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Sample records for brasiliense camb clusiaceae

  1. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

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    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail: dagcortez@uem.br; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2005-07-15

    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  2. Gamma radiation effects on pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.)

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    Santos, Marcio Ramatiz L.; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia], e-mail: mramatiz@eafce.gov.br, e-mail: vaarthur@cena.usp.br; Salgado, Jocelem M.; Spoto, Marta H. Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: jmsalgad@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: mhfspoto@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on characteristics of pequi fruits (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.). Just now, they are gained attention of researchers due their nutritional properties, between then is the pequi fruits. Fruits come from Goias State was classified, washed and processed to separate the endocarp (edible part) from pericarp. The endocarps were packing in polyethylene bags with 150 g, labeled and submitted to radiation process (0.0, 0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy doses) on multipurpose irradiator located in IPEN/USP. The samples were analyzed to chemical (pH, trititable acidity, deg Brix, ratio TSS/TTA, lipids, ash, humidity, protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity) and physical properties (loss weight, texture and color). The irradiation process using gamma rays from Co{sup 60} was effective to protect pequi fruits in postharvest period. (author)

  3. Caryocar brasiliense camb protects against genomic and oxidative damage in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis

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    Colombo, N.B.R.; Rangel, M.P.; Martins, V.; Hage, M.; Gelain, D.P.; Barbeiro, D.F.; Grisolia, C.K.; Parra, E.R.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of Caryocar brasiliense Camb, commonly known as the pequi fruit, have not been evaluated to determine their protective effects against oxidative damage in lung carcinogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated the role of pequi fruit against urethane-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in forty 8-12 week old male BALB/C mice. An in vivo comet assay was performed to assess DNA damage in lung tissues and changes in lipid peroxidation and redox cycle antioxidants were monitored for oxidative stress. Prior supplementation with pequi oil or its extract (15 µL, 60 days) significantly reduced urethane-induced oxidative stress. A protective effect against DNA damage was associated with the modulation of lipid peroxidation and low protein and gene expression of nitric oxide synthase. These findings suggest that the intake of pequi fruit might protect against in vivo genotoxicity and oxidative stress. PMID:26200231

  4. Efeitos de diferentes tratamentos na germinação do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Effects of different treatments in the germination of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    C. G. Sá e Carvalho

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. provenientes de frutos coletados do chão e "de vez", foram submetidas aos seguintes tratamentos: choques térmicos úmido (80ºC/15 min e seco (80ºC/15 min e 50ºC/30, 60, 90 e 120 min, ácido giberélico 100mg/l e 6 benzil aminopurina 10-4M durante 24 horas, ácido sulfúrico conc./ 1 hora e lavagem em água corrente/48 horas. Sementes provenientes de frutos coletados do chão, com parte do mesocarpo removido, e "de vez", com mesocarpo íntegro, foram armazenadas a 5º C durante 30 dias, seguido ou não pela adição de GA3 100 mg/l. Observou-se que a germinação do pequi começa consistentemente a partir do 9.º mês após o plantio não havendo diferença significativa entre a porcentagem de germinação de sementes provenientes de frutos colhidos "de vez" (85% e completamente maduros (67%. Tratamentos das sementes com temperatura de 80ºC durante 15 min. com ácido sulfúrico concentrado durante 1 hora e estratificação a 5ºC durante 30 dias prejudicaram o processo germinativo. Os demais tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças em relação ao controle.Seeds of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. collected from fallen fruits on the soil surface under the tree and those from maturing fruits still on the tree were submitted to the following treatments: humid heating (80ºC/15 min, dry heating (80ºC/15 min and 50ºC during 30,60,90 and 120 min, gibberellic acid 100 mg/1 (24h and 6-benzylamynopurine 10-4M (24h, concentrated sulphuric acid (1 h and running tap water (48h. Seeds of fruits collected from the soil surface, with part of the mesocarp removed, and those maturing fruits from the tree, with intact mesocaip, were stored at 5ºC during 30 days, followed or not by addition of GA3 100mg/l. It was observed that seed germination started consistently 9 months after sowing and that there was no significant difference between germination of seed proceeding from maturing fruits (85% and those

  5. Soulamarin Isolated from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) Induces Plasma Membrane Permeabilization of Trypanosoma cruzi and Mytochondrial Dysfunction

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    Rea, Alexandre; Tempone, Andre G.; Pinto, Erika G.; Mesquita, Juliana T.; Rodrigues, Eliana; Silva, Luciana Grus M.; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, João Henrique G.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It has high mortality as well as morbidity rates and usually affects the poorer sections of the population. The development of new, less harmful and more effective drugs is a promising research target, since current standard treatments are highly toxic and administered for long periods. Fractioning of methanol (MeOH) extract of the stem bark of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) resulted in the isolation of the coumarin soulamarin, which was characterized by one- and two-dimensional 1H- and 13C NMR spectroscopy as well as ESI mass spectrometry. All data obtained were consistent with a structure of 6-hydroxy-4-propyl-5-(3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-6″,6″-dimethylpyrane-[2″,3″:8,7]-benzopyran-2-one for soulamarin. Colorimetric MTT assays showed that soulamarin induces trypanocidal effects, and is also active against trypomastigotes. Hemolytic activity tests showed that soulamarin is unable to induce any observable damage to erythrocytes (cmax. = 1,300 µM). The lethal action of soulamarin against T. cruzi was investigated by using amino(4-(6-(amino(iminio)methyl)-1H-indol-2-yl)phenyl)methaniminium chloride (SYTOX Green and 1H,5H,11H,15H-Xantheno[2,3,4-ij:5,6,7-i′j′]diquinolizin-18-ium, 9-[4-(chloromethyl)phenyl]-2,3,6,7,12,13,16,17-octahydro-chloride (MitoTracker Red) as fluorimetric probes. With the former, soulamarin showed dose-dependent permeability of the plasma membrane, relative to fully permeable Triton X-100-treated parasites. Spectrofluorimetric and fluorescence microscopy with the latter revealed that soulamarin also induced a strong depolarization (ca. 97%) of the mitochondrial membrane potential. These data demonstrate that the lethal action of soulamarin towards T. cruzi involves damages to the plasma membrane of the parasite and mitochondrial dysfunction without the additional generation of reactive oxygen species, which may have also contributed to the death of

  6. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effect of Butanolic Fraction from Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta.

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    de Oliveira, Lais Moraes; Rodrigues, Aline Gabriela; da Silva, Elaine Fernanda; Cerqueira, Letícia Bonancio; Castro, Carlos Henrique; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; Pontarolo, Roberto; Costa, Elson Alves; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Filgueira, Fernando Paranaiba; Ghedini, Paulo César

    2012-01-01

    Caryocar brasiliense Camb. "pequi" is a native plant from the Cerrado region of Brazil that contains bioactive components reported to be antioxidant agents. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes. We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) of C. brasiliense leaves relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and that the butanolic fraction (BF) produced an effect similar to that of the CHE. Aortic relaxation induced by BF was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylatecyclase inhibitor ODQ. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had no effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with BF, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after incubation with L-NAME. In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a reversible hypotension. The results reveal that C. brasiliense possesses both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of BF involves stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

  7. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effect of Butanolic Fraction from Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Leaves in Rat Thoracic Aorta

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    Lais Moraes de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caryocar brasiliense Camb. “pequi” is a native plant from the Cerrado region of Brazil that contains bioactive components reported to be antioxidant agents. Previous work has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with pequi decreased the arterial pressure of volunteer athletes. We found that the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE of C. brasiliense leaves relaxed, in a concentration-dependent manner, rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine, and that the butanolic fraction (BF produced an effect similar to that of the CHE. Aortic relaxation induced by BF was abolished by endothelium removal, by incubation of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, or the soluble guanylatecyclase inhibitor ODQ. However, incubation with atropine and pyrilamine had no effect on the BF-induced vasorelaxation. Moreover, this effect was not inhibited by indomethacin and tetraethylammonium. The concentration-response curve to calcium in denuded-endothelium rings was not modified after incubation with BF, and the vasorelaxation by BF in endothelium-intact rings precontracted with KCl was abolished after incubation with L-NAME. In addition, administration of BF in anesthetized rats resulted in a reversible hypotension. The results reveal that C. brasiliense possesses both in vivo and in vitro activities and that the vascular effect of BF involves stimulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway.

  8. Anticlastogenic potential and antioxidant effects of an aqueous extract of pulp from the pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb

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    Juliana Khouri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of an aqueous extract of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae Camb pulp, popularly known in Brazil as pequi, against clastogenicity induced by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin was evaluated using an in vivo mouse bone marrow cell micronuclei test, an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell (CHO-K1 chromosome aberration test and an in vitro antioxidant assay based on the oxidative damage to 2-deoxy-D-ribose (2-DR induced by hydroxyl radicals (•OH generated by the reaction between ascorbic acid and (Fe III-EDTA. In mouse bone marrow cells the extract showed a protective effect against micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide and bleomycin but did not interfere with polychromatic bone marrow erythrocyte proliferation, except when the mice had been treated with the highest dose of cyclophosphamide. When CHO-K1 cells were pretreated by adding 0.01, 0.05 or 0.1 mL of extract per mL of cell culture medium 24 or 48 h before bleomycin or cyclophosphamide there was a protective effect against chromosome breaks and a significant decrease in the mitotic index (a measure of cytotoxicity of the CHO-K1 cells. The extract also had a protective effect against oxidative hydroxyl radical damage to 2-DR. This study suggests that C. brasiliense pulp aqueous extract has anticlastogenic potential, possibly due to its antioxidative properties.

  9. Influência da secagem do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. na qualidade do óleo extraído Influence of pequi drying (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. on the quality of the oil extracted

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    Ludmila Pereira Aquino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. tem se destacado por ser um fruto oleaginoso e rico em carotenoides. A secagem é um processo utilizado na extração do óleo por hexano, mas a degradação dos carotenoides e óleo podem ocorrer. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de diferentes métodos de secagem (ao sol, estufa ventilada a 40 e a 60 °C e do tempo (4 horas e até peso constante no rendimento e na qualidade do óleo extraído por hexano no extrator Soxhlet. Quando a polpa de pequi foi seca, 3% ou conteúdo menor de umidade e maior rendimento do óleo foi obtido (52 a 59%, base seca. Carotenoides totais foram maiores e índice de peróxido menores para a polpa desidratada a 40 °C em estufa ventilada, quando comparada com a secagem da polpa em estufa a 60 °C e ao sol. Estes resultados indicaram que a secagem em estufa a 40 °C por 19 horas resultou num maior rendimento do óleo e menor degradação térmica.Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb has stood out for being an oleaginous fruit rich in carotenoids. Drying is widely used technique in the oil extraction process using hexane, but the degradation of oil and carotenoids may occur. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different drying methods (sun, air-circulated drier at 40 and 60 °C and time (4 hours and up to constant weight on the yield and quality of the oil extracted using hexane using a soxhlet apparatus. When the pequi pulp was dried up to 3% or even lower, more oil yield was obtained (52-59%, dry basis. The total carotenoids contents obtained were higher and the peroxide index was lower for the pulp dried at 40 °C in an air-circulated drier when compared to drying at 60 °C in an air-ventilated drier and to sun drying technique. These results indicate that drying in an air-circulated drier at 40 °C for 19 hours resulted in higher oil yields with less heat degradation.

  10. Extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. Extration, drying, and toasting of the pequi almond (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    Ana Maria da Silva Rabêlo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. possui em seu interior amêndoa comestível pouco explorada. Objetivou-se avaliar o processo de extração, secagem e torrefação da amêndoa do pequi. Foram utilizadas sementes de pequi fornecidas pela Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado, localizada na cidade de Damianópolis-GO. Para a extração da amêndoa, foi adaptado equipamento tipo guilhotina, com a finalidade de cortar a semente ao meio. O equipamento é composto por uma lâmina fixa em um suporte de madeira, recoberto com placa de Policloreto de Vinila (PVC e apresentou desempenho satisfatório. Para a secagem das amêndoas, sugeriu-se o binômio tempo/temperatura de 70 °C por 60 minutos, pois conferiu ao produto atividade de água em torno de 0,60 em menor tempo secagem. As amêndoas torradas a 130 °C durante 15 e 30 minutos apresentaram melhores características sensoriais, não diferindo significativamente entre si (p > 0,05 pelo Teste de Friedman. No tempo de 30 minutos, observaram-se tendências de melhores características sensoriais, como cor e crocância, no produto final.The Pequi (caryocar brasiliense Camb. edible almond seed is little used. The aim of this study is to evaluate almond seeds of pequi supplied by the "Associação de Beneficiamento de Frutos do Cerrado" (Cerrado fruit supply association, located in the city of Damianópolis-GO. For the extration of the almond, a guillotine like equipment was used with the purpose of cutting the seed in half. The equipment was composed of a fixed blade placed in a wooden support, recovered with Polyvinyl chloride (PVC, and it presented satisfactory performance. For the almonds drying, the temperature of 70 ºC for 60 minutes was suggested since it allowed water activity of around 0,60 in shorter drying time. The almonds roasted at 130 °C for 15 and 30 minutes presented better sensorial characteristics, and proved not significantly different among themselves (P > 0,05 in

  11. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and cytotoxicity of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess (Clusiaceae

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    Claudia Terencio Agostinho Pires

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the in vitro anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity and the cytotoxicity of dichloromethane extract and pure compounds from the leaves of Calophyllum brasiliense. Purification of the dichloromethane extract yielded the pure compounds (- mammea A/BB (1, (- mammea B/BB (2 and amentoflavone (3. The compound structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and spectrometric data. The contents of bioactive compounds in the extracts were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet detector. The anti-M. tuberculosis activity of the extracts and the pure compounds was evaluated using a resazurin microtitre assay plate. The cytotoxicity assay was performed in J774G.8 macrophages using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide colourimetric method. The quantification of the dichloromethane extract showed (1 and (2 at concentrations of 31.86 ± 2.6 and 8.24 ± 1.1 µg/mg of extract, respectively. The dichloromethane and aqueous extracts showed anti-M. tuberculosis H37Rv activity of 62.5 and 125 µg/mL, respectively. Coumarins (1 and (2 showed minimal inhibitory concentration ranges of 31.2 and 62.5 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates. Compound (3 showed no activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. The selectivity index ranged from 0.59-1.06. We report the activity of the extracts and coumarins from the leaves of C. brasiliense against M. tuberculosis.

  12. Efeito do tipo de corte e sanificantes no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado Effect of the cut type and sanitizers on the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Frutos e hortaliças minimamente processados devem apresentar atributos de conveniência e qualidade do produto fresco. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos sanificantes hipoclorito de sódio (NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm e peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 4% e 6%, sobre os processos envolvidos no amaciamento de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. minimamente processado submetido a dois tipos de processamento: "caroço fatiado" e "caroço inteiro" e armazenado a 6 ± 1ºC e 90% a 95% UR, durante 15 dias. A cada três dias foram avaliados: perda de massa, firmeza, pectina total, pectina solúvel, atividade de pectinametilesterase (PME e atividade de poligalacturonase (PG. O pequi minimamente processado apresentou perda de massa e decréscimo de firmeza ao longo do período de armazenamento, concomitante ao aumento da atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, bem como solubilização de substâncias pécticas. Não foi verificada atividade de PME no pequi minimamente processado avaliado. Os caroços fatiados apresentaram maior teor de pectina solúvel, do 3° ao 6° dia e atividade da enzima poligalacturonase, do 3° ao 12° dia de armazenamento, em relação aos caroços inteiros. A sanificação com NaClO 50 ppm e 100 ppm, H2O2 4% e 6% determinou maior solubilização péctica em pequis minimamente processados, ao longo do armazenamento, não sendo observada influência dos sanificantes sobre as variáveis firmeza, perda de massa e atividade de poligalacturonase.Fresh cut fruits and vegetables should present convenience and quality features of the fresh produce. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the sanitizers 50ppm and 100ppm sodium hypochloride (NaClO and 4% and 6% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 on the involved processes in the softening of fresh cut pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. submitted to two types of processing: "sliced stone" and "whole stone" stored at 6 ± 1°C and 90% to 95% of RH during 15 days

  13. Efeito do AIB sobre a qualidade e fitossanidade dos alporques de influência da Caryocar brasiliense Camb (caryocaraceae Effect of AIB on quality and phytossanity of Caryocar brasiliense Camb (caryocaraceae air layering

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    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi testar a influência de quatro concentrações do hormônio vegetal ácido indolbutírico (AIB (0, 500, 1.000 e 2.000 ppm na obtenção de alporques de Caryocar brasiliense Camb (Caryocaraceae fitossanitariamente adequados. Avaliou-se o efeito direto desse hormônio na indução de galha por Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae nas folhas dos alporques, bem como o seu efeito indireto sobre os parasitóides de Eurytoma sp. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, cada parcela experimental com dois alporques, e cinco tratamentos: 1 sem anelamento; 2 anelado + 0 ppm de AIB; 3 anelado + 500 ppm de AIB; 4 anelado + 1.000 ppm de AIB; e 5 anelado + 2.000 ppm de AIB. Não houve diferença significativa (p>0,05 nas taxas de enraizamento dos alporques, de raízes/alporque, de comprimento da maior raiz/alporque, de taxas de calejamento e de sobrevivência dos ramos anelados. Também, não se verificou diferença estatística entre os tratamentos quanto ao número do parasitóide Quadrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae e das características morfológicas externas das galhas induzidas por Eurytoma sp. Entretanto, observaram-se efeito positivo entre as concentrações de AIB e o número de galhas e maior número de adultos de Eurytoma sp. e de seu principal parasitóide Sycophila sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae na concentração de 2.000 ppm de AIB. Esses dados indicam que esse galhador pode selecionar partes da planta ou plantas com maior concentração de hormônio. Devido à baixa efetividade desse hormônio na produção de estacas para a propagação assexuada de C. brasiliense, mais estudos são necessários devido ao fato de esta ser uma das mais importantes espécies no bioma Cerrado. Estudos futuros também são necessários para elucidar o envolvimento do AIB na formação de galhas e o seu impacto indireto na comunidade de parasitóides associados.The aim of this study was

  14. SEXUAL PROPAGATION OF 'PEQUI' (Caryocar brasilienseCamb.): EFFECT OF FRUITS PROCEDENCE AND GIBERELIC ACID ON THE EMERGENCE OF SEEDLINGS PROPAGAÇÃO SEXUADA DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): EFEITO DA PROCEDÊNCIA DE FRUTOS E DO ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO NA EMERGÊNCIA DE PLÂNTULAS

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    Osvaldo Antunes de Souza; Jorge Luiz do Nascimento; Ronaldo Veloso Naves; Jácomo Divino Borges

    2007-01-01

    This research had as objective to evaluate the germination and emergence speed index (ESI) of pequi (C. brasiliense Camb.) from sexual propagation material (putamens and seeds) fromtwo sites, Porangatu and Faina, Goiás State, Brazil. Twelve treatments were evaluated (2x6 factorial), the two procedences being combined with six sowing methods: putamens (inner mesocarp and endocarp) immersed in water; putamen without p...

  15. PROPAGAÇÃO SEXUADA DO PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. ESTIMULADA POR ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO SEXED PROPAGATION OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. INDUCED BY GIBBERELLIC ACID

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    Jácomo Divino Borges

    2008-06-01

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    A espécie Caryocar brasiliense (Camb., conhecida como pequi, apresenta baixa porcentagem e baixo tempo médio de emergência de plântulas. Buscando-se solucionar esse problema,o presente trabalho propôs-se a avaliar diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (GA3 em sementes de pequi sem endocarpo. Os frutos maduros, após coletados, foram armazenados por 27 dias, em sacos plásticos, e,posteriormente, retirou-se a casca, o mesocarpo e os espinhos. Após sete dias, a amêndoa foi extraída do endocarpo. Os tratamentos constituiram-se de: água destilada, GA3 a 75 mg L-1, GA3 a 150 mg L-1, GA3 a 300 mg L-1 e GA3 a 600 mg L-1, embebidas por 24 horas. Foram utilizadas 26 sementes por parcela, em cinco tratamentos e cinco epetições. Avaliaramse a porcentagem e tempo médio de emergência das plântulas, a altura, o diâmetro e a massa fresca e seca das raízes e da parte aérea das plântulas de pequi. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análises de variância e regressão linear. O ácido giberélico, nas condições e concentrações estudadas, influenciou, significativamente, a porcentagem e o tempo médio de emergência das plântulas de pequi. Obteve-se, em média, 24% de emergência, aos quarenta dias após a semeadura. O uso de ácido giberélico (GA3 em sementes de pequi sem endocarpo, na concentração estimada de 345 mg L-1, proporciona maior porcentagem de emergência, em relação aos demais tratamentos avaliados.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Pequi; hôrmonio vegetal; emergência.

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE) em pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.), a partir de material de propagação sexual (putámens e sementes) provenientes de dois locais, Porangatu e Faina, no Estado de Goiás. Foram avaliados doze tratamentos (fatorial 2x6), sendo as duas procedências combinadas com seis formas de semeadura: putámens (mesocarpo interno...

  16. Modificação por via enzimática da composição triglicerídica do óleo de piqui (Caryocar brasiliense Camb Piqui (Caryocar brasiliense Camb oil triglyceride composition modification by enzymatic way

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    Nara Lúcia Facioli

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Piqui (Caryocar brasiliense Camb oil was transformed into a cocoa butter-like fat through an enzymatic interesterification reaction using Lipozyme in the presence of stearic acid that was incorporated in the sn 1,3-3,1 position into triglyceride. Stearic acid incorporation was determined by HPLC, based on the quantification of the principal triglycerides (POP, POS e SOS found in cocoa butter. The proposed process was feasible with a reaction time of 240 minutes with 10% of Lipozyme at 70ºC and substract weight ratio of 0,33 (stearic acid:piqui oil.

  17. Germinação e crescimento de Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae, uma espécie típica de florestas inundadas Seed germination and growth of Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae, a typical species of flooded forests

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    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A saturação hídrica do solo e a conseqüente diminuição na quantidade de oxigênio disponível para o sistema radicular selecionaram, ao longo do processo evolutivo, plantas capazes de sobreviverem à inundação sazonal ou permanente. Nas espécies neotropicais as adaptações que permitem suportar este estresse são bastante diversificadas. Neste trabalho foram estudados a germinação das sementes e o crescimento inicial das plantas de Calophyllum brasiliense, em condições de hipoxia. As sementes de C brasiliense não são fotoblásticas, sobrevivem ao menos três meses submersas, mas germinam apenas em solo bem drenado. A inundação não inibe o crescimento da planta. Não houve mudanças morfológicas na parte aérea das plantas, mas a substituição das raízes formadas no período pré-inundação por um sistema radicular eficiente talvez seja o principal motivo que permita o crescimento normal das plantas em áreas inundadas. Ao contrário de algumas espécies de locais sujeitos ao alagamento, cujas plantas têm o crescimento inibido pelo estresse, o ciclo de vida de C brasiliense está adaptado à inundação temporária ou permanente. A diversificação da forma de dispersão, a indiferença em relação à luz e a capacidade de sobreviver e crescer em solo inundado são características que contribuem para a ampla distribuição geográfica da espécie, sempre associada a áreas alagáveis.Soil waterlogging and the subsequent reduction in the amount of oxygen available for the respiration of the root system selected, along the evolutive process, plants able to thrive in seasonally or permanently flooded areas. In neotropical plants there are many types of adaptations to flooding. In this paper we present the results of the work carried out with seeds and seedlings of C brasiliense subjected to hypoxia during germination and early development. C brasiliense seeds are not photoblastic and survive up to three months burried in a

  18. Influencia da intensidade luminosa e do substrato no crescimento, no conteudo de clorofila e na fotossintese de Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. Subsp. canjerana, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. e centrolobium robustum (Vell.) Mart. Ex Benth., na fase ju

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Paulo Ernani Ramalho, 1946-

    2013-01-01

    Visando estudar a auto-ecologia de três espécies florestais brasileiras; Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. subsp. canjerana (canjarana); Callophyllum brasiliense Camb. (guanandi) e Centrolobium robustum (VelI.) Mart. ex Benth. (araribá-rosa), estudou-se o comportamento na fase juvenil de mudas envasadas em dois substratos (Colombo e Santa Helena) e sob intensidades luminosas de 10%, 30%, 50% e 100%. Para todas as espécies, foram estudados vários parâmetros ecofisiológicos: altura, diâmetro do ...

  19. PROPAGAÇÃO SEXUADA DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.: EFEITO DA PROCEDÊNCIA DE FRUTOS E DO ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO NA EMERGÊNCIA DE PLÂNTULAS SEXUAL PROPAGATION OF 'PEQUI' (Caryocar brasilienseCamb.: EFFECT OF FRUITS PROCEDENCE AND GIBERELIC ACID ON THE EMERGENCE OF SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Veloso Naves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE em pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., a partir de material de propagação sexual (putámens e sementes provenientes de dois locais, Porangatu e Faina, no Estado de Goiás. Foram avaliados doze tratamentos (fatorial 2x6, sendo as duas procedências combinadas com seis formas de semeadura: putámens (mesocarpo interno e endocarpo imersos em água; putámens sem polpa (mesocarpo interno imersos em água; sementes (amêndoas imersas em água; putámens imersos em solução de ácido giberélico 10%; putámens sem polpa imersos em solução de ácido giberélico; sementes imersas em solução de ácido giberélico. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em telado com 50% de sombreamento. Foram feitas observações a cada 48 horas, por período de 77 dias, contado a partir da semeadura. Não se observou variação significativa (p>0,05 entre as procedências dos frutos, tanto em germinação como em IVE. Putámens com ou sem polpa e tratados com ácido giberélico apresentaram índices de germinação satisfatórios, acima de 30%, e superiores (p<0,05 àqueles imersos em água. Já nas amêndoas, os tratamentos com imersão em ácido giberélico e água não diferiram (p>0,05 para esta característica. Ademais, não se detectou efeito significativo (p>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o índice de velocidade de emergência das plântulas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Pequi; GA3; ácido giberélico; amêndoa.

    This research had as objective to evaluate the germination and emergence speed index (ESI of pequi (C. brasiliense Camb. from sexual propagation material (putamens and seeds fromtwo sites, Porangatu and Faina, Goiás State

  1. Genetic polymorphisms influence runners’ responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): a before-after study

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Lordelo, Graciana Souza; Akimoto, Arthur Kenji; Alves, Penha Cristina Zaidan; Pereira, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2011-01-01

    Genes have been implicated in the levels of oxidative stress, lipids, CVD risk, immune reactivity, and performance. Pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) has shown anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects, besides reducing exercise-induced DNA, tissue damages, and anisocytosis. Given that diet can interact with the human genome to influence health and disease, and because genetic variability can influence response to diet, we aim to investigate the influence of 12 gene polymorphisms on inflammato...

  2. Composição química e compostos bioativos presentes na polpa e na amêndoa do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds in the pulp and almond of pequi fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro de Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da composição química dos alimentos é fundamental para se avaliarem a disponibilidade de nutrientes e o seu consumo por populações. Neste trabalho, o pequi (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. foi caracterizado pela composição centesimal e pela presença de compostos bioativos na polpa e na amêndoa. Os dados do perfil lipídico mostram alto teor de lípides tanto na polpa quanto na amêndoa, destacando-se nos mesmos a presença dos ácidos graxos insaturados, predominando o ácido oléico como principal componente entre os ácidos graxos. Foi observada também a relação entre os elevados teores de ácidos graxos insaturados com os compostos fenólicos e carotenóides presentes, tendo a polpa quantidades mais expressivas dessas substâncias quando comparada à amêndoa, além de conter uma quantidade superior de fibra alimentar. Os resultados obtidos abrem a perspectiva de se utilizar o pequi como fruto que apresenta, na sua composição, compostos importantes para a formulação de uma dieta saudável.The knowledge of the chemical composition of foods is basic for evaluate the nutrients availability and its consumption for the population. In this work, the pulp and the almond of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense, Camb. were characterized by the centesimal composition and the presence of nutrients. The results showed high amount of lipids and in the fatty acids profile, the oleic fatty acid was the main component. The presence between high unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant compounds (phenolic acids and carotenoids was correlated with the fruit protection. In the pulp was observed too high amount of alimentary fiber. These results are suggesting the pequi utilization in a healthful diet preparation.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms influence runners' responses to the dietary ingestion of antioxidant supplementation based on pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.): a before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Lordelo, Graciana Souza; Akimoto, Arthur Kenji; Alves, Penha Cristina Zaidan; Pereira, Luiz Carlos da Silva; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2011-11-01

    Genes have been implicated in the levels of oxidative stress, lipids, CVD risk, immune reactivity, and performance. Pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) has shown anti-inflammatory and hypotensive effects, besides reducing exercise-induced DNA, tissue damages, and anisocytosis. Given that diet can interact with the human genome to influence health and disease, and because genetic variability can influence response to diet, we aim to investigate the influence of 12 gene polymorphisms on inflammatory markers, postprandial lipids, arterial pressure, and plasma lipid peroxidation of runners (N = 125), before and after 14 days of 400 mg pequi-oil supplementation, after races under closely comparable conditions. Arterial pressure was checked before races; blood samples were taken immediately after racing to perform leukogram and plateletgram, Tbars assay, lipid, and CRP dosages and genotyping. CAT, GST-M1/T1, CRP-G1059C, and MTHFR-C677T polymorphisms influenced post-pequi-oil responses in leukogram; Hp and MTHFR-C677T, in plateletgram; Hp, ACE, GSTT1, and MTHFR-A1298C, in lipid profile; MTHFR-A1298C, in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels; and Hp and MnSOD, in Tbars assay. Differences between ACE genotypes in leukogram and total cholesterol disappeared after pequi, and the same occurred for Hp and MnSOD in Tbars assay and for MTHFR-A1298C with CRP levels. Because genetic inheritance is one of the factors that drive atherosclerosis-related lipid abnormalities, results can contribute to a greater understanding of the influence of genetic polymorphisms in situations that push up free radicals. Knowledge is also expanded on how antioxidant supplementation affects an individual's genes and how athletic genetic makeup can affect the way a person responds to antioxidant supplements.

  4. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA E QUÍMICA DE FRUTOS DO PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. ORIUNDOS DE DUAS REGIÕES NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS, BRASIL PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. FRUITS FROM TWO AREAS IN THE GOIÁS STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar características físicas e químicas de frutos de pequizeiro, oriundos das regiões de Araguapaz e Mambaí, Estado de Goiás. Foram utilizadas cinco repetições, com dezesseis frutos para cada determinação, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os critérios avaliados foram: as massas do fruto, da casca e das sementes não desenvolvidas (frutilhos, as dimensões dos frutos e dos pirênios (mesocarpo interno, endocarpo e amêndoa, o número de pirênios, as massas totais de pirênios, de polpa e de amêndoas, os teores de umidade, de extrato etéreo e de proteínas na polpa e o pH da polpa. Observou-se que houve diferenças (p<0,05 entre os frutos das duas regiões, exceto na média da massa de frutilhos por fruto (p>0,05. Os frutos provenientes de Araguapaz apresentaram menores massas e dimensões de fruto e pirênios, e maiores rendimentos de polpa e amêndoas, bem como maiores teores de proteínas e extrato etéreo, do que os frutos oriundos de Mambaí. Conclui-se que os frutos de pequizeiro de Araguapaz têm maior valor nutricional e são mais apropriados para uso nas indústrias processadoras do que os frutos da região de Mambaí.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Valor nutricional; pequi; cerrado.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of Caryocar brasiliense fruits originated from Araguapaz and Mambaí regions, Goiás State, Brazil. Five replicates, with sixteen fruits for each determination were used in a completely randomized experimental design. The evaluated quality criteria were: fruit, peel, and not developed seed (fruitlet masses; fruit and pit (internal mesocarp, endocarp, and nut number and dimensions; pit, pulp, and nut total dimensions, and moisture content; pulp ethereal

  5. Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense (Cambess. from nodal segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Micropropagation of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae is a way to overcome difficulties in achieving large-scale plant production, given the recalcitrant nature of the seeds, irregular fructification and absence of natural vegetative propagation of the species. Cultures were established using nodal segments 2 cm in length, obtained from 1-2 year old seedlings, maintained in a greenhouse. Mercury chloride and Plant Preservative Mixture™ were used in the surface sterilizing stage, better results being achieved with Plant Preservative Mixture™ incorporation in culture medium, at any concentration. Polyvinylpyrrolidone, activated charcoal, cysteine, ascorbic acid or citric acid were added to the culture medium to avoid oxidation. After 30 days of culture, polyvinylpirrolidone and ascorbic acid gave better results, eliminating oxidation in most explants. For shoot multiplication, benzylaminopurine was used in concentrations of 4.4 and 8.8 µM in Woody Plant Medium, resulting in an average of 4.43 and 4.68 shoots per explant, respectively, after 90 days. Indole-3-butyric acid and α-naphthalene acetic acid were used to induce root formation, reaching a maximum rooting rate of 24% with 20µM α-naphthalene acetic acid. For acclimatization. the rooted plants were transferred to Plantmax® substrate and cultured in a greenhouse, reaching 79% of survival after 30 days and 60% after one year.

  6. Spatial distribution of a spherical gall (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae on Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained the first data on spatial distribution of a spherical galling insect (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae at the Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae tree level. This work was developed in two pastures in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The areas studied were: pasture 1 (in activity and pasture 2 (abandoned pasture = savanna in recovery. We evaluated the distribution of spherical galls in: foliage orientation (slope, among leaves (border and interior of the tree crown, among leaflets (right, central, left, distal, median, and proximal as well as border, central area, and adjacent to the mid leaf vein of the leaflet, and difference between areas in 10 infested trees per area. The smaller number of spherical gall/leaflet was observed in pasture 1 than in pasture 2. More spherical galls were found on the northern in pasture 1, but in the pasture 2, the lower spherical galls were observed on the northeast than other slopes. The average number of spherical galls did not differ statistically among the three leaflets of C. brasiliense in pasture 2. However, in pasture 1, we observed highest number of spherical galls in the central leaflet. More spherical galls were found in the border than interior of the tree crown. The average number of spherical galls did not differ statistically among the longitudinal region on leaflet of C. brasiliense. The spherical gall insect preferred to colonize the leaf margin than the central portion or near mid vein on transversal regions on a leaflet.

  7. (Clusiaceae) leaf fossil from Assam, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene. (Chattian 28.4–23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the ...

  8. Effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. peel flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz dos Santos Siqueira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi peel comprises 76% of the whole fruit and it is discarded during consumption. Thus, pequi peel has been considered a solid residue, although it has potential for use in various applications. Limitations in the use of this material are mainly due to the lack of information of its nutritional composition, especially about the toxic or antinutritional factors. Soaking is often used to prepare complementary foods and has been reported to be beneficial for enhancing nutritive value. The effect of soaking on the nutritional quality of pequi peel flour was determined by measuring changes in chemical composition, antinutritional factors, total phenols and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. The results showed that 24 h of maceration increases the content of lipids (200%, protein (28.3% and dietary fibber (31%, while carbohydrate and ash content decreases. There were no haemagglutination activity or α-amylase inhibitors, but it was detected the presence of phytic acid (0.4 g 100 g-1. The soaking reduced 8.5% phenols and 19.0% tannins, 6.2% protein digestibility, and was also effective to eliminate trypsin inhibitors, and increase starch digestibility (24.2%. Soaking was efficient to improve nutritional characteristics of the pequi peel flour, opening up possibilities for its use in food formulations.

  9. Extraction of oil from pequi fruit (Caryocar Brasiliense, Camb. using several solvents and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniassi, R.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the oil extraction process from pequi pulp using different solvents (hexane, acetone and ethyl alcohol and their mixtures was investigated, using a simplex-centroid design. The extraction occurred at 50°C, under stirring (22 Hz, for 16 hours. The solid-liquid ratio used was 1:10 (w/w. Higher yield values were obtained for extractions with acetone and hexane, especially their mixtures with ethanol. Iodine value, saponification value and refractive index did not differ significantly among the treatments. A higher acid value was obtained for the extraction with ethyl alcohol. Higher carotenoid contents were obtained for the extraction with acetone and ethyl alcohol as pure solvents. The fatty acid profile in the oil fraction of the extracts did not vary among the different types of solvents and their mixtures.En este trabajo fue estudiado el proceso de extracción de aceite de la pulpa de pequi utilizando diferentes disolventes (n-hexano, acetona y etanol y sus mezclas, empleando diseño central simplex. Las extracciones fueron realizadas a 50°C, durante 16 horas de agitación (22 Hz. La proporción sólido:líquido empleada fue 1:10 (p/p. Los mayores rendimientos fueron obtenidos para las extracciones con acetona y con hexano, especialmente cuando fueron mezclados con etanol. El índice de yodo, el índice de saponificación y el índice de refracción no difirieron significativamente entre los tratamientos. Los mayores valores de acidez se obtuvieron en la extracción con etanol. Los mayores contenidos en carotenoides se obtuvieron en las extracciones con acetona y etanol como disolventes puros. El perfil de los ácidos grasos en las fracciones de aceite de los extractos no presentó variación entre los diferentes tipos de disolventes y sus mezclas.

  10. Hypoglycemic effect of formulation containing hydroethanolic extract of Calophyllum brasiliense in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helison de Oliveira Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Diabetes mellitus is a chronic and severe metabolic dysfunction, it's slow and progressive evolution interferes directly in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, causing hyperglycemia, glycosuria, polydipsia, hyperlipidaemia, among others. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of hydroethanolic extract and granulated of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Clusiaceae, species in diabetic rats as well as it's biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that both the pharmaceutical forms, hydroethanolic extract and granulated, were able to reduce significantly (p < 0.001 hyperglycemia and glycosuria, in addition to improve polydipsia, polyuria, and weight loss. Treatments using hydroethanolic extract and granulated were also able to reduce significantly levels of triacylglycerides, cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, as well as the transaminases, urea and creatinine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that these pharmaceutical forms have anti-diabetic effect and act improving the biochemical parameters, this effect is probably due to the high content of polyphenolic compounds found in the formulations.

  11. Spatial distribution of a spherical gall (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae on Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae Distribuição espacial da galha esférica (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae em Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained the first data on spatial distribution of a spherical galling insect (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae at the Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae tree level. This work was developed in two pastures in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The areas studied were: pasture 1 (in activity and pasture 2 (abandoned pasture = savanna in recovery. We evaluated the distribution of spherical galls in: foliage orientation (slope, among leaves (border and interior of the tree crown, among leaflets (right, central, left, distal, median, and proximal as well as border, central area, and adjacent to the mid leaf vein of the leaflet, and difference between areas in 10 infested trees per area. The smaller number of spherical gall/leaflet was observed in pasture 1 than in pasture 2. More spherical galls were found on the northern in pasture 1, but in the pasture 2, the lower spherical galls were observed on the northeast than other slopes. The average number of spherical galls did not differ statistically among the three leaflets of C. brasiliense in pasture 2. However, in pasture 1, we observed highest number of spherical galls in the central leaflet. More spherical galls were found in the border than interior of the tree crown. The average number of spherical galls did not differ statistically among the longitudinal region on leaflet of C. brasiliense. The spherical gall insect preferred to colonize the leaf margin than the central portion or near mid vein on transversal regions on a leaflet.Foi descrito, pela primeira vez, a distribuição espacial da galha esférica (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae em árvores de Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido em duas pastagens em Montes Claros, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. As áreas estudadas foram: pastagem 1 (em atividade e pastagem 2 (pastagem abandonada = cerrado em recuperação. Foi avaliada a distribuição de galhas esféricas em relação a: orientação das folhas

  12. Storage of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, F C; Prudente, D O; Alvarenga, A A; Paiva, R; Nery, M C

    2017-01-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense is a species native to Brazil and has potential for use in the timber industry, in the reforestation of degraded areas, besides having medicinal properties. Its propagation is mainly by seeds which, depending on their recalcitrant characteristics, leads to difficulty in conservation, due to changes in its physiological potential during storage. Aiming to contribute to the expansion of its cultivation, rational use and conservation, the objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of C. brasiliense seeds during storage. Different packings (paper, aluminum and polyethylene) and environmental conditions (room temperature and cold chamber) were quarterly tested over 12 months, by evaluating germination viability and vigor. Based on the results, it was concluded that packaging in polyethylene and freezer storage provided the best conditions for the conservation of seeds, keeping them viable for a period of nine months.

  13. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guedje, N.M.; Lejoly, J.; Nkongmeneck, B.A.; Jonkers, W.B.J.

    2003-01-01

    Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae) is a highly valued non-timber forest tree. The bark and the seeds are exploited and commercialised for medicinal purposes and palm wine processing in Cameroon, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. The bark is often removed over almost the entire circumference of the stem,

  14. Calophyllum inophyllum L. of Clusiaceae is a handsome medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calophyllum inophyllum L. of Clusiaceae is a handsome medium-sized evergreen tree. The leaves are shiny with many fine parallel lateral veins. Flowers in clusters are white, fragrant and bear many stamens. Fruit is hard, subglobose and little smaller than a golf ball. Bark astringent, sweet and diuretic. Seed oil is used ...

  15. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PEQUI FRUITS (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. IN THE GOIÁS STATE CARACTERIZAÇÃO FÍSICA DE FRUTOS DO PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The Brazilian Cerrado region presents large biodiversity in its ecosystem. Native fruit trees stand out, with tens of species used by locals for feeding. In the Goiás legumes and fruits victualling center (Central de Abastecimento de Goiás ? CEASA, the most commercialized Brazilian Cerrado fruit is pequi. The harvest period occurs from September to February, the fruit originating from different regions of Goiás, Minas Gerais, Tocantins, and Bahia states. This research had as objective to evaluate physical characteristics of pequi tree fruits from five Goiás state regions. Three subpopulations in each region, called areas, were identified. In each area, five trees were chosen for fruit sampling. Physical characteristics analyzed were fruit mass, peel, pit, pulp and almond; fruit and pit dimensions; peel thickness and pulp color. Results indicate differences in fruits physical characteristics for regions. The edible fresh pulp represents 8.53% of fruit mass; differences in physical characteristics of fruits were observed mainly in fruits within plants, in plants within areas and among areas.

    KEY-WORDS: Brazilian savannah; cerrado; pequi; native fruitfull.

    A região dos Cerrados brasileiros apresenta grande biodiversidade em seu ecossistema. As fruteiras nativas da região muito se destacam, com dezenas de espécies utilizadas pela população local para alimentação. Na Central de Abastecimento de Goiás, a principal fruta nativa do cerrado comercializada é o pequi. O período de safra ocorre nos meses de setembro a fevereiro, e o fruto é proveniente de diferentes regiões dos Estados de Goiás, Minas Gerais, Tocantins e Bahia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as características físicas dos frutos de pequizeiros oriundos de cinco regiões do Estado de Goiás. Em cada região, identificaram-se três sub-populações de pequizeiros, denominadas por áreas. Em cada área, elegeram-se cinco árvores para a coleta dos frutos. Foram analisadas as características físicas: massas do fruto, da casca, do caroço, da polpa e da amêndoa; dimensões do fruto e do caroço, espessura da casca e cor da polpa. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças nas características físicas estudadas entre os frutos das diferentes regiões. A polpa fresca comestível representa 8,53% da massa dos frutos. As diferenças nas características físicas dos frutos ocorrem, principalmente, em frutos dentro de plantas, em plantas dentro de áreas e entre as regiões estudadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Frutos do cerrado; pequi; fruteira nativa.

  16. Occurrence of biflavonoids in Clusiaceae: chemical and pharmacological aspects; Ocorrencia de biflavonoides em Clusiaceae: aspectos quimicos e farmacologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafaela Oliveira [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (NPPN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisa em Produtos Naturais; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da, E-mail: mgeraldo@ufrrj.br [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares

    2012-07-01

    This work describes the biflavonoids found in species of Clusiaceae, particularly the genera Garcinia and Calophyllum, emphasizing the importance of these metabolites as chemical markers of this family, their contribution to the pharmacological potential of these species, besides the promising potential of these compounds in the search for new drugs. (author)

  17. Influences of convective and vacuum drying on the quality attributes of osmo-dried pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, Kamilla Soares; Corrêa, Jefferson L G; Junqueira, João Renato de Jesus; Cirillo, Marcelo Angelo; Figueira, Fabiano Vicente; Carvalho, Elisângela Elena Nunes

    2017-06-01

    Pequi is a fruit from Brazilian Cerrado. Despite its ascorbic acid and carotenoid contents, consumption of pequi is restricted to its region of origin. The goal of this work was to study drying of pequi slices (convective or vacuum drying at 40°C and 60°C) preceded or not preceded by osmotic pretreatment (sucrose solution concentrations of 40% and 60%). It was found that osmotic dehydration pretreatment substantially decreased the moisture content, duration of the drying process, and the volumetric ratio of the dried product. However, it also promoted leaching of bioactive constituents, such as ascorbic acid and carotenoids. Vacuum and low temperature drying without osmotic pretreatment were preferable because the ascorbic acid and carotenoids were retained, rehydration coefficients were higher and there were minimal volume and color changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pequi pulp ( Caryocar brasiliense Cambess): Drying kinetics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caryocar brasiliense Cambess) at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60°C, and the thermodynamic properties for this process. Eleven mathematical models commonly used to represent the drying process of agricultural products were fitted to ...

  19. Identification of the wood-borer and the factors affecting its attack on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the Brazilian Savanna=Identificação do broqueador de tronco e os fatores que afetam o seu ataque em árvores de Caryocar brasiliense no cerrado brasileiro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano Leão Demolin Leite

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to identify the wood-borer of the trunk of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae and the effects of tree size, chemical and physical soil attributes, and floristic diversity in its attack. The wood-boring caterpillar of the trunck of C. brasiliense belongs to the family Cossidae (Lepidoptera. The number of pupae and the amount of sawdust produced by the wood-borer per tree was higher in the pasture 1 of Montes Claros and pasture in Ibiracatu than in the other four areas (pastures and savanna in Montes Claros and savanna in Ibiracatu. The number of pupae and the amount of sawdust was highest in the trunks of trees with diameters having a breast height (DBH more than 30 cm. This may explain the severity of attack in the areas mentioned above, which contain a higher percentage of plants with DBH> 30 cm. The soil properties also positively associate with higher attack of the wood-borer on trees when the soil is rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, sum of bases, capacity of cationic exchange, and organic matter, while there was a negative correlation between attack and fine sand content. Systems with less floristic diversity, particularly trees of other species, may concentrate the attack of the wood-borer in the trunks of C. Brasiliense trees. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o broqueador do tronco de Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae e os efeitos de tamanho de árvore, atributos químico-físicos do solo e da diversidade florística em seu ataque. A lagarta broqueadora do tronco de C. brasiliense pertence à família Cossidae (Lepidoptera. O número de pupas e de serragem do broqueador por árvore foi maior na pastagem (1 em Montes Claros e pastagem em Ibiracatu do que nas outras quatro áreas (pastagens e cerrado em Montes Claros e cerrado em Ibiracatu. O número de pupas e da quantidade de serragem do broqueador foi maior em árvores cujo diâmetro de tronco na altura do peito (DAB foi

  20. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activity of Brazilian plant extracts - Clusiaceae

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    Ivana B Suffredini

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Twelve extracts obtained from nine plants belonging to six different genera of Clusiaceae were analyzed against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis bacteria using the microdilution broth assay. Tovomita aff. longifolia, T. brasiliensis, Clusia columnaris, Garcinia madruno, Haploclathra paniculata, and Caraipa grandifolia extracts showed significant results against the bacteria. The organic extract obtained from the leaves of T. aff. longifolia showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC = 70 µg/ml and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC = 90 µg/ml against E. faecalis and the organic extract made with the stem of C. columnaris showed MIC = 180 µg/ml and MBC = 270 µg/ml against P. aeruginosa. None of the antibacterial extracts showed lethal activity against brine shrimp nauplii. On the other hand, both aqueous and organic extracts obtained from the aerial organs of Vismia guianensis that were cytotoxic to brine shrimp nauplii did not show a significant antibacterial activity in the assay.

  1. Architectural diversity and galling insects on Caryocar brasiliense trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Veloso, Ronnie Von Dos Santos; Zanuncio, José Cola; Azevedo, Alcinei Mistico; Silva, Júlia Letícia; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga

    2017-11-30

    Galling insects are a highly sophisticated herbivore group on Caryocar brasiliense, a tree that represents the main income source for many communities. The effect of architectural diversity of C. brasiliense trees on galling insect community diversity and abundance was studied. The abundance of adult insects and galled leaves were seven and 1.6 times higher in trees with a greater height/width of canopy (RHW) ratio, respectively. Gall parasitoid richness was 1.8 times greater on trees with higher RHW. Zelus armillatus (Lepeletier & Serville) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and ant numbers were 5.8 and 2.7 higher on trees with the largest and smallest RHW, respectively. More complex plant architectures favored species diversity for galling insects and their natural enemies. The competition among four galling insect species for space and feeding and the evidence of "prudence strategy" were, for the first time, observed for galling insects in the Brazilian Cerrado biome.

  2. A New Xeromorphic Species of Clusia (Clusiaceae) from Dry Valleys of Northern Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Clusia magnoliiflora M. H. G. Gust. is described as new for the Clusiaceae. It grows in dry scrub in the river valleys of the Marañón and its tributaries in northern Peru, a kind of habitat that harbors very few Clusia species. The species is distinct on account of its extremely thick, obovate...

  3. Produção de frutos e entomofauna associada ao pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense CAMB.) no cerrado do estado de Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    FERREIRA, Gislene Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    O Cerrado brasileiro é rico em biodiveridade e possui elevado número de espécies frutíferas com potencial de utilização para consumo humano, o pequizeiro é uma espécie nativa do Cerrado com importância econômica e cultural para o Brasil Central, necessitando, no entanto, de técnicas que viabilizem a implantação de pomares, sua condução e a colheita de frutos, visando reduzir a pressão sobre o ambiente natural, assim como a manutenção da cultura regional. O presente trabalho propõe caracteriza...

  4. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.

  5. Enzymatic technology to improve oil extraction from Caryocar brasiliense camb. (Pequi Pulp. Tecnologia enzimática para melhorar a extração do óleo da polpa de Caryocar brasiliense (pequi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes de Brito Mariano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare yield and quality of pequi pulp oil when applying two distinct processes: in the first, pulp drying in a tray dryer at 60ºC was combined with enzymatic treatment and pressing to oil extraction; in the second, a simple process was carried out by combining sun-drying pulp and pressing. In this study, raw pequi fruits were collected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The fruits were autoclaved at 121ºC and stored under refrigeration. An enzymatic extract with pectinase and CMCase activities was used for hydrolysis of pequi pulp, prior to oil extraction. The oil extractions were carried out by hydraulic pressing, with or without enzymatic incubation. The oil content in the pequi pulp (45% w/w and the physicochemical characteristic of the oil was determined according to standard analytical methods. Free fatty acids, peroxide values, iodine and saponification indices were respectively 1.46 mgKOH/g, 2.98 meq/kg, 49.13 and 189.40. The acidity and peroxide values were lower than the obtained values in commercial oil samples, respectively 2.48 mgKOH/g and 5.22 meq/kg. Aqueous extraction has presented lower efficiency and higher oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. On the other hand, pequi pulp pressing at room temperature has produced better quality oil. However its efficiency is still smaller than the combined enzymatic treatment and pressing process. This combined process promotes cellular wall hydrolysis and pulp viscosity reduction, contributing to at least 20% of oil yield increase by pressing.O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar o rendimento e a qualidade do óleo da polpa de pequi obtido por dois processos distintos: no primeiro, a secagem da polpa, conduzida em secador de bandeja a 60ºC, foi combinada com tratamento enzimático e prensagem para extração de óleo, no segundo, um processo mai simples foi realizado combinando-se a secagem da polpa ao sol seguida da prensagem a frio. Neste estudo, frutos de pequi in natura foram coletados no estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil. Os frutos foram auto-clavados a 121º C e armazenados sob refrigeração. Um extrato enzimático com atividades pectinase e CMCase foi utilizado para a hidrólise da polpa de pequi antes da extração do óleo. O processo de extração foi realizado por prensagem hidráulica, com ou sem incubação enzimática. O teor de óleo na polpa do pequi (45% w/w e as características físico-químicas do óleo foram determinados de acordo com métodos analíticos oficiais. O teor de ácidos graxos livres, os índices de peróxido, de iodo e de saponificação foram respectivamente de 1,46 mgKOH/g, 2,98 meq/kg, 49,13 e 189,40. A acidez e os valores de peróxido foram inferiores aos valores obtidos em amostras comerciais de óleo vegetal, respectivamente, 2,48 mgKOH/g, 5,22 meq/kg. A extração aquosa apresentou menor eficiência e promoveu uma maior oxidação dos ácidos graxos insaturados. Por outro lado, a polpa de pequi prensada, após secagem ao sol, produziu um óleo de melhor qualidade. No entanto, sua eficiência ainda é menor do que no processo combinado onde se aplicou o tratamento aquoso enzimático seguido da prensagem. O processo combinado promove a hidrólise da parede celular e a redução da viscosidade da polpa, contribuindo com pelo menos 20% de aumento na produtividade da etapa de extração do óleo por prensagem.

  6. Chemically Aware Model Builder (camb): an R package for property and bioactivity modelling of small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrell, Daniel S; Cortes-Ciriano, Isidro; van Westen, Gerard J P; Stott, Ian P; Bender, Andreas; Malliavin, Thérèse E; Glen, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    In silico predictive models have proved to be valuable for the optimisation of compound potency, selectivity and safety profiles in the drug discovery process. camb is an R package that provides an environment for the rapid generation of quantitative Structure-Property and Structure-Activity models for small molecules (including QSAR, QSPR, QSAM, PCM) and is aimed at both advanced and beginner R users. camb's capabilities include the standardisation of chemical structure representation, computation of 905 one-dimensional and 14 fingerprint type descriptors for small molecules, 8 types of amino acid descriptors, 13 whole protein sequence descriptors, filtering methods for feature selection, generation of predictive models (using an interface to the R package caret), as well as techniques to create model ensembles using techniques from the R package caretEnsemble). Results can be visualised through high-quality, customisable plots (R package ggplot2). Overall, camb constitutes an open-source framework to perform the following steps: (1) compound standardisation, (2) molecular and protein descriptor calculation, (3) descriptor pre-processing and model training, visualisation and validation, and (4) bioactivity/property prediction for new molecules. camb aims to speed model generation, in order to provide reproducibility and tests of robustness. QSPR and proteochemometric case studies are included which demonstrate camb's application.Graphical abstractFrom compounds and data to models: a complete model building workflow in one package.

  7. The Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) III: Comparision with CAMB for LambdaCDM

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2011-01-01

    By confronting the two independent Boltzmann codes CLASS and CAMB, we establish that for concordance cosmology and for a given recombination history, lensed CMB and matter power spectra can be computed by current codes with an accuracy of 0.01%. We list a few tiny changes in CAMB which are necessary in order to reach such a level. Using the common limit of the two codes as a set of reference spectra, we derive precision settings corresponding to fixed levels of error in the computation of a CMB likelihood. We find that for a given precision level, CLASS is about 2.5 times faster than CAMB for computing the lensed CMB spectra of a LambdaCDM model. The nature of the main improvements in CLASS (which may each contribute to these performances) is discussed in companion papers.

  8. Caracterização física de frutos e putâmens e taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. a pequizeiros (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. no norte de Minas Gerais Physical characterization of fruits and putamens and attack rate by Carmenta sp. to pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. in the northern of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Rodrigues da Luz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O pequizeiro é uma espécie nativa do cerrado brasileiro, cujos frutos, explorados de forma extrativista, têm grande importância econômica. O extenso período de oferta dos frutos do pequi, aliado à heterogeneidade das regiões produtoras levam a crer na existência de diferenças entre as suas características físicas. Dessa forma, este trabalho objetivou comparar as características físicas de frutos de pequizeiro coletados em três municípios do norte de Minas Gerais e verificar se a taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. está diretamente relacionada com as características biométricas. Assim, foram marcados 10 indivíduos e coletados 20 frutos de cada árvore, em Montes Claros, Mirabela e Japonvar, totalizando 200 frutos por área. Foram determinados as variáveis físicas dos frutos e dos putâmens, o número de frutilhos, de putâmens e de sementes e a porcentagem de frutos e de putâmens intactos e danificados. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças nas características físicas entre as localidades, possuindo a região de Japonvar os putâmens mais vigorosos e com menor taxa de ataque pela broca-do-pequizeiro. Além disso, a porcentagem de ataque por Carmenta sp. relacionou-se com a espessura da casca e o comprimento dos frutos nas localidades de Japonvar e Mirabela, respectivamente. As diferenças encontradas entre as localidades podem estar associadas às influências climáticas e edáficas das regiões, que podem ressaltar certos aspectos de sua composição genética.The pequi tree is a native species of brazilian savanah, which fruits are explored in an extractivist form, having a huge economic importance. The long periods of availability of the fruits, together with the heterogeneity of the productive regions, leads to an inference of the existence of differences among their physical characteristics. Thus, this study aimed to compare the physical characteristics of pequi tree fruit collected in three municipalities in the north of Minas Gerais state, and to verify if the attack by insects is directly related to it's biometrical characteristics. We sampled 10 individuals and collected 20 fruits from each tree, in Montes Claros, Mirabela and Japonvar, municipalities, totalling 200 fruits per area. The physical variables of the fruits and pits, the number of little fruits (frutilhos, pits and seeds, and the percentage of intact and damaged fruits and pits were determined. The results indicated that there are physical differences among the collected areas, with the region of Japonvar having the most vigorous pits, with the lowest rates of attack by the pequi fruit borer. In addition, skin thickness and length of fruits from Japonvar and Mirabela, respectively, had relations with the percentage of attack by Carmenta sp. These differences found among the areas may be associated with the climatic and edaphic influences of these regions, which may also highlight the linkage to the genetical composition aspects of the pequi.

  9. Espécies novas de Myrcia DC. e Marlierea Cambes. (Myrtaceae New species of Myrcia DC. and Marlierea Cambes. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Maciel Barroso

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata de espécies novas de Myrcia DC. e Marlierea Cambes., dois gêneros de Myrtaceae da sub tribo Myrciinae, da Reserva Florestal de Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Na área são conhecidas 18 espécies de Myrcia, 5 das quais são agora descritas. O gênero Marlierea está representado por 12 espécies, uma das quais é descrita como nova. Os novos taxa são ilustrados, e feitos comentários sobre relacionamento entre espécies afins.This paper deals with new species of Myrcia DC. and Marlierea Cambes., two genera of Myrtaceae subtribus Myrciinae, from the Reserva Florestal of Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil. From this area, 18 species of Myrcia are known, 5 of which are new to science and described here. Marlierea is not as rich in species as Myrcia but it is represented by 12 species, one here described as new. The new species are illustrated and some remarks are made about their relationships.

  10. Estudo microscópico da madeira de sete-capotes, campomanesia guazumaefolia (camb. Berg., Myrtaceae Microscopic study of the wood of Campomanesia guazumaefolia (Camb. Berg., Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres microcópicos da madeira de Campomanesia guazumaefolia (Camb. Berg. Dados quantitativos são apresentados e fornecidas fotomicrografias de sua estrutura anatômica. Foram observados poros de diâmetro muito pequeno, com placas de perfuração simples, pontoações ornamentadas e delgados espessamentos espiralados na parede. Destacam-se ainda o parênquima apotraqueal, raios heterogêneos, fibras com pontoações areoladas e a ausência de traqueídeos vasicêntricos.The wood anatomy of Campomanesia guazumaefolia (Camb. Berg is described in this paper. Quantitative data and photomicrographs of its structure are furnished. Very small pores, simple perforation plates, vestured pits and spiral thickenings on the vessel walls, were observed. The presence of apotracheal parenchyma, heterogeneous rays and bordered pits on fiber walls are also important features of the wood studied, as well as the absence of vasicentric tracheids.

  11. Sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves of Hedyosmum brasiliense (Chloranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Solomon K S; de Oliveira, Fabio L; da Cruz, Ana Caroline H; de Souza, Nicole M; Campos, Francinete R; Barison, Andersson; Biavatti, Maique W

    2013-03-01

    Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq. is an endemic aromatic arborescent shrub that is the only representative of the Chloranthaceae in Brazil. There have been few studies seeking to determine its chemical constituents and/or pharmacological effects. This work describes the isolation and identification of sesquiterpene lactones from the leaves, including guaianolides, elemanolides and a lindenanolide. These were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, together with podoandin, onoseriolide and some other common phenolics. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined based on extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and MS data, as well as comparison with published data. The compounds found were the guaianolides, 1,2-epoxy-10α-hydroxy-podoandin and 1-hydroxy-10,15-methylenepodoandin, the elemenolide 15-acetoxy-isogermafurenolide and the lindenanolide 8α/β,9α-hydroxy-onoseriolide, along with the previously isolated guaianolide podoandin, the lindenanolide onoseriolide and the elemenolide 15-hydroxy-isogermafurenolide. The phenolic compounds isolated were scopoletin, vanillin, vanillic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde and ethyl caffeate. The isolated sesquiterpene lactones did not show anti-mycobacterial activity against isoniazid-sensitive M. tuberculosis cultures at concentrations of 1-30 μM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Processamento e estudo da estabilidade de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Processing and stability study of pequi paste (Caryocar brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroldo Arévalo-Pinedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa teve como objetivo desenvolver um processo de obtenção de pasta de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense para uso culinário e avaliar a sua estabilidade quando acondicionada em embalagens de plástico e de vidro durante 180 dias de armazenamento. O processamento da pasta envolveu: descascamento, retirada da polpa em forma de lascas, obtenção da pasta em liquidificador, acidificação do produto com ácido cítrico até um pH The aim of this paper was to develop a process to obtain a salted and unsalted pequi paste for culinary use and to evaluate its stability when packed in plastic or in glass jars during 180 days of storage. The process included peeling of pequi fruit, pulp cutting, obtain the paste with the use of a blender, acidification of the product with citric acid at a pH < 4,5, addition 10% of NaCl (to avoid the development of deteriorating microorganisms and enzymatic darkening, thermal treatment at 80 ºC during 10 minutes, and hot filling in plastic and glass jars. The final product was submitted to microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the pH values and acidity and color evaluation. The results showed what the acidification with citric acid and hot filling process was effective to establish commercial sterility to the pequi paste in glass jars during a four-month period. The paste was more stable when packed in glass jars than in plastic jars with respect to microbiological and physicochemical analysis and color degradation during the four-month period.

  13. Antioxidant properties of xanthones from Calophyllum brasiliense: prevention of oxidative damage induced by FeSO4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanco-Ayala, Tonali; Lugo-Huitrón, Rafael; Serrano-López, Elizabeth M; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Rangel-López, Edgar; Pineda, Benjamín; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Sánchez-Chapul, Laura; Pinzón, Enrique; Cristina, Trejo-Solis; Silva-Adaya, Daniela; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Ríos, Camilo; de la Cruz, Verónica Pérez; Torres-Ramos, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    ... and stimulate endogenous cytoprotective systems. The present study tested the protective effect of two xanthones isolated from the heartwood of Calophyllum brasilienses against FeSO4 -induced toxicity. Methods...

  14. Fruit ontogeny of Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae Ontogênese do fruto de Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana Zappi (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eglaé Camargo Asinelli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae is a small to medium-sized tree that usually occurs on the floodplains of the Paraná River and it is an important food source for the local inhabitants. The fruit itself is consumed in natura, and juices and sweets are made from it. The purpose of this study was to describe morphological and structural aspects of fruits and seeds of this species in order to classify the fruit type and the pulpy layer which involves the seeds. The material analyzed consisted of ovary and fruits in different stages of development, collected from five plants from Aurélio Island, Baía River (MS, BR and the description was done according to standard procedures in anatomy. The fruit is a yellowish-orange spherical berry ("bacóide" type. The smooth, coriaceous skin consists of the lignified exocarp. The endocarp cell layers are derived from the activity of an adaxial meristem that undergoes radial elongation. The edible sweet white pulp is formed by the endocarp, as well as the spongy mesocarp, in which the secretory ducts lose their function. The unitegmic anatropous ovules develop into anatropous exalbuminous seeds with a collapsed and undifferentiated testa. The embryo is hypocotylar. The features here described generally occur in Clusioideae-Garcinieae and Symphonieae.Garcinia gardneriana (Clusiaceae é árvore de pequeno a médio porte frequente na Planície de Inundação do Alto Rio Paraná e de importância na alimentação das populações ribeirinhas, sendo consumida in natura e na forma de sucos e doces. O objetivo do presente estudo foi descrever aspectos morfológicos e estruturais dos frutos e sementes dessa espécie como contribuição à classificação do tipo de fruto e da porção carnosa e comestível que envolve as sementes. Ovários e frutos, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento foram coletados de cinco espécimes de uma população localizada na ilha do Aurélio, rio Baía (MS, BR e processados segundo t

  15. The sacred construction: healers and religious practices in Cambé/Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina Maceda Rubert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to comprehend the intrinsic relations of multiple memories present in the disposition of religious images of faith healer ladies in the city of Cambé. Through the dialogue with the oral source and the image source, we seek to relate the historic aspects to the particularities present in the studied cases. We reflected in this research on the concepts of identity, memory and healing present in these relations of exchange between the supernatural and the terrestrial, paying attention to the meaning of the plurality of images present in this space through the image analysis and the narratives and histories of ex-votes described in the faith healers testimony. The research discussed the religious reminiscences based on memories, identities and family heritages of the devotees, relating their particular and private lives with the processes of the Brazilian cultural and religious formation.

  16. Sesquiterpene lactones from Hedyosmum brasiliense induce in vitro relaxation of rat aorta and corpus cavernosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Leitolis

    Full Text Available Abstract Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, has been used in Southern Brazil as a sedative, anti-inflammatory, and aphrodisiac. In this study, endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings and strips of corpus cavernosum were used to investigate the relaxant effects of an hexane fraction of leaves of H. brasiliense and its sesquiterpene lactones 13-hydroxy-8,9-dehydroshizukanolide, podoandin, and elemanolide 15-acetoxy-isogermafurenolide. The incubation of hexane fraction of leaves of H. brasiliense resulted in significant relaxation of endothelium-intact aortic rings previously contracted by phenylephrine. In addition, 13-hydroxy-8,9-dehydroshizukanolide and podoandin displayed a clear concentration-dependent ability to relax endothelium-intact (∼85 to 90% and endothelium-denuded (∼45 to 55% rat aortic rings. A less pronounced vascular relaxation was recorded when 15-hydroxy-isogermafurenolide was tested. Interestingly, in tissues previously incubated with the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME (100 µM, both 13-hydroxy-8,9-dehydroshizukanolide and podoandin had their effects in endothelium-intact vessels reduced to the same degree of relaxation observed in endothelium-denuded aortic rings. Podoandin, 13-hydroxy-8,9-dehydroshizukanolide, and 15-acetoxy-isogermafurenolide (100 µM were also able to relax precontracted corpus cavernosum strips by 49.5 ± 3.9%, 65.9 ± 7.3% and 57.9 ± 5.5%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that 13-hydroxy-8,9-dehydroshizukanolide, podoandin and 15-acetoxy-isogermafurenolide, isolated from H. brasiliense, generate both endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation of rat aortic rings, as well as being able to induce in vitro relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum. Importantly, the endothelium-dependent effect is fully dependent on nitric oxide production. Considering that penile erection depends on both relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle and inflow of blood for the

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Kirchner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus. In addition, six fungal species (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were included. Among the determined constituents, α-terpineol (10.2%, curzerene (8.9%, pinocarvone (8.4% and β-thujene (7.1% were found as the main components. The essential oil has only low activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, is remarkable active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 2.5% (v/v.Óleo essencial de Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae: composição e atividade antimicrobiana. Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq. Chloranthaceae, é uma espécie endêmica no Brasil, conhecida como "cidrão". Embora H. brasiliense seja utilizada como calmante na medicina popular, não foi ainda caracterizada quanto aos constituintes químicos. Este trabalho apresenta a composição do óleo essencial, obtido pela destilação de folhas frescas e de amostra de óleo essencial armazenada por três meses, analisadas por GC-FID e CG-MS. Os efeitos inibitórios do óleo essencial foram testados pelo método da diluição em agar, contra seis espécies de bactérias (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e S. saprophyticus. Adicionalmente, seis espécies de fungos (Candida albicans

  18. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the Hypericum brasiliense (Guttiferae extract in mammalian cell system in vivo

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    Anderson Victorino Espósito

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Hypericum, long used in folk medicine, contain active compounds which present, anti-septic, diuretic, digestive, expectorant, vermifugal, anti-depressive and other properties. The possible clastogenic effect of a H. brasiliense extract was tested in vivo on the bone marrow cells of Wistar rats. The extract was administered by gavage at doses of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Experimental and control animals were submitted to euthanasia 24 h after the treatment for micronucleus (MN and chromosome preparations. H. brasiliense extract did not induce statistically significant increases in the average numbers of MN or chromosome aberrations in the test systems employed.

