and the inefficiency surrounding their amplification, currently hamper the potential clinical use of these therapeutic modalities. Herein, we introduce a highly efficient method for the generation of dedifferentiated fat cells (DFAT), MSC-like cells. Interestingly, DFAT cells can be differentiated into several cell types including adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cells. Although other groups have previously presented various methods for generating DFAT cells from mature adipose tissue, our method allows us to produce DFAT cells more efficiently. In this regard, we demonstrate that DFAT culture medium (DCM), supplemented with 20% FBS, is more effective in generating DFAT cells than DMEM, supplemented with 20% FBS. Additionally, the DFAT cells produced by our cell culture method can be redifferentiated into several tissue types. As such, a very interesting and useful model for the study of tissue dedifferentiation is presented.

  15. Dynamics of the isolated galaxy CIG 0314

    CERN Document Server

    Verley, S; Repetto, P; Gabbasov, R; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Bergond, G; Fuentes-Carrera, I; Durbala, A

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the AMIGA project, we used Fabry-Perot observations in order to study the dynamics of the ionised gas in the isolated galaxy CIG 0314. From the Halpha observations, we could obtain the velocity field and rotation curve of the galaxy. A detail analysis of the velocity field is done in order to understand the kinematics of the gas to gather clues on the mechanisms which favour or inhibit star formation, in particular along the bar. The visible and dark matter content can be reached, as well as an estimation of the mass of the galaxy.

  16. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing trends were identified. A statistically significant decreasing trend was identified for ISO unreliability. The magnitude of the trend indicated a 1.5 percent decrease in system unreliability over the last 10 years.

  17. System Study: Isolation Condenser 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the isolation condenser (ISO) system at four U.S. boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the ISO results.

  18. The Isolation Time of Poisson Brownian motions

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, Yuval; Stauffer, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Let the nodes of a Poisson point process move independently in $\\R^d$ according to Brownian motions. We study the isolation time for a target particle that is placed at the origin, namely how long it takes until there is no node of the Poisson point process within distance $r$ of it. We obtain asymptotics for the tail probability which are tight up to constants in the exponent in dimension $d\\geq 3$ and tight up to logarithmic factors in the exponent for dimensions $d=1,2$.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from otitis externa in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilenbaum, W; Veras, M; Blum, E; Souza, G N

    2000-07-01

    Samples were obtained from 65 unmedicated adult dogs, processed for isolation of Staphylococcus species and tested for susceptibility to penicillin G, gentamicin, oxacillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin and rifampin. Forty-four isolates were obtained, which represents 67.7% of samples. Coagulase-negative species were most commonly found, and the most frequently isolated staphylococcus species were Staph. epidermidis and Staph. aureus. Other species, such as Staph. simulans, Staph. haemolyticus, Staph. saprophyticus and Staph. intermedius were also isolated. Resistance to antibiotics was frequently observed, with 90.9% of the isolates showing resistance to at least one drug. The most active antimicrobial agents against staphylococci isolated from otitis externa of dogs were rifampin and oxacillin. Multidrug resistance was a common finding, and one strain of Staph. haemolyticus species, was resistant to all tested antimicrobial agents. Resistance to three or more different drugs was a common finding, observed in 16 strains (36.4%) of both coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci. This study highlights the emergence of cases of otitis externa determined by coagulase-negative staphylococcus strains and once more emphasizes the need for bacterial culture with species identification and susceptibility testing of swab specimens from the ear canal in order to choose appropriate antimicrobial agents.

  20. Probiotic potential of Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from meconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eKhassaf Al Atyaa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 107 bacterial isolates with Gram positive staining and negative catalase activity, presumably assumed as LAB, were isolated from samples of meconium of six donors at Roubaix hospital, in the north of France. All these bacterial isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Enterococcus faecalis. However, only six isolates among which E. faecalis 14, E. faecalis 28, E. faecalis 90, E. faecalis 97 and E. faecalis 101 (obtained from donor 3 and E. faecalis 93 (obtained from donor 5 were active against some Gram negative bacteria (GNB and Gram positive bacteria (GPB, through production of lactic acid and bacteriocin like inhibitory substances (BLIS. The identification of these isolates was confirmed by 16rDNA sequencing and their genetic relatedness was established by REP-PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE methods. Importantly, the aforementioned antagonistic isolates were sensitive to various classes of antibiotics tested, exhibited high scores of coaggregation and hydrophobicity, and were not hemolytic. Taken together, these properties render these strains as potential candidates for probiotic applications.

  1. Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium from outbreak-associated cake mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Patel, Nehal; Swaminathan, Bala; Wedel, Stephanie; Doyle, Michael P

    2007-04-01

    During May and June of 2005, 26 persons in several states were infected by a single strain (isolates indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium after eating cake batter ice cream. The cake mix used to prepare the cake batter in the ice cream was implicated by epidemiologic investigation as the source of Salmonella contamination. Initial tests did not detect Salmonella in cake mix collected during the outbreak investigation. The objective of this study was to evaluate different procedures to isolate Salmonella from the implicated cake mix, cake, and ice cream. All outbreak-associated food samples (14 samples) were collected during the outbreak investigation by health departments of several of the states involved. Different combinations of Salmonella isolation procedures, including sample size, preenrichment broth, enrichment broth, enrichment temperature, and isolation medium, were used. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from two cake mix samples; the food isolates were indistinguishable from the outbreak pattern by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis subtyping. Universal preenrichment broth was substantially better than was lactose broth for preenrichment, and tetrathionate broth was better than was Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth for isolating Salmonella from the two positive cake mix samples. Although more typical Salmonella colonies were observed on plates from enrichment cultures grown at 35 degrees C, more confirmed Salmonella isolates were obtained from plates of enrichment cultures grown at 42 degrees C. Brilliant green agar, xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar, xylose lysine desoxycholate agar, Hektoen enteric agar, and bismuth sulfite agar plates were equally effective in isolating Salmonella from cake mix. The best combination of preenrichment-enrichment conditions for isolating the outbreak strain of Salmonella was preenrichment of cake mix samples in universal preenrichment broth at 35 degrees C for 24 h

  2. Nucleotide diversity of Japanese isolates of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) based on the glycoprotein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, T; Kinoshita, S; Kim, W S; Higashi, S; Yoshimizu, M

    2006-08-30

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, causes a highly lethal disease of salmonid fish. In the present study, G gene nucleotide sequences of 9 Japanese IHNV isolates obtained from 1971 to 1996 were analyzed to evaluate the genetic diversity and compared with IHNV isolates from North America and Europe. A radial phylogenetic tree revealed 5 major clusters including 3 genogroups (U, M and L) for North American isolates and 1 genogroup for European isolates. Five Japanese isolates from 1971 to 1982 appeared in the cluster for genogroup U, while the remaining Japanese isolates from 1980 to 1996 formed a new genogroup, JRt (Japanese rainbow trout). Maximum nucleotide diversity among the Japanese isolates was 4.5%, which was greater than that within the North American isolates (3.6%), and the degree of nucleotide diversity within Japanese isolates was increased by inclusion of the genogroup JRt isolates. It was concluded that Japanese isolates shared a common source with the genogroup U of the North American isolates and that there were large divergences between Japanese isolates before and after the 1980s.

  3. ISOLATION OF Rickettsia bellii FROM Amblyomma ovale AND Amblyomma incisum TICKS FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pacheco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To isolate and characterize rickettsiae from the ticks Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma incisum collected in the state of São Paulo. Materials and methods. Adult, free-living A. ovale and A. incisum were collected in an Atlantic rainforest area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Each tick was tested using the hemolymph assay; samples from positive ticks were placed in shell vials in order to isolate rickettsiae and subsequently grown in Vero cells. Amplification of three rickettsial genes (gltA, htrA and ompA was attempted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for each isolate obtained. Amplicons were subsequently sequenced. Results. A total of 388 A. incisum and 50 A. ovale were collected. Only one A. incisum and one A. ovale were hemolymph-test positive. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated from these ticks; however establishment in Vero cell culture was successful only for the isolate from A. ovale. Bacterial contamination in the first cell passage of the A. incisum isolate precluded successful isolation of the organism. PCR products were obtained with the gltA and htrA primers for the two isolates, but no product was obtained with the ompA primers. By BLAST analysis, partial gltA and htrA sequences of isolates from A. ovale and A. incisum were similar to the corresponding sequences of R. bellii. Conclusions. This is the first report of R. bellii infecting A. incisum and the first successful isolation from A. ovale.

