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Sample records for brasilia belt brazil

  1. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the paleoproterozoic Silvania magmatic arc in the neoproproterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brasilia Belt is a large Neoproterozoic orogen formed along the western margin of the Sao Francisco/Congo Craton in central Brazil. It comprises: (i) a thick Meso-Neoproterozoic metasedimentary/sedimentary pile with eastward tectonic vergence; (ii) a large Neoproterozoic juvenile arc in the west (Goias Magmatic Arc); and (iii) a micro-continent (or exotic sialic terrain) formed by Archean rock units (the Crixas -Goias granitegreenstones) and associated Proterozoic formations (Almeida et al. 1981, Fuck et al. 1993,1994, Pimentel et al. 2000a, b). The sialic basement on which the Brasilia Belt sediments were deposited is poorly understood, despite being well exposed in some areas of Goias and Tocantins. Gneiss and volcano-sedimentary units form most of this basement. Early studies have suggested that these rock units are dominantly Archean ( Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984). However, recent Sm- Nd isotopic studies have indicated that most of them are Paleoproterozoic (Sato 1998, Pimentel et al. 1999a, 2000b). Granite gneiss to the south and east of the Barro Alto mafic-ultramafic layered complex has been dated at 2128+/- 15 Ma (Correia et al. 1997). Calc-alkaline granite gneiss from Almas-Dianopolis is dated at ca. 2.2-2.45 Ga old (U-Pb SHRIMP on zircon and titanite, Cruz et al. 2000). The latter is probably the western extension of Paleoproterozoic rocks which underlie the San Francisco Craton to the east of the northern part of the Brasilia Belt. In central Goias, a large part of the Brasilia Belt is underlain by high-grade metamorphic rocks known as the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex, together with surrounding greenschist to amphibolite facies Mesoto Neoproterozoic cover metasediments of the Araxa group. These rocks represent the main constituent of the internal zone of the Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994, Pimentel et al. 2000b). Between the Araxa Group, and the easternmost part of the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex a volcano-sedimentary association known as Silvania

  2. Regional Sm-Nd isotopic study of the central part of the Brasilia belt, Goias: implications of the age and origin of the Anapolis-Itaucu granulitic complex and metasedimentary rocks of the Araxa Group, central region, Brazil; Estudo isotopico Sm-Nd regional da porcao central da faixa Brasilia, Goias: implicacoes para idade e origem dos granulitos do Complexo Anapolis-Itaucu e rochas metassedimentares do Grupo Araxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Fischel, Danielle Piuzanna [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marciomp@tba.com.br

    1999-06-01

    In the central part of the Brasilia Belt, central Brazil, a high grade terrain, the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex, is exposed within the metasedimentary rocks of the Araxa Group. The Anapolis-Itaucu Complex in Goias represents a complex association of high-grade rocks including mafic-ultramafic bodies, charnockites, enderbites, as well as aluminous granulites of sedimentary origin, associated with marbles and quartzites, Narrow volcano-sedimentary belts formed mainly by amphibolites and micashists are also recognized within the complex. This high-grade terrain has been traditionally interpreted as part of the old (Archaean/Paleoproterozoic) sialic basement to the Neo- or mesoproterozoic sediments of the Araxa Group, Brasilia Belt. The granulites and metasediments of the Araxa Group are intruded by a large number of granite intrusions, many of which slow peraluminous character. Sm-Nd isotopic analyses for the garnet-and sillimanite-bearing aluminous granulites indicate T{sub DM} model ages between ca. 1.3 and 1.6 Ga. These values represent the upper limit for the age of the protoliths of the granulites, demonstrating that they are (at least in part) younger than suggested in previous models. The intrusive granites have a Sm-Nd isotopic pattern which is not much different from that observed for the felsic granulites, with T{sub DM} model ages ranging in the interval between ca. 1.37 and 1.85 Ga. The isotopic compositions of the granitic and granulitic rocks investigated are also similar to those determined for metasediments of the internal zone of the Brasilia Belt (Araxa Group) in central-southern Goias. These metasediments show Nd model ages between ca. 1.2 and 2.2 Ga. The preliminary isotopic data presented are consistent with a model in which the voluminous granitic magmatism identified in the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex and adjacent areas is Neoproterozoic in age, being the result of re-melting of the older sialic crust. The peraluminous nature of many of these granites

  3. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvania Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, central Brazil

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    Fischel, Danielle P.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2001-09-15

    U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic meta volcanic rocks from the Silvania Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasilia Belt. Zircon grains from a meta volcanic sample yielded 2115 {+-} 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 {+-}14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six meta volcanic samples of the Silvania Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 {+-}110 Ma and positive {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T{sub DM} model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T{sub DM} value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvania volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasilia Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  4. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Anapolis-Itaucu complex, Araxa group and associated granites: Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphism and magmatism in the Central part of the Brasilia Belt, Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tocantins Province (Almeida et al. 1981) in central Brazil is a Neoproterozoic orogenic zone developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons and possibly a third continental block, known as Parapanema Block, hidden below the sedimentary rocks of the Parana Basin. The Tocantins Province comprises the eastward vergent Brasilia Belt, adjacent to the Sao Francisco Craton (Marini et al. 1984), and the westward vergent Paraguay and Araguaia belts, developed on the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. According to Trompette (1997), the Brasilia and Araguaia belts had sedimentation starting at around 1.1-1.0 Ga and final closure at 0.6 Ga. In the northern part of the Brasilia Belt occur the Barro Alto, Canabrava and Niquelandia maficultramafic layered complexes. Inconclusive U-Pb isotopic data indicate ages between ca. 1600 and 2000 Ma for these intrusions that were affected by highgrade metamorphism ca. 740-790 Ma ago, during the Neoproterozoic (Ferreira Filho et al. 1994; Suita et al. 1994; Correia et al. 1997). In the southern part of the Brasilia Belt, in central Goias , is the Anapolis-Itaucu granulite complex. It consists of a large complex of high-grade rocks, volcano-sedimentary sequences and granites, exposed in between metasediments of the Araxa Group, the main constituent of the internal zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994). These granulites have traditionally been interpreted as the exposure of Archean sialic basement to the sediments of the Brasilia Belt (Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984; Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995). This work reports the results of a regional Sm- Nd isotopic investigation and U-Pb SHRIMP data in order to assess (i) the nature of the protoliths of the Araxa Group in this area; (ii) the nature and the high grade metamorphism of rocks from Anapolis-Itaucu Complex; (iii) the crystallization and metamorphism of aluminous granites (au)

  5. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Mission to Brazil, 77 FR 13560, Mar. 7, 2012, to announce that the Mission will be executive-led and to... Timeframe for Recruitment and Applications section of the Notice of the Education Mission to Brazil, 77 FR... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S o...

  6. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt; Grupo Araxa em sua area tipo: um fragmento de crosta oceanica Neoproterozoica na faixa de dobramentos Brasilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seer, Hildor Jose [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Araxa, (CEFET), MG (Brazil); Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias

    2001-09-01

    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  7. 77 FR 13560 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S o Paulo, Brazil, August 30-September 6, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS), is organizing an education mission to...

  8. Natural and anthropogenic rare earth elements in Lago de Paranoá, Brasilia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Baldewein, Linda; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Walde, Detlef; Bühn, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) belong to the group of particle reactive elements and occur at ultratrace levels in natural waters. They are exclusively trivalent, but Ce and Eu can also be tetravalent and divalent, respectively, depending on the redox-level, the pH and the temperature of the fluid. Due to these redox changes, normalized REE patterns may show Ce and/or Eu anomalies. Recently, these high-tech metals raised significant public attention, as they are of great economic importance and consumption and hence release into the environment increased sharply. The most prominent example of a REE contamination is anthropogenic Gd, which is derived from Gd-based contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. Due to their high stabilities, these compounds are not readily removed by commonly applied waste water treatment technologies and, therefore, are released from treatment plants into surface and ground waters. Hence, this anthropogenic Gd can be used as a tracer for the presence of waste water-derived substances such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products in river, lake, ground and tap waters. Lago de Paranoá is an artificial reservoir lake in the city of Brasilia, Brazil, and is currently considered a potential freshwater resource. The city's two waste water treatment plants are located on its shore and their effluents are discharged into the lake. To investigate the level of contamination, we took water samples at 11 stations in the lake and compared the REE concentrations in unfiltered and filtered (water. The unfiltered water samples show light REE enrichment (LaSN/YbSN: 1.37-1.98) and high REE concentrations (Sum REE: 192 - 476 ng/L), while the unfiltered water samples are heavy REE enriched (LaSN/YbSN: 0.15-0.61) at lower concentrations (Sum REE: 50 - 85 ng/L). This is due to the fact that light REE are preferentially bound to particle surfaces, while the heavy REE are preferentially complexed with ligands in solution. In marked contrast to the

  9. Prevalência de cárie dentária em Brasília, Brasil Prevalence of dental caries in Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Pacheco de Souza

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de um levantamento de cárie dentária, prévio à fluoretação das águas de abastecimento, referentes à Brasília, capital do Brasil.The results of a dental caries survey, before the fluoridation of the water in Brasilia, Brazil's capital, are presented.

  10. A six-year follow-up survey of sexually transmitted diseases in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil

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    Simões-Barbosa Augusto

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.

  11. Toxic Metals (Pb and Cd and Their Respective Antagonists (Ca and Zn in Infant Formulas and Milk Marketed in Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Dórea

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In non-ideal scenarios involving partial or non-breastfeeding, cow’s milk-based dairy products are mainstream in infant feeding. Therefore, it is important to study the concentrations of potentially neurotoxic contaminants (Pb and Cd and their respective counteracting elements (Ca and Zn in infant dairy products. Fifty-five brands of infant formulas and milk sold in Brasilia, Brazil were analyzed. The dairy products came from areas in the central-west (26%, southeast (29% and south of Brazil (36% extending as far as Argentina (7% and the Netherlands (2%. For toxic Pb and Cd, median concentrations in powdered samples were 0.109 mg/kg and 0.033 mg/kg, respectively; in fluid samples median Pb concentration was 0.084 mg/kg, but median Cd concentration was below the limit of detection and overall values were below reference safety levels. However, 62% of these samples presented higher Pb concentration values than those established by FAO/WHO. Although the inverse correlation between Cd and Zn (Spearman r = −0.116; P = 0.590 was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between Ca and Pb was (Spearman r = 0.619; P < 0.0001. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between Pb and Cd. Furthermore, the study also revealed that provision of the essential trace element Zn in infant formulas can provide adequate amounts of the recommended daily requirements. Infant formulas and milk sold for consumption by infants and children can be an efficient tool to monitor neurotoxic metal risk exposure among young children.