  19. Pichia garciniae sp. nov., isolated from a rotten mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Bhaskar; Begum, Zareena; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2008-11-01

    Ascogenous yeasts were isolated from a decaying mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae). Based on colony morphology and RAPD analysis, the strains were grouped into four groups (G-I, G-II, G-III and G-IV). Phenotypic properties and analysis of the D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene identified representative members of groups G-II, G-III and G-IV as Pichia manshurica (=Pichia galeiformis), Pichia fermentans and Pichia anomala, respectively. Representatives of group G-I, YS110(T) and YS111, showed similar phenotypic traits, 99.9 % similarity in the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 sequence and 92 % DNA-DNA relatedness. Hence, YS110(T) and YS111 are regarded as members of the same species. Based on D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of YS110(T) and YS111 were identified as Pichia membranifaciens and P. manshurica. However, YS110(T) differs from these two nearest phylogenetic neighbours by >3 % in the D1/D2 domain sequence and by >18 % with respect to the ITS region sequence. In addition, YS110(T) and YS111 differ from P. membranifaciens NRRL Y-2026(T) and P. manshurica NRRL Y-27978(T) with respect to a number of phenotypic traits. The strains show 52-57 % DNA-DNA relatedness with P. membranifaciens NRRL Y-2026(T) and P. manshurica NRRL Y-27978(T). Strains YS110(T) and YS111 are proposed as two strains of a novel species, for which the name Pichia garciniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YS110(T) (=NRRL Y-48422(T) =CBS 10758(T)).

  20. Morphology of the first larval stage of Macrobrachium brasiliense (Heller, 1868 (Caridea: Palaemonidae

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    João Alberto Farinelli Pantaleão

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe and illustrate the morphology of the first larval stage of the prawn Macrobrachium brasiliense. Two ovigerous females were obtained in a stream environment, which belongs to Paraná River Basin, Southeastern of Brazil, and were maintained in laboratory until the time of hatching. The newly-hatched larva bears very advance morphological features, with benthic habits. They had sessile eyes and all appendages, except for the uropods; however, most of the appendages were not fully formed. The description given here is compared with the first larval stage of Macrobrachium species with abbreviated larval development from other localities.

  1. Caracterização física de frutos e putâmens e taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. a pequizeiros (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. no norte de Minas Gerais

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    Giovana Rodrigues da Luz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O pequizeiro é uma espécie nativa do cerrado brasileiro, cujos frutos, explorados de forma extrativista, têm grande importância econômica. O extenso período de oferta dos frutos do pequi, aliado à heterogeneidade das regiões produtoras levam a crer na existência de diferenças entre as suas características físicas. Dessa forma, este trabalho objetivou comparar as características físicas de frutos de pequizeiro coletados em três municípios do norte de Minas Gerais e verificar se a taxa de ataque por Carmenta sp. está diretamente relacionada com as características biométricas. Assim, foram marcados 10 indivíduos e coletados 20 frutos de cada árvore, em Montes Claros, Mirabela e Japonvar, totalizando 200 frutos por área. Foram determinados as variáveis físicas dos frutos e dos putâmens, o número de frutilhos, de putâmens e de sementes e a porcentagem de frutos e de putâmens intactos e danificados. Os resultados indicaram que há diferenças nas características físicas entre as localidades, possuindo a região de Japonvar os putâmens mais vigorosos e com menor taxa de ataque pela broca-do-pequizeiro. Além disso, a porcentagem de ataque por Carmenta sp. relacionou-se com a espessura da casca e o comprimento dos frutos nas localidades de Japonvar e Mirabela, respectivamente. As diferenças encontradas entre as localidades podem estar associadas às influências climáticas e edáficas das regiões, que podem ressaltar certos aspectos de sua composição genética.

  2. Factors associated with intestinal parasites in schoolchildren of municipal schools in Cambé

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    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren in the municipality of Cambé, Paraná. A total of 1996 stool samples were collected between 2006 and 2009, using the methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer, Faust and collaborators and the Kato-Katz. The prevalence was 23.2%. The parasites found were Entamoeba coli (10.4%; Endolimax nana (9.6%, Giardia lamblia (6.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (1.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.3%, Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis nana and hookworm infection (0.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma mansoni (0.1%. We found no statistically significant gender differences. The age, family income, mother's education level, consumption of untreated water, absence of sewage collection and contact with freshwater streams were associated with the presence of intestinal parasites. Although the highest prevalence of protozoa is commensal this is worrying as it indicates that the fecal-oral transmission is present in this population and may increase the transmission of pathogenic forms, since they share the same transmission routes. The identified cases of schistosomiasis were not autochthonous, but early diagnosis of this infection was important to avoid contamination of the environment.

  3. Conservation of Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg seeds in different packaging and at varied temperatures

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. The seeds were packaged in glass, aluminum foil and plastic containers, or maintained inside intact fruits at 5, 10 and 15 ºC during 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. After these periods the seeds were sown in Germitest® germination paper and maintained in incubation chambers at 25 ºC under constant white light for 42 days. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment. C. adamantium seeds showed initial water contents of 31.5%. Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. C. adamantium seeds can be stored for up to 21 days at temperatures between 5 and 15 ºC without altering their physiological quality. In terms of cost-benefit efficiencies, these seeds can be stored without significant damage for 21 days while still inside the fruits at temperatures of 5, 10 or 15 ºC.

  4. Influence of the extraction method and storage time on the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oil Influência do método de extração e do tempo de armazenamento sobre as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenóides do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.

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    Milton Cosme Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels of pequi oil obtained by different extraction methods and to evaluate the preservation of these properties and pigments during storage time. The pequi oil was obtained by solvent extraction, mechanical extraction, and hot water flotation. It was stored for over 180 days in an amber bottle at ambient conditions. Analyses for the determination of the acidity, peroxide, saponification and iodine values, coloration, total carotenoids, and β-carotene levels were conducted. The oil extraction with solvents produced the best yield and carotenoid levels. The oil obtained by mechanical extraction presented higher acidity (5.44 mg KOH.g-1 and peroxide values (1.07 mEq.kg-1. During the storage of pequi oil, there was an increase in the acidity and the peroxide values, darkening of the oil coloration, and a reduction of the carotenoid levels. Mechanical extraction is the less advantageous method for the conservation of the physicochemical properties and carotenoid levels in pequi oil.Este estudo objetivou analisar as propriedades físico-químicas e o teor de carotenoides totais do óleo de pequi (OP obtido por diferentes métodos de extração, bem como avaliar a conservação dessas propriedades e dos pigmentos durante o armazenamento. O OP foi obtido por extração com solventes, extração mecânica e flotação com água quente, e armazenado por 180 dias em frascos âmbar sob condições ambientes. Foram realizadas análises para determinação dos índices de acidez, peróxido, saponificação e iodo, da coloração e do teor de carotenoides totais e de β-carotenos. Verificou-se que a extração com solventes promoveu um maior rendimento em óleo e o maior valor de carotenoides totais. A extração mecânica resultou em um óleo com acidez (5,44 mg KOH.g-1 e índice de peróxido (1,07 mEq.kg-1 elevados. Ao longo do armazenamento do OP, houve aumento da acidez e do índice de peróxido, escurecimento do óleo e redução do teor de carotenoides. A extração mecânica foi o método menos vantajoso para a conservação das propriedades físico-químicas e do teor de carotenoides no óleo de pequi.

  5. Differential effects of land use on ant and herbivore insect communities associated with Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae

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    Frederico S. Neves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Simplification of natural habitats leads to a modification of the community associated with a host plant. Pequi trees (Caryocar brasiliense are common to find in central Brazil, especially in the middle of monocultures, such as soy, corn, pasturelands or Eucalyptus plantations. On this scenario we hypothesized that habitat modification differentially affects the diversity of ants and herbivore insects associated with this species. The aim of the work was to test if C. brasiliense trees located in human modified habitats, support a lower species richness and abundance of ants, and a greater species richness and abundance of insect herbivores, compared to preserved cerrado habitats. The study was conducted in a Cerrado area located in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ants and herbivore insects were collected monthly during 2005 using beating technique. The results showed that ant species richness was higher in pequi trees located in preserved Cerrado, followed by trees in pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation, respectively. The ant abundance was lower in the Eucalyptus plantation but no difference in ant abundance was observed between trees in pastureland and the preserved Cerrado. Moreover, herbivore insects exhibited lower number of species and individuals in trees located in the preserved Cerrado than in the pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation. We concluded that habitats simplified by human activities may result in diversity loss and may change species interactions.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, essential oil

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    Karoline Kirchner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hedyosmum brasiliense Miq., Chloranthaceae, is an endemic species of Brazil, locally known as "cidrão". Although H. brasiliense is popularly used as sedative, chemical constituents of this species remains uncharacterized. This work presents the essential oil composition, obtained by distillation of the fresh leaves and from a stored sample for three months, analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The inhibitory effects of essential oil were tested by the agar dilution method against six bacterial species (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus. In addition, six fungal species (Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes were included. Among the determined constituents, α-terpineol (10.2%, curzerene (8.9%, pinocarvone (8.4% and β-thujene (7.1% were found as the main components. The essential oil has only low activity against Gram-negative microorganisms. However, is remarkable active against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi with MIC values ranging from 0.125 to 2.5% (v/v.

  7. Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed

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    Rainiomar Raimundo da Fonseca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Four extracts from the marine red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville M.A.Howe & W.R.Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. and Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby. The four extracts were prepared in a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol/water (7:3. The germination bioassay was carried out at 25 °C with a 12 h photoperiod and the radicle elongation and hypocotyl development at 25 °C with a 24 h photoperiod. The dichloromethane extract showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of both plants (35 and 14%, respectively, in M. pudica and S. obtusifolia, radical germination (52 and 41.7%, respectively and hypocotyl development (17.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae. Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. brasiliense emerges as a possible source of allelopathic substances against weed species. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

  8. Allelopathic potential of extracts the from marine macroalga Plocamium brasiliense and their effects on pasture weed

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    Rainiomar Raimundo da Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Four extracts from the marine red alga Plocamium brasiliense (Greville M.A.Howe & W.R.Taylor were prepared to identify and characterize their potential allelopathic effects on seed germination, radicle elongation and hypocotyl development of the weeds Mimosa pudica L. and Senna obtusifolia (L. Irwin & Barneby. The four extracts were prepared in a sequence of solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol/water (7:3. The germination bioassay was carried out at 25 °C with a 12 h photoperiod and the radicle elongation and hypocotyl development at 25 °C with a 24 h photoperiod. The dichloromethane extract showed inhibitory effects on seed germination of both plants (35 and 14%, respectively, in M. pudica and S. obtusifolia, radical germination (52 and 41.7%, respectively and hypocotyl development (17.1 and 25.5%, respectively. Given the high sensitivity of this parameter to the potential allelopathic effects and the insufficient number of references found in the literature, these results are expected to stimulate new tests with other species of marine algae. Given the high sensitivity of the method for the detection of allelopathic potential, the species P. brasiliense emerges as a possible source of allelopathic substances against weed species. The results are attributed to the chemical composition, especially in relation to the presence of halogenated monoterpenes.

  9. Estudo farmacobotânico das folhas de Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae

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    F.V. Santa-Cecília

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. (Clusiaceae, nativa da região Amazônica e cultivada em todo o território brasileiro, vem sendo bastante estudada devido seu potencial farmacológico, porém são escassos estudos que tratam da caracterização farmacobotânica desta espécie. Considerando as propriedades terapêuticas para tornar-se um medicamento fitoterápico, o presente trabalho teve como objetivos estudar a anatomia e histoquímica da folha e do pecíolo e elaborar dados macroscópicos e microscópicos que forneçam características marcantes para sua identificação além de dar subsídios para a análise farmacognóstica no controle de qualidade da droga vegetal. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e a testes histoquímicos. As folhas de G. brasiliensis são opostas, simples, descolores, forma elíptica com nervação peninérvia. As células epidérmicas, em vista frontal, apresentam contorno sinuoso e estômatos paracíticos somente na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral, a nervura central apresenta contorno biconvexo e feixe vascular em forma de semi-arco fechado envolto por bainha esclerenquimática. Inclusões inorgânicas de cristais na forma de drusas e orgânicas representadas por compostos fenólicos e grãos de amidos estão dispersos ao longo de toda lâmina foliar e pecíolo. Observa-se com frequência a presença de canais secretores preenchidos por um conteúdo lipídico dispersos pelo parênquima fundamental e próximos aos feixes vasculares. Estes dados fornecem subsídios para o controle de qualidade da matéria-prima utilizada para a produção de fitoterápicos.

  10. Effects of water-soluble humic extract and biofertilizer on development of Callophyllum brasiliense seedlings

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    Jader Galba Busato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble humic extract (EHSA, Hortbio® biofertilizer (HORT and both compounds combination (EHSA+HORT on vegetative growth, nutrient absorption and chlorophyll levels in guanandi (Callophyllum brasiliense seedlings. Isolated and combined additions of EHSA and HORT did not affect seedlings height, number of leaves, leaf and root dry matter and leaf area during early stages of seedling growth. However, HORT and EHSA+HORT treatments increased chlorophyll levels and total N content. Addition of HORT resulted in S, Zn, Mg, Mn and Cu increases in the seedlings leaves, while ESHA application increased K, Mg, S and B. P and Ca levels were not altered by the treatments, however, addition of EHSA and EHSA+HORT reduced significantly the absorption of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn.

  11. Draft genome of a South African strain of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense

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    Khayalethu Ntushelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The draft genome of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb which causes blackleg of potato was submitted to the NCBI and released with reference number NZ_LGRF00000000.1. The estimated genome size based on the draft genome assembly is 4,820,279 bp from 33 contigs ranging in length from 444 to 1,660,019 nucleotides. The genome annotation showed 4250 putative genes, 4114 CDS and 43 pseudo-genes. Three complete rRNA gene species were detected: nine 5S, one 16S and one 23S. Other partial rRNA gene fragments were also identified, nine 16S rRNA and three 23S rRNA. A total of 69 tRNA genes and one ncRNA gene were also annotated in this genome.

  12. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de Hypericum brasiliense Choisy

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    E.S. Carvalho

    Full Text Available Hypericum brasiliense Choisy, planta da família Guttiferae, ocorre principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Em trabalhos anteriores foram isolados e identificados nesta espécie, dentre outras classes de compostos, xantonas, floroglucinóis e flavonóides. Apesar da presença de óleos essenciais ser uma característica do gênero, ainda não há registros na literatura da composição química do óleo essencial desta espécie. Neste trabalho foi realizado o estudo químico da fração volátil de H. brasiliense visando identificar e quantificar as substâncias químicas presentes através da cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas equipado com banco de dados.

  13. Growth, morphology, ammonium uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess. under high NH₄⁺ concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunkaew, Piyanart; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    2011-11-01

    The effects of high NH(4)(+) concentration on growth, morphology, NH(4) (+) uptake and nutrient allocation of Myriophyllum brasiliense were investigated in hydroponic culture. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions for 4 weeks using four levels of NH(4)(+) concentration: 1, 5, 10 and 15 mM. M. brasiliense grew well with a relative growth rate of c.0.03 day(-1) at NH(4)(+) concentration up to 5 mM. At the higher NH(4)(+) concentrations the growth of the plants was stunted and the plants had short roots and few new buds, especially when grown in 15 mM NH(4)(+) where the submerged leaves were lost and there were rotten roots and submerged stems. To avoid NH(4)(+) toxicity, the plants may have a mechanism to prevent cytoplasmic NH(4)(+) accumulation in plant cells. The net uptake of NH(4)(+) significantly decreased and the total N significantly increased in the plants treated with 10 and 15 mM NH(4)(+), respectively. The plant may employ NH(4)(+) assimilation and extrusion as a mechanism to compensate for the high NH(4)(+) concentrations. However, the plants may show nutrient deficiency symptoms, especially K deficiency symptoms, after they were exposed to NH(4)(+) concentration higher than 10 mM. The present study provides a basic ecophysiology of M. brasiliense that it can grow in NH(4)(+) enriched water up to concentrations as high as 5 mM.

  14. Application and Analysis of the Folin Ciocalteu Method for the Determination of the Total Phenolic Content from Limonium Brasiliense L.

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    João Carlos Palazzo de Mello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Limonium brasiliense is a common plant on the southern coast of Brazil. The roots are traditionally used for treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disturbances and genito-urinary infections. Pharmaceutical preparations obtained from its roots and used for these purposes were marketed in Brazil in the 1980s and 1990s. Currently, the Brazilian Drug Agency (National Health Surveillance Agency, ANVISA has canceled the registration of these products, and their use was discontinued because of a lack of studies to characterize the plant raw material and ensure the effectiveness and safety of its use. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in an extract from L. brasiliense roots, by the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. L. brasiliense roots were extracted in acetone:water (7:3, v/v-10% w/v. The crude extract was used to develop a method for TP assay. The method was validated according to national and international guidelines. The optimum conditions for analysis time, wavelength, and standard substance were 30 min, 760 nm, and pyrogallol, respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved the method to be linear, specific, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform. This methodology complies with the requirements for analytical application and to ensure the reliability of the results.

  15. Effects of environmental and architechtural diversity of Caryocar brasiliense (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae on Edessa ruformaginata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and its biology

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    Germano Leao Demolin Leite

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of environmental complexity and plant architecture on the abundance of the Edessa rufomarginata bugs in pastures and cerrado areas and its biology. We observed higher number of bugs on Caryocar brasiliense trees in the cerrado than pasture areas. Bugs were more abundant on leaves and branches rather than fruits. Caryocar brasiliense had greatest fruit production on pasture than in the cerrado areas. The abundance of bugs was correlated positively with aluminum, organic matter, and tree height, but negatively correlated by soil pH. Productivity of C. brasiliense were negatively correlated with aluminum, pH, and number of bugs, but positively correlated with phosphorus and calcium. The number of eggs per clutch was 14.3, their viability was 93% and the embryonic period was 6.9 days. The respective length and width of each instar were: first instar 3.3 mm and 2.4 mm, second 4.1 mm and 3.0 mm, third 6.7 mm and 3.0mm, and fourth 11.5 mm and 3.5 mm. The respective length and width of adults were: males, 15.8 mm and 8.6 mm and females, 17.3 mm and 9.1 mm. The sex ratio was 0.43, and the total duration of the life cycle of E. rufomarginata was 156 days.

  16. RNA-seq profiling reveals defense responses in a tolerant potato cultivar to stem infection by Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. brasiliense

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    Stanford Kwenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is a member of the soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE family that causes tuber soft rot and blackleg diseases of stems in potato plants. Currently, there are no effective chemical strategies for the control of members of the SRE. Thus, an understanding of the inducible defense responses in stems of potato plants is important, particularly during colonization of the vascular system. Here, time-course RNA-sequencing analysis was used to compare expressed genes between a susceptible potato cultivar (Solanum tubersoum cv Valor and a tolerant cultivar (S. tuberosum cv BP1 at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h post-inoculation with P. c. brasiliense. In total, we identified 6,139 and 8,214 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the tolerant and susceptible cultivars, compared to mock-inoculated controls, respectively. Key DEGs distinguishing between tolerance and susceptibility were associated with negative regulation of cell death and plant-type cell wall organization/ biogenesis biological processes in the tolerant and susceptible cultivars, respectively. Among these were DEGs involved in signaling (mainly MAPK cascade and ethylene pathway, defense-related transcription regulation including WRKY transcription factors, and downstream secondary cell biosynthesis. Together, our results suggest that S. tuberosum cv BP1 likely employs quantitative defense response against P.c brasiliense. Overall, our study provides the first transcriptome-wide insight into the molecular basis of tolerance and/or resistance of potato stems to SRE infection.

  17. Aspectos fisioanatômicos de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis camb. submetidas a diferentes níveis de sombreamento Physioanatomy traits of leaves in young plants of Cupania vernalis camb. subjected to different shading levels

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    Érico de Castro Lima Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cupania vernalis Camb. (Sapindaceae é uma espécie freqüente em quase todas as formações florestais, principalmente em Cerrado e Mata de Galeria, abrangendo os Estados de Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso e São Paulo até o Rio Grande do Sul. Essa espécie se destaca, principalmente, pelo seu emprego em plantios mistos destinados à recuperação de áreas degradadas de preservação permanente, pelo fato de seus frutos serem muito apreciados e consumidos por pássaros e, ainda, na medicina popular contra asma e tosses convulsivas. O estudo da anatomia foliar é de grande importância para a compreensão da plasticidade adaptativa de uma espécie submetida a diferentes condições ambientais, por estar correlacionada com processos de trocas gasosas e assimilação de CO2 e outras características inerentes ao crescimento da planta. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de diferentes níveis de sombreamento (pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 70% sobre a anatomia foliar e trocas gasosas de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis Camb. Os resultados indicaram maior taxa fotossintética e, ainda, incrementos na condutância estomática, espessura do limbo, número de estômatos por área e espessura de parede celular em folhas de plantas crescidas sob pleno sol e 30% de sombreamento. Foram observadas correlações positivas entre características de trocas gasosas e anatomia foliar. Pelos resultados, pôde-se concluir que a espécie em estudo apresenta grande plasticidade anatômica em relação aos níveis de sombreamento testados, favorecendo, assim, um melhor desenvolvimento das mudas sob diferentes condições ambientais.Cupania vernalis camb. (Sapindaceae is a species commonly found in almost all forest associations, mainly in savanna-like vegetation (cerrado and galeria woods, spreading over the states of Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso, São Paulo and reaching as far as Rio Grande do Sul. The species stands out mainly by its use in mixed planting to recover

  18. Antibacterial activity of Limonium brasiliense (Baicuru) against multidrug-resistant bacteria using a statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blainski, Andressa; Gionco, Barbara; Oliveira, Admilton G; Andrade, Galdino; Scarminio, Ieda S; Silva, Denise B; Lopes, Norberto P; Mello, João C P

    2017-02-23

    Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae) is commonly known as "baicuru" or "guaicuru" and preparations of its dried rhizomes have been popularly used in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome and menstrual disorder, and as an antiseptic in genito-urinary infections. This study evaluated the potential antibacterial activity of rhizome extracts against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains using statistical mixture design. The statistical design of four components (water, methanol, acetone, and ethanol) produced 15 different extracts and also a confirmatory experiment, which was performed using water:acetone (3:7, v/v). The crude extracts and their ethyl-acetate fractions were tested against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae, all of which have been implicated in hospital and community-acquired infections. The dry residue, total polyphenol, gallocatechin and epigallocatechin contents of the extracts were also tested and statistical analysis was applied in order to define the fit models to predict the result of each parameter for any mixture of components. The principal component and hierarchical clustering analyses (PCA and HCA) of chromatographic data, as well as mass spectrometry (MS) analysis were performanced to determine the main compounds present in the extracts. The Gram-positive bacteria were susceptible to inhibition of bacterial growth, in special the ethyl-acetate fraction of ternary extracts from water:acetone:ethanol and methanol:acetone:ethanol against, respectively, VREfm (MIC=19µg/mL) and MRSA (MIC=39µg/mL). On the other hand, moderate activity of the ethyl-acetate fractions from primary (except water), secondary and ternary extracts (MIC=625µg/mL) was noted against KPC. The quadratic and special cubic models were significant for polyphenols and gallocatechin contents, respectively. Fit models to dry

  19. Anti-nutritional factors and digestibility of protein in Cayocar brasiliense seeds

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    Virgínia Campos SILVESTRINI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Brazilian Cerrado presents a wide variety of natural products, including the Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense. The important factor that determines the dietary and nutritional ideality of protein is degestitibility. This work aims to evaluate the protein digestibility of Pequi seeds and the presence of anti-nutritional factors. The protein Pequi almonds were extracted, toasted and untoasted. Evaluation digestibility was structurally characterized by SDS-PAGE 15%, which can be used to analyze simulated gastric fluid (SFG and digestion in intestinal fluid (SFI in the presence of pepsin and trypsin/chymotrypsin. The extract from Pequi almonds showed inhibitory activity and was not detected hemagglutination. The intensity of the bands according to 2S albumins, after heat treatment, did not decrease in comparison to the condition native, significantly. In the crisp crude extract, which was incubated under SGF and SIF, the intensity of the corresponding bands at 8 and 3 kDa was resistant to SGF and indigestible after 4 hours under SIF. The characterization of Pequi almonds demonstrated that the product of the crude extract has anti-nutritional factors, which were confirmed by evaluating digestibility.

  20. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense', a new phytoplasma taxon associated with hibiscus witches' broom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, H G; Davis, R E; Dally, E L; Hogenhout, S; Pimentel, J P; Brioso, P S

    2001-05-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a valuable ornamental species widely planted in Brazil. Many plants are affected by witches' broom disease, which is characterized by excessive axillary branching, abnormally small leaves, and deformed flowers, symptoms that are characteristic of diseases attributed to phytoplasmas. A phytoplasma was detected in diseased Hibiscus by amplification of rRNA operon sequences by PCRs, and was characterized by RFLP and nucleotide sequence analyses of 16S rDNA. The collective RFLP patterns of amplified 16S rDNA differed from the patterns described previously for other phytoplasmas. On the basis of the RFLP patterns, the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma was classified in a new 16S rRNA RFLP group, designated group 16SrXV. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from this and other phytoplasmas identified the hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma as a member of a distinct subclade (designated subclade xiv) of the class Mollicutes. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was consistent with the hypothesis that there was divergent evolution of hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma and its closest relatives (members of 16S rRNA RFLP group 16SrII) from a common ancestor. On the basis of unique properties of the DNA from hibiscus witches' broom phytoplasma, it is proposed that it represents a new taxon, namely 'Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense'.

  1. PROPAGAÇÃO CLONAL DE GUANANDI (Calophyllum brasiliense POR MINIESTAQUIA

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    Rogério Luiz da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficiencia de la técnica de miniestaca para la propagación clonal de la especie forestal guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense. Para esto, se estableció un minijardín clonal en cajas de arena, del cual se obtuvo brotes para utilizar como miniestacas, buscando hacer 2 experimentos: en un ensayo se evaluó 2 tipos de miniestacas (apical e intermedia tratadas con diferentes dosis de acido indolbutírico (0, 2000, 4000 y 8000 mg.l-1; en el otro, las miniestacas fueros sembradas en 3 tipos de sustrato (vermiculita, cascarilla de arroz quemada y sustrato agrícola (corteza de pino compostada. Los índices de enraizamiento no variaron en el primer ensayo; en el segundo, hubo una reducción en el tiempo de permanencia en invernadero usando vermiculita como sustrato. De manera general, la técnica de miniestaca es una eficiente estrategia para la propagación clonal de guanandi.

  2. MORPHO-ANATOMICAL CHANGES OF PEQUI LEAVES (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. EXPOSED TO SIMULATED DRIFT OF GLYPHOSATE

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    Lailla Queiroz Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The goal of this research was to examine phytotoxicity and leaf anatomy of pequi plants (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. exposed to simulated drift of glyphosate. The experimental design was randomized blocks with nine replications. Each experimental unit was composed by one 18-L pot with one plant. The treatments consisted of different doses of glyphosate sprayed: 0 (control, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 g ae ha-1 of glyphosate. Phytotoxicity visual ratings were carried out at 7, 14 and 21 days after spraying (DAS by scores expressed in a percentage scale, within which zero and one hundred represent no symptom and plant death, respectively. Description of symptoms, changes in leaf anatomy and micromorphometric analysis were performed on leaves taken from plant top and middle third at 23 DAS. Poisoning symptoms were wilting, chlorosis followed by necrosis, winding of top leaves and leaf senescence, being intensified with increasing doses. Leaf anatomical changes were detected from the dose of 250 g ha-1. The observed damages consisted of plasmolized cells, epidermal disruption, distorted cells, hyperplasia, cell collapsing, necrotic tissue and accumulation of phenolic compounds.

  3. Estrutura populacional de Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae no Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, Estado do Sergipe =Population structure of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae at Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe State

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    Túlio Vinicius Paes Dantas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de estrutura de tamanho e de estágios ontogênicos são importantes para se compreender quais fatores influenciam os processos populacionais, a regeneração e a resposta a perturbações de uma população. Este estudo analisou a estrutura de uma população de Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae no hábitat de Areias Brancas do Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, Estado de Sergipe. Amostraram-se aleatoriamente 30 parcelas de 20 x 25 m, nas quais se determinou a abundância de indivíduos jovens e adultos, a circunferência do tronco, a altura da copa e o número de caules por planta. A distribuição espacial de jovens e adultos na população é agregada, causada por sua predisposição em formar grupos em locais onde há maiordisponibilidade de recursos e condições favoráveis. Outro fator que contribui com a agregação é a dispersão anemocórica da espécie. A população estudada apresentou o maior número de indivíduos nas categorias menores de altura e de DAS, indicando que a população está em crescimento ou em processo de autorregeneração. Há maior número de indivíduos de 2-3 m de altura, o que se deve ao fogo ou corte, eventos que não foram capazes de interromper o processo de recrutamento ou reprodução da espécie na área, pois não ocorreram lacunas nas classes de diâmetro de caule.Studies on structure, size and ontogenic stages are important to understand which factors influence population processes, regeneration and response to disturbances of a population. This study examined thestructure of a population of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae in white sands habitat of Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State. Thirty 20 x 25 m plots were selected randomly selected, and their abundance of young and adult plants was recorded, as well as trunk circumference, crown height and number of stems per plant. The spatial distribution of young and adult population is aggregated, caused by their predisposition to form

  4. Influence of the ferric uptake regulator (Fur protein on pathogenicity in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense.

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    Collins Kipngetich Tanui

    Full Text Available Iron is an important nutrient for the survival and growth of many organisms. In order to survive, iron uptake from the environment must be strictly regulated and maintained to avoid iron toxicity. The ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur regulates genes involved in iron homeostasis in many bacteria, including phytopathogens. However, to date, the role played by Fur in the biology of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb1692, an important pathogen of potatoes, has not yet been studied. To this end, we used the lambda recombineering method to generate a fur mutant strain of Pcb1692 and assessed the virulence and fitness of the mutant strain. The results showed that production of siderophores in Pcb1692Δfur increased compared to the Pcb1692 wild-type and the complemented strain Pcb1692Δfur-pfur. However, production of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHLs, biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide (EPS production, virulence on potato tubers and swimming motility, were all significantly decreased in Pcb1692Δfur compared to the wild-type and complemented Pcb1692Δfur-pfur strains. The Pcb1692Δfur mutant also demonstrated significant sensitivity to oxidative stress when exposed to H2O2. Consistent with phenotypic results, qRT-PCR results demonstrated that Fur down-regulates genes which encode proteins associated with: iron uptake (HasA-extracellular heme-binding protein and Ferrodoxin-AED-0004132, stress response (SodC-superoxide dismutase, plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PrtA and CelV and motility (FlhC and MotA. We conclude that the ferric uptake regulator protein (Fur of Pcb1692 regulates traits that are important to host-pathogens interactions.

  5. Virulence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense on potato compared with that of other Pectobacterium and Dickeya species under climatic conditions prevailing in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, van der J.M.; Haan, de E.G.; Kastelein, P.; Krijger, M.C.; Haas, de B.H.; Velvis, H.; Mendes, O.; Kooman-Gersmann, M.; Zouwen, van der P.S.

    2017-01-01

    In western Europe, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense is emerging as a causal agent of blackleg disease. In field experiments in the Netherlands, the virulence of this pathogen was compared with strains of other Dickeya and Pectobacterium species. In 2013 and 2014, seed potato tubers were

  6. Gastroprotective effects of extracts and guttiferone A isolated from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niero, Rivaldo; Dal Molin, Marlova Manhabosco; Silva, Suellen; Damian, Natália Santos; Maia, Láis Orlof; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2012-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the gastroprotective properties of seed, leaf, and branch methanolic extracts and guttiferone A obtained from Garcinia achachairu (Clusiaceae). Mice were used in all the models, and treatments were administered orally only in pylorus-ligated model of the extracts, and drugs were administered intraduodenally. Treatment with different extracts (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the ethanol/HCl-induced model; however, the seed extract was most active. When tested in different doses (50, 250, or 500 mg/kg), the seed extract of G. achaicharu showed a dose-dependent effect with a percentage of inhibition of gastric lesions of 41, 49, and 85 %, respectively. The seed extract also significantly reduced the ulcerative lesions in the indomethacin/bethanechol-induced ulcer. In this model, the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 24, 58, and 90 %, respectively. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction of gastric juice volume and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in gastric pH. Considering that the seed extract was the most active, it was subjected to silica gel column chromatography, leading to the isolation of guttiferone A. The isolated compound and omeprazole were evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In this assay, both compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg reduced the ulcerative lesions by about 75 %. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that extracts obtained from G. achachairu and guttiferone A produce gastroprotective effects, corroborating ethnomedicinal use of this plant.

  7. Conservation of Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg seeds in different packaging and at varied temperatures Conservação de sementes de Campomanesia adamantium (CAMB. O. berg em diferentes embalagens e temperaturas

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at evaluating the effects of different packaging and varied storage temperatures on the germination potential of seeds of Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. The seeds were packaged in glass, aluminum foil and plastic containers, or maintained inside intact fruits at 5, 10 and 15 ºC during 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. After these periods the seeds were sown in Germitest® germination paper and maintained in incubation chambers at 25 ºC under constant white light for 42 days. Seed moisture contents were evaluated both before and after storage, as well as germination percentages, germination speed index, root and aerial portion of seedlings lengths, and total dry weights. All possible combinations of packing materials, temperatures and storage times were tested, with four repetitions of 25 seeds for each treatment. C. adamantium seeds showed initial water contents of 31.5%. Glass and aluminum packaging were efficient at maintaining the water content of the seeds, and provided greater germination speed index than the other packaging materials. Germination percentages, seedlings lengths and dry weights did not vary among the different temperatures tested. C. adamantium seeds can be stored for up to 21 days at temperatures between 5 and 15 ºC without altering their physiological quality. In terms of cost-benefit efficiencies, these seeds can be stored without significant damage for 21 days while still inside the fruits at temperatures of 5, 10 or 15 ºC.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes embalagens e temperaturas durante o armazenamento sobre o potencial de germinação das sementes de Campomanesia adamantium Camb. O. Berg. As sementes foram mantidas em embalagens de vidro, papel de alumínio, plástico e no interior do fruto, nas temperaturas de 5, 10 e 15 ºC, durante zero, sete, quatorze e 21 dias. Após esse período, as sementes foram semeadas em rolo de papel Germitest® e mantidas em B.O.D. a 25 º

  8. Atividade antibacteriana de floroglucinóis e do extrato hexânico de Hypericum brasiliense Choysi Antibacterial activity of the phloroglucinols and hexanic extract from Hypericum brasiliense Choysi

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    Hildegardo Seibert França

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phloroglucinols were obtained from Hypericum brasiliense: japonicine A (1, isouliginosin B (2 and uliginosin B (3. Bioautography and disk diffusion methods were used to determine antibacterial activity of the hexanic extract. Strains of the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and American Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones showed a growth inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 12 mm and 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values were used to measure antistaphylococcal activity for all phloroglucinols. Isouliginosin B and uliginosin B presented MIC values of 1.5 and 3.0 µg/mL, respectively, while japonicine A displayed MIC value of 50.0 µg/mL.

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, toxicological and chemical profile of Calophyllum brasiliense extracts from Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    César, García-Zebadúa Julio; Alfonso, Magos-Guerrero Gil; Marius, Mumbrú-Massip; Elizabeth, Estrada-Muñoz; Angel, Contreras-Barrios Miguel; Maira, Huerta-Reyes; Guadalupe, Campos-Lara María; Manuel, Jiménez-Estrada; Ricardo, Reyes-Chilpa

    2011-10-01

    Calophyllum species are sources of calanolides, which inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). The hexane extract of the leaves from C. brasiliense collected in Soconusco, State of Chiapas, Mexico, analyzed by HPLC showed to contain apetalic acid, calanolides B, and C. It showed potent anti-HIV-1 RT inhibition (IC(50)=20.2 μg/ml), but was not toxic in mice (LD(50)=1.99 g/kg). The histological study of the mice treated at the highest dose revealed no alteration on hepatocytes, and an increase in the number of spleen megakaryocytes. These results suggest this extract is suitable to continue studies for developing a phytodrug against HIV-1. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Histórias cruzadas: uma prosopografia dos fundadores da Revista Brasiliense (São Paulo, 1955

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    Sérgio de Sousa Montalvão

    Full Text Available RESUMO Por meio de uma abordagem prosopográfica, o artigo estuda o grupo dos quarenta e cinco participantes do Manifesto de Fundação da Revista Brasiliense, editada na cidade de São Paulo, entre 1955 e 1964. Problematizando a questão do intelectual que estaria apoiando o projeto desenvolvido por Caio Prado Júnior e Elias Chaves Neto, o cruzamento das biografias demonstra que determinadas formas de social ização política, cultural e profissional não per mitem enquadrá-lo como um especialista, mas sim como um intelectual público, engajado no amplo debate sobre a modernização brasileira de meados do século XX.

  11. Aspects of reproductive ecology of Clusia valerioi Standl. and Clusia peninsulae Hammel (sp. nov.), two Central American species of Clusiaceae with resin flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwallner, H; Vogel, S; Huber, W; Hammel, B E; Weber, A

    2012-01-01

    Clusia valerioi Standl. and C. peninsulae Hammel, sp. nov. (formally established in the Appendix), two Central American species of Clusiaceae offering resin as a floral reward, were studied in the Piedras Blancas National Park, SW Costa Rica. Basic data on phenology, flower structure, course of anthesis, flower visitors, flower visitation and pollination processes, fruit development and seed dispersal are communicated. Resin collection and pollen release are reported and documented in greater detail. The significance of stingless bees for pollination is confirmed, but honeybees were also observed to visit the flowers and to collect resin. The seeds of C. valerioi, exhibiting a clearly ornithochorous character syndrome, were observed to be eaten and dispersed by four species of the tanager family (Thraupidae) and one species of finch (Fringillidae). Ants were also observed to carry away the seeds. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  12. Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. (Clusiaceae) aqueous extract in alcohol- and sucrose-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Dimo, Théophile; Dzeufiet Djomeni, Paul Désiré; Bella, Ndzana Martin Thierry; Aboubakar, Oumarou Bibi Farouck; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoit; Tan, Paul V; Kamtchouing, Pierre

    2010-04-21

    Allanblackia floribunda Oliv. (Clusiaceae), an evergreen tree of the rain-forest has long been used in traditional African medicine to treat hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Allanblackia floribunda aqueous extract on alcohol- and sugar-induced hypertension in rats. Alcohol-induced hypertensive rats (AHR) were obtained by oral administration of ethanol (3g/kg/day) while sucrose (5, 6 and 7% in drinking water) was used for sucrose-induced hypertensive rat (SuHR). Both models of animals concomitantly received either aqueous extract (200 or 400mg/kg; p.o.) or nifedipine (10mg/kg; p.o.) all along the 8 weeks of experiment. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured using the direct cannulation method. The effects of the plant extract on lipid profile, oxidative stress markers, as well as on kidney and liver functions were evaluated at the end of the treatment by the colorimetric method. At the doses of Allanblackia floribunda (200 and 400mg/kg/day) significantly prevented (21.74; 26.65% and 11.71; 24.58% of reduction) the increase in mean blood pressure on AHR and SuHR, respectively. Administration of the plant extract at the dose of 400mg/kg led to the prevention of total cholesterol (42.82%), HDL-cholesterol (36.59%) and triglycerides (9.67%) increase in serum lipid in AHR as compared to the untreated AHR. In SuHR, the extract significantly prevented the high concentrations of total cholesterol (44.08%) and triglycerides (33.05%) induced by sucrose treatment as compared to the untreated SuHR, without affecting that of HDL-cholesterol. Allanblackia floribunda (200 and 400mg/kg) also prevented the increase in atherogenic index by 54.45 and 42.94% in AHR and by 23.70 and 44.32% in SuHR, respectively. Allanblackia floribunda (400mg/kg) prevented the increase in bilirubine (19.59 and 16.56%), urea (33.36 and 28.2%), ALT (29.55 and 33.09%) and AST (36.28 and 37.12%) of AHR and SuHR, respectively. Treatment with plant extract

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Potato Circular RNAs in Response to Pectobacterium carotovorum Subspecies brasiliense Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Zhu, Yongxing; Zhao, Jiao; Fang, Zhengwu; Wang, Shuping; Yin, Junliang; Chu, Zhaohui; Ma, Dongfang

    2017-12-27

    Little information about the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs) during potato-Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb) interaction is currently available. In this study, we conducted the systematic identification of circRNAs from time series samples of potato cultivars Valor (susceptible) and BP1 (disease tolerant) infected by Pcb. A total of 2098 circRNAs were detected and about half (931, 44.38%) were intergenic circRNAs. And differential expression analysis detected 429 significantly regulated circRNAs. circRNAs play roles by regulating parental genes and sponging miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment of parental genes and miRNAs targeted mRNAs revealed that these differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs were involved in defense response (GO:0006952), cell wall (GO:0005199), ADP binding (GO:0043531), phosphorylation (GO:0016310), and kinase activity (GO:0016301), suggesting the roles of circRNAs in regulating potato immune response. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) found that circRNAs were closely related with coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs). And together they were cultivar-specifically regulated to strengthen immune response of potato to Pcb infection, implying the roles of circRNAs in reprogramming disease responsive transcriptome. Our results will provide new insights into the potato-Pcb interaction and may lead to novel disease control strategy in the future.

  14. Efeito do volume de tubetes na produção de mudas de Calophyllum brasiliense e Toona ciliata

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    Alysson Canabrava Lisboa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A demanda por informações silviculturais de espécies florestais alternativas para reflorestamentos com fins econômicos, entre as quais incluem os métodos de produção de mudas, tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a influência de volumes de tubetes, com dimensões de 115, 180 e de 280 cm³, no crescimento de mudas de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. e cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata M. Roem. var. australis (F. Muell. Bahadur. O substrato utilizado foi composto por uma mistura de 80% de substrato comercial e 20% de argila. Foram avaliados o diâmetro de colo e a altura das mudas aos 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após a repicagem. Nessa última ocasião, determinou-se também o peso de massa seca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e total, bem como o Índice de Qualidade de Dickson. Houve efeito do volume do tubete sobre as características das mudas, sendo o cedro-australiano a espécie mais responsiva. Conclui-se que para o guanandi o tubete mais indicado é o de 180 cm³ e para o cedro-australiano, o de 280 cm³.

  15. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Potato Circular RNAs in Response to Pectobacterium carotovorum Subspecies brasiliense Infection

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    Ran Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information about the roles of circular RNAs (circRNAs during potato-Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense (Pcb interaction is currently available. In this study, we conducted the systematic identification of circRNAs from time series samples of potato cultivars Valor (susceptible and BP1 (disease tolerant infected by Pcb. A total of 2098 circRNAs were detected and about half (931, 44.38% were intergenic circRNAs. And differential expression analysis detected 429 significantly regulated circRNAs. circRNAs play roles by regulating parental genes and sponging miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment of parental genes and miRNAs targeted mRNAs revealed that these differentially expressed (DE circRNAs were involved in defense response (GO:0006952, cell wall (GO:0005199, ADP binding (GO:0043531, phosphorylation (GO:0016310, and kinase activity (GO:0016301, suggesting the roles of circRNAs in regulating potato immune response. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA found that circRNAs were closely related with coding-genes and long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs. And together they were cultivar-specifically regulated to strengthen immune response of potato to Pcb infection, implying the roles of circRNAs in reprogramming disease responsive transcriptome. Our results will provide new insights into the potato-Pcb interaction and may lead to novel disease control strategy in the future.

  16. ARQUITECTURA DE RAÍCES Y VÁSTAGOS DE VISMIA BACCIFERA Y DE RAÍCES DE VISMIA MACROPHYLLA (CLUSIACEAE

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    ARIAS TATIANA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la arquitectura de raíces y vástagos de Vismia baccifera y raíces de V.macrophylla (Clusiaceae. Los sistemas de raíces de ambas especies presentancaracterísticas similares en los ejes. V. macrophylla tiene un orden jerárquico menosque V. baccifera y su unidad arquitectónica se completa más rápidamente. V.baccifera presenta el modelo arquitectónico de Attims mientras V. macrophyllaexhibe el modelo de Troll. No se encontró coincidencia ni simultaneidad entre lasetapas de desarrollo de raíces y de vástagos. En ambas especies se encontró unmayor número de ejes en las raíces con respecto a los vástagos. Con respecto aotras especies del género estudiadas anteriormente, se encontraron diferencias enla arquitectura caulinar principalmente en lo referente a la plagiotropía secundaria,los monopodios inestables y la localización de las inflorescencias.

  17. Length/weight relationship and condition factor of Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1877 and M. brasiliense (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in two locations in the state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Gazzi Taddei

    Full Text Available Abstract This study describes the weight vs. carapace length relationship and provides the total and monthly condition factor values for populations of Macrobrachium jelskii (Miers, 1977 and M. brasiliense (Heller, 1868 occurring in southeastern Brazil. The biological characteristics were compared and related to the climatic environmental factors between the two areas. Our investigation sampled M. jelskii from the Barra Mansa Dam, Mendonça, SP, a semilotic environment with greater resilience than the Talhadinho Stream, Talhado, SP, a lotic environment where specimens of M. brasiliense were captured. Individuals were classified according to sex and measured at the carapace length (CL and weighed (WE. The relationship WE/CL was analyzed by dispersion diagrams of the empirical points, which were set to the power function (WE = a.CL b . Values of the mean condition factor were compared monthly. In total, 1493 individuals of M. jelskii and 843 individuals of M. brasiliense were captured. Analyses of the constant allometry revealed that both sexes of M. jelskii, as well as females of M. brasiliense grow proportionately more in size than weight. The results concerning the morphometric aspects studied in both species suggest an association with the reproductive processes.

  18. Conservação pós-colheita de guavira (Campomanesia adamantium Camb. sob diferentes revestimentos e temperaturas de armazenamento

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a conservação pós-colheita de guavira (Campomanesia adamantium Camb. em diferentes revestimentos e temperaturas de armazenamento. Os frutos receberam os seguintes tratamentos: imersão em 1 carboxi metilcelulose a 1% (m/v (CMC; 2 pectina a 3%; 3 pectina + cloreto de cálcio a 3% (m/v, e 4 sem tratamento (ST, todos embalados em polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e armazenados por 0; 7; 14 e 21 dias em câmara B.O.D., nas temperaturas de 5; 10 e 15 ºC. A menor perda de massa e acidez titulável foram observadas a 5 ºC e na cobertura pectina + cálcio. O pH não variou entre as coberturas e manteve-se maior a 5 ºC. O teor de vitamina C foi maior sob efeito do revestimento de pectina + cálcio, com valores semelhantes aos iniciais a 5 °C e 10 ºC. Concluiu-se que as guaviras podem ser armazenadas por até 21 dias em temperatura de 5 ºC, revestidas com pectina + cálcio a 3%.

  19. Fenologia e produção de frutos de Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. E Enterolobium gummiferum (Mart. J.F.Macbr. em diferentes regimes de queima

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    Renata Françoso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento dos períodos reprodutivos e vegetativos das plantas é de extrema importância para coletas de sementes e produção de mudas. No Cerrado, as interações da biota com o fogo são de grande interesse, já que esses fatores estão intimamente relacionados e podem ser determinantes na manutenção das populações vegetais. Durante 12 meses, foi estudada a fenologia de duas espécies nativas do Cerrado (Enterolobium gummiferum (Mart. J.F.Macbr. e Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. em dois regimes de queima: em sítio mantido sob queima bienal modal no mês de agosto (PBM e em sítio controle, livre de fogo há 14 anos (PC. Os testes de uniformidade foram realizados para verificar a sazonalidade das fases fenológicas. A seleção de modelos por critério de informação de Akaike foi realizada utilizando as variáveis climáticas da área de estudo para identificar quais delas são melhores preditoras das fases fenológicas. A produção de frutos foi estimada nos dois tratamentos. Praticamente, todas as fenofases apresentaram picos de produtividade, com exceção da brotação foliar de C. brasiliense em PC, queda foliar da mesma espécie nos dois tratamentos e E. gummiferum na PC. Em geral, o comportamento fenológico de ambas as espécies não diferiu de outros estudos. Porém, o fogo retardou a troca de folhas e inibiu as fases reprodutivas de C. brasiliense, o que corrobora o comportamento já observado em outras espécies nativas do Cerrado em áreas com incidência de queimadas.

  20. Estudio de la germinación y la conservación de semillas de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Jorge; Lines, Kathya; Vásquez, William

    2006-01-01

    Semilla de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense) se recolectó en Volcán de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, con el fin de determinar el punto de madurez fisiológica, las mejores técnicas de procesamiento, el efecto de la humedad de la semilla, el sustrato, el fotoperíodo y la temperatura sobre la germinación y su almacenamiento. La madurez fisiológica se alcanzó 92 días después de la antesis. Se evaluaron cinco contenidos de humedad (4,8%, 10,5%, 21,3%, 26,3% y 40,3%). Se encontró que la semilla ger...

  1. Estudio de la germinación y la conservación de semillas de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Semilla de cedro maría (Calophyllum brasiliense se recolectó en Volcán de Buenos Aires, Puntarenas, con el fin de determinar el punto de madurez fisiológica, las mejores técnicas de procesamiento, el efecto de la humedad de la semilla, el sustrato, el fotoperíodo y la temperatura sobre la germinación y su almacenamiento. La madurez fisiológica se alcanzó 92 días después de la antesis. Se evaluaron cinco contenidos de humedad (4,8%, 10,5%, 21,3%, 26,3% y 40,3%. Se encontró que la semilla germina en menor tiempo y mayor porcentaje con el contenido de humedad más elevado. De los sustratos de germinación evaluados (arena, vermiculita y suelo, el mejor fue arena. Con respecto a las temperaturas de germinación evaluadas (24, 28 y 32 °C, los mayores porcentajes de germinación se obtuvieron a 28 ºC. No se encontró efecto debido al fotoperíodo. La viabilidad de la semilla disminuyó rápidamente después de un mes de almacenamiento y esta disminución se intensificó conforme se redujo el contenido de humedad. La sensibilidad de semillas de C. brasiliense a las bajas temperaturas y contenidos de humedad, corroboraron su carácter recalcitrante.

  2. Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidaea gill parasite of the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. (Copepoda, Kroyeriidae um parasito de guelras do tubarão, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. from the shark, Galeorhinus vitaminicus de Buen, 1950, from Rio Grande do Sul, State, Brazil, is described on the basis of 14 adult females. The new species is superficially similar to Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Olivier, 2000, but differs from it in the following characters. The maxillipeds of the new species are large and project well beyond the lateral margins of the cephalothorax. Those of K. deetsi are much smaller. The third endopodal segments of K. deetsi are twice as long as the second endopodal segments and are provided with prominent marginal denticles. The second and third endopodal segments of the new species are rounded, of similar length and lack teeth.Kroyeria brasiliense sp. nov. proveniente de guelras de G. vitaminicus de Buen, 1950 do Rio Grande do Sul, é descrita baseada em 14 fêmeas adultas. A nova espécie aproxima-se de Kroyeria deetsi Dippenaar, Benz & Oliver, 2000, mas a nova espécie se distingue por apresentar os maxilípedes grandes e estendendo-se bem além das margens do cefalotorax. Os terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos de K. deetsi são duas vezes mais cumpridos que os segundos e têm dentículos marginais proeminentes. Os segundos e terceiros segmentos dos endopoditos da nova espécie são arredondados, de tamanhos parecidos e carecem de dentículos.

  3. A loucura na fronteira entre a medicina e o direito: a elite médica em busca da legitimação socioprofissional nas páginas do Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina (1860-1880

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    Monique de Siqueira Gonçalves

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o papel estratégico desempenhado pelo Annaes Brasilienses de Medicina - órgão oficial da Academia Imperial de Medicina -, na busca da elite médica pela legitimação socioprofissional no campo da medicina mental, visando a expansão de suas prerrogativas no âmbito das relações entre loucura, responsabilidade penal, direitos civis e medicina legal de 1860 a 1880.

  4. Estrutura populacional de Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae no Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, Estado do Sergipe - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5127 Population structure of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae at Serra de Itabaiana National Park, Sergipe State - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v32i2.5127

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    Túlio Vinicius Paes Dantas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Estudos de estrutura de tamanho e de estágios ontogênicos são importantes para se compreender quais fatores influenciam os processos populacionais, a regeneração e a resposta a perturbações de uma população. Este estudo analisou a estrutura de uma população de Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae no hábitat de Areias Brancas do Parque Nacional Serra de Itabaiana, Estado de Sergipe. Amostraram-se aleatoriamente 30 parcelas de 20 x 25 m, nas quais se determinou a abundância de indivíduos jovens e adultos, a circunferência do tronco, a altura da copa e o número de caules por planta. A distribuição espacial de jovens e adultos na população é agregada, causada por sua predisposição em formar grupos em locais onde há maior disponibilidade de recursos e condições favoráveis. Outro fator que contribui com a agregação é a dispersão anemocórica da espécie. A população estudada apresentou o maior número de indivíduos nas categorias menores de altura e de DAS, indicando que a população está em crescimento ou em processo de autorregeneração. Há maior número de indivíduos de 2-3 m de altura, o que se deve ao fogo ou corte, eventos que não foram capazes de interromper o processo de recrutamento ou reprodução da espécie na área, pois não ocorreram lacunas nas classes de diâmetro de caule.Studies on structure, size and ontogenic stages are important to understand which factors influence population processes, regeneration and response to disturbances of a population. This study examined the structure of a population of Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae in white sands habitat of Serra de Itabaiana, Sergipe State. Thirty 20 x 25 m plots were selected randomly selected, and their abundance of young and adult plants was recorded, as well as trunk circumference, crown height and number of stems per plant. The spatial distribution of young and adult population is aggregated, caused by their predisposition to form

  5. Uso do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) em emulsões cosméticas: desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade física Use of pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense) in cosmetics emulsions: development and evaluate of physical stability

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Rocha Pianovski; Adrea Fernanda Gonçalves Vilela; Alex Antonio Serafim da Silva; Cleide Garbelini Lima; Ketlyn Konageski da Silva; Vanessa Franco Marcelo Carvalho; Carlo Ralph de Musis; Silvia Regina Pengo Machado; Márcio Ferrari

    2008-01-01

    Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade física de emulsões O/A contendo óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense). Emulsões O/A contendo 10,0% (p/p) de óleo de pequi foram preparadas e, para promover a estabilidade, a adição de carbomer, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride e sorbitan oleate, foram estudadas. O tipo de emulsão foi verificado pelo método de diluição e o aspecto, homogeneidade e características organolépticas avaliadas através de análises macroscópicas. ...

  6. Trocas gasosas, características das folhas e crescimento de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis Camb. submetidas a diferentes níveis de sombreamento Gas exchange and initial growth of young leaves of Cupania vernalis camb. submitted to different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico de Castro Lima Junior

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Cupania vernalis Camb. é uma espécie arbórea pertencente à família sapindaceae, conhecida popularmente como camboatá, camboatã. É uma espécie de grande importância pelo seu uso em plantios mistos destinados à recuperação de áreas degradadas e preservação permanente. Este estudo teve como objetivo básico caracterizar o desempenho ecofisiológico desta espécie sob condições de viveiro. Avaliou-se o efeito de quatro níveis de irradiância (Pleno sol, 30%, 50% e 70% de sombreamento sobre as trocas gasosas, concentração de nitrogênio, clorofilas foliares e crescimento de plantas jovens de Cupania vernalis. As plantas submetidas a 50% de sombreamento acumularam maior massa seca de folha, caule e massa seca total em comparação com as cultivadas a pleno sol, não sendo observada diferença quanto à massa seca de raízes. A maior taxa fotossintética e condutância estomática foram observadas em folhas de plantas crescidas sob pleno sol e 30% de sombreamento. Plantas sob condições mais sombreadas apresentaram teores mais elevados tanto de clorofilas quanto de nitrogênio nas folhas. Fato semelhante ocorreu com outras características como altura, diâmetro de caule e área foliar. Essas últimas características constituem fatores determinantes da qualidade de mudas. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que as mudas desta espécie devem ser formadas sob condições de viveiro com sombreamento de 50% ou 70% para que se obtenham mudas de melhor qualidade.Cupania vernalis Camb. is an arboreal species belonging to the sapindaceae family, known popularly as "Camboatá", "Camboatã". This species has great economical importance by its use in mixed plantings trying to recovery permanent degraded and preservation areas. This study aimed, basically, at characterizing the ecophysiological aspects of this species under nursery conditions. The effect of four levels of irradiance (Full sunshine, 30%, 50% and 70% of shading on the gas

  7. Flavan-3-ols and proanthocyanidins from Limonium brasiliense inhibit the adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis to epithelial host cells by interaction with gingipains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Caleare, Angelo; Hensel, Andreas; Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Pinha, Andressa Blainski; Panizzon, Gean Pier; Lechtenberg, Matthias; Petereit, Frank; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2017-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a pathogen strongly involved in chronic and aggressive forms of periodontitis. Natural products, mainly polyphenols, have been described for advanced treatment of periodontitis by inhibition of the bacterial adhesion of P. gingivalis to the epithelial host cells. An acetone:water extract (LBE) from the rhizomes of Limonium brasiliense (Boiss.) Kuntze was tested under in vitro conditions for potential antiadhesive effects against P. gingivalis to human KB cells and for inhibition of the proteolytic activity of gingipains, the main virulence factor of P. gingivalis. LBE≤100μg/mL had no cytotoxicity against the bacteria and did not influence the cell physiology of human epithelial KB cells. At 100μg/mL LBE reduced the adhesion of P. gingivalis to KB cells significantly by about 80%. LBE at 20μg/mL reduced the proteolytic activity of the arginin-specific Rgp gingipain by about 75%. Chemical profiling of LBE indicated the presence of gallic acid, epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate and samarangenins A and B as lead compounds. UHPLC by using MS and UV detection displays a suitable method for quality control of the extract for identification and quantification of the lead compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Raíz secundaria embrional asociada a la germinación de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae y su posible papel en la supervivencia de las plántulas

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    José Fco Di Stefano

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available En pruebas preliminares de germinación con semillas de Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae se observó que ésta producía dos tipos de raíces: la primaria y una secundaria embrional que atraviesa longitudinalmente la semilla. Para determinar su posible papel en la supervivencia y crecimiento de esta especie, se analizaron 90 plántulas con al menos seis meses de germinadas en bolsas plásticas con suelo orgánico ubicadas en un invernadero, a las que se les aplicó uno de los siguientes tratamientos: corte de la raíz primaria o la secundaria embrional, además de un grupo control con ambas raíces (30 repeticiones de cada uno. Luego de tres meses se empezaron a extraer 10 plántulas/mes/tratamiento a los que se les midió la altura total, diámetro basal, longitud de la raíz primaria y secundaria, y la biomasa del vástago, raíz y semilla sin la cubierta seminal. Las plántulas que obtuvieron el mayor crecimiento fueron las del control, seguidas por aquéllas sin la raíz secundaria. Sin embargo, más del 90% de las plántulas a las que se les cortó la raíz primaria, sobrevivieron después de cinco meses de haberse aplicado el tratamiento, en parte debido a una muy alta capacidad de recuperación de su sistema radical, ya sea produciendo rebrotes de la principal (20%, aumentando el crecimiento de la raíz secundaria (13.3%, o ambos (26.7%, y a las reservas de la semilla. La longitud de los rebrotes de la raíz principal fue estadísticamente significativa en las primeras dos extracciones mensuales de plantas, comparado con las del control (F6= 18.6, F7= 16.0, pSecondary embryonary root associated with seed germination in Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae and its possible role in seedling survival. Germination tests on Garcinia intermedia (Clusiaceae seeds showed the growth of two types of roots: additionally to the primary root, a secondary root crosses the seed lengthwise. To determine its possible role on the survival and growth of this

  9. Combining in vitro and in silico approaches to evaluate the multifunctional profile of rosmarinic acid from Blechnum brasiliense on targets related to neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana Maria de Mello; Dos Santos Passos, Carolina; Kieling Rubio, Maria Angélica; Mendonça, Jacqueline Nakau; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha

    2016-07-25

    Natural products are important sources of chemical diversity leading to unique scaffolds that can be exploited in the discovery of new drug candidates or chemical probes. In this context, chemical and biological investigation of ferns and lycophytes occurring in Brazil is an approach adopted by our research group aiming at discovering bioactive molecules acting on neurodegeneration targets. In the present study, rosmarinic acid (RA) isolated from Blechnum brasiliense showed an in vitro multifunctional profile characterized by antioxidant effects, and monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B) and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibition. RA showed antioxidant effects against hydroxyl (HO(•)) and nitric oxide (NO) radicals (IC50 of 29.4 and 140 μM, respectively), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 of 19.6 μM). In addition, RA inhibited MAO-A, MAO-B and COMT enzymes with IC50 values of 50.1, 184.6 and 26.7 μM, respectively. The MAO-A modulation showed a non-time-dependent profile, suggesting a reversible mechanism of inhibition. Structural insights on RA interactions with MAO-A and COMT were investigated by molecular docking. Finally, RA (up to 5 mM) demonstrated no cytotoxicity on polymorphonuclear rat cells. Taken together, our results suggest that RA may be exploited as a template for the development of new antioxidant molecules possessing additional MAO and COMT inhibition effects to be further investigated on in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacognostic evaluation, and development and validation of a HPLC-DAD technique for gallocatechin and epigallocatechin in rhizomes from Limonium brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Blainski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Limonium brasiliense (Boiss. Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae, is a plant from the southern coast of Brazilian that is used for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders and genito-urinary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the quality control parameters for rhizomes collected during different periods by pharmacopoeial and non-pharmacopoeial methods, and to develop and validate a HPLC-DAD method for quantitative control of marker substances. The measured parameters were: granulometric analysis (d50 = 0.21–0.48 mm, loss on drying (11.1–12.4%, total ash (4.9–5.7%, dry residue by extraction with acetone:water (7:3, v/v (30.6–39.5%, total polyphenol content (8.5–15.8%, and chromatographic fingerprint by HPLC and TLC. Besides, the acetone:water (7:3, v/v extraction solvent in combination with a turbo-extractor, yielded the crude extract with a significant increase in tannins (F4,20 = 37.0, p < 0.001. The antioxidant potential of the crude acetone:water (7:3, v/v extract, as well as the ethyl acetate and water fractions obtained after the partition process was evaluated by DPPH and the results were, respectively: IC50 6.87, 5.91, and 6.92 µg/ml. The validation parameters for the HPLC-DAD method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. The gallo- and epigallocatechin contents were, respectively, 0.8–2.7% and 1.2–2.2%. These data contribute to analysis of the pharmacognostic quality control of the commonly used part from this species.

  11. 479-IJBCS-Article-Dr Omotayo Dosumu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Farmacologia Vegetal, Burkill HM (ed). Escuela de Medicina Juan N. Corpa,. Fondo Editorial Universitario: Santa Fe de Bogota. Pretto JB, Cechinel-Filho V, Noldin VF,. Sartori MRK, Isaias DEB, Cruz AB. 2004. Antimicrobial Activity of Fractions and Compounds from Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae/Guttiferae). Z.

  12. Dinámica del daño foliar en plántulas de Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae y Clusia multiflora (Clusiaceae en el bosque altoandino de la Cordillera Oriental colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ramos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Además de las estrategias fitoquímicas especializadas, las plantas pueden usar la producción sincrónica de hojas como un método de saciado de patógenos y herbívoros. Con el fin de determinar si las especies del bosque altoandino colombiano Clusia multiflora (Clusiaceae y Drimys granadensis (Winteraceae recurren a la producción sincrónica de hojas para controlar los efectos de la herbivoría y el ataque microbiano, y establecer que relación existe entre el estado de salud, el crecimiento y la mortalidad de plántulas, se evaluó la dinámica del daño foliar sobre diferentes cohortes. Dado que una plántula tolerante a la sombra recientemente emergida no puede suplir los costos fisiológicos de una estrategia especializada, se esperaba una alta sincronía en la producción de hojas en las plántulas más jóvenes, y diferencias en el daño foliar entre cohortes. Se midieron cuatro variables que evaluaban el estado de salud a lo largo del tiempo, en tres cohortes de plántulas: Proporción de hojas predadas, proporción de hojas sanas, proporción de hojas enfermas o con daño puntual y crecimiento. Ambas especies mostraron diferencias significativas entre épocas, en la proporción de hojas sanas; pero no hubo un efecto de la interacción tiempo-cohorte, por lo tanto la producción sincrónica de hojas no fue una estrategia más usada por alguna cohorte en particular. El daño foliar osciló a través del tiempo, lo cual puede ser explicado por los pulsos en la producción de hojas. Sin embargo, ésta estrategia tuvo poca eficiencia para controlar el ataque por patógenos. En general, el comportamiento unificado de todas las variables fue afectado por la cohorte, el tiempo, la especie y todas las diferentes interacciones. La relación entre crecimiento y daño foliar fue condicionado por el clima. La mayor mortalidad se dio durante la estación seca, y un cuarto de las muertes en D. granadensis fueron causadas por la acción conjunta de

  13. Uso do óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense em emulsões cosméticas: desenvolvimento e avaliação da estabilidade física Use of pequi oil (Caryocar brasiliense in cosmetics emulsions: development and evaluate of physical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rocha Pianovski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e avaliar a estabilidade física de emulsões O/A contendo óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense. Emulsões O/A contendo 10,0% (p/p de óleo de pequi foram preparadas e, para promover a estabilidade, a adição de carbomer, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride e sorbitan oleate, foram estudadas. O tipo de emulsão foi verificado pelo método de diluição e o aspecto, homogeneidade e características organolépticas avaliadas através de análises macroscópicas. Como testes preliminares foram utilizados a centrifugação, ciclo gela-degela e o estresse térmico. Para avaliar a estabilidade acelerada as amostras foram submetidas em diferentes condições de estresse e analisadas a partir do valor de pH, análises macroscópicas e comportamento reológico. As emulsões preparadas com óleo de pequi, 0,3% (p/p de Acrylates/C10-30 Alkyl Acrilate Crosspolymer e 0,2% (p/p de carbomer apresentaram-se estáveis com propriedades pseudoplásticas e tixotrópicas. As características macroscópicas e valores obtidos de pH, viscosidade aparente, índices de fluxo e de consistência da área de histerese durante a estocagem indicaram estabilidade da formulação.The aims of this study were to development and evaluated the physical stability of O/W emulsions containing "Pequi" oil (Caryocar brasiliense. O/W emulsions containing 10.0% (w/w of Pequi oil were prepared, and to improve the stability, the carbomer, magnesium sulfate, sodium chloride and sorbitan oleate were added and studied. The direction of the emulsions was evaluated by dilution method and by macroscopic analysis, the appearance, homogeneity and organoleptic properties were evaluated. The centrifugation, freeze/defrost cycles and stress thermal were used to investigate the preliminary stability. To evaluate the accelerated stability, the samples were stored at different stress conditions and evaluated the pH value, macroscopic analysis and rheological

  14. THE PARASITOID Anastatus sp. (EUPELMIDAE-HYMENOPTERA ACTION ON Dirphia rosacordis WALKER, 1855 (SATURNIIDAE-LEPIDOPTERA EGGS IN ”PEQUI” (Caryocar brasiliense CAMBESS AÇÃO DO PARASITÓIDE Anastatus sp. (EUPELMIDAE - HYMENOPTERA EM OVOS DE Dirphia rosacordis WALKER, 1855 (LEPIDOPTERA - SATURNIIDAE EM PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliense CAMBESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Henrique Garcia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The action of parasitoid Anastatus sp. on eggs of D. rosacordis, common for defoliating “pequizeiro” (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess, was studied on eggs collected in the field and eggs obtained in laboratory. Eggs were collected in Hidrolândia, Senador Canedo and Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. In these regions, D. rosacordis shows two generations: September and December. To obtain eggs, a D. rosacordis colony was maintained on pequi leaves over the egg mass obtained in the laboratory and kept under controlled temperature, relative humidity and photoperiod. Among 1,346 eggs obtained in laboratory conditions, 44.3% were parasitized, 40.2% were viable and 15.4 % were not viable. From 697 eggs collected in the field, 25.5% were parasitized, 58.9% were viable and 15.6% were not viable. Adult emergency was observed among 83,4% of parasitized eggs. These data suggest the possibility of using this parasitoid for the pequi caterpillar control, which also causes serious damage on Eucalyptus sp., mainly in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Anastatus; parasitoid; egg.