  4. Dielectric isolation for power integrated circuits; Isolation dielectrique enterree pour les circuits integres de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerrouk, D.

    1997-07-18

    Considerable efforts have been recently directed towards integrating onto the same chip, sense or protection elements that is low voltage analog and/or digital control circuitry together with high voltage/high current devices. Most of these so called `smart power` devices use either self isolation, junction isolation or Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) to integrate low voltage elements with vertical power devices. Dielectric isolation is superior to the other isolation techniques such as self isolation or junction isolation. Thesis work consists of the study of the feasibility of a dielectric technology based on the melting and the solidification in a Rapid Thermal Processing furnace (RTP), of thick polysilicon films deposited on oxide. The purpose of this technique is to obtain substrate with localized SOI structures for smart power applications. SOI technology offers significant potential advantages, such as non-occurrence of latch-up in CMOS structures, high packaging density, low parasitic capacitance and the possibility of 3D structures. In addition, SOI technology using thick silicon films (10-100 {mu}m) offers special advantages for high voltage integrated circuits. Several techniques have been developed to form SOI films. Zone melting recrystallization is one of the most promising for localized SOI. The SOI structures have first been analyzed in term of extended defects. N-channel MOSFET`s transistors have also been fabricated in the SOI substrates and electrically characterized (threshold voltages, off-state leakage current, mobilities,...). The SOI transistors exhibit good characteristics, although inferior to witness transistors. The recrystallized silicon films are therefore found to be suitable for the fabrication of SOI devices. (author) 106 refs.

  5. Isolation, characterization, antibiogram and pathology of Pasteurella multocida isolated from pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Tigga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Isolation, characterization and antibiogram of Pasteurella multocida from diseased pigs of district Durg of Chhattisgarh, and to study pathological changes caused by swine pasteurellosis. Materials and Methods: An outbreak of swine pasteurellosis was suspected in pigs of Ruwabandha (Bhilai, Anjora, Somni, Tedesara, Tirgajhola villages of Durg district in Chhattisgarh, India during August and September of 2011. Nasal Swabs and blood samples from ailing pigs and heart blood and impression smears from morbid pigs were processed for detection and isolation of P. multocida by bacteriological methods. Detailed necropsy was conducted and gross and histopathological lesions were recorded. The test Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity profile by disc-diffusion method. Results: The blood smears from heart blood and tissue impression smears revealed teaming of bipolar organisms indicating the presence of Pasteurella spp. The isolates obtained were subjected to Gram's staining for checking the purity and bipolar morphology and characterized biochemically. Gross lesions included severe acute pneumonia and haemorrhages in lungs, petechial haemorrhages on serous membranes and other visceral organs. On histopathological examination, lungs showed typical fibrinous bronchopneumonia, multifocal suppuration. All the isolates of P. multocida were 100% sensitive to Amoxicillin, Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin and showed100% resistance to Ceftizoxim and Cloxacillin. Conclusion: Gross and microscopic lesions in dead animals are of great diagnostic value and are of characteristic of P. multocida infection. Cultural, morphological and biochemical characters are useful to rule out the causative agent as P. multocida. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates should routinely be carried out for knowing the antibiotic resistance trends in an endemic area.

  6. Preparation of potato starch microfibers obtained by electro wet spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, W.; Gómez-Pachon, E. Y.; Muñoz, E.; Vera-Graziano, R.

    2016-07-01

    Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymer in nature. It has been primarily used as a thickener in the food industry. Starch is found in greater amounts in the potato tubers, which is one of the largest food productions in the region of Boyacá-Colombia. Thus, potatoes are a viable source of starch. The main objective of this study is the preparation and characterization of native starch's microfiber by electro wet-spinning technique. The parameters that were changed for each treatment were as follows: the amount of potential applied to the solution, the distance between the needle and the collector and the rate of injection of the solution in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of the membranes, conformed by potatoes starch microfiber. Diverse instrumental analysis techniques were applied. They were: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine the morphologies and diameters of microfibers, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to determine the chemical changes, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Calorimetry Scanning (DSC) to obtain the thermal transitions and the temperatures of useful. The microfibers were analysed in order to determine their structural properties and thus define the range of application. In conclusion, potatoes starch microfibers were obtained with average diameters of 15, 17, 23 and 25 micrometres, besides the fibers presented a degradation temperature of 304 °C, indicating that fibers are available with diameters of small scale, with good thermal properties. This study will enable the implementation of the microfibers to obtain bio packaging for food products and other applications.

  7. Acquisition strategy to obtain quantitative diffusion NMR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrère, Caroline; Thureau, Pierre; Thévand, André; Viel, Stéphane

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (PGSE) diffusion NMR experiments constitute a powerful tool for analyzing complex mixtures because they can in principle separate the NMR spectra of each mixture component. However, because these experiments intrinsically rely on spin echoes, they are traditionally regarded as non-quantitative, due to the signal attenuation caused by longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) nuclear magnetic relaxation during the rather long delays of the pulse sequence. Alternatively to the quantitative Direct Exponential Curve Resolution Algorithm (qDECRA) approach proposed by Antalek (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 8402-8403), this work presents an acquisition strategy that renormalizes this relaxation attenuation using estimates of the T1 and T2 relaxation times for all the nuclei in the mixture, as obtained directly with the pulse sequence used to record the PGSE experiment. More specifically, it is shown that only three distinct PGSE experiments need to be recorded, each with a specific set of acquisition parameters. For small- and medium-sized molecules, only T1 is required for obtaining accurate quantification. For larger molecular weight species, which typically exhibit short T2 values, estimates of T2 must also be included but only a rough estimation is required. This appears fortunate because these data are especially hard to obtain with good accuracy when analyzing homonuclear scalar-coupled systems. Overall, the proposed methodology is shown to yield a quantification accuracy of ±5%, both in the absence and in the presence of spectral overlap, giving rise - at least, in our hands - to results that superseded those achieved by qDECRA, while requiring substantially less experimental time.

  8. PROBABILITY MODELS FOR OBTAINING NON-NUMERICAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistics of objects of non-numerical nature (statistics of non-numerical objects, non-numerical data statistics, non-numeric statistics is the area of mathematical statistics, devoted to the analysis methods of non-numeric data. Basis of applying the results of mathematical statistics are probabilistic-statistical models of real phenomena and processes, the most important (and often only which are models for obtaining data. The simplest example of a model for obtaining data is the model of the sample as a set of independent identically distributed random variables. In this article we have considered the basic probabilistic models for obtaining non-numeric data. Namely, the models of dichotomous data, results of paired comparisons, binary relations, ranks, the objects of general nature. We have discussed the various options of probabilistic models and their practical use. For example, the basic probabilistic model of dichotomous data - Bernoulli vector (Lucian i.e. final sequence of independent Bernoulli trials, for which the probabilities of success may be different. The mathematical tools of solutions of various statistical problems associated with the Bernoulli vectors are useful for the analysis of random tolerances; random sets with independent elements; in processing the results of independent pairwise comparisons; statistical methods for analyzing the accuracy and stability of technological processes; in the analysis and synthesis of statistical quality control plans (for dichotomous characteristics; the processing of marketing and sociological questionnaires (with closed questions like "yes" - "no"; the processing of socio-psychological and medical data, in particular, the responses to psychological tests such as MMPI (used in particular in the problems of human resource management, and analysis of topographic maps (used for the analysis and prediction of the affected areas for technological disasters, distributing corrosion

  9. Broadband negative refractive index obtained by plasmonic hybridization in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hien T.; Bui, Tung S.; Yan, Sen; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.; Lievens, Peter; Vu, Lam D.; Janssens, Ewald

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a broadband negative refractive index (NRI) behavior in combined dimer and fishnet dimer metamaterials operating in the GHz frequency range. The observations can be well explained by a hybridization model and are in agreement with numerical modelling results. Hybridization of the magnetic resonances is obtained by reducing the distance between the layers in the dimer structures. A ratio of the double negative refractive index bandwidth to operational frequency of approximately 10% was achieved in the fishnet dimer. The applicable frequency range of the broadband NRI was shown to scale with the size of the structures from the microwave to the far infrared.