  12. Sediments in urban river basins: identification of sediment sources within the Lago Paranoá catchment, Brasilia DF, Brazil - using the fingerprint approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, C; Makeschin, F; Weiß, H; Lorz, C

    2014-01-01

    The development of effective sediment management strategies is a key requirement in tropical areas with fast urban development, like Brasilia DF, Brazil, because of the limited resources available. Accurate identification and management of sediment sources areas, however, is hampered by the dearth of reliable information on the primary sources of sediment. Few studies have attempted to quantify the source of sediment within fast urbanizing, mixed used, tropical catchments. In this study, statistically verified composite fingerprints and a multivariate mixing model have been used to identify the main land use specific sources of sediment deposited in the artificial Lago Paranoá, Central Brazil. Because of the variability of urban land use types within the Lago Paranoá sub-catchments, the fingerprinting approach was additionally undertaking for the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment. The main contributions from individual source types (i.e. surface materials from residential areas, constructions sites, road deposited sediment, cultivated areas, pasture, farm tracks, woodland and natural gullies) varied between the whole catchment and the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment, reflecting the different proportions of land uses. The sediments deposited in the silting zones of the Lago Paranoá originate largely from urban sources (85 ± 4%). Areas with (semi-) natural vegetation and natural gullies contribute 10 ± 2% of the sediment yield. Agricultural sites have only a minor sediment contribution of about 5 ± 4% within the whole catchment. Within the Riacho Fundo sub-catchment there is a significant contribution from urban (53 ± 4%) source, such as residential areas with semi-detached housings (42 ± 3%) with unpaved roads (12 ± 3%) and construction sites (20 ± 3%) and agricultural areas (31 ± 2%). The relative contribution from land use specific sources to the sediment deposition in the silting zone of the Lago Paranoá demonstrated that most of the sediment is derived from

  13. OSBRA right of way characterization in Vila Estrutural, Brasilia, Brazil; Caracterizacao de faixa do OSBRA na Vila Estrutural em Brasilia - evidencia de uma nova relacao da TRANSPETRO com a comunidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Walderes Lima de; Castro, Newton Camelo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braga, Gilberto Vieira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    In this project we will introduce the relationship experience between TRANSPETRO and Vila Estrutural community, located in Guara, D.C., what we consider a social responsibility practice and an important tool of the integrity maintenance of right of way pipelines, considering the risks caused by other people actions. In this specific case, Vila Estrutural is the most critical one, of Sao Paulo - Brasilia pipelines (OSBRA): irregular occupations, with an estimated population by 25,000 people, with an inhabit strangle and development constructions tendency in the straight ahead direction of pipelines. To deal with this reality, OSBRA management created a strategy called 'Acquaintance Communication', increasing the knowledge about the community (diagnostic), promoting to yours employees an acquaintance culture (qualifying); developing communications strategies with those that live nearby right of the pipelines way (relationship); and finally, building the stonemason of the characterization of the right of way pipelines as a real device and right of the way protection (framing). This work is lined up with the idea of an integrated communication, using many strategies (visits, meetings, argument groups, etc.), constituting in a corporative social responsibility practice, admitting the community right of information and knowing it the right manner of living nearby the right of way pipeline, resulting in the equipment integrity, asserting the community safety and environment maintenance. (author)

  14. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c2 = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c2 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  15. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Helena C.; Mangabeira, Jacimary A. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Ecologia]. E-mail: morais@unb.br; Cabral, Berites C.; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail: irdiniz@unb.br

    2007-11-15

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c{sup 2} = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c{sup 2} 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  16. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura;

    2009-01-01

    associated with ilmenite in samples from two structural levels in the passive margin-derived high-pressure granulite nappe yields Pb-201/U-238 ages of 648 +/- 12 and 647 +/- 11 Ma, and Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures from c. 860 degrees C down to c. 785 degrees C. but skewed toward the lower part...... +/- 28 Ma and Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures from c. 970 degrees C down to c. 820 degrees C, which we interpret to record formation of zircon during cooling from peak high-pressure granulite-facies conditions. These ages indicate that the first stage of craton amalgamation in West Gondwana may...

  17. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Militão AG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Angeliete Garcez Militão,1,2 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Fernanda Rodrigues da Silva,4 Elba Sancho Garcez Militão,3 Raiane Maiara dos Santos Pereira,5 Carmen Silvia Grubert Campbell,2,5 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil; 2Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Physical Evaluation and Training, 5Laboratory of Physical Education and Health Studies, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil Introduction: Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. Methods: The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40% participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF: the intervention group (IG, n = 17 and the control group (CG, n = 17. The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used

  18. The Dom Feliciano belt in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geological synthesis and a proposal for the geotectonic evolution of the precambrian to eopaleozoic terrains of the southern part of Santa Catarina state is presented. The methods utilized were conventional (field works, petrological studies and bibliographic analysis), including structural analysis, lithogeochemical and geochronological investigations. Over a hundred new radiometric determinations, using several methods some of which not yet available in Brazil, as U-Pb in zircon and Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd in whole rocks, are presented. The results allowed us to determine the emplacement epoch of granitoids and consequently the associated deformational phases. (author)

  19. The environmental sustainability of a pilot plant for the manufacture of biodiesel from frying oil: a case study: Universidade de Brasilia UNB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brazil; A sustentabilidade ambiental de uma planta piloto para fabricacao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de fritura: estudo de caso: Universidade de Brasilia UnB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Glecia Virgolino da; Falla, Pilar Hidalgo; Ginoris, Yovanka Perez; Oliveira, Alessandro Borges de S.; Alves, Marcos Antonio de S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FGA/UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Whereas the efforts of the Brazilian government and its researchers to explore new renewable energy alternatives such as biofuels, and considering the existing methodologies for the production of biodiesel, including the processes of washing out, which consumes a large amount of water treated, University of Brasilia/FGA/Gama installs in about July 2010 a pilot plant for biodiesel production. The pilot plant will use feedstock used frying oil collected in homes, restaurants and coffee shop in the region, preventing this oil remains released to sewage in natura. Thus, this project aims to develop academic research and the improvement of the community in the city of Gama / DF. This study aimed to carry out preliminary studies of the methodology and water to be used in biodiesel production in order to confirm the reduction of fuel costs the University to contribute to reducing the release of oils into the sewer and use of distillers for water will wash the biodiesel, reducing the energy consumption of the plant. (author)

  20. Astronomy and Space Science On The School - An Outreach Project for Elementary and High School Students of Brasilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo

    2016-07-01

    This project aims to develop interdisciplinary actions, articulated and convergence in the field of education, dissemination and popularization of science and technology in Brasilia-DF, the Federal District of Brazil. These actions are also been carried out at DF surroundings areas. Since 2015 linked convergent actions are focused on the development of space science and astronomy teaching with hands on experimental activities. Workshops, short basic astronomy courses, expositions and planetarium show are been carried out by a team of professors, graduate and under graduate students from University of Brasilia- UnB. At the same time upgrade actions are been done in order to modernize The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory located at the far campus of UnB, named Fazenda Água Limpa. It is now a Center for research and space science dissemination and popularization not only for students but also for the whole community of Brasilia. Working toghether with the Physics Institute of UnB we have the recently created Museum of Science and Technology of Brasilia, also located at the UnB campus. The Museum is responsible for contac with schools and Brasilia community and for the organization of the activities of the Science on the School Project. Science on the School is an educational, scientific and cultural proposal approved and financed by the brazillian national research council (CNPq) and by the Science and Technology Reseach Foundation of Brasilia. Besides science dissemination for the brazillian society the project is also developing theoretical and experimental research in the area of Space Science and Astronomy. The project also aim to transform the Museum in a strong Science Education Center for the Brazil central region population, It is going to be a cultural environment and leisure for the Federal District and surrounding areas of Brasilia. In this work we will describe the coordinate actions of The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory the Physics Institute of

  1. Neoproterozoic oceans in the Ribeira Belt (southeastern Brazil): The Pirapora do Bom Jesus ophiolitic complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colombo C.G. Tassinari; Jose M.U. Munhá; Antonio Ribeiro; Ciro T. Correia

    2001-01-01

    @@ Within the Sao Roque Domain of the Neoproterozoic Ribeira Fold Belt (southeastern Brazil) we have identified an ophiolitic complex (Pirapora ophiolite) display ing a characteristic oceanic lithospheric stratigraphy.From bottom to top, it includes: 1) a lower crustal/upper mantle section (dunitic cumulates with chromitite-magnetite layers); 2) a lower crustal section (metagabbro and flasergabbro mafic cumulates with gabbroic pegmatoids); and 3) an upper crustal section (deformed fine-grained, greenschist facies metamafics with remains of a sheeted dike complex, pillow lavas and cherts).