    A ação do parasitóide Anastatus sp. sobre os ovos da D. rosacordis, importante desfolhadora do pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess, foi estudada em

  15. Antibacterial activity of crude extracts from Mexican medicinal plants and purified coumarins and xanthones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaka, Kakuko; Abe, Fumiko; Nagayama, Ariaki; Okabe, Hikaru; Lozada-Pérez, Lucio; López-Villafranco, Edith; Muñiz, Elizabeth Estrada; Aguilar, Abigail; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2005-02-28

    Thirty-two extracts from 22 Mexican medicinal plants of 15 different families were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Seventeen plants showed antibacterial activity, while five plants showed no activity against both bacteria. All of the extracts showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant) than against Escherichia coli, except one. Among the plants examined, Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Burseraceae), Haematoxylum brasiletto H. Karst. (Fabaceae), Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae), and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae) were highly active against Staphylococcus aureus. Coumarins (mammea A/BA and mammea A/AA) and xanthones, namely jacareubin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxy-2-(3,3-dimethylallyl) xanthone, were isolated as the principle compounds from the last two plants.

  16. Microsatellite markers derived from Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) expressed sequence tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuko, Suzuki; Uchiyama, Kentaro; Sugai, Kyoko; Hanaoka, So; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Robust markers are required (inter alia) for assessing origins of Calophyllum inophyllum populations on the Bonin Islands, Japan. Therefore, informative expressed sequence tag (EST)-based microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers in the species were sought. Using 135378 ESTs derived from de novo pyrosequencing, primers for 475 EST-SSRs were developed, 48 of which were tested for PCR amplification. Thirty-six of the 48 primers showed clear amplification, with 23 displaying polymorphism in sampled populations. Expected heterozygosity in the samples from the Bonin Islands and Ryukyu Islands populations ranged from 0.041 to 0.697 and from 0.041 to 0.773, respectively. As EST-SSRs are potentially tightly linked with functional genes, and reportedly more transferable to related species than anonymous genomic SSRs, the developed primers have utility for future studies of the origins, genetic structure, and conservation of C. inophyllum and related species.

  17. Leaf and stem anatomy in eight Hypericum species (Clusiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Perone, Rosaria; De Rosa, Paolo; De Castro, Olga; Colombo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Foliar micromorphology, epicuticular wax morphology and anatomical featuresof leaves and stem, particularly secondary xylem, were examined with light microscopy,general and histochemical staining and scanning electron microscopy in eightHypericum species. Outer tegument tissue and type of secondary xylem are determiningcharacteristics. Secondary xylem is ring-porous in H. perforatum, H. perfoliatum, H. tetrapterum, H. triquetrifolium, H. androsaemum and H. hircinum. In H. aegypticum and H. pu...

  18. Inhibitory Effect of Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiacea) Seed Extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzymes linked with diabetes mellitus and Phytochemical characterization of its bioactive constituents. Crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were prepared successively in a soxhlet apparatus at 50ºC. Subsequently, extraction of crude enzymes from porcine pancreas and rat intestine, thin layer ...

  19. Garcinia lucida Vesque (Clusiaceae): from traditional uses to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This paper seeks to assess information on the identity, traditional uses, safety and efficacy of Garcinia lucida Vesque (Essok in Boulou and Ewondo local language), in order to highlight it potential as species to be registered in medicinal plant list and formularies needed for the development of monographs ...

  20. Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7. Mammea-type coumarins

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    Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana (Clusiaceae are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. brasiliense. Mammea A/AA was obtained from the fruit peels of M. americana. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The most potent compounds were mammea A/BA, A/BB, A/AA, A/BD and B/BA, with MC100 values in the range of 15 to 90 g/ml. Coumarins with a cyclized ,-dimethylallyl substituent on C-6, such as mammea B/BA, cyclo F + B/BB cyclo F, and isomammeigin, showed MC100 values > 200 g/ml. Several active coumarins were also tested against normal human lymphocytes in vitro, which showed that mammea A/AA and A/BA were not toxic. Other compounds from C. brasiliense, such as the triterpenoids, friedelin, canophyllol, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, and protocatechuic and shikimic acids, were inactive against the epimastigotes. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds.

  1. Trypanocidal constituents in plants: 7. Mammea-type coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Estrada-Muñiz, Elizabeth; Vega-Avila, Elisa; Abe, Fumiko; Kinjo, Junei; Hernández-Ortega, Simón

    2008-08-01

    Calophyllum brasiliense and Mammea americana (Clusiaceae) are two trees from the tropical rain forests of the American continent. A previous screening showed high trypanocidal activity in the extracts of these species. Several mammea-type coumarins, triterpenoids and biflavonoids were isolated from the leaves of C. brasiliense. Mammea A/AA was obtained from the fruit peels of M. americana. These compounds were tested in vitro against epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The most potent compounds were mammea A/BA, A/BB, A/AA, A/BD and B/BA, with MC100 values in the range of 15 to 90 microg/ml. Coumarins with a cyclized gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl substituent on C-6, such as mammea B/BA, cyclo F + B/BB cyclo F, and isomammeigin, showed MC100 values > 200 microg/ml. Several active coumarins were also tested against normal human lymphocytes in vitro, which showed that mammea A/AA and A/BA were not toxic. Other compounds from C. brasiliense, such as the triterpenoids, friedelin, canophyllol, the biflavonoid amentoflavone, and protocatechuic and shikimic acids, were inactive against the epimastigotes. The isopropylidenedioxy derivative of shikimic acid was inactive, and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Our results suggest that mammea-type coumarins could be a valuable source of trypanocidal compounds.

  2. In vitro regeneration of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antonio Bernabe Antonio

    2015-10-07

    Oct 7, 2015 ... Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de. Guadalajara, Km. 15.5. Carretera Guadalajara-Nogales, Las Agujas, C.P. 45020, Zapopan, Jalisco, México. Tel.: +52. 3336 820110, ext. 202. 3Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San ...

  3. First record of Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers. (Gasteromycetes from Brazil Primeiro registro de Scleroderma polyrhizum Pers. (Gasteromycetes para o Brasil

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    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The ectomycorrhizal, gasteroid fungus, Scleroderma polyrhizum is recorded from Brazil for the first time, growing under Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Caryocaraceae a widespread native tree of the Brazilian "cerrado" vegetation. Macro and microscopic features were described using basidiocarps from fresh and dried material treated according to the traditional methodology for Gasteromycetes. The characteristics of the material were close to those of the original description given by Persoon. All material collected was associated with roots of C brasiliense.Scleroderma polyrhizum, um gasteromiceto ectomicorrízico, é registrado pela primeira vez para o Brasil, crescendo sob Caryocar brasillense Camb. (Caryiocaraceae espécie arbórea comum e nativa da vegetação de cerrado brasileiro. Os caracteres macro e microscópicos foram descritos a partir de basidiocarpos frescos e secos, segundo a metodologia tradicional utilizada em estudos taxonómicos de Gasteromycetes. As características do material analisado foram similares à descrição original fornecida por Persoon. Todo material coletado estava associado a raízes de C. brasillense.

  4. CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO MINERAL DE MUDAS DE PEQUI SOB EFEITO DA OMISSÃO DE NUTRIENTES

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    Leandro Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of fruit and medicinal native species of Savannah may soften the negative environmenta aspect arising from deforestation, and improve their utilization which today is restricted to local populations. However, it depends on a better understanding of the nutritional requirements of these species. It aims to assess the nutritional aspects and effects of nutrients in the absence of development of Caryocar brasiliense Camb. An experiment was conducted in pots, red-yellow Oxisol substrate of low fertility in the greenhouse. 12 treatments were employed under the technique of the missing nutrient in fully randomized block design with eight replicates. The following treatments were applied: complete 1 (C1-fertilized with N, P, K, S, B, Cu, Fe, Zn and lime, complete 2 (C2-fertilized with N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg , B, Cu, Fe, Zn, without lime, omitting treatments complete when each of the relevant nutrients (complete 1, complete 1-K, complete -S, complete 1-P, complete 1 - B, complete 1 - Zn, complete 1 - lime, complete 2-Ca, complete 2 - Mg and control. The plants were harvested and separated into air shoot and root system. Samples were dried at 70 ° C, weighed and determined the levels of nutrients in shoot dry matter. According to the results concluded that the omission of Zn, Mg and K do not affect height growth of Caryocar brasiliense seedlings; during the absence of nutrients affect the development of plants in diameter Caryocar brasiliense , the total dry matter is not affected by the omission of nutrients; root / shoot ratio shows that the species is adapted to soils with low pH and low phosphorus levels; Caryocar brasiliense species show low nutritional requirements during formation process of seedlings, although the results may have been masked by the reservations contained in the seeds; nutrient content in pequi shoot dry biomass is low, indicating low nutritional requirements of the species.

  5. An evaluation of the sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis L. (Clusiaceae, based on reproductive features

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    Sasithorn Pangsuban

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The sexual system of Garcinia atroviridis was evaluated regarding the basic structural specialization and reproductive characters under natural conditions. The species is gynodioecious with females (trees producing pistillate flowers, but hermaphrodites (trees producing perfect flowers co-occurred in the study site.Significant morphological and anatomical variation was found between pure female and hermaphroditic flowers. Hermaphrodites have relatively long-filament flowers and produce abundant fertile pollen grains, whereas the females produce pollenless anthers. They also differ significantly in reproductive characters. Hermaphrodite flowers have more flowers per inflorescence than female flowers, but they gradually drop off before fruit setting. In contrast, female trees had relatively greater ovules per flower, larger fruits and more seeds per fruit than hermaphrodite trees. Moreover, average seed number from female trees was at least 1.7 times higher than that of the hermaphrodite trees. Interestingly, the fruit diameter of hermaphrodites was positively correlated to the number of seeds, whereas it was unrelated in females.

  6. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae presents genotoxic effects in different cells of mice.

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    Peterson Menezes Terrazas

    Full Text Available Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE and normochromatic (NCE erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans.

  7. Morphology and anatomy of developing fruits and seeds of Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, K S; Beltrati, C M

    2000-11-01

    Morphological, structural and developmental features of fruits and seeds of Mammea americana L. are here studied, with the purpose to give a proper classification of their fruit and embryo type and to contribute to future taxonomical and ecological studies. The fruit is a berry and the "rind" consists of the exocarp, represented by a periderm with lenticels, and by the parenchymatic mesocarp, with branched secretory ducts and vascular bundles. The edible pulpy is formed by the endocarp, destituted of secretory ducts, and derived from the activity of a ventral meristem, which emerges early in the fruit development. The inner endocarp cell layers undergo a radial elongation and become firmly attached to the testal outer layers. At maturation the endocarp may be released from the rest of the pericarp. The ovules are unitegmic and they turn into unitegmic and exalbuminous seeds. The multiseriate testa consists of thick-walled cells and sclerenchymatous fibers. This last features have carried out to a wrong interpretation that the fruit of this species is a drupe. The embryo is pseudo-conferruminate, with two massive foodstoring cotyledons, rich in starch, firmly attached.

  8. Morphology and anatomy of developing fruits and seeds of Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Choisy (Clusiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão, K S; Beltrati, C M

    2001-02-01

    Morphological, structural and developmental features of fruits and seeds of Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Choisy. are here presented, with the purpose to elucidate their structure and to contribute to taxonomical and ecological studies of the family. The fruit is a berry and the "rind" is constituted by the exocarp and by the subepidermal layers which constitute the mesocarp. The reddish pulp, rich in starch, is constituted by the parenchymatic mesocarp, with branched secretory ducts and vascular bundles, joined with the endocarp, which arises from a ventral meristem. The bitegmic, anatropous ovules, provided by the endothelium, develop into anatropous, bitegmic and exalbuminous seeds. The reddish uniseriate testa shows phenolic contents. The tegmen becomes crushed resting only the uniseriate exotegmen with undulate, thick walled and lignified cells, which contain a number of calcium oxalate prismatic crystals. The embryo, rich in lipids, is straight and shows foliaceous cotyledons.

  9. A description of the naturalised Clusia rosea Jacq. (Clusiaceae populations in South Africa

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    Michael D. Cheek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clusia rosea is an ornamental plant that has been cultivated in South Africa since the late 19th century. Ornamental plant species are known to be a source of invasive plants.Objectives: To document the current distribution of C. rosea in South Africa and its naturalisation status.Method: Reports of C. rosea were verified in the field and herbarium vouchers were collected. Coordinates were taken for each plant, their reproductive status was assessed and heights were measured. In addition, the Southern African Plant Invaders Atlas database and five herbaria were checked for records.Results: A total of 284 plants were found outside of cultivation, mostly in the KwaZulu-Natal Coastal Belt Grassland. Clusia rosea appears to be reproducing through apomixis. No records of naturalisation could be found elsewhere in Africa.Conclusion: It is recommended that C. rosea be added to the Species Under Surveillance – Possible Eradication or Containment Targets (SUSPECT list to investigate whether it requires formal legal listing.

  10. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  11. Isolation and activity of two antibacterial biflavonoids from leaf extracts of Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikabo, Adamu A; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2009-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of Garcinia livingstonei leaves was studied using bioautography and by determining the minimum antibacterial concentration against four nosocomial pathogens. Bioautograms showed that two compounds were mainly responsible for the antibacterial activity. These were isolated by a combination of solvent-solvent fractionation and bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy as amentoflavone and 4"-methoxy amentoflavone. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was determined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three of the tested organisms were sensitive to both compounds with MIC values ranging from 8-100 microg/mL. P. aeruginosa was resistant with MICs > 100 microg/mL. The safety of the two compounds was assessed with a tetrazolium based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) using Vero monkey kidney cells. The compounds had low toxicity against the cell line with cytotoxic concentrations to 50% of the cells (LD50) of 386 microg/mL and > 600 microg/mL for amentoflavone and 4"-methoxy amentoflavone, respectively. Berberine, the positive control had a CC50 of 170 microg/mL. 4"-Methoxy amentoflavone was more active and much less toxic than amentoflavone.

  12. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Garcinia nervosa (Clusiaceae

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    N. M. U. Seruji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our continuing interest on Sarawak Garcinia species, we carried out the evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities on the methanolic extracts of Garcinia nervosa. The extracts were prepared from its air-dried grounded leaves and barks. The evaluation of antioxidant activities was done using the (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH radical scavenging assay and the result showed high radical scavenging activities. Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory evaluation was performed using the lipoxygenase assay, hyaluronidase assay, and xanthine oxidase assay which showed, both of these extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory properties. The lipoxygenase assay showed a high inhibition of enzyme activity for the barks extracts and a moderate enzyme activity for the leaves extracts. However, there were low inhibitions for both extracts in the hyaluronidase assay and only the barks extracts exhibited moderate antigout properties in the xanthine oxidase assay. For the cytotoxic assay, the extracts exhibited positive responses against the three cancer cell lines, the HeLa cell lines, MCF-7 cell lines, and HT-29 cell lines. Thus, Garcinia nervosa contains high antioxidativeand anti-inflammation properties, which have great potential in the development of pharmaceutical and dermatological products.

  13. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...

  14. Mesua beccariana (Clusiaceae, A Source of Potential Anti-cancer Lead Compounds in Drug Discovery

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    Soek Sin Teh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on biologically active secondary metabolites from the stem bark of Mesua beccariana was carried out. A new cyclodione, mesuadione (1, along with several known constituents which are beccamarin (2, 2,5-dihydroxy-1,3,4-trimethoxy anthraquinone (3, 4-methoxy-1,3,5-trihydroxyanthraquinone (4, betulinic acid (5 and stigmasterol (6 were obtained from this ongoing research. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D-NMR, GC-MS, IR and UV techniques. Preliminary tests of the in vitro cytotoxic activities of all the isolated metabolites against a panel of human cancer cell lines Raji (lymphoma, SNU-1 (gastric carcinoma, K562 (erythroleukemia cells, LS-174T (colorectal adenocarcinoma, HeLa (cervical cells, SK-MEL-28 (malignant melanoma cells, NCI-H23 (lung adenocarcinoma, IMR-32 (neuroblastoma and Hep-G2 (hepatocellular liver carcinoma were carried out using an MTT assay. Mesuadione (1, beccamarin (2, betulinic acid (5 and stigmasterol (6 displayed strong inhibition of Raji cell proliferation, while the proliferation rate of SK-MEL-28 and HeLa were strongly inhibited by stigmasterol (6 and beccamarin (2, indicating these secondary metabolites could be anti-cancer lead compounds in drug discovery.

  15. Comparative Properties of Amazonian Oils Obtained by Different Extraction Methods

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    Cláudio Galuppo Diniz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Mart., buriti (Mauritia flexuosa, and passion fruit (Passiflora edulis oils were studied to determine their antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities, as well as their total phenol and carotenoid contents. The fatty acid contents were determined by GC-MS. The three types of passion fruit oils studied were refined, cold pressed or extracted from seeds in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oils thus obtained showed differences in antioxidant activity and carotenoid content, but were similar in regard to total phenols. Buriti and pequi had the highest carotenoid contents, while refined and cold pressed passion fruit oil displayed the highest antioxidant activity. Pequi oil was the only oil to display antibacterial and cytotoxic activity.

  16. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  17. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  18. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  19. Soybean SDS in South Africa is caused by Fusarium brasiliense and a novel undescribed Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was detected in South Africa for the first time during pathogen surveys conducted in 2013-2014. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the 16 slow-growing Fusarium strains that were isolated from the roots of symptomatic plants. Molecular phylogen...

  20. Conformational analysis of phloroglucinols from hypericum Brasiliense by using x-ray diffraction and molecular modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, Katia Z.; Lindgren, Eric B.; Correa, Arthur L., E-mail: kzleal@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-Quimica; Yoneda, Julliane D. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda; Pinheiro, Carlos B. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Franca, Hildegardo S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2010-07-01

    In this work we intend to verify the applicability of a computational methodology to predict structural features of organic compounds with biological activity. We selected three phloroglucinols and compared their calculated conformational data with their X-ray crystallographic structure. The results showed that conformations obtained by conformational analysis with the AM1 method followed by geometry optimization by using the DFT B3LYP/6-31 G(d,p) basis set are in very good agreement with X-ray data, indicating that the methodology employed here seems to be a very useful tool in order to predict the conformational preference for this class of compounds. (author)

  1. Identification of Ellagitannins and Flavonoids from Eugenia brasilienses Lam. (Grumixama) by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luciane de Lira; Bertoldi, Fabiano Cleber; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto

    2015-06-10

    The grumixama (Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.), also known as Brazilian cherry, is a fruit native to Brazil. This study identified the flavonoids in the flesh and seeds and ellagitannin in the flesh of purple and yellow varieties. The physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant capacity of these fruits were also evaluated. Anthocyanins and flavonols were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (32-180 mg 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (13-41 mg 100 g(-1) FW), respectively. The major flavonoids identified were cyanidin 3-glucoside and quercetin aglycone. Furthermore, ellagitannins were found in high levels in the flesh of purple (82-243 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and yellow grumixama (92 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW) and seeds (2220-2905 mg ellagic acid equiv 100 g(-1) FW). The ellagitannin profiles of both varieties were first characterized in which pedunculagin isomers, strictinin isomers, and ellagic acid galloyl hexoside were the major ellagitannins identified. In summary, both varieties of the grumixama fruit as well as the seeds could be good sources of bioactive compounds, mainly ellagitannins.

  2. Larvas de insetos associadas a Clusia hilariana Schltdl. (Clusiaceae na Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Insect larvae associated with Clusia hilariana Schltdl. (Clusiaceae in the Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Reis da Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clusia hilariana é uma das espécies de plantas mais abundantes no Parque Nacional, desempenhando um papel importante na dinâmica sucessional desse ecossistema de restinga. Esse trabalho apresenta a composição e aspectos ecológicos das espécies de larvas de mariposas encontradas em C. hilariana. Em 40 plantas, mensalmente vistoriadas, foram obtidas quatorze espécies de lepidópteros. Chloropaschia granitalis foi a espécie de larva mais abundante alimentando-se nessa espécie de planta.Clusia hilariana is one of the most abundant plant species in the National Park playing important role at the sucessional dynamic of the restinga ecosystem. This paper presents the composition and ecological aspects of caterpillars species found on C. hilariana. From 40 plants monthy inspected, fourteen species of Lepidoptera were obtained. Chloropaschia granitalis (Pyralidae was the most abundant species feeding on this plant species.

  3. Estudo fitoquímico e avaliação da atividade moluscicida da Kielmeyera variabilis Mart (Clusiaceae Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Kielmeyera variabilis Mart. (Clusiaceae

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    Lucimar Pinheiro

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extract obtained from Kielmeyera variabilis stems showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata. The phytochemical studies of the plants stem to the isolation of three xanthones (assiguxanthone-B, kielcorin and 1,3,5,6-tetrahtydroxy-2-prenylxanthone and a organic acid (2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid. The structures of these compounds were identified by IR, MS, ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature data.

  4. Extratos de Curcuma longa L. e Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. no tratamento local do envenenamento por Bothrops alternatus

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    F. V. Fonseca

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a utilização dos extratos aquosos das plantas Curcuma longa e Kalanchoe brasiliensis na terapêutica tópica complementar do envenenamento botrópico experimental em camundongos, visando a antagonização dos efeitos locais (edema, hemorragia e necrose provocados pelo veneno. O experimento mostrou que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o extrato de Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

  5. Chemical and agronomic development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers under light and temperature levels

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    Bruna P. Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the development of Kalanchoe brasiliensis and Kalanchoe pinnata, which are medicinal species known as "saião" and "folha da fortuna" that are used interchangeably by the population for medicinal purposes. The experiment consisted of 20 plots/species planted in plastic bags with homogeneous substrate in a randomized design, which grown under light levels (25%, 50%, 70%, full sunlight at environment temperature, and a treatment under a plastic with greater temperature range than the external environment. It was obtained for K. pinnata a greater plant height, total length of sprouts, stems, production and dry matter content of leaves than that obtained for K. brasiliensis, which achieved higher averages only for the length of lateral branches. The species showed increases in height, which varied in inverse proportion to the light, and it was observed the influence of temperature in K. pinnata. The production and dry matter content of leaves were proportional to the luminosity; the same occurred in the thickness of leaves for K. brasiliensis. In the swelling index and Brix degree, K. brasiliensis showed higher averages than K. pinnata. In relation to the total content of flavonoids it was not observed significant differences for both species. The analyzed parameters showed the main differences in the agronomic development of the two species.Este estudo compara o desenvolvimento de Kalanchoe brasiliensis e Kalanchoe pinnata, espécies medicinais conhecidas como "saião" e "folha da fortuna" que são utilizadas indiferenciadamente pela população para fins medicinais. O experimento consistiu em 20 parcelas/espécie plantadas em sacos plásticos com substrato homogêneo, em delineamento ao acaso, cultivadas sob níveis de luminosidade (25%, 50%, 70%, luz plena em temperatura ambiente, e um tratamento sob plástico com maior amplitude térmica que o meio externo. Obteve-se para K. pinnata maiores alturas de plantas, comprimentos totais de brotos, caules, produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas que para K. brasiliensis, que alcançou maiores médias apenas para comprimentos de ramos laterais. As espécies apresentaram aumento em altura que variou em proporção inversa à incidência luminosa, e observou-se a influência da temperatura em K. pinnata. A produção e teor de matéria seca de folhas foram proporcionais à luminosidade; o que também ocorreu na espessura foliar para K. brasiliensis. No índice de intumescência e grau Brix, K. brasiliensis apresentou maiores médias que K. pinnata. Em relação ao teor de flavonoides totais, não foram observadas diferenças significativas para ambas as espécies. Os parâmetros analisados apontaram as principais diferenças no desenvolvimento agronômico das duas espécies.

  6. Effects of light intensity on the distribution of anthocyanins in Kalanchoe brasiliensis Camb. and Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamk. Pers

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    Bruna P. Cruz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two medicinal species of Kalanchoe, which are often used interchangeably by the population, regarding the distribution of anthocyanins under the influence of four luminosity levels for 6 months. For the morphoanatomical analysis, the 6th stem node of each plant was sectioned. Usual histochemical tests revealed the presence of anthocyanins by cross sections of the stems, petioles and leaf blades. The petioles and leaf blades were submitted to the extraction with acidified methanol, and the anthocyanins were quantified by spectrophotometric readings. At the macroscopic level, it was noticed for both species a higher presence of anthocyanins in stems and petioles of plants under full sunlight. The microscopy of K. brasiliensis stems evidenced the deposition of anthocyanins in the subjacent tissue to the epidermis and cortex, which increased with light intensity. In K. pinnata a subepidermal collenchyma was observed, which interfered in the visualization of anthocyanins. In petioles and leaf blades of K. brasiliensis the deposition of anthocyanins was peripheral, and in K. pinnata it was also throughout the cortex. The quantification of anthocyanins in petioles showed in 70% of light higher averages than in 25%, but in leaf blades there were no significant results. This study contributes to the pharmacognosy of Kalanchoe and it is sustained by the description of flavonoids as biological markers of the genus.Este trabalho compara duas espécies medicinais de Kalanchoe utilizadas muitas vezes de forma indiferenciada pela população, quanto à distribuição de antocianinas sob influência de quatro níveis de luminosidade por 6 meses. Para a análise morfoanatômica foi seccionado o 6 º nó do caule de cada planta. Testes histoquímicos clássicos evidenciaram a presença de antocianinas em cortes transversais dos caules, pecíolos e lâminas foliares. Os pecíolos e lâminas foliares foram submetidos à extração com metanol acidificado e as antocianinas foram quantificadas através de leituras espectrofotométricas. Observou-se em nível macroscópico nas duas espécies, maior presença de antocianinas nos caules e pecíolos das plantas sob luz plena. A microscopia de caules de K. brasiliensis evidenciou a deposição de antocianinas no tecido subjacente à epiderme e córtex, o que aumentou com a intensidade luminosa. Em K. pinnata, observou-se colênquima subepidérmico, o que interferiu na visualização de antocianinas. Nos pecíolos e lâminas foliares de K. brasiliensis, a deposição de antocianinas foi periférica e em K. pinnata, se deu também por todo o córtex. A quantificação de antocianinas dos pecíolos mostrou, em 70% de luminosidade, teores superiores aos obtidos em 25%, porém nas lâminas foliares não foram obtidos resultados significativos. Este trabalho contribui para a farmacognosia de Kalanchoe e sustenta-se pela descrição de flavonóides como marcadores biológicos do gênero.

  7. Early detection of injuries in leaves of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. (Clusiaceae caused by particulate deposition of iron

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    Diego Ismael Rocha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of microscopic parameters of asymptomatic leaves of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. subjected to particulate deposition of iron (2.14 mg cm-2 day-1 for 45 consecutive days. Samples of young and expanded leaves without symptoms were collected and subjected to light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The height of the epidermal cells on both surfaces of the leaf and the thickness of the hypodermis, the chlorophyll parenchyma, and the leaf blade were measured. Micromorphological injury occurred in the abaxial surface of young leaves and on both surfaces of expanded leaves. Erosion of the epicuticular wax and cuticle rupture were frequent on the adaxial surface, while on the abaxial surface of both leaves there was a loss of sinuosity on the anticlinal wall of the epidermal cells, stomatal deformity and obstruction. Micromorphometric alterations were seen in all leaf tissues except in the height of epidermic cells, probably due to the thick cuticle and prominent cuticular flanges. The highest difference in thickness of the leaf blade was seen in young leaves of plants subjected to SPMFe, indicating greater sensibility to particulate iron in comparison to the expanded leaves. The micromorphological and micromorphometric alterations in the leaf blade of Clusia hilariana Schltdl. showed the prognostic potential of these tools on the evaluation of impacts caused by the deposition of particulate matter, especially in the 'Restinga' natural vegetation, where the exposure is increasing due to the presence of iron ore industry in their surroundings.

  8. Acción vaso-periférica del extracto acuoso de las hojas de Clusia coclensis (Clusiaceae

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    Mildred García-González

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Se inyectó extracto acuoso de hojas de Clusia coclensis en dosis de 40 mg/kg por vía endovenosa en el tren posterior aislado de 6 ratas normotensas (SDN y 6 ratas hipertensas (SHR. El extracto provocó en ambas cepas de ratas una reducción significativa del retorno venoso. Se concluye que el extracto de Clusia provoca un efecto vasoconstrictor periférico, por lo que el efecto hipotensor y anti-hipertensivo encontrado anteriormente, podría ser atribuido a un efecto directo sobre el miocardio, mediante una disminución en la fuerza de la contracción cardíaca (efecto inotrópico negativo.Aqueous leaf extract of Clusia coclensis was applied at a dose of 40 mg/kg intravenously to isolated posterior extremities of six normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and six Spontaneously Hipertensive rats anaesthetized with sodium nembutal. The perfusion was done in the abdominal artery using as carrier Krebs bicarbonate ringer at 37 °C and keeping constant perfusion pressures of 100 mmHg in normotensive rats and 150 mmHg in hipertensive ratas. The venous return was measured in the inferior vena cava. The extract induced a significant reduction of the venous return begining 2 min after application, in both rat types. This may reflect a peripheral vasoconstriction that, in whole organism,would have an hipertensive effect. Therefore, the mechanism of the alledgedly systemic hipotensive effect of the aqueous extract of Clusia coclensis leafs resides probably at a central level, probably acting by a reduction of the contractibility of the myocardium.

  9. Fotossíntese em Clusia hilariana Schlechtendal (Clusiaceae): respostas ao estresse salino e à alta irradiância

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Alice Gontijo de

    2010-01-01

    Clusia hilariana é uma espécie com fotossíntese estritamente CAM que ocorre em áreas de restinga, onde se acredita que sejam importantes no processo de sucessão. Pouco se sabe a respeito das estratégias adaptativas utilizadas por C. hilariana para tolerar as condições adversas a que se encontra exposta no seu ambiente natural, e a respeito de como a fotossíntese CAM atuaria nesses processos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e compreender as respostas da maquinaria fotossintética de ...

  10. Influência do período de armazenamento do caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.], tratado com óleos essenciais e fixos, no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Influence of the storage period of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] treated with essential and fixed oils, for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

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    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Compostos secundários obtidos de plantas podem ser utilizados no controle de Callosobruchus maculatus, como uma tática alternativa potencial aos inseticidas sintéticos. Foram testados óleos essenciais (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shau e fixos (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., na concentração de 50µl/20g, de acordo com estudos anteriores. Grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde, foram impregnados com os óleos, em recipientes de vidro e submetidos à agitação manual por dois minutos. Cada parcela de 20g foi infestada com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus com 0 a 48h de idade, durante quatro dias. Os óleos foram avaliados logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. Na primeira avaliação, todos os óleos essenciais provocaram 100% de mortalidade e para os óleos fixos, a mortalidade variou entre 35% (G. hirsutum e 67,5% (G. max. Com o prolongamento do período de armazenamento, houve um aumento do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos, exceto para P. aduncum. Em relação aos óleos fixos, S. indicum, G. max, G. hirsutum e C. brasiliense foram os mais eficientes até os 30 dias de armazenamento. Os resultados indicam que os óleos testados na concentração de 50µl/20g apresentam baixo efeito residual, com exceção de P. aduncum, que foi efetivo durante todo o período de armazenamento.The secondary compounds extracted from plants are considered potential alternative to synthetic insecticides in the control of agricultural pests. Essential oils (Cymbopogon martini Roxb., Piper aduncum L., P. hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp. and Lippia gracillis Shau and fixed oils (Helianthus annus L., Sesamum indicum L., Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max L. and Caryocar brasiliense Camb. at the concentration of 50µl/20g were tested according to previous studies. Samples

  11. Paracoccidioides brasilienses isolates obtained from patients with acute and chronic disease exhibit morphological differences after animal passage

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    SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for virulence in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is not completely understood. There is a consensus that the sequencial in vitro subcultivation of P. brasiliensis leads to loss of its pathogenicity, which can be reverted by reisolation from animal passage. Attention to morphological and biochemical properties that are regained or demonstrated after animal passage may provide new insights into factors related to the pathogenicity and virulence of P. brasiliensis. We evaluated morphological characters: the percentage of budding cells, number of buds by cell and the diameter of 100 mother cells of yeast-like cells of 30 P. brasiliensis isolates, before and after animal passage. The isolates were obtained from patients with different clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM: acute form (group A, n=15 and chronic form (group C, n=15. The measurement of the yeast cell sizes was carried out with the aid of an Olympus CBB microscope coupled with a micrometer disc. We measured the major transverse and longitudinal axes of 100 viable cells of each preparation. The percentage of budding cells as also the number of buds by cell was not influenced by animal passage, regardless of the source of the strain (acute or chronic groups. The size values of P. brasiliensis isolates from groups A and C, measured before the animal passage exhibited the same behavior. After animal passage, there was a statistically significant difference between the cell sizes of P. brasiliensis isolates recovered from testicles inoculated with strains from groups A and C. The maximum diameter of mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a size of 42.1mm in contrast with 32.9mm exhibited by mother cells from group C (p<0.05. The diameter of 1500 mother cells from group A isolates exhibited a medium size of 16.0mm (SD ± 4.0, a value significantly higher than the 14.1mm (SD = ± 3.3 exhibited by 1500 mother cells from group C isolates (p<0.05. Our results reinforce the polymorphism exhibited by P. brasiliensis in biological material and the need for further investigations to elucidate the role of morphological parameters of the fungus in the natural history of the disease.

  12. Mudanças à vista: como Facebook e Twitter participam da rotina dos jornalistas de um meio impresso brasiliense

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    Luciana Carla Kwiatkoski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O jornalismo, desde seu surgimento, passa por adaptações. As mudanças físicas nas redações jornalísticas, ocasionadas pelo avanço tecnológico dos suportes/meios, costumam ser drásticas e aparentes, envolvendo alterações na própria rotina produtiva, na cultura organizacional, nos profissionais e no produto final. Nos últimos anos, Facebook e Twitter - duas das mídias sociais que mais têm adeptos no Brasil - adentraram as redações de meios de comunicação, passando a ser ferramentas de uso comum no jornalismo, e este processo parece estar exigindo mais adaptações. O presente artigo propõe uma discussão sobre o uso dessas mídias pelos jornalistas e sobre as transformações no modo de produção da notícia e sobre algumas das possíveis consequências para o jornalismo. Dados preliminares de pesquisa realizada no jornal Correio Braziliense, envolvendo 25 profissionais em seu trabalho na redação ou fora dela, apontam para a inserção do Facebook e do Twitter no dia a dia dos jornalistas.

  13. Interaction between visiting bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea and flowers of Ludwigia elegans (Camb. hara (Onagraceae during the year in two different areas in São Paulo, Brazil

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    M. Gimenes

    Full Text Available This study was designed to characterize the interactions between Ludwigia elegans flowers and visiting bees during two years in two areas 200 km apart, at the same latitude (approximately 22º48'S but at different altitudes (Alumínio, 600 m, and Campos do Jordão, 1500 m, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. As these flowers open simultaneously in the morning and lose their petals by sunset, interaction with bees occurs only during the photophase. Flowers of L. elegans were mainly visited by bees, the most frequent species being: Tetraglossula anthracina (Michener, 1989 (Colletidae, Rhophitulus sp. (Andrenidae, and Pseudagapostemon spp. (Halictidae, all considered specialized bees for collecting pollen and nectar from these flowers, as well as the generalist bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (Apidae. The specialist bees were temporally adjusted to the opening schedule of the flower, which occurs primarily in the morning, but shows a circannual variation. T. anthracina appears in both study areas, but only between December and April. The annual activity patterns of these specialist bees are synchronized to the phenology of L. elegans. Photoperiod and temperature cycles are suggested as the main synchronizers of both bees and plants.

  14. Nitrogen doses on the initial growth and nutrition of guanandi plants

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    Valeria Ciriello

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen doses on the initial development and nutrition of Guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambèss plants, a native Brazilian arboreal species. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in plastic containers with capacity of 50 L of dystrophic red Latosol (oxisol. The experimental design used was completely randomized, with six treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of five N doses: 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg dm-3, and the control (with no fertilization or liming of the soil, where urea was used as the fertilization source. With the exception of the control, all the treatments received liming to elevate saturation by bases of soil of 60% and fertilization with 150 mg dm-3 of P2O5, 80 mg dm-3 of K2O. There were monthly analysis of the plant's height and diameter of the connecting point of root and stem of the plant and at its 10 months age were also analyzed the leaves, stems, roots and total dry mass, the foliar area and the chemical analysis of leaves and stems. The N doses significantly affected the height, foliar area, stem and foliar dry mass data, observing a quadratic effect. The diameter and root dry mass data were affected on a negative linear way. The best growth response was obtained with the 40mg dm-3 N dose.

  15. Development and chemical characterization of flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "pequizeiro" fruit

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    Manoel Soares Soares Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop a recommendation for the chemical peeling of pequi fruit and characterize the flour obtained from the external mesocarp of "Pequizeiro", pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.. The technology applied to obtain the external mesocarp pequi flour included the epicarp removal with NaOH solution. The Response Surface Method was used to optimize the chemical peeling process by applying the Central Composite Rotatable Design, with eleven trials including three replicates at the central point, varying the NaOH aqueous solution concentration and fruit immersion time. The mass loss was evaluated through the analysis of variance and using bi and three dimensional graphs. The chemical characteristics of the external mesocarp pequi flour evaluated were: moisture content, ashes, proteins, lipids, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and some minerals. The best combination for an efficient removal of the fruit peel with the lowest mass loss was reached with 7.05 minutes of immersion in a 5.08 g.L-1 NaOH aqueous solution. This study indicated that the external mesocarp pequi flour is a food source rich in dietary fiber, carbohydrates, ashes, magnesium, calcium, manganese, and copper, but it is poor in lipids, zinc, and iron.

  16. EFEITO RESIDUAL DE INSETICIDAS NATURAIS NO CONTROLE DE SITOPHILUS ZEAMAIS MOTS. EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

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    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual effect of natural insecticides was evaluated on adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae on stored corn grains. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum L., white pepper (Piper nigrum L., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and silica dioxide powders were tested as well as neem, eucalyptus (Eucaliptus globulus Labill and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., eugenol, andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. and pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. oils. Powders were tested at concentration of 1kg/t in 50g-corn-plot and the oils at dosage of 50¿L in 20g-corn-plot. The plots infestation was accomplished using 20 and 8 adults (males and females of S. zeamais being 0 to 15 days old, respectively, in the experiments with powders and oils. Silica dioxide caused 46.7, 38.3 and 37.5% of mortality, respectively, in the initial (soon after the treatment with the powders or oils and at 60 and 120 days of storage periods, but the mortality induced by the other powders was inexpressive. In the three studied storage periods, silica dioxide was the more efficient in reducing adults emergency. At the initial storage period, all the oils caused mortality above 79%, however, after 60 and 120 days, mortality was lower than 2.5%. The adult emergency increased as stored period increased, although at 120 days the best performance was obtained using neem, followed by andiroba, cedar, rosemary and E. globulus oils.

  17. ATIVIDADE INSETICIDA DE ÓLEOS VEGETAIS SOBRE Sitophilus zeamais MOTS. (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE EM MILHO ARMAZENADO

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    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oils of andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl., copaiba (Copaifera sp., Eucaliptus globulus Labill. and Eucaliptus citriodora Hook., neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, eugenol, souari nut (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., rosemary (Lippia gracillis HBK., and cedar (Cedrela fissilis Vell. were evaluated in adults of Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. In the non-choice test, 20 g of corn grains per plot were treated with 50¿L of each oil and homogenized for two minutes. The plot was infested with eight 0 to 15 days-old S. zeamais adults. The E. globulus, eugenol, rosemary, and neem oils caused 100% mortality in S. zeamais adults. Except for copaiba, all oils caused mortality above 87% and the reduction in emergence of 100%. In the free-choice tests, arenas consisting of two plastic containers symmetrically interconnected to a central box by two plastic tubes were used. Twenty grams of non-treated corn (control were placed in one of the boxes and the same amount of grain treated with 50¿L of each oil comprised the other treatment. Sixteen non-sexed S. zeamais adults (0-15 days old were released in the central box. The rosemary, E. citriodora, eugenol and copaiba oils were the most repellent for S. zeamais adults, with repellence percentage varying from 97.3 to 87.7. Rosemary, andiroba, neem, and cedar reduced S. zeamais emergence in 100%, while the reduction caused by the other oils ranged from 72.7 to 97.9%.

  18. New evidences supporting trophobiosis between populations of Edessa rufomarginata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae and Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ants

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    Daniel Paiva Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its important effect on the maintenance of tritrophic interactions among plants, insect herbivores, and ants, there is still a paucity of natural history and basic biology information involving trophobiosis among Heteroptera stink bugs. Here, based on previous observations of a new trophobiotic interaction between Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 and Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius, 1775 ants, we describe the chemical profile of the honeydew obtained by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. There were mainly three different sugars (trehalose, glucose, and sorbose within our samples. The extrafloral nectaries of Caryocar brasiliense Camb., the host plant of E. rufomarginata, attracts a wide assemblage of Cerrado ants with varying aggressiveness toward herbivores. Therefore, this facultative trophobiotic interaction may allow the survival of the stink bug while feeding on the risky, highly ant-visited plant. Given the rarity of trophobiotic interactions between Pentatomidae species and ants and considering a zoological perspective within this family, here we discuss the ecological and evolutionary routes that may allow the rise of these interactions.

  19. Pequi cake composition, hydrolysis and fermentation to bioethanol

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    A. L. Macedo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliense Camb fruits have been evaluated as a potential raw material for the newly established biodiesel industry. This scenario demands applications using the solid co-product derived from the extraction of pequi oil, called cake or meal. This study analyses the acid hydrolysis of carbohydrates present in the pequi meal in order to obtain fermentable sugars and evaluates their conversion to bioethanol. There was 27% starch in the pequi meal. The use of a CCRD experimental design type to study the acid saccharification of pequi meal results in 61.6% conversion of its starch content to reducing sugars. Positive and significant linear effects were observed for H2SO4 concentration and temperature factors, while the quadratic effect of H2SO4 concentration and the linear effect of solid-liquid ratio were negative. Even, with non-optimized fermentative condition using 1% of dried baker's yeast in conical flasks, it was possible to obtain a value equivalent to 53 L of ethanol per ton of hydrolyzed pequi meal.

  20. DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn AND FREE FATTY ACIDS IN PEQUI OIL

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    Aparecida M. S. Mimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., a typical fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, is an important source of micronutrients and fatty acids. In this work, a new approach for the acid digestion (using H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 of pequi oil samples and the determination of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS was employed. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE was used for free fatty acid (FFA determination after simple and fast extraction with heated ethanol. Good results regarding precision (RSD < 10%, in most cases, sensitivity and adequate LOD and LOQ values were obtained. The accuracy was evaluated using spike tests and the recoveries were from 97 to 107%. The analytes were investigated in four different pequi oil samples. Fe was the trace element with the highest concentration (from 1.99 to 10.3 mg/100 g, followed by Zn, Mn and Cu (1.15 to 3.19, 0.42 to 0.91 and 0.31 to 0.56 mg/100 g, respectively. The main FFA found were oleic acid and palmitic acid (1.61 to 10.7 and 0.82 to 2.69 g/100 g, respectively, while linoleic acid (0.50 g/100 g was detected in only one sample. The pequi oil chemical composition showed good characteristics to be used as a food additive, in cosmetic formulations and for traditional medicine.

  1. Tratamento silvicultural e incremento diamétrico de Platonia insignis Mart. (Clusiaceae "bacurizeiro" em duas florestas secundárias em Bragança, PA, Brasil

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    Rivaldo Costa Cardoso Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se neste trabalho o efeito de tratamentos silviculturais no incremento diamétrico de Platonia insignis, em duas florestas secundárias, com dois anos de acompanhamento (2005/2007. As florestas foram denominadas Unidades Agrárias (UA, onde foram instaladas quatro parcelas de 70 m x 105 m (UA1 e 35 m x 100 m (UA2. Dois tratamentos foram aplicados com duas repetições: T0 nenhuma intervenção; e T1 tratamento silvicultural, que consistiu de desbaste por abate e desbaste por anelamento, coroamento de 2 m e corte de cipós. Foram medidos todos os indivíduos de P. insignis com DAP > 10 cm. Foram utilizados os testes t, de Student, e de Mann Whitney, para comparação das médias. O incremento anual médio em diâmetro na T1 foi significativamente maior em ambas as florestas secundárias. UA1 apresentou 0,14 cm.ano-1 para T0 e 0,25 cm.ano-1 para T1. Na UA2, a média foi de 0,53 cm.ano-1 para T0 e 0,93 cm.ano-1 para T1. Portanto, o efeito positivo dos tratamentos silviculturais no aumento diamétrico pode servir como subsídio para atividades de manejo sustentável e aplicação em florestas secundárias como indutor de crescimento.

  2. Avaliação do risco ambiental em sedimento dos lagos do Riacho Cambé, em Londrina, pela distribuição de metais Avaliation of the environmental risk by metal distribution in sediments from lakes formed by Cambé Stream at Londrina

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    Dílson Norio Ishikawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of this study was to obtain the profile of these metals distribution Al, Co, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Zn in sediments from lakes in the city of Londrina-PR and evaluate the environmental risk resulting from such distribution. The parameters of comparison were the values of geological occurrence of these metals in soil from this region, the concentrations of metals in soil samples in the surroundings of the sediments collection points, the guiding values from CETESB and resulting rate risk from RAC criterion application. The result shows that the numerical scale RAC alone is incomplete to this evaluation.

  3. Avaliação do risco ambiental em sedimento dos lagos do Riacho Cambé, em Londrina, pela distribuição de metais Avaliation of the environmental risk by metal distribution in sediments from lakes formed by Cambé Stream at Londrina

    OpenAIRE

    Dílson Norio Ishikawa; Renata Zacarias Noale; Thiago Hideyuki Kobe Ohe; Eloana Benassi Ribeiro de Souza; Ieda Spacino Scarmínio; Wagner José Barreto; Sônia Regina Giancoli Barreto

    2009-01-01

    The proposal of this study was to obtain the profile of these metals distribution Al, Co, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Zn in sediments from lakes in the city of Londrina-PR and evaluate the environmental risk resulting from such distribution. The parameters of comparison were the values of geological occurrence of these metals in soil from this region, the concentrations of metals in soil samples in the surroundings of the sediments collection points, the guiding values from CETESB and resulting ra...

  4. Propagação in vitro de Hypericum cordatum (Vell. N. Robson (Clusiaceae e análise fitoquímica de seus compostos secundários In vitro propagation of Hypericum cordatum (Vell. Conc. N. Robson (Clusiaceae and phytochemical analysis of its secondary compounds

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    B.R. Bianchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum cordatum, planta com possível atividade medicinal foi analisada no presente estudo quanto a sua propagação in vitro e seus principais compostos secundários em comparação com Hypericum perforatum, espécie medicinal utilizada como antidepressivo. Diante das dificuldades que ocorrem na coleta e sua multiplicação por sementes ou via estacas caulinares, iniciou-se a propagação in vitro tendo como resultados: que a indução e o crescimento de brotações foram estimulados pelo regulador 6-benziladenina (2,0 mg L-1, que houve indução de raízes por ácido indol-butírico (0,5 mg L-1, e que as baixas concentrações de auxinas, ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, ou ácido naftalenoacético (0,01 a 0,4 mg L-1 induziram a formação de calos sendo uma alternativa viável para a multiplicação desta espécie in vitro. Constatou-se com base nas análises bioquímicas e cromatográficas realizadas nesta fase de desenvolvimento das plantas mantidas em culturas in vitro, que as mesmas não contêm hipericina. No entanto, pode-se atribuir o potencial medicinal de H. cordatum às outras substâncias que também possuem importantes atividades biológicas, tais como a xantona e o ácido clorogênico sintetizados nas glândulas foliares de H. cordatum.Hypericum cordatum, a plant with possible medicinal activity, was analyzed in this study for its in vitro propagation and main secondary compounds, compared to Hypericum perforatum, a medicinal species used as antidepressant. Considering the difficulties that occur in its collection and multiplication through seeds or stem cuttings, in vitro propagation was started and showed the following results: the induction and the growth of sprouts were stimulated by the plant regulator 6-benzyladenine (2.0 mg L-1, there was root induction by indolebutyric acid (0.5 mg L-1 and the low concentrations of auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 to 0.4 mg L-1 induced callus formation, constituting a viable alternative for the in vitro multiplication of this species. Biochemical and chromatographic analyses carried out at this developmental stage of plants kept in in vitro cultures indicated that they do not contain hypericin. However, the medicinal role of H. cordatum can be attributed to other substances that also have important biological activities, such as xanthone and chlorogenic acid, both synthesized in the leaf glands of H. cordatum.

  5. Fungos conidiais associados ao folhedo de Clusia melchiorii Gleason e C. nemorosa G. Mey. (Clusiaceae em fragmento de Mata Atlântica, BA, Brasil Conidial fungi associated to leaf litter of Clusia melchiorii Gleason and C. nemorosa G. Mey (Clusiaceae in a fragment of Atlantic rainforest, Bahia State, Brazil

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    Flávia Rodrigues Barbosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando ampliar o conhecimento sobre diversidade de fungos conidiais, 10 folhas mortas de três indivíduos de C. melchiorii e de C. nemorosa foram coletadas bimestralmente na Serra da Jibóia, Bahia, no período de outubro/2005 a junho/2006. As folhas foram lavadas em água corrente e mantidas em câmara-úmida durante 30 dias. As estruturas fúngicas foram retiradas para estudo morfológico. Foram identificados 79 táxons de Ascomycota na forma anamórfica. Destes, 78 são hifomicetos e um celomiceto. Do total, 87% ocorreram sobre C. melchiorii e 55% sobre C. nemorosa. A maioria dos fungos apresentou freqüência esporádica e constância acidental. As espécies mais freqüentes foram: Beltrania rhombica Penz., Chaetopsina fulva Rambelli, Dactylaria ficusicola Paulus, Gadek & Hyde, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes e Volutella sp. 1 (sobre C. melchiorii e Atroseptaphiale flagelliformis Matsush., Pseudobeltrania sp., Zygosporium gibbum (Sacc., Rousseau & Bommer Hughes, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes e Volutella sp. 1 (sobre C. nemorosa. A similaridade de fungos entre as duas espécies de Clusia atingiu 60% e 11 táxons foram constantes nos dois hospedeiros: Atrosetaphiale flagelliformis, Beltraniella portoricensis (Stevens Piroz. & Patil, Chalara alabamensis Jones & Ingram., Cryptophiale kakombensis Piroz., Parasympodiella laxa (Subram. & Vittal, Speiropsis scopiformis Kuthub. & Nawawi, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges, Umbellidion radulans Sutton & Hodges, Verticillium theobromae, Volutella sp. 2 e Zygosporium gibbum. Os dados mostram que o folhedo produzido por C. melchiorii e C. nemorosa, na Serra da Jibóia, é rico em fungos conidiais. Esses fungos, como decompositores, são importantes para a dinâmica do ecossistema estudado.In order to increase the diversity knowledge of conidial fungi, 10 dead leaves from three individuals of C. nemorosa and C. melchiorii were bimonthly collected at the "Serra da Jibóia", State of Bahia, from October/2005 to June/2006. The leaves were washed with tap water and maintained in moist chamber during 30 days. The fungal structures were collected for morphological studies. Seventy nine taxa of Ascomycota, in the anamorphic state were registered: 78 hyphomycete and one Coelomycete. Most of the species occurred on Clusia melchiorii (87% and 55% on C. nemorosa. The majority of the fungi presented sporadical frequency and accidental constancy. The most frequent species were: Beltrania rhombica Penz., Chaetopsina fulva Rambelli, Dactylaria ficusicola Paulus, Gadek & Hyde, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes e Volutella sp. 1 (on C. melchiorii and Atroseptaphiale flagelliformis Matsush., Pseudobeltrania sp., Zygosporium gibbum (Sacc., Rousseau & Bommer Hughes, Verticillium theobromae (Turconi Mason & Hughes and Volutella sp. 1 (on C. nemorosa. The similarity of fungi between the two species of Clusia reached 60% and 11 taxa were constant in both hosts: Atrosetaphiale flagelliformis, Beltraniella portoricensis (Stevens Piroz. & Patil, Chalara alabamensisJones & Ingram., Cryptophiale kakombensis Piroz., Parasympodiella laxa (Subram. & Vittal, Speiropsis scopiformis Kuthub. & Nawawi, Thozetella cristata Piroz. & Hodges, Umbellidion radulans Sutton & Hodges, Verticillium theobromae, Volutella sp. 2 and Zygosporium gibbum. The data show that the litter produced by C. melchiorii and C. nemorosa, at the Serra da Jibóia, is rich in conidial fungi. These fungi, as decomposers, are important for the dinamic of the studied ecosystem.

  6. Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata in the Aquatic Macrophytes in Dam of Ribeirão of Anhumas Screamers (Américo Brasiliense-Sp

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    Nathalie Aparecida De Oliveira Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes have different morphological structural complexities, offering to animals the availability of various niches. These plants are also an important substrate for the development of periphyton, which has a high nutritional value and is one of the main foods of aquatic invertebrates, mainly Naididae. This study aimed at examinining the diversity of Oligochaeta community in macrophytes belonging to genus Egeria sp. and Salvinia sp., in lagoons of Ribeirão das Anhumas dam. These macrophytes have distinct three-dimensional characteristics and different habits, being Egeria fixed submerged and Salvinia free floating. The collections of macrophytes were carried out between the months of August 2012 and April 2013. Samples of 100g (wet weight of each genus were taken from plant biomass and the removal of the plants from the environment was made with the aid of a sieve with 0.21 mm mesh. Considering the two macrophytes analyzed, Egeria sp. was the one that presented greater diversity, richness and abundance in relation to Salvinia sp. These results demonstrate that macrophytes are important for the establishment of oligochaetes, mainly providing protection and food, and possibly the morphology and habit of the plants are the most influential factors in the association of oligofauna with these plants.

  7. Discrimination of Pulp Oil and Kernel Oil from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Fingerprinting, Using GC-FID and Multivariate Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria-Machado, A.F.; Tres, Alba; Ruth, Van S.M.; Antoniassi, Rosemar; Junqueira, N.T.V.; Lopes, P.S.N.; Bizzo, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Pequi is an oleaginous fruit whose edible oil is composed mainly by saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. The biological and nutritional properties of pequi oil are dependent on its composition, which can change according to the oil source (pulp or kernel). There is little data in the

  8. Toxicidade aguda dos extratos hidroalcoólicos das folhas de alecrim-pimenta, aroeira e barbatimão e do farelo da casca de pequi administrados por via intraperitoneal Acute toxicity of leaf hydroalcoholic extracts of Lippia sidoides, Myracroduon urundeuva, Stryphnodendron adstringens and of Caryocar brasilliense administered by intraperitoneal route

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    Anna Christina Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou realizar ensaio toxicológico pré-clínico inicial para investigar a toxicidade das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides Cham., aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All. e barbatimão [Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville] e do farelo da casca de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., por meio da determinação da dose letal 50% (DL50. Na investigação da DL50, foram utilizados grupos de camundongos Swiss de mesmo sexo (n=150, sendo 30 animais por tratamento inoculados, por via intraperitoneal, com diluições seriadas do extrato hidroalcoólico das folhas de alecrim, aroeira e barbatimão e do farelo da casca de pequi. Após a inoculação, os animais foram observados por um período de 14 dias, para determinar a quantidade de mortos, doentes e sobreviventes. O estudo toxicológico pré-clínico agudo demonstrou, em camundongos por via intraperitoneal, toxicidade igual a 0,31mg mL-1 DL50 mL-1 para todas as plantas, exceto para o barbatimão, que apresentou toxicidade igual a 0,25mg mL-1. Pesquisas devem ser realizadas visando a obter dados de toxicidade das plantas em outras vias para assegurar o uso em saúde humana e animal.This study aimed to conductpre-clinical toxicology testing to investigate the toxicity of Lippia sidoides Cham., Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All., Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville and Caryocar brasiliense Camb., by determining the 50% (LDL50 lethal dose. In the investigation of the LD50, groups of Swiss mice of the same sex were used (n=150; 30 animals per plant and all inoculated intraperitoneally with serial dilutions of the aqueous fraction obtained from the leaves of plants. After inoculation, the animals were observed along a period of 14 days in order to observe the dead, sick and survivors rate. In mice inoculated intraperitoneally, the acute pre-clinical toxicology testing demonstrated toxicity equal to 0,31mg mL-1 LD50 mL-1 for all plants. The exception was for Stryphnodendron

  9. Florística e estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo de uma floresta higrófila da bacia do rio Jacaré-Pepira, SP, Brasil Floristics and structure of the shrub and the tree-layer of a swamp forest in Jacaré-Pepira river, Southeastern Brazil

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    Márcia C. M. Marques

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As florestas higrófilas são formações ribeirinhas caracterizadas por ocorrerem em solo permanentemente encharcado e restritas a pequenos fragmentos junto a outros tipos vegetacionais. Neste trabalho caracterizaram-se a florística e a estrutura do componente arbustivo-arbóreo (plantas com DAP>5cm de uma área de 0,36ha de floresta higrófila localizada em Brotas (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m.s.m., Estado de São Paulo, usando-se método de parcelas (total de 24 parcelas. No total foram amostrados 735 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 famílias e 51 espécies. As espécies que se destacaram na comunidade devido aos elevados valores de importância foram Calophyllum brasiliense Camb., Protium almecega L. Marchand, Podocarpus sellowii Klotzch., Tapirira guianensis Aubl. e Dendropanax cuneatum DC. Decne. & Planch. O índice de diversidade de Shannon foi igual a 2,81, valor pouco superior aos descritos para florestas semelhantes. Na comunidade, as espécies generalistas com relação ao encharcamento do solo e as de solo drenado contribuíram na riqueza total (juntas 62% do total de espécies amostradas, enquanto as espécies de solo encharcado tiveram maior contribuição na composição da dominância (66% da dominância total e densidade (67% da densidade total relativas. A diversidade de situações topográficas e a entrada de espécies da vegetação do cerrado adjacente permitiram que espécies com diferentes exigências hídricas se estabelecessem na área relativamente pequena da floresta e influenciaram fortemente a florística e estrutura da comunidade.Swamp forests occur in permanently flooded small forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. We studied the floristic composition and community structure (plants with DBH>5cm of a swamp forest in Brotas municipality (48º06'W 22º16'S, 470m high, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 735 individuals, 32 families, and 51 woody species were recorded in the area. The most important species were

  10. “Utopia na mente de alguns”: a representação da urbe brasiliense pelos punks na década de 1980 = Utopia in the mind of some: the representation of city brasiliense by the punks in the decade of 1980

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    Prado, Gustavo dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos referentes à música enquanto objeto de pesquisa trazem à luz uma série de desafios sobre os procedimentos teórico-metodológicos com relação a esse tipo de fonte. O trabalho em questão pretende discutir sobre uma parcela do movimento punk dos anos 80 que se expandiu em vários centros urbanos brasileiros. Notar-se-á que tal fenômeno cultural, na cidade de Brasília, promoveu o surgimento de bandas de garagem, com jovens punks destacando em suas canções questionamentos no que tange à experiência de viver em Brasília, subjetivando suas relações sociais, tendo como cenário as projeções modernistas encontradas no Plano Piloto de Lúcio Costa, bem como na arquitetura de Oscar Niemeyer. Pretende-se demonstrar que, ao criticar o planejamento da cidade modernista, tais jovens projetaram em seu eu uma crítica aos efeitos sociais trazidos pela própria modernidade na esfera do cotidiano, efeitos esses que foram sentidos e discutidos em seu tempo sob a trilha sonora do punk

  11. Anti-HIV coumarins from Calophyllum seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spino, C; Dodier, M; Sotheeswaran, S

    1998-12-15

    The seeds of Calophyllum cerasiferum Vesque (Family-Clusiaceae), and Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Family-Clusiaceae) contain several known coumarins, among which were the potent HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors costatolide and inophyllum P. Calophyllum cerasiferum contained (-)-calanolide B as its major coumarin constituent in significant amount and thus constitute a renewable source of this compound.

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Garcinia kola were ineffective. Introduction ... preparation of the later include Citrus aurantifolia (lime) juice, Citrus aurantium (Orombo igun) and. Aframomum .... Mimosoide- Fabaceae. Fruits. Garcinia kola Heckel. Clusiaceae. Fruits. Nicotiana tabacum Linn. Solanaceae. Whole plant. Securidaca longepedinculata Fres.

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Somalia (Acanthaceae) from the miombo woodlands of western Tanzania Abstract · Vol 98, No 1 (2009) - Articles Aspects of the floral and fruit biology of Allanblackia stuhlmannii (Clusiaceae), an endemic Tanzanian tree. Abstract.

  14. Anti-HIV-1 protease activities of crude extracts of some Garcinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clusiaceae) family collected in Tanzania were investigated for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitory activities using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the tested extracts, the fruit hulls of Garcinia semseii showed the most ...

  15. Atividade inseticida de óleos essenciais e fixos sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae em grãos de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.] Insecticide activity of essential and fixed oils in Callosobruchus maculatus (FABR., 1775 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae in cowpea grains [Vigna unguiculata (L. WALP.

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    Adriana Carla Ribeiro Lopes Pereira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O caruncho, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., é considerado a praga mais importante do caupi, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., armazenado em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. Visando minimizar os efeitos indesejáveis dos inseticidas químicos sintéticos, o controle dessa praga com óleos de origem vegetal vem se constituindo numa alternativa promissora, de baixo custo e segura para os aplicadores e consumidores. Foram testados os óleos essenciais [(Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. J.F. Watson], Piper aduncum L., Piper hispidinervum C.DC., Melaleuca sp., Lippia gracillis Shauer e fixos (Helianthus annuus L, Sesamum indicum L, Gossypium hirsutum L., Glycine max (L. Merr. e Caryocar brasiliense Camb., em grãos de caupi, cv. Sempre Verde. Os óleos foram utilizados nas concentrações 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50mL/20g, correspondendo a 0,5, 1,0, 1,5, 2,0 e 2,5 L/t e impregnados aos grãos no interior de recipientes de plástico, com auxílio de pipetador automático e agitados manualmente durante dois minutos. Parcelas de 20g de caupi foram infestadas com oito fêmeas de C. maculatus, com 0 a 48 h de idade. Cada óleo foi testado, separadamente, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com seis repetições. Os óleos essenciais de C. martini, P. aduncum e L. gracillis causaram 100% de mortalidade em todas as concentrações, P. hispidinervum a partir de 1,5 L/t e Melaleuca sp. nas concentrações de 2,0 e 2,5 L/t. A redução do número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos foi de 100% para todos os óleos essenciais, exceto Melaleuca sp. Por outro lado, os óleos fixos, apesar de apresentarem baixa mortalidade em todas as concentrações testadas, reduziram em praticamente 100% o número de ovos viáveis e de insetos emergidos.The weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr. is considered the most important pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., stored in tropical and subtropical regions. Focusing to minimize the undesired effects of synthetic chemical

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of BK Polyomavirus Strains from Two Patients with Urinary Tract Infection, Sequenced Using the Ion Torrent Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Graham; Ranellou, Kyriaki; Misra, Raju; Crump, Colin; Wooldridge, David; Parmar, Surendra; Maddren, Christopher; Gharbia, Saheer; Jalal, Hamid

    2017-11-16

    BK polyomavirus is an important pathogen in kidney transplant patients. We report here two complete genome sequences, those of isolates CAMB-1035 and CAMB-1055, identified in two urine samples tested for urinary tract infection at a hospital in eastern England, United Kingdom. Variation and phylogenetic analyses indicate that both isolates belong to subtype Ib-1. Copyright © 2017 Rose et al.

  17. QUALITY OF COOKIES FORMULATED WITH DIFFERENT PEQUI PEEL FLOUR CONTENTS QUALIDADE DE BISCOITOS FORMULADOS COM DIFERENTES TEORES DE FARINHA DE CASCA DE PEQUI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Nakamoto Koakuzu

    2009-03-01

    -decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="justify"> 

    KEY-WORDS: Caryocar brasiliense Camb.; residue; product development; dietary fiber.

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade de biscoitos tipo cookie, formulados com diferentes níveis de farinha de casca de pequi (FCP, em substituição à farinha de trigo (FT. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com controle mais quatro tratamentos (12,5%; 25%; 37,5%; e 50% de substituição de FT por FCP, e quatro repetições. Foram analisados: aceitabilidade, cor (luminosidade, composição centesimal, valor energético e teores de alguns minerais de cada amostra. Os dados foram avaliados por meio de análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste Tukey. Com a elevação da substituição da FT por FCP, os biscoitos ficaram mais escuros, com maiores teores de fibra alimentar, umidade, cinzas, magnésio, manganês e cobre e menores teores de carboidratos, proteínas, lipídios e valor energético. Em relação à aceitabilidade, o biscoito com até 25% de substituição da FT por FCP não difere daquele sem FCP, alcançando uma intenção de compra

  18. Antibacterial and antifungal activity and Bone healing Potency of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts exhibited significant antibacterial and antifungal activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Enterococcus feacalis, Streptococcus pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter species, Proteus mirabilis, Aspergillus flarus, Candida albizans, Microsporuim camb, Tenea pedis ...

  19. Efeitos da substituição parcial da banha de porco por óleo de pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) em uma dieta ocidental sobre o metabolismo, a função cardíaca e o estado redox celular de ratos

    OpenAIRE

    César, Nayara Rayne

    2015-01-01

    O padrão dietético ocidental, caracterizado pelo alto consumo de gordura saturada e carboidratos refinados, favorece o acúmulo de tecido adiposo e o surgimento de várias doenças cardiometabólicas (DCM). Atualmente, tem-se considerado que não apenas a quantidade, mas o perfil das gorduras ingeridas pode exercer forte influência sobre o desenvolvimento dessas doenças. Nesse contexto, vários estudos têm demonstrado que o consumo de alimentos fontes de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (MUFA) está as...

  20. In Vivo Measurement of Drug Efficacy in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    vinblastine probes for live cell imaging . Chem Commun (Camb). 2016 Aug 2;52(64): 9953-6. doi: 10.1039/c6cc04129a. 3. Dubach JM, Kim E, Yang K, Cuccarese M...probes for live cell imaging . Chem Commun (Camb). 2016 Aug 2;52(64): 9953-6. doi: 10.1039/c6cc04129a. 3. Dubach JM, Kim E, Yang K, Cuccarese M, Giedt

  1. Jamila et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., (2017) 14 (2): 374 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nargis

    Jamila et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med., (2017) 14 (2): 374-382 ... 7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra. Keywords: Carbon ... Garcinia, a genus of Guttiferae (Clusiaceae) family, is enriched with potential bioactive compounds such as.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Richomme, P. Vol 5, No 3 (2011) - Articles In vitro antioxidant and anti-HIV-1 protease (PR) activities of two Clusiaceae plants endemic to Tanzania Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  3. DNA barcoding survey of Trichoderma diversity in soil and litter of the Colombian lowland Amazonian rainforest reveals Trichoderma strigosellum sp. nov. and other species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Quintero, C.A.; Atanasova, L.; Franco-Molano, A.E.; Gams, W.; Komon-Zelazowska, M.; Theelen, B.; Muller, W.H.; Boekhout, T.; Druzhinina, I.

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) colonizing leaf litter as well as the rhizosphere of Garcinia macrophylla (Clusiaceae) was investigated in primary and secondary rain forests in Colombian Amazonia. DNA barcoding of 107 strains based on the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2

  4. Endemism due to climate change: Evidence from Poeciloneuron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fossil leaf resembling Poeciloneuron indicum Bedd. (Clusiaceae) is described from the Late Oligocene (Chattian 28.4–23 Myr) sediments of Assam. The modern analogue is endemic to the Western Ghats which is situated in the same palaeolatitude. Its presence, along with other known fossil records, indicates that the ...

  5. Analyse de l'intérêt socio-économique des graines de Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clusiaceae) dans la commune de Koumassi (Abidjan), Côte d'Ivoire. ... La valeur commerciale de "petit kola" est de 1 000 XOF à 1 500 XOF par kilogramme en général. La recette journalière obtenue est proportionnelle au volume de la vente de ...

  6. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 3-methoxy quercetin isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 3-methoxy quercetin isolated from Nigerian mistletoe parasitic on Garcinia kola. Heckel, Clusiaceae. Edwin O Omeje1,2,3*, Sylvester C Nworu4, Patience O Osadebe1, Lawrence. Onugwu1, Rakesh Maurya3, Sunday N Okafor1 and Peter Proksch5.

  7. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and “wonder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... and Garcinia kola were ineffective in vitro. Key words: Medicinal plants, unorthodox medicine, Epa-ijebu, ... Garcinia kola Heckel. Clusiaceae. Fruits. Nicotiana tabacum Linn. Solanaceae ... (lime) juice, Citrus aurantium (Orombo igun) and. Aframomum melegueta (Ataare) fruit. Others are animal.