  10. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidia Leon-Sicairos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed.

  11. Obtaining New Dental Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zaporotskova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to explore the change of strength properties of composite polymer material on the basis of fast-hardening dental plastic "Carbogen", when reinforcing its coal-native nanotubes. Were discussed peculiarities of composition of Carboante, ways of creation of polymeric composition deposits by doping their carbon nanotubes, the results of measuring the strength characteristic characteristics obtained new polymer materials. On the basis of the analysis of the practical and the theoretical-sky research, conclusions were drawn on the feasibility of a new filling material with the use of carbon nanotubes with unique strength characteristics and use of their in dentistry.

  12. GEOBIA methods for LiDAR obtained point clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Tomljenović, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically analyses the state of the art provided in today’s scientific »market of knowledge« concerning the subject of object delineation from LiDAR obtained 3D point clouds. Such approach became a very popular subject in many scientific fields (forestry, geography, archaeology, etc.). The author will give multiple examples on how other authors deal with object extraction and delineation from 3D point clouds. He will also give a brief introduction and explanation of terms such as ...

  13. Dynamic constitutive equation of GFRP obtained by Lagrange experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The note presents a method of constructing dynamic constitutive equations of material by means of Lagrange experiment and analysis. Tests were carried out by a light gas gun and the stress history profiles were recorded on multiple Lagrange positions. The dynamic constitutive equations were deduced from the regression of a series of data which was obtained by Lagrange analysis based upon recorded multiple stress histories. Here constitutive equations of glass fibre reinforced phenolic resin composite(GFRP) in uniaxil strain state under dynamic loading are given. The proposed equations of the material agree well with experimental results.

  14. Strategies used by parents of twins to obtain sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, Elizabeth G; Zupancic, Julie

    2009-08-01

    Empirical evidence on how parents of twins manage their need for sleep is nonexistent. Lay publications provide advice for parents of multiples, yet their recommendations have been neither studied for their frequency of use nor tested for their effectiveness. Parents of twins were interviewed by telephone regarding strategies they used to obtain sleep during the first 6 months postbirth. Reported strategies were grouped into a priori categories suggested by the literature. Findings indicated that parents attempted various strategies to increase their sleep but disagreed on their effectiveness. Development and testing of a repertoire of effective strategies tailored for parents of twins are needed.

  15. On-line yields obtained with the ISOLDE RILIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. E-mail: ulli.koster@cern.ch; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Andreyev, A.N.; Bergmann, U.C.; Catherall, R.; Cederkaell, J.; Dietrich, M.; De Witte, H.; Fedorov, D.V.; Fraile, L.; Franchoo, S.; Fynbo, H.; Georg, U.; Giles, T.; Gorska, M.; Hannawald, M.; Huyse, M.; Joinet, A.; Jonsson, O.C.; Kratz, K.L.; Kruglov, K.; Lau, Ch.; Lettry, J.; Mishin, V.I.; Oinonen, M.; Partes, K.; Peraejaervi, K.; Pfeiffer, B.; Ravn, H.L.; Seliverstov, M.D.; Thirolf, P.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Van Roosbroeck, J.; Weissman, L

    2003-05-01

    The ISOLDE resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) allows to ionize efficiently and selectively many metallic elements. In recent yield surveys and on-line experiments with the ISOLDE RILIS we observed {sup 23-34}Mg, {sup 26-34}Al, {sup 98-132}Cd, {sup 149}Tb, {sup 155-177}Yb, {sup 179-200}Tl, {sup 183-215}Pb and {sup 188-218}Bi. The obtained yields are presented together with measured release parameters which allow to extrapolate the release efficiency towards more exotic (short-lived) nuclides of the same elements.

  16. LACHESIS -- An instrumentation system for obtaining containment and environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deupree, R.G.; Oblad, F.R.

    1995-09-01

    The instrumentation system developed to obtain containment and environmental data in the LYNER complex is presented. The primary purpose of this report is to familiarize potential operators of the system with the details of its use. The instrumentation system has three major hardware modules: (1) the sensor power source, amplifier, and signal conditioner module, (2) the digitizers, and (3) the computer controller. Each of these is described with emphasis on the steps required to make that component perform effectively. In addition the roles of activities of other people besides the Los Alamos shot engineer who are required to ensure the success of the system are outlined.

  17. Studies for obtaining a small holle, rapid edm drilling machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Şimon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the obtaining of an experimental rapid drilling machine, through EDM process for small holes. The best parameters such as peak current, pulse frequency, duty factor and electrode rotation speed were studied for best machining characteristics. An electrolytic copper rod 0.8 mm diameter was selected as a tool electrode. The experiments generate output responses such as maximum material removal rate (MRR and the dependence with peak current, duty factor and Electrode rotation, parameters. Finally, parameters were optimized for maximum MRR with desired surface roughness value and used for sizing the component for a better small rapid drilling machine.

  18. Towards new mathematical tools for obtaining chronologies in discontinuous archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a variety of new mathematical approaches has been developed for obtaining reliable chronologies of geological and geomorphological archives based on a limited set of dating horizons. These new approaches work relatively well for continuous archives, but quickly approach their conceptual limits in the presence of discontinuities. Here, I report first steps towards improving existing mathematical algorithms in their performance regarding unknown discontinuities by integrating complementary information based on variations encoded in other archives. The proposed method is based on the following ingredients: (1) a correlation estimator for arbitrarily spaced time series, (2) a maximization criterion for correlations based on a linear rescaling of the unknown time axis, (3) a procedure allowing an automatic evaluation of minimum-cost paths for performing a sophisticated version of "wiggle-matching", and (4) improving the relative chronologies by adding explicit dates via some additional penalty term. To this end, I will mainly focus on the methodological details associated with the first two steps. Here, correlations between the data set under study and the "reference" archive are evaluated for running windows along the records utilizing a recently developed non-parametric correlation estimator based on a Gaussian kernel function. Allowing for an arbitrary rescaling of the time axis around the respective window midpoint, maximum correlations arise when the windows represent the same time intervals and the rescaled time axis corrects for different material accumulation rates. For sufficiently high-resolution records, the proposed approach can be extended to account also for possible non-linear co-variations between the two considered archives or proxies. By identifying sequences of subsequent windows with particularly high correlations, relative chronologies can be obtained. Moreover, gaps in such sequences are indicative of archive discontinuities and

  19. Obtaining and Estimating Low Noise Floors in Vibration Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard

    2007-01-01

    For some applications like seismic applications and measuring ambient vibrations in structures, it is essential that the noise floors of the sensors and other system components are low and known to the user. Some of the most important noise sources are reviewed and it is discussed how the sensor...... can be designed in order to obtain a low noise floor. Techniques to estimate the noise floors for sensors are reviewed and are demonstrated on a commercial commonly used sensor for vibration testing. It is illustrated how the noise floor can be calculated using the coherence between simultaneous...