  2. Tectonic evolution of the Brusque Group, Dom Feliciano belt, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basei, M. A. S.; Campos Neto, M. C.; Castro, N. A.; Nutman, A. P.; Wemmer, K.; Yamamoto, M. T.; Hueck, M.; Osako, L.; Siga, O.; Passarelli, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The Dom Feliciano Belt constitutes the main geotectonic unit of the southeastern portion of Brazil and Uruguay. It was formed by the end of the Neoproterozoic as a result of the interaction among the Rio de La Plata, Paranapanema, Congo and Kalahari cratons during the formation of Western Gondwana. The Brusque Group represents the supracrustal units of the Dom Feliciano Belt that occur in its northernmost part, which ends in the Brazilian coast and probable continuity in the Kaoko Belt in southwestern Africa. It is possible to constrain the evolution of the Brusque Group paleobasin to the Neoproterozoic, with the rift phase starting in the Tonian (940-840 Ma) and the main sedimentation occurring until 640 Ma, as indicated by the ages of the acid volcanic rocks intercalated with the metasedimentary sequence. The supracrustal rocks can be grouped in three main units lithostratigraphically organized from the oldest to the youngest: Rio Oliveira Formation (rift phase, predominating metavolcanic units), Botuverá Formation (metasedimentary) and Rio da Areia Formation (metavolcano-carbonatic). Between 640 and 600 Ma several metamorphism and deformation phases affected the Brusque Group. Around 600 ± 10 Ma the three granitic suites (São João Batista, Valsungana and Nova Trento) were emplaced within regional metamorphites, producing post-foliation S2 metamorphic aureoles. S2 represents the main foliation observed in the metavolcanosedimentary rocks that constitute the Brusque Group. The tectonic model for the evolution of Brusque Group can be better achieved only when the geochemical, isotopic and geochronologic information available for the Dom Feliciano Belt in Santa Catarina, is considered as a whole. Therefore it is here suggested that the Brusque Group initially evolved in an independent peri-cratonic basin setting separated from the Florianópolis - Pelotas-Aiguá magmatic arc by the Adamastor ocean, having been juxtaposed to it only around 600 Ma, when Brusque

  3. Paleoproterozoic Greenstone-Granite Belts in Northern Brazil and the Former Guyana Shield - West African Craton Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McReath

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The mainly meta-volcano-sedimentary Vila Nova Group and associated granites constitute separate belts, which formpart of a large paleoproterozoic (mainly rhyacian province in the Guyana Shield of which northern Brazil forms a part, andthe West African Craton. In Brazil the southwestern Serra do Ipitinga and Serra Tumucumaque-Serra do Navio belts have noobvious geometrical extensions in the Guyanas or Venezuela, and may represent deposits formed at penecontemporaneouspassive continental margins and ocean floor spreading centres. To the Northeast the Serra Lombarda-Tartarugalzinho andOiapoque belts are continuations of Guianese belts. In the former the igneous rocks have geochemical characteristics ofsuprasubduction environments. Belts in the Guyana Shield and West African Craton have many similar features. Themegaprovince evolved in a number of stages, which may have started at about 2.3 Ga, and continued with diminished activityafter 2.11 Ga. Both major juvenile additions and (possibly minor reworking of earlier crust contributed to the growth of theprovince. The major transcurrent deformation, responsible for the present structure of the belts, probably occurred duringthe later stages of evolution of the province, but metamorphism and deformation are registered even in the oldest rocks.

  4. Uso de medicamentos por idosos de instituições de longa permanência, Brasília-DF, Brasil Uso de drogas por ancianos en instituciones de larga estadía, Brasilia-DF, Brasil Drug use by elderly residents in long-stay institutions, Brasília-DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Poliana Furtado de Oliveira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a utilização de medicamentos por 154 idosos de cinco instituições de longa permanência de Brasília-DF, Brasil, por meio de questionário adaptado do Método Dáder. A amostra é caracterizada em sua maioria por homens, com idade de 74,6 anos, com cognição preservada, baixa renda mensal e baixo nível de escolaridade; em uso de quatro a cinco medicamentos. A adesão à farmacoterapia é comprometida pela falta de conhecimento sobre a prescrição médica, dificuldade de acesso e recusa em tomar os medicamentos. Resultados sugerem a necessidade de investimento na capacitação de recursos humanos e em pesquisas na área a fim de proporcionar melhoria da qualidade de vida e redução dos custos com assistência à saúde.El objetivo de este estudio es describir la utilización de medicamentos por 154 ancianos de cinco instituciones de larga permanencia en Brasilia, a través de un cuestionario adaptado del método Dáder. La muestra é caracterizada por predominancia de hombres, con 74,6 años, con la cognición preservada, de bajo rendimiento, baja escolaridad y en uso de cuatro a cinco medicamentos. La adhesión a la farmacoterapia está comprometida debido la falta de conocimiento sobre la prescripción, de la dificultad de acceso y el rechazo a usar los medicamentos. Los resultados apuntan hacia la necesidad de invertir en la formación de recursos humanos y más estudios en el área con el fin de proporcionar mejor calidad de vida y reducción de costos en la atención de salud.The aim of this study is to describe the drug utilization by 154 elderly from five long-stay institutions of Brasilia-DF, Brazil, through a questionnaire adapted from the Dader Method. The sample is characterized mostly of men, age of 74.6 years, with preserved cognition, low income and low education level and in use of four to five medications. The adherence to pharmacotherapy is compromised by low knowledge about current

  5. Sm/Nd data of metasedimentary rocks from the central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatky, Diana; Tupinamba, Miguel; Duarte, Beatriz Paschoal [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Grupo de Pesquisa Geotectonica - Tektos

    2000-03-01

    The central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern brazil, comprises several tectonic domains where, during the Proterozoic, extensive detritic material was deposited over pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks. This paper presents Sm-Nd isotopic data on the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of this belt and discusses some possible implications on their sedimentary provenance. The pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks display different Nd isotopic evolution and thus can be promptly discriminated as sources of different Nd model ages (T{sub DM}) and isotopic characteristics such as: Mantiqueira such as: Mantiqueira Complex, 3.0 and 2.6 Ga T{sub DM} isochrons ages; Juiz de Fora Complex, 2.2 Ga T{sub DM} isochron age and Quirino Complex, 2.0 Ga and 3.2 Ga T{sub DM} ages. At the Juiz de Fora Domain, metapelites from the Andrelandia Depositional Cycle display a very narrow range of Sm/Nd values (0.15 to 0.17) and T{sub DM} ages between 1.8 and 2.0 Ga. The corresponding measured {epsilon}{sub Nd} values [{epsilon}{sub Nd} (0)] vary between -20.8 and -29.1. The metapsammopelites of the Jardim Gloria Unit, in the same geologic domain, display very different isotopic characteristics: higher Sm/Nd ratios (0.22 and 0.24), lower {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) values (-15.3 and -18.3) and Neoarchean T{sub DM} ages (2.5 and 2.6 Ga). At the Paraiba do Sul Klippe, the analyzed metapelites from the middle unit of Paraiba do Sul group show T{sub DM} ages close to 1.7 Ga with e{sub ND} (0) values of -14.10 and -17.34. The metapsammopelites from the basal and uppermost units plot the 2.0 Ga T{sub DM} isochron and display {epsilon}{sub Nd} (0) values vary between-21 and -32. An isolated T{sub DM} of an amphibolitic body, probably intrusive in the metasedimentary rocks of Paraiba do Sul Group, yields 1.0 Ga T{sub DM} age, with a {sup 147} Sm/{sup 144} Nd value of 0.1428. (author)

  6. Sm/Nd data of metasedimentary rocks from the central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central segment of Ribeira Belt, southeastern brazil, comprises several tectonic domains where, during the Proterozoic, extensive detritic material was deposited over pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks. This paper presents Sm-Nd isotopic data on the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of this belt and discusses some possible implications on their sedimentary provenance. The pre-1.8 Ga basement rocks display different Nd isotopic evolution and thus can be promptly discriminated as sources of different Nd model ages (TDM) and isotopic characteristics such as: Mantiqueira such as: Mantiqueira Complex, 3.0 and 2.6 Ga TDM isochrons ages; Juiz de Fora Complex, 2.2 Ga TDM isochron age and Quirino Complex, 2.0 Ga and 3.2 Ga TDM ages. At the Juiz de Fora Domain, metapelites from the Andrelandia Depositional Cycle display a very narrow range of Sm/Nd values (0.15 to 0.17) and TDM ages between 1.8 and 2.0 Ga. The corresponding measured εNd values [εNd (0)] vary between -20.8 and -29.1. The metapsammopelites of the Jardim Gloria Unit, in the same geologic domain, display very different isotopic characteristics: higher Sm/Nd ratios (0.22 and 0.24), lower εNd (0) values (-15.3 and -18.3) and Neoarchean TDM ages (2.5 and 2.6 Ga). At the Paraiba do Sul Klippe, the analyzed metapelites from the middle unit of Paraiba do Sul group show TDM ages close to 1.7 Ga with eND (0) values of -14.10 and -17.34. The metapsammopelites from the basal and uppermost units plot the 2.0 Ga TDM isochron and display εNd (0) values vary between-21 and -32. An isolated TDM of an amphibolitic body, probably intrusive in the metasedimentary rocks of Paraiba do Sul Group, yields 1.0 Ga TDM age, with a 147 Sm/144 Nd value of 0.1428. (author)

  7. An empirical examination of firearm users in Brasilia, DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sachsida

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper relates individuals' characteristics to the probability of possessing firearms: a inside the home; b outside the home; and c inside and outside the home. Extending the literature on the demand for firearms whose focus is on the first trait, we collected survey data on 2,045 random individuals of Brasília, Brazil, in 2002. The multinominal logit model yields several new results. First, while we do find that a person's educational level negatively affects the likelihood that an individual will use arms only outside his or her home, education does not affect the probability of an individual possessing a gun only at home, which contrasts sharply with results for the U.S. Second, individuals who own cars and houses have a 2.8% greater probability of keeping guns at home, which may reflect a desire to protect property.Este artigo relaciona características individuais à probabilidad do indivíduo possuir arma de fogo: a dentro de casa; b fora de casa; e c dentro e fora de casa. Foram coletados dados de 2.045 individuos em Brasilia-DF no ano de 2002. O modelo multinomial logit trouxe vários novos resultados. Em primeiro lugar, o nível educacional de uma pessoa afeta negativamente a probabilidade dela ter armas fora de casa, mas não afeta a probabilidade dela ter armas dentro de casa, o que contradiz alguns resultados para os Estados Unidos. Em segundo lugar, indivíduos que são donos de carros e têm casa própria possuem maior probabilidade de ter armas dentro de casa, o que pode indicar um desejo de proteger sua propriedade.