  8. Analyse de l'intérêt socio-économique des graines de Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clusiaceae) dans la commune ... Koumassi (Abidjan), les composantes sociales et les caractéristiques physique et économique de la graine de G. kola ou "petit kola" ont été ..... pays d'origine pour un autre est le travail. Le commerce des produits ...

  9. Herbal gardens of India: A statistical analysis report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Celastraceae. 16. 0. 0. 3. 19. Chenopodiaceae. 3. 2. 0. 0. 5. Cleomaceae. 0. 2. 0. 0. 2. Clusiaceae. 0. 0. 0. 19. 19. Cochlospermaceae. 0. 0. 0. 2. 2. Colchicaceae, Liliaceae. 19. 0. 0. 0. 19. Combretaceae. 3. 0. 1. 128. 132. Commelinaceae. 0. 2. 0. 0. 2. Convolvulaceae. 15. 32. 0. 0. 47. Costaceae. 0. 17. 2. 0.

  10. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Clusia rosea Jacq. (Autograph tree; Pitch apple) of Clusiaceae is an attractive compact evergreen tree with colored sap. The leaves are opposite, simple, darkgreen, thick and leathery. Flowers are large, attractive and occur solitary in the leaf axils. As the flower opens, the staminodes (sterile stamens) in the female flower ...

  11. Feeding and decoration preferences of the epialtidae crab Acanthonyx scutiforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Vasconcelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the feeding preferences of marine herbivores are very important for our better understanding of the biology and the ecological role of these organisms. Members of the family Epialtidae are usually herbivores that mask themselves with pieces of seaweed and other materials to avoid predation. In order to better understand the mechanisms of food and decorating choices of the decorator crab Acanthonyx scutiformis, two multiple-choice feeding assays were performed using fresh seaweeds and artificial food containing crude extracts of the four seaweeds Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Dictyota menstrualis, offered simultaneously to this crab species. In both assays the seaweed most consumed was O. obtusiloba, followed by P. brasiliense and Sargassum sp., while D. menstrualis was the least consumed. It is suggested that A. scutiformis is a generalist feeder, but with some preference for the perennial red seaweed O. obtusiloba and the chemically-defended seaweed P. brasiliense. Decorating behavior observations revealed the preferences of A. scutiformis by P. brasiliense. This decorating behavior can be interpreted as a mechanism to avoid generalist predators, since feeding and decorating preference were not associated and the crab used only small pieces of chemically defended algae.Estudos sobre preferência alimentar de herbívoros marinhos são muito importantes para o melhor entendimento da importância biológica e ecológica destes organismos. Caranguejos majídeos são usualmente herbívoros que se camuflam com pedaços de macroalgas e outros materiais para evitar a predação. Para entender melhor os mecanismos de escolha de alimento e decoração do caranguejo decorador Acanthonyx scutiformis, foram realizados dois ensaios de múltipla escolha usando macroalgas frescas e alimentos artificiais contendo extratos brutos das macroalgas Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp. e Dictyota

  12. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julliane

    2015-07-01

    Jul 1, 2015 ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi. (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were ...

  13. Helmintos parasitos do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae, no rio Araguaia, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. C. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 65 exemplares de pirarucu em agosto de 2004, provenientes do rio Araguaia, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil para o estudo dos seus helmintos parasitos. Cinco espécies foram registradas parasitando Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea nas brânquias, Nilonema senticosum e Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda na vesícula gasosa e no estômago respectivamente; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea e Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala no intestino. Os valores mais altos de prevalência foram observados para D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96,9%. Os maiores valores de intensidade e abundância média foram calculados para C. brasiliense e N. senticosum (61 e 46,9, respectivamente. Todas estas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez na Bacia do Rio Araguaia.Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%. Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively. All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  15. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 13, No 37 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Greek style yogurt flavored with pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Effects of jaboticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels in healthy rats · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Greek style yogurt flavored with pequi ( Caryocar Brasiliense , Cambess) ... Abstract. The aim of this study was to develop Greek yogurt flavored with pequi and to assess its physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, as well as its shelf-life, sensory ...

  17. Page 1 JOURNAL, OFTHE CAMEROONACADEMY OFSCIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal samples from 131 household dogs were examined forgastrointestinal helminth parasites using the simple floatation method. ... ing parasite species: Toxocara camis(34.35%), 4ncylostoma caninum (73.28%), 4ncylostoma brasiliense (1450%),. Uncinaria Stenocephala(26 .... Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of ...

  18. Computer-aided Framework for Design of Pure, Mixed and Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Design of novel chemical products with process and application considerations is an emerging topic in thefield of chemical and biochemical engineering. Methods, such as Computer Aided Molecular Design(CAMD) [1] and Computer-aided Mixture and Blend Design (CAMbD) [2], provide the possibility...... metrics that must be included in today’s product designs, consequently makes the problem harder to mathematically formulate and to solve.In this work, a framework for computer-aided design of pure, mixed and blended chemical products hasbeen developed. The framework is a systematic approach to formulate...... and solve CAMbD problems throughfour sequential steps. In the first step, the needs, target properties and product type are defined. In the second step, the CAMbD is formulated together with objectives and process/application model. In the third step,the formulation is then converted into a mixed integer...

  19. Structures of new secofriedelane and friedelane acids from Calophyllum inophyllum of French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, F; Herbette, G; Faure, R; Bianchini, J P; Raharivelomanana, P; Fogliani, B

    2005-01-01

    Three new friedelane-type triterpenoids, 3,4-secofriedelan-3,28-dioic acid (1), 27-hydroxyacetate canophyllic acid (2) and 3-oxo-27-hydroxyacetate friedelan-28-oic acid (3), were isolated from the leaves of Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) grown in French Polynesia. Their structures were established by the concerted application of 2D NMR techniques including gs-COSY, gs-HMQC and gs-HMBC. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. New tricyclic and tetracyclic pyranocoumarins with an unprecedented C-4 substituent. Structure elucidation of tamanolide, tamanolide D and tamanolide P from Calophyllum inophyllum of French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, T; Raharivelomanana, P; Soulet, S; Bianchini, J P; Herbette, G; Faure, R

    2009-11-01

    Three new pyranocoumarin derivatives, tamanolide (1), tamanolide D (2) and tamanolide P (3), were isolated from the almond seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) grown in French Polynesia. These compounds, having an unprecedented C-4 isobutyl substituent, have been characterized as a new class of pyranocoumarins called tamanolides. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, NOESY, HSQC and HMBC) in association with MS (HR-ESI-MS) data analysis. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. SENYAWA FENOLAT DARI KAYU BATANG Garcinia picrorhiza Miq

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Dewi Astuti; Taslim Ersam

    2009-01-01

    Senyawa biflavonoid, 5,7,4',3",5",7",12-heptahidroksi-12-metilhidrofuran-(3''',4''')3,8"-biflavanon (1), dan benzofenon, 2,2',4-trihidroksibenzofenon (2), telah diisolasi dari ekstrak etilasetat kayu batang Garcinia picrorhiza Miq (Clusiaceae). Ekstrak etilasetat difraksinasi dengan metode kromatografi berulang. Penentuan struktur dilakukan berdasarkan data spektroskopi (UV, IR, 1H-NMR dan 13C-NMR) dan perbandingan spektrum dengan biflavonoid dan benzofenon ynag telah dikenal. Dilakukan pu...

  2. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia lancifolia

    OpenAIRE

    R S Policegoudra; Saikia, S.; Das, J.; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L; Veer, V

    2012-01-01

    Garcinia lancifolia (Clusiaceae) is an unexplored medicinal plant used as stomachic, diuretic and its fruit is used to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. The acidic fruits are used to prepare juice, pickle and curries. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts of G. lancifolia leaf, stem and fruit revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The high phenolic content was observed in the methanol extract of leaf followed by methanol ex...

  3. Chemosystematic aspects of polyisoprenylated benzophenones from the genus Clusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Anholeti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Benzophenone derivatives are special metabolites that arouse great scientific interest. The Clusiaceae family is known for producing large amounts of benzophenone derivatives with several isoprene residues on their structures, which are responsible for the observed complexity and structural variety in this class of substances, and also contribute to their biological activities. Clusia is an important genus belonging to Clusiaceae, with 55 different polyisoprenylated benzophenones identified so far. These substances were analyzed from biosynthetic and chemosystematic points of view, allowing the determination of characteristics regarding their production, accumulation and distribution within this genus. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones found in Clusiashowed a high prenylation degree, with 2 to 5 isoprene units and a greater occurrence in flowers and fruits. Section Cordylandra showed a very similar occurrence of 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzophenone derivatives and bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione derivatives, the majority of them with 4 isoprene units. In section Anandrogyne there is a predominance of simple 2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzophenone derivatives, with 2 isoprene units, and in Chlamydoclusia predominates bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-2,4,9-trione derivatives with 4 isoprene units. Although highly prenylated, these substances showed low oxidation indexes, which from an evolutionary perspective corroborates the fact that Clusiaceae is a family in transition, with some common aspects with both basal and derived botanical families.

  4. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES, DFT AND QSAR STUDIES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties vary by changing the theory (DFT to HF) or functional. (B3LYP to CAM-B3LYP). .... HOMO energy (EHOMO), LUMO energy (ELUMO) and HOMO–LUMO energy gap (Egap) in eV, absorption wavelengths (λa)* in nm of studied compounds. System. EHOMO. ELUMO. Egap. Egap λa a λa.

  5. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. I I , 247- 254 ( I 981 ) PRACTICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. agric. Sci. Camb.,93,607. CRONJE, K.G., l9l3.Ondersoek na die invloed van verskillende drogingstegnieke op die samestelling van gedroogde groenvoer en kuilvoer. M.Sc. Tesis Universiteit van Stellenbosch-. DANLEY, M.M. & VETTER, R.L., l9l l. Changes in carbohydrate and nitrogen fractionsand digestibilityof orages:.

  6. Reference: 574 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tor-like kinase ALE2 controls shoot development by specifying epidermis in Arabidopsis. 9 1643-52 17376810 2007 May Development (Camb...ridge, England) Hiroe Tomonori|Ikezaki Masaya|Machida Chiyoko|Machida Yasunori|Sasa

  7. Experiment list: SRX1008307 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available train=B6129SF1 crossed with C57BL/6 || cell type=Fetal Liver, Lineage-Sca1+c-Kit+ (LSK) || chip antibody=H3K27ac (ab4729, Abcam, Camb...ridge, MA, USA) http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu

  8. Stokes flow with slip and Kuwabara boundary conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    But, it is sufficient to obtain a relatively simple analytical expression that takes into account the effect of the ... symmetric flow that has a simple analytical solution in closed form, and thus can be used for drag calculations. ..... [6] Stokes G G, On the effects of internal friction of fluids on pendulums, J. Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc.

  9. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Hubert Göft

    cultivated grape, Vitis vinifera L. Genet. Res. Camb. 81:179-192. Crespan M, Botta R, Milani N (1999). Molecular characterization of twenty seeded and seedless table grape cultivars (V. vinifera L.). Vitis. 38:87-92. Doligez A, Adam Blondon AF, Cipriani G, Gaspero GD, Laucou V,. Merdinoglu D, Meredith CP, Riaz S, Roux C, ...

  10. "Escola Familia": A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carani, George; Carani, José; Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    "Alphabetização" (literacy) of young children involves a school exclusively devoted to the early years, parental participation, and teachers specialized in early literacy. This is the basis of José Carani's proposal for an "escola familia" in the municipality of Cambé (Brazil). This "Note from the Field," based on our…

  11. Experimental study of slow sand filtration for the treatment of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment by slow sand filtration is a biological process which consists in filtering wastewater through a porous media. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performances of this biotechnology under tropical climate. Three sand filters were monitored at ONAS (Cambérène wastewater treatment plant in ...

  12. Macroergonomic analysis of an assembly sector of a furniture company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiane, A A Z; Danielle, M D; Vanessa, C B

    2012-01-01

    From of Macroergonomic Analysis of Work were diagnosed the main ergonomics demands in a furniture company in the city of Cambé, Paraná. Through this method we could identify the most problematic points of the analyzed environment for posterior solutions of improvement with the objective of increasing the working and psychological quality of the employees, motivating their good performance and satisfaction.

  13. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture 2. Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prohibitedmay also playa role. Vir twee weke voor die aanvang van die jaarlikse .... e.g. endogenous opioids, oxytocin, melatonin, or their antago- nists. Not only do calves suckle less frequently at night ... reproductive activities of Bunaji cows during the post partum period. J. agric. Sci., Camb. 107,235. GREGG, D.W., MOSS ...

  14. PC Greyling CH van Niekerk* Most investigators determine puberty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progesterone concentrations, cyclic activity for kids weaned in December and April on a high- or low-energy diet, started at 7,6 .... exogenous hormones are unnecessary. ..... Sexual behaviour and reproductive performance of ewe lambs at and after puberty. J. Agric. Sci., Camb. 90, 83. FOSTER, D.L. & KARSCH, F.J., 1975.

  15. Page 1 Linear and non-linear magnetoconvection 135 for P = 10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anal. 34.218. [5] Herron I H 1980 Phys. Fluids 23 836. [6] Lapwood E R 1948 Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 44.508. [7] Narayanan R, Shivakumara IS and Rudraiah N 1984 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (submitted). [8] Naimark M A 1954 Dok. Akad. Nank SSSR 98 727. [9] Prabhamani R P and Rudraiah N 1973 ASME J. Appl. Mech.

  16. 2213-IJBCS-Article-Namory Diop

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Wastewater treatment by slow sand filtration is a biological process which consists in filtering wastewater through a porous media. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performances of this biotechnology under tropical climate. Three sand filters were monitored at ONAS (Cambérène wastewater treatment plant in ...

  17. Plants of the Cerrado with antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O Ribeiro, Izabella Carolina; Mariano, Emanuelly Gomes A; Careli, Roberta T; Morais-Costa, Franciellen; de Sant'Anna, Felipe M; Pinto, Maximiliano S; de Souza, Marcelo R; Duarte, Eduardo R

    2018-01-30

    Both diarrhea in calves and mastitis in cows limit cattle production. The bacteria involved in these diseases have shown multi-resistance to antimicrobials, however plant metabolites therefore can provide an alternative method of control. This study selected and characterized Cerrado plant extracts showing inhibitory effects against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. from cattle. Thirteen leaf extracts were initially screened and diameters of inhibition zones produced against the pathogens were recorded using an agar disk diffusion method. Total condensed tannin contents were determined and antibacterial activities were analyzed after tannin removal from the five selected extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were evaluated by macro-dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests, and the extracts were characterized by high performance liquid chromatography. Inter- and intra-specific bacterial variations in the susceptibility to the extracts were detected. The aqueous extract (AE) from Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. leaves produced larger inhibition zones against E. coli strains than did other selected extracts. However, the AE from Schinopsis brasiliensis was the most effective against Staphylococcus spp. strains (P < 0.001). The MIC of ethanolic extracts (EE) from C. brasiliense (0.27 mg/mL) and S. brasiliensis (0.17 mg/mL) were lower than those of other extracts. The MIC and MBC of the Annona crassiflora EE were 6.24 mg/mL for all bacteria. Flavonoids were the main metabolites detected in the A. crassiflora EE as well as in the AE and EE from C. brasiliense, while tannins were the main metabolites in the S. brasiliensis leaf extracts. The AE from C. brasiliense was more effective against Gram-negative bacteria, while the AE from S. brasiliensis was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria. A. crassiflora EE and S. brasiliensis extracts are potent bactericide. After removal of the tannins

  18. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  19. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  20. New cholinesterase inhibitors from Garcinia atroviridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wen-Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Wong, Keng-Chong; Khaw, Kooi-Yeong; Vikneswaran, Murugaiyah

    2014-09-01

    A triflavanone, Garcineflavanone A (1) and a biflavonol, Garcineflavonol A (2) have been isolated from the stem bark of Garcinia atroviridis (Clusiaceae), collected in Peninsular Malaysia. Their structures were established using one and two-dimensional NMR, UV, IR and mass spectrometry and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed using docking procedure of AutoDock to disclose the binding interaction and orientation of these molecules into the active site gorge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gênero Calophyllum: importância química e farmacológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noldin Vânia Floriani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Calophyllum genus (Clusiaceae is composed of about 200 species, with a pantropical distribution. Some species are medicinal and are used against several diseases, including gastric ulcers, infectious pathologies, painful, inflammatory processes and as molluscicidal. A search in the literature regarding the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates cytotoxic activity against several cell lines, inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, antisecretory and cytoprotective properties, antinociceptive, molluscicidal and antimicrobial effects, among others, related particularly to the presence of coumarins, xanthones, flavonoids, and triterpenes.

  2. Metais pesados em águas superficiais como estratégia de caracterização de bacias hidrográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yabe Maria Josefa Santos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The input of heavy metals concentrations determinated by ICP-AES, in samples of the Cambé river basin, was evaluated by using the Principal Component Analysis. The results distinguishes clearly one site, which is strongly influenced by almost all elements studied. Special attention was given to Pb, because of the presence of one battery industry in this area. Some downstream samples were associated with the same characteristics of this site, showing residual action of contaminants along the basin. Other sites presented influence of soil elements, plus Cr near a tannery industry. This study allowed to distinguish different sites in the upper basin of the Cambé (Londrina-PR-BR, in accordance to elements input.

  3. Structural and spectroscopic properties of itraconazole and ketoconazole - Experimental and theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, Jacek; Czaja, Kornelia; Jodłowska-Siewert, Elżbieta; Dettlaff, Katarzyna; Żwawiak, Justyna; Kujawski, Radosław; Ratajczak, Tomasz; Bernard, Marek K.

    2017-10-01

    The paper compares the experimental FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra of itraconazole and ketoconazole with the DFT calculations using four different functionals. The highest conformity of the geometry of the optimized rotamer of itraconazole with the experimental data was obtained by applying the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level of theory whereas the M06L/6-31G (d,p) method was the most suitable for ketoconazole. The best compatibility between the experimental and theoretical UV spectra was observed with the use of CAM-B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method for both conazoles. The reason for the difference in the UV-Vis spectra of itraconazole and ketoconazole was discussed on the basis of time-dependent DFT and natural bond orbital methods.

  4. Cambios en la estructura y en la función familiar de los adolescentes en los últimos 16 años (1997-2013) y su relación con el apoyo social

    OpenAIRE

    Mesa Gallardo, María Inmaculada

    2017-01-01

    La adolescencia, es una etapa de grandes cambíos, un periodo de aprendizaje y autodescubrimiento en el que se pasa de la dependencia de la infancia a la interdependencia de la adultez a través de una transición dinámica, que se produce de forma gradual y a un ritmo individualizado. Es una etapa de inestabi...

  5. Predicting accurate fluorescent spectra for high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jacob; Heider, Emily C.; Campiglia, Andres; Harper, James K.

    2016-10-01

    The ability of density functional theory (DFT) methods to predict accurate fluorescence spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is explored. Two methods, PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP, are evaluated both in the gas phase and in solution. Spectra for several of the most toxic PAHs are predicted and compared to experiment, including three isomers of C24H14 and a PAH containing heteroatoms. Unusually high-resolution experimental spectra are obtained for comparison by analyzing each PAH at 4.2 K in an n-alkane matrix. All theoretical spectra visually conform to the profiles of the experimental data but are systematically offset by a small amount. Specifically, when solvent is included the PBE0 functional overestimates peaks by 16.1 ± 6.6 nm while CAM-B3LYP underestimates the same transitions by 14.5 ± 7.6 nm. These calculated spectra can be empirically corrected to decrease the uncertainties to 6.5 ± 5.1 and 5.7 ± 5.1 nm for the PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP methods, respectively. A comparison of computed spectra in the gas phase indicates that the inclusion of n-octane shifts peaks by +11 nm on average and this change is roughly equivalent for PBE0 and CAM-B3LYP. An automated approach for comparing spectra is also described that minimizes residuals between a given theoretical spectrum and all available experimental spectra. This approach identifies the correct spectrum in all cases and excludes approximately 80% of the incorrect spectra, demonstrating that an automated search of theoretical libraries of spectra may eventually become feasible.

  6. Education in Astronomy Through English Programs

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 右文

    2012-01-01

    The author is a member of an educational program funded by Kyushu University called “Developing a New Education Program in Studying Astronomy”. The program aims to promote basic knowledge of Science and Technology and refine the social interaction of students. His activities in the 2011 academic year included using a textbook on astrophysics with his English class, arranging a class meeting on astronomy in the Kyushu University summer program held at Pembroke College at the University of Camb...

  7. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of azobenzene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, P; Kaczmarek, A; Zaleśny, R; Matczyszyn, K; Bartkowiak, W; Ziółkowski, M; Cysewski, P

    2009-06-01

    The results of computations of spectroscopic parameters of lowest-lying electronic excited states of azobenezene derivatives are presented. The analysis of experimentally recorded spectra was supported by quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory. The theoretically determined resonant (two-photon absorption probabilities) and non-resonant (first-order hyperpolarisability) nonlinear optical properties are also discussed, with an eye towards the performance of recently proposed long-range corrected (LRC) schemes (LC-BLYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals).

  8. Structural and biochemical response of chloroplasts in tolerant and sensitive barley genotypes to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filek, Maria; Łabanowska, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Bednarska-Kozakiewicz, Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to characterize the changes of structural organization of chloroplasts of sensitive (Maresi) and tolerant (Cam/B1) barley genotypes upon soil drought (10days), which was applied in two stages of plant growth, i.e. seedlings and flag leaves. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique was used for the determination of changes in the concentration and nature of long-lived radicals and metal ions (Mn, Fe), measured directly in the structures of fresh leaves, occurring after stress treatment. Stronger variations of EPR parameters were found after drought stress application in the flag-leaf phase and for sensitive genotype. Chloroplasts of Cam/B1 were characterized by a larger surface area and less degradation of their structure during drought stress in comparison to Maresi. The data obtained from Raman spectra showed that better stress tolerance of the genotype was accompanied by greater accumulation of carotenoids in chloroplasts and was correlated with an increase in carotenoid radicals. The increase of the value of the electrokinetic potential (relative to control), which was slightly larger for the chloroplasts of Maresi than of Cam/B1, indicated the chemical reconstruction of the membrane leading to a reduction of their polarity during drought action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. DFT study of electron absorption and emission spectra of pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes of some lanthanide ions in the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuza, J; Godlewska, P; Lisiecki, R; Ryba-Romanowski, W; Kadłubański, P; Lorenc, J; Łukowiak, A; Macalik, L; Gerasymchuk, Yu; Legendziewicz, J

    2018-01-04

    The electron absorption and emission spectra were measured for the pyramidal LnPc(OAc) complexes in the solid state and co-doped in silica glass, where Ln=Er, Eu and Ho. The theoretical electron spectra were determined from the quantum chemical DFT calculation using four approximations CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ, CAM-B3LYP/CC-PVDZ, B3LYP/LANL2DZ and B3LYP/CC-PVDZ. It was shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental structural parameters and spectroscopic data was reached for the CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ model. The emission spectra were measured using the excitations both in the ligand and lanthanide absorption ranges. The possibility of energy transfer between the phthalocyanine ligand and excited states of lanthanide ions was discussed. It was shown that the back energy transfer from metal states to phthalocyanine state is responsible for the observed emission of the studied complexes both in the polycrystalline state and silica glass. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Electronic Structures and Optical Properties of Phenyl C71 Butyric Acid Methyl Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Rong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM has been adopted as electron acceptor materials in bulk heterojunction solar cells with relatively higher power conversion efficiency. The understanding of the mechanism and performance for the devices based upon PC71BM requires the information of conformations, electronic structures, optical properties, and so forth. Here, the geometries, IR and Raman, electronic structures, polarizabilities, and hyperpolarizabilities of PC71BM isomers are studied by using density functional theory (DFT; the absorption and excitation properties are investigated via time-dependent DFT with B3LYP, PBE0, and CAM-B3LYP functionals. The calculated results show that [6,6]PC71BM is more stable than [5,6]PC71BM due to the lower total energy. The vibrational modes of the isomers at IR and Raman peaks are quite similar. As to absorption properties, CAM-B3LYP functional is the suitable functional for describing the excitations of PC71BM because the calculated results with CAM-B3LYP functional agree well with that of the experiment. The analysis of transition configurations and molecular orbitals demonstrated that the transitions at the absorption maxima in UV/Vis region are localized π-π* transitions in fullerenes cages. Furthermore, the larger isotropic polarizability of PC71BM indicates that the response of PC71BM to applied external electric field is stronger than that of PC61BM, and therefore resulting into better nonlinear optical properties.

  11. Polen de las Mieles de la Patagonia Andina (Chubut-Argentina Pollen of honeys from the Andean Patagonia (Chubut-Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Forcone

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran mediante fotomicrografías tomadas con MO y MEB, 30 tipos polínicos, determinados en las mieles producidas en la región andina de Chubut (Patagonia Argentina. Los tipos morfológicos descriptos pertenecen a las siguientes familias: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae y Verbenaceae. La mayoría de los tipos polínicos descriptos fueron hallados en las mieles como polen de menor importancia o traza con excepción de Aristotelia chilensis y Escallonia sp., que alcanzaron la categoría de polen dominante, y de Lomatia hirsuta, hallada como polen secundario.Thirty pollen types identified in the honeys from the Andean region of Chubut are described and illustrated by means of LM and SEM photomicrographs. Pollen types belong to the following families: Alstroemeriaceae, Apiaceae, Buddlejaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Celastraceae, Clusiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Ericaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae, Lamiaceae, Papaveraceae, Polemoniaceae, Polygalaceae, Proteaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Saxifragaceae, Solanaceae, Thymelaceae, and Verbenaceae. Most pollen types described were found in the honeys as minor important pollen or traces, except Aristotelia chilensis, Escallonia sp., which reached the category of dominant pollen, and Lomatia hirsuta, which was found as secondary pollen.

  12. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram

  13. Development of new methodology for bioinseticide application for black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae control in rivers with irregular flow Desenvolvimento de nova metodologia para aplicação de bioinseticidas no controle de borrachudos (Diptera: Simuliidae em ribeirões com fluxo de água irregular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to develop methodological changes for applying the bio-pesticide Teknar ® to control the black fly in streams with irregular flow and identify black fly species in three streams (Cafezal, Cambé, Tamapuã in Southern Brazil. The only regular-flow stream Cafezal was the control stream; the other two streams had irregular flow and were selected to validate the new methodology. The traditional method for bio-insecticide application in the streams under study presented larval mortalities of 99.13% (Cafezal, 59.76% (Cambé, and 13.87% (Tamapuã . As a result of the new methodology, bio-insecticide concentration was determined according to the specific irregularities of the Tamapuã and Cambé streams and mortality percentages increased to 99.43% and 99.32%, respectively. Among the 229,251 immature Simuliidae collected during the experiment, Grenieriella pruinosum and Chirostilbia pertinax were the most abundant.Objetivando desenvolver adaptações metodológicas para aplicação de bioinseticida Teknar® no controle de simulídeos em ribeirões com fluxo de água irregular e identificar as espécies presentes, realizou-se experimentos nos ribeirões Cafezal, Cambé e Tamapuã, localizados no sul do Brasil. O primeiro, com fluxo de água regular de água, foi considerado como controle e os outros dois, com fluxos irregulares, foram as testemunhas para validação da nova metodologia proposta. Na metodologia tradicional, normalmente empregada para a aplicação do produto nos ribeirões considerados, foram alcançados as mortalidades larval de 99,13%, 59,76% e 13,87%, respectivamente. Para a nova metodologia, considerando no cálculo da concentração do produto aplicado as irregularidades específicas as ribeirões Cambe e Tamapuã, essas percentagens aumentaram para 99,43% e 99,32%. Durante os experimentos foram coletadas 229.251 imaturos, sendo Grenieriella pruinosum e Chirostilbia pertinax, as mais abundantes nesta

  14. Modelos ridge em planejamentos de misturas: uma aplicação na extração da polpa de pequi Ridge models in mixture planning: an application in the extraction of pequi pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Miranda Nepomucena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixture Models can be used in experimental situations involving areas related to food science and chemistry. Some problems of a statistical nature can be found, such as effects of multicollinearity that result in uncertainty in the optimization of a dependent variable. This study proposes the application of the ridge model adapted for mixture planning considering the Kronecker (K-model and Scheffe (S-Model methods applied to response surfaces. The method determined the proportions of hexane, acetone and alcohol proportions that resulted in the maximum response of percentage of extracted pequi (Caryocar brasiliense pulp oil.

  15. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents from Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimdjo, Marie C; Azebaze, Anatole G; Nkengfack, Augustin E; Meyer, A Michele; Bodo, Bernard; Fomum, Zacharias T

    2004-10-01

    The study of the chemical constituents of the root bark and the nut of Calophyllum inophyllum has resulted in the isolation and characterization of a xanthone derivative, named inoxanthone, 3, together with 12 known compounds: caloxanthones A, 4 and B, 5, macluraxanthone, 6, 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone, 7, calophynic acid, 8, brasiliensic acid, 9 inophylloidic acid, 10, friedelan-3-one, 11, calaustralin, 12, calophyllolide, 13, inophyllums C, 14 and E, 15. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral evidence. Their in vitro cytotoxicity against the KB cell line and their antibacterial activity and potency against a wide range of micro organisms were evaluated.

  16. Modelos ridge em planejamentos de misturas: uma aplicação na extração da polpa de pequi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Miranda Nepomucena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixture Models can be used in experimental situations involving areas related to food science and chemistry. Some problems of a statistical nature can be found, such as effects of multicollinearity that result in uncertainty in the optimization of a dependent variable. This study proposes the application of the ridge model adapted for mixture planning considering the Kronecker (K-model and Scheffe (S-Model methods applied to response surfaces. The method determined the proportions of hexane, acetone and alcohol proportions that resulted in the maximum response of percentage of extracted pequi (Caryocar brasiliense pulp oil.

  17. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by the tricyclic coumarin GUT-70 through the modification of membrane fluidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Kouki; Hattori, Shinichiro; Kariya, Ryusho [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Komizu, Yuji [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Kudo, Eriko; Goto, Hiroki; Taura, Manabu [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Ueoka, Ryuichi [Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Sojo University, 4-22-1 Ikeda, Nishi-ku, Kumamoto 860-0082 (Japan); Kimura, Shinya [Division of Hematology, Respiratory Medicine and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Okada, Seiji, E-mail: okadas@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Hematopoiesis, Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan)

    2015-02-13

    Membrane fusion between host cells and HIV-1 is the initial step in HIV-1 infection, and plasma membrane fluidity strongly influences infectivity. In the present study, we demonstrated that GUT-70, a natural product derived from Calophyllum brasiliense, stabilized plasma membrane fluidity, inhibited HIV-1 entry, and down-regulated the expression of CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4. Since GUT-70 also had an inhibitory effect on viral replication through the inhibition of NF-κB, it is expected to be used as a dual functional and viral mutation resistant reagent. Thus, these unique properties of GUT-70 enable the development of novel therapeutic agents against HIV-1 infection.

  18. Antimicrobial screening of some medicinal plants from Mato Grosso Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iberê E Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from stem barks of Bowdichia virgilioides, Calophyllum brasiliense, Cariniana rubra, Lafoensia pacari, and Stryphnodendron obovatum and rhizome of Simaba ferruginea and Dragon's blood red sap from Croton urucurana were screened against a panel of bacteria and fungi using the micro-broth dilution method. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana was the most effective antimicrobial plant material. Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense stem bark deserved distinction by their selective antibacterial activity. Lafoensia pacari stem bark polar extracts distinguished by their potent and selective anti-yeast activity and Bowdichia virgilioides polar and non-polar extracts by their antifungal activity towards hyalohypho-mycetes and dermatophytes. This is the first report showing antifungal activity for polar extracts of Cariniana rubra and Simaba ferruginea. This study has demonstrated antimicrobial activity of Mato Grosso Cerrado ethnomedicinal plants in in vitro assays and has indicated that they can be effective potential candidates for the development of new strategies to treat fungal and bacterial infections.

  19. Determinação do potencial antioxidante in vitro de frutos do Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lopes Morais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extratos em metanol e acetona de diferentes espécies do Cerrado, semente de Solanum lycocarpum A. St.-Hil (Lobeira, polpa de Byrsonima verbascifolia (L. DC. (Murici, epicarpo e mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense Cambess (Pequi e pendúculo de Cipocereus minensis F. Ritter (Quiabo-da-lapa foram submetidos a ensaios antioxidantes in vitro para avaliar a capacidade de sequestrar os radicais orgânicos DPPH e ABTS.+, reduzir o ferro (FRAP e/ ou inibir a peroxidação lipídica (β-caroteno. Todas as amostras apresentaram considerável atividade antioxidante, embora em diferentes proporções, destacando-se o mesocarpo de Caryocar brasiliense como o responsável pela maior atividade antioxidante por captura de radicais livres (DPPH e ABTS e poder de redução do metal (FRAP e o pendúnculo de Cipocereus minensis frente à inibição da peroxidação lipídica (B-caroteno. Os frutos estudados podem ser considerados fontes potenciais de antioxidantes naturais e podem ser explorados como aditivos alimentares promissores para a prevenção de doenças, bem como para a manutenção da saúde.

  20. A dinâmica institucional de uso comunitário dos produtos nativos do cerrado no município de japonvar (Minas Gerais The institutional dynamics of the community use of cerrado's native products in the municipality of Japonvar (Minas Gerais state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldemir Inácio de Azevedo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto estuda um arranjo comunitário que administra o acesso e uso do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e outros frutos nativos do cerrado por grupos sociais que combinam agricultura familiar e coleta vegetal. O local do estudo fica em Japonvar, município do norte de Minas Gerais. Fundamenta-se na teoria dos bens e recursos de uso comum de Elinor Ostrom e adota uma perspectiva analítica institucionalista. Identifica e descreve cada componente social que exerce alguma influência sobre a experiência de uso comum do pequi e que configura a moldura institucional do funcionamento deste sistema coletivo.This article examines a social arrangement that allows community access and use of the pequi (Caryocar brasiliense and other native fruit species of the Brazilian savanna (cerrado by groups that combine family farming with plant collection. The study is focused on Japonvar, a municipality located in the north of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. It is grounded of the theory of common use of goods and resources developed by Elinor Ostrom and adopts an institutionalist perspective. It identifies and describes each social component that exerts influence on the common use experience of the pequi and is an operational part of the institutional framework of this collective system.

  1. Genetic polymorphism, molecular characterization and relatedness of Macrobrachium species (Palaemonidae) based on RAPD-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, A L; Lima, A V B; Taddei, F G; Castiglioni, L

    2010-11-30

    The prawn genus Macrobrachium belongs to the family Palaemonidae. Its species are widely distributed in lakes, reservoirs, floodplains, and rivers in tropical and subtropical regions of South America. Globally, the genus Macrobrachium includes nearly 210 known species, many of which have economic and ecological importance. We analyzed three species of this genus (M. jelskii, M. amazonicum and M. brasiliense) using RAPD-PCR to assess their genetic variability, genetic structure and the phylogenetic relationship between them and to look for molecular markers that enable separation of M. jelskii and M. amazonicum, which are closely related syntopic species. Ten different random decamer primers were used for DNA amplification, yielding 182 fragments. Three of these fragments were monomorphic and exclusive to M. amazonicum or M. jelskii and can be used as specific molecular markers to identify and separate these two species. Similarity indices and a phylogenetic tree showed that M. amazonicum and M. jelskii are closest to each other, while M. brasiliense was the most differentiated species among them; this may be attributed to the different habitat conditions to which these species have been submitted. This information will be useful for further studies on these important crustacean species.

  2. Enfermidades do sistema nervoso dos ruminantes no sul do Rio Grande do Sul Neurological diseases in ruminants in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Riet-Correa

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central dos ruminantes, diagnosticadas na região Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, incluindo: abiotrofia cerebelar; hipoplasia cerebelar; hipermetria hereditária; artrogripose; hipomielinogênese congênita; abscesso cerebral; listeriose; tétano; botulismo; necrose simétrica focal; raiva; leucose; encefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5; febre catarral maligna; intoxicações por Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Ramaria flavo-brunnescens, Halimium brasiliense e Diplodia maydis; encefalopatia hepática causada por Senecio spp. e Echium plantagineum; cetose; coenurose; e síndrome espinhal.The main epidemiological, clinical and pathologic aspects of the diseases of the nervous system in cattle in Southern Rio Grande do Sul are described, including, the following conditions: cerebellar abiotrophy; cerebellar hypoplasia; congenital hypermetria; arthrogryposis; congenital hypomyelinogenesis; brain abscess; listeriose; tetanus; botulism; focal symmetrical encephalomalacia; rabies; leucosis; encephalitis by Herpesvirus Bovine-5; bovino malignant catarrh; intoxications by Solanum fastigiatum, Claviceps paspali, Halimium brasiliense, Diplodia maydis, and Ramaria flavo-brunnescens; hepatoencephalopaty caused by Senecio spp. and Echium plantagineum; ketosis; coenurosis; and spinal syndrome.

  3. Distribution of metabolites in galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata and its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Essential oils of galled and non-galled leaves of Clusia lanceolata Cambess., Clusiaceae, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The chemical composition of both oils was similar, with a predominance of sesquiterpene caryophyllenes. The extracts from the leaves were evaluated regarding total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. Galled leaves showed higher levels of phenolics and proanthocyanidins, since the content of flavonoids was higher in non-galled leaves. The chromatographic profiles of extracts were obtained by using HPLC/DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Electrospray ionisation (ESI in positive and negative ion mode was used to identify four flavones C-glycosides in both extracts. The study constitutes a first report on the chemical research of C. lanceolata. The extract from galled leaves had a higher antioxidant activity.

  4. Screening of anti-HIV-1 inophyllums by HPLC-DAD of Calophyllum inophyllum leaf extracts from French Polynesia Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, Frédéric; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François; Bianchini, Jean-Pierre; Gaydou, Emile M

    2008-08-22

    Various pyranocoumarins, calophyllolide, inophyllums B, C, G(1), G(2) and P, from Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae) leaves of French Polynesia (Austral, Marquesas, Society and Tuamotu archipelagos) have been determined in 136 leaf extracts using a high pressure liquid chromatography-UV-diode array detection (HPLC-UV-DAD) technique. Results show a wide range in chemical composition within trees growing on eighteen islands. The use of multivariate statistical analyses (PCA) shows geographical distribution of inophyllums and indicate those rich in HIV-1 active (+)-inophyllums. Inophyllum B and P contents (0.0-39.0 and 0.0-21.8 mg kg(-1), respectively) confirm the chemodiversity of this species within the large area of French Polynesia. The study suggests the presence of interesting chemotypes which could be used as plant source for anti-HIV-1 drugs.

  5. Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Composition of Garcinia lancifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policegoudra, R S; Saikia, S; Das, J; Chattopadhyay, P; Singh, L; Veer, V

    2012-05-01

    Garcinia lancifolia (Clusiaceae) is an unexplored medicinal plant used as stomachic, diuretic and its fruit is used to cure dysentery and diarrhoea. The acidic fruits are used to prepare juice, pickle and curries. The phytochemical analysis of different extracts of G. lancifolia leaf, stem and fruit revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. The high phenolic content was observed in the methanol extract of leaf followed by methanol extract of stem and dichloromethane extract of leaf. The G. lancifolia fruit juice exhibited high antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus mycoides and Bacillus subtilis. The methanol extract of fruit pulp was also very effective against Gram-positive bacteria when compared with Gram-negative bacteria. The radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl was highest in fruit juice followed by methanol extract of leaf and stem. All extracts showed concentration-dependent increase in the antioxidant activity.

  6. Systematic analysis of in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity in extracts from terrestrial plants in Peninsula Malaysia for photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Cheng Yi; Ling, Sui Kiong; Ali, Rasadah Mat; Chee, Chin Fei; Samah, Zainon Abu; Ho, Anthony Siong Hock; Teo, Soo Hwang; Lee, Hong Boon

    2009-09-04

    One hundred and fifty-five extracts from 93 terrestrial species of plants in Peninsula Malaysia were screened for in vitro photo-cytotoxic activity by means of a cell viability test using a human leukaemia cell-line HL60. These plants which can be classified into 43 plant families are diverse in their type of vegetation and their natural habitat in the wild, and may therefore harbour equally diverse metabolites with potential pharmaceutical properties. Of these, 29 plants, namely three from each of the Clusiaceae, Leguminosae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae families, two from the Piperaceae family and the remaining 15 are from Acanthaceae, Apocynaceae, Bignoniaceae, Celastraceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Irvingiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Moraceae, Myristicaceae, Myrsinaceae, Olacaceae and Sapindaceae. Hibiscus cannabinus (Malvaceae), Ficus deltoidea (Moraceae), Maranthes corymbosa (Chrysobalanaceae), Micromelum sp., Micromelum minutum and Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae), Cryptocarya griffithiana (Lauraceae), Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae), Scorodocarpus bornensis (Olacaceae), Kokoona reflexa (Celastraceae), Irvingia malayana (Irvingiaceae), Knema curtisii (Myristicaceae), Dysoxylum sericeum (Meliaceae), Garcinia atroviridis, Garcinia mangostana and Calophyllum inophyllum (Clusiaceae), Ervatamia hirta (Apocynaceae), Cassia alata, Entada phaseoloides and Leucaena leucocephala (Leguminosae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae), Peronema canescens,Vitex pubescens and Premna odorata (Verbenaceae), Piper mucronatum and Piper sp. (Piperaceae), Ardisia crenata (Myrsinaceae), Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae), Strobilanthes sp. (Acanthaceae) were able to reduce the in vitro cell viability by more than 50% when exposed to 9.6J/cm(2) of a broad spectrum light when tested at a concentration of 20 microg/mL. Six of these active extracts were further fractionated and bio-assayed to yield four photosensitisers, all of which are based on the pheophorbide-a and -b core structures

  7. Proyecto de Educación para la Salud: Mi nueva vida en camino

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Blanco, Desirée; Vaquero Alonso, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Trabajo fin de grado en Enfermería La adolescencia se define como el periodo de crecimiento físico y psicosocial que marca la transición entre la infancia y la edad adulta. La adolescencia se inicia con la pubertad, pero no existe acuerdo para fijar su límite superior que vendría marcado por el aumento en el que el individuo alcanza la completa madurez física, psíquica y social (1). Esta etapa precisa una especial atención ya que en ella se producen una gran cantidad de camb...

  8. Introduction of the Serine Green Fluorescent Protein (SGFP) Gene Into Pyricularia Grisea Race Dc4 Isolated From Digitaria Ciliaris Using Agrobacterium Tumefaciens-mediated Genetic Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie, Stephanie; Widyastuti, Utut; Wiyono, Suryo

    2015-01-01

    Gene serin Green Fluorescent Protein (sGFP) has been used to monitor gene expression specific tagged proteins that has implication for fungal cell study. This research aimed to introduce sGFP gene into genome of P. grisea dc4 from D. ciliaris using A. tumefaciens. Plasmid sGFP was introduced into A. tumefaciens by triparental mating method (TPM). Genetic transformation was performed by co-cultivating spore P. grisea dc4 with A. tumefaciens LBA4404–pCAMB-sGFP. Pyricularia grisea dc4 transforma...

  9. Does a history of physical exposures at work affect hand-grip strength in midlife?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anne; Reventlow, Susanne; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2013-01-01

    were non-linear and primarily positive among men. Among women, the associations were non-linear and, according to ton-years, primarily negatively associated with HGS but statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: A history of physical exposures at work explained only a minor part of the variation in HGS......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to examine associations between physical exposures throughout working life and hand-grip strength (HGS) in midlife. METHODS: The Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) provided data about employment and HGS for 3843 Danes. Individual job histories...

  10. Composição química e variação sazonal dos óleos essenciais de Eugenia pyriformis (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanello, Maria É.A.; Wisniewski Jr., Alberto; Simionatto, Edésio L.; Cervi, Armando C.

    2009-01-01

    A composição química dos óleos essenciais obtidos por hidrodestilação de folhas (coletadas entre outubro/2005 e dezembro/2006), flores e frutos de Eugenia pyriformis Camb. (Myrtaceae), foi analisada por CG e CG/EM. Os óleos foram caracterizados pela presença de monoterpenos e sesquiterpenos em quantidades variáveis durante o ano. Nos óleos das folhas os principais componentes foram β-pineno, limoneno, 1,8-cineol e óxido de cariofileno. O teor destes compostos mostrou grande variação sazo...

  11. Mejora energética de las instalaciones de climatización e iluminación de Tecnoconfort

    OpenAIRE

    San Martin Donamaria, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Mi proyecto es sobre la sustitución del sistema de aire acondicionado actual en las oficinas, la enfriadora industrial y el sistema de iluminación. Además explico un sistema para obtener ahorros en la refrigeración. Este sistema se llama free cooling. En mi proyecto el objetivo mas importante es la mejora de la eficiencia energética. Decidí instalar una nueva tecnología llamada VRV para el sistema de aire acondicionado. Con este sistema conseguimos obtener grandes ahorros debido al camb...

  12. NLO properties of 1, 4-naphthoquinone, Juglone and Lawsone by DFT and Z-scan technique - A detailed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mande, Prashant; Mathew, Elizabeth; Chitrambalam, Subramaniyan; Joe, Isaac H.; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2017-10-01

    1, 4-Naphthoquinone, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Lawsone) and 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (Juglone) have been investigated for their nonlinear optical (NLO) properties using Z-scan technique and Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The Z-scan results show that all the three compounds have appreciable NLO properties. Among the three molecules Juglone showed the highest static hyperpolarizability value. The functional CAM-B3LYP performed better than BHHLYP and B3LYP in computing NLO properties. Solvent environment plays a decisive role in NLO properties of naphthoquinone derivatives. Polar solvent environment enhanced the NLO characteristics.

  13. Computer-aided Framework for Design of Pure, Mixed and Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for computer-aided design of pure, mixed and blended chemical based products. The framework is a systematic approach to convert a Computer-aided Molecular, Mixture and Blend Design (CAMbD) formulation, based on needs and target properties, into a mixed integer non......-linear program (MINLP). TheMINLP is sequentially solved through a decomposed optimization approach to solve the possibly large MINLP in a smaller set of sub-problems. The framework application is highlighted through a solvent design case study....

  14. La derrota de la agronomía, romper un camino a través del bosque

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Enrique

    2002-01-01

    Quienes tienen la fortuna de abrevar en las fuentes de la evolución saben que todo lo que nos rodea, sean ciudades y culturas, ciencia y tecnología, estructuras sociales, políticas y económicas, fauna y flora, o mitos, ritos, y símbolos, debe su existencia a los camb...

  15. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    on parameters involved in the study of photolysis as a source of in situ CO2. The concentration of organic substances in Greenland ice is poorly known due to their low levels and the fact that only a few studies evaluate the concentrations of specific organic compounds. Light does not penetrate deep...... depth was found as a function of wavelength. Further, by computational chemistry hybrid density functional methods (DFT), the four most common conformers of pyruvic acid were investigated in both gas, water and ice using the DFT model CAM-B3LYP with dielectric medium methods. A de rease of the energy...

  16. Young offenders and coexistence with drugs in the family environment

    OpenAIRE

    Catia Campaner Ferrari Bernardy; Magda Lúcia Féllix de Oliveira; Luzia Marta Bellini

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate drug use within the family of young institutionalized and discuss the role of family as an inducer of drug use by young people. It was a descriptive and transversal study, conducted in the municipalities of Rolândia Cambé — Paraná, the New Life Recovery Center, with 11 institutionalized youngsters and their parents in March 2007. As data source institutional records were used. And as instrument of interview two forms were applied: one to the y...

  17. Intervenciones para el tratamiento de las alteraciones de la imagen corporal en pacientes con cáncer

    OpenAIRE

    Borrás Barrachina, Aroa Milagro

    2016-01-01

    Treball de Final de Màster Universitari en Psicologia General Sanitària. Codi: SBF018. Curs acadèmic 2015-2016 La alteración de la imagen corporal es un problema psicosocial crítico para los pacientes con enfermedades oncológicas, ya que el cáncer y los tratamientos para el mismo frecuentemente producen cambios significativos en la apariencia y el funcionamiento del cuerpo. Es por ello que las intervenciones psicológicas juegan un papel muy importante en el proceso de adaptación a los camb...

  18. Dieta de Bryconamericus iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae em riachos da bacia do rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná =Diet of Bryconamericus iheringii (Ostariophysi: Characidae from streams of Tibagi river basin, Parana State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Gomiero Oricolli

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887 coletados nos riachos Cambé, Taquari, Água da Floresta e Baroré, localizados na bacia do rio Tibagi, Estado do Paraná, foram analisados para verificar sua dieta. As coletas foram padronizadas em todos os riachos. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. Verificou-se que a dieta de B. iheringii nos quatro riachos consistiu de itens alimentares que variaram em número, e os de maior importância foram: restos vegetais e detrito, no Cambé;detrito, no Taquari; algas filamentosas e restos vegetais, no Água da Floresta; detrito e restos de insetos, no Baroré. O comportamento de mudar de estratégia, de generalista para especialista, e de utilizar o item detrito, que é capturado apenas no fundo, como principalalimento, podem ser indicadores que trechos de riachos com águas mais lentas e profundas não são preferenciais para B. iheringii, como também não são para alguns grupos de insetos aquáticos que servem como seu alimento. Individuals of Bryconamericus iheringii (Boulenger, 1887, collected in the streams of Cambé, Taquari, Água da Floresta and Baroré, which belong to the Tibagi river basin (Parana Sate, Brazil, were analyzed for the purpose of diet study. The collection procedures were standardized in every stream. The stomach contents of the individuals were analyzed qualitative and quantitatively. The food items consumed by the species varied in number, and the main food item consumed differed in each stream. Thus, it was found: vegetable remains and debris, in Cambé; debris, in Taquari; filamentous algae and vegetable remains, in the Água da Floresta; and debris and remains of insects, in Baroré stream. The behavior shift from generalist to specialist strategy as well as the use of detritus as the main food, which can only be found in the river bottom, can indicate that stretches of streams with slower and deeper waters are not preferred

  19. Évaluation de la contamination parasitologique des eaux usées ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2013 ... RESUME. Objectif : Cette étude a été entreprise afin d'évaluer la contamination parasitologique des eaux usées domestiques collectées et épurées à la station à boue activée de Cambérène. Elle a permis d'une part d'identifier les œufs de différents helminthes et d'autre part de décrire la variation de la ...

  20. Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of a generalized Markov shift

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, I

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we calculate Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy $h_M(S)$ of the generalized Markov shift associated with a contractive Markov system (CMS) \\cite{Wer1} using the coding map constructed in \\cite{Wer3}. We show that \\[h_M(S)=-\\sum\\limits_{e\\in E}\\int\\limits_{K_{i(e)}} p_e\\log p_ed\\mu\\] where $\\mu$ is a unique invariant Borel probability measure of the CMS. I. Werner, Contractive Markov systems, J. London Math. Soc. (2005) 236-258. I. Werner, Coding map for a contractive Markov system, Math. Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. to appear 140 (2), March 2006.

  1. Forecasting LSST Sensitivity to Ultra-Light Dark Matter Axions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Emery; Grin, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Axions are proposed dark matter particles whose effects have yet to be measured by the current generation of telescopes. With the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) planning to start its scientific mission in 2021 we focus on the sensitivity of LSST to the cosmological effects of axions via measurements of galaxy clustering. By using axionCAMB to compute the effects that axions have on the matter power spectrum at high wavenumbers and taking into account the specifications of LSST we forecast constraints on the axion energy density over a wide range of ultra-light axion masses.

  2. El cambio climático y las migraciones por causas ambientales: dos factores desestabilizadores de las relaciones bilaterales entre India y Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Garzó, Mateo Andrés

    2016-01-01

    La presente investigación tiene como objetivo principal evaluar de qué manera el cambio climático y las migraciones por causas ambientales generan efectos en las relaciones bilaterales entre Estados, en particular en el caso de India y Bangladesh. En este sentido, el presente estudio de caso analiza las relaciones bilaterales entre estos dos Estados desde diferentes perspectivas, haciendo énfasis en el componente de las migraciones medioambientales y los fenómenos naturales asociados al camb...

  3. YEMEN'DE ŞEYH ZİNDÂNÎ İLE MÜLAKAT

    OpenAIRE

    ÜMİT, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdul_Majeed_al-Zindani (08.01.2014); Jillian Schwedler, Faith in Moderation Islamist Parties in Jordan and Yemen, Camb- ridge University Press, 2006, ss. 70, 176-177, 206-207; Jillian Schwedler, “Islam, Democracy and the Yemenite State”, Islam, Democracy and the Secu- larist State in the Post-Modern Era (April 7, 2001), Center for the Study of Is- lam and Democracy, Second Annnual Conference, Conference Proceedings, Washington, ss. 21-42, s. 26. Günümüzde Yeme...

  4. The Role of Vision and Mechanosensation in Insect Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural environments and niche construction: the evolution of dim-light foraging in bees . Biol. Rev. Camb. Phil. Soc. 84, 19–37. (doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X...developed have been successfully tested on bumblebees, halictid bees , flies, hornets and wasps, and we expect them to work on a large range of insects...developed have been successfully tested on bumblebees, halictid bees , flies, hornets and wasps, and we expect them to work on a large range of insects

  5. Experimental and Theoretical Study of O-Substituent Effect on the Fluorescence of 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie E. M. Zayed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of different ether and ester derivatives of 8-hydroxyquinoline have been made. UV-visible and fluorescence spectra of these compounds have revealed spectral dependence on both solvent and O-substituent. The fluorescence intensity of ether derivatives revealed higher intensity for 8-octyloxyquinoline compared with 8-methoxyquinoline, whereas those of ester derivatives had less fluorescence than 8-hydroxyquinoline. Theoretical calculations based on Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT were carried out for the quinolin-8-yl benzoate (8-OateQ compound to understand the effect of O-substituent on the electronic absorption of 8-hydroxyquinaline (8-HQ. The calculations revealed comparable results with those obtained from the experimental data. Optimized geometrical structure was calculated with DFT at B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The results indicated that 8-OateQ is not a coplanar structure. The absorption spectra of the compound were computed in gas-phase and solvent using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP methods with 6-311++G ** basis set. The agreement between calculated and experimental wavelengths was very good at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory.

  6. Land Planarian Assemblages in Protected Areas of the Interior Atlantic Forest: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete, Lisandro; Colpo, Karine D.; Brusa, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina), and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU) and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB). Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity) than the alpha diversity. PMID:24598934

  7. Paleomagnetic data for Siberia and Baltica in the context of testing some geodynamic models of the formation of the Central Asian Mobile Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatsillo, A. V.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Dronov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    The synthesis of the paleomagnetic data for the Siberian (Siberia) and East European (Baltica) platforms shows that since the Early Paleozoic they could have experienced coherent movements as a part of consolidated continental agglomeration (a composite continent), which also includes the Arctida continent. Based on the paleomagnetic data, the relative positions of the Siberia and Baltica during the Ordovician is reconstructed, and a series of paleogeographical reconstructions describing the drift of the composite continent is suggested. The results of the lithologic-facial analysis of the sedimentation settings within the Ordovician basins of the Siberian and East European platforms and paleoclimatic markers are consistent with the suggested configuration and paleogeographical position of the composite continent. The suggested reconstructions and the ages of detrital zircons from the Early Paleozoic complexes of the platform margins and some objects of the Central Asian Mobile Belt (CAMB) reasonably well agree with the hypothesis (Sengör et al., 1993) which interprets the formation of the structure of CAMB Paleozoides as a result of the evolution of the island arc stretching along the margins of Siberia and Baltica.

  8. Analysis of nonlinear optical properties in donor-acceptor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Paul N; Pachter, Ruth; Nguyen, Kiet A

    2014-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to calculate nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, including the first and second hyperpolarizabilities as well as the two-photon absorption cross-section, for the donor-acceptor molecules p-nitroaniline and dimethylamino nitrostilbene, and for respective materials attached to a gold dimer. The CAMB3LYP, B3LYP, PBE0, and PBE exchange-correlation functionals all had fair but variable performance when compared to higher-level theory and to experiment. The CAMB3LYP functional had the best performance on these compounds of the functionals tested. However, our comprehensive analysis has shown that quantitative prediction of hyperpolarizabilities is still a challenge, hampered by inadequate functionals, basis sets, and solvation models, requiring further experimental characterization. Attachment of the Au2S group to molecules already known for their relatively large NLO properties was found to further enhance the response. While our calculations show a modest enhancement for the first hyperpolarizability, the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability is predicted to be more than an order of magnitude.

  9. Detection of genotoxicity of water from an urbanized stream, in Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca) (in vivo) and CHO-K1 cells (in vitro) using comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigonato, Janaina; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Jordão, Berenice Quinzani

    2010-07-01

    The comet assay was utilized to investigate the quality of water from seven locations along the Cambé Stream, in vivo (Corbicula fluminea hemolymph), in vitro (CHO-K1 cells), in situ, and in laboratory studies. The Cambé Stream basin (Londrina, PR, Brazil) is almost completely urbanized and receives different forms of industrial and domestic runoff. The data indicated the occurrence of DNA damage in cells examined in vivo and in vitro, shown by the significant increase in frequencies of cells with DNA damage after exposure to water from all seven locations used in the study. Our results strongly suggest the presence of genotoxic agent(s) in water at all of the sampled locations, demonstrated by elevated numbers of cells with DNA damaged in field and laboratory tests. In all of the places sampled, domestic sewage influence appeared to be one important cause for the introduction of xenobiotics, environmental genotoxins, and pollutants into the water. Thus, the comet assay applied in these cell systems was able to detect adverse environmental conditions, proving to be a very adequate short-term test and should be included in batteries of tests utilized in the monitoring of aquatic environments.

  10. Land planarian assemblages in protected areas of the interior atlantic forest: implications for conservation.

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    Lisandro Negrete

    Full Text Available Land planarians are an interesting group of free-living flatworms that can be useful as bioindicators because of their high sensitivity to environmental changes and low dispersal capacity. In this study, we describe and compare assemblages of land planarians from areas with different conservation degrees of the Interior Atlantic Forest (Misiones, Argentina, and assess factors that could be related to their abundance and richness. Eight sites were tracked in search of land planarians in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Urugua-í (RVSU and Campo Anexo Manuel Belgrano (CAMB. Diurnal and nocturnal surveys were performed in each site along nine sampling campaigns. We collected 237 individuals belonging to 18 species of the subfamily Geoplaninae. All sites were dominated by Geoplana sp. 1 and Pasipha hauseri. The richness estimators showed that there would be more species in RVSU than in CAMB. The abundance and richness of land planarians was high during the night and after rainfalls, suggesting an increased activity of flatworms under such conditions. The abundance and richness of land planarians were also related to the conservation condition of the sites. Disturbed sites showed less abundance and richness, and were segregated from non-disturbed ones by nmMDS analysis. Beta diversity between sites was higher than expected, indicating that the species turnover between sites contributed more to the total richness (gamma diversity than the alpha diversity.

  11. Does the ionization potential condition employed in QTP functionals mitigate the self-interaction error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Margraf, Johannes T.; Jin, Yifan; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2017-01-01

    Though contrary to conventional wisdom, the interpretation of all occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalues as vertical ionization potentials is justified by several formal and numerical arguments. Similarly, the performance of density functional approximations (DFAs) for fractionally charged systems has been extensively studied as a measure of one- and many-electron self-interaction errors (MSIEs). These complementary perspectives (initially recognized in ab initio dft) are shown to lead to the unifying concept that satisfying Bartlett's IP theorem in DFA's mitigates self-interaction errors. In this contribution, we show that the IP-optimized QTP functionals (reparameterization of CAM-B3LYP where all eigenvalues are approximately equal to vertical IPs) display reduced self-interaction errors in a variety of tests including the He2+ potential curve. Conversely, the MSIE-optimized rCAM-B3LYP functional also displays accurate orbital eigenvalues. It is shown that the CAM-QTP and rCAM-B3LYP functionals show improved dissociation limits, fundamental gaps and thermochemical accuracy compared to their parent functional CAM-B3LYP.

  12. RESISTANCE TO THE ATTACK OF DRY-WOOD TERMITES (Cryptotermes brevis OF SIX WOOD SPECIES

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    Fabrício Gomes Gonçalves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dry wood termites are one of the largest causes of damages in wood used in Brazil. This work analyzed the attackof the Cryptotermes brevis in six commercials wood species in the north of the Rio de Janeiro and south of the Espírito Santo. The testobserved the number of holes, the percentage of died individuals and the damage of the pieces. When compared to the Pinus sp(reference, the species with less susceptibility to the attack were Cedrela fissilis, Cariocar brasiliense and Goupia glabra, that alsopresented the largest percentages of mortality of termites. The Schizolobium parahyba, Toona ciliata and the Tachigalia myrmecophyllawere the species with the highest level of damage.

  13. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of methanol extracts from six medicinal plants in murine spleen cells

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    Rodrigo Hermes Zandonai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of natural compounds have been used as immunomodulatory agents, enabling the function of the immune system to be modified by stimulating or suppressing it. There has been increasing interest in the study of therapeutic action of plant extracts regarding their immunomodulatory activity. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the action of extracts of the medicinal plants Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis and Vernonia scorpioides on the development of spleen cells from mice, using the in vitro cellular proliferation assay. The cells, obtained by mechanical rupture of mice spleen (5x10(4 cells/mL, were incubated with methanol extracts (10, 50, 100 and 200 µg/mL and phytohemagglutinin (PHA, 5 µg/mL. The basal control for proliferation consisted of cells alone, while the positive control consisted of cells and PHA. The cell culture was kept at 37 ºC in 5% CO2 for 72 hours, and cell proliferation was revealed by the blue tetrazolium reduction assay (MTT. The results were expressed as percentage of growth and were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. The C. brasiliense, I. pes-caprae and M. elaeagnoides extracts showed dose-dependent induction of cell proliferation, with a significant increase in cell proliferation (pVárias substâncias de origem natural têm sido utilizadas como agentes imunomoduladores, permitindo modificar a função do sistema imune e propiciando o estudo de atividades terapêuticas de extratos de plantas. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a atividade imunomodulatória dos extratos de seis plantas medicinais da flora brasileira, Calophyllum brasiliense, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Matayba elaeagnoides, Maytenus robusta, Rubus imperialis e Vernonia scorpioides, sobre a proliferação de células esplênicas de camundongos. As células esplênicas murinas obtidas por ruptura mecânica do baço (5x14³ células/mL foram

  14. Bibliografía

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    Revista Chasqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contabilidad en la emisora popular, Antonio Cabezas Esteban, Colección Intiyán, CIESPAL, Quito, 1983; Los medios de comunicación y la construcción de la hegemonía, Javier Esteinou Madrid, CEESTEM – Editorial Nueva Imagen, México 1983; La radio popular en el Perú, Centro de Producción y Documentación radiofónica “El día del pueblo”, Lima, 1983; Educación y comunicación, periodismo científico, cultura y vida cotidiana, Daniel Prieto Castillo, colección Monografías Nº 2, CIESPAL, Quito, 1983; A Forca do Pogo democracia participativa em Lages, Marcio Moreira Alves, Editora Brasiliense, Sao Paulo 1982

  15. Composição florística das formações vegetais sobre uma turfeira topotrófica da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Floristic composition of the vegetation types of a fen on the southern Brazil coastal plain in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    César S. B. Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Turfeiras topotróficas caracterizam-se como corpos de águas rasas, permanente ou periodicamente alagados por água do lençol freático, percolada através do solo inorgânico das terras altas adjacentes à depressão central da turfeira. Possuem solos orgânicos e a cobertura vegetal é dominanda por fanerógamas aquáticas emergentes. Este estudo visou o levantamento da diversidade específica e caracterização das principais formações vegetais ao longo de duas transecções de 200m em uma turfeira topotrófica na localidade de Domingos Petrolini (Rio Grande, RS. Em março/1998, o total de 48 espécies vegetais (30 famílias foram encontradas nas 40 parcelas de 5m × 2m observadas nas duas transecções efetuadas. Cerca de 56% das espécies eram plantas aquáticas herbáceas (submersas, flutuantes ou emergentes e apenas 10% arbustos ou árvores. Sete espécies dominaram a cobertura vegetal (Eupatorium tremulum, Eryngium pandanifolium, Blechnum brasiliense, Rhynchospora sp., Xyris jupicai, Utricularia gibba e Cladium jamaicense. Quatro formações vegetais tipicamente distribuídas em relação à topografia e à distância do lençol freático foram caracterizadas: (1 banhados do capim-navalha Cladium jamaicense, drenados apenas no verão, ocupam a depressão central da turfeira (DCT; (2 planos médios de Gravatás/Caraguatás (Eryngium pandanifolium associados a samambaia Blechnum brasiliense (+0,5 a +1,5m da DCT; (3 bosques marginais de arbustos palustres (+1 a +3m da DCT são dominados por Eupatorium tremulum; e (4 campos de turfa recobertos por ciperáceas de pequeno porte, gramas boiadeiras e botões-de-ouro (Xyris jupicai ocupam a borda do afloramento da turfa (+3 a +4m da DCT.Fens are characterized as shallow water bodies permanently or periodically flooded by ground-water table, originating from the percolation of rain water through mineral soils of uplands adjacent to the fen central basin. Fens have organic soil and their plant

  16. Dipteran-associated Harpellales from lowland and submontane tropical rain forests of Veracruz (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Laia Guardia; White, Merlin M; Cafaro, Matías J

    2011-01-01

    We report on the species of Harpellales found in dipteran hosts during two surveys (32 field d) in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. One new morphospecies, Genistellospora dorsicaudata, is described with particular attention to the position of the terminal cell associated with fully developed fertile thalli bearing sexual spores. We emend the description of G. guanacastensis to include morphometrics on the zygospores, based on discovery of the sexual spores for that species in our collections. Thirteen other previously described species, which are new for Mexico, include G. homothallica, Pennella montana, Simuliomyces microsporus, Smittium aciculare, S. brasiliense (in a new host type), S. culisetae, S. dipterorum, S. microsporum, S. simulii and the unbranched species Harpella melusinae, H. tica, Stachylina grandispora and S. paucispora. Some species have been described but not named, specifically one each of Harpella, Pennella and Smittium. All taxa are identified morphologically, illustrated and additional details on their ecology are provided.

  17. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

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    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  18. Growth and maturation of pequi fruit of the Brazilian cerrado

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    Luiz José Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the development of pequi fruit (Caryocar brasiliense of the Brazilian cerrado. It takes 84 days (12 weeks for pequi to develop with the onset of flowering in September and early fruit set in January. Pequi fruit showed a simple sigmoid growth curve, and its growth was characterized based on fresh mass and longitudinal and transverse diameters. The contents of titratable acidity, soluble solids, β-carotene, and vitamin C increased during fruit growth, reaching their maximum values at the 12th week (84 days after anthesis. Pequi is a fruit with an extremely high respiratory activity; its respiratory rate decreased during its development. Pequi fruit has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit due to the decrease of both respiration and ethylene production rates during maturation and ripening.

  19. Hymenoptera, Formicidae Latreille, 1809: New records for Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

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    Veiga-Ferreira, S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Standardized sample design helped to increase our knowledge on the ant fauna of Brazilian biomes, in particularleaf litter ants of Atlantic Forest. In this study are presented the new records of nine ant species for the state of Rio deJaneiro: Amblyopone armigera Mayr, 1897, A. elongata (Santschi, 1912, Prionopelta punctulata Mayr, 1866, Lachnomyrmexplaumanni Borgmeier, 1957, Trachymyrmex iheringi (Emery, 1887, Pachycondyla arhuaca Forel, 1901, P. stigma (Fabricius,1804, Thaumatomyrmex mutilatus Mayr 1887 and Proceratium brasiliense Borgmeier, 1959. They were captured duringthree systematic inventories carried out in Tinguá Biological Reserve, in Restinga da Marambaia and in Vista Chinesa ForestReserve. Winkler’s extractors and pitfall traps were used as sampling techniques to access ants’ fauna.