  20. A method to obtain pulse contrast on a single shot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Ouyang; Xiaoyan Li; Yanli Zhang; Zhaoyang Li; Guang Xu; Tao Wang; Baoqiang Zhu; Jianqiang Zhu

    2009-01-01

    @@ A novel method for obtaining a single shot multi-point high dynamic range pulse contrast measurement is presented.We use Dammann gratings to generate multiple beamlets by division of amplitude on ultra-short laser pulses.The analysis results show that this method can achieve high dynamic range in pulse contrast measurement on a single shot by using photomultiplier tube (PMT) detectors and the long work-ing distances to minimize cross talk between channels.Some distortion of pulse shape is also analyzed detailedly with the Dammann grating and its compensation grating, which may degrade the pulse contrast measurement in some degree by pulse stretching and spectrum clipping.

  1. Geometry of isolated horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Flandera, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    While the formalism of isolated horizons is known for some time, only quite recently the near horizon solution of Einstein's equations has been found in the Bondi-like coordinates by Krishnan in 2012. In this framework, the space-time is regarded as the characteristic initial value problem with the initial data given on the horizon and another null hypersurface. It is not clear, however, what initial data reproduce the simplest physically relevant black hole solution, namely that of Kerr-Newman which describes stationary, axisymmetric black hole with charge. Moreover, Krishnan's construction employs the non-twisting null geodesic congruence and the tetrad which is parallelly propagated along this congruence. While the existence of such tetrad can be easily established in general, its explicit form can be very difficult to find and, in fact it has not been provided for the Kerr-Newman metric. The goal of this thesis was to fill this gap and provide a full description of the Kerr-Newman metric in the framework ...

  2. Helium measurements of pore-fluids obtained from SAFOD drillcore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, S.; Stute, M.; Torgersen, T.; Winckler, G.; Kennedy, B.M.

    2010-04-15

    {sup 4}He accumulated in fluids is a well established geochemical tracer used to study crustal fluid dynamics. Direct fluid samples are not always collectable; therefore, a method to extract rare gases from matrix fluids of whole rocks by diffusion has been adapted. Helium was measured on matrix fluids extracted from sandstones and mudstones recovered during the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling in California, USA. Samples were typically collected as subcores or from drillcore fragments. Helium concentration and isotope ratios were measured 4-6 times on each sample, and indicate a bulk {sup 4}He diffusion coefficient of 3.5 {+-} 1.3 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} at 21 C, compared to previously published diffusion coefficients of 1.2 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) to 3.0 x 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (150 C) in the sands and clays. Correcting the diffusion coefficient of {sup 4}He{sub water} for matrix porosity ({approx}3%) and tortuosity ({approx}6-13) produces effective diffusion coefficients of 1 x 10{sup -8} cm{sup 2}s{sup -1} (21 C) and 1 x 10{sup -7} (120 C), effectively isolating pore fluid {sup 4}He from the {sup 4}He contained in the rock matrix. Model calculations indicate that <6% of helium initially dissolved in pore fluids was lost during the sampling process. Complete and quantitative extraction of the pore fluids provide minimum in situ porosity values for sandstones 2.8 {+-} 0.4% (SD, n=4) and mudstones 3.1 {+-} 0.8% (SD, n=4).

  3. Seismic isolation for Advanced LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, R; Allen, G; Cowley, S; Daw, E; Debra, D; Giaime, J; Hammond, G; Hammond, M; Hardham, C; How, J; Hua, W; Johnson, W; Lantz, B; Mason, K; Mittleman, R; Nichol, J; Richman, S; Rollins, J; Shoemaker, D; Stapfer, G; Stebbins, R

    2002-01-01

    The baseline design concept for a seismic isolation component of the proposed 'Advanced LIGO' detector upgrade has been developed with proof-of-principle experiments and computer models. It consists of a two-stage in-vacuum active isolation platform that is supported by an external hydraulic actuation stage. Construction is underway for prototype testing of a full-scale preliminary design.

  4. Improvement of the method of obtaining human IgA Fc-fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Galkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To address a number of fundamental and applied problems in immunology, molecular and cellular biology and biotechnology it is necessary to obtain Fc-fragments of immunoglobulins. Fc-fragments may be used for studying of the effector functions of antibodies which are mediated by these areas. They are often used as an immunogen to produce anti-specie (based on so-called secondary antibody conjugate in the development of serological tests for diagnostics (predominantly such conjugate based on monoclonal antibodies. The work is aimed to develop improved methods of obtaining and allocation of Fc-fragments of human IgA. To achieve this objective, optimization of hydrolysis of IgA with subsequent purification of Fс-fragments have been carried out. Improved method of obtaining Fc-fragments of IgA provides: papain hydrolysis of immunoglobulin in the environment of nitrogen for 4 h, allowing to achieve maximum output of Fc-fragments without their further degradation: isolation and purification of Fc-fragments of human IgA by one-stage gel filtration on sephadex G-100; control of purity of the target product by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel with sodium dodecyl sulfate and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at the optimal temperature of papain (37 °C. As the oxygen in the air may have inhibitory effect on enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, the reaction mixture was incubated in the nitrogen atmosphere to prevent inactivation of papain. To reduce the incident degradation of immunoglobulin molecules, papain hydrolysis was carried out without using an enzyme activator (cysteine. Usage of the proposed scheme allows obtaining Fc-fragments of human IgA of high purity. Outcome of Fc-fragments after all stages of purification was about 18% of the initial amount of IgA in the preparation. Molecular weight from Fc-fragments of human IgA was equal to approximately 70 kDa.

  5. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  6. Isolated rib fractures in geriatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmistekawy Elsayed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term outcomes in patients older than 60 years with isolated rib fractures and admitted to emergency hospital. Materials and Methods: This study included patients who were 60 years old or more and sustained blunt chest injury and had isolated rib fractures. The following data were obtained from the medical records: age, gender, number of fracture ribs, side of fracture ribs, mechanism and nature of injury, preexisting medical conditions, complications, admission to intensive care unit (ICU, need for mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and hospital stay and mortality. Results: For the study, 39 patients who were 60 years old or more and admitted to the hospital because of isolated rib fractures were enrolled. There were 28 males (71.7% and 11 females (28.3% with mean age of (66.84 ± 4.7 years. No correlation was found between comorbidities and hospital outcomes except in those who were diabetic (P-value = 0.005 and those with chronic lung disease (P-value = 0.006. Pulmonary complications were the most frequent complications encountered in those patients. Pulmonary complications were: lung contusion in 8 patients (20.5% and pulmonary infection in 6 patients (15.8%. Conclusion: Elderly patients sustaining blunt chest trauma had significant morbidity and potential for mortality.

  7. Mechanical characterization of seismic base isolation elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    From the various devices proposed for seismic isolators, the laminated elastomer bearing is emerging as the preferred device for large buildings/structures, such as nuclear reactor plants. The laminated bearing is constructed from alternating thin layers of elastomer and metallic plates (shims). The elastomer is usually a carbon filled natural rubber that exhibits damping when subjected to shear. Recently, some blends of natural and synthetic rubbers have appeared. Before candidate elastomers can be used in seismic isolation bearings, their response to design-basis loads and beyond- design-basis loads must be determined. This entails the development of constitutive models and and then the determination of associated material parameters through specimen testing. This paper describes the methods used to obtain data for characterizing the mechanical response of elastomers used for seismic isolation. The data provides a data base for use in determining material parameters associated with nonlinear constitutive models. In addition, the paper presents a definition for a damping ratio that does not exhibit the usual reduction at higher strain cycles. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Complete linear optical isolation at the microscale with ultralow loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, JunHwan; Bahl, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Low-loss optical isolators and circulators are critical nonreciprocal components for signal routing and protection, but their chip-scale integration is not yet practical using standard photonics foundry processes. The significant challenges that confront integration of magneto-optic nonreciprocal systems on chip have made imperative the exploration of magnet free alternatives. However, none of these approaches have yet demonstrated linear optical isolation with ideal characteristics over a microscale footprint - simultaneously incorporating large contrast with ultralow forward loss - having fundamental compatibility with photonic integration in standard waveguide materials. Here we demonstrate that complete linear optical isolation can be obtained within any dielectric waveguide using only a whispering-gallery microresonator pumped by a single-frequency laser. The isolation originates from a nonreciprocal induced transparency based on a coherent light-sound interaction, with the coupling originating from the ...