  8. Monazite ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology in the LAGIR laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University: protocols and first applications to the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent in SE-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguair Neto, Carla Cristiane; Valeriano, Claudio M.; Heilbron, Monica; Lobato, Marcela, E-mail: neto.carla@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Lab. de Geocronologia e Isotopos Radiogenicos; Passarelli, Claudia R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2014-03-15

    The chemical and spectrometric procedures of the U-Pb geochronology method on monazites, recently installed in the LAGIR laboratory, are described in detail. In addition, preliminary results on monazite samples from the Brasilia and Ribeira belts are reported and discussed in the context of the regional geology. Several experiments for calibration of ion exchange chromatographic columns with the AG-1x8 resin, were performed with HCl, using dissolved natural monazite samples. The Pb blanks of reagents are ∼ 0.5 pg/g in acids and ∼1 pg/g in H{sub 2}O. The total Pb blanks in chemical procedures were below 22 pg. Preliminary results are presented from three case studies related to Brasiliano orogenic belts of SE-Brazil, which correlate very well with previous age determinations from literature: two sub-concordant grains from an Araxa Group quartzite (southern Brasilia belt) define a concordia age of 602.6 ±1.4 Ma; a -0.8% discordant grain from a quartzite of the Sao Fidelis Group (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) yielded a concordia age of 535.3 ± 2.4 Ma; two 0.4 % and 1.3 % discordant monazite grains from the post-collisional Itaoca Granite (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) define a concordia age of 476.4 ± 1.8 Ma. (author)

  9. Preliminary results of the Programme to follow up radiological events in the federal district of Brasilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1994, Brazil's Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) has been operating a telephone 'hotline' and pager service in the city of Brasilia which allows members of the public to report unusual situations involving radiation sources in the Federal District of Brasilia. One report was recorded in 1994, five in 1995 and 20 in 1996. Among the devices found in the Federal District following calls by concerned citizens were: a radioactive lightning rod, items of odontological and medical X ray equipment, smoke detectors, materials with radionuclides from research institutions and toxic materials. In the three-year period from 1994 to 1996, the radioactive lightning rod and odontological and medical X ray equipment represented seventy per cent of all the materials found. Until now, the Federal District has never experienced a real radiological emergency, as there has been no incidence of a loss of control of a radioactive source. By contrast, radiological events have occurred, and the difficulty they present is of a psychological nature, since the radioactive symbol found on the materials frightens the population. These facts show that emergency planning is necessary in the Federal District because the radiological events which occurred there in 1996 represented thirty-five per cent of all the events reported in the country. (author)

  10. Carbon and oxygen isotope geochemistry of Ediacaran outer platform carbonates, Paraguay Belt, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Riccomini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available After the late Cryogenian glaciation the central region of Brazil was the site of extensive deposition of platformal carbonates of the Araras Group. This group includes a basal cap carbonate sequence succeeded by transgressive, deep platform deposits of bituminous lime mudstone and shale. Facies and stratigraphic data combined with carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of the most complete section of the transgressive deposits, exposed in the Guia syncline, were used to evaluate the depositional paleoenvironment and to test the correlation of these deposits along the belt and with other units worldwide. The studied succession consists of 150 m thick tabular beds of black to grey lime mudstone and shale with predominantly negative delta13C PDB values around -2.5 to -1‰ . The delta13C PDB profile of Guia syncline shows a clear correlation with the upper portion of Guia Formation in the Cáceres region, about 200 km to the southwest. The delta13C PDB profile of the Araras Group is comparable with delta13C PDB profiles of Ediacaran units of the southern Paraguay Belt, western Canada, and the Congo and Kalahari cratons. Moreover, facies distribution, stratigraphy and the carbon isotopic profile of the Araras Group match the middle Tsumeb Subgroup in Namibia, which reinforces the Ediacaran age assigned to the Araras Group.Após a glaciação do final do Criogeniano, a região central do Brasil foi palco de extensa deposição de carbonatos plataformais do Grupo Araras. Este grupo inclui na sua base uma seqüência de capa carbonática sucedida por depósitos transgressivos de calcilutitos betuminosos e folhelhos de plataforma profunda. Dados de fácies e estratigráficos combinados com análises isotópicas de carbono e oxigênio da seção mais completa desses depósitos transgressivos, expostos no sinclinal da Guia, foram empregados para avaliar o paleambiente deposicional e para testar a correlação desses depósitos ao longo da faixa e tamb

  11. Determinação do fator de correção das hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em Brasília Correction factor determination in leafy vegetable crops commercialized in Brasilia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline G Lemos

    2011-06-01

    modo geral, as perdas avaliadas pelo FC estão mais relacionadas ao manipulador das folhosas e ao estado de conservação das hortaliças do que ao período de safra. Desta forma, para as hortaliças que apresentaram diferenças com relação à época de amostragem, recomenda-se observância quanto ao período de planejamento dos cardápios visando a obtenção do aproveitamento eficiente do produto.Brazil has high indexes of food waste, which affects regional economy and increases social problems. Inadequate planning of food processing, from postharvest to consumption, is one of the reasons of loss. Vegetable crops are live organisms and their durability is affected by the processes of subdivision and cooking. To reduce losses, the determination of the Correction Factor is essential in order to evaluate the losses and the factors which interfere on these losses. This work consists on determining the Correction Factor of the following vegetable crops: Crisphead Lettuce, Unheaded Lettuce, Lettuce, Purple Leafs, Chard, Endive, Watercress, Common Chicory, Borecole Green Collard, Escarole, Spinach, Mustard, Cabbage, Red Cabbage and Rocket Crop. Three sale units of each vegetable crop were acquired at the CEASA in Brasília (Federal District, Brazil, from three different suppliers, with four replicates, a total of 36 samples of each vegetable crop. Aiming to detect the influence of the gathering month on the Partial Correction Factor (CF 1 and Final Correction Factor (CF 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test were carried out. In all tests a level of 5% of statistical significance was considered. The results showed that for the majority of the vegetables, harvest does not influence loss. However for chard, the lower CF occurred at harvest. On the other hand for cabbage, the lower CF occurred at harvest. This way for the majority of the vegetables, the losses evaluated by the CF are more related to handling procedures and conservation. For cabbage, it is recommended

  12. Microstructures and TitaniQ geothermometry in high - temperature dynamically recrystallized mylonites, Ribeira belt (SE Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Carolina; Morales, Luiz

    2016-04-01

    The Ribeira belt (southern Brazil) was formed by the collision between the São Francisco and West Congo cratons at around 670 - 480 Ma, during the western Gondwana amalgamation. It consists of dextral strike-slip shear zones trending NE-SW to NNE-SSW. The ~20 km wide and ~120 km long Três Rios - Além Paraíba - Pádua shear zone is one these shear zones, in which quartzfeldspathic mylonites were formed at upper amphibolite to granulite conditions. The deformation of these rocks was accompanied by dynamic recrystallization and intense grain-size reduction that is reflected by the large amount of recrystallized grains with sizes >30 - 150 μm. Grain-size reduction is often pointed out as a process that promotes changes in the mechanical behavior of rocks, from grain-size insensitive (GSI) to grain-size sensitive (GSS) deformation mechanisms. However, it is still not clear if the switch from GSI to GSS deformation mechanisms may occur in coarsed grain recrystallized rocks. Furthermore, it is also not clear what is the effect of dynamic recrystallization on the titanium retention in quartz. Here we apply the TitaniQ geothermometer to coarse recrystallized quartz, coupled with detailed microstructural characterization to investigate thermal conditions and deformation mechanisms during recrystallization/deformation of quartz. Quartz grains show typically high temperature microstructure, such as irregular-lobate grain boundaries and subgrain walls. The average titanium contents are ~30 ppm for samples from the Três Rios region, 46 to 54 ppm for samples from Além Paraíba, and 74 to 86 ppm for samples from Santo Antônio de Pádua. The calculated temperatures are fairly homogenous at ~800 °C throughout the studied segments of the shear zone, which is compatible with the observed microstructures. The crystallographic orientation in these rocks is fairly weak, possibly due to static recovery and/or strong activity of such as diffusion processes due to the high

  13. Fatores associados à atividade física em adultos, Brasília, DF Factores asociados con la actividad física en adultos, Brasilia, Brasil Factors associated with physical activity in adults in Brasília, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Marcondelli Dias Thomaz

    2010-10-01

    seleccionados aleatoriamente. Datos sociodemográficos, peso y altura fueron obtenidos durante una entrevista en domicilio. El cuestionario internacional de actividad física (Ipaq, versión corta, fue utilizado para la medición de la actividad física. Para evaluarse el efecto del sexo, índice de masa corporal (IMC, clasificación socioeconómica y estado civil sobre el escore de actividad física, se realizó análisis de regresión lineal multivariable. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las muestras estaba compuesta por mujeres (57%. El porcentaje de individuos que alcanzó 150 minutos semanales de práctica de actividad física fue de 52% (IC 95%: 47;56 y de inactivos de 21,5% (IC 95%: 17,8;25,3. Solamente en los hombres se observó asociación inversa entre actividad física e IMC. Los tipos de actividades físicas relatados difirieron entre los sexos: entre mujeres, caminar y hacer servicios domésticos; entre los hombres, pedalear, correr, nadar y hacer ejercicios con pesos. Hubo una fuerte asociación con el escore de actividad física: cuanto mayor el IMC, menor el escore de actividad física. CONCLUSIONES: La parcela de individuos inactivos en Brasilia puede ser considerada baja, en contraste con estimaciones de otras ciudades brasileras. Diferencias entre sexos con relación a IMC y escore de actividad física están asociadas al tipo de actividad física practicada.OBJECTIVE: To describe physical activity practice in adults and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with cluster sampling from the four areas of the city of Brasília, Central-West Brazil, in 2006-2007. A sample comprised of 469 adults was obtained from 250 randomly selected households. Sociodemographic data, weight and height were obtained during a household interview. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was used to measure physical activity. A multivariate linear regression analysis was made to assess the effect of sex, body

  14. Structural evolution and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages of the Neoproterozoic Maria da Fé shear zone, central Ribeira Belt - SE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuquim, M. P. S.; Trouw, R. A. J.; Trouw, C. C.; Tohver, E.