  20. Novo algodoeiro de origem interespecífica New cotton of interspecific origin

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    Imre Lajos Gridi-Papp

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Um novo tipo de algodoeiro foi isolado de uma população híbrida originada por cruzamento entre as espécies alotetraplóides Gossypium hirsutum L. v. latifolium Hutch, e G. barbadense L. v. brasiliense Hutch. A metodologia empregada e as principais características econômicas e morfológicas do novo algodoeiro são descritas e discutidas. Um ciclo de cruzamentos "intra", realizados na segunda geração após o retrocruzamento, seguido de seleção individual nas progenies desses cruzamentos, levou à obtenção de heptalobatum. O material não apresentou sinais de esterilidade, nem tendência a degenerar na descendência. Seu nome se deve às folhas, que, no estádio de completo desenvolvimento, apresentam sete lóbulos delgados. £ intermediário entre os pais para vários caracteres, aproxima-se de um ou outro ou representa um caso de segregação transgressiva para os demais.The selection of a new type of cotton in a population originated by crossing Gossypium hirsutum L. v. latifoliumHutch, and G. barbadenseL. v. brasiliense Hutch., is reported and the underlying methods and procedures described. One backcross to hirsutumfollowed by one cycle of crossing plants within populations and individual selection, led to the obterition of heptalobatum.Its fully developped leaves normally have seven narrow lobes. It is fully fertile and no sign of degeneration was observed in subsequent generations. The means of several economical and morphological characters are presented and discussed. The new cotton showed to be intermediary between the parental types for various characters, to be like one of the parents or a case of transgression for the others.

  1. Uma nova espécie para o gênero Gossypium L. A new tetraploid species of the genus Gossypium

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    Condorcet Aranha

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie é descrita, pertencente ao gênero Gossypium L. O material procede da Serra da Formiga, município de Caicó, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, onde foi colhido em meio da vegetação natural pela equipe da Seção de Algodão, do Instituto Agronômico, em setembro de 1963 ². Foi denominado Gossypium caicoense, Condorcet, Hermógenes et Imre. Possui 52 cromossomos, como as espécies tetraplóides do gênero. Seu estudo posterior em casa de vegetação permitiu diferenciá-lo das demais espécies tetraplóides e das descrições existentes de algodoeiros indígenas do Brasil. Os dados de um estudo comparativo são discutidos a fim de apontar as diferenças dessa espécie para com as espécies G. hirsutum L. e G. barbadense L. var. brasiliense.A new species of tetraploid cotton, Gossypium caicoense, Condorcet, Hermógenes et Imre, is described. It was collected as a wild component of the natural vegetation in the "Serra da Formiga", near Caicó, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, by research workers of the Cotton Section of the "Instituto Agronômico do Estado de São Paulo", in September of 1963. Its chromosome number is 2n = 52. It was cultivated and studied in greenhouse conditions at the referred Institute and showed significant morphological differences when compared to the known tetraploid species of the Genus as well as to existing descriptions of Brazilian native types of cotton. A discussion of the data obtained by a comparative study establishes the main morphological differences between G. caicoense and the cultivated species G. hirsutum and G. barbadense var. brasiliense.

  2. Leaf anatomy of three herbaceous bamboo species Anatomia foliar de três espécies de bambus herbáceos

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    R. C. VIEIRA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Fully developed leaves of Cryptochloa capillata (Swallen Soderstrom, Raddia brasilienses Bertol and Pharus lappulaceus Aublet (Poaceae: Bambusoideae were collected at Restinga de Jacarepiá, Environment Proctection Area of Massambaba, county of Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and studied by optical microscope. Leaf anatomy is described in order to contribute to the Poaceae family study. Anatomic features observed in the three studied species such as: midrib with complex vascular system, mesophyll consisting of tabular lobed chlorophyllous elements and fusoid cells, vascular bundles with double sheath, epidermis made up of long cells, short cells, micro-hairs, prickles and silica bodies correspond to the "bambusoid type" of leaf anatomy.Folhas completamente desenvolvidas de Cryptochloa capillata (Swallen Soderstrom, Raddia brasilienses Bertol e Pharus lappulaceus Aublet (Poaceae: Bambusoideae foram coletadas na Restinga de Jacarepiá, Área de Proteção Ambiental de Massambaba, município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, e estudadas ao microscópio de luz. Aspectos anatômicos são descritos, visando contribuir para o melhor conhecimento da família Poaceae. Pôde-se concluir que os caracteres observados nas três espécies, tais como nervura com complexo sistema vascular, mesofilo formado por células tabulares, lobulados clorofilados e células fusóides, feixes vasculares com dupla bainha, epiderme constituída por células longas, células curtas, micropêlos, prickles e corpos silicosos, correspondem ao tipo bambusóide de anatomia foliar descrito por diversos autores.

  3. Fungi associated with die-back symptoms of apple and pear trees, a possible inoculum source of grapevine trunk disease pathogens

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    Mia CLOETE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken on apple and pear trees in the main pome fruit growing areas ofthe Western Cape of South Africa to determine the aetiology of trunk diseases with specific reference to pathogens known to occur on grapevine, which are frequently cultivated in close proximity of these orchards. Several fungal genera containing known trunk disease pathogens were found. Two Diplodia species, D. seriata and Diplodia sp., were isolated along with Neofusicoccum australe and N. vitifusiforme. Four Phaeoacremonium species, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, Pm. iranianum, Pm. mortoniae and Pm. viticola, two Phomopsis species linked to clades identified in former studies as Phomopsis theicola and Phomopsis sp. 7, and Eutypa lata were found. In addition, Paraconiothyrium brasiliense, Pr. variabile and a Pyrenochaeta like species were also isolated. Diplodia seriata (56% of total isolates and Pm. aleophilum (22% were most frequently isolate. First reports from pear wood include the Phaeoacremonium spp. and Paraconiothyrium brasiliense, while new reports from apple include Pm. aleophilum, Ph. theicola, Phomopsis sp. 7, Pr. variabile and E. lata. A pathogenicity trial was undertaken to determine the role of these species on apple, pear and grapevine shoots. Neofusicoccum australe caused the longest lesions on grapevine shoots, while Pr. variabile, D. seriata, Pm. mortoniae and the Pyrenochaeta-like sp. caused lesions that were longer than non-inoculatedand non-pathogen experimental controls. On pear shoots, Diplodia sp. and N. australe caused the longest lesions,followed by D. seriata and E. lata. On apple shoots, the longest lesions were caused by N. australe and Pm. iranianum. These results demonstrate that apple and pear trees in Western Cape orchards are hosts to many known trunk pathogens along with potential new trunk disease-causing fungi.

  4. Relevamiento de la ictiofauna de la laguna Camba Cué, isla Apipé Grande, Corrientes, Argentina Ichthyological survey of the Camba Cué lagoon, Apipé Grande Island, Corrientes, Argentina

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    Juan M. Iwaszkiw

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La isla Apipé Grande se encuentra a la altura del kilómetro 1400 del río Paraná, dos kilómetros aguas abajo de la represa Yacyretá y actualmente constituye la Reserva Provincial Isla Apipé Grande. Esta isla se destaca por poseer cerca del 70% de la superficie compuesta por zonas bajas e inundables integradas por madrejones, esteros y lagunas. En la zona central de la isla se encuentran las lagunas Hermosa y Cambá Cué que cubren un área aproximada de 300 y 1000 hectáreas respectivamente. En el presente trabajo se informan los resultados del primer relevamiento ictiológico de los referidos cuerpos de agua. La toma de muestras realizada en la laguna Cambá Cué permitió identificar 55 especies de peces. La presencia de especies características de ambientes tanto lóticos como leníticos es interpretada como evidencia de la estrecha relación hidrológica entre estos cuerpos de agua y el sistema del río Paraná.The Apipé Grande island is a Provincial Reserve located in the Paraná river at 1400 km, from its origin at the Buenos Aires harbor, and two km downstream of the Yacyretá Dam. The outstanding feature of the island is that 70% of its area is composed of wetland. At the center of the island there are Hermosa and Cambá Cué «lagunas» with 300 and 1000 hectares respectively. The present paper reports the results of the first ichthyological survey to these water bodies. As a result of the sampling fieldwork 55 fish species were identified. The presence of species belonging to lotic and lenitic environments is interpreted as evidence for the close hydrological relationship of these water bodies and the Paraná river system.

  5. Influence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction on the molecular properties of N-p-tolyl-5-oxo pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid: A theoretical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraja, P.; Shanmugavadivu, T.; Joselin Beaula, T.; Bena Jothy, V.; Dhandapani, M.

    2018-01-01

    N-p-tolyl-5-oxo pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid (TOPCA) was synthesized by Michael addition-cyclo condensation. The molecular structure of TOPCA was optimized by B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) and aug-cc-pVDZ (Dunning) basis sets as well as CAM-B3LYP method with 6-311G(d,p) basis set. In addition, MEP, CHELPG and NBO analyses were carried out to understand the influence of hydrogen bonding interactions. The molecular structure of TOPCA is governed by intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions (Csbnd H…O) which influence charge transfer in TOPCA. The Csbnd H…O interactions stimulate the emission property of TOPCA excited at 380 nm. Intramolecular H- bonding and charge transfer induce the second hyperpolarizability in TOPCA.

  6. Predicting Constraints on Ultra-Light Axion Parameters due to LSST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Gabriel; Grin, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-light axions (ULAs) are a type of dark matter or dark energy candidate (depending on the mass) that are predicted to have a mass between $10^{‑33}$ and $10^{‑18}$ eV. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to provide a large number of weak lensing observations, which will lower the statistical uncertainty on the convergence power spectrum. I began work with Daniel Grin to predict how accurately the data from the LSST will be able to constrain ULA properties. I wrote Python code that takes a matter power spectrum calculated by axionCAMB and converts it to a convergence power spectrum. My code then takes derivatives of the convergence power spectrum with respect to several cosmological parameters; these derivatives will be used in Fisher Matrix analysis to determine the sensitivity of LSST observations to axion parameters.

  7. Occurrence and population fluctuation of insects-pest in apple orchards in North Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Klesener, Daniela Fernanda; Menezes Jr., Ayres de Oliveira; Santos, Régis Sívori Silva dos

    2016-01-01

    O presente estudo teve o objetivo de identificar as principais espécies de insetos presentes em pomares da região Norte do Paraná e acompanhar a flutuação das populações. O estudo foi realizado em quatro pomares de macieira cv. ‘Eva’, nos municípios de Cambé, Londrina, São Sebastião da Amoreira e Uraí. Utilizou-se armadilhas delta com feromônio sexual para Grapholita molesta e Bonagota salubricola; Jackson com feromônio de Ceratitis capitata; e McPhail com proteína hidrolisada a 5% e suco de ...

  8. Al Qaeda, un movimiento no tradicional

    OpenAIRE

    Brieger, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    En nuestro trabajo intentamos comprender el origen y desarrollo de Al Qaeda contrapuesto a la experiencia de los movimientos islámicos que se desarrollaron al calor de la revolución islámica de Irán en 1979. Para ello se analiza el ascenso y posterior retroceso de los movimientos islámicos que se convirtieron en fuerzas políticas de importancia. Después de la desaparición de la Unión Soviética como contrapeso a la hegemonía de Washington, la cuasi desaparición del nacionalismo árabe, los camb...

  9. Ventanas de oportunidad: el caso de la reforma del Servicio Civil

    OpenAIRE

    Esparch, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Si bien la reforma del Servicio Civil peruano esperó muchos años, en el 2008 entra rápidamente en la agenda pública, cuenta con aceptación política y los actores conciertan puntos mínimos. En este estudio se examinarán las razones por las cuales esta reforma en particular remontó posiciones en el interés y en la agenda, cómo mantuvo el interés político de los tomadores de decisiones, para finalmente extraer recomendaciones sobre cómo aprovechar las ventanas de oportunidad que permiten el camb...

  10. The experience in monitoring pennalties and alternative measures: the case of the NUMOPA/CEAPA/NUAPA

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    Sandra regina de abreu Pires

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present text aimed to show an experience with the monitoring of the execution of the penalties and alternative measures developed in the Londrina – Paraná region, through the projects Londrina’s Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring, Center for Alternative Sentencing Monitoring of Arapongas; Central Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures and Center for Monitoring and Sentencing Alternative Measures of Cambé. The text if initiates with some notes on sentencing alternative measures in view of allowing the visualization of the thematic context of the experience. After that, it contemplates the experience directly, telling first the trajectory covered for, continuous act, to summarily approach some elements of the work methodology. It finishes with a mention to some of the gotten positive results with the developed work.

  11. Label-free functional nucleic acid sensors for detecting target agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-13

    A general methodology to design label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors using a vacant site approach and an abasic site approach is described. In one example, a method for designing label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors (e.g., those that include a DNAzyme, aptamer or aptazyme) that have a tunable dynamic range through the introduction of an abasic site (e.g., dSpacer) or a vacant site into the functional nucleic acids. Also provided is a general method for designing label-free fluorescent aptamer sensors based on the regulation of malachite green (MG) fluorescence. A general method for designing label-free fluorescent catalytic and molecular beacons (CAMBs) is also provided. The methods demonstrated here can be used to design many other label-free fluorescent sensors to detect a wide range of analytes. Sensors and methods of using the disclosed sensors are also provided.

  12. Delegaciones y oficinas de prensa españolas en el extranjero durante el primer franquismo: el caso francés (1936-1942

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    Antonio César MORENO CANTANO

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Francia fue uno de los enclaves más importantes de la propaganda franquista en Europa durante los años de la Guerra Civil española y la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En el presente artículo analizaremos las características generales que presentaron las Delegaciones y Oficinas de Prensa y Propaganda españolas en el extranjero durante 1936-1945. Posteriormente, dirigiremos nuestra atención a Francia, analizando el importante papel que desarrollaron en ese país los carlistas, falangistas y catalanistas franquistas de Cambó. Estudiaremos, en definitiva, las iniciativas que se acometieron desde Francia en beneficio de la España franquista y las adversidades que en el logro de tal objetivo tuvieron que superar, tanto externas como internas. hðF

  13. Relative Stability of the La and Lb Excited States in Adenine and Guanine: Direct Evidence from TD-DFT Calculations of MCD Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-06-05

    The relative position of La and Lb ππ* electronic states in purine nucleobases is a much debated topic, since it can strongly affect our understanding of their photoexcited dynamics. To assess this point, we calculated the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of adenine, guanine, and their nucleosides in gas-phase and aqueous solution, exploiting recent developments in MCD computational technology within time-dependent density functional theory. MCD spectroscopy allows us to resolve the intense S0→ La transition from the weak S0→ Lb transition. The spectra obtained in water solution, by using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals and describing solvent effect by cluster models and by the polarizable continuum model (PCM), are in very good agreement with the experimental counterparts, thus providing direct and unambiguous evidence that the energy ordering predicted by TD-DFT, La < Lb, is the correct one.

  14. Fast and accurate CMB computations in non-flat FLRW universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Tram, Thomas, E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch, E-mail: thomas.tram@epfl.ch [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    We present a new method for calculating CMB anisotropies in a non-flat Friedmann universe, relying on a very stable algorithm for the calculation of hyperspherical Bessel functions, that can be pushed to arbitrary precision levels. We also introduce a new approximation scheme which gradually takes over in the flat space limit and leads to significant reductions of the computation time. Our method is implemented in the Boltzmann code class. It can be used to benchmark the accuracy of the camb code in curved space, which is found to match expectations. For default precision settings, corresponding to 0.1% for scalar temperature spectra and 0.2% for scalar polarisation spectra, our code is two to three times faster, depending on curvature. We also simplify the temperature and polarisation source terms significantly, so the different contributions to the C{sub ℓ} 's are easy to identify inside the code.

  15. Influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical...... and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. METHODS/DESIGN: Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50-60 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) will be followed prospectively...... in a national register (DREAM), containing information on a week-to-week basis about social transfer payments for about 5 million Danish residents. Using Cox regression, we will model the risk of long-term sickness absence, disability pension, early retirement and unemployment within a 4 to 6 year period from...

  16. Loneliness and objectively measured physical capability in middle-aged adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Laban, J; Petersen, GL

    2017-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is associated with poor functional ability in older people. Little is known about this association in the middle-aged. The aim is to investigate if perceived loneliness is associated with lower physical capability among middle-aged men and women and if the associations...... of loneliness with physical capability interact with socioeconomic position and cohabitation status. Methods: 5224 participants from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) aged 49–62 years (mean age 54) were included. Handgrip strength (measured by a dynamometer) and maximal number of chair rises in 30 s...... was recorded. Multivariate linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, occupational social class, cohabitation status, morbidity and personality traits. Results: No association was found between loneliness and physical capability. For example estimates for handgrip strength in ‘often’ lonely men...

  17. Planificación clásica en cirugía ortognática

    OpenAIRE

    Birbe, Joan

    2014-01-01

    La cirugía ortognática es una de las cirugías electivas realizadas más a menudo en cirugía maxilofacial. Su planificación debe ser minuciosa, asegurando un grado de precisión tal que el margen de error sea de menos de 1 mm. El método clásico de planificar una cirugía ortognática se basaba en una cefalometría realizada a partir de una telerradiografía de perfil. A partir de aquí se trazaba una STO (Surgical Treatment Objectives) que permitía imaginar y medir en la dirección sagital los camb...

  18. Failure of popular density functionals: Torsional potential of conjugated hetero double bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahchieva, Diana; von Lilienfeld, Anatole

    Accurate predictions of torsional potential energy profiles are crucial to correctly sample conformational degrees of freedom. Using most of currently popular density functionals we have investigated many small organic closed shell molecules with conjugated hetero double bonds. Typically, density functional theory (DFT) is assumed to provide reasonable energy estimates for such systems and properties. In comparison to CCSD(T), however, all functionals fail to quantitatively reproduce the correct potential, except for M0(5,6)2X and CAM-B3LYP. For molecules containing CO or CS double bonds and heavy halogene atoms even qualitative trends can not be recovered. Analysis of the results reveals that the deviations are due to large errors in the electrostatic potential originating in a failures to generate correct electron densities. Empirical atom centered corrections can rectify some of the short-comings for PBE and BLYP.

  19. La evolución del movimiento homosexual en España y la relación con las telenovelas españolas

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yunong

    2015-01-01

    Desde los años 80 hasta hoy en día, en España ha habido un gran cambio en las costumbres que ha repercutido en las relaciones sociales. Entre ellas, la evolución de los movimientos LGBT es un cambio social muy destacado, y que ha llegado a su máxima expresión con la aprobación de la Ley del matrimonio homosexual, no sin polémica. La televisión, considerada como un medio de comunicación esencial porque se encarga de informar, entretener y educar a los espectadores, está atenta a todos los camb...

  20. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2014-01-01

    , drinking, and various covariates was obtained using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression (dependent variable: 6+ vs. smoking and drinking in relation to missing teeth. RESULTS: Current smokers, persons who......OBJECTIVES: To investigate tobacco and alcohol consumption as risk indicators for missing teeth in late middle-aged Danes. METHOD: In all, 1,517 Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) participants received a clinical oral examination that included number of teeth. Information on smoking...... currently or previously smoked >15 tobacco units/day, and persons who had smoked for 27+ years had elevated mean scores of missing teeth and associated odds ratios (OR) compared with never smokers. Relative to nondrinkers, alcohol consumption was associated with reduced odds of missing 6+ teeth. DISCUSSION...

  1. CosmoSIS: A System for MC Parameter Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, Joe [Manchester U.; Paterno, Marc [Fermilab; Jennings, Elise [Chicago U., EFI; Rudd, Douglas [U. Chicago; Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Dodelson, Scott [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Bridle, Sarah [Manchester U.; Sehrish, Saba [Fermilab; Kowalkowski, James [Fermilab

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological parameter estimation is entering a new era. Large collaborations need to coordinate high-stakes analyses using multiple methods; furthermore such analyses have grown in complexity due to sophisticated models of cosmology and systematic uncertainties. In this paper we argue that modularity is the key to addressing these challenges: calculations should be broken up into interchangeable modular units with inputs and outputs clearly defined. We present a new framework for cosmological parameter estimation, CosmoSIS, designed to connect together, share, and advance development of inference tools across the community. We describe the modules already available in Cosmo- SIS, including camb, Planck, cosmic shear calculations, and a suite of samplers. We illustrate it using demonstration code that you can run out-of-the-box with the installer available at http://bitbucket.org/joezuntz/cosmosis.

  2. Associations between obesity and mental distress in late midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine associations of Body mass Index (BMI) and mental distress in late midlife in a large Danish community sample and to investigate the effect of socio-demographic factors. METHODS: The study sample comprised 3613 Danish men and 1673 women aged 49-63 years from the Copenhagen...... Ageing and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) with complete information on measured BMI, severity of mental symptoms assessed by the Symptom Check-List' (SCL-90), and socio-demographic factors including sex, age, occupational social class, and educational duration. Linear and logistic regression were used...... to evaluate associations between BMI category and SCL-90. RESULTS: Unadjusted SCL-90 subscale scores differed significantly across BMI categories (p mental distress in the underweight, obese and severely obese BMI categories except for the anxiety scale which...

  3. Ultrafast deactivation processes in the 2-aminopyridine dimer and the adenine-thymine base pair: Similarities and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yue-Jie; Zhang, Feng; Cui, Gang-Long; Luo, Yi; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2010-08-01

    2-aminopyridine dimer has frequently been used as a model system for studying photochemistry of DNA base pairs. We examine here the relevance of 2-aminopyridine dimer for a Watson-Crick adenine-thymine base pair by studying UV-light induced photodynamics along two main hydrogen bridges after the excitation to the localized π1π∗ excited-state. The respective two-dimensional potential-energy surfaces have been determined by time-dependent density functional theory with Coulomb-attenuated hybrid exchange-correlation functional (CAM-B3LYP). Different mechanistic aspects of the deactivation pathway have been analyzed and compared in detail for both systems, while the related reaction rates have also be obtained from Monte Carlo kinetic simulations. The limitations of the 2-aminopyridine dimer as a model system for the adenine-thymine base pair are discussed.

  4. Bioinspired Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles Featuring as Efficient Carrier and Prompter for Macrophage Intervention in Experimental Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Mohini; Singh, Pankaj K; Jaiswal, Anil K; Kumar, Animesh; Pawar, Vivek K; Dube, Anuradha; Paliwal, Sarvesh K; Chourasia, Manish K

    2016-11-01

    To develop a biocompatible and bioresorbable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs) bearing Amphotericin B (AmB) with an aim to provide macrophage specific targeting in visceral leishmaniasis (VL). CaP-AmB-NPs were architectured through emulsion precipitation method. The developed formulation was extensively characterized for various parameters including in-vitro and in-vivo antileishmanial activity. Moreover, plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue biodistribution and toxicity profile were also assessed. Optimized CaP-AmB-NPs exhibited higher entrapment (71.1 ± 6.68%) of AmB. No trend related to higher hemolysis was apparent in the developed formulation as evidenced in commercially available colloidal and liposomal formulations. Cellular uptake of the developed CaP-AmB-NPs was quantified through flow cytometry in J774A.1 cell line, and a 23.90 fold rise in uptake was observed. Fluorescent microscopy also confirmed the time dependent rise in uptake. In-vivo multiple dose toxicity study demonstrated no toxicity upto 5 mg/kg dose of AmB. Plasma kinetics and tissue distribution studies established significantly higher concentration of AmB in group treated with CaP-AmB-NPs in liver and spleen as compared to CAmB, LAmB and AmB suspension group. In-vivo animal experimental results revealed that the CaP-AmB-NPs showed higher splenic parasite inhibition compared to CAmB and LAmB in leishmania parasite infected hamsters. The investigated CaP-AmB-NPs are effective in provoking macrophage mediated uptake and collectively features lower toxicity and offers a suitable replacement for available AmB-formulations for the obliteration of intra-macrophage VL parasite.

  5. Portable aptamer biosensor of platelet-derived growth factor-BB using a personal glucose meter with triply amplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lu; Zhou, Fu; Shi, Dongmin; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Guangfeng

    2017-09-15

    Sensitive and rapid detection of platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), a cancer-related protein, could help early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancers. Although some methods have been developed to detect PDGF-BB, few can provide quantitative results using an affordable and portable device that is suitable for home use or field application. In this work, we report the first use of a portable kind of personal glucose meter (PGM) combining a catalytic and molecular beacon (CAMB) system with a cation exchange reaction (CX reaction) for ultrasensitive PDGF-BB assay. It realized the amplification of the detection in three ways, including greater aptamer payload on nanoparticles, CX reaction releasing thousands of Zn 2+ and the cycle by the catalyzing cleavage of 8-17 DNAzyme. In the process, with the addition of PDGF-BB into the aptasensor, the specific recognition between aptamer and protein was initiated resulting in the combination of ZnS NNC for further CX reaction to release thousands of Zn 2+ , which could cleave the substrate DNA in the CAMB system realizing multiple cycle. The cleaved DNA fragment was designed with invertase-labeled could convert sucrose into glucose which could be detected and quantified by PGM accompanying with the change of color of the control window from yellow to green. The enhanced signal of the PGM has a relationship with the concentration of PDGF-BB in the range of 3.16×10 -16 M to 3.16×10 -12 M, and the detection limit is 0.11fM. Moreover, the catalytic and cleavage activities of 8-17 DNAzyme can be achieved in solution; thus, no enzyme immobilization is needed for detection. The triply amplified strategy showed high selectivity, stability, and applicability for detecting the desired protein. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Economic Comparison of an Empirical Versus Diagnostic-Driven Strategy for Treating Invasive Fungal Disease in Immunocompromised Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rosemary; Earnshaw, Stephanie; Herbrecht, Raoul; Morrissey, Orla; Slavin, Monica; Bow, Eric; McDade, Cheryl; Charbonneau, Claudie; Weinstein, David; Kantecki, Michal; Schlamm, Haran; Maertens, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Patients with persistent or recurrent neutropenic fevers at risk of invasive fungal disease (IFD) are treated empirically with antifungal therapy (AFT). Early treatment using a diagnostic-driven (DD) strategy may reduce clinical and economic burdens. We compared costs and outcomes of both strategies from a UK perspective. An empirical strategy with conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (C-AmB), liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB), or caspofungin was compared with a DD strategy (initiated based on positive ELISA results for galactomannan antigen) and/or positive results for Aspergillus species on polymerase chain reaction assay) using C-AmB, voriconazole, or L-AmB in a decision-analytic model. Rates of IFD incidence, overall mortality, and IFD-related mortality in adults expected to be neutropenic for ≥10 days were obtained. The empirical strategy was assumed to identify 30% of IFD and targeted AFT to improve survival by a hazard ratio of 0.589. AFT-specific adverse events were obtained from a summary of product characteristics. Resource use was obtained, and costs were estimated by using standard UK costing sources. All costs are presented in 2012 British pounds sterling. Total costs were 32% lower for the DD strategy (£1561.29) versus the empirical strategy (£2301.93) due to a reduced incidence of adverse events and decreased use of AFT. Administration of AFT was reduced by 41% (DD strategy, 74 of 1000; empirical strategy, 125 of 1000), with similar survival rates. This study suggests that a DD strategy is likely to be cost-saving versus empirical treatment for immunocompromised patients with persistent or recurrent neutropenic fevers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Uso do césio-137 para avaliar taxas de erosão em cultura de soja, café e pastagem Use of cesium-137 to assess soil erosion rates under soybean, coffee and pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Andrello

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o césio-137 para avaliar as taxas de perda ou ganho de solo numa microbacia com diferentes culturas, situada no município de Cambe (PR, a 23º16' Sul e 51º17' Oeste. Foi utilizada uma equação teórica que considera a perda ou ganho de solo num ponto diretamente proporcional à redistribuição de césio-137. Uma amostragem em transectos foi efetuada com o objetivo de avaliar a redistribuição de solo dentro da microbacia. Um ponto em mata nativa na microbacia foi amostrado para estimar a quantidade de césio-137 depositado na região pela precipitação radioativa. Os pontos amostrados em área de pastagem apresentaram, em sua maioria, perda de solo. Os pontos amostrados em área de cafeeiro não apresentaram perda nem ganho de solo. Os pontos amostrados em área de soja, em sistema convencional de preparo de solo, apresentaram perda de solo.The methodology cesium-137 was used to assess soil erosion and deposition rates in a small watershed with varied crops, at 23º16' S and 51º17' W, in a district of Cambé, Paraná State, Brazil. A theoretical equation which considers soil loss or gain directly proportional to the cesium-137 redistribution was utilized in this study. In the watershed, soil redistribution was assessed by transect sampling, and the regional input of cesium-137 by radioactive rainfall determined based on samples from a point in the native forest. Most sampled pasture points presented soil loss, as well as the points in the soybean area under conventional tillage, while in the coffee crop there was neither soil loss nor gain.

  8. Empresas, instituciones y red social: la Compañía Hispanoamericana de Electricidad (CHADE entre Barcelona y Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalla-Corte Caballero, Gabriela

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the relation between the Casa de América of Barcelone and the Hispanoamerican Electric Company» (CHADE of Buenos Aires taking into account three moments: first, the foundation of the association Casa de América and the presence of Francisco Cambó in the Iberoamerican Jurídic Center; second, the foundation of CHADE so as to save the german´s inversions in America because of the participation of Germany in the First World War; third, the change of the American association of Barcelona into the Instituto de Economía Americana (IDEA-Casa de América so as to encourage their internacional activities until the Civil War in Spain.

    En este trabajo se presenta la vinculación entre la Casa de América de Barcelona y la Compañía Hispanoamericana de Electricidad (CHADE en Buenos Aires a través del estudio de tres momentos: primero, la fundación de la asociación y la presencia de Francisco Cambó en el Centro Jurídico Iberoamericano; segundo, la fundación de la CHADE para salvar los capitales alemanes del pago de reparaciones económicas a los Aliados por su participación en la Primera Guerra Mundial; y tercero, la conversión de la asociación americanista barcelonesa en Instituto de Economía Americana (IDEA-Casa de América para reforzar su naturaleza internacional en consonancia con la Sociedad de Naciones, así como el declive de la asociación por la interrupción de remesas de capital del Cono Sur que llegaban a Barcelona en forma de subsidios para la asociación americanista.

  9. AKTIVITAS INSEKTISIDA BAGIAN TUMBUHAN CALOPHYLLUM SOULTTRI BURM.F. (CLU IACEAE TERHADAP LARVA LEPIDOPTERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Syahputra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this test was evaluate the insecticidal activity of ectract of some parts of Calophyllum soulattri (Clusiaceae against larvae of three species of Lepidoptera, i. e Crocidolomia pavonana, Plutella xylostela, and Pieris sp.. Extraction of plant materials was done by infusion method using ethanol. The bioassays were conducted by leaf-feeding method. Second-instar larvae were fed extract-treated broccoli leaves of 48 hours, then they were presented with untreated leaves until the surviving larvae larvae reached the fourth-instar stage. The number of dead larvae was recorded daily an larval mortality date were analyzed by probit method. The result showed the gummy bark exudates and bark extract of old and young C. soulattri plants were highly active against C. pavonana. The abrk extact of old C. soulattri plant was also effective against P. xilostella and Pieris sp. The gummy exudates possessed strong insecticidal activity against C. pavonana larvae with LC50 of 0.04% and prolonged the developmental time from second to fourth instar of C. soulattri 2.03-7.25 days compared with control. The bark excudate gave positive respon to alkaloid flavonoid, and tannin test. Futher studies are needed to identify insecticidal compound in those active extracts.

  10. Clusiaxanthone and tocotrienol series from Clusia pernambucensis and their antileishmanial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everton M.; Freire-Filha, Lindomar G.; Espindola, Laila S., E-mail: darvenne@unb.br [Laboratorio de Farmacognosia, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Araujo, Renata M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal-RN (Brazil); Silveira, Edilberto R. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza-CE (Brazil); Lopes, Norberto P. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto-SP (Brazil); Paula, Jose Elias de [Laboratorio de Anatomia Vegetal, Universidade de Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Laboratorio de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, Campos dos Goytacazes-RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    Phytochemical analysis of the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of Clusia pernambucensis G. Mariz, Clusiaceae, a Brazilian Cerrado species, led to the isolation and full characterization of a new xanthone, 1,7-dihydroxy-2-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-6',6'- dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone, namely clusiaxanthone. Four previously unreported tocotrienols from this species were also isolated. A derivative was obtained from clusiaxanthone, 1-hydroxy,7-methoxy-2-(3-methyl- 2-butenyl)-6',6'-dimethylpyrano(2',3':3,4)xanthone (7-O-methylclusiaxanthone), and an additional derivative was obtained from Z-{delta}-tocotrienoloic acid. The structures of these compounds were established based on data from {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR), high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and infrared spectroscopy. The clusiaxanthone and its derivative were able to control macrophage infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes (IC{sub 50} = 66.9 and 57.4 {mu}M, respectively). The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed in BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages. (author)

  11. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara L

    2015-09-15

    The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae) seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content) lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads) health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet) and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research.

  12. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract and two biflavonoids from Garcinia gardneriana leaves in mouse paw oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castardo, Jaqueline C; Prudente, Arthur S; Ferreira, Juliano; Guimarães, Cláudio L; Monache, Franco Delle; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Otuki, Michel F; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2008-08-13

    Garcinia gardneriana (Planch. & Triana) Zappi (Clusiaceae) is widely distributed in Brazil and used in folk medicine to treat inflammation, pain, and urinary tract and other infections. However, very few studies have analyzed these therapeutic effects. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Garcinia gardneriana (HEGG) and some of its isolated biflavonoids were evaluated. The results showed that HEGG from the leaves, bark and seeds reduced carrageenan-induced mouse paw inflammation, in addition to diminishing the myeloperoxidase activity in the stimulated tissues. The reduction of neutrophil infiltration by treatment with the HEGG from leaves was confirmed by histology. The leaf extract also reduced the paw oedema evoked by bradykinin, histamine, prostaglandin E2 and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate. However, it partially decreased substance P and compound 48/80-caused paw oedema, without any influence on the arachidonic acid-induced oedema. Both of the isolated compounds, fukugetin and GB-2a, prevented the carrageenan-induced paw oedema. In conclusion, this study showed important anti-inflammatory effects of HEGG through its interaction with different intracellular signaling pathways, without interfering with the formation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. These characteristics, in addition to the wide distribution and culturing ease of the plant, confirm its popular use and highlight its promise in the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs.

  14. Vegetation analyses of Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDI MIRMANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirmanto E (2010 Vegetation analyses of Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. Biodiversitas 11: 82-88. The vegetation analysis study has been made in Sebangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan. Eight permanent plots of 50-m x 50-m were set-up distribute from close to the river with shallow peat-layer up to the inland with relatively deep peat-layer. Enumeration of trees (GBH > 15 cm was conducted in all of 8 plots. Overall there are 133 species (taxa were recorded within 8 plots belong to 34 families where Dipterocarpaceae, Clusiaceae, Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were the most dominant family. Out of all species recorded, Combretocarpus rotundatus, Palaquium leiocarpum, Stemonurus scorpioides and Tristania whittiana were the most dominant species. Two community’s types namely Combretocarpus rotundatus-Shorea balangeran community and Palaquium leiocarpum-Eugenia densinervium community were recognized and they distributed in slightly different habitat condition. The sequence of these two communities’ shows significantly related to both distances to river and peat-depth. In addition there was indication the presence of habitat preference among tree species.

  15. Antiproliferative Constituents of Geopropolis from the Bee Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Ransom, Tanya; Beutler, John Albert

    2016-02-01

    Fractionation of geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris, guided by antiproliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (COLO205 and KM12), led to the isolation of two new cinnamic acid esters, mammea-type coumarins 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-propyl-coumarin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin (2), along with five known coumarins, mammeigin (3), hydroxymammeigin (4), mammeisin (5), cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (6), and mammein (7), and the prenylated benzophenone ent-nemorosone (8). Among the isolated compounds, 5 and 7 showed the highest cell growth inhibition against COLO205 (GI50 9.7 and 10.7 µM, respectively) and KM12 (GI50 12.0 and 10.9 µM, respectively). The presence of these compounds suggests that plants of Clusiaceae family, especially the genera Kielmeyera and Clusia, are likely to be major sources of geopropolis produced by M. scutellaris. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Garcinia mangostana L.: a phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolskiy, Dmitriy; Pischel, Ivo; Siriwatanametanon, Nisarat; Heinrich, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Garcinia mangostana L. (mangosteen, Clusiaceae) has a long history of use as a medical plant, mostly in Southeast Asia. This is a review of the phytochemistry and pharmacology of mangosteen. Traditionally mangosteen is famous for its antiinflammatory properties and is used in the treatment of skin infections and wounds. Other applications include the therapy of various conditions such as dysentery, different urinary disorders, cystitis and gonorrhoea. This review highlights the development of this botanical drug into a widely used nutraceutical. Products derived from G. mangostana are now distributed increasingly all over the world. This has given rise to a concomitant increase in research on the phytochemical constituents and biological activity of mangosteen. Central to the biological activity of the species are xanthones which are reviewed in detail. A comprehensive assessment of the biological activities of individual xanthones as well as extracts of G. mangostana is included. In addition, its potential in terms of developing novel drug leads is assessed. Products containing its fruits are now sold widely as 'liquid botanical supplements', but evidence for the health benefits of these products is still lacking. As shown here, a serious weakness in our knowledge is the lack of clinical data and it is not yet clear to what extent the findings about pharmacological activities are of potential clinical relevance. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. New insights into the anti-obesity activity of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian-Yu; Wang, Yi-Tao; Lin, Li-Gen

    2015-02-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. This condition, and its related diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, have become major public health challenges. Fruits are important dietary components, and bioactive constituents from fruits are considered to be a promising source for developing effective and safe anti-obesity drugs. Garcinia mangostana Linn. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical evergreen tree, and its fruit, mangosteen, is called 'Queen of Fruit'. The pericarp of G. mangostana has been used for centuries in Southeast Asia as a medicinal agent for treatment of various diseases. Products derived from mangosteen are widely consumed to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction and resultant metabolic syndrome. However, the chemical principles and mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. This review summarizes the recent chemical and pharmacological studies related to G. mangostana, including weight reduction, anti-adipogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation activity. The aim of this review is to shed light on the role of G. mangostana and its constituents in preventing and treating obesity, which should encourage more interest in the development of relevant therapeutic methods.

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matra, Deden Derajat; Kozaki, Toshinori; Ishii, Kazuo; Poerwanto, Roedhy; Inoue, Eiichi

    2016-12-01

    Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen), of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. through RNA-Seq technology. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System. Clean reads of 191,735,809 were obtained from 307,634,890 raw reads. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in DDBJ database with accession number of DRA005014 with bioproject accession number of PRJDB5091. We obtained 268,851 transcripts as well as 155,850 unigenes, having N50 value of 555 and 433 bp, respectively. Transcript/unigene length ranged from 201 to 5916 bp. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73,287 and 73,107, respectively. These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L.

  19. Nitric oxide inhibitory xanthones from the pericarps of Garcinia mangostana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianyu; Li, Dan; Wang, Anqi; Dong, Zhen; Yin, Sheng; Zhang, Qingwen; Ye, Yang; Li, Liangchun; Lin, Ligen

    2016-11-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana, Clusiaceae) is called "queen of fruit" in Southeast Asia. In the current study, three dimeric xanthones, garcinoxanthones A-C, and four monomeric xanthones, garcinoxanthones D-G, together with 18 known xanthones, were isolated from the pericarps of G. mangostana, collected in Thailand. The structures of garcinoxanthones A-G were elucidated by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR and other spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by the CD spectra. All seven compounds were tested for nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Garcinoxanthones B and C significantly inhibited NO production with IC 50 values of 11.3 ± 1.7 and 18.0 ± 1.8 μM, respectively, which were comparable with the positive control indomethacin (IC 50 3.9 ± 0.3 μM). Moreover, garcinoxanthone B suppressed inducible NO synthase expression in a dose-dependent manner. These results reveal the presence of rare dimeric xanthones in G. mangostana and their NO inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated murine macrophage cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.): A comprehensive update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle-Magallanes, Berenice; Eugenio-Pérez, Dianelena; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2017-11-01

    Garcinia mangostana L. (Clusiaceae) is a tropical tree native to Southeast Asia known as mangosteen which fruits possess a distinctive and pleasant taste that has granted them the epithet of "queen of the fruits". The seeds and pericarps of the fruit have a long history of use in the traditional medicinal practices of the region, and beverages containing mangosteen pulp and pericarps are sold worldwide as nutritional supplements. The main phytochemicals present in the species are isoprenylated xanthones, a class of secondary metabolites with multiple reports of biological effects, such as antioxidant, pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hypoglycemic and anti-obesity. The diversity of actions displayed by mangosteen xanthones shows that these compounds target multiple signaling pathways involved in different pathologies, and place them as valuable sources for developing new drugs to treat chronic and degenerative diseases. This review article presents a comprehensive update of the toxicological findings on animal models, and the preclinical anticancer, analgesic, neuroprotective, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects of G. mangostana L. extracts and its main isolates. Pharmacokinetics, drug delivery systems and reports on dose-finding human trials are also examined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural Characterization, Biological Effects, and Synthetic Studies on Xanthones from Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), a Popular Botanical Dietary Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Young-Won; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae) is a popular botanical dietary supplement in the United States, where it is used principally as an antioxidant. It is referred to as the “queen of fruits” in Thailand, a country of origin. The major secondary metabolites of mangosteen, the xanthones, exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, and potential cancer chemopreventive activities. Moreover, some of the xanthones from mangosteen have been found to influence specific enzyme activities, such as aromatase, HIV-1 protease, inhibitor κB kinase, quinone reductase, sphingomyelinase, topoisomerase and several protein kinases, and they also modulate histamine H1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor binding. Several synthetic procedures for active xanthones and their analogs have been conducted to obtain a better insight into structure-activity relationships for this compound class. This short review deals with progress made in the structural characterization of the chemical constituents of mangosteen, as well as the biological activity of pure constituents of this species and synthetic methods for the mangosteen xanthones. PMID:21562610

  2. Antibacterial and EGFR-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitory Activities of Polyhydroxylated Xanthones from Garcinia succifolia

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    Susawat Duangsrisai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of the methanol extract of the wood of Garcinia succifolia Kurz (Clusiaceae led to the isolation of 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2, 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (3, 1,5,6-trihydroxyxanthone (4, 1,6,7-trihydroxyxanthone (5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (6. All of the isolated xanthones were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against bacterial reference strains, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 25923, Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and environmental drug-resistant isolates (S. aureus B1, Enteroccoccus faecalis W1, and E. coli G1, as well as for their epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR of tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity. Only 1,5,6-trihydroxy-(4, 1,6,7-trihydroxy-(5, and 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthones (6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, however none was active against vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis. Additionally, 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 showed synergism with oxacillin, but not with ampicillin. On the other hand, only 1,5-dihydroxyxanthone (1 and 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone (2 were found to exhibit the EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 90.34 and 223 nM, respectively.

  3. Allanblackia Oil: Phytochemistry and Use as a Functional Food

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    Sara L. Crockett

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption and commercial exploitation of Allanblackia (Clusiaceae seed oils is of current interest. The favorable physicochemical characteristics of Allanblackia oil (solid at room temperature; high stearic acid content lend food products that contain it (i.e., vegetable-based dairy products, ice cream, spreads health advantages over others that contain higher levels of lauric, myristic, and/or palmitic acids, which can increase blood cholesterol levels. Such considerations are important for individuals prone to cardiovascular disease or with hypercholesterolemia. Domestication projects of several Allanblackia species in tropical Africa are underway, but wildcrafting of fruits to meet the seed demand still occurs. Proper species authentication is important, since only authenticated oil can be deemed safe for human consumption. The chemical constituency of Allanblackia seed oils, and potential roles of these phytochemicals in preventive strategies (e.g., as part of a healthy diet and as pharmacological agents used to treat chronic disease were examined in this review. The primary and secondary metabolite constituency of the seed oils of nearly all Allanblackia species is still poorly known. The presence, identity, and quantity of potentially bioactive secondary metabolites in the seed oils, and pharmacological testing of isolated compounds were identified as important directions for future research.

  4. Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of extracts from Clusia latipes leaves

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    Natalia Bailón-Moscoso

    Full Text Available Abstract Some species of the Clusia genus have been shown to have important biomedical properties, including the ability to inhibit tumor growth in vitro and the usefulness for skin care. In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Clusia latipes Planch. & Triana, Clusiaceae, leaves on survival of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3, colon cancer cells (RKO, astrocytoma cells (D-384, and breast cancer cells (MCF-7. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the most substantial cytotoxic effect. However, using a Comet assay, we observed that the hexane extract induced a genotoxic effect (DNA damage on human lymphocytes in an in vitro model. Chromatographic purification of the C. latipes hexane extract led to the isolation and identification of friedelin, friedolan-3-ol, and hesperidin as active cytotoxic compounds in hexane extract, while β-amyrine was identified as an active cytotoxic compound in the ethyl acetate extract of C. latipes, thereby supporting further studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of these secondary metabolites on cancer cell survival.

  5. Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra S; de Jesus, Aline M; dos Anjos, Charlene S; da Silva, Thanany B; Santos, Alan D C; de Jesus, Jemmyson R; Andrade, Moacir S; Sampaio, Tais S; Gomes, Wesley F; Alves, Péricles B; Carvalho, Adriana A; Pessoa, Claudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Pinheiro, Maria L B; Prata, Ana Paula N; Blank, Arie F; Silva-Mann, Renata; Moraes, Valeria R S; Costa, Emmanoel V; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar L; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2012-09-01

    Plants are promising sources of new bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic potential of nine plants found in Brazil. The species studied were: Annona pickelii Diels (Annonaceae), Annona salzmannii A. DC. (Annonaceae), Guatteria blepharophylla Mart. (Annonaceae), Guatteria hispida (R. E. Fr.) Erkens & Maas (Annonaceae), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae), Kielmeyera rugosa Choisy (Clusiaceae), Lippia gracilis Schauer (Verbenaceae), and Hyptis calida Mart. Ex Benth (Lamiaceae). Different types of extractions from several parts of plants resulted in 43 extracts. Their cytotoxicity was tested against HCT-8 (colon carcinoma), MDA-MB-435 (melanoma), SF-295 (glioblastoma), and HL-60 (promielocitic leukemia) human tumor cell lines, using the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) assay. The active extracts were those obtained from G. blepharophylla, G. hispida, J. curcas, K. rugosa, and L. gracilis. In addition, seven compounds isolated from the active extracts were tested; among them, β-pinene found in G. hispida and one coumarin isolated from K. rugora showed weak cytotoxic activity. In summary, this manuscript contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of Brazilian plants as sources of new anticancer drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Autophagy mediates cytotoxicity of human colorectal cancer cells treated with garcinielliptone FC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Shen-Jeu; Yen, Cheng-Hsin; Lin, Ting-Yu; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Lin, Chun-Nan; Chen, Jyun-Ti; Su, Chun-Li

    2018-01-01

    The tautomeric pair of garcinielliptone FC (GFC) is a novel tautomeric pair of polyprenyl benzophenonoid isolated from the pericarps of Garcinia subelliptica Merr. (G. subelliptica, Clusiaceae), a tree with abundant sources of polyphenols. Our previous report demonstrated that GFC induced apoptosis on various types of human cancer cell lines including chemoresistant human colorectal cancer HT-29 cells. In the present study, we observed that many autophagy-related genes in GFC-treated HT-29 cells were up- and down-regulated using a cDNA microarray containing oncogenes and kinase genes. GFC-induced autophagy of HT-29 cells was confirmed by observing the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, LC3 puncta, and double-membrane autophagic vesicles using flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Inhibition of AKT/mTOR/P70S6K signaling as well as formation of Atg5-Atg12 and PI3K/Beclin-1 complexes were observed using Western blot. Administration of autophagy inhibitor (3-methyladenine and shRNA Atg5) and apoptosis inhibitor Z-VAD showed that the GFC-induced autophagy was cytotoxic form and GFC-induced apoptosis enhanced GFC-induced autophagy. Our data suggest the involvement of autophagy and apoptosis in GFC-induced anticancer mechanisms of human colorectal cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Antiproliferative Constituents of Geopropolis from the Bee Melipona scutellaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Franchin, Marcelo; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Ransom, Tanya; Beutler, John Albert

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris, guided by antiproliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines (COLO205 and KM12), led to the isolation of two new cinnamic acid esters, mammea-type coumarins 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-8-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-propyl-coumarin (1) and 5,7-dihydroxy-6-(4-cinnamoyl-3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4-phenylcoumarin (2), along with five known coumarins, mammeigin (3), hydroxymammeigin (4), mammeisin (5), cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin (6), and mammein (7), and the prenylated benzophenone ent-nemorosone (8). Among the isolated compounds, 5 and 7 showed the highest cell growth inhibition against COLO205 (GI50 9.7 and 10.7 μM, respectively) and KM12 (GI50 12.0 and 10.9 μM, respectively). The presence of these compounds suggests that plants of Clusiaceae family, especially the genera Kielmeyera and Clusia, are likely to be major sources of geopropolis produced by M. scutellaris. PMID:26544117

  8. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit

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    Deden Derajat Matra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen, of the family Clusiaceae, is one of the economically important tropical fruits in Indonesia. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of Garcinia mangostana L. through RNA-Seq technology. We obtained the raw data from 12 libraries through Ion Proton System. Clean reads of 191,735,809 were obtained from 307,634,890 raw reads. The raw data obtained in this study can be accessible in DDBJ database with accession number of DRA005014 with bioproject accession number of PRJDB5091. We obtained 268,851 transcripts as well as 155,850 unigenes, having N50 value of 555 and 433 bp, respectively. Transcript/unigene length ranged from 201 to 5916 bp. The unigenes were annotated with two main databases from NCBI and UniProtKB, respectively having annotated-sequences of 73,287 and 73,107, respectively. These transcriptomic data will be beneficial for studying transcriptome of Garcinia mangostana L.

  10. Seed harvesting of a threatened African tree dispersed by rodents: Is enrichment planting a solution?

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    Carrie E. Seltzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-timber forest products (NTFPs provide income to local communities with less ecological harm than timber extraction. Yet overharvesting can still influence the regeneration and sustainability of these resources. Developing sustainable harvesting practices for emerging NTFPs depends on the biology of the NTFP species, the ecological context in which management occurs, and its cost in terms of effort and resources. Allanblackia stuhlmannii (Clusiaceae is a canopy tree species whose seeds are a source of vegetable oil and an important food for rodents. In an experiment within the Amani Nature Reserve (Tanzania, we studied how enrichment planting of A. stuhlmannii seeds affected germination and establishment rates under varying local levels of seed abundance and rodent activity. Overall, germination and establishment rates were high (4.8% and 2.2%, respectively, after 11 months, while local ecological conditions had a short lived (1–2 weeks and unexpectedly small influence on the persistence of planted seeds. Given these rates, we estimate a cost of approximately US$0.14 per seedling. Enrichment planting of seeds, across a range of local ecological conditions, appears to be a viable and cost effective management strategy for increasing A. stuhlmannii recruitment in harvested areas.

  11. Antifungal activity of extracts from Brazilian Cerrado plants on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola Atividade antifúngica de extratos de plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola

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    E.S. Naruzawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antifungal activity of leaf aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of 10 plants from the Brazilian Cerrado on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola. Antifungal activity was measured through the incorporation of each extract in a culture media or spore suspension, at 50% concentration relative to the volume, determining respectively the mycelial growth and the spore germination. Then, the percentages of mycelial growth inhibition and spore germination inhibition were obtained based on the comparison with the control. The extracts had a variable action on the phytopathogens, from mycelial growth stimulation for Aristolochia esperanzae and Byrsonima verbascifolia extracts to complete inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination for Myracrodruon urundeuva and Lafoensia pacari extracts. M. urundeuva, L. pacari and Caryocar brasiliense leaf extracts had antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Corynespora cassiicola; the hydroethanolic extracts presented more antifungal activity than the aqueous extracts, and spore germination of both phytopathogens was more affected than their mycelial growth.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antifúngica de extratos aquosos e extratos hidroetanólicos de folhas de 10 plantas do Cerrado brasileiro sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides e Corynespora cassiicola. A determinação da atividade antifúngica foi realizada pela incorporação do extrato em meio de cultura ou na suspensão de esporos, na concentração de 50% em relação ao volume, determinando-se, respectivamente, o crescimento micelial e a germinação de esporos. Em seguida, pela comparação com a testemunha, foram obtidas as percentagens de inibição do crescimento micelial e da germinação dos esporos. Foi constatado comportamento variável dos extratos sobre os fitopatógenos, desde o estímulo no crescimento micelial para os extratos de Aristolochia

  12. Análise da estrutura de uma comunidade lenhosa em área de cerrado sensu stricto no município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves, norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil A woody community structure in a cerrado sensu stricto area of the municipality of Senador Modestino Gonçalves, north of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Andreza Viana Neri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de conhecer a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea de uma área de Cerrado, fez-se um estudo fitossociológico no Município de Senador Modestino Gonçalves. Para tal foram delimitadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 20m para levantamento dos dados, utilizando-se como critério de inclusão os indivíduos com circunferência do tronco à altura do solo (CAS = 10 cm. Foram encontradas 91 espécies de 38 famílias. As espécies que se destacaram como as mais importantes foram Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata e Lafoensia pacari. Essas 10 espécies representaram 49,32% do VI e 51,26% dos indivíduos amostrados. A área não apresentou espécie com dominância marcante, como mostrou o valor de equabilidade (J'= 0,80. Além de se destacar pela riqueza, o cerrado estudado destacou-se também pelos altos valores de densidade (6.476,67 ind/ha, de área basal (28,93 m²/ha e pelo alto índice de diversidade (H'=3,61.The aim of this work was to study the phytossociological structure of a tree community in a cerrado fragment located in Senador Modestino Gonçalves, MG. A total of 30 10x20m stands of tree individuals with stem circumferences at the soil level = 10cm were sampled, being found 91 species belonging to 38 families. The most important species were Qualea grandiflora, Eriotheca pubescens, Caryocar brasiliense, Byrsonima coccolobaefolia, Myrsine guianensis, Qualea parviflora, Dalbergia miscolobium, Stryphnodendron adstringens, Plathymenia reticulata and Lafoensia pacari. These species represented 49.32% of the importance value and 51.26% of the individuals. Besides standing out for its richness, the studied cerrado fragment also outstood out for its high tree density, biomass and diversity.

  13. Rhodolith bed structure along a depth gradient on the northern coast of bahia state, brazil

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    Ricardo G. Bahia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the structure of a rhodolith bed along a depth gradient of 5 to 25 m in the shelf in front of Salvador City, a region of northeastern Brazil. The dimensions, morphology and coralline algae composition of the rhodoliths were analyzed, as well as the vitality, density, and associated flora of the bed at three depths: 5, 15 and 25 m. Samples were obtained by SCUBA divers in summer 2007. Five rhodolith-forming taxa were identified: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens, and Lithophyllum sp. The encrusting growth form and the spherical shape were predominant at all depths. Rhodolith dimensions and vitality decreased and the density increased from the shallow to the deepest zones. Fifty-six macroalgal species were found as rhodolith-associated flora. The shallower depth presented higher values for macroalgal biomass and number of species. These results associated with other recent rhodolith bed descriptions indicate that the pattern of Brazilian rhodolith bed structure along depth gradients may be related to a combination of the extent and slope of the continental shelf.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura de um banco de rodolitos ao longo de um gradiente de profundidade na plataforma em frente à cidade de Salvador, nordeste brasileiro. Foram analisadas as dimensões, a forma e composição das algas calcárias dos rodolitos, bem como a vitalidade, densidade e flora associada ao banco, em três profundidades: 5, 15 e 25 m. As amostras foram obtidas por meio de mergulho autônomo no verão de 2007. Cinco espécies de algas calcárias formadoras de rodolito foram identificadas: Sporolithon episporum, Lithothamnion brasiliense, Lithothamnion superpositum, Mesophyllum erubescens e Lithophyllum sp. A forma de crescimento incrustante e a forma esférica foram predominantes em todas as profundidades. Houve uma redução da dimensão e

  14. The Colletotrichum boninense species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U.; Cannon, P.F.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Johnston, P.R.; Weir, B.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Shivas, R.G.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Although only recently described, Colletotrichum boninense is well established in literature as an anthracnose pathogen or endophyte of a diverse range of host plants worldwide. It is especially prominent on members of Amaryllidaceae, Orchidaceae, Proteaceae and Solanaceae. Reports from literature and preliminary studies using ITS sequence data indicated that C. boninense represents a species complex. A multilocus molecular phylogenetic analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH, HIS3, CAL) of 86 strains previously identified as C. boninense and other related strains revealed 18 clades. These clades are recognised here as separate species, including C. boninense s. str., C. hippeastri, C. karstii and 12 previously undescribed species, C. annellatum, C. beeveri, C. brassicicola, C. brasiliense, C. colombiense, C. constrictum, C. cymbidiicola, C. dacrycarpi, C. novae-zelandiae, C. oncidii, C. parsonsiae and C. torulosum. Seven of the new species are only known from New Zealand, perhaps reflecting a sampling bias. The new combination C. phyllanthi was made, and C. dracaenae Petch was epitypified and the name replaced with C. petchii. Typical for species of the C. boninense species complex are the conidiogenous cells with rather prominent periclinal thickening that also sometimes extend to form a new conidiogenous locus or annellations as well as conidia that have a prominent basal scar. Many species in the C. boninense complex form teleomorphs in culture. Taxonomic novelties: New combination - Colletotrichum phyllanthi (H. Surendranath Pai) Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. Name replacement - C. petchii Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous. New species - C. annellatum Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. beeveri Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. brassicicola Damm, P.F. Cannon & Crous, C. brasiliense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous & Massola, C. colombiense Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, C. constrictum Damm, P.F. Cannon, Crous, P.R. Johnst. & B. Weir, C. cymbidiicola Damm, P.F. Cannon

  15. Taxa de sobrevivência e crescimento inicial das espécies em plantio de recomposição da mata ciliar

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    Giselda Durigan

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de recomposição da mata ciliar em domínio de cerrado, na Estação Experimental de Assis, SP, foram utilizadas 20 espécies arbóreas, escolhidas em função da ocorrência natural em matas ciliares da região ou, no caso das espécies comerciais, com base na adaptabilidade a solos com lençol freático superficial ou pouco profundo. As espécies foram agrupadas em nove tratamentos (puros e mistos, com quatro repetições, num total de 3.624 mudas plantadas em uma área de 16.308m². Oito meses após o plantio avaliou-se a sobrevivência e o crescimento inicial das espécies plantadas. Destacaram-se pelo crescimento vigoroso e alta taxa de sobrevivência: Anadenanthera falcata (angico, Tapirira guianensis (peito-de-pombo, Calophyllum brasiliense (guanandi e Pinus elliottii var. densa (espécie exótica produtora de resina. Mostraram-se mal adaptadas, com baixa taxa de sobrevivência ou limitações no desenvolvimento: Euterpe edulis (palmito branco, Citharexylum myrianthum (pau-viola, Bauhinia bongardii (mororó e Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus (embira-de-sapo.Experimental data on riparian forest restoration at the Assis Experimental Station, São Paulo, Brazil are presented. The 20 tree species used were chosen based upon natural ocurrence in remnant riparian forests of the region or, in the case of commercial species, upon adaptability to swampy soils. Eight months after planting, survival and initial growth of the plants were evaluated. Species which presented vigorous growth and high survival rates were: Anadenanthera falcata, Tapirira guianensis, Calophyllum brasiliense and Pinus elliottii var. densa. Those with poor survival rates and restricted growth were: Euterpe edulis, Citharexylum myrianthum, Bauhinia bongardii and Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus.

  16. Decapod crustaceans used as food by the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, State of Amazonas, Brazil Crustáceos decápodos usados na alimentação pelos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Célio Magalhães

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yanomami are a group of South American Indians that live in the rainforest along the borderlands of Brazil and Venezuela. They depend on hunting, gardening and wild food for survival; crustaceans are a highly prized food item in their diet. Taxonomical and ethnozoological aspects of the Yanomami Indians of the Balawa-ú village, state of Amazonas, Brazil, related to the crustaceans are described. Information and specimens were obtained from August to December, 2003. Interviews were conducted with residents of the village and focused on questions about species exploited, indigenous names, modes of capture and use of the species. One shrimp species of the family Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense and two crab species of Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata as well as two of Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius fittkaui, F. platyacanthus were recorded. The indigenous names applied to these species are: shuhu, for shrimp, oko and peimatherimi for each of the two pseudothelphusid crabs, and hesiki tôtôrema for both trichodactylid crabs.Os Yanomami são um grupo de índios que habitam a floresta tropical úmida ao longo da fronteira entre Brasil e Venezuela. Eles dependem da caça, da agricultura e da coleta de produtos da floresta para a sua sobrevivência, sendo os crustáceos um dos itens alimentares mais apreciados. São descritos aspectos taxonômicos e etnozoológicos dos índios Yanomami da aldeia de Balawa-ú, no estado do Amazonas, Brasil, relacionados aos crustáceos. Informações e espécimes foram coletados de agosto a dezembro de 2003. Foram realizadas entrevistas com habitantes da aldeia com enfoque nas espécies exploradas, nomes indígenas, modos de captura e utilização. Foram registradas uma espécie de camarão da família Palaemonidae (Macrobrachium brasiliense, duas espécies de caranguejos da família Trichodactylidae (Sylviocarcinus pictus, Valdivia serrata e duas da família Pseudothelphusidae (Fredius

  17. Oligochaeta (Annelida: Clitellata associated to aquatic macrophytes in Brazil

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    Nathalie Aparecida de Oliveira Sanches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligochaeta are still characterized as a poorly studied group among the aquatic macroinvertebrates and few studies about their ecology were conducted in Brazil. Thus, our study aimed to provide an overview of the association between Oligochaeta and macrophytes, in Brazilian continental aquatic environments, by means of a literature review along with an inventory of species associated to aquatic macrophytes on marginal lagoons in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas (Américo Brasiliense, São Paulo, Brazil. In the review, we analyzed 10 articles, where we obtained data on 41 species. We also sampled 5 macrophyte genera, Egeria, Salvinia, Utricularia, Eleocharis, and Ceratophyllum, in August and December 2012 and in March and April 2013, in the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas. We registered 21 Oligochaeta species associated to these macrophytes. With the data obtained in the review along with the inventory of the reservoir Ribeirão das Anhumas, we found a total of 41 species associated to aquatic macrophytes, with a higher richness of the Naididae family (93.33%, followed by Opistocystidae (4.44%, and Alluroididae (2.22%. Our study inventoried about 48% of the Oligochaeta diversity registered in continental ecosystems in Brazil, thus highlighting the significance of macrophytes as a resource for these invertebrates, mainly for the Naididae family.

  18. Nymphs of the genus Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) of Brazil: descriptions, redescriptions, and identification key.

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    Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2010-06-01

    Together with the larval stage, the nymphal stage of ticks of the genus Amblyomma are the most aggressive ticks for humans entering areas inhabited by wildlife and some domestic animals in Brazil. However, due to the absence of morphological descriptions of the nymphal stage of most Brazilian Amblyomma species, plus the lack of an identification key, little or nothing is known about the life history of Amblyomma spp. nymphs in the country. In the present study, morphological description of the nymphal stage, illustrating important external characters through scanning electron microscopy, is provided for nymphs of 15 Amblyomma species that occur in Brazil, for which the nymphal stage had never been described: A. aureolatum, A. auricularium, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. fuscum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. latepunctatum, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. ovale, A. pacae, A. pseudoconcolor, A. scalpturatum, A. varium. In addition, the nymphal stage of 12 Amblyomma species, which had been previously described, are redescribed: A. brasiliense, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. dubitatum, A. longirostre, A. oblongoguttatum, A. parkeri, A. parvum, A. romitii, A. rotundatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste. The descriptions and redescriptions totalized 27 species. Only 2 species (A. geayi, A. goeldii) out of the 29 Amblyomma species established in Brazil are not included in the present study. A dichotomous identification key is included to support taxonomic identification of the nymphal stage of 27 Amblyomma species established in Brazil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback of mango in Peru.

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    Rodríguez-Gálvez, Edgar; Guerrero, Pakita; Barradas, Carla; Crous, Pedro W; Alves, Artur

    2017-04-01

    Mango, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of Piura (Peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by Lasiodiplodia spp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of Piura, and to identify the species of Lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. Mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. Identification of fungal isolates was based on morphological and cultural characteristics as well as sequence data of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (tef1-α). The following Lasiodiplodia species were identified: Lasiodiplodia brasiliense, Lasiodiplodia egyptiacae (for which the new combination Lasiodiplodia laeliocattleyae is introduced), Lasiodiplodia iraniensis, Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and a Lasiodiplodia sp. Individual and combined gene genealogies suggest that this Lasiodiplodia sp. is possibly a hybrid of Lasiodiplodia citricola and Lasiodiplodia parva. Apart from Lasiodiplodia theobromae, which was the most prevalent species, all other species are newly reported from Peru. Moreover, L. iraniensis is reported for the first time on mango. Inoculation trials of mango plants confirmed Koch's postulates, and revealed differences in aggressiveness among species and isolates. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells

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    Grasielle S. Gusman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  1. Dose-response effects of dietary pequi oil on fermentation characteristics and microbial population using a rumen simulation technique (Rusitec).

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    Duarte, Andrea Camacho; Durmic, Zoey; Vercoe, Philip E; Chaves, Alexandre V

    2017-12-01

    The effect of increasing the concentration of commercial pequi (Caryocar brasiliense) oil on fermentation characteristics and abundance of methanogens and fibrolityc bacteria was evaluated using the rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In vitro incubation was performed over 15 days using a basal diet consisting of ryegrass, maize silage and concentrate in equal proportions. Treatments consisted of control diet (no pequi oil inclusion, 0 g/kg DM), pequi dose 1 (45 g/kg DM), and pequi dose 2 (91 g/kg DM). After a 7 day adaptation period, samples for fermentation parameters (total gas, methane, and VFA production) were taken on a daily basis. Quantitative real time PCR (q-PCR) was used to evaluate the abundance of the main rumen cellulolytic bacteria, as well as abundance of methanogens. Supplementation with pequi oil did not reduce overall methane production (P = 0.97), however a tendency (P = 0.06) to decrease proportion of methane in overall microbial gas was observed. Increasing addition of pequi oil was associated with a linear decrease (P oil, but numbers of those belonging to Methanomassiliicoccaceae decreased in liquid-associated microbes (LAM) samples (P oil. In conclusion, pequi oil was ineffective in mitigating methane emissions and had some adverse effects on digestibility and selected fibrolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. DIAGNÓSTICO E TRATAMENTO DE PARACOCCIDIOIDOMICOSE: RELATO DE CASO CLÍNICO

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    Jéssica Stuchi Rosario

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A paracoccidioidomicose é causada pelo fungo Paracoccidioides brasilienses e é a micose sistêmica mais frequente da América Latina. A doença apresenta alta incidência no Brasil e representa a terceira causa de óbito por doença infecciosa crônica no país. O acometimento bucal é comum, que apresenta lesões com aspecto granular, eritematoso, ulcerado e com um fino pontilhado hemorrágico. O objetivo do trabalho foi relatar um caso de paracoccidioidomicose oral diagnosticado na cidade de São José dos Campos-SP.  O paciente apresentava lesão com aspecto moriforme, característico da doença, contudo a citologia esfoliativa e a biópsia não confirmaram o diagnóstico, o que só foi possível por meio do teste sorológico. O paciente foi considerado curado após um ano de tratamento com antifúngico. A capacidade do cirurgião-dentista em diagnosticar a doença e fazer o encaminhamento para tratamento diminui consideravelmente as sequelas bucais e sistêmicas.

  3. Identification of novel spp. of rice and wheat endophytic diazotrophs by 16S rDNA gene and FTIR analysis

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    Mohammad Javad Mehdipour Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, six isolates, including three from three rice roots (PxR1, PxR2 and StR1 and three from three wheat roots (PxW1, PxW2 and PxW3 were isolated as endophytic bacteria and except for StR1, all the isolates were identified as Pseudoxanthomonas based on phenotypic analysis including FTIR and PCR amplification of 16S rDNA. The results showed that PxR1, PxR2, PxW1 and PxW2 were all similar and belonged to a novel species of Pseudoxanthomonas, but PxW3 was from different species. StR1 belonged to a novel species of Stenotrophomonas. Two strains including Azospirillum brasiliense Sp7 (S1 and Azospirillum lipoferum (S2 were selected as standard strains and compared with those isolates however, phenotypic and genotypic analysis verified that those isolates were not Azospirillum. For the first time, it was indicated that Pseudoxanthomonas existed as an endophytic bacterium in rice root.

  4. Pequi: a Brazilian fruit with potential uses for the fat industry

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    Guedes Andréa Madalena Maciel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pequi is a native fruit from Brazil, found in the Amazon, Caatinga, Cerrado and Atlantic Rain Forest regions. It is one of the main plants with great potential for sustainable use in Central Brazil. Among 16 species comprising Caryocar genus, three are highlighted: C. brasiliense, C. villosum, and C. coriaceum, of economic importance for families in small communities of Brazilian Cerrado. They are generally organized in cooperatives and use the leaves for preparing medicinal extracts, and the fruits for culinary purposes. When the sale of fresh fruits is reduced, they produce and commercialize fruit preserves, and liqueur products, as well as extract the oil. Harvesting of mature fruits after falling from the tree while keeping some fruits at the plant is the best way for its sustainable production. The internal mesocarp contains from 36 to 66% dry weight of oil having traditional culinary, medicinal and cosmetic uses. This oil has 60% of oleic acid and 35% palmitic acid, thus suitable for industrial fat hardstocks. The presence of the triacylglycerols POO and POP makes the oil of interest for cosmetic and food industries. Both pulp and kernel oils have been studied for their health effects. By physical, enzymatic or chemical modification, the oil has shown potential uses as cocoa butter substitute and zero trans fat product.