  9. An isolated fourth ventricle in neurosarcoidosis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesselmann, Volker; Terstegge, Klaus; Schulte, Oliver; Krug, Barbara; Lackner, Klaus [Department of Radiology, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Wedekind, Christoph [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Voges, Juergen [Department of Stereotaxy und Functional Neurosurgery, University of Cologne, Joseph Stelzmann Strasse 9, 50924 Cologne (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    We report on an isolated enlargement of the fourth ventricle in a patient with neurosarcoidosis which developed 3 years after the insertion of a ventriculo-atrial shunt. Repeated MRI images were obtained in a patient with known neurosarcoidosis between 1995 and 2000. Imaging findings were correlated to the medical course of the patient, who developed a hydrocephalus and a trapped fourth ventricle consecutively. The isolation was presumably due to granulomatous inflammation of the ependyma surrounding the fourth ventricular outlets. The isolated fourth ventricle was responsible for a deterioration of neurological status. Neurosarcoidosis is a severe complication in sarcoidosis patients. An isolated enlargement of the fourth ventricle is a rare complication in clinically deteriorated patients with neurosarcoidosis and ventricular drainage, which may require neurosurgical treatment. (orig.)

  10. Isolation of Arcobacter species in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea; Florio, Daniela; Giacometti, Federica; Pasquali, Frederique; Manfreda, Gerardo; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2013-05-01

    This is the first report of Arcobacter spp. in rectal fecal samples from healthy water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) reared on a dairy farm. Arcobacter species were isolated after enrichment, and isolates were identified at species level by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction assay. Thirty samples were examined and Arcobacter spp. were isolated from 96.7% of water buffaloes tested: 38 Arcobacter spp. isolates were obtained, with A. cryaerophilus as the dominant species followed by A. butzleri and A. skirrowii. Nine animals (31%) were colonized by more than one Arcobacter species. The present study indicates that water buffaloes can harbor a variety of Arcobacter spp. and that healthy buffaloes may act as hosts. Water buffalo fecal shedding of Arcobacter spp. may be of significance to human health, considering the potential fecal contamination during harvesting of raw milk and slaughtering.

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM DAKSHINA KANNADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Venkatakrishna

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of infections in hospitals and pose a great challenge to the treating clinicians; even emergence of vancomycin resistance has been reported. Therefore the knowledge of prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial profile becomes necessary. This study is aimed to determine prevalence of MRSA and their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern in Dakshina Kannada.Clinical specimens and carrier samples were cultured as per standard methods. The isolates were identified by using catalase test, coagulase tube test, mannitol fermentation and DNAase test. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done for the isolates as per Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method; the isolates were also tested for methicillin resistance using oxacillin and cefoxitin discs.A total of 250 isolates were tested (200 clinical isolates and 50 from carriers and 67 MRSA isolates were obtained (52 clinical samples and 15 from carriers. The degree of resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin and erythromycin were 100%, 100%, 53-56%, 14-16 % and 45-48% respectively. Resistance to vancomycin was not found. As the degree of resistance of MRSA towards antibiotics varies from region to region, in vitro susceptibility testing of every isolate of MRSA in clinical laboratories is inevitable.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Geometrical Influence On Isolator Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanigaiarasu S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The three dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis has been employed to study the influence of geometrical shape transition on performance of scramjet isolators. The pre-combustion shock train also called pseudo shock which appears in the subsonic combustion mode in dual mode scramjet isolator is analyzed in shape transitioned isolators. A square isolator and a shape transitioned square to circular isolator configurations having same length and cross sectional areas were considered. The simulations were carried on isolator geometries for inlet conditions of Mach 2 and unit Reynolds number of 12.4x106/m. The pressure rise due to heat addition in combustion chamber is modeled with back pressure 3.8 times higher than the inlet static pressure. The Numerical results match with the experimental data obtained from literature and with the waltrup and Billig correlation. The length of pseudo shock is compared in these isolators and it is found that it is shorter for square to circular configuration.

  13. Pathogenicity Of Mycogone Perniciosa Isolates Collected On Polish Mushroom Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szumigaj-Tarnowska Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycogone perniciosa is the fungal pathogen causing the wet bubble of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus. The main symptoms of disease are undifferentiated, irregular forms of mushroom tissue, cap spotting and development of amber liquid droplets on the distorted mushrooms. The aim of the research was to assess the pathogenicity of M. perniciosa isolates that were obtained from the infected sporophores. Six isolates from Polish mushroom farms as well reference strain of Hypomyces perniciosus CBS 322.52 were used in this study. The pathogenicity of isolates was assessed on the basis of severity of disease symptoms and crop reduction in the first flush. Mushroom crop was infected with different suspensions containing of M. perniciosa aleuriospores. Significant variability was shown between tested isolates. It was stated that the pathogenicity of isolates and concentration of conidia had a significant influence on the mushroom yield. The isolate of high pathogenicity caused significant yield losses, after inoculation with 1.3 × 104·m−2, whereas the isolate with fairly pathogenicity did not produce symptoms of wet bubble disease or caused slight deformation of single sporophores, even when the casing soil was inoculated with 1.3 × 106·m−2 spores.

  14. Molecular characterization of Malassezia nana isolates from cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellá, Gemma; De Bellis, Filippo; Bond, Ross; Cabañes, F Javier

    2011-03-24

    Malassezia nana (M. nana) is a lipid-dependent yeast that has been isolated from cats and cows. Some sequence variability has been observed in the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions between strains isolated from cats and cows though these regions in M. nana isolates from cats alone have proven to be relatively conserved. In the present study, microsatellite PCR fingerprinting and β-tubulin gene sequence analysis were carried out on M. nana isolates from cats to investigate the genetic diversity of this species. Although a relatively small number of isolates were available, the similarity in the sequences of the β-tubulin and the microsatellite profiles indicate that a particular M. nana genotype colonizes cats. Moreover, all isolates obtained from animals with otitis externa had the same microsatellite fingerprinting pattern. Further studies of a wider population of M. nana isolates from other hosts and status disease are needed to establish that M. nana is a genetically homogeneous species. This is the first report of the characterization of the β-tubulin gene in Malassezia spp.

  15. Improved Active Vibration Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The control force, feedback gain, and actuator stroke of several active vibration isolation systems were analyzed based on a single-layer active vibration isolation system. The analysis shows that the feedback gain and actuator stroke cannot be selected independently and the active isolation system design must make a compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The performance of active isolation systems can be improved by the joint vibration reduction using an active vibration isolation system with an adaptive dynamic vibration absorber. The results show that the joint vibration reduction method can successfully avoid the compromise between the feedback gain and actuator stroke. The control force and the object vibration amplitude are also greatly reduced.

  16. Molecular phylogeny and diversity of Fusarium endophytes isolated from tomato stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazaki, Iori; Kadota, Ikuo

    2015-09-01

    Plant tissues are a known habitat for two types of Fusarium species: plant pathogens and endophytes. Here, we investigated the molecular phylogeny and diversity of endophytic fusaria, because endophytes are not as well studied as pathogens. A total of 543 Fusarium isolates were obtained from the inside of tomato stems cultivated in soils mainly obtained from agricultural fields. We then determined partial nucleotide sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) genes of the isolates. Among the isolates from tomato, 24 EF-1α gene sequence types (EFST) were found: nine were classified as being from the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and its sister taxa (FOSC, 332 isolates), seven from the F. fujikuroi species complex (FFSC, 75 isolates) and eight from the F. solani species complex (FSSC, 136 isolates). To determine more characteristic details of the tomato isolates, we isolated 180 fusaria directly from soils and found 95% of them were nested within the FOSC (82 isolates; five EFSTs), FFSC (21 isolates; six FESTs) and FSSC (68 isolates; 11 EFSTs). These results suggested that the dominant Fusarium endophytes within tomato stems were members of the same three species complexes, which were also the dominant fusaria in the soils.