    2011-03-01

    The Maria da Fé Shear Zone (MFSZ) is a sinistral strike-slip kilometric-scale structure developed in the late Neoproterozoic during the assembly of Gondwana. The MFSZ development is related to the NW-SE collision between the São Francisco Paleocontinent and the Rio Negro Magmatic Arc, which formed the Ribeira Belt. This paper describes the shear zone in detail, concluding that the orientation and age are consistent with NW-SE shortening during the afore mentioned collision. A U-Pb SHRIMP Concordia age of 586.9 ± 8.7 Ma is reported from zircon grains of a granitic dyke that crystallised synkinematically to the main tectonic activity of the shear zone. Another group of zircon grains from the same sample generated an upper intercept age of 2083 ± 43 Ma anchored in the younger Concordia age. These zircon grains are interpreted as relict grains of the basement from which the granite dyke was generated by partial melting. The temperature during mylonitization in the MFSZ was estimated in the range from 450 to 600 °C, based on microstructures in quartz and feldspar. An earlier collision in the same region, between 640 and 610 Ma, led to an extensive nappe-stack with tectonic transport to ENE, integrating the southern Brasilia Belt. One of the thrust zones between these nappes in the studied area is the Cristina Shear Zone with mylonites that were generated under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions. Brittle-ductile E-W metric-scale shear zones are superimposed on the MFSZ, which were active in similar, but probably slightly cooler, metamorphic conditions (≈500 °C).

  15. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goias, Central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio M.; Dantas, Elton L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br; mmp1103@terra.com.br; Armstrong, Richard A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences

    2003-03-15

    The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich E W-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus lineaments, which cut the regional NNW-SSE structures of the southern part of the belt. SHRIMP and conventional U-Pb data for the Itapuranga and Uruana intrusions indicate crystallization ages of 624 {+-} 10 Ma and 618 {+-} Ma, respectively. Three zircon cores from the Itapuranga granite yielded U-Pb ages between 1.79 and 1.49 Ga. Sm-Nd T{sub DM} ages for both intrusions are 1.44 Ga and epsilon{sub Nd}(T) values are -5.1 and -5.7, suggesting the input of material derived from older (Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic) sialic crust in the origin of the parental magmas. Magma mixing structures indicate co-existence of mafic and felsic end-members. The felsic end-member of the intrusions is dominantly represented by crust-derived melts, formed in response to the invasion of Paleo/Mesoproterozoic sialic crust by alkali-rich mafic magmas at ca. 620 Ma. These intrusions are roughly contemporaneous with, or perhaps slightly younger than, the peak of regional metamorphism in the southern Brasilia Belt. Their emplacement along the Pireneus lineament suggest a syn-tectonic origin for them, most probably in transtensional settings along these faults. (author)

  16. Sediments of Afonso Bezerra belt-Macaiba (meridional border of Potiguar basin, RN, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralogy of sediments from Potiguar basin, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, is investigated and its origin is determined. Usual sedimentologic methods and X-ray diffraction were used. (M.C.K.)

  17. National Theatre historical monument of Brasilia. Case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Silva, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of an International Cooperation Agreement for the conservation of historical monuments made of reinforced concrete in Brasilia. This research is based on a routine inspection of the National Theatre of Brasilia, a city recognized by UNESCO in 1987 as world cultural heritage. The structure, entirely made of reinforced concrete, was conceived by architect Oscar Niemeyer, and has a total of 48 m of height and 42,000 m2 of constructed area. After examining the available documentation, the existing damage was then identified and mapped. The concrete shows a good state of conservation, with the exception of some regions of the structure: the damages found were exposed armature, oxidation of armature, infiltration, mold and efflorescence.

    Este trabajo es parte de un Acuerdo de Cooperación Internacional para la conservación de monumentos históricos de hormigón armado en Brasilia. Esta investigación es el resultado de una inspección rutinaria en el Teatro Nacional de Brasilia, ciudad reconocida por la UNESCO, en 1987, como patrimonio cultural de la humanidad. La estructura, toda en hormigón armado, fue concebida por el arquitecto Osear Niemeyer, con un total de 48 m de altura y 42.000 m2 de área construida. Tras investigar la documentación disponible, se procedió a la identificación y al estudio de los daños existentes. El hormigón presenta un buen estado de conservación, salvo en algunas regiones de la estructura: estructura armada expuesta, oxidación de la estructura armada, infiltración, moho y eflorescencia son algunos de los daños que se encontraron.

  18. Geochemistry of metavolcanic rocks in the Archean Greenstone Belt of Identidade, SE Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the geochemistry of the ultramafic and mafic volcanic rocks of the Identidade belt (IDB), in order to present hypothesis about their possible sources and magmatic evolution. The chemical data were obtained by ICP method. The analytical errors are less then 5% for major elements, less than 10% for the minor ones, and around 5% for trace elements. Save additional data from the meta ultramafic rocks of the Seringa belt, situated 100 km to the west of the IDB, were also considered. The XLFRAC program was employed for fractional crystallization modelling of major elements. For trace element modelling the equations of fractional crystallization and equilibrium partial melting were applied, using an unpublished program written in Pascal. 10 figs. 8 tabs

  19. The Neoproterozoic-Cambrian Paraguay Belt, central Brazil: Part I - New structural data and a new approach on the regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz José Homem D'el-Rey; Walde, Detlef Hans-Gerd; Saldanha, Davi Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Together with the Araguaia and Brasília belts, the Paraguay belt forms in central Brazil, the Tocantins Province that is one of the largest orogens of western Gondwana. The Corumbá area occupies the site where the northern and southern parts of the Paraguay belt form, together with the Chiquitos-Tucavaca aulacogen (stretching E-W in the adjacent Bolivian territory) an R-R-R basin system opened-filled in the ~ 700/650-540 Ma interval within the Amazon-Rio Apa paleo-continent. The sedimentary (volcanic) rocks of the Jacadigo and Corumbá Groups found around the Corumbá city record part of the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin precursor of the Paraguay belt. Our pioneer structural analysis reveals that these rocks experienced progressive deformation (phases D1-D2-D3) and low-grade metamorphism during the Brasiliano Cycle (540-513 Ma). The crystalline basement was also involved, according to structural data and K-Ar ages in the literature. The paleo-passive margin was thickened during the D1-D2 deformation and was lately shortened (D3) in two orthogonal directions, SE-NW (D3P) and SW-NE (D3T). Developed co-axially and verging to NW, D1-D2-D3P structures record the closure of the basin precursor of the Paraguay belt, whereas D3T structures seem related to the inversion of the aulacogen. Although the tectonic transport to NW, as observed in the Corumbá area, matches the reported transport of Paraguay belt's supracrustal rocks towards the eastern margin of the Rio Apa block and Araguaia belt's rocks towards the Amazon craton, the transport direction is opposite in other parts of the Paraguay belt. Our comprehensive discussion of these facts brings to light profound regional implications.

  20. Geotectonic evolution of granitoid-greenstone belts from Crixas, Guarinos, Pilar de Goias - Hidrolina (Goias), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area in discussion, in a geologic context, constitutes one of the most interesting and complex, within the South American Platform, in Brazilian territory, over which granitoid-greenstone belts are outstanding. The Goiano Complex is the oldest unit in the geologic column herein adopted and composed largely of granitoids, gneiss and migmatites, in the amphibolite facies. Dated samples of the complex have shown two isochrones of Rb/Sr reference, the oldest one is 2.926 +- 65 m.y. and the 87 Sr/86 Sr initial ratio of 0.7001 and the youngest on of 2.471 + 20 m.y. and 87 Sr/86 Sr initial ratio of 0.701. Although the initial ratios data of the Rb/Sr isochron, as well as the parameters in the Pb/Pb analyses may indicate material of mantle source, it may be interpreted, with the help of field data, that the youngest values may indicate the reworking of crustal sialic rocks formed 2.925 +- 65 m.y. ago (oldest isochron), with primitive material contribution. Before such reworking volcanic-sedimentary sequence was deposited over the already formed sialic crust, and it is denominated Pilar de Goias Supergroup which characterizes the Greenstone Belts in the region. The Archean age for the supergroup was evident through the age results of its ultramafic rocks, showing 2.600 m.y. isochron age, with Sm/Nd methods. Besides the geochronology and field studies, basic information for the construction of the geologic column herein presented, there has been done petrographic and litho geochemical studies, both in the Goiano Complex and Pilar de Goias Supergroup, as for the Pilar de Goias Supergroup, the studies were concentrated on its mafic-ultramafic rocks. (author)

  1. Violências contra mulheres por parceiro íntimo em área urbana economicamente vulnerável, Brasília, DF Violencias contra mujeres por pareja íntima en área urbana económicamente vulnerable, Brasilia, Brasil Intimate partner violence against women in an economically vulnerable urban area, Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leides Barroso Azevedo Moura

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de tipos de violência e de comportamentos de controle praticados por parceiros íntimos contra mulheres residentes em área economicamente vulnerável. MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se estudo transversal com 278 mulheres de 15 a 49 anos que tiveram parceiros íntimos alguma vez na vida, residentes em uma área metropolitana de Brasília, DF, em 2007. Utilizou-se processo de amostragem aleatória sistemática. O instrumento de pesquisa constou de um questionário com 58 perguntas desenvolvido pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram analisadas as prevalências de violência física, psicológica e sexual. As variáveis independentes consideradas foram características sociodemográficas da mulher, de contexto familiar e comunitário bem como as sociodemográficas do parceiro, de comportamento (freqüência do uso de bebidas ou drogas ilícitas e relacionamento extraconjugal. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de violência psicológica foi a mais alta: 80,2% (n=223 das mulheres entrevistadas relataram pelo menos um ato no decorrer da vida e 50% (n=139 nos últimos 12 meses. A prevalência de violência física ao longo da vida foi (58,6% e nos últimos 12 meses (32%, enquanto a prevalência de mulheres que sofreram violência sexual foi de 28,8% e 15,5%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: As altas prevalências das violências mostram a magnitude da vulnerabilidade e das agressões praticadas contra mulheres nas relações com parceiros íntimos.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de tipos de violencia y de comportamientos de control practicados por parejas íntimas contra mujeres residentes en área económicamente vulnerable. MÉTODOS: Se condujo estudio transversal con 278 mujeres de 15 a 49 años que tuvieron parejas íntimas alguna vez en la vida, residentes en un área metropolitana de Brasilia, capital de Brasil, en 2007. Se utilizó proceso de muestreo aleatorio sistemático. El instrumento de pesquisa constó de un cuestionario

  2. Chloritites of the Tocantins Group, Araguaia fold belt, central-northern Brazil: Vestiges of basaltic magmatism and metallogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschoubey, Basile; Villas, Raimundo Netuno; Aires, Benevides

    2016-08-01

    Chloritites from different localities (Arapoema, Couto Magalhães Velho, Juarina, Morro Grande, Morro do Jabuti, Morro do Pau Ferrado, Morro do Salto, Serra do Jacu, Serra do Quatipuru, Serra do Tapa, Serrinha) of the Araguaia fold belt, Tocantins geotectonic province, central-northern Brazil, have been investigated. Based on field work and petrographic, diffractometric, geochemical and mineral chemistry data, these rocks, commonly associated with metacherts and banded iron formations, have been interpreted as products of ocean-floor exhalative-hydrothermal activity on MORB basalts. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements and diagrams of relatively immobile components in the hydrothermal environment highlight not only the genetic link between the chloritites and the basaltic rocks that occur in the region (Serra do Tapa and Morro do Agostinho), but also some peculiar characteristics of the submarine environment. The rock association and anomalous contents of Cu, Zn, Ni, As, and Au are suggestive that the region was favorable to the formation of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, what makes it a potential target for mineral exploration programs.