  5. Diversity of ticks in the wildlife screening center of São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Thiago Fernandes Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Wildlife Screening Center (CETAS of the Tietê Ecological Park (PET, situated at the municipality of São Paulo, receives, treats and rehabilitates wild animals that have been dislodged from their natural environment due to different reasons. This study analyzed the ixodid fauna, and the rickettsial infection in these ticks, collected on wild animals received at the PET’s CETAS. During the period from March 2003 to November 2016, 936 ticks were collected from 96 wild animals (16 bird and 18 mammal species that were sent to CETAS. The following 12 ixodid species were identified: Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parkeri, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma varium, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes loricatus and Rhipicephalus microplus. From 67 tick specimens tested by the Real Time PCR for rickettsiae, none were positive. The present research records for the first time in Brazil the following association between the tick stages and hosts that have never been reported before: Amblyomma sculptum nymphs on Caprimulgus parvulus, Asio clamator, Buteo brachyurus, Coragyps atratus, Amazona aestiva and Aramus guarauna, Amblyomma dubitatum nymphs on Alouatta guariba and Sphiggurus villosus, Amblyomma aureolatum adults on Bradypus variegatus, Amblyomma longirostre larvae and nymphs on A. clamator, and nymphs on Megascops choliba and Pyroderus scutatus, besides Amblyomma parkeri nymphs on Penelope obscura and Callicebus nigrifrons, and adult on Nasua nasua.

  6. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

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    Paula Faral-Tello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50 values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1.

  7. Antioxidant properties of Brazilian tropical fruits by correlation between different assays.

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    Gregoris, Elena; Pereira Lima, Giuseppina Pace; Fabris, Sabrina; Bertelle, Mariangela; Sicari, Michela; Stevanato, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation) based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa) in order to (i) verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii) individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  8. Antioxidant Properties of Brazilian Tropical Fruits by Correlation between Different Assays

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    Elena Gregoris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different assays (the Folin-Ciocalteu, DPPH, enzymatic method, and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation based on radically different physicochemical principles and normally used to determine the antioxidant activity of food have been confronted and utilized to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruits originated from Brazil, with particular attention to more exotic and less-studied species (jurubeba, Solanum paniculatum; pequi, Caryocar brasiliense; pitaya, Hylocereus undatus; siriguela, Spondias purpurea; umbu, Spondias tuberosa in order to (i verify the correlations between results obtained by the different assays, with the final purpose to obtain more reliable results avoiding possible measuring-method linked mistakes and (ii individuate the more active fruit species. As expected, the different methods give different responses, depending on the specific assay reaction. Anyhow all results indicate high antioxidant properties for siriguela and jurubeba and poor values for pitaya, umbu, and pequi. Considering that no marked difference of ascorbic acid content has been detected among the different fruits, experimental data suggest that antioxidant activities of the investigated Brazilian fruits are poorly correlated with this molecule, principally depending on their total polyphenolic content.

  9. Assessment of lipolytic activity of isolated microorganisms from the savannah of the Tocantins

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    Marysa de Kássia Guedes Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study assesses the biodiversity and selects lipase-producer microorganisms with industrial interest, from the savannah of the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Seventeen pequi microorganisms (Caryocar brasiliense were isolated in the decomposition stage and 35 microorganisms were retrieved from the soil fraction under the collected pequi. Yarrowia lypolitica strain was used as positive control in all assays. The 52 strains were subjected to tests in a solid medium with Tween 20 for checking halos formed by crystals, indicating lipase production by inoculated strains. Another test to confirm lipase producers was conducted in microplates with liquid medium and enriched with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP monitored at 410 ηm. The AS16 and AP5 strains showed the highest activity for test conditions, namely, 0.072 and 0.067 U mL-1 respectively. Rates were higher than the lipase activity of Yarrowia lypolitica(0.052 U mL-1, a reference strain in current assay.

  10. O papel das relações familiares na iniciação ao uso de drogas de abuso por jovens institucionalizados El papel de las relaciones familiares en la iniciación del abuso de drogas ilícitas por parte de jóvenes institucionalizados The role of family relationships in the initiation of street drug abuse by institutionalized youths

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    Catia Campaner Ferrari Bernardy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar o papel das relações familiares na iniciação ao uso de drogas de abuso por parte de jovens cumprindo medidas sócio-educativas, considerando a gravidade dos problemas que o uso de drogas acarretou ao jovem e à sua família. Estudo do tipo descritivo e transversal, com delineamento de série de casos. Foi desenvolvido nos municípios de Rolândia e Cambé-PR, no Centro de Recuperação Vida Nova, com jovens institucionalizados e seus responsáveis, no mês de março de 2007. Como fonte de dados, utilizou-se os prontuários institucionais, e como instrumento de coleta de dados, dois formulários para entrevista. A análise foi feita pela comparação dos dados, seguindo a técnica de análise de conteúdo. Foram estudadas 11 famílias. Sinais de negligência e abandono, agressão física e falta de diálogo familiar e, principalmente, a cultura do uso de drogas no ambiente familiar determinaram a iniciação ao uso de drogas de abuso.El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el papel de las relaciones familiares en la iniciación del abuso de drogas ilícitas por parte de jóvenes cumpliendo medidas socioeducativas, considerando la gravedad de los problemas que el uso de drogas acarreó a los jóvenes y a su familia. El estudio, del tipo descriptivo y transversal, con delineamiento de serie de casos, fue desarrollado en los municipios de Rolândia y Cambé (Paraná, Brasil, en el Centro de Recuperação Vida Nova, con jóvenes institucionalizados y sus responsables, durante el mes de marzo de 2007. Como fuente de datos, se utilizaron los legajos institucionales, y como instrumento de recolección de datos, dos formularios para entrevista. El análisis fue hecho por comparación de datos, siguiendo la técnica de análisis de contenido. Fueron estudiadas 11 familias. Señales de negligencia, abandono, agresión física, falta de diálogo familiar y, principalmente, la cultura de abuso de drogas ilícitas en el ambiente

  11. Caracterización florística de ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, afluente del Río Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Guayana Venezolana Floristic charaterization of enviroments of the lower Cucurital river basin, affluent of Caroní river, Bolívar State, Venezuelan Guayana

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    Leyda Rodríguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Como una contribución al conocimiento florístico de la cuenca del Río Caroní se realizaron colecciones botánicas en varios ambientes de la cuenca baja del Río Cucurital, que incluyen formaciones boscosas, tanto en penillanura como ribereñas, morichales, sabanas, arbustales y ambientes perturbados; en los bosques se hicieron colecciones en parcelas de 0,1 ha y fuera de ellas. De manera general, las familias con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Melastomataceae (46, Rubiaceae (33, Euphorbiaceae (23, Cyperaceae (19, Myrtaceae (18, Fabaceae (18, Clusiaceae (15, Arecaceae (15, Caesalpiniaceae (14, Chrysobalanaceae (14, Lauraceae (14, Poaceae (13 y Burseraceae (12, siendo las más representativas de la cuenca baja. Los géneros con mayor cantidad de especies fueron Miconia (17, Psychotria (13, Ocotea (10, Myrcia (8, Protium (7, Licania (7 y Rhynchospora (7. Melastomataceae y Rubiaceae predominaron en todos los ambientes con excepción de la sabana; Lauraceae, Burseraceae, Arecaceae, Chrysobalanaceae y Euphorbiaceae fueron las de mayor importancia en los bosques, y Myrtaceae y Cyperaceae en los bosques ribereños, esta última junto con las Poaceae predominaron en morichal y sabana. Se encontraron 19 especies restringidas a la Guayana venezolana, de las cuales 12 se conocen sólo del estado Bolívar, evidenciando que las condiciones ecológicas, topográficas y edáficas determinan la presencia de elementos florísticos particulares. Las actividades humanas son escasas, lo que se ha reflejado en poca alteración de las comunidades vegetales y en el mantenimiento del carácter prístino de los ambientes. Los escasos ambientes intervenidos han sido colonizados por especies herbáceas y arbustivas típicas de la región.As a contribution to the floristic knowledge of the Caroní river basin, botanical collections were made in several environments of the lower Cucurital river basin, including forests, riverine forests, palm swamp forests (morichal

  12. Predação de sementes de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

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    Viviane Grenha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A predação de sementes da palmeira Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 foi avaliada de setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005 no Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (RJ. A biologia e o comportamento de P. nucleorum em A. arenaria e as taxas de predação de sementes foram descritas. Frutos encontrados sob 50 palmeiras foram coletados, mensalmente, em cada uma das duas áreas amostradas no PNRJ (mata de cordão arenoso e formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia Sclthdl, Clusiaceae. A avaliação dos cocos predados foi feita a partir da contagem dos orifícios de saída dos bruquíneos no campo, da emergência dos insetos no laboratório e da abertura dos frutos remanescentes. Através de observações e experimentos em 60 infrutescências, verificou-se que a oviposição de Pachymerus nucleorum em A. arenaria ocorre na infrutescência ainda em desenvolvimento diferentemente de registros na literatura em outras espécies de palmeiras, onde a oviposição ocorre nos frutos no chão. A predação dos frutos por P. nucleorum foi de 29,3% na área de mata de cordão arenoso e 20,6% na formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia. O ciclo de vida de P. nucleorum foi bastante longo e com amplitudes bem grandes dentro de uma mesma amostra, o que sugere uma possível diapausa em alguma fase do seu ciclo de vida.Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae palm by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 was evaluated from September 2003 to September 2005 at the Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (PNRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The biology and behaviour of P. nucleorum on A. arenaria and predation rates were described. Fruits found beneath 50 palms were collected, monthly, for each one of the two sampled areas at PNRJ (ridge forest and Clusia Sclthdl (Clusiaceae open shrubland formation. The evaluation of preyed fruits was done by counting exit holes of Bruchinae in the field

  13. Who is who in the understory: the contribution of resident and transitory groups of species to plant richness in forest assemblages

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    JulianaSilva Gomes-Westphalen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest understory is made up of resident and transitory species and can be much richer than the canopy. With the purpose to describe the contribution of these groups to the woody understory, five Atlantic Forest fragments were selected and studied in Northeastern Brazil. In order to analyze the understory’s structure, the sample included woody individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH smaller than 15cm and circumference at ground level (CGL greater than 3cm, regardless of height. The recorded species were quantified and classified into functional stratification categories (resident and transitory, and the floristic similarity between the understory and the tree stratum was calculated. Species’ importance in the understory was analyzed by height and total natural regeneration classes based on a regeneration index. The understory was richer in species (median=63.8, SD=21.72, n=5 fragments than the tree stratum (43.8, 18.14, 5, and the similarity between these components was relatively high (median=0.54, SD=0.09. The results also showed that the studied understory in the forest fragments was mainly composed by transitory species (median=67.01%, SD=3.76, that were well distributed among height classes and had the highest densities, which may favor their future presence in the canopy’s structure and composition. The typical understory species were grouped into two strata: the lower understory, made up of species that generally do not reach more than 4m in height (mostly species from families Piperaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataceae; and the upper understory, with intermediate heights between the lower understory and the canopy, but with average heights that were not higher than 10m (mainly of species from families Anonnaceae, Clusiaceae and Myrtaceae. These families’ richness was commonly used as an indicator of the vegetation’s successional stage; however, such results must be seen with caution as they show that these

  14. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

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    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  15. Cross-cultural comparison of three medicinal floras and implications for bioprospecting strategies.

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    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Savolainen, Vincent; Hawkins, Julie A

    2011-05-17

    One of the major drawbacks of using ethnomedicinal data to direct testing of plants which may find pharmaceutical use is that certain plants without bioactivity might be traditionally used. An accepted way of highlighting bioactive plants is to compare usage in different cultures. This approach infers that presumed independent discovery by different cultures provides evidence for bioactivity. Although several studies have made cross-cultural comparisons, they focussed on closely related cultures, where common patterns might be the result of common cultural traditions. The aim of this study was to compare three independent ethnomedicinal floras for which similarities can be more robustly interpreted as independent discoveries, and therefore likely to be indication for efficacy. Data from the literature were compiled about the ethnomedicinal floras for three groups of cultures (Nepal, New Zealand and the Cape of South Africa), selected to minimise historical cultural exchange. Ethnomedicinal applications were divided in 13 categories of use. Regression and binomial analyses were performed at the family level to highlight ethnomedicinal "hot" families. General and condition-specific analyses were carried out. Results from the three regions were compared. Several "hot" families (Anacardiaceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Clusiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Rubiaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae and Solanaceae) were recovered in common in the general analyses. Several families were also found in common under different categories of use. Although profound differences are found in the three ethnomedicinal floras, common patterns in ethnomedicinal usage are observed in widely disparate areas of the world with substantially different cultural traditions. As these similarities are likely to stem from independent discoveries, they strongly suggest that underlying bioactivity might be the reason for this convergent usage. The global

  16. Assessment of estrogenic, mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of nemorosone

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    Mariana S. Camargo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a wide range of research involving natural products is focused on the discovery of new drugs in many different therapeutic areas. A great number of the synthetic compounds on the market were derived from natural products, especially plants. Nemorosone is the major constituent of the floral resin of Clusia rosea Jacq., Clusiaceae, and in Cuban propolis. In vitro studies have shown cytotoxic activity in this substance against various tumor cell lines, including those resistant to various cytotoxic drugs, whereas it has low cytotoxicity to non-tumoral cells. Therefore, in order to characterize the biological activity of nemorosone, a substance with potential antitumor activity, and in view of preclinical testing of the toxicity of drug candidate compounds, the main aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of nemorosone by the Ames test, using the strains TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 of Salmonella typhimurium. Secondly, to characterize the estrogenic activity in an experimental recombinant yeast model (Recombinant Yeast Assay mutagenic activity was observed at in any of the concentrations in any of the test strains. To evaluate the antimutagenic potential, direct and indirect mutagenic agents were used: 4 nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD, mitomycin C (MMC and aflatoxin B1 (AFL. Nemorosone showed moderate antimutagenic activity (inhibition level 31%, in strain TA100 in the presence of AFL, and strong antimutagenic activity in TA102 against MMC (inhibition level 53%. Estrogenic activity was observed, with an EEq of 0.41±0.16 nM at various tested concentrations.

  17. Assessment of estrogenic, mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of nemorosone

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    Mariana S. Camargo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a wide range of research involving natural products is focused on the discovery of new drugs in many different therapeutic areas. A great number of the synthetic compounds on the market were derived from natural products, especially plants. Nemorosone is the major constituent of the floral resin of Clusia rosea Jacq., Clusiaceae, and in Cuban propolis. In vitro studies have shown cytotoxic activity in this substance against various tumor cell lines, including those resistant to various cytotoxic drugs, whereas it has low cytotoxicity to non-tumoral cells. Therefore, in order to characterize the biological activity of nemorosone, a substance with potential antitumor activity, and in view of preclinical testing of the toxicity of drug candidate compounds, the main aim of this study was to determine the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of nemorosone by the Ames test, using the strains TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102 of Salmonella typhimurium. Secondly, to characterize the estrogenic activity in an experimental recombinant yeast model (Recombinant Yeast Assay mutagenic activity was observed at in any of the concentrations in any of the test strains. To evaluate the antimutagenic potential, direct and indirect mutagenic agents were used: 4 nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD, mitomycin C (MMC and aflatoxin B1 (AFL. Nemorosone showed moderate antimutagenic activity (inhibition level 31%, in strain TA100 in the presence of AFL, and strong antimutagenic activity in TA102 against MMC (inhibition level 53%. Estrogenic activity was observed, with an EEq of 0.41±0.16 nM at various tested concentrations.

  18. Altitudinal gradients, biogeographic history and microhabitat adaptation affect fine-scale spatial genetic structure in African and Neotropical populations of an ancient tropical tree species.

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    Paloma Torroba-Balmori

    Full Text Available The analysis of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS within populations can provide insights into eco-evolutionary processes. Restricted dispersal and locally occurring genetic drift are the primary causes for FSGS at equilibrium, as described in the isolation by distance (IBD model. Beyond IBD expectations, spatial, environmental or historical factors can affect FSGS. We examined FSGS in seven African and Neotropical populations of the late-successional rain forest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae to discriminate the influence of drift-dispersal vs. landscape/ecological features and historical processes on FSGS. We used spatial principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering to assess spatial genetic heterogeneity at SSRs and examined its association with plastid DNA and habitat features. African populations (from Cameroon and São Tomé displayed a stronger FSGS than Neotropical populations at both marker types (mean Sp = 0.025 vs. Sp = 0.008 at SSRs and had a stronger spatial genetic heterogeneity. All three African populations occurred in pronounced altitudinal gradients, possibly restricting animal-mediated seed dispersal. Cyto-nuclear disequilibria in Cameroonian populations also suggested a legacy of biogeographic history to explain these genetic patterns. Conversely, Neotropical populations exhibited a weaker FSGS, which may reflect more efficient wide-ranging seed dispersal by Neotropical bats and other dispersers. The population from French Guiana displayed an association of plastid haplotypes with two morphotypes characterized by differential habitat preferences. Our results highlight the importance of the microenvironment for eco-evolutionary processes within persistent tropical tree populations.

  19. Repellency to Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) of plant essential oils alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum nut oil.

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    Hieu, Tran Trung; Kim, Soon-Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-07-01

    The repellency to female Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) of 21 essential oils (EOs) alone or in combination with Calophyllum inophyllum L. (Clusiaceae) nut oil (tamanu oil) was examined using an exposed human hand bioassay. Results were compared with those of commonly used repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In tests with six human male volunteers at a dose of 0.5 mg/cm2, patchouli (protection time [PT], 3.67 h) was the most effective EO but less active than DEET (4.47 h), as judged by the PT to first bite. Very strong repellency also was produced by clove bud, lovage root, and clove leaf EOs (PT, 3.50-3.25 h), whereas strong repellency was obtained from thyme white EO (2.12 h). Thyme red, oregano, and geranium EOs exhibited moderate repellency (PT, 1.24-1.11 h). At 0.25 mg/cm2, protection time of clove bud, clove leaf, and lovage root EOs (PT, approximately equal to 1 h) was shorter than that of DEET (2.17 h). An increase in the protection time was produced by binary mixtures (PT, 2.68-2.04 h) of five EOs (clove bud, clove leaf, thyme white, patchouli, and savory) and tamanu oil (0.25:2.0 mg/cm2) compared with that of either the constituted essential oil or tamanu oil alone (PT, 0.56 h). The protection time of these binary mixtures was comparable with that of DEET. With the exception of savory EO, the other EOs, tamanu oil, and binary mixtures did not induce any adverse effects on the human volunteers at 0.5 mg/cm2. Thus, binary mixtures of essential oils and tamanu oil described merit further study as potential repellents for protection from humans and domestic animals from biting and nuisance caused by S. calcitrans.

  20. In vivo antiarthritic activity of the ethanol extracts of stem bark and seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum in Freund's complete adjuvant induced arthritis.

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    Perumal, Senthamil Selvan; Ekambaram, Sanmuga Priya; Dhanam, T

    2017-12-01

    Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. (Clusiaceae) (CI) is traditionally used to treat pain, inflammation, eye disorders and rheumatism. The present study evaluates the antiarthritic activity of the ethanol extract of the stem bark (ESBCI) and seeds (ESCI) of Calophyllum inophyllum in Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic Wistar albino rat model. ESBCI and ESCI were screened for in vitro anti-inflammatory activity by proteinase inhibition and membrane stabilization assays. Acute oral toxicity studies were conducted according to OECD-425 guidelines. Antiarthritic activity of ESBCI and ESCI at the dose of 250 mg/kg/p.o. was evaluated by Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model. ESBCI and ESCI have shown maximum inhibition at 250 μg/mL in proteinase inhibition and haemolysis assays. The LD50 of ESBCI and ESCI was found to be greater than 5000 and 2000 mg/kg/p.o., respectively. In Freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rat model ESBCI, ESCI and Diclofenac treatment have shown 28.57, 36.36, and 43.51% as maximum reduction in rat paw oedema volume respectively when compared with the arthritic control rats. ESBCI and ESCI treatment at the dose level of 250 mg/kg/p.o. normalized the altered haematological and biochemical parameters of arthritic control rats. Histological and radiological evaluation confirmed the antiarthritic effect of ESBCI and ESCI. ESBCI and ESCI were found to show significant antiarthritic activity evidenced with clinical, biochemical, histological and radiological evaluations. The present study indicates the antiarthritic activity of ESBCI and ESCI, however its mechanism of action has to be studied in the future.

  1. Differential responses of C3 and CAM native Brazilian plant species to a SO2- and SPMFe-contaminated Restinga.

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    da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; Martinez, Carlos Alberto; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco; Azevedo, Aristéa Alves; Oliva, Marco Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Aiming to evaluate responses in terms of growth rates, physiological parameters, and degree of sensitivity to SO2 and SPMFe in Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae, a C3 species) and Clusia hilariana Schlecht (Clusiaceae, a CAM species); saplings were exposed to emissions from a pelletizing factory for 7 months. The species were distributed along a transect (200, 500, 800, 1400, and 1700 m away from the emission source), and analyses were performed after 71, 118, and 211 days of exposure to the pollutants. E. uniflora received higher superficial deposition of particulate iron. The highest total iron foliar contents were observed 200 m away from the emission source in both plant species, while the highest total sulfur foliar contents were observed 200 m away in C. hilariana and 800 m away in E. uniflora. E. uniflora presented decreased values of height growth rate, number of necrotic leaves, chlorophyll analysis (SPAD index) and transpiration, in relation to the distances from the emission source. C. hilariana showed decreased values of height growth rate, number of leaves, number of necrotic leaves, total ionic permeability, stomatal conductance, transpiration, net CO2 assimilation, and total dry matter, in relation to distances from the emission source. In relation to the days of exposure, both species presented increased number of necrotic leaves and foliar phytotoxicity index, and decreased values in the chlorophyll analysis. The two native plant species, both of which occur in the Brazilian Restinga, showed damage when exposed to emissions from an iron ore pelletizing factory. C. hilariana was considered the most sensitive species due to the decreased values in a higher number of variables after exposition.

  2. A degradation debt? Large-scale shifts in community composition and loss of biomass in a tropical forest fragment after 40 years of isolation.

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    Rakan A Zahawi

    Full Text Available Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the biggest threats to tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. We examined forest dynamics in a mid-elevation 365-ha fragment in southern Costa Rica. The fragment was isolated in the mid-1970s and belongs to the Las Cruces Biological Station. A 2.25-ha permanent plot was established in the center of the old-growth forest (>400 m to nearest edge boundary and all plants >5 cm DBH were censused, mapped, and identified to species in two surveys taken ~5-6 years apart (>3,000 stems/survey. Although the reserve maintains high species richness (>200 spp., with many rare species represented by only one individual, we document a strong shift in composition with a two-fold increase in the number of soft-wooded pioneer individuals. The dominant late-successional understory tree species, Chrysochlamys glauca (Clusiaceae, and most species in the Lauraceae, declined dramatically. Turnover was high: 22.9% of stems in the first survey were lost, and 27.8% of stems in the second survey represented new recruits. Mean tree diameter decreased significantly and there was a 10% decrease in overall biomass. Such alteration has been documented previously but only in smaller fragments or within ~100 m of an edge boundary. Further penetration into this fragment was perhaps driven by a progressive invasion of disturbance-adapted species into the fragment's core over time; the loss of once-dominant late successional species could be a contributing factor. The pattern found is of particular concern given that such fragments represent a substantial portion of today's remaining tropical habitat; further studies in similar-sized fragments that have been isolated for similar prolonged periods are called for.

  3. Medicinal plants in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections.

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    Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.

  4. Ethno-botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines

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    Chua-Barcelo, Racquel Tan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To conduct a survey on the common name/s, traditional uses and cultural importance of the edible wild fruits in different municipalities of Benguet, Cordillera administrative region. Methods Interviews using questionnaires with barangay leaders and indigenous people were conducted with 176 key informants from June 2011 to July 2013. Results A total of 36 fruit species were found in different municipalities of Benguet. These fruit species belong to 27 genera and 20 families. Among the 13 municipalities of Benguet, Kibungan has the highest number of species. There are many uses of wild fruits which ranged from food (snack/dessert/table food), forage (especially for birds, monkeys and wild animals such as cloud rat and grass eaters), offertory, processed/preserved (as jam, jellies, candies, juice and wine), condiment or ingredient (for cooking), source of dye or ink, decoration (to garnish food) and as medicine to common ailments or health problems. Based on the inventory and calculated cultural importance index, Garcinia binucao (balokok) belonging to Clusiaceae is the most abundant fruit, hence it is the commonly used fruit for various purposes such as food, forage, processing/preservation and condiment/ingredient; Vaccinium myrtoides (ayusip) for offerings and as source of dye/ink; Saurauia elegans (uyok) for decoration, and, Antidesma bunius (bugnay) for medicine. Conclusions Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet. PMID:25183144

  5. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A; Soliman, Karam F A

    2009-03-01

    There is growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide. The purpose of the current study is to assess a sizeable variety of natural and plant sources of diverse origin, to ascertain prospective research directives for cancer treatment and potential new chemotherapy drug sources. In this study, 374 natural extracts (10 microg/mL-5 mg/mL) were evaluated for dose-dependent tumoricidal effects using immortal neuroblastoma of spontaneous malignant origin. The findings indicate no pattern of tumoricidal effects by diverse plants with similar families/genus under the classes Pinopsida, Equisetopsida, Lycopodiosida, Filicosida, Liliopsida Monocotyledons or Magnoliopsida Dicotyledons. The results indicate that many of the most commonly used CAMs exhibited relatively weak tumoricidal effects including cats claw, astragalus, ginseng, echinacea, mistletoe, milk thistle, slippery elm, cayenne, chamomile, don quai, meadowsweet, motherwort and shepherd's purse. The data demonstrate that the most potent plant extracts were randomly dispersed within the plantae kingdom (LC(50) = 31-490 microg/mL) in order of the lowest LC(50) Dioscorea villosa (Dioscoreaceae) > Sanguinaria canadensis (Papaveraceae) > Dipsacus asper (Dipsacaceae) > Populus balsamifera (Salicaceae) > Boswellia carteri (Burseraceae) > Cyamopsis psoralioides (Fabaceae) > Rhamnus cathartica (Rhamnaceae) > Larrea tridentate (Zygophyllaceae) > Dichroa febrifuga (Hydrangeaceae) > Batschia canescens (Boraginaceae) > Kochia scoparia (Chenopodiaceae) > Solanum xanthocarpum (Solanaceae) > Opoponax chironium (Umbelliferae) > Caulophyllum thalictroides (Berberidaceae) > Dryopteris crassirhizoma (Dryopteridaceae) > Garcinia cambogia (Clusiaceae) > Vitex agnus-castus (Verbenaceae) > Calamus draco (Arecaceae). These findings show tumoricidal effect by extracts of wild yam root, bloodroot, teasel root, bakuchi seed, dichroa root, kanta kari, garcinia fruit, mace, dragons blood and the biblically

  6. Permanent plot for monitoring in a galleria forest in Puerto Gaitan Meta

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    Albert Gutiérrez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Corpoica began in the dissected eastern plains of Colombia, the installation and study of the structure and floristic composition in a permanent one-hectare plot located in the tropical bioclimatic unit called gallery forest, in the municipality of Puerto Gaitan, Meta. The plot was laid out and demarcated; then, were identified and measured all individuals with DBH greater than ten centimeters. Accordingly with floristic composition were founded 519 individuals belonging to 72 species, 56 genera and 36 families of woody plants were recorded. Families with highest species richness were Burseraceae (5, Euphorbiaceae (5 and Clusiaceae (5. The main uses of the 72 species were 32 timber, 18 wildlife feeding, 10 watersheds protective nature, five suppliers of wood, three fruits, one dye production and one ornamental. The highest tree recorded for the parcel height was 21 meters reported by individuals in the “chaparro de agua” Panopsis rubescensand “merecurillo blanco” (Licania kunthiana. The species “tuno” (Miconia sp and “quincedias” (Tapirira guianensis, were the two species with higher importance value index (IVI 29.5% and 23.8%, respectively. In the vertical and horizontal structure analysis was observed that the middle stratum (Em showed a 46.9% coverage, corresponding to a basal area (6.87 m2, the top stratum (Es 45.7% (6.69 m2 and the lower stratum (Ei 7.41% (1.09 m2. The results suggest that these areas are diverse both in structure and floristic composition and this diversity are affected by human disturbance as there is presence of clear effect of selective logging.

  7. Investigation of biological activities of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions of Platonia insignis Mart. seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Júnior, Joaquim S; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Sousa, Taciana O; Silva, Romézio A C; De Lima, Sidney G; Feitosa, Chistiane M; Citó, Antônia M G L; Melo Cavalcante, Ana A C; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Moura Sperotto, Angelo R; Péres, Valéria F; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer

    2013-01-01

    Platonia insignis Mart., a native species of the Brazilian Amazon more commonly known as bacuri, is a member of the Clusiaceae family. In this study, we evaluated the chemical composition and the antioxidant and toxicity activities of the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions from P. insignis seed ethanolic extract using different experimental models. Our results demonstrate in vitro antioxidant effects, by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assays, as well as in vivo effects in antioxidant-defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to both fractions. Toxicity was evaluated against the micro-crustaceous Artemia salina Leach. and promastigote Leishmania amazonensis. The dichloromethane fraction was the most active fraction evaluated on A. salina and promastigote L. amazonensis (IC(50)  = 24.89 μg/mL and 2.84 μg/mL, respectively). In addition, a slight cytotoxicity was observed in mammalian V79 cells using ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions with MTT assays. Both fractions displayed genotoxicity up to 25 μg/mL (dichloromethane) and 10 μg/mL (ethyl acetate) in V79 cells, as evaluated by the alkaline comet assay. Thus, in this study, we demonstrate for the first time that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions from P. insignis seeds display antioxidant effects, a toxic effect against A. salina and L. amazonensis and induce genotoxicity in V79 mammalian cells. The observed activities can be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in these fractions and to the presence of xanthones (alpha- and gamma-mangostin). © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  8. Three indigenous plants used in anti-cancer remedies, Garcinia kola Heckel (stem bark), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (root) and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (root) show analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Temidayo D; Awodele, Olufunsho; Omisanya, Adeola; Obi, Nkechinyerem; Umezinwa, Chioma; Fatokun, Amos A

    2016-12-24

    Phytochemicals with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties are known to inhibit tumour initiation, promotion and progression. Hence, there is an increasingly-convincing rationale for employing remedies containing those phytochemicals in the treatment of cancers and also as analgesic and anti-inflammatory adjuvants in therapy. The plants Garcinia kola Heckel (Clusiaceae), stem bark; Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (Annonaceae), root; and Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (Olacaceae), root, have been documented to be part of various indigenous anti-cancer regimens. To determine if the three plants exhibit significant anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Using established models, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the three plants were investigated. Pre-treatment with the plant extracts at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg produced inhibition of writhes; G. kola and U. chamae showed no significant effect on formalin-induced pain, but O. subscorpioidea produced inhibition in both phases of the formalin test. Similarly, while G. kola and U. chamae did not produce any significant inhibitory effect in the xylene-induced ear oedema model, the oedema was significantly reduced by O. subscorpioidea pre-treatment. However, all the three plants significantly inhibited the time-dependent increase in paw circumference in the carrageenan- and formaldehyde-induced rat paw oedema tests, with peak effects observed at 400mg/kg, 6h after the induction of oedema, comparable in some cases to the effects of two standard drugs, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and the anti-inflammatory antibiotic doxycycline. We conclude that the three plant extracts possess analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, thus providing a scientific rationale for their inclusion in some traditional anti-cancer regimens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnopharmacognostic survey on botanical compendia for potential cosmeceutic species from Atlantic Forest

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    Maique W. Biavatti

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest is one of the most endangered ecosystems on earth, and is acknowledged as an area with truly exceptional levels of biodiversity under enormous levels of stress. Cosmeceutics cover a border area between pharmaceuticals for skin diseases and cosmetics. Natural products for external application, to improve the appearance of the skin or for skin treatment, have always been observed and used by native cultures. The present work deals with the ethnopharmacognostic analysis of two botanical compendia (BC, named: Dicionário das Plantas Úteis do Brasil - e das exóticas cultivadas, compiled by Pio Correa (PC Flora Ilustrada Catarinense (FIC. From these BC, reported species with cosmeceutical uses or with related physico-chemical or organoleptic characteristics were selected, updated, searched for scientific background and highlighted if endangered. PC and FIC specified that 245 plant species, belonging to 98 plant families, are used in Brazil for cosmeceutical, cosmetic or skin remedies. The families most widely represented were Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Annonaceae, Clusiaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Bignoniaceae and Solanaceae The most frequently cited plant parts were bark, followed by leaves and aerial parts. The most frequently cited properties were astringency and tonic effect followed by uses in skin disorders and wound healing, emollient characteristic, anti-inflammatory uses and healing of skin ulcers, antiseptic effects, parasiticide and skin lightening properties and aphrodisiacs. According to the Pubmed survey, most of the selected species (65% have not been previously investigated for potential cosmeceutical applications, nor have their chemical composition been investigated.

  10. Advanced glycation inhibition and protection against endothelial dysfunction induced by coumarins and procyanidins from Mammea neurophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bach Tai; Gény, Charlotte; Blanchard, Patricia; Rouger, Caroline; Tonnerre, Pierre; Charreau, Béatrice; Rakolomalala, Gilbertine; Randriamboavonjy, Joseph Iharinjaka; Loirand, Gervaise; Pacaud, Pierre; Litaudon, Marc; Richomme, Pascal; Séraphin, Denis; Derbré, Séverine

    2014-07-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are associated with many pathogenic disorders such as pathogenesis of diabetes or endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular events. Therefore, the identification of new anti-AGE molecules or extracts aims at preventing such pathologies. Many Clusiaceae and Calophyllaceae species are used in traditional medicines to treat arterial hypertension as well as diabetes. Focusing on these plant families, an anti-AGE plant screening allowed us to select Mammea neurophylla for further phytochemical and biological studies. Indeed, both DCM and MeOH stem bark extracts demonstrated in vitro their ability to prevent inflammation in endothelial cells and to reduce vasoconstriction. A bioguided fractionation of these extracts allowed us to point out 4-phenyl- and 4-(1-acetoxypropyl)coumarins and procyanidins as potent inhibitors of AGE formation, potentially preventing endothelial dysfunction. The fractionation steps also led to the isolation of two new compounds, namely neurophyllols A and B from the DCM bark extract together with thirteen known mammea A and E coumarins (mammea A/AA, mammea A/AB, mammea A/BA, mammea A/BB, mammea A/AA cycloD, mammea A/AB cycloD, disparinol B, mammea A/AB cycloE, ochrocarpin A, mammea A/AA cycloF, mammea A/AB cycloF, mammea E/BA, mammea E/BB) as well as δ-tocotrienol, xanthones (1-hydroxy-7-methoxyxanthone, 2-hydroxyxanthone) and triterpenes (friedelin and betulinic acid). During this study, R,S-asperphenamate, previously described from fungal origin was also purified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Structure and floristic composition of three oak forests in the northern region of the Central Cordillera in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Juan D; Vélez, Gladys; Yepes, Adriana P

    2009-12-01

    Andean ecosystems harbor a high floristic diversity, which is being threatened by human disturbances such us deforestation and by the expansion of the agricultural frontier. One of these ecosystems are the Andean oak forests dominated by Quercus humboldtii, a threatened species in Colombia. We assessed the floristic composition and structure of three Andean oak forests located in three localities (San Andrés de Cuerquia, Belmira and Guarne) of Antioquia. The main goal was to determine whether these forests showed similarities in their structure and floristic composition. In each site, a permanent plot of 5000 m2 (0.5 ha) was established. All trees with D > or = 10 cm were sampled and identified to species. The Importance Value Index (IVI) was calculated as the sum of relative density (DeR), dominance (DoR) and frequency (FR) of a species. Trees with 5 trees with D > or = 10 cm in the three forests, the number of species ranged from 18 to 54, whilst the number of individuals ranged from 326 to 680. The Guarne oak forest showed the highest species richness. In all sites, Q. humboldtii (Fagaceae) was the most important species in relation to the IVI, while Clusia sp. (Clusiaceae) and Myrsine coriaceae (Myrsinaceae) were the most important species in San Andrés de Cuerquia, Clethra fagifolia (Clethraceae) was important only in Belmira and Myrcia popayanensis (Myrtaceae) was important in Guarne. The families with the highest number of species were Fabaceae, Melastomataceae and Rubiaceae. Floristic similarity among places was low. The size distribution of trees had an inverse J-shape curve for all sites with changes in the abundance for size class. The three oak forests differed in their structure and floristic composition probably because of different disturbance degrees.

  12. Fragmentations of [M-H]- anions of peptides containing Ser sulfate. A joint experimental and theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T T Nha; Wang, Tianfang; Hack, Sandra; Bowie, John H

    2013-11-15

    To determine the negative-ion cleavages from [M-H](-) ions of Ser sulfate-containing peptides using experiment and theory in concert. Fragmentations were explored using a Waters QTOF2 mass spectrometer in negative-ion electrospray mode, together with calculations at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory. Peptides used in this study were: GS(SO3H)(OH) 1 GS(SO3H)(OCH3) 1a GAVS(SO3H)(OH) 2 GAVS(SO3H)(OCH3) 2a GLS(SO3H)(GVA(OH) 3 GLS(SO3H)GDA(OH) 4 GLS(SO3H)GS(SO3H)A(OH) 5. Previously, it has been shown that a peptide containing a Tyr sulfate group shows [(M-H)(-) -SO3] as the base peak. Only a small peak was observed corresponding to HOSO3(-) (formed following rearrangement of the sulfate). A Ser sulfate-containing peptide, in contrast, shows pronounced peaks due to cleavage product anions [(M-H)(-)-SO3] and HOSO3(-). Theoretical calculations at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) level of theory suggest that rearrangement of a Ser sulfate to give C-terminal CO2SO3H is energetically unfavourable in comparison with fragmentation of the intact Ser sulfate to yield [(M-H)(-)-SO3] and HOSO3(-). [(M-H)(-)-H2SO4] anions are not observed in the spectra of peptides containing Ser sulfate, presumably because HOSO3(-) is a relatively weak gas-phase base (ΔGacid = 1265 kJ mol(-1)). Experimental and theoretical data suggest that [(M-H)(-)-SO3] and HOSO3(-) product anions (from a peptide with a C-terminal Ser sulfate) are formed from the serine sulfate anion accompanied by specific proton transfer. CID MS/MS/MS data for an [(M-H)(-)-SO3] ion of an underivatised sulfate-containing peptide will normally allow the determination of the amino acid sequence of that peptide. The one case we have studied where that is not the case is GLS(SO3H)GDA(OH), where the peptide contains Ser sulfate and Asp, where the diagnostic Asp cleavages are competitive with the Ser sulfate cleavages. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Social relations and healthcare utilisation among middle-aged and older people: study protocol for an implementation and register-based study in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sophie Bech Mikkelsen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research establishes an association between social relations, health and use of healthcare services among older people, how to implement this knowledge in real-life settings has received much less attention. This study will explore the relationship between social relations, health and use of healthcare services in a Danish mid-life population sample. In addition, the study will explore individual and contextual factors affecting the implementation of a group-based life story intervention aimed at establishing and strengthening social relations among older people at nursing homes in Denmark. Methods/design A combined quantitative register-based approach and a qualitative implementation approach will be applied in this study. First, we will quantitatively analyse the relationship between social relations, health status and use of healthcare services among middle-aged people in Denmark by linking survey data on social relations, loneliness, self-perceived health and disease status from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB (n = 7191 with national registries through the Public Health Database on use of healthcare services and demographic and socioeconomic factors. Second, we will qualitatively analyse individual and contextual factors affecting the implementation process of the group-based life story intervention based on semi-structured interviews (n = 16, observations and field notes with and among intervention stakeholders, i.e., participants and group leaders facilitating the intervention. Discussion The results of this study are expected to improve knowledge about mechanisms through which social relations are associated with health status and use of healthcare services and to inform the implementation of future interventions targeting social relations among older people at nursing homes. Trial registration The study has been registered and approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Seperate

  14. Soil erosion determination in a watershed from northern Paraná (Brazil using 137Cs

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    Avacir Casanova Andrello

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was study the soil losses or gains in a watershed in the municipal district of Cambé, Paraná using 137Cs as marker for the determination of soil redistributions. A transect sampling was used to evaluate the influence of different tillage on soil erosion. One point, located in a forest area was sampled and analyzed to determine the reference inventory of cesium-137 deposited by fallout. The average value of the reference inventory was 292 Bq m-2. The cesium-137 inventory of the transect samples varied from 80 Bq m-2 to 403 Bq m-2. The sampling points in pasture presented soil losses. The sampling points in coffee plantation did not present losses or gains. The sampling points in soybean cultivated areas presented soil losses.O césio-137 introduzido no meio ambiente pelos testes nucleares de superfície é rápido e fortemente adsorvido às partículas finas do solo. Este pode ser usado como um marcador para determinação da redistribuição do solo. Esta metodologia tem sido muito usada nos países desenvolvidos, porém ainda muito pouco difundida no Brasil. O objetivo deste estudo foi a aplicação desta metodologia para determinação de perdas e ganhos de solo em uma bacia no município de Cambe, Paraná. Esta bacia está localizada ao redor das coordenadas 23º16' S e 51º17' O e o solo cultivado com diferentes culturas. Uma amostragem em transectos foi utilizada para avaliar a influência dos diferentes cultivos na erosão do solo. Um ponto em área de floresta foi amostrado e analisado para determinar o inventário de referência de césio-137 depositado pelo "fallout". O valor médio do inventário de referência foi de 292 Bq m-2. O inventário de césio-137 das amostras dos transectos variou de 80 Bq m-2 até 403 Bq m-2. Os pontos amostrados em pastagem e em cultura de soja apresentaram perdas de solo, e os pontos amostrados em plantação de café não apresentaram nem perda nem ganho de solo.

  15. Leishmania amazonensis in dog with clinical diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Paraná State, Brazil – a case reportLeishmania amazonensis em cão com quadro clínico de leishmaniose visceral no Estado do Paraná, Brasil – relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Mendes Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis are antropozoonoses involving various species of Leishmania and hosts, with variable clinical presentations and considered of great importance to public health. This article describes a case of canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania amazonensis, from the town of Cambé, Paraná state, Brazil. This state is considered endemic for American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in humans, but this is the first report in a dog in the region, caused by L. amazonensis. The taxonomic characterization of Leishmania was performed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis technique (MLEE. Clinical signs were similar to those observed in visceral leishmaniasis as polyarthritis and progressive weight loss. It is concluded that the related polyarthritis when related to leishmaniasis, cannot be considered a clinical sign associated only with L. chagasi in view of the L. amazonensis also has this as one of its presentations. The LTA becomes a differential diagnosis of polyarthritis in dogs.As leishmanioses são antropozoonoses que envolvem diversas espécies de Leishmania e hospedeiros, tendo apresentações clínicas variáveis e consideradas de grande importância para a saúde pública. Este artigo descreve um caso de leishmaniose canina causada por Leishmania amazonensis, proveniente da cidade de Cambé, Paraná – Brasil. Este estado é considerado endêmico para a leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA em humanos, porém este é o primeiro relato em cão na região, provocado pela L. amazonensis. A caracterização taxonômica da Leishmania foi realizada através da técnica multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE. Os sinais clínicos foram similares aos observados na leishmaniose visceral como poliartrite e emagrecimento progressivo. Conclui-se que a poliartrite quando relacionada à leishmaniose não pode ser considerada um sinal clínico associado somente a L. chagasi, tendo em vista que a L. amazonensis também tem esta como uma das suas formas

  16. Social relations and healthcare utilisation among middle-aged and older people: study protocol for an implementation and register-based study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Anne Sophie Bech; Lund, Rikke; Kristiansen, Maria

    2017-11-15

    While previous research establishes an association between social relations, health and use of healthcare services among older people, how to implement this knowledge in real-life settings has received much less attention. This study will explore the relationship between social relations, health and use of healthcare services in a Danish mid-life population sample. In addition, the study will explore individual and contextual factors affecting the implementation of a group-based life story intervention aimed at establishing and strengthening social relations among older people at nursing homes in Denmark. A combined quantitative register-based approach and a qualitative implementation approach will be applied in this study. First, we will quantitatively analyse the relationship between social relations, health status and use of healthcare services among middle-aged people in Denmark by linking survey data on social relations, loneliness, self-perceived health and disease status from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) (n = 7191) with national registries through the Public Health Database on use of healthcare services and demographic and socioeconomic factors. Second, we will qualitatively analyse individual and contextual factors affecting the implementation process of the group-based life story intervention based on semi-structured interviews (n = 16), observations and field notes with and among intervention stakeholders, i.e., participants and group leaders facilitating the intervention. The results of this study are expected to improve knowledge about mechanisms through which social relations are associated with health status and use of healthcare services and to inform the implementation of future interventions targeting social relations among older people at nursing homes. The study has been registered and approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. Seperate approvals have been attained for the qualitative data (Approval No. SUND-2016

  17. O estilo motivacional de professores de Educação Física The motivational style of Physical Education teachers

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    Daniela Schwabe Minelli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar qual o estilo motivacional adotado por professores de educação física escolar, exclusivamente no que se refere à autonomia. A pesquisa de caráter descritivo-exploratório contou com a participação de 16 professores atuantes em escolas do município de Cambé, norte do Paraná. Os dados foram coletados por meio do instrumento "Problemas na escola", composto por oito vinhetas que representam cenários comuns às escolas, seguidas de quatro afirmações que devem ser avaliada numa escala de Likert. Cada uma das quatro situações-respostas corresponde a um estilo motivacional adotado, que varia de altamente controlador até altamente promotor de autonomia. Os resultados mostraram que o estilo motivacional altamente promotor de autonomia foi o mais adotado pelos participantes da pesquisa, podendo assim, representar uma prática docente na educação física escolar que promova efetivamente a aprendizagem e, uma mudança efetiva no comportamento dos estudantes.The study aimed to identify the motivational style adopted by teachers of Physical Education School, only with regard to autonomy. The research was a descriptive exploratory with the participation of 16 teachers working in public schools in Cambé, north of Paraná. Data were collected via the instrument "Problems in Schools", composed of eight vignettes that represent common scenarios for schools followed by four statements to be assessed on a Likert scale. Each of the four-response situations corresponds to a motivational style adopted, ranging from highly controlling to highly autonomy. The results showed that the promoter highly motivational style of autonomy was the most frequently adopted by the participants and may therefore represent a teaching practice in physical education to promote effective learning and an effective change in the behavior of students.

  18. Electronic structure of BN-aromatics: Choice of reliable computational tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazière, Audrey; Chrostowska, Anna; Darrigan, Clovis; Dargelos, Alain; Graciaa, Alain; Chermette, Henry

    2017-10-01

    The importance of having reliable calculation tools to interpret and predict the electronic properties of BN-aromatics is directly linked to the growing interest for these very promising new systems in the field of materials science, biomedical research, or energy sustainability. Ionization energy (IE) is one of the most important parameters to approach the electronic structure of molecules. It can be theoretically estimated, but in order to evaluate their persistence and propose the most reliable tools for the evaluation of different electronic properties of existent or only imagined BN-containing compounds, we took as reference experimental values of ionization energies provided by ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UV-PES) in gas phase—the only technique giving access to the energy levels of filled molecular orbitals. Thus, a set of 21 aromatic molecules containing B-N bonds and B-N-B patterns has been merged for a comparison between experimental IEs obtained by UV-PES and various theoretical approaches for their estimation. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) methods using B3LYP and long-range corrected CAM-B3LYP functionals are used, combined with the Δ SCF approach, and compared with electron propagator theory such as outer valence Green's function (OVGF, P3) and symmetry adapted cluster-configuration interaction ab initio methods. Direct Kohn-Sham estimation and "corrected" Kohn-Sham estimation are also given. The deviation between experimental and theoretical values is computed for each molecule, and a statistical study is performed over the average and the root mean square for the whole set and sub-sets of molecules. It is shown that (i) Δ SCF+TDDFT(CAM-B3LYP), OVGF, and P3 are the most efficient way for a good agreement with UV-PES values, (ii) a CAM-B3LYP range-separated hybrid functional is significantly better than B3LYP for the purpose, especially for extended conjugated systems, and (iii) the "corrected" Kohn-Sham result is a

  19. Triply twisted Möbius annulene: a new class of two-photon active material--a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Varun; Alam, Md Mehboob; Thankachan, Pompozhi Protasis

    2015-03-14

    In the present work, we have studied the gas phase one- and two-photon absorption (OPA and TPA) properties of the first two excited states of the triply twisted Möbius annulene molecule (G. R. Schaller, et al., Nat. Chem. 2014, 6, 608) and five model systems substituted with different donor and acceptor groups. The main purpose of this study is to explore the OPA and TPA properties of this newly synthesized molecule and the unique π-conjugation provided by it. We have used the linear and quadratic response theory methods with the CAMB3LYP functional and the cc-pVDZ basis set for calculating the required parameters. Our results indicate that in the absence of any directive force (i.e. the donor-acceptor groups) the unsubstituted molecule is completely TP inactive. However, as soon as we insert the donor-acceptor group the system becomes TP active which can further be enhanced (up to 3640 GM in our case) by changing the donor-acceptor groups. We have explained the results by performing a two-state model calculation and by analyzing the TP tensor elements and the orbitals involved in the transition processes.

  20. Computational studies on optoelectronic and nonlinear properties of Octaphyrin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nasarul; Lone, Irfan H.

    2017-03-01

    The electronic and nonlinear optical properties of octaphyrin derivatives were studied by employing the DFT/TDFT at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G (2d, 2p) level of the theory. Thiophene, phenyl, methyl and cyano moieties were substituted on the molecular framework of octaphyrin core, in order to observe the change in optoelectronic and nonlinear response of these systems. The frontier molecular orbital studies and values of electron affinity reveals that the studied compounds are stable against the oxygen and moisture present in air. The calculated ionisation energies, adiabatic electron affinity and reorganization energy values indicate that octaphyrin derivatives can be employed as effective n-type material for Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs). This character shows an enhancement with the introduction of an electron withdrawing group in the octaphyrin framework. The polarizability and hyperpolarizability values of octaphyrin derivatives demonstrate that they are good candidates for nonlinear optical devices. The nonlinear response of these systems shows enhancement on the introduction of electron donating groups on octaphyrin moiety. However these claims needs further experimental verification.

  1. Evolution under environmental stress at macro- and microscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stress has played a major role in the evolution of living organisms (Hoffman AA, Parsons PA. 1991. Evolutionary genetics and environmental stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Parsons PA. 2005. Environments and evolution: interactions between stress, resource inadequacy, and energetic efficiency. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80:589-610). This is reflected by the massive and background extinctions in evolutionary time (Nevo E. 1995a. Evolution and extinction. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1:717-745). The interaction between organism and environment is central in evolution. Extinction ensues when organisms fail to change and adapt to the constantly altering abiotic and biotic stressful environmental changes as documented in the fossil record. Extreme environmental stress causes extinction but also leads to evolutionary change and the origination of new species adapted to new environments. I will discuss a few of these global, regional, and local stresses based primarily on my own research programs. These examples will include the 1) global regional and local experiment of subterranean mammals; 2) regional experiment of fungal life in the Dead Sea; 3) evolution of wild cereals; 4) "Evolution Canyon"; 5) human brain evolution, and 6) global warming.

  2. DISEÑO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN TEÓRICA DE MATERIALES FOTOACTIVOS EFICIENTES BASADOS EN DERIVADOS DE NAFTOPIRROL Y DE NAFTOTIOFENO PARA CELDAS SOLARES ORGÁNICAS

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    Walter J. Cuadro

    Full Text Available In this research we have designed electron donors D-π-A type containing two different π fragments to obtain naphthopyrrole (D-NPR-A and naphthotiophene (D-NTP-A derivatives, proposed for the use in organic bulk hetero-junction (BHJ solar cells (OSCs. These derivatives were characterized by DFT and TD-DFT calculations. For all the electron donors the anchorage fragment was 2-methylenemalononitrile, while the chromophore fragment was spanned between diphenylamine, triphenylamine, thiophene. Properties affecting open-circuit photovoltage (VOC and short-circuit photocurrent (JSC from D-π-A type derivatives, such as geometric structure, frontier-molecular orbital energies, exciton driving force energy, natural bond orbital analysis, absorption spectra and light harvesting efficiency. Energy from HOMO and LUMO orbitals was discussed. Theoretical calculations from TD-DFT within Coulumb attenuation method CAM-B3LYP were able to predict excited state properties. The electron donors D-π-A type exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency above 10%, being the naphthopyrrole derivatives (D-NPR-A along with the [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM the complexes with higher photoelectric properties, these complexes are proposed as photoactive materials in the construction of organic bulk hetero-junction solar cells.

  3. Computing UV/vis spectra using a combined molecular dynamics and quantum chemistry approach: bis-triazin-pyridine (BTP) ligands studied in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfener, Sebastian; Trumm, Michael; Koke, Carsten; Heuser, Johannes; Ekström, Ulf; Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Schimmelpfennig, Bernd; Panak, Petra J

    2016-03-21

    We report a combined computational and experimental study to investigate the UV/vis spectra of 2,6-bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) ligands in solution. In order to study molecules in solution using theoretical methods, force-field parameters for the ligand-water interaction are adjusted to ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Based on these parameters, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out from which snapshots are extracted as input to quantum chemical excitation-energy calculations to obtain UV/vis spectra of BTP ligands in solution using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) employing the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA). The range-separated CAM-B3LYP functional is used to avoid large errors for charge-transfer states occurring in the electronic spectra. In order to study environment effects with theoretical methods, the frozen-density embedding scheme is applied. This computational procedure allows to obtain electronic spectra calculated at the (range-separated) DFT level of theory in solution, revealing solvatochromic shifts upon solvation of up to about 0.6 eV. Comparison to experimental data shows a significantly improved agreement compared to vacuum calculations and enables the analysis of relevant excitations for the line shape in solution.

  4. TD-DFT calculations, NBO analysis and electronic absorption spectra of some thiazolo[3,2-a]pyridine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Khalil, Ali Kh.

    2017-11-01

    The electronic structure of thiazolo[3,2-a]pyridine and some of its derivatives are investigated theoretically using B3LYB/6-311G (d, p) method. The calculations show that all the studied compounds 1-5 are non-planar, as indicated from the dihedral angles. The electronic absorption spectra of the studied compounds are recorded in the UV-VIS region, in both DMF and Dioxane solvents. Assignments of the observed electronic transitions are facilitated via time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) computations. Band maxima (λmax) and intensities of the spectra are found to have solvent dependence reflected as blue and red shifts. Electronic configurations contributing to each excited state are identified and the relevant MOs are characterized. The extent of delocalization and intermolecular charge transfer are estimated and discussed in terms of natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and second order perturbation interactions between donor and acceptor MOs. The theoretical spectra computed at ;A new hybrid exchange-correlation functional using the Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP),; at the 6-311G (d, p) bases set in gas phase and with the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) in Dioxane and DMF indicate a good agreement with the observed spectra.

  5. New solid forms of efavirenz: Synthesis, vibrational spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marcelo M.; Rezende, Carlos A.; Lima, Gabriel C.; Marques, Andressa C. S.; Prado, Lívia D.; Leal, Kátia Z.; Rocha, Helvécio V. A.; Ferreira, Gláucio B.; Resende, Jackson A. L. C.

    2017-06-01

    Efavirenz,(S)-6-chloro-4-(cyclopropylethynyl)-1,4-dihydro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-3,1-benzoxazin-2-one, is an anti HIV agent from the class of the non-nucleoside inhibitors of the HIV-1 virus reverse transcriptase. This paper describes the synthesis of two new solvatomorphs of efavirenz (EFV). The results through XRPD and DSC/TG indicate that the new forms undergo a solvent loss over the days, and then return to the original polymorph. Structural and spectral characteristics of EFV were studied by vibrational spectroscopy and quantum chemical methods. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the potential energy curve, optimized geometries and vibrational spectra were carried out using 6-311 + G** basis sets and CAM-B3LYP functional, solid state calculations were also performed using DFT-XGGA (PBE-D3) exchange-correlation functional with the option of mixtures of Gaussian and plane waves method (GPW). Based on these results, the paper discussed the correlation between the vibrational modes and the crystalline structure of the most stable form of EFV. A complete analysis of the experimental infrared and Raman spectra was reported on the basis of the wavenumbers of the vibrational bands and the potential energy distribution.

  6. Vibrational, NMR and UV-Visible spectroscopic investigation, VCD and NLO studies on Benzophenone thiosemicarbazone using computational calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, N.; Jobe Prabakar, P. C.; Ramalingam, S.; Periandy, S.; Parasuraman, K.

    2016-04-01

    In order to explore the unbelievable NLO property of prepared Benzophenone thiosemicarbazone (BPTSC), the experimental and theoretical investigation has been made. The theoretical calculations were made using RHF and CAM-B3LYP methods at 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The title compound contains Cdbnd S ligand which helps to improve the second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency. The molecule has been examined in terms of the vibrational, electronic and optical properties. The entire molecular behavior was studied by their fundamental IR and Raman wavenumbers and was compared with the theoretical aspect. The molecular chirality has been studied by performing vibrational circular dichroism (circularly polarized infrared radiation). The Mulliken charge levels of the compound ensure the perturbation of atomic charges according to the ligand. The molecular interaction of frontier orbitals emphasizes the modification of chemical properties of the compound through the reaction path. The enormous amount of NLO activity was induced by the Benzophenone in thiosemicarbazone. The Gibbs free energy was evaluated at different temperature and from which the enhancement of chemical stability was stressed. The VCD spectrum was simulated and the optical dichroism of the compound has been analyzed.

  7. Functional disability for mobility in adults: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Yumi Yonamine

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Functional disability is an important health indicator associated with worse quality of life. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of functional disability for mobility and to identify factors associated with difficulty going up and down stairs in adults aged 40 years or over. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study, with residents of the Municipality of Cambé, PR, interviewed in 2011. The dependent variable was the difficulty of going up and down stairs. Analysis of associated factors was performed using Poisson regression for each subgroup (40 - 59 years and 60 years or older. Results: In total, 24% of the subjects presented some kind of difficulty going up stairs (p < .01. In both subgroups, a significantly higher prevalence in women, among those inactive during leisure time and those with a history of cerebrovascular disease was observed. In the subgroup aged 40 to 59 years, age 50 - 59 years, hypertension, diabetes and falls in the previous 12 months were also associated with the outcome. Conclusion: The results suggest the need to expand the actions of health promotion, prevention and control of chronic conditions, especially among middle-aged people.

  8. Investigation of carboxylation of carbon nanotube in the adsorption of anti-cancer drug: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesabi, Maryam; Behjatmanesh-Ardakani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, an important process applied in the design of novel composite materials and drug delivery fields is the carboxylation of carbon nanotubes. In this work, we study the interaction of the anti-cancer drug hydroxyurea with carboxyl-functionalized zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by employing the method of the density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP levels in gas and solvent phases. The results show that all complexes are energetically favorable, especially in the aqueous phase. The enthalpy energy values are negative in all cases, which indicate their exothermic adsorption nature. The presence of sbnd COOH groups would create enough free space on the nanotube surface for the adsorption between interacting atoms. Thus, these can increase the activity of CNTs. Data indicates that adsorption is dependent on the carboxyl sites of the nanotube as well as on the sites of the drug. Furthermore, the hydrogen-bonding interactions between drug and sbnd COOH-CNTs play an important role for the different kinds of adsorption observed.

  9. On site coulomb repulsion dominates over the non-local Hartree-Fock exchange in determining the band gap of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyaya, Mausumi; Sen, Sabyasachi; Alam, Md. Mehboob; Chakrabarti, Swapan

    2014-02-01

    The present study deals with the relative performance of the various density functional approaches in evaluating the band gap of polymer materials. Several density functional approximations that includes pure generalized gradient approximated (GGA) functional, meta-GGA, hybrid and range separated hybrid functionals have been used to evaluate the electrical band gap or transport gap of the studied polymers and compared with that obtained using Hubbard U corrected GGA functional (GGA+U). It has been observed that the experimental band gap of the polymers studied is satisfactorily reproducible when GGA+U approach is adopted. The band gap analyses further suggest that range separated hybrid functional, CAM-B3LYP, largely overestimates the band gap of all the polymers studied while the performance of hybrid B3LYP functional and other range separated hybrid functional like HSE is moderate. Better performance of the GGA+U method clearly indicates that short range coulomb correlation plays more significant role over the non-local Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange in determining the electrical band gap of polymer materials. It is also noticeable that the Hubbard U parameter used for the various polymers under consideration is relatively large, indicating the semi-empirical nature of the GGA+U level of calculations. The present finding will help us design new low band gap polymer through estimating band gap by the GGA+U method and this could be very useful for solar cell research.

  10. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant; Fenois totais e atividade antioxidante de cinco plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: mariana@ufpi.br

    2007-03-15

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 {+-}8,2 to 763,63 {+-}13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC{sub 50} value of 27.59 {+-} 0.82 {mu}g/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC{sub 50} = 27.80 {+-} 1.38) and gallic acid (EC{sub 50} = 24.27 {+-} 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  11. Extending the Coyote emulator to dark energy models with standard w0-wa parametrization of the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, L.; Bonometto, S. A.; Tessarotto, E.; Corasaniti, P.-S.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss an extension of the Coyote emulator to predict non-linear matter power spectra of dark energy (DE) models with a scale factor dependent equation of state of the form w = w0+(1-a)wa. The extension is based on the mapping rule between non-linear spectra of DE models with constant equation of state and those with time varying one originally introduced in ref. [40]. Using a series of N-body simulations we show that the spectral equivalence is accurate to sub-percent level across the same range of modes and redshift covered by the Coyote suite. Thus, the extended emulator provides a very efficient and accurate tool to predict non-linear power spectra for DE models with w0-wa parametrization. According to the same criteria we have developed a numerical code that we have implemented in a dedicated module for the CAMB code, that can be used in combination with the Coyote Emulator in likelihood analyses of non-linear matter power spectrum measurements. All codes can be found at https://github.com/luciano-casarini/pkequal.

  12. Many-body Green's function GW and Bethe-Salpeter study of the optical excitations in a paradigmatic model dipeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, C; Boulanger, P; Duchemin, I; Attaccalite, C; Blase, X

    2013-11-21

    We study within the many-body Green's function GW and Bethe-Salpeter formalisms the excitation energies of a paradigmatic model dipeptide, focusing on the four lowest-lying local and charge-transfer excitations. Our GW calculations are performed at the self-consistent level, updating first the quasiparticle energies, and further the single-particle wavefunctions within the static Coulomb-hole plus screened-exchange approximation to the GW self-energy operator. Important level crossings, as compared to the starting Kohn-Sham LDA spectrum, are identified. Our final Bethe-Salpeter singlet excitation energies are found to agree, within 0.07 eV, with CASPT2 reference data, except for one charge-transfer state where the discrepancy can be as large as 0.5 eV. Our results agree best with LC-BLYP and CAM-B3LYP calculations with enhanced long-range exchange, with a 0.1 eV mean absolute error. This has been achieved employing a parameter-free formalism applicable to metallic or insulating extended or finite systems.

  13. Hydrogen bonding interactions and supramolecular assemblies in 2-amino guanidinium 4-methyl benzene sulphonate crystal structure: Hirshfeld surfaces and computational calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraja, P.; Joselin Beaula, T.; Balachandar, S.; Bena Jothy, V.; Dhandapani, M.

    2017-10-01

    2-aminoguanidinium 4-methyl benzene sulphonate (AGMS), an organic compound with big assembly of hydrogen bonding interactions was crystallized at room temperature. The structure of the compound was confirmed by FT-IR, NMR and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Numerous hydrogen bonded interactions were found to form supramolecular assemblies in the molecular structure. Fingerprint plots of Hirshfeld surface analysis spells out the interactions in various directions. The molecular structure of AGMS was optimised by HF, MP2 and DFT (B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) methods at 6-311G (d,p) basis set and the geometrical parameters were compared. Electrostatic potential calculations of the reactants and product confirm the transfer of proton. Optical properties of AGMS were ascertained by UV-Vis absorbance and reflectance spectra. The band gap of AGMS is found to be 2.689 eV. Due to numerous hydrogen bonds, the crystal is thermally stable up to 200 °C. Hyperconjugative interactions which are responsible for the second hyperpolarizabilities were accounted by NBO analysis. Static and frequency dependent optical properties were calculated at HF and DFT methods. The hyperpolarizabilities of AGMS increase rapidly at frequencies 0.0428 and 0.08 a.u. compared to static one. The compound exhibits violet and blue emission.

  14. Modeling the Galaxy-Halo Connection: An open-source approach with Halotools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Although the modern form of galaxy-halo modeling has been in place for over ten years, there exists no common code base for carrying out large-scale structure calculations. Considering, for example, the advances in CMB science made possible by Boltzmann-solvers such as CMBFast, CAMB and CLASS, there are clear precedents for how theorists working in a well-defined subfield can mutually benefit from such a code base. Motivated by these and other examples, I present Halotools: an open-source, object-oriented python package for building and testing models of the galaxy-halo connection. Halotools is community-driven, and already includes contributions from over a dozen scientists spread across numerous universities. Designed with high-speed performance in mind, the package generates mock observations of synthetic galaxy populations with sufficient speed to conduct expansive MCMC likelihood analyses over a diverse and highly customizable set of models. The package includes an automated test suite and extensive web-hosted documentation and tutorials (halotools.readthedocs.org). I conclude the talk by describing how Halotools can be used to analyze existing datasets to obtain robust and novel constraints on galaxy evolution models, and by outlining the Halotools program to prepare the field of cosmology for the arrival of Stage IV dark energy experiments.

  15. DFT and TD-DFT calculation of new thienopyrazine-based small molecules for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourass, Mohamed; Benjelloun, Adil Touimi; Benzakour, Mohammed; Mcharfi, Mohammed; Hamidi, Mohammed; Bouzzine, Si Mohamed; Bouachrine, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Novel six organic donor-π-acceptor molecules (D-π-A) used for Bulk Heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ), based on thienopyrazine were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approaches, to shed light on how the π-conjugation order influence the performance of the solar cells. The electron acceptor group was 2-cyanoacrylic for all compounds, whereas the electron donor unit was varied and the influence was investigated. The TD-DFT method, combined with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional using the Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP) in conjunction with a polarizable continuum model of salvation (PCM) together with a 6-31G(d,p) basis set, was used to predict the excitation energies, the absorption and the emission spectra of all molecules. The trend of the calculated HOMO-LUMO gaps nicely compares with the spectral data. In addition, the estimated values of the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) for these compounds were presented in two cases/PC60BM and/PC71BM. The study of structural, electronics and optical properties for these compounds could help to design more efficient functional photovoltaic organic materials.

  16. TD-DFT investigation of the magnetic circular dichroism spectra of some purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Coriani, Sonia

    2015-05-28

    We present a computational study of the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the 200-300 nm wavelength region of purine and its derivative hypoxanthine, as well as of the pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids uracil, thymine, and cytosine, using the B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals. Solvent effects are investigated within the polarizable continuum model and by inclusion of explicit water molecules. In general, the computed spectra are found to be in good agreement with the experimental ones, apart from some overall blue shifts. Both the pseudo-A term shape of the MCD spectra of the purines and the B term shape of the spectra of pyrimidine bases are reproduced. Our calculations also correctly reproduce the reversed phase of the MCD bands in purine compared to that of its derivatives present in nucleic acids. Solvent effects are sizable and system specific, but they do not in general alter the qualitative shape of the spectra. The bands are dominated by the bright π → π* transitions, and our calculations in solution nicely reproduce their energy differences, improving the estimates obtained in the gas phase. Shoulders are predicted for purine and uracil due to n → π* excitations, but they are too weak to be observed in the experiment.