  17. Obtaining the child testimony in the criminal proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Dunja; Palijan, Tija Zarković; Marinović, Marin; Krpina, Milena Gasparović; Piglić, Iva; Nikolić, Harry

    2010-04-01

    Children fall under the special category of vulnerable witnesses. Children's vulnerability is the reason that we must approach obtaining the child's testimony in the criminal proceedings with special attention. It is important to take the child's testimony as soon as possible and to avoid the repetition of interrogation. The criminal proceedings law and the juvenile court law enable children interrogation through the professional person without the presence of other parties in the procedure and enable the recording of such interrogation by audio-video link which considerably diminish the secondary victimization. The professionals who obtain the testimony must be well acquainted with children's psychological development. Knowledge of psychological development is of major importance in order to make the quality arrangements for interrogation and to interrogate the child and to achieve positive social contact between the examiner and the examinee and it is also of great importance for the credibility evaluation of the child's testimony. The adequate way of children interrogation will enable the child to say the correct information and to recognize the perpetrator. The forensic interview is well elaborated and child adapted technique of interrogation. Respecting the rules of forensic interview will enable the child's testimony on court to be relevant evidence.

  18. Characterization of banana starches obtained from cultivars grown in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros Mesquita, Camila; Leonel, Magali; Franco, Célia Maria Landi; Leonel, Sarita; Garcia, Emerson Loli; Dos Santos, Thaís Paes Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    The starch market is constantly evolving and studies that provide information about the physical and rheological properties of native starches to meet the diverse demands of the sector are increasingly necessary. In this study starches obtained from five cultivars of banana were analyzed for size and shape of granules, crystallinity, chemical composition, resistant starch, swelling power, solubility, thermal and paste properties. The granules of starch were large (36.58-47.24μm), oval, showed crystallinity pattern type B and the index of crystallinity ranged from 31.94 to 34.06%. The phosphorus content ranged from 0.003 to 0.011%, the amylose ranged from 25.13 to 29.01% and the resistant starch ranged from 65.70 to 80.28%. The starches showed high peak viscosity and breakdown, especially those obtained from 'Nanicão' and 'Grand Naine'. Peak temperature of gelatinization was around 71°C, the enthalpy change (ΔH) ranged from 9.45 to 14.73Jg(-1). The starch from 'Grand Naine' showed higher swelling power (15.19gg(-1)) and the starch from 'Prata-Anã' higher solubility (11.61%). The starches studied are highlighted by their physical and chemical characteristics and may be used in several applications.

  19. Diurnal Cycles of Tree Mass Obtained Using Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, R. A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.; Lintz, H. E.; Kleinknecht, G. J.; Miller, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We used a non-invasive technique to estimate the mass of trees using accelerometers. The technique was inspired by Selker et al., 2011 who performed experiments with an oak tree to estimate the time-varying canopy mass. The technique consists of placing an accelerometer on the trunk of a live tree. The resonance frequency is related to the mass of the tree. Wind drives the tree and the accelerometer data are analyzed to obtain estimates of the resonance frequency and mass of the tree. In addition to wind speed and direction, we also collected ambient temperature and rain accumulation using co-located instruments. We collected data for 3 months using several accelerometers configured for different sampling rates. Analysis of the data revealed diurnal cycles in temperature, wind speed, and tree mass derived from the tree resonance frequency. We used the Welch method for power spectral density estimation to obtain hourly estimates of the tree resonance frequency. Our hypothesis is that the mass diurnal cycle is related to the tree water content.

  20. Density Functional Approach Based on Numerically Obtained Bridge Functional

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUShi-Qi

    2002-01-01

    The ornstein-zenike equation is solved with the Rogers-Young approximation for bulk hard sphere fluid and Lennard-Jones fluid for several state points.Then the resulted bulk fluid radial distribution function combined with the test particle method is employed to determine numerically the function relationship of bridge functional as a function of indirect correlation function.It is found that all of the calculated points from different phase space state points for a same type of fluid collapse onto a same smooth curve.Then the numerically obtained curve is used to substitute the analytic expression of the bridge functional as a function of indirect correlation function required in the methodology [J.Chem.Phys,112(2000)8079] to determine the density distribution of non-uniform hard sphere fluid and Lennard-Jones fluid.The good agreement of theoretical predictions with the computer simulation data is obtained.The present numerical procedure incroporates the knowledge of bulk fluid radial distribution function into the constructing of the density functional approximation and makes the original methodology more accurate and more filexible for various interaction potential fluid.

  1. [Patient information and obtaining informed consent in laparoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougé, C; Tuesch, J J; Casa, C; Ludes, B; Arnaud, J P

    1997-12-01

    Since the advent of laparoscopic surgery, the number of suits against surgeons has risen. One of the most frequent complaints is the lack of sufficient information. Physicians in France have a formal obligation to provide information in the contractual legal context established since 1936. This notion has been confirmed in several court cases. The requirement for patient informed consent has been confirmed by several decisions of the Appeals Court and is stated in the code of deontology. The value of classical oral information has been recently questioned in certain court cases. We analyse the current legal situation in France and try to define the content of information required in the case of laparoscopic surgery in addition to the way this information is provided and the means of obtaining informed consent. The information provided must be personalised. The patient must informed that laparoscopy remains a surgical operation. It is licit to warn the patient of predictable risks according to statistical probabilities, of the team's experience and of the patients own status including past history and psychological factors. A written statement may be prepared but must remain a document complementary to personalised oral information. The surgeon must obtain and assure good patient comprehension. The surgical community should publish risk rates in order for surgeons to have reliable references which can be used to define the notion of exceptional risk.

  2. Field sludge characterization obtained from inner of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava, N.; Sosa, E.; Alamilla, J.L. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico); Knigth, C. [PEMEX Refinacion, Avenida Marina Nacional 329, Edificio B-2, Piso 11, C.P. 11311 (Mexico); Contreras, A. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Integridad de Ductos, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas Norte 152, San Bartolo Atepehuacan, C.P. 07730 (Mexico)], E-mail: acontrer@imp.mx

    2009-11-15

    Physicochemical characterization of sludge obtained from refined hydrocarbons transmission pipeline was carried out through Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The Moessbauer and X-ray patterns indicate the presence of corrosion products composed of different iron oxide and sulfide phases. Hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), magnetic and superparamagnetic goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), pyrrhotite (Fe{sub 1-x}S), akaganeite ({beta}-FeOOH), and lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH) were identified as corrosion products in samples obtained from pipeline transporting Magna and Premium gasoline. For diesel transmission pipeline, hematite, magnetite, and magnetic goethite were identified. Corrosion products follow a simple reaction mechanism of steel dissolution in aerated aqueous media at a near-neutral pH. Chemical composition of the corrosion products depends on H{sub 2}O and sulfur inherent in fluids (traces). These results can be useful for decision-making with regard to pipeline corrosion control.

  3. Dosimetric algorithm to reproduce isodose curves obtained from a LINAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  4. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Estrada Espinosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel’s size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel’s size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo.

  5. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava to obtain fermentable sugars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata M. COLLARES; Luiza V. S. MIKLASEVICIUS; Mariana M. BASSACO; Nina P. G. SALAU; Marcio A. MAZUTTI; Dilson A. BISOGNIN; Lisiane M. TERRA

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch from cassava using pectinase,α-amylase,and amyloglucosidase.A central composite rotational design (CCRD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of amyloglucosidase,pectinase,reaction time,and solid to liquid ratio.All the experiments were carried out in a bioreactor with working volume of 2 L.Approximately 98% efficiency hydrolysis was obtained,resulting in a concentration of total reducing sugar released of 160 g/L.It was concluded that pectinase improved the hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Reaction time was found to be significant until 7 h of reaction.A solid to liquid ratio of 1.0 was considered suitable for hydrolysis of starch from cassava.Amyloglucosidase was a significant variable in the process:after its addition to the reaction media,a 30%-50% increase in the amount of total reducing sugar released was observed.At optimal conditions the maximum productivity obtained was 22.9 g/(L·h).