  3. Stratigraphy and geochronlogy of the Guarinos greenstone belt, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Jost

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Guarinos greenstone belt is one of the three low metamorphic grade supracrustal rocks assemblage rimmed by orthogneissesof Central Brazil’s Archean Block northern limits. The investigation of the stratigraphy of those greenstone beltsstarted by the end of 1970’s and underwent improvements during the years as a result of detailed geological mapping. Thelatest and accepted stratigraphic model for the Guarinos greenstone belt refers its supracrustal rocks under the GuarinosGroup, which is subdivided into the Serra do Cotovelo (metakomatiites, Serra Azul (metabasalts, São Patricinho (maficmetaturbidites, Aimbé (BIF and Cabaçal (carbonaceous phyllites and impure metarenites formations. Detailed geologicmapping (1:10,000 and drill-cores during an exploration program by Yamana Desenvolvimento Mineral S.A. in the areaallowed a better definition of the metasedimentary package of the Cabaçal Formation, which is here formally proposed tobe subdivided into a Lower Member of carbonaceous phyllites with basalt lava flows and gondite lenses interlayers, anIntermediate Member of gondite, iron formation, metachert and massive barite lenses, and an Upper Member of carbonaceous phyllites with minor metachert lenses. The impure metarenites, formerly considered as part of the Cabaçal Formation, are proposedunder the Mata Preta Formation, which is laterally interfingered with the Cabaçal Formation. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronologicaldata of detrital zircon grains from the São Patricinho mafic metaturbidites and the impure metarenites of the Mata Preta formationsindicate that the major source-area of the clastic load had a Siderian to Rhyacian age, with minor contribution from Archean rocks.From the rock assemblage of both units and their contact relationships it is concluded that the basin stage they represent evolved duringthe world-wide Anoxic Oceanic Event (AOE that took place during the 2.2 to 2.06 Ga, represented by the carbonaceous phyllites ofthe

  4. Augen gneisses versus Augen gneisses from the Jaguaribeana Belt, northeastern region from Brazil: stratigraphy, geochemistry and U-Pb ages; Augen gnaisses versus Augen gnaisses da faixa Jaguaribeana, NE do Brasil: estratigrafia, geoquimica e idades U-Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Jaziel Martins; Silva, Elvis Roberto da [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Bertrand, Jean Michel [Savoie Univ., 73 - Chambery (France). Lab. de Geodynamique; Leterrier, Jacques [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques

    1997-12-31

    The Jaguaribeana Belt is located at Borborema Province, Ceara State, Brazil and this study aims to present Uranium-Lead (U-Pb) data and the augen gneisses petrographic and geochemical study of the Jaguaribe Belt, and to realize comparisons between these and the augen gneisses from the Oros Belt. It describes the geological characteristics of this region, the augen gneisses petrography and geochemical data and the U-Pb method results for a discussion about the augen gneisses from the Oros and Jaguaribe Belt 10 refs., 6 figs.

  5. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite and associated potassic plutons as evidence for Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision in the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Felipe G.; Oliveira, Elson P.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2011-08-01

    Several granitic plutons have intruded the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, São Francisco craton, Brazil, in the time interval 2163-2080 Ma, but their tectonic significance is poorly understood. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite (FGG) is one of a set of plutons emplaced along the western boundary of the greenstone belt with Archaean migmatite-gneiss basement. The pluton is mostly composed of hornblende granodiorite, occasionally crosscut by syn-plutonic mafic dykes. The FGG is metaluminous, medium- to high-K calc-alkaline with relatively constant silica abundances (SiO2 ˜ 63-66 wt%), high Sr (900-800 ppm) and high Ba (1000-1500 ppm). The associated mafic dykes are ultrapotassic, with high abundances of Ba, Sr, MgO, Ni, Cr, and light rare earth elements, suggesting derivation from partial melts of an enriched mantle source. The FGG originated probably by fractional crystallization from a primitive K-rich mafic magma that interacted with crustal melts. Its zircon U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2106 ± 6 Ma indicates that the FGG is younger than the early (2163-2127 Ma) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and calc-alkaline arc plutons of the greenstone belt, and is closely related in time and space with potassic to ultrapotassic plutons (ca. 2110-2105 Ma). The negative ɛNd(t) of FGG and coeval K-rich plutons of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt contrasts markedly with the positive ɛNd(t) of the older arc plutons, indicating a major change of isotope signatures in granites of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt with time. This isotope shift may be related to magma contamination with older continental material and/or derivation of the parental potassic magma from enriched lithospheric mantle sources. We suggest that the K-rich plutons were emplaced during or shortly after Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision.

  6. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ciro A. Ávila; Wilson Teixeira; Umberto G. Cordani; Héctor R. Barrueto; Ronaldo M. Pereira; Veridiana T.S. Martins; Liu Dunyi

    2006-01-01

    The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 ± 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evide...

  7. Provenance of the Passo Feio complex, Dom Feliciano Belt: Implications for the age of supracrustal rocks of the São Gabriel Arc, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates

  8. The Bossoroca Complex, São Gabriel Terrane, Dom Feliciano Belt, southernmost Brazil: Usbnd Pb geochronology and tectonic implications for the neoproterozoic São Gabriel Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubert, Mauricio Lemos; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Stipp Basei, Miguel Angelo

    2016-10-01

    Usbnd Pb LA-ICPMS geochronological analyses were carried out on zircon grains from metavolcanic rocks of the Bossoroca Complex and for one ash tuff of the Acampamento Velho Formation of the Camaquã Basin, in order to understand the evolution of the Neoproterozoic São Gabriel magmatic arc. A total of 42 analyses of igneous zircon grains were performed in three samples. The results yielded Usbnd Pb ages of 767.2 ± 2.9 Ma for the metavolcanic agglomerate (BOS-02); 765 ± 10 Ma for the metacrystal tuff (BOS-03) and 565.8 ± 4.8 Ma for the ash tuff (BOS-04). The Orogenic Cycle in Brazil is characterized by a set of orogenic belts consisting of petrotectonic associations juxtaposed by two collisional events that occurred at the end of the Neoproterozoic. In southern Brazil this orogeny formed the Dom Feliciano Belt, a unit composed of associations of rocks developed during two major orogenic events called São Gabriel (900-680 Ma) and Dom Feliciano (650-540 Ma). The main São Gabriel associations are tectonically juxtaposed as elongated strips according to the N20-30°E direction, bounded by ductile shear zones. The Bossoroca Complex comprises predominantly metavolcano-sedimentary rocks, characterized by medium-K calc-alkaline association generated in a cordillera-type magmatic arc. The volcanism occurred in sub-aerial environment, developing deposits generated by flow, resurgence and fall, sporadically interrupted by subaqueous epiclastic deposits, suggesting an arc related basin. The São Gabriel Terrane contains the petrotectonic units that represent the closure of the Charrua Ocean associated to the subduction period of the Brasiliano Orogenic Cycle in the Sul-rio-grandense Shield.

  9. Cambro-Ordovician magmatism in the Araçuaí Belt (SE Brazil): Snapshots from a post-collisional event

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; de Medeiros, Silvia R.; Mendes, Julio C.; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio C.; Dussin, Ivo; Ludka, Isabel P.; Dantas, Elton L.

    2016-07-01

    The focus of the present work is the rebound of the magmatism at the late stages of orogenic collapse in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil. At the end of the orogen bimodal inversely zoned plutons were emplaced along a tectonic corridor following the Atlantic coast of Brazil. This event culminates around 500 Ma. We review geology, petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of these plutonic structures in the region of Espírito Santo. New geochemical modeling of trace element data together with new whole rock Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data depict a gradual process of mantle contamination during different stages of the orogen. In the post-orogenic stage contamination reaches extreme values. Basic rocks reach εNd(0.5Ga) values below -10. Gabbros to peridotites are more enriched in Ba, Zr, LREE and Sr than the surrounding metasediments. Four new U-Pb data sets from determinations in zircon and monazite crystals, (central northern part of the belt) confirm peak magma production around 500 ± 15 Ma, ranging up to 525 ± 3 Ma in one of the structures. Based on the pictured data, we discuss the significance of this magmatism and present a possible model: a process of gradational delamination of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle and adjacent deep continental crust through underplating. As a consequence, an already enriched mantle was dramatically further contaminated. At the end of this event the intrusion of alkaline melts, with less negative εNd (-5) and further enrichment in incompatible elements, point towards a new input of deeper juvenile mantle magma. Our data suggest the possible onset of a hotspot due to the destabilization of the asthenospheric mantle after orogenic collapse.