  17. Theoretical study on molecular packing and electronic structure of bi-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    The molecular aggregation structure of 5,5′-bis(naphthalen-2-yl)-2,2′-bi(1,3,4-oxadiazole) (BOXD-NP) was studied by computing the intermolecular interaction potential energy surface (PES) at density functional theory level based on a dimer model. All B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and M062x functionals can yield a reliable isolated molecular geometry. The conformation of BOXD-NP obtained with all methods is perfectly planar, indicating good conjugation ability between oxadiazole and naphthalene rings. The vibrational frequencies of BOXD-NP were also calculated using the B3LYP/6-311+G∗∗ method, which showed great consistency with the experimental observations and makes the assignments of the IR spectra more solid. It was revealed that the lowest excited state of BOXD-NP should be assigned as a highly allowed π-π∗ state by TD-DFT calculation. Considering the non-covalent interactions in molecular aggregates, the M062x functional was applied in the construction of the PES. Besides the packing structure found in the crystals, PES also predicted several stable structures, indicating that PES has great ability in guiding molecular self-assembly. Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (SAPT) analysis on these energy-minimum molecular stacking structures revealed that London dispersion forces are the strongest attractive component in the binding. This journal is

  18. Requirements of first-principles calculations of X-ray absorption spectra of liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransson, Thomas; Zhovtobriukh, Iurii; Coriani, Sonia; Wikfeldt, Kjartan T; Norman, Patrick; Pettersson, Lars G M

    2016-01-07

    A computational benchmark study on X-ray absorption spectra of water has been performed by means of transition-potential density functional theory (TP-DFT), damped time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), and damped coupled cluster (CC) linear response theory. For liquid water, using TDDFT with a tailored CAM-B3LYP functional and a polarizable embedding, we find that an embedding with over 2000 water molecules is required to fully converge spectral features for individual molecules, but a substantially smaller embedding can be used within averaging schemes. TP-DFT and TDDFT calculations on 100 MD structures demonstrate that TDDFT produces a spectrum with spectral features in good agreement with experiment, while it is more difficult to fully resolve the spectral features in the TP-DFT spectrum. Similar trends were also observed for calculations of bulk ice. In order to further establish the performance of these methods, small water clusters have been considered also at the CC2 and CCSD levels of theory. Issues regarding the basis set requirements for spectrum simulations of liquid water and the determination of gas-phase ionization potentials are also discussed.

  19. Vibrational and electronic properties of 4‧-halomethyl-2-biphenylcarbonitrile compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar Rao, Y. B.; Veeraiah, V.; Sundius, Tom; Chaitanya, Kadali

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we studied the structural, vibrational and electronic properties of the 4‧-bromomethyl-2-biphenylcarbonitrile (BMBP) 4‧-chloromethyl-2-biphenylcarbonitrile (CMBP) and 4‧-fluoromethyl-2-biphenylcarbonitrile (FMBP) compounds using experimental and theoretical methods. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of BMBP in solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1, respectively. The UV absorption spectrum of BMBP was recorded in dichloromethane and methanol solvents in the range 180-400 nm. The theoretical spectral properties of title compounds were simulated using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT methods. Scaling of the vibrational frequencies was carried out with the MOLVIB program using multiple scaling factors and assignment to each vibrational frequency was consigned on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The electronic spectrum of BMBP in two different solvents (methanol and dichloromethane), calculated at the CAM-B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level compares well with the experimental data and validates the current method for predicting the absorption spectrum of CMBP and FMBP. Furthermore, the electronic, nonlinear optical and thermodynamics properties of the three compounds were discussed in detailed.

  20. Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull chromophores: A comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centore, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica P. Corradini, Università di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Noce, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Peluso, A., E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-01-16

    Highlights: ► Electro-optical determined and MP2/DFT computed NLO properties have been compared. ► Significant dependence of dipole moments of elongated NLO chromophores on conformations has been found. ► A thorough comparison between MP2 and DFT/TD-DFT computational approaches has been carried out. ► The two-state model overestimates hyperpolarizability. - Abstract: Electric dipole moments and static first order hyperpolarizabilities of two push–pull molecules with an extended π electron systems have been evaluated at different computational levels and compared with the results of electro-optical absorption measurements, based on the two state model. Calculations show that: (i) the dipole moments of such elongated systems depend significantly on conformation, a thorough conformational search is necessary for a meaningful comparison between theoretical and experimental results; (ii) DFT methods, in particular CAM-B3LYP and M05-2X, yield dipole moments which compare well with those obtained by post Hartree–Fock methods (MP2) and by EOA measurements; (iii) theoretical first order hyperpolarizabilities are largely underestimated, both by MP2 and DFT methods, possibly because of the failure of two state model used in electro-optical measurements.

  1. Algorithms for singularities and real structures of weak Del Pezzo surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the classification of singularities [P. Du Val, On isolated singularities of surfaces which do not affect the conditions of adjunction. I, II, III, Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 30 (1934) 453-491] and real structures [C. T. C. Wall, Real forms of smooth del Pezzo surfaces, J. Reine Angew. Math. 1987(375/376) (1987) 47-66, ISSN 0075-4102] of weak Del Pezzo surfaces from an algorithmic point of view. It is well-known that the singularities of weak Del Pezzo surfaces correspond to root subsystems. We present an algorithm which computes the classification of these root subsystems. We represent equivalence classes of root subsystems by unique labels. These labels allow us to construct examples of weak Del Pezzo surfaces with the corresponding singularity configuration. Equivalence classes of real structures of weak Del Pezzo surfaces are also represented by root subsystems. We present an algorithm which computes the classification of real structures. This leads to an alternative proof of the known classification for Del Pezzo surfaces and extends this classification to singular weak Del Pezzo surfaces. As an application we classify families of real conics on cyclides. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

  2. Ab Initio Geometry and Bright Excitation of Carotenoids: Quantum Monte Carlo and Many Body Green's Function Theory Calculations on Peridinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Emanuele; Varsano, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-02-11

    In this letter, we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) Å, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP, and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu(+)-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu(+)-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide an excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.

  3. Assessment of range-separated functionals in the presence of implicit solvent: Computation of oxidation energy, reduction energy, and orbital energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boruah, Abhijit; Borpuzari, Manash Protim; Kawashima, Yukio; Hirao, Kimihiko; Kar, Rahul

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we have investigated the ionization potential (IP) theorem for some small molecules in the presence of external electric field [M. P. Borpuzari et al., J. Chem. Phys. 144, 164113 (2016)]. In this article, we assess the performance of some density functionals, local density approximation, generalized-gradient approximation (GGA), hybrid, meta-GGA hybrid, and range-separated functionals in the presence of two different solvent dielectrics, water and cyclohexane, in reproducing the vertical oxidation energy, reduction energy, and the frontier orbital energies. We also study the accessibility of different computational solvent models like the polarizable continuum model (PCM) and non-equilibrium PCM (NEPCM) in reproducing the desired properties. In general, the range-separated functionals do not perform well in reproducing orbital energies in the PCM. Range separation with the NEPCM is better. It is found that CAM-B3LYP, M06-2X, and ωB97XD functionals reproduce highest occupied molecular orbital energy in solvents, which may be due to the cancellation of PCM and density functional theory errors. Finally, we have tested the validity of the IP theorem in the solvent environment.

  4. Local optimality of cubic lattices for interaction energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétermin, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    We study the local optimality of simple cubic, body-centred-cubic and face-centred-cubic lattices among Bravais lattices of fixed density for some finite energy per point. Following the work of Ennola (Math Proc Camb 60:855-875, 1964), we prove that these lattices are critical points of all the energies, we write the second derivatives in a simple way and we investigate the local optimality of these lattices for the theta function and the Lennard-Jones-type energies. In particular, we prove the local minimality of the FCC lattice (resp. BCC lattice) for large enough (resp. small enough) values of its scaling parameter and we also prove the fact that the simple cubic lattice is a saddle point of the energy. Furthermore, we prove the local minimality of the FCC and the BCC lattices at high density (with an optimal explicit bound) and its local maximality at low density in the Lennard-Jones-type potential case. We then show the local minimality of FCC and BCC lattices among all the Bravais lattices (without a density constraint). The largest possible open interval of density's values where the simple cubic lattice is a local minimizer is also computed.

  5. A time-dependent DFT study of the absorption and fluorescence properties of graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meilian; Yang, Feng; Xue, Ying; Xiao, Dan; Guo, Yong

    2014-04-04

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been computed by using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). Different functionals, including PBE, TPSSh, B3LYP, PBE0, CAM-B3LYP, and LC-ωPBE, have been tested and B3LYP/6-31G(d) has been proven to be the most accurate method for our work. The bulk solvent effects of toluene and dichloromethane have been assessed by using the polarizable continuum model (PCM). The absorption wavelength of GQDs in solvents is red-shifted compared with that in the gas phase. Edge functionalization effects analysis shows that a small number of substituted groups on GQDs induce a small redshift whereas a large redshift occurs when the edges of GQDs are all decorated. Little difference in the fluorescent emission was observed in solvents and in the gas phase. Molecular orbital transition and transition density matrix analysis have been performed. The electronic transition mainly occurs in the middle part of the structure of C132. The strong absorption of C132 corresponds to a S0 →S3 transition and the fluorescence emission is ascribed to a S1 →S0 transition, which indicates that Kasha's rule is obeyed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Mechanistic Analysis of Fluorescence Quenching of Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide by Oxamate in Lactate Dehydrogenase Ternary Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huo-Lei; Callender, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Fluorescence of Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) is extensively employed in studies of oxidoreductases. A substantial amount of static and kinetic work has focused on the binding of pyruvate or substrate mimic oxamate to the binary complex of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-NADH where substantial fluorescence quenching is typically observed. However, the quenching mechanism is not well understood limiting structural interpretation. Based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) computations with cam-B3LYP functional in conjunction with the analysis of previous experimental results, we propose that bound oxamate acts as an electron acceptor in the quenching of fluorescence of NADH in the ternary complex, where a charge transfer (CT) state characterized by excitation from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the nicotinamide moiety of NADH to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of oxamate exists close to the locally excited (LE) state involving only the nicotinamide moiety. Efficient quenching in the encounter complex like in pig heart LDH requires that oxamate forms a salt bridge with Arg-171 and hydrogen bonds with His-195, Thr-246 and Asn-140. Further structural rearrangement and loop closure, which also brings about another hydrogen bond between oxamate and Arg-109, will increase the rate of fluorescence quenching as well. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  7. Solvatochromic benzo[h] coumarins: Synthesis, solvatochromism, NLO and DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Umesh; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2017-10-01

    Three benzo[h] coumarins were synthesized and analyzed for their potential NLOphoric properties. Coumarins were synthesized using Knoevenagel condensation method by reacting hydroxyl-naphthalene aldehyde with cyano-methylelene-benzazoles containing NH, O and S elements respectively as the active methylene compounds. The absorption maxima for the coumarins are not affected by the solvent polarity but emission maxima does. Emission solvatochromism was analyzed using various solvent polarity functions which highlights the polarity dependency of the emission profile. Coumarins showed satisfactory values for first and second hyperpolarizability which are comparable using solvatochromism and DFT. NLO properties are also compared with the limits of hyperpolarizability calculated using sum rule of quantum mechanics. Results show that the NLO properties predicted by DFT are close to the upper limits of hyperpolarizability. The functional CAM-B3LYP is proven to be suitable for predicting NLO properties for these coumarins compared to functional B3LYP. The present study highlights the importance of such molecules for incorporating in advanced NLOphores.

  8. APEX-CAMBIUM: A Case Study in Advantages and Challenges of International Cooperation for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David; Buckley, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    It is generally agreed that space science benefits from an international collaboration. There are different mechanisms to make this happen but to recognize opportunities requires a keen awareness of the activities, people and respective strengths. Apex- Cambium is a joint Canadian Space Agency (CSA)-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiative. It was made possible in large part through the good relations and shared willingness to meet a common objective, that of doing exciting science in space. The actual mechanics of bringing an international project together can be divided into two perspectives: programmatic and implementation. The programmatic component includes recognizing complementarities, bringing science together, and the need to have Agencies approve and accept joint responsibility for the mission. The implementation component involves working to define science requirements, available resources and assigning individual responsibilities while keeping the overall success criteria as a collective objective. The APEX-CAMB11.JM mission will be described from the point of view of both CSA and NASA. Suggestions on how to facilitate these types of initiatives will be provided and highlights of the APEX-Cambium collaboration will be provided.

  9. Pyran-Squaraine as Photosensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: DFT/TDDFT Study of the Electronic Structures and Absorption Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to provide, assess, and evaluate a theoretical approach which enables designing efficient donor-acceptor dye systems, the electronic structure and optical properties of pyran-squaraine as donor-acceptor dyes used in dye-sensitized solar cells were investigated. Ground state properties have been computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level of theory. The long-range corrected density functionals CAM-B3LYP, PBEPBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0, and TPSSH with 6-311++G** were employed to examine absorption properties of the studied dyes. In an extensive comparison between experimental results and ab initio benchmark calculations, the TPSSH functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic properties for the studied pyran and squaraine dyes. Natural transition orbitals (NTO, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO, LUMO, HOMO, and energy gaps, of these dyes, have been analyzed to show their effect on the process of electron injection and dye regeneration. Interaction between HOMO and LUMO of pyran and squaraine dyes was investigated to understand the recombination process and charge-transfer process involving these dyes. Additionally, we performed natural bond orbital (NBO analysis to investigate the role of charge delocalization and hyperconjugative interactions in the stability of the molecule.

  10. Influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers: study protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. Methods/Design Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50–60 years from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB will be followed prospectively in a national register (DREAM, containing information on a week-to-week basis about social transfer payments for about 5 million Danish residents. Using Cox regression, we will model the risk of long-term sickness absence, disability pension, early retirement and unemployment within a 4 to 6 year period from the baseline measurement as a function of the following predictors: 1 physical work demands throughout working life, 2 psychosocial working conditions throughout working life, 3 physical capacity in midlife, 4 cognitive capacity in midlife. Estimates will be adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle, socioeconomic position, chronic disease and long-term sickness absence prior to baseline. Discussion The project will generate new knowledge on risk factors for loss of labor market attachment. The results will potentially contribute in identifying factors that could be targeted in future interventions for maintaining a longer and healthier working life among older workers.

  11. The DFT investigations of the electron injection in hydrazone-based sensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.

    2012-03-01

    Quantum chemical calculations were carried out by using density functional theory and time-dependant density functional theory at B3LYP/6-31G(d) and TD-B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theories. The absorption spectra have been computed with and without solvent. The calculated absorption spectra in ethanol, acetonitrile, and methanol are in good agreement with experimental evidences. The absorption spectra are red shifted compared to System1. On the basis of electron injection and electronic coupling constant, we have shed light on the nature of different sensitizers. The coplanarity between the benzene near anchoring group having LUMO and the bridge (N-N) is broken in System6 and System7 that would hamper the recombination process. The electron injection of System2-System10 is superior to System1. The highest electronic coupling constant has been observed for System6 that followed the System7 and System8. The light-harvesting efficiency of all the sensitizers enlarged in acetonitrile and ethanol. The long-range-corrected functional (LC-BLYP), Coulomb-attenuating method (CAM-B3LYP), and BH and HLYP functional underestimate the excitation energies while B3LYP is good to reproduce the experimental data. Moreover, we have investigated the effect of cyanoacetic acid as anchoring group on the electron injection. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto, E-mail: hiroto@eng.hokudai.ac.jp

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • The reaction pathway of the hydrogen addition to graphene surface was determined by the DFT method. • Binding energies of atomic hydrogen to graphene surface were determined. • Absorption spectrum of hydrogenated graphene was theoretically predicted. • Hyperfine coupling constant of hydrogenated graphene was theoretically predicted. - Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4–37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2–7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8–28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  13. Influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers: study protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars Louis

    2016-07-22

    As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50-60 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) will be followed prospectively in a national register (DREAM), containing information on a week-to-week basis about social transfer payments for about 5 million Danish residents. Using Cox regression, we will model the risk of long-term sickness absence, disability pension, early retirement and unemployment within a 4 to 6 year period from the baseline measurement as a function of the following predictors: 1) physical work demands throughout working life, 2) psychosocial working conditions throughout working life, 3) physical capacity in midlife, 4) cognitive capacity in midlife. Estimates will be adjusted for age, sex, lifestyle, socioeconomic position, chronic disease and long-term sickness absence prior to baseline. The project will generate new knowledge on risk factors for loss of labor market attachment. The results will potentially contribute in identifying factors that could be targeted in future interventions for maintaining a longer and healthier working life among older workers.

  14. Bond overlap population analysis on through-space electron transfer in [3{sub n}]cyclophanes (n = 2 – 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Ken, E-mail: tokunaga@cc.kogakuin.ac.jp [Division of Liberal Arts, Kogakuin University, Nakano machi 2665-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0015 (Japan); Ohmori, Shigekazu [Venture Business Laboratory, Kyoto University, Yoshida honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kawabata, Hiroshi [Young Researchers Education Center, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama 1-1-1, Higashi hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8512 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Through-space electron transfer between the benzene rings of [3{sub n}]cyclophanes, n = 2 – 5, was investigated using density functional theory calculations, CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G**. An external point charge, q, was placed on the axis perpendicular to a benzene ring of the cyclophane molecule. The dependence of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)–lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gap and bond overlap population (BOP) of cyclophanes on the values of q and n are discussed. The HOMO–LUMO gap generally decreases as q decreases and n increases. It is found from the BOP analysis that electron transfer occurs mainly through LUMO + 2 for n = 2, LUMO for n = 3 and n = 4, and LUMO + 4 for n = 5. The result that the values of the BOP for n = 2 and 5 increase as q decreases means that the through-space electron transfer is enhanced by the negative charge on the neighboring molecule in the solid. - Highlights: • Bond overlap population (BOP) analysis for electron transfer in [3n]cyclophanes. • Specification of the first excited states and orbital component of cyclophanes. • Change of BOP and electron path by external point charge and methylene bridge.

  15. Paleoindian demography and the extraterrestrial impact hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Briggs; Collard, Mark; Edinborough, Kevan

    2008-08-19

    Recently it has been suggested that one or more large extraterrestrial (ET) objects struck northern North America 12,900 +/- 100 calendar years before present (calBP) [Firestone RB, et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104: 16016-16021]. This impact is claimed to have triggered the Younger Dryas major cooling event and resulted in the extinction of the North American megafauna. The impact is also claimed to have caused major cultural changes and population decline among the Paleoindians. Here, we report a study in which approximately 1,500 radiocarbon dates from archaeological sites in Canada and the United States were used to test the hypothesis that the ET resulted in population decline among the Paleoindians. Following recent studies [e.g., Gamble C, Davies W, Pettitt P, Hazelwood L, Richards M (2005) Camb Archaeol J 15:193-223), the summed probability distribution of the calibrated dates was used to identify probable changes in human population size between 15,000 and 9,000 calBP. Subsequently, potential biases were evaluated by modeling and spatial analysis of the dated occupations. The results of the analyses were not consistent with the predictions of extraterrestrial impact hypothesis. No evidence of a population decline among the Paleoindians at 12,900 +/- 100 calBP was found. Thus, minimally, the study suggests the extraterrestrial impact hypothesis should be amended.

  16. Synthesis, electronic structure and spectral fluorescent properties of vinylogous merocyanines derived from 1,3-dialkyl-benzimidazole and malononitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinich, Andrii V.; Mikitenko, Elena K.; Ishchenko, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    A vinylogous series of merocyanines were synthesized with 1,3-dibutyl-benzimidazole and malononitrile residues as the donor and acceptor terminal groups. These dyes do not comprise carbonyl groups, which are prone to the strong specific solvation by polar solvents up to hydrogen bond formation, and nevertheless they possess distinct reversed solvatochromism, i.e. their molecules have very high dipolarity. At that, they are soluble in a wide range of solvents from n-hexane to ethanol and do not aggregate readily. They were studied thoroughly by UV/Vis, fluorescence, IR, and NMR spectroscopy methods. Their structure and spectral properties in the ground and excited fluorescent states were modelled at the DFT level both in vacuum and in solvents of various polarities by using the PCM solvent field simulation. The calculations were performed using several hybrid functionals (B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, and wB97XD) and the split-valence 6-31G (d,p) basis set.

  17. Unusual emission properties of the selected organosilicon compounds containing a styryl-carbazole chromophore: inversion of the singlet excited states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachuta, K; Bayda, M; Majchrzak, M; Koput, J; Marciniak, B

    2017-05-10

    The spectroscopic and photophysical properties of silicon-containing styryl-carbazole were investigated in various solvents, and the results were analyzed with reference to its carbon derivatives. In n-hexane, both the silicon- and the carbon-containing compounds had very similar emission properties. In acetonitrile, the emission properties remained the same for the C-compound but changed significantly for the Si-compounds. In particular, the fluorescence spectra of the latter were red-shifted, and their radiative rate constants were even 7 times larger than in n-hexane, which suggested that the emissive states of the silicon-containing compounds were different in these two solvents. DFT calculations using the CAM-B3LYP functional showed that the emissive state of the C-compound involves the LUMO+1 orbital regardless of the medium. In contrast, for the Si-compound, changing the medium from n-hexane to acetonitrile resulted in the inversion of the emissive states from an excited state involving the LUMO+1 orbital (the dipole moment μ = 4.2 D) to an excited state involving the LUMO orbital (μ = 8.9 D).

  18. Evolution Under Environmental Stress at Macro- and Microscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stress has played a major role in the evolution of living organisms (Hoffman AA, Parsons PA. 1991. Evolutionary genetics and environmental stress. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Parsons PA. 2005. Environments and evolution: interactions between stress, resource inadequacy, and energetic efficiency. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 80:589–610). This is reflected by the massive and background extinctions in evolutionary time (Nevo E. 1995a. Evolution and extinction. Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1:717–745). The interaction between organism and environment is central in evolution. Extinction ensues when organisms fail to change and adapt to the constantly altering abiotic and biotic stressful environmental changes as documented in the fossil record. Extreme environmental stress causes extinction but also leads to evolutionary change and the origination of new species adapted to new environments. I will discuss a few of these global, regional, and local stresses based primarily on my own research programs. These examples will include the 1) global regional and local experiment of subterranean mammals; 2) regional experiment of fungal life in the Dead Sea; 3) evolution of wild cereals; 4) “Evolution Canyon”; 5) human brain evolution, and 6) global warming. PMID:21979157

  19. Vibrational analysis of dibenzo-18-crown-6. Effect of dispersion correction on the calculated vibrational spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jallal, Nada A.; El-Azhary, Adel A.

    2017-09-01

    We report for the first time a detailed vibrational analysis of dibenzo-18-crown-6, db18c6. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of db18c6 were measured. The assignment of the fundamental vibrational frequencies of db18c6 was aided by using scaled quantum mechanical force fields calculated at the B3LYP/6-311G** and CAM-B3LYP/6-311G** levels. Comparison between the experimental and calculated spectra of some of the important conformations of db18c6 led to the conclusion that db18c6 in the solid phase exists in a C2 conformation that is similar to that predicted by X-ray, for also the solid phase. The effect of inclusion of the atom pair-wise dispersion correction to the B3LYP method, known as the B3LYP-D3 method, on the calculated IR and Raman spectra of db18c6 at the B3LYP level was also investigated. It was concluded that the effect of inclusion of the dispersion correction on the calculated vibrational frequencies and intensities is negligible.

  20. Synthesis and spectral properties of Methyl-Phenyl pyrazoloquinoxaline fluorescence emitters: Experiment and DFT/TDDFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorski, P.; Matusiewicz, M.; Gondek, E.; Uchacz, T.; Wojtasik, K.; Danel, A.; Shchur, Ya.; Kityk, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    Paper reports the synthesis and spectroscopic studies of two novel 1-Methyl-3-phenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline (PQX) derivatives with 6-substituted methyl (MeMPPQX) or methoxy (MeOMPPQX) side groups. The optical absorption and fluorescence emission spectra are recorded in solvents of different polarity. Steady state and time-resolved spectroscopy provide photophysical characterization of MeMPPQX and MeOMPPQX dyes as materials for potential luminescence or electroluminescence applications. Measured optical absorption and fluorescence emission spectra are compared with quantum-chemical DFT/TDDFT calculations using long-range corrected xc-functionals, LRC-BLYP and CAM-B3LYP in combination with self-consistent reaction field model based on linear response (LR), state specific (SS) or corrected linear response (CLR) solvations. Performances of relevant theoretical models and approaches are compared. The reparameterized LRC-BLYP functional (ω = 0.231 Bohr-1) in combination with CLR solvation provides most accurate prediction of both excitation and emission energies. The MeMPPQX and MeOMPPQX dyes represent efficient fluorescence emitters in blue-green region of the visible spectra.

  1. Synthesis, electronic structure and spectral fluorescent properties of vinylogous merocyanines derived from 1,3-dialkyl-benzimidazole and malononitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinich, Andrii V; Mikitenko, Elena K; Ishchenko, Alexander A

    2017-01-15

    A vinylogous series of merocyanines were synthesized with 1,3-dibutyl-benzimidazole and malononitrile residues as the donor and acceptor terminal groups. These dyes do not comprise carbonyl groups, which are prone to the strong specific solvation by polar solvents up to hydrogen bond formation, and nevertheless they possess distinct reversed solvatochromism, i.e. their molecules have very high dipolarity. At that, they are soluble in a wide range of solvents from n-hexane to ethanol and do not aggregate readily. They were studied thoroughly by UV/Vis, fluorescence, IR, and NMR spectroscopy methods. Their structure and spectral properties in the ground and excited fluorescent states were modelled at the DFT level both in vacuum and in solvents of various polarities by using the PCM solvent field simulation. The calculations were performed using several hybrid functionals (B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, and wB97XD) and the split-valence 6-31G (d,p) basis set. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis, X-ray, NMR, FT-IR, UV/vis, DFT and TD-DFT studies of N-(4-chlorobutanoyl)-N‧-(2-, 3- and 4-methylphenyl)thiourea derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosadiya, Hamza M.; Anouar, El Hassane; Hasbullah, Siti Aishah; Yamin, Bohari M.

    2015-06-01

    A new isomers of thiourea derivatives, namely N-(4-chlorobutanoyl)-N‧-(2-methylphenyl)-thiourea (1a), N-(4-chlorobutanoyl)-N‧-(3-methylphenyl)thiourea (1b) and N-(4-chlorobutanoyl)-N‧-(4-methylphenyl)thiourea (1c) have been synthesized by refluxing mixture of equimolar amounts of 4-chlorobutanoylisothiocyanate with 2, 3 or 4-toluidine, respectively. The three isomers were characterized by spectroscopic (UV/vis, FT-IR and NMR) and X-ray crystallography techniques. To investigate the isomerization effect on spectroscopic data, DFT and TD-DFT calculations have been carried out using five hybrid functionals (B3LYP, B3P86, CAM-B3LYP, M06-2X and PBE0) to predict UV/vis absorption bands (n → π∗ and π → π∗), 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts, FT-IR vibration modes and X-ray parameters (bonds, bond angles and torsion angles) for 1a, 1b and 1c isomers. The results showed that the isomerization effect is significant on λMAX absorption bands, while for IR and NMR the effect is negligible. In accordance with previous studies, B3LYP, B3P86 and PBE0 gave the most reliable to predict the excitation energies of thiourea derivatives.

  3. Quantitative Trait Loci for Yield and Yield-Related Traits in Spring Barley Populations Derived from Crosses between European and Syrian Cultivars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Mikołajczak

    Full Text Available In response to climatic changes, breeding programmes should be aimed at creating new cultivars with improved resistance to water scarcity. The objective of this study was to examine the yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from three cross-combinations of European and Syrian spring cultivars, and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for yield-related traits in these populations. RILs were evaluated in field experiments over a period of three years (2011 to 2013 and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers; a genetic map for each population was constructed and then one consensus map was developed. Biological interpretation of identified QTLs was achieved by reference to Ensembl Plants barley gene space. Twelve regions in the genomes of studied RILs were distinguished after QTL analysis. Most of the QTLs were identified on the 2H chromosome, which was the hotspot region in all three populations. Syrian parental cultivars contributed alleles decreasing traits' values at majority of QTLs for grain weight, grain number, spike length and time to heading, and numerous alleles increasing stem length. The phenomic and molecular approaches distinguished the lines with an acceptable grain yield potential combining desirable features or alleles from their parents, that is, early heading from the Syrian breeding line (Cam/B1/CI08887//CI05761 and short plant stature from the European semidwarf cultivar (Maresi.

  4. Effect of H-bonding interactions of water molecules in the self assembly of supramolecular architecture-joint experimental and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Amanpreet Kaur; Kaur, Rajwinder; Islam, Nasarul; Anu; Mudsainiyan, Rahul Kumar

    2017-08-01

    A new {[Cu(4,4‧-BP)2.(H2O)4].2,6-NDC.3(H2O)} complex has been synthesized by refluxing Cu(NO3)2, 2,6-NDC and 4,4‧-BP (1:1:1 ratio) (2,6-NDC = 2,6-Naphthalene Dicarboxylic acid, 4,4‧-BP = 4,4'-bipyridine) in methanol/ammonia mixture and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The geometry around Cu2+ ion is typical octahedral in cationic complex, while the deprotonated 2,6-NDC act as a charge balancing counter anionic part. Water molecules (lattice and coordinated) also play important role in the self-assembly by forming Hsbnd bonded supramolecular architecture involving strong inter/intramolecular secondary interactions. The luminescence property and thermogravimetric analyses were also investigated. Both the intermolecular interactions of molecular and crystal structures of this complex were compared and discussed using Hirshfeld surface analysis and 2D-fingerprint plots. Hirshfeld surface analysis indicates that H⋯H, O⋯H and π···π contacts can account for 40.4, 19.3 and 7.7% respectively of the total Hirshfeld surface area. The DFT calculation at the CAM-B3LYP level of theory revealed the existence of three hydrogens binds in the complex. These hydrogen bonds exist between the oxygen atom of ligand and the hydrogen of coordinated water molecules.

  5. AVALIAÇÃO DO POTENCAL DE PRODUÇÃO DO "PEQUIZEIRO-ANÃO" SOB CONDIÇÕES NATURAIS NA REGIÃO SUL DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS DWARF "PEQUI" PRODUCTION POTENTIAL EVALUATION UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS IN SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIJALMA BARBOSA DA SILVA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O pequizeiro (Caryocar spp. - Caryocaraceae é uma planta nativa do Cerrado e da Amazônia, cujo fruto é muito rico em óleo e proteína, e bastante apreciado pelos povos que vivem nestes ecossistemas. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de produção do "pequizeiro-anão", (Caryocar brasiliense subsp. intermedium, em seu habitat. Foram realizadas duas prospecções botânicas na região Sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, em 1997 e 1998, em áreas de vegetação de cerrado, nas proximidades do município de Ingaí-MG, onde se observou a ocorrência de pequizeiro de porte baixo. Foi observado que os frutos apresentam deiscência e grande heterogeneidade em relação ao número de frutos/planta. Nas plantas com tronco, encontraram-se até 86 frutos/planta e, nas sem tronco, até 16 frutos/planta. A época de maturação dos frutos concentra-se nos meses de fevereiro e março. O fruto de cor esverdeada e polpa amarelo-alaranjada possui em média duas sementes/endocarpo, com peso médio de 8g. Em plantios realizados no Distrito Federal, foi observado que as plantas de "pequizeiro-anão", oriundas de sementes, iniciaram a frutificação com altura de 60 cm, aos 18 a 24 meses após o plantio, evidenciando que são também precoces. O "pequizeiro-anão" apresenta potencial para sua exploração em cultivos comerciais e em programas de melhoramento genético.The pequi tree (Caryocar spp. -- Caryocaraceae, a wild specie of Brazilian savannah and Amazon region, is an edible fruit for people living in these ecosystems. The "dwarf pequi tree" (Cariocar brasiliense subsp. intermedium, has a restricted occurrence in some parts of Brasilian savanna which is an incorporated process to arable farm, treating the survival of this specie. The objective of this work was to evaluate the production potencial of "dwarf pequi tree" in its natural habitat. The fruits can be harvested from February to March. In the plant with and without trunk there are up to

  6. Composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica de dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga no Município de Bertioga, SP, Brasil Floristic and phytosociological analysis of two fragments of restinga forest in Bertioga, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Guedes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado em dois fragmentos de floresta de restinga (floresta inundável e floresta não inundável no Município de Bertioga, Estado de São Paulo, em uma área com extensão total aproximada de 3.000.000 m², pertencente ao condomínio residencial Riviera de São Lourenço. Para o levantamento fitossociológico foram instaladas 48 parcelas de 10×10 m distribuídas em blocos de 20×30 m e de 10×30 m, onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos lenhosos com perímetro do caule à altura do peito (PAP igual ou superior a 10 cm. Foram levantados 893 indivíduos distribuídos em 83 espécies e 31 famílias. As espécies da floresta não inundável com maior valor de importância (VI foram: Manilkara subsericea (Mart. Dubard, Amaioua intermedia Mart. ex K. Schum., Didymopanax angustissimum A. Sampaio, Miconia cubatanensis Hoehne, Euterpe edulis Mart., Syagrus pseudococos (Raud. Glassm., Bactris setosa Mart., Guarea macrophylla Vahl. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness & Mart. ex Mez. e na floresta inundável: Eriotheca pentaphylla (Vell. emend K. Schum. A. Robyns, Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Syagrus pseudococos, Tabebuia cassinoides (Lam. DC., Manilkara subsericea, Tabebuia obtusifolia (Cham Bureau, Didymopanax angustissimum, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Benth. e Amaioua intermedia. O índice de diversidade de Shannon (H' foi de 3,50 nats/ind. para a floresta inundável e 3,70 nats/ind. para a floresta não inundável.A phytosociological investigation in two fragments of restinga forest (flooded and nonflooded in Riviera de São Lourenço complex, Bertioga, São Paulo, was carried out. Each fragment in the phytosociological survey was studied using 10×10 m plots. These plots were distributed in blocks of 20×30 m and 10×30 m, for a total area of 4,800 m². The 893 individuals sampled in both fragments were distributed in 83 species and 31 families. The species with highest importance values (IV in the flooded restinga

  7. Fitossociologia de uma área de cerrado denso na RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF Phytosociology of an area of "cerrado denso" at the RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana A. Z. Andrade

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi amostrada uma área de 10ha de cerrado denso da RECOR-IBGE, Brasília-DF. Nesta foram estabelecidas parcelas experimentais de um projeto para o estudo do efeito do fogo na vegetação do cerrado com um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Este levantamento foi efetuado antes da aplicação dos tratamentos visando conhecer a composição florística e estrutura da vegetação original. Foram incluídos todos os indivíduos lenhosos e aqueles não-lenhosos pertencentes à família Velloziaceae, com diâmetro mínimo de 5cm, presentes em cinco parcelas de 1000m². Foram medidas as alturas e os diâmetros a 30cm do solo de cada indivíduo. Ao todo foram amostrados 982 indivíduos, pertencentes a 63 espécies e a 34 famílias. Cerca de 47% das famílias foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Apenas 16 espécies foram comuns a todas as cinco parcelas. A diversidade da área foi alta (H'= 3,53 e a similaridade entre as parcelas segundo índice de Sørensen foi também alta. As espécies Sclerolobium paniculatum, Eremanthus glomerulatus, Schefflera macrocarpum, Ouratea hexasperma, Vochysia thyrsoidea, Guapira noxia, Caryocar brasiliense, Vellozia squamata, Qualea grandiflora e Emmotum nitens apresentaram os maiores valores de importância. As estimativas de densidade e de área basal por hectare foram de 1964 indivíduos e 13,28m², respectivamente. A diversidade foi equivalente a de outras áreas de cerrado sensu stricto na região, mas a densidade e a área basal foram mais elevadas.This survey was conducted within a randomized block experiment set up in the RECOR - DF aiming to study the effect of fire in the cerrado. The sampling was conducted prior to the application of any treatments to assess the original status of the cerrado denso (dense savanna woodland at the site. All woody individuals plus non-woody Velloziaceae over 5cm diameter were included in the sample which consisted of five 1000m² (20 x 50m plots. Height and diameter at 30

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de extratos hidroalcoolicos das folhas de alecrim- pimenta, aroeira, barbatimão, erva baleeira e do farelo da casca de pequi Antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from rosemary, peppertree, barbatimão and erva baleeira leaves and from pequi peel meal

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    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil fitoquímico de extratos hidroalcoólicos padrão (EAPs, obtidos a partir das folhas de alecrim-pimenta (Lippia sidoides, aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea e do farelo da casca do fruto do pequi (Caryocar brasiliense e a atividade antimicrobiana de diferentes concentrações desses EAPs contra Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli. Após coleta e identificação, as folhas das plantas e cascas do pequi foram usadas para preparação dos EAPs e submetidas a rastreamento fitoquímico. A atividade antimicrobiana dos EAPs em diferentes diluições (200, 300, 400 e 500mg mL-1 foi testada pela técnica de difusão em ágar. O rastreamento fitoquímico detectou componentes com potencial antimicrobiano em todos os EAPs. Nos testes de difusão em ágar, os extratos de aroeira (≥200mg mL-1, barbatimão (≥300mg mL-1 e erva-baleeira (≥400mg mL-1 inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus, mas não de E. coli. Os EAPs não mostraram atividade sobre E.coli, todavia as folhas de aroeira, barbatimão e erva-baleeira evidenciaram potencial para inibir o crescimento de S. aureus. O uso das folhas e cascas dessas espécies vegetais pode constituir-se numa alternativa sustentável, viável e acessível para tratamento antimicrobiano.This study evaluated the phytochemical profile of standardized hydroalcoholic extracts (EAPs obtained from leafs of rosemary (Lippia sidoides, peppertree (Myracrodruon urundeuva, barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens, erva baleeira (Cordia verbenacea and from the meal of pequi fruit peel (Caryocar brasiliense and the activity of different levels of these EAPs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After collection and identification of the species, plant leaves and pequi peel were separated to prepare the EAPs. The EAPs underwent phytochemical screening. The antimicrobial activity of the EAPs at different dilutions (200, 300

  9. Características clínico-demográficas de pacientes hospitalizados com tuberculose no Brasil, no período de 1994 a 2004 Clinical and demographic characteristics of patients hospitalized with tuberculosis in Brasil between 1994 and 2004

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    Norma Pinheiro Franco Severo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínico-demográficas de pacientes com tuberculose internados no Hospital Nestor Goulart Reis, de Américo Brasiliense (SP. MÉTODOS: Investigação epidemiológica através de um estudo observacional, retrospectivo, descritivo, conforme as fichas de internações de pacientes com tuberculose, ocorridas no período de 1994 a 2004. RESULTADOS: O número de pacientes com tuberculose durante o período foi de 1787: 117 (7% eram do sexo feminino; 1670 (93% eram do sexo masculino; e 1215 (68% eram separados, solteiros ou viúvos. O grau de escolaridade mais freqüente foi o de 1º grau incompleto (74%. A faixa etária mais atingida (de 30 a 50 anos totalizou 63%. O alcoolismo esteve associado em 61%. A profissão mais freqüente foi a de lavrador (25% e 70% dos pacientes estavam desempregados. A forma clínica mais freqüente foi a pulmonar (92%. O índice de alta por indicação médica foi de 60%. Em 34% dos casos foi utilizado um esquema terapêutico diferente do usual (rifampicina, isoniazida e pirazinamida. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil dos internos para tratamento da tuberculose neste hospital indicou que estes tinham necessidades diferenciadas: dificuldades para cuidar de si mesmos (os casos sociais e necessidade de terapia diferenciada do esquema usual, o que justificou as internações. O Hospital cumpriu importante papel social no tratamento e orientação destes pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with tuberculosis hospitalized in the Nestor Goulart Reis Hospital, located in the city of Américo Brasiliense, Brazil. METHODS: Epidemiological investigation by means of an observational, retrospective, descriptive study based on the medical charts of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis and hospitalized between 1994 and 2004. RESULTS: There were 1787 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis during the period evaluated. Of those, 117 (7% were females, 1670 (93

  10. Catalogue of the tick collection (Acari, Ixodida of the Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Catálogo da coleção de carrapatos (Acari: Ixodida do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil

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    Márcia Arzua

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The tick collection of the Museu de Historia Natural Capão da Imbuia was first sorted in the end of the 80's, and a list of specimens was published in 1992. During the last ten years, the collection has grown substantially and became the depository collection for type-specimens. The collection is the most regional representative depository of ticks from the State of Paraná, and it is one of the four largest Brazilian collections in number of specimens. All material was revised, and the data were computerized and catalogued in cards. To date, the collection includes 504 vials, with 2,073 specimens, belonging to 25 species and six genera of the families Argasidae and Ixodidae. The ticks were collected in regional and state parks and in green areas from 60 municipalities distributed within eight Brazilian states. This catalogue corrects some of the records published in 1992 for the state of Paraná and records new host species for Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772, A. cajennense (Fabricius, 1787, A. longirostre (Koch, 1844, A. tigrinum Koch, 1844, Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca, 1935, I. auritulus Neumann, 1904, I. fuscipes Koch, 1844 and I. paranaensis Barros-Battesti, Arzua, Pichorim & Keirans, 2003. Amblyomma brasiliense Aragão, 1908, A. coelebs Neumann, 1899, A. nodosum Neumann, 1899 and I. fuscipes are recorded, for the first time, from the state of Paraná; A. longirostre from Rio Grande do Sul; I. fuscipes from Santa Catarina; I. schulzei Aragão & Fonseca, 1951 from Rondônia; and A. rotundatum Koch, 1844 from Bahia. In addition Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 and I. fuscipes are recorded for the first time, infesting birds.O acervo de carrapatos do Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia começou a ser organizado no final dos anos 80, tendo sua primeira listagem publicada em 1992. Nos últimos dez anos a coleção cresceu substancialmente e passou a conter tipos. Sua importância está na representatividade da ixodofauna regional do

  11. Carbon-to-nitrogen ratios for Agaricus brasiliensis on the axenic method = Relação carbono/nitrogênio do substrato pelo método de cultivo axênico para Agaricus brasiliensis

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    Lienine Luiz Zaghi Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation techniques for Agaricus brasiliensis (composting method and substratum formulations are the same ones used for Agaricus bisporus. Most of the carbon-tonitrogen (C:N ratios reported for A. brasiliensis are similar to those used for A. bisporus on the composting method and there are few studies about the variation of C:N ratios for A. brasilienses on the axenic method. The objective of this study was to verify the mycelial growth of A. brasiliensis on different C:N ratios using regional by-products as substrate formulation on the axenic method. Studied C:N ratios of substrate (mixture of soybean and cassava fibers ranged from 11:1 to 248:1, with nitrogen content ranging from 4.25 to 0.20%, respectively. It was concluded that substrate with only soybean fiber generates higher mycelial growth than any formulation with cassava fiber; the highest mycelial growth on substrate is with C:N ratio of 11:1 (N = 4.25%; the intermediate growth is with C:N ratio range from 15:1 to 50:1 (N from 3.31 to 0.98%; and the lowest growth is with C:N ratio of 100:1 or higher (N ≤ 0.50%. As técnicas de cultivo do Agaricus brasiliensis (método de compostagem e formulação de substrato são as mesmas utilizadas para o Agaricus bisporus. A maioria das relações carbono/nitrogênio (C/N relatadas para A. brasiliensis são similares às usadas para A. bisporus no método de compostagem. Há poucos estudos sobre a variação da relação C/N para A. brasilienses para o método axênico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes relações C/N no crescimento micelial de Agaricus brasiliensis utilizando subprodutos regionais como substrato pelo método axênico. As relações C/N no substrato (misturas de fibra de soja e de mandioca estudadas variaram de 11 a 248 com consequentes concentrações de nitrogênio de 4,25 a 0,20%, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que os substratos somente com fibra de soja propiciam maior crescimento micelial que

  12. Assessing the extent of "conflict of use" in multipurpose tropical forest trees: a regional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Jáuregui, Cristina; Guariguata, Manuel R; Cárdenas, Dairon; Vilanova, Emilio; Robles, Marco; Licona, Juan Carlos; Nalvarte, Walter

    2013-11-30

    In the context of multiple forest management, multipurpose tree species which provide both timber and non-timber forest products (NTFP), present particular challenges as the potential of conflicting use for either product may be high. One key aspect is that the magnitude of conflict of use can be location specific, thus adding complexity to policy development. This paper focuses on the extent to which the potential for conflict of use in multipurpose tree species varies across the Amazonian lowland forests shared by Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela, emphasizing the economic dimension of conflict. Based on a review of the current normative and regulatory aspects of timber and NTFP extraction in the five countries, the paper also briefly discusses the opportunities and constraints for harmonization of timber and NTFP management of multipurpose species across the region. It was found that about half of the 336 timber species reviewed across the five countries also have non-timber uses. Eleven timber species are multipurpose in all five countries: Calophyllum brasiliense, Cedrela odorata, Ceiba pentandra, Clarisia racemosa, Ficus insipida, Jacaranda copaia, Schefflera morototoni, Simarouba amara and Terminalia amazonia. Seven other multipurpose species occurred only in either Venezuela (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Spondias mombin, Pentaclethra macroloba, Copaifera officinalis, Chlorophora tinctoria, Carapa guianensis) or Ecuador (Tabebuia chrysantha). Four multipurpose tree species presented the highest potential of conflict of use across the region: Dipteryx odorata, Tabebuia serratifolia, Hymenaea courbaril and Myroxylon balsamum yet these were not evenly distributed across all five countries. None of the five studied countries have specific legislation to promote sustainable use of any of the multipurpose species reported here and thus mitigate potential conflict of use; nor documented management options for integration or else segregation of both their

  13. [Non-indigenous and non-specific parasitic nematodes--the background and the consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulewicz, Anna

    2009-01-01

    different climatic conditions contribute to introduction of non-native nematodes: Dirofilaria immitis--in dogs, D. repens or Ancylostoma brasiliense--in humans.

  14. Distribution of tree species in a geomorphological and pedological gradient of submontane semidecidual seasonal forest in the vicinity of Rio Doce state park, Minas Gerais

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    Priscila Bezerra de Souza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the distribution of tree species in a fragment of submontane seasonal semideciduous forest, a buffer zone in the Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, is influenced by geomorphological and weather and soil variables, therefore it can represent a source of information for the restoration of degraded areas where environmental conditions are similar to those of the study area. A detailed soil survey was conducted in the area by sampling three soil profiles per slope segment, totaling 12 profiles. To sample the topsoil, four composite samples were collected from the 10-20 cm layers in each topographic range totaling 16 composite samples. In the low ramp and the lower and upper concave slopes, the texture ranged from clay to sandy-clay. The soil and topographic gradient was characterized by changes in the soil physical-chemical properties. The soil in the 10-20 cm sampled layer was sandier, slightly more fertile and less acid in the low ramp than the clayer soil, nutrient-poor and highly acid soil at the top. The soil conditions in the lower and upper slope of the sampled layers, in turn, were intermediate. The P levels were limiting in all soils. The species distribution along the topographic gradient was associated with variations in chemical fertility, acidity and soil texture. The distribution of Pera leandri, Astronium fraxinifolium, Pouteria torta, Machaerium brasiliense and Myrcia rufipes was correlated with high aluminum levels and to low soil fertility and these species may be indicated for restoration of degraded areas on hillsides and hilltops in regions where environmental conditions are similar. The distribution of Pouteria venosa, Apuleia leiocarpa and Acacia polyphylla was correlated with the less acid and more fertile soil in the environment of the low ramps, indicating the potential for the restoration of similar areas.

  15. Aquatic Insects Associated with Submerged Macrophytes with Different Morphological Complexities

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    Douglas F Peiró

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze the diversity and community structure of aquatic insects associated with species of submersed macrophytes with different morphological complexity in relation to leaf structure. Sampling occurred in raining and dry periods at Ribeirão das Anhumas, Américo Brasiliense/SP. Four macrophytes were analyzed: Vallisneria sp., Eleocharis sp., Egeria najas and Ottelia sp. The entomological community was identified up to the family level, and at tribe level for Chironomidae. The community structure was analyzed using diversity indices of Simpson, Equitability evenness, relative participation of functional category and taxa dominance. The dispersion of faunal composition between the different collection periods was analyzed using a n-MDS with Morisita index. The structure of the insect community associated with macrophytes with different structural morphologies was analyzed using structural similarity calculated by the Bray-Curtis index. Seventeen families were identified from five orders, a total of 1642 specimens. The family Hydropsychidae (Trichoptera presented eudominance (52.6%, followed by the tribe Pentaneurini (Chironomidae (13.8% and family Trichoryithidae (Ephemeroptera (10%. The results showed that there were no large diversity variations in the analyzed macrophyte species and the sampling periods. The predator and collector functional groups were predominant. The n-MDS analysis indicated the absence of seasonal variation and, the similarity analysis indicated that macrophyte E. najas and Otellia sp., presented similar fauna structure, differing from other analyzed species. The results demonstrated that the morphological structure of macrophytes may have different structures of aquatic insect communities.

  16. Nitrogen fixation in trees - 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobereiner, J.; Gauthier, D.L.; Diem, H.G.; Dommergues, Y.R.; Bonetti, R.; Oliveira, L.A.; Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Faria, S.M. de; Franco, A.A.; Menandro, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Six papers are presented from the symposium. Dobereiner, J.; Nodulation and nitrogen fixation in leguminous trees, 83-90, (15 ref.), reviews studies on Brazilian species. Gauthier, D.L., Diem, H.G., Dommergues, Y.R., Tropical and subtropical actinorhizal plants, 119-136, (Refs. 50), reports on studies on Casuarinaceae. Bonetti, R., Oliveira, L.A., Magalhaes, F.M.M.; Rhizobium populations and occurrence of VA mycorrhizae in plantations of forest trees, 137-142, (Refs. 15), studies Amazonia stands of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Calophyllum brasiliense, Dipteryx odorata, D. potiphylla, Carapa guianensis, Goupia glabra, Tabebuia serratifolia, Clarisia racemosa, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, Eperua bijuga, and Diplotropis species. Nodulation was observed in Cedrelinga catenaeformis and V. pallidior. Faria, S.M. de, Franco, A.A., Menandro, M.S., Jesus, R.M. de, Baitello, J.B.; Aguiar, O.T. de, Doebereiner, J; survey of nodulation in leguminous tree species native to southeastern Brazil, 143-153, (Refs. 7), reports on 119 species, with first reports of nodulation in the genera Bowdichia, Poecilanthe, Melanoxylon, Moldenhaurea (Moldenhawera), and Pseudosamanea. Gaiad, S., Carpanezzi, A.A.; Occurrence of Rhizobium in Leguminosae of silvicultural interest for south Brazil, 155-158, (Refs. 2). Nodulation is reported in Mimosa scabrella, Acacia mearnsii, A. longifolia various trinervis, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Erythrina falcata. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Blum, W.E.H., Nodulation and growth of Cedrelinga catanaeformis in experimental stands in the Manaus region - Amazonas, 159-164, (Refs. 5). Results indicate that C. catenaeformis can be used in degraded areas of very low soil fertility.

  17. CO2 emission from soil after reforestation and application of sewage sludge

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    Janaina Braga Carmo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions from an Oxisol under degraded pasture located in Sorocaba, São Paulo State, Brazil. The treatments were: sewage sludge (LE, sewage sludge compost (CLE, mineral fertilizer (AM and no fertilization (T0. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with analysis of the effect of the four treatments (CLE, LE, and AM T0 with four replications. The application of sewage sludge, sewage sludge compost, mineral fertilizer and no fertilizer was statistically significant for the variables of height increase and stem height of Guanandi seedlings (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambessèdes - Calophyllaceae. Treatments showed significant differences in terms of CO2 emissions from soil. The CLE exhibited the highest CO2 fluxes, reaching a peak of 9.33±0.96 g C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.0001, as well as the LE with a maximum CO2 flux of 6.35±1.17 C m- 2 day- 1 (p<0.005. The AM treatment (4.96±1.61 g C m- 2 day- 1 had the same statistical effect as T0 (5.33±0.49 g C m- 2 day- 1. CO2 fluxes were correlated with soil temperature in all treatments. However, considering the period of 172 days of evaluation, the total loss of C as CO2 was 2.7% for sewage sludge and 0.7% for the sewage sludge compost of the total C added with the application on soil.

  18. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, E.C. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jascolka, T.L. [Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Teixeira, L.G.; Lages, P.C.; Ribeiro, A.C.C.; Vieira, E.L.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peluzio, M.C.G. [Departamento de Nutrição, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Alvarez-Leite, J.I. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-05-11

    Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr{sup −/−}, C57BL/6-background). Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12) or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12) for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units). Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  19. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  20. Técnicas para superação da dormência de sementes de guanandi

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    Rosemeire Carvalho da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar tipos de preparo de sementes de guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense, com vistas à superação da dormência física e mecânica, e verificar a influência da temperatura e do substrato sobre a germinação. Foram avaliados três substratos (papel, areia e vermiculita, duas temperaturas de germinação (25 e 30ºC e quatro tipos de preparo das sementes: sementes íntegras; sementes nuas, sem tegumento e endocarpo; sementes com punctura no endocarpo, na região próxima ao eixo embrionário ou na região oposta ao eixo embrionário; e sementes cortadas a 1/3 da região oposta ao eixo embrionário. Foram realizados testes de vigor (índice de velocidade de germinação e emergência de plântulas em campo, e a curva de embebição foi obtida para os diferentes tipos de preparo da semente. A retirada total do envoltório (endocarpo e tegumento é necessária para a completa superação da dormência física e mecânica das sementes de guanandi. A germinação das sementes deve ser realizada em substrato papel à temperatura de 30ºC.

  1. Induction of Reduced Photorespiratory Activity in Submersed and Amphibious Aquatic Macrophytes 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, Michael E.; Bowes, George

    1981-01-01

    Incubation under water in a 30 C/14-hour or 12 C/10-hour photoperiod caused the CO2 compensation points of 10 aquatic macrophytes to decrease below 25 or increase above 50 microliters CO2 per liter, respectively. Submerged and aerial leaves of two amphibious angiosperms (Myriophyllum brasiliense and Proserpinaca palustris) maintained high compensation points when incubated in air but, when the submerged or aerial leaves of Proserpinaca were incubated under water, the compensation points dropped as low as 10. This suggests that, in addition to temperature and photoperiod, some factor associated with submergence regulates the compensation point of aquatic plants. In the high-compensation point plants, photorespiration, as a percentage of net photosynthesis, was equivalent to that in terrestrial C3 plants. For Hydrilla verticillata, the decreasing CO2 compensation points (110, 40, and 10) were associated with reduced photorespiration, as indicated by decreased O2 inhibition, decreased rates of CO2 evolution into CO2-free air, and increased net photosynthetic rates. The decrease in the CO2 compensation points of Hydrilla, Egeria densa, and Cabomba caroliniana was accompanied by an increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate, but not of ribulose bisphosphate, carboxylase. In Hydrilla, several C4 enzymes also increased in activity to the following levels (micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour): pyruvate Pi dikinase (35), pyrophosphatase (716), adenylate kinase (525), NAD and NADP malate dehydrogenase (6565 and 30), NAD and NADP malic enzymes (239 and 44), and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (357 and 85), whereas glycolate oxidase (6) and phosphoglycolate and phosphoglycerate phosphatases (76 and 32) showed no change. Glycolate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were undetectable. The reduced photorespiration in these plants may be due to increased CO2 fixation via a C4 acid pathway. However, for three Myriophyllum species, some other

  2. Induction of reduced photorespiratory activity in submersed and amphibious aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvucci, M E; Bowes, G

    1981-02-01

    Incubation under water in a 30 C/14-hour or 12 C/10-hour photoperiod caused the CO(2) compensation points of 10 aquatic macrophytes to decrease below 25 or increase above 50 microliters CO(2) per liter, respectively. Submerged and aerial leaves of two amphibious angiosperms (Myriophyllum brasiliense and Proserpinaca palustris) maintained high compensation points when incubated in air but, when the submerged or aerial leaves of Proserpinaca were incubated under water, the compensation points dropped as low as 10. This suggests that, in addition to temperature and photoperiod, some factor associated with submergence regulates the compensation point of aquatic plants. In the high-compensation point plants, photorespiration, as a percentage of net photosynthesis, was equivalent to that in terrestrial C(3) plants. For Hydrilla verticillata, the decreasing CO(2) compensation points (110, 40, and 10) were associated with reduced photorespiration, as indicated by decreased O(2) inhibition, decreased rates of CO(2) evolution into CO(2)-free air, and increased net photosynthetic rates.The decrease in the CO(2) compensation points of Hydrilla, Egeria densa, and Cabomba caroliniana was accompanied by an increase in the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate, but not of ribulose bisphosphate, carboxylase. In Hydrilla, several C(4) enzymes also increased in activity to the following levels (micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour): pyruvate Pi dikinase (35), pyrophosphatase (716), adenylate kinase (525), NAD and NADP malate dehydrogenase (6565 and 30), NAD and NADP malic enzymes (239 and 44), and aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (357 and 85), whereas glycolate oxidase (6) and phosphoglycolate and phosphoglycerate phosphatases (76 and 32) showed no change. Glycolate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were undetectable. The reduced photorespiration in these plants may be due to increased CO(2) fixation via a C(4) acid pathway. However, for three Myriophyllum

  3. Método para avaliação da potencialidade ornamental de flores e folhagens de corte nativas e não convencionais.

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    Elisabeth R. Tempel Stumpf

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Para garantir o êxito no mercado de novos produtos da Floricultura, é preciso estabelecer critérios objetivos de escolha das características ornamentais desejáveis. Este trabalho tem como objetivo propor e validar um método para a avaliação do potencial ornamental de plantas nativas e não-convencionais, para uso como flores e folhagens de corte. A partir de uma planilha de avaliação especialmente elaborada para tal fim, foi testado o grau de potencialidade ornamental de 11 espécies nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, resultante do somatório das notas dadas para cada uma das dez características escolhidas por sua importância para a arte floral e para o mercado. Para a validação da eficácia do método, foi efetuada uma pesquisa de opinião on line. Andropogon bicornis, Baccharis articulata, B. usterii, Eryngium ebracteatum, E. eriophorum, E. sanguisorba, Hypericum connatum, Limonium brasiliense, Myrsine umbellata, Schinus lentiscifolius e S. terebinthifolius receberam pontuação superior a 70 pontos, sendo categorizadas como de alta potencialidade ornamental. A eficácia da escolha destas espécies com base em atributos estéticos visuais ficou comprovada nos resultados obtidos pela aplicação da planilha e posteriormente validados pela pesquisa de opinião. Os resultados indicam que o método aqui proposto é uma ferramenta eficaz para avaliar o grau de potencialidade ornamental de flores e folhagens de corte nativas e não-convencionais

  4. Características de los trabajos publicados sobre las propiedades de las plantas en revistas médicas peruanas

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    Oscar G. Pamo-Reyna

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar las características de los trabajos originales sobre las propiedades de las plantas publicadas en revistas médicas peruanas. Material y métodos. Se revisó las bases de datos bibliográficas SciELO Perú y SISBIB para el período 2004-2008. Resultados. En 14 revistas se halló 825 trabajos originales, de los cuales 45 fueron incluidos en el estudio. El número de trabajos por años fue 3 (2004, 5 (2005, 9 2006, 13 (2007 y 15 (2008. Las revistas que publicaron mayor proporción de artículos sobre plantas fueron revistas de facultades de medicina: Rev Med Vallejiana (33%, Horizonte Médico (29% y An Fac Med (13%. Las instituciones que más publicaron fueron la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (45,5%, Universidad San Martín de Porres (22% y Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (13%. De un total de 226 autores, 11 de ellos realizaron el 22,1% de la producción total. De 57 plantas estudiadas, las más investigadas fueron Lepidium sp. (maca, Croton palanostigma (sangre de grado, Calophyllum brasiliense (lagarto caspi y Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacón. Los potenciales usos más estudiados fueron nutritivos, antineoplásicos, antioxidante, hipoglicemiante e hipotensor arterial. Seis (13,3% trabajos fueron clínicos y el resto fue de tipo experimental o bioquímico. Conclusión. La producción científica médica relacionada con las propiedades de las plantas y publicada es escasa aunque creciente, se realiza en las universidades públicas y privadas, la participación privada es casi nula; y, existe una élite de investigadores que gran producción de trabajos.

  5. OPÇÕES DE FRUTÍFERAS DO CERRADO PARA PAISAGISMO URBANO EM BAIRROS DA PERIFERIA DE GOIÂNIA-GO

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    RAFAEL CALIXTO RIBEIRO DE ARAÚJO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide options of cerrado fruitful tree for neighborhoods to the outskirts of Goiânia, Brazil building up the level of satisfaction of the residents in relation to current local urban landscaping. The choice has been to work with fruit due to the large number of these species in the cerrado needing to preserve the existing genetic variability and protect the local flora. Data was collected through 100 questionnaires, from simple random sampling. It was observed that 53% of respondents were classified as partially satisfied with the landscaping where live, 27% dissatisfied, 10% satisfied, 7% and 3% very satisfied totally dissatisfied. Most people never planted fruit tree, however, 87% would like fruit were planted, indicating that the absence or disability of urban arborization is not a result of predation or popular unrest. It was found that 87%do not have allergies to plants, 8% said they do not know and 5% have allergies, and interesting to give preference to trees with restricted flowering period of a few months. It was found that 93% prefer shaded street, thus, it is suggested the use of species with bulky crown and removed from public lighting. It was observed that 68% did not know or had access to proper pruning procedure to be adopted. The species most appropriate are Centrolobium tomentosum, Cassia ferruginea, Pouteria ramiflora, Dimorphandra mollis, Pseudobombax longiflorum, Inga Alba, Curatella American, Hancornia sXXXpeciosa, Alibertia edulis, Erythrina speciosa, Kielmeyera coriácea, Caryocar brasiliense, Minosa laticífera and Bowdichia vigilioides.

  6. Inhibitory effect of sesquiterpene lactones and the sesquiterpene alcohol aromadendrane-4β,10α-diol on memory impairment in a mouse model of Alzheimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Solomon K S; Dalla Vecchia, Maria Tereza; Pedrini, Beatriz; Carnhelutti, Gabriela Lazzarotto; Gonçalves, Ana Elisa; Dos Santos, Diogo Adolfo; Biavatti, Maique W; de Souza, Márcia Maria

    2015-12-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the aged brain with no known cause or cures, has become a major medical and social problem for industrialized countries. Cerebral deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is a critical feature of AD. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative form of prevention, or even as a possible treatment of AD, is therefore interesting areas of research. Sesquiterpene lactones and a sesquiterpene alcohol are compounds found in H. brasiliense that have several anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated whether these compounds have neuroprotective effects in an amyloid-β peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Mice were injected with Aβ1-42 peptide intracerebroventricularly and were subsequently injected (i.c.v.) with 1µg/site of IGM-A (15-acetoxy-isogermafurenolide), IGM-H (15-hydroxy-isogermafurenolide), PDA (Podoandin), EHP (1,2-epoxy-10α-hydroxy-podoandin), HDS (13-hydroxy-8,9-dehydroshizukanolide), and ARD (aromadendrane-4β,10α-diol). Seven days after treatments the animals had their memory tested in the inhibitory avoidance. After the behavioral testing of animals the brains were removed and subjected to biochemical tests for oxidative stress. The results showed that ARD, HDS and PDA significantly ameliorated the Aβ1-42 peptide-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance task (P<0.05). In addition, GSH activity was increased while the TBARS levels were decreased by treatment with these compounds. These results suggest that these compounds inhibit the cognitive deficit of animals induced peptide amyloid and may be potential candidates for Alzheimer's disease therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oil rich in carotenoids instead of vitamins C and E as a better option to reduce doxorubicin-induced damage to normal cells of Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice: hematological, toxicological and histopathological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Grisolia, Cesar K; Longo, João Paulo F; Peixoto, Raphael C A; de Almeida, Marcos Célio; Barbosa, Lilian Carla P; Roll, Mariana M; Portilho, Flávia A; Estevanato, Luciana L C; Bocca, Anamélia L; Báo, Sônia N; Lacava, Zulmira G M

    2014-11-01

    The development of therapeutic strategies to attenuate chemotherapy toxicity represents an area of great interest in cancer research, and among them is nutritional therapy based on antioxidants. As research on this topic is still controversial and scarce, we aim to investigate the effects of antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, vitamin E or pequi oil, a carotenoid-rich oil extracted from pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), on doxorubicin (DX)-induced oxidative damage to normal cells in Ehrlich solid tumor-bearing mice. Tumor weight and volume, histopathology, morphometry and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the treatments' efficacy in containing tumor aggressiveness and regression, while possible toxicity of treatments was assessed by animals' weight, morphological analysis of the heart, liver and kidneys, hemogram, and serum levels of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Although all the chemotherapeutic treatments increased internal necrosis area and reduced the positive Ki-67 cells compared to non-treated tumors, the treatments with pequi oil provided before tumor inoculation (PTDX) or in continuous and concurrent administration with doxorubicin (PTPDX) were more effective in containing tumor growth, besides increasing lymphocyte-dependent immunity and reducing the adverse side effects associated with DX-induced oxidative damage to normal cells, mainly the PTDX treatment. Vitamins C and E given before tumor inoculation and chemotherapy were not successful against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, besides increasing doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity, indicating that, at least for doxorubicin, pequi oil instead of vitamins C and E would be the best option to reduce its adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A simple procedure for the purification of active fractions in aqueous extracts of plants with allelopathic properties

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    Fabian Borghetti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most studies conducted to test the allelopathic activity of plant parts have made use of water as solvent. However, the presence of polar, water-soluble substances, such as proteins and carbohydrates, tends to hamper the purification of active compounds. In this study, we present a simple purification procedure that separates the active fraction of the extract from the undesirable substances, thus facilitating the search for active molecules through standard chromatographic methods. Aqueous leaf extracts of three Cerrado species (Caryocar brasiliense, Qualea parviflora and Eugenia dysenterica were prepared at 5% concentration (w/v and stored at 4ºC (crude extracts. After 24 h, these solutions were filtered and freeze-dried. The powder obtained was dissolved in methanol, filtered again, evaporated and dissolved in water for bioassays (purified extracts. For the bioassays, seedlings of Sesamum indicum were grown for five days in aqueous solutions prepared from crude and purified extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1.0% (w/v. Seedling growth in distilled water was set as a control. In comparison with the control, we found that test solutions prepared from both crude and purified extracts significantly inhibited sesame seedling growth. However, solutions prepared from purified extracts were two to ten times more inhibitory to seedling growth than were those prepared from crude extracts. The inhibition of root growth ranged from 35% to 77%, depending on the plant species, at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Roots were more affected than were shoots. The effects of purified extracts on seedling morphology were similar to those observed when crude extracts were employed, indicating that the procedure of purification of crude extracts did not interfere with the mode of action of the active substances

  9. Floristic composition and soil fertility in gold mining of Lavrinha, Pontes and Lacerda, MT, Brazil

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    Tatiani Botini Pires

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mining activities cause intense environmental degradation, especially to the soil and vegetation. This study evaluated attributes of floristic composition and soil fertility in areas of open gold mining areas. One hundred plots of 10 × 10 m were distributed in the area effectively mined and in its surroundings. Stem circunference measures (AGC of all identified woody individuals with greater than or equal to 9 cm were taken at 0.3 m height above the ground. In all plots soil samples at 0-20 cm depth were collected for analysis of fertility attributes that are routinely evaluated. In total we observed the occurrence of 92 species and 43 families. The most abundant families were Myrtaceae, Fabaceae and Dilleniaceae; and families that had the greatest numbers of species were Fabaceae (10, Malpighiaceae (7 and Vochysiaceae (5. In the area effectively mined the species with higher importance value index (IVI were Curatella americana (89.1 Cecropia hololeuca (40.9, Roupala montana (12.5 and Pouteria ramiflora (10.2 while in surrounding of the mined area the species with the highest IVI were Myrcia multiflora (25.6, Caryocar brasiliense (15.7, Magonia pubescens (14.8 and Vatareia macrocarpa (14.4. In both areas, the soil had low pH, low availability of P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ and high Al3+ saturation. In spite of the low soil fertility of the studied area, it was able to maintain an overall density of vegetation with AGC > 9 cm of 430 individuals per hectare in the effectively mined area and of 2,220 individuals per hectare in their surroundings.

  10. TROCAS GASOSAS E EFICIÊNCIA DO FOTOSSISTEMA II EM PLANTAS ADULTAS DE SEIS ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS EM FUNÇÃO DO SUPRIMENTO DE ÁGUA NO SOLO1

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    David de Holanda Campelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A redução da disponibilidade hídrica causa efeitos sobre a fotossíntese e o desenvolvimento de espécies arbóreas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as trocas gasosas e a eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II em plantas adultas de gonçalo-alves (Astronium fraxinifolium Schott., guanandi (Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., ipê-amarelo (Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl., ipê-rosa (Handroanthus impetiginosa (Mart. Matos, marupá (Simarouba amara Aubl. e mogno (Swietenia macrophylla King. cultivadas em condições de sequeiro e irrigadas, no Perímetro Irrigado do Baixo Acaraú, Ceará. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de medidas repetidas no tempo, num esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas (6 x 2 x 3, sendo a parcela principal composta por seis espécies, a subparcela por dois regimes hídricos (irrigado e sequeiro e a subsubparcela pelas épocas de avaliação. As análises das trocas gasosas foram realizadas em 22/11/2012 (estação seca, 07/02/2013 (data que antecedeu o período chuvoso e 17/05/2013 (estação chuvosa. As espécies mogno, guanandi e ipê-amarelo mostraram-se mais sensíveis ao déficit hídrico, em comparação com as outras espécies, o que foi evidenciado pelas maiores reduções nas trocas gasosas e na eficiência fotoquímica do fotossistema II. O ipê-rosa, o marupá e o gonçalo-alves mostraram-se mais adaptados às condições de baixa disponibilidade hídrica do solo.