  6. Evaluation of Eucalyptus sawmill log to obtain structural parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Campos Monteiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The control over the products of the sawing of logs is important for the management of the sawmill and also to reduce environmental impacts. The yield and the time study are parameters for the assessment of unfolding in a sawmill. This study aimed to evaluate the yield and the time study of the sawing of Eucalyptus logs during the production of structural parts. This work used ten logs of Eucalyptus grandis from a plantation with 15 years of age, taken from an area of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. In the experimental sawmill of UFLA the logs were sawn using a band saw and the planks were resawn in a circular saw. The structural parts followed the dimensions laid down in the NBR 7190 (ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASILEIRA DE NORMAS TÉCNICAS - ABNT, 1997. The parts produced were measured and calculated yield. The times of all stages of the process were obtained using a stopwatch and then analyzed the time actually sawing and the processing time of logs and planks. The average of yield for the production of main parts was 20.9% and secondary part was 22.9%. Average yield of sawing was satisfactory if compared with the values ​​obtained in other studies. The circular saw compared to band saw showed higher percentage of effective time sawing of wood. The effective time of sawing was less than half the total processing time of the logs.

  7. Functional nanostructured titanium nitride films obtained by sputtering magnetron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, O. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz no3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: olgas@icmm.csic.es; Hernandez-Velez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), or Juana Ines de la Cruz no3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Dept. Fisica Aplicada C-XII, Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid (Spain); Navas, D. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz no3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Auger, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio, del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Baldonedo, J.L. [Centro de Microscopia Electronica y Citometria de la Universidad Complutense de, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz no3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Pirota, K.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), or Juana Ines de la Cruz no3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Vazquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz no3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-20

    Development of new methods in the formation of hollow structures, in particular, nanotubes and nanocages are currently generating a great interest as a consequence of the growing relevance of these nanostructures on many technological fields, ranging from optoelectronics to biotechnology. In this work, we report the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) nanotubes and nanohills via reactive sputtering magnetron processes. Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) were used as template substrates to grow the TiN nanostructures. The AAM were obtained through electrochemical anodization processes by using oxalic acid solutions as electrolytes. The nanotubes were produced at temperatures below 100 deg. C, and using a pure titanium (99.995%) sputtering target and nitrogen as reactive gas. The obtained TiN thin films showed surface morphologies adjusted to pore diameter and interpore distance of the substrates, as well as ordered arrays of nanotubes or nanohills depending on the sputtering and template conditions. High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) was used to elucidate both the surface order and morphology of the different grown nanostructures. The crystalline structure of the samples was examined using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns and their qualitative chemical composition by using X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS) in a scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Glass-ceramics obtained by the crystallization of basalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to obtain glass-ceramics from basalt from the locality on Vrelo (Kopaonik mt. is shown in this paper. The parent rock was ground to fraction -0.4 +0.1 mm, and then melted at 1250 - 1300°C. The crystallization melted bazaltic glass at 950°C during the time interval of 3 hours caused synthesis of a glass-ceramic material with a microstructure that has excellent mechanical properties according to the determined dynamic modulus of elasticity and uniaxial compresive strength. The phase composition of the obtained glass ceramic material was determined by XRPD using Rietveld refinement and SEM. Two phases were found: pyroxene which corresponds to omphacite of the composition (Na0.199 K0.180 Ca0.471 Mg0.2491.1(Mg0.271Fe0.299Al0.4301.0(Si1.704Ti0.046Al0.2502.0O6 and glass with an approximate relationship 69:31.

  9. Nanostructured Thin Films Obtained from Fischer Aminocarbene Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa E. Lazo-Jiménez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of four amphiphilic organometallic complexes with the general formula RC = M(CO5NH(CH215CH3, where R is a ferrocenyl 2(a-b or a phenyl 4(a-b group as a donor moiety and a Fischer carbene of chromium (0 or tungsten (0 as an acceptor group, are reported. These four push-pull systems formed Langmuir (L monolayers at the air-water interface, which were characterized by isotherms of surface pressure versus molecular area and compression/expansion cycles (hysteresis curves; Brewster angle microscopic images were also obtained. By using the Langmuir–Blodgett (LB method, molecular monolayers were transferred onto glass substrates forming Z-type multilayers. LB films were characterized through ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Results indicated that films obtained from 2b complex [(Ferrocenyl(hexadecylaminemethylidene] pentacarbonyl tungsten (0 are the most stable and homogeneous; due to their properties, these materials may be incorporated into organic electronic devices.

  10. PbSe nanocubes obtained by high-energy milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Chavez, H., E-mail: hrojasc@ipn.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada - IPN (Mexico); Reyes-Carmona, F. [Facultad de Quimica - UNAM (Mexico); Achimovicova, M. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geotechnics (Slovakia); Daneu, N. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department for Nanostructured Materials (Slovenia); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica - IPN (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, PbSe nanocubes were obtained by high-energy milling, and their optical properties were investigated by measuring the UV-VIS-IR spectra in the range of 200-2,000 nm. The optical absorption of all samples showed a strong UV emission band at 1.45 eV. Previously, to obtain only PbSe nanocubes, an intermediate phase was identified, PbSeO{sub 3}. Although both PbSeO{sub 3} and PbSe were traced through this study, a major effort is devoted to characterize the latter. To trace how chemical transitions evolve from precursors to PbSe, X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement were carried out. Therefore, the following parameters were evaluated as a function of milling time: phase percentages, area-to-volume ratio, average crystallite dimensions, specific surface area, and morphology changes. To corroborate previous findings, nitrogen adsorption and transmission electron microscopy techniques were used. All the set experimental results unambiguously confirm that crystallites show a cubic morphology, with its average crystallite size distribution being around 24 nm.

  11. Characterization of polymer thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla-Papavlu, A.; Dinca, V.; Ion, V.; Moldovan, A.; Mitu, B.; Luculescu, C.; Dinescu, M.

    2011-04-01

    The development of laser techniques for the deposition of polymer and biomaterial thin films on solid surfaces in a controlled manner has attracted great attention during the last few years. Here we report the deposition of thin polymer films, namely Polyepichlorhydrin by pulsed laser deposition. Polyepichlorhydrin polymer was deposited on flat substrate (i.e. silicon) using an NdYAG laser (266 nm, 5 ns pulse duration and 10 Hz repetition rate). The obtained thin films have been characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It was found that for laser fluences up to 1.5 J/cm 2 the chemical structure of the deposited polyepichlorhydrin polymer thin layers resembles to the native polymer, whilst by increasing the laser fluence above 1.5 J/cm 2 the polyepichlorohydrin films present deviations from the bulk polymer. Morphological investigations (atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) reveal continuous polyepichlorhydrin thin films for a relatively narrow range of fluences (1-1.5 J/cm 2). The wavelength dependence of the refractive index and extinction coefficient was determined by ellipsometry studies which lead to new insights about the material. The obtained results indicate that pulsed laser deposition method is potentially useful for the fabrication of polymer thin films to be used in applications including electronics, microsensor or bioengineering industries.

  12. Digital holographic interferometry as a tool to obtain shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe López, Ubaldo; Hernández-Montes, María. del Socorro; Muñoz-Solís, Silvino

    2015-08-01

    This work describes a new method to obtain shapes on surfaces based on digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Research has been reported with different methods, such as fringe projection. DHI, being a full-field technique, decreases the number of images to capture and the processing time, besides having a high resolution. Our proposed method consists in obtaining the shape of the object and a reference plane using an out-of-plane interferometer. The phase difference of the recorded holograms is achieved by means of the Fourier transform method. This resulting phase has a tilt produced by the angle of the object beam relative to the optical axis, which is removed by subtracting the phase difference from the reference plane. The method was tested in two cylinders, one with dimensions of 17.5x23.4mm reconstructed with a height sensitivity of 4.1mm, and another with two levels: one half with dimensions of 16.08x12.75mm, and the other half of 19.07x12.75mm; the result was a successfully reconstructed shape, with a height sensitivity of 2.7mm.