  10. [Women's health and reproductive rights. Meeting in Brasilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean Seminar on Women's Health and Reproductive Rights was held in Brasilia on November 13-14, 1991. The seminar manifesto reproduced here cities the many ways in which women in the region are oppressed by poverty and social injustice, and points to Cuba as a country where health and reproductive rights are respected. Latin American has been oppressed for 500 years. Its population still experiences misery, poverty, and deprivation of human rights and an equitable quality of life. The poor, especially women and children, are being decimated by endemic disease, mass sterilization, sexual and racial discrimination, and expropriation of liberty and the freedom to make choices concerning their own countries and bodies. The situation has resulted from the neoliberal policies of the latin American governments with the exception of Cuba. The international policy has called for renunciation of national sovereignty and submission to imperialist policy. social programs have suffered particularly. Women in Latin American are not considered 1st class in all stages of their lives. The Seminar of Women's Health and Reproductive Rights signals the urgent need to improve the situation through measures to mobilize society in defence of health and reproductive rights. High indices of maternal mortality caused largely by illegal abortion, premature births and perinatal deaths, lack of prenatal care, malnutrition, generalized violence, prostitution of minors and adolescents, psychic disturbances from limitations and deformations in the exercise of sexuality, lack of choice of contraceptive methods, surgical sterilization at a young age, excess numbers of cesareans, high-technology medical interventions motivated by economic interest, lack of sex education, and shortcomings of preventive health policies and basic public services are among the problems affecting Latin American women. Cuba is hailed as a country where women can freely choose abortion, and where

  11. Tracing and tracking wastewater-derived substances in freshwater lakes and reservoirs: Anthropogenic gadolinium and geogenic REEs in Lake Paranoá, Brasilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Baldewein, Linda; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Walde, Detlef; Bühn, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Total and dissolved rare earth element (REEs) and U concentrations were determined for waters from Lake Paranoá (Brasilia, Brazil) sampled in the dry (November 2012) and wet seasons (July 2013). Shale-normalized REE patterns of all samples display the M-type lanthanide tetrad effect and large positive Gd anomalies, but only the total REE pool shows a positive Ce anomaly, possibly reflecting aeolian and/or fluvial input from surrounding laterites. The positive Gd anomaly increased strongly between 2012 and 2013. It reveals an anthropogenic dissolved Gd source that enters the lake with effluents from wastewater treatment plants, originating from the use of Gd-based contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Because anthropogenic Gd is a tracer for other wastewater-derived substances, such as pharmaceuticals, REE geochemistry offers an inexpensive way to monitor the presence of wastewater-derived substances in the lake, which may be utilized as a drinking water reservoir in the near future.

  12. Sources of granite magmatism in the Embu Terrane (Ribeira Belt, Brazil): Neoproterozoic crust recycling constrained by elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Adriana; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa

    2016-07-01

    Whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and in situ K-feldspar Pb isotope geochemistry were used to identify the sources involved in the genesis of Neoproterozoic granites from the Embu Terrane, Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil. Granite magmatism spanned over 200 Ma (810-580 Ma), and is dominated by crust-derived relatively low-T (850-750 °C, zircon saturation) biotite granites to biotite-muscovite granites. Two Cryogenian plutons show the least negative εNdt (-8 to -10) and highest mg# (30-40) of the whole set. Their compositions are strongly contrasted, implying distinct sources for the peraluminous (ASI ∼ 1.2) ∼660 Ma Serra do Quebra-Cangalha batholith (metasedimentary rocks from relatively young upper crust with high Rb/Sr and low Th/U) and the metaluminous (ASI = 0.96-1.00) ∼ 630 Ma Santa Catarina Granite. Although not typical, the geochemical signature of these granites may reflect a continental margin arc environment, and they could be products of a prolonged period of oceanic plate consumption started at ∼810 Ma. The predominant Ediacaran (595-580 Ma) plutons have a spread of compositions from biotite granites with SiO2 as low as ∼65% (e.g., Itapeti, Mauá, Sabaúna and Lagoinha granites) to fractionated muscovite granites (Mogi das Cruzes, Santa Branca and Guacuri granites; up to ∼75% SiO2). εNdT are characteristically negative (-12 to -18), with corresponding Nd TDM indicating sources with Paleoproterozoic mean crustal ages (2.0-2.5 Ga). The Guacuri and Santa Branca muscovite granites have the more negative εNdt, highest 87Sr/86Srt (0.714-0.717) and lowest 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, consistent with an old metasedimentary source with low time-integrated Rb/Sr. However, a positive Nd-Sr isotope correlation is suggested by data from the other granites, and would be consistent with mixing between an older source predominant in the Mauá granite and a younger, high Rb/Sr source that is more abundant in the Lagoinha granite sample. The

  13. Chronology of neoproterozoic-cambrian granitic magmatism in the Aracuai Belt, Eastern Brazil, based on single zircon evaporating dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitic magmatism related to the orogenic stages of the Aracuai Belt took place at 595-575 Ma, and are represented by two distinct suites. One is composed of I-type granitoids and includes the following plutons: Brasilandia (595±3 Ma), Sao Vitor (576±4 Ma) and Guarataia (574± 2 Ma). The other suite comprises S-type granites like the Ataleia (591±5 Ma) and Wolf (582±5 Ma) plutons. After a long period of magnetic quiescence, a batholith composed of the Caladao granite and Padre Paraiso charnockite intruded at 519±2 Ma. This magmatic episode is probably associated to the collapse of the orogen. (author)

  14. Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  15. Brazil's premier gold province. Part II: geology and genesis of gold deposits in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Lydia; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Luiz; Vieira, Frederico

    2001-07-01

    Orogenic, gold deposits are hosted by rocks of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the major gold provinces in the world. The gold deposits occur at the base of the mafic-ultramafic succession, with the most important orebodies controlled by E-W-striking, strike-slip faults. The main mineralization styles are (1) structurally controlled, sulfide replacement zones in banded iron formation (BIF); (2) disseminated sulfide minerals and gold in hydrothermally altered rocks along shear zones; and (3) auriferous quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins and veinlets in mafic, ultramafic, and felsic volcanic rocks, and also in clastic sedimentary rocks. The most common host rocks for ore are metamorphosed oxide- and carbonate-facies banded iron (± iron-rich metachert) formations (e.g., the Cuiabá, São Bento and Raposos deposits) and the lapa seca unit, which is a local term for intensely carbonatized rock (e.g., the giant Morro Velho mine with >450 t of contained gold). Metabasalts host most of the remaining gold deposits. Mineralogical characteristics and fluid inclusion studies suggest variations in the H2O/CO2 ratio of a low-salinity, near-neutral, reducing, sulfur-bearing, ore fluid. The presence of abundant CH4-rich inclusions is related to reduction of the original H2O-CO2 fluid via interaction with carbonaceous matter in the wallrocks. Oxygen fugacity was close to that of graphite saturation, with variations likely to have been influenced by reaction with the carbonaceous matter. Carbon-rich phyllites and schists, which commonly bound ore-bearing horizons, seem to have played both a physical and chemical role in localizing hydrothermal mineral deposition. Microtextural studies indicate that gold deposition was mainly related to desulfidation reactions, and was paragenetically coeval with precipitation of arsenic-rich iron sulfide minerals. Carbon isotope data are compatible with dissolution of

  16. Estudo clínico, epidemiológico e terapêutico de 402 pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, DF, Brasil Clinical, epidemiological and therapeuthic study of 402 patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis attended at University Hospital of Brasilia, DF, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Querido Name

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar americana é doença em expansão no Brasil. A região Centro-Oeste é hoje a terceira em incidência e a primeira em crescimento da doença. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana atendidos no Hospital Universitário de Brasília, quanto a aspectos clinicoepidemiológicos e resposta ao tratamento com antimonial pentavalente. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo série de casos de 402 pacientes, segundo sexo, idade, ocupação, procedência, formas clínicas, métodos de diagnóstico, tratamento com antimonial pentavalente e efeitos colaterais, no período de 1/1/1994 a 28/2/2003. O acompanhamento foi de um ano pós-tratamento. RESULTADOS: Predomínio de homens, lavradores, de 20 a 39 anos, com a forma cutânea. A eficácia do antimonial foi maior em pacientes com forma cutânea tratados até seis meses depois do início dos sintomas, e em pacientes do sexo feminino (diferenças estatisticamente significativas na análise multivariada. O mesmo ocorreu para pacientes com forma mucocutânea, mas sem diferença estatística significante. Alterações eletrocardiográficas foram mais freqüentes no grupo tratado com 20mg SbV/kg/dia por 30 dias em relação ao tratado por 20 dias. Eosinofilia ocorreu em 17,5% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: Tratamento precoce, sexo feminino e a forma cutânea apresentaram índices mais elevados de cura. Alterações do eletrocardiograma aumentaram com o tempo de tratamento com antimoniais. A eosinofilia como efeito colateral ao uso do antimonial merece maior investigação.BACKGROUND: American cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with high prevalence and incidence in Brazil. The Brazilian Central-Western Region currently holds the third largest incidence and the first growth rate of this disease in the country. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clinical, epidemiological and treatment features of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis seen at the University Hospital of Bras

  17. Avaliação antropométrica e dietética de pré-escolares em três creches de Brasília, Distrito Federal Dietary and anthropometric assessment of three pre-schools from Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

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    Rahilda Conceição Ferreira Brito Tuma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: traçar o perfil nutricional de crianças em creches de Brasília, DF, para subsidiar a formulação de estratégias de atendimento e controle dos problemas detectados. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado de março a dezembro de 2001, constante de entrevista sobre a situação socioeconômica das famílias, avaliação antropométrica de 230 crianças (87,5% do total de 263 pelos critérios da OMS e padrão do NCHS e análise do consumo alimentar, por meio de pesagem direta, recordatório 24 horas e freqüência de consumo. RESULTADOS: observaram-se 6,1% de excesso de peso e 4,8% de déficit de estatura. A alimentação das creches apresentou adequada distribuição do percentual de energia proveniente dos macronutrientes. Houve diferença significante entre as faixas etárias, para energia, proteína, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C. O perfil de consumo habitual apresentou-se alto em produtos lácteos, arroz/macarrão, feijão, açúcar, pães e margarina; consumo médio de frutas, hortaliças, carne bovina, frango, ovos, biscoito; baixo consumo de peixes,vísceras sucos/chás e leite materno; além da introdução precoce de snack, refrigerante, fast food, enlatados/embutidos e doces/guloseimas. CONCLUSÕES: a ocorrência de excesso de peso acima do esperado na curva normal pode refletir o padrão alimentar, indicando a necessidade de intervenções de educação e saúde, para prevenir doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e melhorar a qualidade vida.OBJECTIVES: to assess nutritional status of children in three nursing schools of Brasília, Brazil. METHODS: in a cross-sectional design, a sample of 230 children (87.5% of 263 was evaluated between March and December of 2001. Interview was used to gather family socio-economic status. Children nutritional status was classified according to WHO using NCHS tables. Food intake was obtained by direct weighed food, 24h-recall and food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: there were a 6

  18. Cambro-Ordovician Granites in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil: snapshots from a late orogenic collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; Mendes, Júlio Cesar; de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Ludka, Isabel P.