  11. Estudio biofísico de la finca académica Snaki - URACCAN, en la comunidad de Moss, municipio de Waspam Río Coco, RAAN

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    Eduardo Fernández Eduardo Fernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este resumen, presentamos la caracterización biofísica de la finca académica Snaki de la URACCAN, acompañada de una propuesta de ordenamiento de la misma. La información de campo se registró a través de varios recorridos en toda el área realizando mediciones de los componentes biofísicos, completado con entrevistas a los trabajadores de la finca y personas comunitarias de Moss. Los resultados reflejan que la finca académica se encuentra situada propiamente en la cuenca media del Río Wawa, en una zona de bosques latifoliados del trópico húmedo, contiguo a la comunidad de Moss. Su extensión total es de 100 hectáreas, entre las coordenadas 14˚21’12.1’’ y los 14°21’35.9’’de latitud y los 83˚51’56’’ y los 83˚51’34.2’’ de longitud. Geológicamente se ubica en la planicie de la provincia geológica de los llanos de la Costa Caribe, predominando suelos ultisoles, con baja fertilidad, ácidos no apropiados para la agricultura a gran escala.Su sistema hídrico se compone principalmente del río Wawa y dos riachuelos que se ramifican y atraviesan toda la finca. La flora es representada por 30 familias de las que sobresalen: Burserácea, Clusiaceae, Melastomatácea y Moráceas; en cambio la fauna silvestre se representa por especies animales como: el chancho de monte (Tayassu tajac, cusuco (Dasypus novencintus, mono congo (Alouatta palliata, guarda tinaja (Agouti paca, venado cola blanca (Odocoileus virginianus.La finca también dispone de condiciones básicas para alberge y facilitar el desarrollo de actividades académicas e investigativas, (baños, pozos, servicio higiénico, energía eléctrica.El área productiva es poco significativa, ya que se desarrolla en pequeña escala y está orientada hacia el consumo humano y para alimento de animales. Los principales cultivos son: arroz, maíz, frijoles, yuca, quequisque, malangas y plátanos. La propuesta de ordenamiento se basa en establecer una finca integral

  12. Who is who in the understory: the contribution of resident and transitory groups of species to plant richness in forest assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Westphalen, Juliana Silva; Lins-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Borges; de Araújo, Francisca Soares

    2012-09-01

    The forest understory is made up of resident and transitory species and can be much richer than the canopy. With the purpose to describe the contribution of these groups to the woody understory, five Atlantic Forest fragments were selected and studied in Northeastern Brazil. In order to analyze the understory's structure, the sample included woody individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH) smaller than 15cm and circumference at ground level (CGL) greater than 3cm, regardless of height. The recorded species were quantified and classified into functional stratification categories (resident and transitory), and the floristic similarity between the understory and the tree stratum was calculated. Species' importance in the understory was analyzed by height and total natural regeneration classes based on a regeneration index. The understory was richer in species (median=63.8, SD=21.72, n=5 fragments) than the tree stratum (43.8, 18.14, 5), and the similarity between these components was relatively high (median=0.54, SD=0.09). The results also showed that the studied understory in the forest fragments was mainly composed by transitory species (median=67.01%, SD=3.76), that were well distributed among height classes and had the highest densities, which may favor their future presence in the canopy's structure and composition. The typical understory species were grouped into two strata: the lower understory, made up of species that generally do not reach more than 4m in height (mostly species from families Piperaceae, Rubiaceae and Melastomataceae); and the upper understory, with intermediate heights between the lower understory and the canopy, but with average heights that were not higher than 10m (mainly of species from families Anonnaceae, Clusiaceae and Myrtaceae). These families' richness was commonly used as an indicator of the vegetation's successional stage; however, such results must be seen with caution as they show that these families co-occurred and

  13. Metodología para la evaluación del potencial insecticida de especies forestales.

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    Morales Soto León

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad florística de Colombia plantea enormes retos de investigación, con miras a una utilización racional e integral de sus recursos forestales. Las plantas con efectos biocidas utilizables en el control de plagas o enfermedades revisten una singular importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es plantear una metodología de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y rápidos resultados, que permita acopiar la información necesaria sobre el mayor número de especies con potencial en este sentido. La metodología plantea la siguiente secuencia: selección de las especies vegetales de interés, apoyada en los reportes bibliográficos, conocimiento ancestral y observaciones personales; recolección del material en el campo; preparación del extracto total a partir del material seco; pruebas iniciales con Artemia salina Lech. para detectar actividad biológica, a través de la determinación de la LC50 (las especies con LC50 menores de 1000 ppm se consideran promisorias y ameritan procesos posteriores de fraccionamiento químico, bioensayos con las sustancias más promisorias sobre algún organismo de interés particular y determinación final de los compuestos activos en la planta. La metodología descrita fue empleada en la evaluación del potencial de acción biocida de 5 especies arbóreas o arbustivas, Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer y Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae, Machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae, Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae y Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae. Se utilizó para los bioensayos iniciales el microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach como indicador del potencial biocida con el fin de seleccionar las dos especies más promisorias a partir de las LC50 obtenidas. Con las dos se realizaron los bioensayos para evaluar la acción fagoinhibidora en la hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (L., y el posible control de Alconeura sp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, insecto chupador que afecta la ceiba verde Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq. Dugand

  14. DIVERSIDAD DE EPÍFITAS VASCULARES EN CUATRO BOSQUES DEL SECTOR SURORIENTAL DE LA SERRANÍA DE CHIRIBIQUETE, GUAYANA COLOMBIANA

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    ARÉVALO RAFAEL

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudiamos la composición y la diversidad de epífitas vasculares en cuatro tiposde bosque de la cuenca de Puerto Abeja, región sur oriental del Parque NacionalNatural Serranía de Chiribiquete, Guayana colombiana. Los bosques estudiados sedenominaron Tierra firme (TF, Rebalse (R, Transición (T y Varillar (V. En cadatipo de bosque se muestreó un área de 500 m2 en la que se censaron todas lasepífitas presentes en forofitos con DAP > 2,5 cm. Se registraron 1110 árboles, delos cuales sólo 406 albergaban epífitas. La proporción de forofitos fue mayor en losbosques TF y R. Se encontraron 2015 individuos de epífitas vasculares (879 en R,514 en TF, 405 en T y 217 en V pertenecientes a 183 especies, 71 géneros y 27familias (157 especies y 20 familias son angiospermas y las restantes pteridófitas.Los bosques R y TF fueron los más ricos en especies (con 100 y 94 especies,respectivamente, mientras que V fue el más pobre (con 30 especies. En los bosquesT y V, 1–2 especies presentaron valores de densidad relativa muy altos respecto alas otras, mientras que en R y TF ninguna especie se caracterizó por su marcadaabundancia. Las familias con más especies en R y TF fueron Araceae y Orchidaceae,mientras que en T y V fue Orchidaceae. Por otro lado, Orchidaceae y Dryopteridaceaesiempre estuvieron entre las familias más importantes (con mayor VIF en todos losbosques, mientras que Araceae, Bromeliaceae, Clusiaceae, Grammitidaceae,Hymenophyllaceae y Polypodiaceae tuvieron una importancia significativa sóloen algunos de los bosques. Según los coeficientes de similitud basados en presencia/ausencia de especies y en abundancia de las mismas, los bosques con mayorsimilitud florística fueron R y TF, mientras que V se comportó como una unidaddiferente y T no se diferenció significativamente de los demás. De todas las especiesde epífitas encontradas, 117 (63,2% estuvieron presentes en sólo uno de losbosques, mientras que 68 (36,8% en dos o m

  15. Análisis florístico y fitogeográfico de un bosque secundario pluvial andino, cañón del río Santo Domingo, cordillera Central (Antioquia, Colombia

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    Diego Giraldo Cañas

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed floristic inventory as well as a preliminary phytogeographical analysis was conducted in an Andean secondary wet forest of NW of Colombia, in order to know the vascular species richness and the phytogeographical relationships. The floristic inventory revealed the presence of 712 vascular species distributed among 129 families, of which 17 belong to ferns and allies, with 69 species and 30 genera; 18 monocotyledon families, with 153 species and 87 genera, and 94 dicotyledon families, with 490 species and 290 genera. The best-represented plant families are Melastomataceae (36 species, Rubiaceae (36, Orchidaceae (30, Asteraceae (28, Poaceae (28, Piperaceae (24, Araceae (23, Fabaceae (20, Clusiaceae (18, Moraceae (18, Gesneriaceae (17, Mimosaceae (16, Solanaceae (15, Acanthaceae (14, and Polypodiaceae (13. The richest genera are Piper (17 species, Ficus (11, Psychotria (11, Inga (10, Anthurium (9, Miconia (9, Peperomia (7, Asplenium (6, Blechnum (6, Clidemia (6, Costus (6, Mikania (6, Selaginella (6, and Solanum (6. Regarding life forms, herbs are the best represented with 344 species (48,2%, followed by shrubs and trees (291 species, 41%, lianas (62 species, 8,7%, palms (12 species, 1,7% and by arborescent herbs (3 species, 0,4%. There are 101 epiphytic or hemiepiphytic species belonging to 23 families. The richest families in epiphytes are Orchidaceae (23 species, Araceae (10, Bromeliaceae (8, Piperaceae (7 and Gesneriaceae (6, while the most common epiphytic genera are Peperomia (7 species, Anthurium (6, Elaphoglossum (5, Huperzia (4 and Trichomanes (4. There are 9 endemic species (1,3%. Some of the species collected are new to science or are new records for the flora of NW of South America. Nine species and 3 genera exhibit a disjunct distribution. The analyzed forest is floristically similar to lowland Neotropical forests. The phytogeographic analysis shows that 62,4% of the genera are neotropical, 25,8% are pantropical, 10% are

  16. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals. has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as on the role of natural enemies to define strategies to control the pest. Samples were taken biweekly and consisted of 20 fruits collected randomly (10 from the upper half and 10 from the lower half of the plant in ten plants, cv. Margarida, in a commercial avocado grove in Arapongas and Cambé regions, PR, from October/2001 to September/2002. Laboratory determinations of the percentage of damaged fruit per plant region, location and number of bored fruit sites, and the number and location of the fruit borer eggs, including parasitized ones, were performed. The results showed that S. catenifer preferred to oviposit and attack fruits located on the upper half of the trees. The majority of the eggs were laid on the fruit pedicel whereas the damage was mainly located on the lower half of the fruits. Trichogrammatids were the most constant and abundant parasitoids found in both localities throughout the study period.A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae, continua sendo fator limitante para o cultivo do abacate em vários estados do Brasil, nos últimos anos. Isso se deve a falta de métodos seguros e viáveis para reduzir os prejuízos causados pela praga. Com o intuito de obter informações sobre a sua bioecologia e ação de inimigos naturais, para auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de controle, realizaram-se coletas quinzenais de 20 frutos ao acaso (10 da metade superior e 10 da metade inferior em 10 plantas, em pomar comercial, cv. Margarida, nos municípios de Arapongas e Cambé, PR, durante os meses de outubro/2001 a setembro/2002. Em laboratório determinaram-se a porcentagem

  17. Desenvolvimento de indicadores para avaliação de serviço público de odontologia Development of indicators for evaluating public dental healthcare services

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    Vera Lucia Ribeiro de Carvalho Bueno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é descrever e analisar o desenvolvimento dos indicadores utilizados para se identificar fortalezas e deficiências de serviço público de odontologia no município de Cambé, Paraná. A metodologia usada foi o estudo de caso histórico-organizacional. Para o planejamento da avaliação foi desenvolvido o modelo-lógico do serviço. Para tanto, foram coletadas informações a partir da triangulação de métodos (entrevistas, análise documental e observação. Na sequência, foi desenvolvida uma matriz que apresenta dimensões de análise, critérios, indicadores, pontuações, parâmetros e fontes de informações. Três oficinas de trabalho foram realizadas com profissionais do serviço local visando melhor adequação do modelo-lógico e da matriz à realidade do serviço. O período de coleta de dados foi novembro de 2006 a julho de 2007. Como resultado, obteve-se um fluxograma da organização do serviço de odontologia e uma matriz com duas dimensões de análise, doze critérios e vinte e quatro indicadores. O desenvolvimento dos indicadores, privilegiando a participação dos sujeitos envolvidos com a prática, proporcionou o planejamento de uma avaliação abrangente e realista.The objective of this article is to describe and analyze the development of indicators used to identify strengths and deficiencies in public dental healthcare services in the municipality of Cambé, Paraná. The methodology employed was a historical-organizational case study. A theoretical model of the service was developed for evaluation planning. To achieve this, information was collected from triangulation of methods (interviews, document analysis and observation. A matrix was then developed which presents analysis dimensions, criteria, indicators, punctuation, parameters and sources of information. Three workshops were staged during the process with local service professionals in order to verify whether both the logical model

  18. Reseñas

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    HC Reseñas

    2010-02-01

    . Beneficencia, ahorro y previsión, 1876-1936. San Sebastián, Fundación Social y Cultural KUTXA, 1996. LARRINAGA, Carlos et alii. El Fuerte de San Marcos de Rentería. Ayuntamiento de Rentería, 1995. RABATÉ, Jean-Claude. 1900 en Salamanca. Guerra y Paz en la Salamanca del joven Unamuno. Salamanca, Eds. Universidad, 1997. LUIS MARTIN, Francisco de. Historia de la FETE (1909-1936. Madrid, Fondo Editorial de Enseñanza, 1997. DE RIQUER, Borja. El último Cambó 1936-1947. La tentación autoritaria. Barcelona, Grijalbo Mondadori, 1997. En su versión catalana, L'últim Cambó (1936-1947. La dreta catalanista davant la guerra civil i el franquisme. Vic, Eumo editorial, 1996. SÁNCHEZ RECIO, Glicerio. Los cuadros políticos intermedios del régimen franquista, 1936-1959. Diversidad de origen e identidad de intereses. Alicante, Instituto de Cultura Gil Albert, 1996. PAREDES, Javier. Félix Huarte, 1896-1971. Madrid, Ariel Historia, 1997. BERNECKER, Walther L. et alii. El peso del pasado: Percepciones de América y V Centenario. Madrid, Verbum, 1996.

  19. Gas Phase Detection of the NH-P Hydrogen Bond and Importance of Secondary Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Kristian H; Hansen, Anne S; Kjaergaard, Henrik G

    2015-11-05

    We have observed the NH···P hydrogen bond in a gas phase complex. The bond is identified in the dimethylamine-trimethylphosphine complex by a red shift of the fundamental NH-stretching frequency observed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). On the basis of the measured NH-stretching frequency red shifts, we find that P is a hydrogen bond acceptor atom similar in strength to S. Both are stronger acceptors than O and significantly weaker acceptors than N. The hydrogen bond angle, ∠NHP, is found to be very sensitive to the functional employed in density functional theory (DFT) optimizations of the complex and is a possible parameter to assess the quality of DFT functionals. Natural bonding orbital (NBO) energies and results from the topological methods atoms in molecules (AIM) and noncovalent interactions (NCI) indicate that the sensitivity is caused by the weakness of the hydrogen bond compared to secondary interactions. We find that B3LYP favors the hydrogen bond and M06-2X favors the secondary interactions leading to under- and overestimation, respectively, of the hydrogen bond angle relative to a DF-LCCSD(T)-F12a calculated angle. The remaining functionals tested, B3LYP-D3, B3LYP-D3BJ, CAM-B3LYP, and ωB97X-D, as well as MP2, show comparable contributions from the hydrogen bond and the secondary interactions and are close to DF-LCCSD(T)-F12a results.

  20. Quantitative trait loci for plant height in Maresi × CamB barley population and their associations with yield-related traits under different water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Krajewski, Paweł; Sawikowska, Aneta; Surma, Maria; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Górny, Andrzej G; Kempa, Michał; Szarejko, Iwona; Guzy-Wróbelska, Justyna; Gudyś, Kornelia

    2017-02-01

    High-yielding capacity of the modern barley varieties is mostly dependent on the sources of semi-dwarfness associated with the sdw1/denso locus. The objective of the study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the plant height and yield potential of barley recombinant inbred lines (RILs) grown under various soil moisture regimes. The plant material was developed from a hybrid between the Maresi (European cv.) and CamB (Syrian cv.). A total of 103 QTLs affecting analysed traits were detected and 36 of them showed stable effects over environments. In total, ten QTLs were found to be significant only under water shortage conditions. Nine QTLs affecting the length of main stem were detected on 2H-6H chromosomes. In four of the detected QTLs, alleles contributed by Maresi had negative effects on that trait, the most significant being the QLSt-3H.1-1 in the 3H.1 linkage group. The close linkage between QTLs identified around the sdw1/denso locus, with positive alleles contributed by Maresi, indicates that the semi-dwarf cv. Maresi could serve as a donor of favourable traits resulting in grain yield improvement, also under water scarcity. Molecular analyses revealed that the Syrian cv. also contributed alleles which increased the yield potential. Available barley resources of genomic annotations were employed to the biological interpretation of detected QTLs. This approach revealed 26 over-represented Gene Ontology terms. In the projected support intervals of QGWSl-5H.3-2 and QLSt-5H.3 on the chromosome 5H, four genes annotated to 'response to stress' were found. It suggests that these QTL-regions may be involved in a response of plant to a wide range of environmental disturbances.

  1. Non-centrosymmetric crystals of new N-benzylideneaniline derivatives as potential materials for non-linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Talita Evelyn; Rosa, Iara Maria Landre; Legendre, Alexandre Oliveira; Paschoal, Diego; Maia, Lauro J Q; Dos Santos, Hélio F; Matins, Felipe Terra; Doriguetto, Antonio Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Three new N-benzylideneaniline derivatives [p-nitrobenzylidene-p-phenylamineaniline (I), 2,4-dinitrobenzylidene-p-phenylamineaniline (II) and p-dinitrobenzylidene-p-diethylamineaniline (III)] containing electron-push-pull groups have been prepared. They present a planar N-benzylideneaniline core and neighbouring functional atoms, which are related through an efficient intramolecular charge transfer (CT). Two of the derivatives crystallize in non-centrosymmetric space groups, a necessary condition for non-linear optical (NLO) responses. The NLO properties were calculated for the molecular conformations determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as for the four molecules packed into each corresponding unit cell, using a quantum-chemical method at the cam-B3LYP/NLO-V level of theory. As expected from antiparallel face-to-face stacking through centrosymmetry, the main NLO descriptors - namely, the first hyperpolarizability (βtot) and its projection on the dipole moment direction (βvec) - are almost zero for the tetramer of derivative III. Interestingly, the calculated first hyperpolarizability decreases in the non-centrosymmetric unit-cell content of derivative II when compared to its single molecule, which may be related to its molecular pillaring, similar to that observed in derivative III. On the other hand, a desirable magnification of the NLO properties was found for packed units of derivative I, which may be a consequence of its parallel face-to-tail stacking with the CT vectors of all molecules pointing in the same direction. Moreover, the CT vector of compound I makes an angle of θ = 33.6° with its crystal polar axis, resulting in a higher-order parameter (cos(3)θ = 0.6) compared with the other derivatives. This is in line with the higher macroscopic second-order NLO response predicted for derivative I, βtot = 120.4 × 10(-30) e.s.u.

  2. DFT Study of the Structure, Reactivity, Natural Bond Orbital and Hyperpolarizability of Thiazole Azo Dyes

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    Osman I. Osman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure, reactivity, natural bond orbital (NBO, linear and nonlinear optical (NLO properties of three thiazole azo dyes (A, B and C were monitored by applying B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The geometrical parameters,dipolemoments,HOMO-LUMO(highest occupied molecular orbital,lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy gaps, absorption wavelengths and total hyperpolarizabilities were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 chloroform (CHCl3, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2 and dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO. The donor methoxyphenyl group deviates from planarity with the thiazole azo moiety by ca. 38◦; while the acceptor dicyanovinyl, indandione and dicyanovinylindanone groups diverge by ca. 6◦. The HOMOs for the three dyes are identical. They spread over the methoxyphenyl donor moiety, the thiazole and benzene rings as π-bonding orbitals. The LUMOs are shaped up by the nature of the acceptor moieties. The LUMOs of the A, B and C dyes extend over the indandione, malononitrile and dicyanovinylindanone acceptor moieties, respectively, as π-antibonding orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO splittings showed that Dye C is much more reactive than dyes A and B. Compared to dyes A and B, Dye C yielded a longer maximum absorption wavelength because of the stabilization of its LUMOs relative to those of the other two. The three dyes show solvatochromism accompanied by significant increases in hyperpolarizability. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of C compared to those of A and B is due to the cumulative action of the long π-conjugation of the indanone ring and the stronger electron-withdrawing ability of the dicyanovinyl moiety that form the dicyanovinylindanone acceptor group. These findings are facilitated by a natural bond orbital (NBO technique. The very high total hyperpolarizabilities of the three dyes define their potent nonlinear optical (NLO behaviour.

  3. DFT Study of the Structure, Reactivity, Natural Bond Orbital and Hyperpolarizability of Thiazole Azo Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Osman I

    2017-02-01

    The structure, reactivity, natural bond orbital (NBO), linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of three thiazole azo dyes (A, B and C) were monitored by applying B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The geometrical parameters,dipolemoments,HOMO-LUMO(highest occupied molecular orbital,lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gaps, absorption wavelengths and total hyperpolarizabilities were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) and dimethlysulphoxide (DMSO). The donor methoxyphenyl group deviates from planarity with the thiazole azo moiety by ca. 38◦; while the acceptor dicyanovinyl, indandione and dicyanovinylindanone groups diverge by ca. 6◦. The HOMOs for the three dyes are identical. They spread over the methoxyphenyl donor moiety, the thiazole and benzene rings as π-bonding orbitals. The LUMOs are shaped up by the nature of the acceptor moieties. The LUMOs of the A, B and C dyes extend over the indandione, malononitrile and dicyanovinylindanone acceptor moieties, respectively, as π-antibonding orbitals. The HOMO-LUMO splittings showed that Dye C is much more reactive than dyes A and B. Compared to dyes A and B, Dye C yielded a longer maximum absorption wavelength because of the stabilization of its LUMOs relative to those of the other two. The three dyes show solvatochromism accompanied by significant increases in hyperpolarizability. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of C compared to those of A and B is due to the cumulative action of the long π-conjugation of the indanone ring and the stronger electron-withdrawing ability of the dicyanovinyl moiety that form the dicyanovinylindanone acceptor group. These findings are facilitated by a natural bond orbital (NBO) technique. The very high total hyperpolarizabilities of the three dyes define their potent nonlinear optical (NLO) behaviour.

  4. Crossover trial to test the acceptability of a locally produced lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for children under 2 years in Cambodia: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Bindi; Mihrshahi, Seema; Griffin, Mark; Chamnan, Chhoun; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank T

    2017-09-06

    The acceptability and efficacy of existing ready-to-use supplementary and therapeutic foods has been low in Cambodia, thus limiting success in preventing and treating malnutrition among Cambodian children. In that context, UNICEF and IRD have developed a locally produced, multiple micronutrient fortified lipid-based nutrient supplement. This food is innovative, in that it uses fish instead of milk as the animal source food. Very few supplementary foods have non-milk animal source foods, and in addition they have not been widely tested. This trial will assess the novel food's acceptability to children and caregivers. This is a cluster-randomised, incomplete block, 4×4 crossover design with no blinding. It will take place in four sites in a community setting in periurban Phnom Penh. Healthy children aged 9-23 months (n=100) will eat each of four foods for 3 days at a time. The amount they consume will be measured, and at the end of each 3-day set, caregivers will assess how well their child liked the food. After 12 days, caregivers themselves will do a sensory test of the 4 foods and will rank them in terms of preference. Ethical clearance was received from the University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committee (2014001070) and from Cambodia's National Ethics Committee for Health Research (03/8 NECHR). ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: LNS-CAMB-INFANTS; NCT02257437. Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. The Role of Cytosine Methylation on Charge Transport through a DNA Strand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jianqing; Govind, Niranjan; Anantram, M.P.

    2015-09-04

    Cytosine methylation has been found to play a crucial role in various biological processes, including a number of human diseases. The detection of this small modifi-cation remains challenging. In this work, we computationally explore the possibility of detecting methylated DNA strands through direct electrical conductance measurements. Using density functional theory and the Landauer-Buttiker method, we study the electronic properties and charge transport through an eight base-pair methylated DNA strand and its native counterpart. Specifically, we compare the results generated with the widely used B3LYP exchange-correlation (XC) functional and CAM-B3LYP based tuned range-separated hybrid density functional. We first analyze the effect of cytosine methylation on the tight-binding parameters of two DNA strands and then model the transmission of the electrons and conductance through the strands both with and without decoherence. We find that with both functionals, the main difference of the tight-binding parameters between the native DNA and the methylated DNA lies in the on-site energies of (methylated) cytosine bases. The intra- and interstrand hopping integrals between two nearest neighboring guanine base and (methylated) cytosine base also change with the addition of the methyl groups. Our calculations show that in the phase-coherent limit, the transmission of the methylated strand is close to the native strand when the energy is nearby the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level and larger than the native strand by 5 times in the bandgap. The trend in transmission also holds in the presence of the decoherence with both functionals. We also study the effect of contact coupling by choosing coupling strengths ranging from weak to strong coupling limit. Our results suggest that the effect of the two different functionals is to alter the on-site energies of the DNA bases at the HOMO level, while the transport properties don't depend much on the two

  6. Stokes’ and Lamb's viscous drag laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, I.; Klettner, C. A.

    2017-03-01

    Since Galileo used his pulse to measure the time period of a swinging chandelier in the 17th century, pendulums have fascinated scientists. It was not until Stokes' (1851 Camb. Phil. Soc. 9 8-106) (whose interest was spurred by the pendulur time pieces of the mid 19th century) treatise on viscous flow that a theoretical framework for the drag on a sphere at low Reynolds number was laid down. Stokes' famous drag law has been used to determine two fundamental physical constants—the charge on an electron and Avogadro's constant—and has been used in theories which have won three Nobel prizes. Considering its illustrious history it is then not surprising that the flow past a sphere and its two-dimensional analog, the flow past a cylinder, form the starting point of teaching flow past a rigid body in undergraduate level fluid mechanics courses. Usually starting with the two-dimensional potential flow past a cylinder, students progress to the three-dimensional potential flow past a sphere. However, when the viscous flow past rigid bodies is taught, the three-dimensional example of a sphere is first introduced, and followed by (but not often), the two-dimensional viscous flow past a cylinder. The reason why viscous flow past a cylinder is generally not taught is because it is usually explained from an asymptotic analysis perspective. In fact, this added mathematical complexity is why the drag on a cylinder was only solved in 1911, 60 years after the drag on a sphere. In this note, we show that the viscous flow past a cylinder can be explained without the need to introduce any asymptotic analysis while still capturing all the physical insight of this classic fluid mechanics problem.

  7. Gas-Phase Thermal Tautomerization of Imidazole-Acetic Acid: Theoretical and Computational Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadullah G. Aziz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between imidazole-4-acetic (I and imidazole-5-acetic (II acids was monitored using the traditional hybrid functional (B3LYP and the long-range corrected functionals (CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD with 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets. The roles of the long-range and dispersion corrections on their geometrical parameters, thermodynamic functions, kinetics, dipole moments, Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital–Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO–LUMO energy gaps and total hyperpolarizability were investigated. All tested levels of theory predicted the preference of I over II by 0.750–0.877 kcal/mol. The origin of predilection of I is assigned to the H-bonding interaction (nN8→σ*O14–H15. This interaction stabilized I by 15.07 kcal/mol. The gas-phase interconversion between the two tautomers assumed a 1,2-proton shift mechanism, with two transition states (TS, TS1 and TS2, having energy barriers of 47.67–49.92 and 49.55–52.69 kcal/mol, respectively, and an sp3-type intermediate. A water-assisted 1,3-proton shift route brought the barrier height down to less than 20 kcal/mol in gas-phase and less than 12 kcal/mol in solution. The relatively high values of total hyperpolarizability of I compared to II were interpreted and discussed.

  8. [Factors associated with poor sleep quality in the Brazilian population ≥ 40 years of age: VIGICARDIO Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Loch, Mathias Roberto; Dos Santos, Hellen Geremias; Sakay Bortoletto, Maira Sayuri; Durán González, Alberto; Maffei de Andrade, Selma

    The prevalence of poor sleep quality in men and women ≥ 40 years old from the VIGICARDIO Study was determined, and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors associated with poor sleep quality were identified. A population-based study conducted in 2011 among 1,058 non-institutionalised individuals randomly selected from Cambé, Paraná State, Brazil. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between sleep quality and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors in men and women. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 34% in men and 44% in women. Having bad/regular self-rated health status was a factor associated with poor sleep quality in men (OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.17-2.72) and women (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68-3.53). Being obese (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.13-2.46), having depression (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.41-3.13) and presenting temporal orientation difficulties (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.08-3.52) were associated factors in women. Difficulty to understand what is explained (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.16-4.09) and alcohol abuse (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.83) were associated factors in men. Factors affecting sleep quality are different for men and for women. These factors should be taken into consideration when devising activities that promote good sleep quality, with a view to improving their effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. von Kármán swirling flow between a rotating and a stationary smooth disk: Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Aryesh; Steinberg, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Precise measurements of the torque in a von Kármán swirling flow between a rotating and a stationary smooth disk in three Newtonian fluids with different dynamic viscosities are reported. From these measurements the dependence of the normalized torque, called the friction coefficient, on Re is found to be of the form Cf=1.17 (±0.03 ) Re-0.46±0.003 where the scaling exponent and coefficient are close to that predicted theoretically for an infinite, unshrouded, and smooth rotating disk which follows from an exact similarity solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, obtained by von Kármán. An error analysis shows that deviations from the theory can be partially caused by background errors. Measurements of the azimuthal Vθ and axial velocity profiles along radial and axial directions reveal that the flow core rotates at Vθ/r Ω ≃0.22 (up to z ≈4 cm from the rotating disk and up to r0/R ≃0.25 in the radial direction) in spite of the small aspect ratio of the vessel. Thus the friction coefficient shows scaling close to that obtained from the von Kármán exact similarity solution, but the observed rotating core provides evidence of the Batchelor-like solution [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 4, 29 (1951), 10.1093/qjmam/4.1.29] different from the von Kármán [Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 1, 233 (1921), 10.1002/zamm.19210010401] or Stewartson [Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 49, 333 (1953), 10.1017/S0305004100028437] one.

  10. Stokes drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bremer, T. S.; Breivik, Ø.

    2017-12-01

    During its periodic motion, a particle floating at the free surface of a water wave experiences a net drift velocity in the direction of wave propagation, known as the Stokes drift (Stokes 1847 Trans. Camb. Philos. Soc. 8, 441-455). More generally, the Stokes drift velocity is the difference between the average Lagrangian flow velocity of a fluid parcel and the average Eulerian flow velocity of the fluid. This paper reviews progress in fundamental and applied research on the induced mean flow associated with surface gravity waves since the first description of the Stokes drift, now 170 years ago. After briefly reviewing the fundamental physical processes, most of which have been established for decades, the review addresses progress in laboratory and field observations of the Stokes drift. Despite more than a century of experimental studies, laboratory studies of the mean circulation set up by waves in a laboratory flume remain somewhat contentious. In the field, rapid advances are expected due to increasingly small and cheap sensors and transmitters, making widespread use of small surface-following drifters possible. We also discuss remote sensing of the Stokes drift from high-frequency radar. Finally, the paper discusses the three main areas of application of the Stokes drift: in the coastal zone, in Eulerian models of the upper ocean layer and in the modelling of tracer transport, such as oil and plastic pollution. Future climate models will probably involve full coupling of ocean and atmosphere systems, in which the wave model provides consistent forcing on the ocean surface boundary layer. Together with the advent of new space-borne instruments that can measure surface Stokes drift, such models hold the promise of quantifying the impact of wave effects on the global atmosphere-ocean system and hopefully contribute to improved climate projections. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  11. A combined molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanics study on mercaptopurine interaction with the cucurbit [6,7] urils: Analysis of electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboli, Maryam; Raissi, Heidar

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, the probability of complex formation between mercaptopurine drug with cucurbit[6]urils and cucurbit[7]urils has been investigated. The calculations for geometry optimization of complexes have been carried out by means of DFT (B3LYP), DFT-D (B3LYP-D) and M06-2X methods. The Atoms In Molecules (AIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO), NMR, the density of states (DOSs) and frontier molecular orbital (MO) analyses have been done on the inclusion complexes. In addition, the UV-Vis spectra of the first eight states have been obtained by CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculation. The obtained results of the complexation process reveal that CB[7]-DRG complexes are more favorable than that of CB[6]-DRG interactions. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that configurations III and I are the most stable configurations related to the CB[6]/DRG and CB[7]/DRG interactions, respectively. The positive ∇2ρ(r) and HC values at the bond critical points indicate that exist the weak H-bonds between CB[6] and CB[7] with H atoms of the drug molecule. The obtained negative binding energy values of CB[7]-DRG interaction in solution phase show the stability of these complexes in the aqueous medium. Also, all of the observed parameters of molecular dynamics simulation such as the number of contacts, hydrogen bonding, center-of-mass distance and van der Waals energy values confirm the encapsulation of mercaptopurine molecule inside the cucurbit[7]urils cavity at about 3.2 ns.

  12. DFT calculations on molecular structure, spectral analysis, multiple interactions, reactivity, NLO property and molecular docking study of flavanol-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravindra Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A new flavanol-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (FDNP) was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. All quantum chemical calculations were carried out at level of density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional using 6-311++ G (d,p) basis atomic set. UV-Vis absorption spectra for the singlet-singlet transition computed for fully optimized ground state geometry using Time-Dependent-Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) with CAM-B3LYP functional was found to be in consistent with that of experimental findings. Analysis of vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectrum and their assignments has been done by computing Potential Energy Distribution (PED) using Gar2ped. HOMO-LUMO analysis was performed and reactivity descriptors were calculated. Calculated global electrophilicity index (ω = 7.986 eV) shows molecule to be a strong electrophile. 1H NMR chemical shift calculated with the help of gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) approach shows agreement with experimental data. Various intramolecular interactions were analysed by AIM approach. DFT computed total first static hyperpolarizability (β0 = 189.03 × 10-30 esu) indicates that title molecule can be used as attractive future NLO material. Solvent induced effects on the NLO properties studied by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method shows that β0 value increases with increase in solvent polarity. To study the thermal behaviour of title molecule, thermodynamic properties such as heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy change at various temperatures have been calculated and reported. Molecular docking results suggests title molecule to be a potential kinase inhibitor and might be used in future for designing of new anticancer drug.

  13. A combined molecular dynamics simulation and quantum mechanics study on mercaptopurine interaction with the cucurbit [6,7] urils: Analysis of electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaboli, Maryam; Raissi, Heidar

    2018-01-05

    In the current study, the probability of complex formation between mercaptopurine drug with cucurbit[6]urils and cucurbit[7]urils has been investigated. The calculations for geometry optimization of complexes have been carried out by means of DFT (B3LYP), DFT-D (B3LYP-D) and M06-2X methods. The Atoms In Molecules (AIM), Natural Bond Orbital (NBO), NMR, the density of states (DOSs) and frontier molecular orbital (MO) analyses have been done on the inclusion complexes. In addition, the UV-Vis spectra of the first eight states have been obtained by CAM-B3LYP/TD-DFT calculation. The obtained results of the complexation process reveal that CB[7]-DRG complexes are more favorable than that of CB[6]-DRG interactions. Furthermore, our theoretical results show that configurations III and I are the most stable configurations related to the CB[6]/DRG and CB[7]/DRG interactions, respectively. The positive ∇ 2 ρ (r) and HC values at the bond critical points indicate that exist the weak H-bonds between CB[6] and CB[7] with H atoms of the drug molecule. The obtained negative binding energy values of CB[7]-DRG interaction in solution phase show the stability of these complexes in the aqueous medium. Also, all of the observed parameters of molecular dynamics simulation such as the number of contacts, hydrogen bonding, center-of-mass distance and van der Waals energy values confirm the encapsulation of mercaptopurine molecule inside the cucurbit[7]urils cavity at about 3.2ns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Potential of Using the Al7 Superatom as an Excess Electron Acceptor To Construct Materials with Excellent Nonlinear Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoyuan; Liao, Kuntian; Peng, Bin; Luo, Qiong

    2016-05-02

    With the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we found that, when alkali metal approaches the Al7 superatom, its outermost s-value electron can be trapped by Al7 to give the superatom compound MAl7 (M = Li, Na, K) with an excess electron. Different analyses including natural bond orbital (NBO), electron localization function (ELF), and energy decomposition analysis (EDA) show that the resulting M-Al bond is strong and has a polar covalent character. The optimizations of self-assemblies (MAl7)n (n = 2, 3) have been performed to explore the stability of MAl7 in the solid state. The results reveal that only NaAl7 can keep its structural integrity as a building block upon self-assembling, while serious aggregations between Al7 clusters occur in the dimers and trimers of LiAl7 and KAl7, despite the fact that the Li-Al7 and K-Al7 bond energies are comparable to that of Na-Al7. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations for (NaAl7)n (n = 2, 3) indicate that these species are stable toward fragmentation at 300 K. The β0 values of (NaAl7)n (n = 1, 2, and 3) predicted at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(3df) level of theory are in the range of 1.6 × 10(4)a.u. to 7.5 × 10(4) a.u.. This theoretical study implies that NaAl7 is a promising candidate for nolinear optical (NLO) materials. We provide theoretical evidence for the possibility of using the Al7 superatom as an excess electron acceptor to construct materials with excellent NLO properties. Further experimental research is invited.

  15. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A postdoctoral fellow position is available in the Tissue Morphodynamics Unit, headed by Dr. Kandice Tanner, at the National Cancer Institute. The Tanner lab combines biophysical and cell biological approaches to understand the interplay between cell motility and tissue architecture. We use a combination of imaging modalities, cell biology and animal models. Experience with zebrafish is desired but not mandatory. It is expected that as a member of this lab, one will have an opportunity to be exposed to all these areas. We value a vibrant and collaborative environment where lab members share ideas, reagents and expertise and want to work on fundamental problems in the establishment of metastatic lesions. The successful candidate will interact with a diverse group of scientists with backgrounds in biochemistry, motor biophysics and cell biology. The position offers a generous salary and benefits package as well as the possibility of further career advancement if performance is excellent. 1. Kim J, Staunton J.R., and Tanner K. Independent control of topography for three-dimensional patterning of the ECM microenvironment. (Adv Mater 10.1002/adma.201503950, 2015) 2. Blehm, B.H., Devine, A., Staunton J.R., Tanner, K. In Vivo Tissue has Non-linear Rheological Behavior Distinct from 3D Biomimetic Hydrogels as Determined by AMOTIV Microscopy. (Biomaterials 83:66-78, 2016) 3. Staunton J.R, Vieira, W., Fung Leung, K., Lake R Devine, A, Tanner, K, Mechanical properties of the tumor stromal microenvironment probed ex vivo by in situ-calibrated optical trap-based active microrheology (CAMB 9(3):398-417, 2016) 4. Staunton J.R., Blehm, B.H., Devine, A., Tanner, K. In situ calibration of position detection in an optical trap for active microrheology in viscous materials, (Optics Express, In press 2017)

  16. The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone: a DFT/TD-DFT and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Yaseen, Abdulilah Dawoud; Al-Balawi, Mona

    2014-08-07

    The solvatochromic, spectral, and geometrical properties of nifenazone (NIF), a pyrazole-nicotinamide drug, were experimentally and computationally investigated in several neat solvents and in hydro-organic binary systems such as water-acetonitrile and water-dioxane systems. The bathochromic spectral shift observed in NIF absorption spectra when reducing the polarity of the solvent was correlated with the orientation polarizability (Δf). Unlike aprotic solvents, a satisfactory correlation between λ(max) and Δf was determined (linear correlation of regression coefficient, R, equal to 0.93) for polar protic solvents. In addition, the medium-dependent spectral properties were correlated with the Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic parameters (α, β, and π*) by applying a multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA). The results obtained from this analysis were then employed to establish MLRA relationships for NIF in order to estimate the spectral shift in different solvents, which in turn exhibited excellent correlation (R > 0.99) with the experimental values of ν(max). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT theory calculations coupled with the integral equation formalism-polarizable continuum model (IEF-PCM) were performed to investigate the solvent-dependent spectral and geometrical properties of NIF. The calculations showed good and poor agreements with the experimental results using the CAM-B3LYP and B3LYP functionals, respectively. Experimental and theoretical results confirmed that the chemical properties of NIF are strongly dependent on the polarity of the chosen medium and its hydrogen bonding capability. This in turn supports the hypothesis of the delocalization of the electron density within the pyrazole ring of NIF.

  17. Effect of methyl substituents on the electronic transitions in simple meso-aniline-BODIPY based dyes: RI-CC2 and TD-CAM-B3LYP computational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushenko, Igor K; Petrushenko, Konstantin B

    2017-09-13

    The S0→Si, i=1-5 electronic transitions of four 8-(4-aniline)-BODIPY and four 8-(N,N-dimethyl)-BODIPY dyes, differ by number and position of methyl substituents in the BODIPY frame, were investigated theoretically using ab initio the coupled cluster doubles (CC2) and TD-CAM-B3LYP methods. Methyl substituents in the BODIPY frame and the aniline fragment at the meso position disturb energy of local excitations S0→S1, S0→S3, and S0→S4 weakly in comparison with the fully unsubstituted BODIPY molecule. These transitions in experimental spectra form the most long-wave absorption bands at ca. 500nm as well as absorption bands in the region of 300-400nm. At the same time, the presence of aniline fragments leads to the appearance of new S0→S2 transitions of the charge transfer character in electronic spectra of BODIPYs. We also found a linear relationship between vertical energy of these charge transfer transitions and the electron donating power of an aniline fragment and electron accepting power of the BODIPY core depending on the number and position of methyl groups. The CC2 method provides the best overall description of the excitation energies in line with the experimental observations. On average, the quality of TD-CAM-B3LYP is almost equal to that of CC2, however the TD method with the CAM-B3LYP functional slightly underestimates the CT excitation energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nao adesao ao tratamento medicamentoso continuo: prevalencia e determinantes em adultos de 40 anos e mais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Assan Remondi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investiga os fatores associados a não adesão à terapia medicamentosa contínua em indivíduos de 40 anos e mais de idade. Foi realizado um inquérito de base populacional em Cambé, Paraná, Brasil. A adesão à terapia foi avaliada pela escala de quatro itens de Morisky et al. e analisaram-se também variáveis sociodemográficas, de utilização dos serviços de saúde e do uso de medicamentos. Foram entrevistados 1.180 indivíduos, dos quais 78% utilizaram medicamentos nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista e em 55% registrou-se o uso contínuo. A amostra do estudo consistiu em 639 indivíduos, com predominância do sexo feminino, idade entre 40 e 59 anos, baixa escolaridade. A prevalência de não adesão foi de 63,5%. Após análise ajustada, permaneceram associados a não adesão: não ser acompanhado pelo agente comunitário de saúde, ter tido descontinuidade no acesso aos medicamentos e a elevada frequência de utilização dos medicamentos ao longo do dia. Os resultados indicam uma alta prevalência da não adesão com possíveis impactos negativos para os indivíduos e para a sociedade.

  19. The Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of 2-Hydroxypyridine/2-Pyridone Tautomerization: A Theoretical and Computational Revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyah A. Hejazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas-phase thermal tautomerization reaction between 2-hydroxypyridine (2-HPY and 2-pyridone (2-PY was investigated by applying 6-311++G** and aug-cc-pvdz basis sets incorporated into some density functional theory (DFT and coupled cluster with singles and doubles (CCSD methods. The geometrical structures, dipole moments, HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, total hyperpolarizability, kinetics and thermodynamics functions were monitored against the effects of the corrections imposed on these functionals. The small experimental energy difference between the two tautomers of 3.23 kJ/mol; was a real test of the accuracy of the applied levels of theory. M062X and CCSD methods predicted the preference of 2-HPY over 2-PY by 5–9 kJ/mol; while B3LYP functional favoured 2-PY by 1–3 kJ/mol. The CAM-B3LYP and ωB97XD functionals yielded mixed results depending on the basis set used. The source of preference of 2-HPY is the minimal steric hindrance and electrostatic repulsion that subdued the huge hyperconjugation in 2-PY. A 1,3-proton shift intramolecular gas-phase tautomerization yielded a high average activation of 137.152 kJ/mol; while the intermolecular mixed dimer interconversion gave an average barrier height of 30.844 kJ/mol. These findings are boosted by a natural bond orbital (NBO technique. The low total hyperpolarizabilities of both tautomers mark out their poor nonlinear optical (NLO behaviour. The enhancement of the total hyperpolarizability of 2-HPY over that of 2-PY is interpreted by the bond length alternation.

  20. Comparative Ab-Initio Study of Substituted Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane Compounds for Solar Thermal Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Mikael J; Lundin, Angelica M; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Hyldgaard, Per; Erhart, Paul

    2016-02-25

    Molecular photoswitches that are capable of storing solar energy, so-called molecular solar thermal storage systems, are interesting candidates for future renewable energy applications. In this context, substituted norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems have received renewed interest due to recent advances in their synthesis. The optical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of these systems can vary dramatically depending on the chosen substituents. The molecular design of optimal compounds therefore requires a detailed understanding of the effect of individual substituents as well as their interplay. Here, we model absorption spectra, potential energy storage, and thermal barriers for back-conversion of several substituted systems using both single-reference (density functional theory using PBE, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, M06, M06-2x, and M06-L functionals as well as MP2 calculations) and multireference methods (complete active space techniques). Already the diaryl substituted compound displays a strong red-shift compared to the unsubstituted system, which is shown to result from the extension of the conjugated π-system upon substitution. Using specific donor/acceptor groups gives rise to a further albeit relatively smaller red-shift. The calculated storage energy is found to be rather insensitive to the specific substituents, although solvent effects are likely to be important and require further study. The barrier for thermal back-conversion exhibits strong multireference character and as a result is noticeably correlated with the red-shift. Two possible reaction paths for the thermal back-conversion of diaryl substituted quadricyclane are identified and it is shown that among the compounds considered the path via the acceptor side is systematically favored. Finally, the present study establishes the basis for high-throughput screening of norbornadiene-quadricyclane compounds as it provides guidelines for the level of accuracy that can be expected for key properties from

  1. Effect of methyl substituents on the electronic transitions in simple meso-aniline-BODIPY based dyes: RI-CC2 and TD-CAM-B3LYP computational investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushenko, Igor K.; Petrushenko, Konstantin B.

    2018-02-01

    The S0 → Si, i = 1-5 electronic transitions of four 8-(4-aniline)-BODIPY and four 8-(N,N-dimethyl)-BODIPY dyes, differ by number and position of methyl substituents in the BODIPY frame, were investigated theoretically using ab initio the coupled cluster doubles (CC2) and TD-CAM-B3LYP methods. Methyl substituents in the BODIPY frame and the aniline fragment at the meso position disturb energy of local excitations S0 → S1, S0 → S3, and S0 → S4 weakly in comparison with the fully unsubstituted BODIPY molecule. These transitions in experimental spectra form the most long-wave absorption bands at ca. 500 nm as well as absorption bands in the region of 300-400 nm. At the same time, the presence of aniline fragments leads to the appearance of new S0 → S2 transitions of the charge transfer character in electronic spectra of BODIPYs. We also found a linear relationship between vertical energy of these charge transfer transitions and the electron donating power of an aniline fragment and electron accepting power of the BODIPY core depending on the number and position of methyl groups. The CC2 method provides the best overall description of the excitation energies in line with the experimental observations. On average, the quality of TD-CAM-B3LYP is almost equal to that of CC2, however the TD method with the CAM-B3LYP functional slightly underestimates the CT excitation energy.

  2. Initial conditions for accurate N-body simulations of massive neutrino cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zennaro, M.; Bel, J.; Villaescusa-Navarro, F.; Carbone, C.; Sefusatti, E.; Guzzo, L.

    2017-04-01

    The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterizes these models. In this work, we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1 per cent accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to non-linear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmologies adopted in previous works. We then take advantage of the flexibility of this approach to rescale the late-time linear power spectra to the simulation initial redshift, in order to be as consistent as possible with the dynamics of the N-body code and the approximations it assumes. We implement our method in a public code (REPS rescaled power spectra for initial conditions with massive neutrinos https://github.com/matteozennaro/reps) providing the initial displacements and velocities for cold dark matter and neutrino particles that will allow accurate, I.e. 1 per cent level, numerical simulations for this cosmological scenario.

  3. Computing sextic centrifugal distortion constants by DFT: A benchmark analysis on halogenated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropolli Charmet, Andrea; Stoppa, Paolo; Tasinato, Nicola; Giorgianni, Santi

    2017-05-01

    This work presents a benchmark study on the calculation of the sextic centrifugal distortion constants employing cubic force fields computed by means of density functional theory (DFT). For a set of semi-rigid halogenated organic compounds several functionals (B2PLYP, B3LYP, B3PW91, M06, M06-2X, O3LYP, X3LYP, ωB97XD, CAM-B3LYP, LC-ωPBE, PBE0, B97-1 and B97-D) were used for computing the sextic centrifugal distortion constants. The effects related to the size of basis sets and the performances of hybrid approaches, where the harmonic data obtained at higher level of electronic correlation are coupled with cubic force constants yielded by DFT functionals, are presented and discussed. The predicted values were compared to both the available data published in the literature and those obtained by calculations carried out at increasing level of electronic correlation: Hartree-Fock Self Consistent Field (HF-SCF), second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and coupled-cluster single and double (CCSD) level of theory. Different hybrid approaches, having the cubic force field computed at DFT level of theory coupled to harmonic data computed at increasing level of electronic correlation (up to CCSD level of theory augmented by a perturbational estimate of the effects of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T)) were considered. The obtained results demonstrate that they can represent reliable and computationally affordable methods to predict sextic centrifugal terms with an accuracy almost comparable to that yielded by the more expensive anharmonic force fields fully computed at MP2 and CCSD levels of theory. In view of their reduced computational cost, these hybrid approaches pave the route to the study of more complex systems.

  4. Regulation of proline biosynthesis and resistance to drought stress in two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes of different origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Hanna; Niedziela, Justyna; Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Nuc, Katarzyna; Chadzinikolau, Tamara; Radzikowska, Dominika

    2017-09-01

    Drought is considered the main abiotic stress factor that inhibits growth of crop plants (including barley), limiting yield in many regions worldwide. Predicted climate changes show that in future the frequency and intensity of drought events will rise, so crops that are resistant to this stress are in demand. One of the adaptive metabolic responses to drought is the accumulation of proline. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 10-day drought on tissue dehydration and proline biosynthesis in leaves as well as in roots of barley genotypes of different origin: the Syrian breeding line Cam/B1/CI and the German cultivar Maresi. The involvement of Δ1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), the expression of the P5CS gene and ABA in proline synthesis under drought were also studied. Finally, we examined the resistance of tested genotypes to applied drought using chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and above-ground dry matter accumulation. Drought caused a gradual decrease of water content and an increase of proline and ABA content in roots and leaves of both genotypes. A statistically significant positive correlation between proline accumulation and activity of P5CS was also revealed. The skyrocketing increase of P5CS activity and proline accumulation was proceeded by transcriptional up-regulation of P5CS. The relationships between changes in P5CS expression, P5CS activity and ABA content show that the latter compound is involved in drought-induced proline synthesis at the transcription and enzyme activity level. The examined barley genotypes were equally resistant to applied moderate drought stress regardless of the differences in the level of proline accumulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Photophysics of α-furil at room temperature and 77 K: Spectroscopic and quantum chemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Pronab; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2016-06-01

    Steady state and time resolved spectroscopic measurements have been exploited to assign the emissions from different conformations of α-furil (2, 2'-furil) in solution phase at room temperature as well as cryogen (liquid nitrogen, LN2) frozen matrices of ethanol and methylcyclohexane. Room temperature studies reveal a single fluorescence from the trans-planar conformer of the fluorophore or two fluorescence bands coming from the trans-planar and the relaxed skew forms depending on excitation at the nπ∗ or the ππ∗ absorption band, respectively. Together with the fluorescence bands, the LN2 studies in both the solvents unambiguously ascertain two phosphorescence emissions with lifetimes 5 ± 0.3 ms (trans-planar triplet) and 81 ± 3 ms (relaxed skew triplet). Quantum chemical calculations have been performed using density functional theory at CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G∗∗ level to prop up the spectroscopic surveillance. The simulated potential energy curves (PECs) illustrate that α-furil is capable of giving two emissions from each of the S1 and the T1 states - one corresponding to the trans-planar and the other to the relaxed skew conformation. Contrary to the other 1,2-dicarbonyl molecular systems like benzil and α-naphthil, α-furil does not exhibit any fluorescence from its second excited singlet (S2) state. This is ascribed to the proximity of the minimum of the PEC of the S2 state and the hill-top of the PEC of the S1 state.

  6. LESÕES FOLIARES EM MUDAS DE PEQUIZEIRO (Caryocar brasiliensis Cambess LEAF LESIONS OF YOUNG PLANTS OF PEQUIZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvo de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram descritas as características de lesões e morfologia de colônias de Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. e Epicoccum sp. obtidas de folhas de mudas de pequizeiro em viveiros nos municípios de Goiânia e Hidrolândia (GO. Respostas positivas para patogenicidade foram obtidas de todos os isolados, exceto para Chaetophoma sp. que foram consideradas inconclusivas. Observou-se que lesões foliares foram importante fator de retardamento no crescimento das mudas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caryocar brasiliensis; pequizeiro; doenças foliares de pequizeiro; pequizeiro.

    Leaf lesions and morphological description of Pestalotia sp., Phomopsis sp., Stigmella sp., Chaetophoma sp., Helminthosporium sp. and Epicoccum sp. cultures obtained from young plants of pequizeiro (Caryocar brasiliensis Camb. in nurseries in Goiânia and Hidrolândia counties. All the isolates except Chaetophoma sp., showed pathogenicity. Leaf spots greatly reduced plant growth.

    KEY-WORDS: Leaf diseases of pequizeiro.

  7. Examination of DFT and TDDFT Methods II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Gui

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the isomerization energies for C8 alkanes (n-octane and 2,2,3,3-tetra-methyl butane) and 1-X-propenes (X = CH3, F, Cl, Br) and the excited states for tropolone. The recently implemented TDDFT gradients enabled us to optimize the adiabatic excited-state structures and to obtain wave function files for excited-state electron density analyses with 25 functionals. The dispersion interactions had been found to be important for predicting the isomerization energies for n-octane and 2,2,3,3-tetra-methyl butane and for cis- and trans-1-X-propenes (X = CH3, F, Cl, Br). B3LYP failed to predict the isomerization energies for the first case but succeeded for the latter. We noticed that the integrated electron density and the merging contour values in the electron density difference plots were related to the isomerization energies; the DFT functionals (LSDA, BHandH, VSXC, and M052X) that could correctly account for the dispersion forces produced a greater electron density response for 2,2,3,3-tetramethyl butane than n-octane. Although the faster proton transfer reaction rate in the Ã1B2 excited state relative to the X˜1A1 ground state of tropolone could be reproduced only by M052X, the three newly designed functionals (BMK, CAM-B3LYP, and M052X) apparently performed better than other DFT functionals. The C-C' bond lengths of the Cs symmetry excited state were possibly underestimated by DFT methods; the underestimation of C-C' bond lengths contributed to the high proton transfer barriers in the Ã1B2 excited state of tropolone.

  8. Experimental and TD-DFT study of optical absorption of six explosive molecules: RDX, HMX, PETN, TNT, TATP, and HMTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jason K; Grant, Christian D; Zhang, Jin Z

    2013-07-25

    Time dependent density function theory (TD-DFT) has been utilized to calculate the excitation energies and oscillator strengths of six common explosives: RDX (1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine), β-HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), TATP (triacetone triperoxide), HMTD (hexamethylene triperoxide diamine), TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), and PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate). The results were compared to experimental UV-vis absorption spectra collected in acetonitrile. Four computational methods were tested including: B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, ωB97XD, and PBE0. PBE0 outperforms the other methods tested. Basis set effects on the electronic energies and oscillator strengths were evaluated with 6-31G(d), 6-31+G(d), 6-31+G(d,p), and 6-311+G(d,p). The minimal basis set required was 6-31+G(d); however, additional calculations were performed with 6-311+G(d,p). For each molecule studied, the natural transition orbitals (NTOs) were reported for the most prominent singlet excitations. The TD-DFT results have been combined with the IPv calculated by CBS-QB3 to construct energy level diagrams for the six compounds. The results suggest optimization approaches for fluorescence based detection methods for these explosives by guiding materials selections for optimal band alignment between fluorescent probe and explosive analyte. Also, the role of the TNT Meisenheimer complex formation and the resulting electronic structure thereof on of the quenching mechanism of II-VI semiconductors is discussed.

  9. The lineshape of the electronic spectrum of the green fluorescent protein chromophore, part I: gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Mehdi D; Ferrer, Francisco J Avila; Morozov, Dmitry; Santoro, Fabrizio; Groenhof, Gerrit

    2014-10-20

    In this work we present the vibrationally resolved optical absorption spectrum of p-hydroxybenzylidene-2,3-dimethylimidazolinone (HBDI), the green fluorescent protein (GFP) chromophore, computed at several levels of theory, including time-dependent DFT with various functionals and basis sets, CASSCF, CASPT2 and XMCQDPT2. We also investigated what happens to the spectrum if the ground- and excited-state geometries are optimized at different levels of theory (mixed approach), as has been used previously. The vibrationally resolved absorption spectra obtained by DFT, CASPT2 and XMCQDPT2 are very similar and consist of a main absorption peak and a shoulder that is ∼1500 cm(-1) higher in energy. The vibrational progression increases moderately with temperature. These spectra are in qualitative agreement with experimental action spectra, but much narrower and lack the long tail in the blue, even at high temperatures. Because our calculated emission spectra, which are equally narrow, are in good agreement with the emission of green fluorescent protein at 253 K, we argue that the action spectrum are too broad to be considered as the absorption spectrum. The CASSCF method and the mixed approaches overestimate the vibrational progressions with respect to CAM-B3LYP, CASPT2 and XMCQDPT2, due to inaccuracies in the geometric S0 →S1 displacements. Finally, we computed the vibronic spectra of four chromophore analogues with different substitutions on the rings and found that these substitutions hardly affect the lineshape in vacuum. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Mudanças na estrutura da vegetação lenhosa em três porções da mata de galeria do Córrego Bacaba (1999-2006, Nova Xavantina-MT

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    Aline Miguel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo, realizado na Mata de Galeria do córrego Bacaba (14º41'S e 52º20'W, em Nova Xavantina, MT, avaliou as mudanças na estrutura da vegetação no período de 1999 a 2006. Em 1999, foram demarcadas 141 parcelas permanentes em três porções da mata (alto, meio e baixo, em um gradiente topográfico, e medidos os indivíduos com CAP ≥ 15 cm. No inventário de 2006, os indivíduos foram remedidos e os recrutas, computados. Em 2006, amostraram-se 135 espécies, 113 gêneros e 49 famílias. A posição hierárquica das espécies apresentou mudanças expressivas em relação a 1999. Na porção do alto, as espécies com maior valor de importância (VI foram: Astrocaryum vulgare, Diospyros guianensis e Calophyllum brasiliense. Essa porção pode ter sido a mais afetada pelo fogo que atingiu a área em 2001, visto que uma espécie típica de ambientes antropizados passou a ocupar a primeira posição de VI. No meio, as espécies mais importantes em 2006 foram: Aspidosperma subincanum, Tetragastris altissima e Hymenaea courbaril. No baixo, apenas Mauritia flexuosa manteve a mesma posição do inventário anterior, e a maior alteração hierárquica foi apresentada pelas espécies pioneiras, sugerindo um fechamento da vegetação. Entre as 10 espécies de maior VI em 2006, nenhuma foi comum às três porções da mata. Características estruturais distintas da vegetação entre áreas geograficamente tão próximas podem estar relacionadas à heterogeneidade do ambiente. As mudanças no VI registradas nas espécies das três porções de mata reforçam a ideia de que esta apresenta elevada dinâmica.

  11. Estudo da fotodegradação de poliisoprenos naturais (borrachas naturais em radiações específicas do ultravioleta (UV - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v3i2.564

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    Kárin Astrid Marques dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de poliisoprenos (PI naturais e sintéticos foram expostos à luz ultravioleta (UV e analisados por espectroscopia de absorção UV, antes e após exposição à radiação UV. Filmes de padrões cis PII foram irradiados separadamente por fontes de luz com comprimentos de ondas iguais a 253 e 300. A fotooxidação foi monitorada observando-se a dependência das intensidades das absorções correspondentes aos modos de estiramento C=C, C=O e O-H e do modo “wagging” =C-H de cis-e trans-PI em função do tempo de exposição. A irradiação em 253 nm levou a reações de reticulação do polímero, impedindo a completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Para irradiação em 300nm, as reações de cisão da cadeia ocorreram preferencialmente, levando à completa oxidação do filme polimérico. Os elastômeros de Hevea brasilienses (HB e Hancornia speciosa (HS foram caracterizadas por espectroscopia de absorção no infravermelho (FTIR como cis-1,4-poliisopreno. A foto-oxidação dos elastômeros apresentou cinética diferente com tempo de indução menor que o observado para os padrões cis-PI. A maior velocidade para o processo de fotodegradação dos filmes de BNs foi atribuída à presença de impurezas, caracterizadas por bandas de absorção nas regiões de estiramento O-H e C=O, mesmo antes da exposição à radiação UV.

  12. Especies arborescentes del género Blechnum (Blechnaceae: Pteridophyta

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    Cristina H. Rolleri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La bibliografía sobre el género Blechnum L. es muy abundante tanto en lo que respecta a las especies neotropicales como paleotropicales. Sin embargo, aún faltan estudios anatómicos completos, una caracterización actualizada de su morfología externa e interna, taxonomía, citología y afinidades. En este estudio se revisaron ocho especies de Blechnum de hábito arborescente: B. brasiliense, B. columbiense, B. cycadifolium, B. magellanicum, B. moritzianum, B. schomburgkii, B. tabulare y B. werckleanum. Se analizaron caracteres de rizomas, estípites y costas, división de la lámina, y venación, estructura de márgenes, modelos epidérmicos, presencia y tipos de hipodermis y mesofilo de las pinnas. Se estudió por primera vez la hipodermis, un área dermatoide adaxial presente en el mesofilo de todas las especies. Se correlacionaron caracteres externos e internos con el fin de utilizar los externos más confiables en claves y descripciones. Los estudios realizados confirmaron nuevamente la presencia de B. tabulare en América, que incluyen en su sinonimia a B. spannagelii de América tropical y B. madagascariense de África. También se concluyó que el nombre B. schomburgkii es un sinónimo de B. auratum subsp. auratum, en tanto que B. auratum subsp. columbiense se trata aquí con rango de especie. Se caracterizó a B. moritzianum, el nombre que corresponde aplicar a la recientemente descrita B. yungense. Se presentó una descripción actualizada de las especies, se resolvieron varios problemas nomenclaturales pendientes; se presentaron datos amplios sobre la ecología, distribución geográfica y afinidades entre las especies, así como una clave para determinarlas.

  13. Extração de DNA genômico de tecidos foliares maduros de espécies nativas do cerrado

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    Márcia Nara da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grandes quantidades de contaminantes na amostra de DNA dificultam a obtenção de DNA genômico de qualidade durante a extração. A presença de polissacarídeos, fenóis e outros compostos secundários representa o principal problema com o procedimento de isolamento do DNA e sua aplicação subsequente, por inibir a atividade das enzimas Taq DNA polimera-se e enzimas de restrição. Neste estudo, descreveu-se um procedimento modificado baseado no hexadecyltrimethylammonium (CTAB, rendendo DNA genômico satisfatório para técnicas de manipulação subsequente, como reações de PCR e digestão com enzima de restrição. Nesse protocolo foram utilizadas diferentes concentrações de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração (0,0; 0,2; 10; 15; 25; e 50 uL de β-mercaptoetanol/mL do tampão de extração: 100 mM de Tris-HCl, pH 8; 20 mM de EDTA; 1,4 mM de NaCl; 2% de CTAB; 1% de PVP, cujo procedimento foi aplicado no caso de folhas maduras e testado em Annona crassiflora (arati-cum, Eugenia dysenterica (cagaita, Anacardium humilis (caju-do-campo, Hancornia speciosa (mangaba e Caryocar brasiliense (pequi. O protocolo foi eficiente no isolamento de DNA livre de polissacarídeos e polifenóis, com rendimento do DNA com alto peso molecu-lar, utilizando-se concentrações a partir de 1% de β-mercaptoetanol no tampão de extração. O DNA isolado por esse método mostrou alta pureza, de acordo com as análises de digestão por restrição e amplificação por PCR.

  14. Composition and conservation of Orchidaceae on an inselberg in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and floristic relationships with areas of Eastern Brazil.

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    Pessanha, Alexandre Soares; Menini Neto, Luiz; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade

    2014-06-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest presents high levels of richness and endemism of several taxonomic groups. Within this forest, the Orchidaceae may be highlighted as the richest family of Angiosperms found there, and is highly threatened due to collection and habitat destruction. The inselbergs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest are mostly unknown regarding their floristic composition, but the available information points to occurrence of endemic species, with adaptations to survive to this dry environment. The objectives of this study were to conduct a floristic survey of the Orchidaceae species on the Maciço do Itaoca, an inselberg located in the Northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, make a comparative analysis with other sites in Eastern Brazil, and discuss the geographic distribution, floristic relationships and conservation status of the orchid species present on the inselbergs. The floristic composition of the study area was compared with 24 other locations in Eastern Brazil (of which 13 are inselbergs) and the influence of the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the Orchidaceae flora on the inselbergs. On Maciço do Itaoca we recorded 18 species from 17 genera: Brasiliorchis picta, Brassavola tuberculata, Campylocentrum robustum; C sellowii, Catasetum luridum, Cattleya guttata, Cyclopogon congestus, Cyrtopodium glutiniferum, Leptotes bicolor, Lophiaris pumila, Miltonia moreliana, Oeceoclades maculata, Phymatochilum brasiliense, Prescottia plantaginifolia, Pseudolaelia vellozicola, Sarcoglottis fasciculata, Sophronitis cernua. and Vanilla chamissonis. The highest floristic similarity was with the Pedra da Botelha (0.43), an inselberg located in the North of Espírito Santo. This result is probably due to the similarity in altitude and distance from the coast in both areas despite the geographical distance between them. Apparently, little influence is exerted by the types of surrounding vegetation on the composition of the flora of

  15. Democracia Liberal: uma novidade já desbotada entre jovens

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    Renata Florentino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca mostrar a relação da juventude brasiliense com a política institucional, revelando o que está por trás da rejeição aos políticos profissionais e às instituições que ocupam. Em vez de estereotipar a postura crítica destes e destas jovens, sem antes analisar serenamente o contexto em que essa crítica surge, procurou-se mostrar o lugar de fala, a arena política em que surge essa crítica. Nessa arena, encontra-se uma democracia institucionalizada, com eleições estáveis, mas que não corresponde às expectativas que foram geradas com a sua implementação, junto com uma população bem informada e impactada por ações governamentais ou a ausência destas. Sem louvores ou reprovações, há que se perguntar se esta descrença da política institucional revela apenas uma desconexão de mundos ou a abertura de espaço para o surgimento de novas formas de organização política. O artigo trabalha com dados da PNAD 2005 e o Índice de Desenvolvimento Juvenil da UNESCO sobre a caracterização da juventude de Brasília e dados do TSE, sobre o alistamento eleitoral facultativo entre jovens.This article intends to analize the relationship between the city of Brasília´s youth and the institutional politics. We show what is behind the rejection to professional politicians and to the institutions they control. Instead of stereotipyze the critical behavior of the youth, we first analyze the context where this refusal takes place. We find an established democracy, with stable elections, but not corresponding to the expectations created during its implementa