  13. Comparing turbulent parameters obtained from LITOS and radiosonde measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2015-02-01

    Stratospheric turbulence is important for the mixing of trace species and the energy balance, but direct measurements are sparse due to the required resolution and accuracy. Recently, turbulence parameters such as the energy dissipation rate ɛ were inferred from standard radiosonde data by means of a Thorpe analysis. To this end, layers with vertically decreasing potential temperature are analysed, which is expected to indicate turbulence. Such an application assumes a proportionality between the Thorpe length LT and the Ozmidov scale LO. While this relation is accepted for the ocean, experimental evidence for such proportionality in the stratosphere is sparse. We have developed a high-resolution (8 kHz) turbulence measurement system called LITOS (Leibniz Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere), which for the first time resolves the inner scale of turbulence in the stratosphere. Therewith the energy dissipation rate ɛ can be determined by spectral analysis. This independent value for ɛ enables us to check the relation LO ∝ LT. In our measurements no such proportionality can be seen, although the mean of the ratio LO/LT is close to what is assumed in radiosonde analyses. Dissipation rates for individual layers obtained from radiosondes deviate up to a factor of ~3000 from those obtained by spectral analysis. Some turbulent layers measured by LITOS are not observed by the radiosonde at all, and vice versa. However, statements about the statistical mean seem to be possible by Thorpe analysis.

  14. Obtaining Kohn–Sham potential without taking the functional derivative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj K Harbola; K D Sen

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, many new accurate density functionals, based on the generalized gradient approximation, have been proposed, and they give energies close to chemical accuracy. However, accuracy of the energy functional does not guarantee that its functional derivative, which gives the corresponding potential, is also accurate all over space. For example, although the Becke88 exchange–energy functional gives very good exchange energies, its functional derivative goes as $-\\frac{1}{r^2}$ in comparison to the correct $-\\frac{1}{r}$ for $r \\rightarrow \\infty$, where is the distance of the electron from a finite system. On the other hand, accuracy of the potential is of prime importance if one is interested in properties other than the total energy; properties such as optical response depend crucially on the potential in the outer regions of a system. In this paper we present a different approach, based on the ideas of Harbola and Sahni, to obtain the potential directly from the energy density of a given approximation, without taking recourse to the functional derivative route. This leads to a potential that is as accurate as the functional itself. We demonstrate the accuracy of our approach by presenting some results obtained from the Becke88 functional.

  15. Pozzolan Obtained by Mechanochemical Treatment of Kaolinite Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Aleksandra A.

    2011-12-01

    Pozzolans are supplementary materials added to Portland cement in order to increase the mechanical strength and durability of concrete structures. A number of thermal, mechanical and chemical methods have been used to activate the reactive potential of pozzolanic materials. The aim of the study is to obtain pozzolana, from Serbian kaolinite clay by mechanochemical treatment. Kaolinite clay Garaši was subjected to mechanical treatment during different times of milling. The changes were monitored using particle size distribution (PSD) analyses, thermal methods [thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA)] and X-ray diffraction methods (XRD). The pozzolanic activity was determined using Chapelle method. Milling withing 20 min influences particle size decrease and after that time continuous increase. XDR analysis indicates gradual decrease of cristallinity with prolonged milling time. The higher values for pozzolanic activitie, expressed through consumption of gCa(OH)2 per gPozzolana are 0.78 and 0.77, and they were obtained for milling times 20 and 40 min, respectively. The values are comparable with commercial pozzolan—metakaolin. The results indicates that milling has caused the disintegration of particles and the consequent formation of new active surfaces in addition to changes in its physico-chemical properties that decrease its crystallinity (through amorphization) and increase it reactivity.

  16. Dosimetric Algorithm to Reproduce Isodose Curves Obtained from a LINAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Espinosa, Julio Cesar; Martínez Ovalle, Segundo Agustín; Pereira Benavides, Cinthia Kotzian

    2014-01-01

    In this work isodose curves are obtained by the use of a new dosimetric algorithm using numerical data from percentage depth dose (PDD) and the maximum absorbed dose profile, calculated by Monte Carlo in a 18 MV LINAC. The software allows reproducing the absorbed dose percentage in the whole irradiated volume quickly and with a good approximation. To validate results an 18 MV LINAC with a whole geometry and a water phantom were constructed. On this construction, the distinct simulations were processed by the MCNPX code and then obtained the PDD and profiles for the whole depths of the radiation beam. The results data were used by the code to produce the dose percentages in any point of the irradiated volume. The absorbed dose for any voxel's size was also reproduced at any point of the irradiated volume, even when the voxels are considered to be of a pixel's size. The dosimetric algorithm is able to reproduce the absorbed dose induced by a radiation beam over a water phantom, considering PDD and profiles, whose maximum percent value is in the build-up region. Calculation time for the algorithm is only a few seconds, compared with the days taken when it is carried out by Monte Carlo. PMID:25045398

  17. Thermal Stabilization study of polyacrylonitrile fiber obtained by extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A low cost and environmental friendly extrusion process of the Polyacrylonitrile (PAN polymer was viabilized by using the 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol as a plasticizer. The characterization of the fibers obtained by this process was the object of study in the present work. The PAN fibers were heat treated in the range of 200 °C to 300 °C, which is the temperature range related to the stabilization/oxidation step. This is a limiting phase during the carbon fiber processing. The characterization of the fibers was made using infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis and microscopy. TGA revealed that the degradation of the extruded PAN co-VA fibers between 250 °C and 350 °C, corresponded to a 9% weight loss to samples analyzed under oxidizing atmosphere and 18% when the samples were analyzed under inert atmosphere. DSC showed that the exothermic reactions on the extruded PAN co-VA fibers under oxidizing synthetic air was broader and the cyclization started at a lower temperature compared under inert atmosphere. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis correlated with thermal anlysis showed that the stabilization/oxidation process of the extruded PAN fiber were coherent with other works that used PAN fibers obtained by other spinning processes.

  18. Ultrasonic cavitation for obtainment of nanometric sized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A.; Guzmán, R.; Espinosa, J.; Estrada, J.

    2016-02-01

    This project aims to determine the possibility of obtaining nanometric size particles of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) from commercial micron-sized powders, through the physical principle of ultrasonic cavitation, in order to be used as supply material in coatings made through a process of thermal spray by flame. The tests are performed on a Hielscher UIP 1000hd Ultrasonics equipment, in a 20 micron wave amplitude and in times of 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The determination of the particle size is done through image processing using ImageJ software, obtained by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM); while the elemental composition of the processed samples is analyzed through the technique of energy dispersing spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that Al2O3 and TiO2 have a reduction behaviour of the particles size after being subjected to ultrasonic cavitation, however is only reached the nanometric size in the TiO2 samples.

  19. Optimizing the Operation of Maceration to Obtain Quality White Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stegărus Diana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study monitors the physico-chemical properties of wines from Dragasani under the influence of pectolytic enzymes in various temperature conditions. during maceration contact is made between the grape skins and selected the optimal time leads to wines with more pronounced floral character. The physico-chemical extraction maceration leads to a more pronounced specific compounds, the time of maceration is very important in this case. The curing time is of great importance in producing varieties Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească primarily for successful extraction of aromatic components from grape. As noted in the literature flavored grapes contain large amounts of terpene compounds are in free form or bound. To optimize the technological process is able to extract these compounds and to achieve a harmonious and balanced wine. The variants considered in the study presents the results of physico-chemical and aromatic wines obtained from the Muscat Ottonel and Tămâioasă Românească, which took into consideration both during maceration and the use of selected yeasts and enzymes, which form the basis for the selection of the optimal procedure for obtaining aromatic white wines in Dragasani Vineyard.

  20. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product.