    2014-05-01

    Along the Brazilian Coast, surrounding the São Francisco Craton and adjacent mobile belts, deep segments of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo) generated over 120 Ma of successive magmatic episodes of granitic magmatism. The c.630-585 Ma calc-alkaline magmatic arc consists of metatonalite to metagranodiorite, with metadioritic to noritic facies and enclaves. During the syn-collisional and crustal thickening stage (c. 585 to 560 Ma) S-type metagranites have been built by dehydration melting of a diverse package of sediments. Around 545-525 Ma late orogenic crustal remelting formed mostly non-foliated garnet-cordierite leucogranites. In the post-orogenic stage (c. 510-480 Ma) inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons intruded previous units. This work will focus on the youngest post-orogenic magmatism. It will present the state of the art by reviewing structural measurements, detailed mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data. The architecture of around 10 plutons, ranging from c. 20 to 200 km2 in surface area, unravels deep mushroom- to funnel-like magma chambers and/or conduits. Available data point towards different compositional domains, which are interfingered in complex concentric layers, so that, each pluton depicts a unique internal flow pattern. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented or folded layers of granite, in a hybrid K-gabbroic/dioritic matrix, contrast with predominantly homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by magmatic shear zones where mixing is enhanced, also resulting in hybrid compositions. Sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks locally depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least

  19. Depression with postpartum onset: a prospective cohort study in women undergoing elective cesarean section in Brasilia, Brazil Depressão com início após o parto: estudo de corte prospectivo em mulheres submetidas à cesárea eletiva em Brasília, Brasil

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    Alberto Moreno Zaconeta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It was to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a sample of puerperal women from Brasília, Brazil, distinguishing cases with onset after delivery from those already present during pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study with convenience sampling of patients submitted to elective cesarean section at two private hospitals. As an instrument for assessing depressive symptoms, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale with cutoff >13 was applied shortly before delivery and four to eight weeks after childbirth. RESULTS: Among the 107 women who completed the study, 11 (10.3% had significant depressive symptoms during pregnancy and 12 (11.2% during the postpartum period. Among the 12 patients with postpartum symptoms, 6 had symptoms during pregnancy, so that 5.6% of the sample had postpartum onset of depression. The higher overall frequency of depression was significantly among single women than among married women (p=0.04, a fact mainly due to a higher frequency of single women experiencing persistent depressive symptoms both before and after delivery (p=0.002. The risk of depression was not influenced by age, parity or educational level. CONCLUSION: Women with depression identified during the postpartum period comprise a heterogeneous group, in which symptoms may have started before pregnancy, during pregnancy or after childbirth. In this sample, half of the postpartum depression cases already presented symptoms during late pregnancy. Since depression can arise before and after childbirth, it may have different etiologies and, therefore, a different response to treatment, a possibility that should be considered by clinicians and researchers.OBJETIVO: Foi determinar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos em uma amostra de puérperas da cidade de Brasília, Brasil, discriminando os casos com surgimento após o parto daqueles já presentes durante a gestação. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte prospectivo. Amostragem por conveni

  20. Re-appraisal of the Santa Rita Greenstone Belt stratigraphy, central Brazil, based on new U-Pb SHRIMP age and Sm-Nd data of felsic metavolcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Jost, Hardy; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Junges, Sergio Luiz [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: marcio@unb.br; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Resende, Marcelo Goncalves [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental

    2000-03-01

    The Santa Rita greenstone belt represents one of the supracrustal belts of the Archaen terranes of Goias, central Brazil. The stratigraphic sequence of this greenstone belt comprises a lower of komatities and basalts and an upper metasedimentary unit made of carbonaceous schits, chert, iron formation and marble, unconformably overlain by clastic metasedimentary rocks. Felsic metavolcanics occur at the interface between the metabasalts and the upper metasedimentary pile. U-Pb SHRIMP age for zircons from the felsic metavolcanics reveal that it is not part of the Archaean sequence, but represents the product of mesoproterozoic (1580 {+-} 12 Ma) magmatic event. Sm-Nd isotopic data (initial e{sub CHUR} values between -10.5 and -14.9) and T{sub DM} values of 3.0 and 3.2 Ga, within the range of the surrounding TTG terranes, indicate that the original felsic magmas were produced by re-melting of Archaen crust. The data demonstrate that the Goias greenstone belt contains infolded and imbricated proterozoic rocks, as previously suggested by Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of some of the upper detrital metasedimentary rocks. (author)

  1. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  3. Mineralogical and textural evidences of melt transfer in a granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Santos de Souza, Jailma; Barbosa, Johildo; Bourque, Hugo; Floess, David

    2014-05-01

    In pelitic rocks, the effect of melt transfer (loss and/or gain) on phase relations can be successfully predicted via phase equilibrium modeling and more particularly using pseudosections with bulk composition as a variable (e.g. White et al., 2001). One of the most obvious effect of melt loss is the dehydration of the rock that limits further melting and favors the preservation of peak metamorphic assemblage. However, in most cases, melt loss has a limited effect that can be hardly seen mineralogically. Indeed, composition of phases like garnet, cordierite or plagioclase, that are first-order metamorphic phase, will not be affected significantly by melt loss. Therefore, evidences of melt extraction must be evidenced texturally. The goal of this contribution is to present an example where both mineralogical and textural evidences of melt extraction have been inferred. The studied sample is a pelitic granulite from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). It is located in the city of Salvador da Bahia, next to the Farol da Bara. Structurally, it is located in a steeply deeping high strain zone that could have play a major role on the segregation and transfer of melt. The gneissic foliation is marked by a compositional banding with centimer-wide quartzo-feldspathic leucosomes in a garnet-bearing granulite. Leucosomes are almost systematically surrounded by a darker layer that is quartz-undersaturated and enriched in spinel and primatic sillimanite. This silica undersaturation is interpreted as the effect of extreme melt extraction and was modeled using phase diagram section. An interesting feature of the rock is that garnet grain size decreases and the number of garnet grains increases in the melanosome away from the leucosome. Furthermore, the type, amount and shape of inclusions in garnet, chemical composition and zoning in garnet also varies greatly and continuously across the gneissic foliation. Texturally, the presence of

  4. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope (O, H, C, and S) constraints on the genesis of the Serrinha gold deposit, Gurupi Belt, northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Evandro L.; Harris, Chris; Renac, Christophe; Giret, André; Moura, Candido A. V.; Fuzikawa, Kazuo

    2006-05-01

    The Serrinha gold deposit of the Gurupi Belt, northern Brazil, belongs to the class of orogenic gold deposits. The deposit is hosted in highly strained graphitic schist belonging to a Paleoproterozoic (˜2,160 Ma) metavolcano-sedimentary sequence. The ore-zones are up to 11 m thick, parallel to the regional NW-SE schistosity, and characterized by quartz-carbonate-sulfide veinlets and minor disseminations. Textural and structural data indicate that mineralization was syn- to late-tectonic and postmetamorphic. Fluid inclusion studies identified early CO2 (CH4-N2) and CO2 (CH4-N2)-H2O-NaCl inclusions that show highly variable phase ratios, CO2 homogenization, and total homogenization temperatures both to liquid and vapor, interpreted as the product of fluid immiscibility under fluctuating pressure conditions, more or less associated with postentrapment modifications. The ore-bearing fluid typically has 18-33mol% of CO2, up to 4mol% of N2, and less than 2mol% of CH4 and displays moderate to high densities with salinity around 4.5wt% NaCl equiv. Mineralization occurred around 310 to 335°C and 1.3 to 3.0 kbar, based on fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and oxygen isotope thermometry with estimated oxygen fugacity indicating relatively reduced conditions. Stable isotope data on quartz, carbonate, and fluid inclusions suggest that veins formed from fluids with δ18OH2O and δDH2O (310-335°C) values of +6.2 to +8.4‰ and -19 to -80‰, respectively, which might be metamorphic and/or magmatic and/or mantle-derived. The carbon isotope composition (δ13C) varies from -14.2 to -15.7‰ in carbonates; it is -17.6‰ in fluid inclusion CO2 and -23.6‰ in graphite from the host rock. The δ34S values of pyrite are -2.6 to -7.9‰. The strongly to moderately negative carbon isotope composition of the carbonates and inclusion fluid CO2 reflects variable contribution of organic carbon to an originally heavier fluid (magmatic, metamorphic, or mantle-derived) at the site

  5. Further evidence of 777 Ma subduction-related continental arc magmatism in Eastern Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil: The Chácara das Pedras Orthogneiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, E.; Porcher, C. C.; Pimentel, M. M.; Fernandes, L. A. D.; Vignol-Lelarge, M. L.; Oliveira, L. D.; Ramos, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    In this study new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data for the Chácara das Pedras Gneiss in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil are presented. They represent a small exposure of the crust which was intruded by a large volume of orogenic to anorogenic granitoids at ca. 618-562 m.y. in the Eastern Domain of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The Chácara das Pedras tonalitic orthogneiss has geochemical similarities with subduction-related magmatic rocks of continental arcs. They present high Sr initial ratios (∼0.712), negative ɛNd(t = 777) values (∼-6), TDM varying from 1.8 to 2.0 Ga. The igneous protoliths of these orthogneisses were previously considered to be Paleoproterozoic based on an upper intercept age of discordant zircon analyses. In the present study these orthogneisses were re-sampled and re-analyzed in an attempt to obtain more concordant analytical data. The U-Pb zircon analyses were carried out using the SHRIMP IIe at the Laboratório de Geocronologia de Alta Resolução of the Universidade de São Paulo. The U-Pb concordia age obtained for igneous textural domains of the zircon grains is 777 ± 4 Ma. A few analyses on zircon overgrowths give poorly defined late Cryogenian ages of ca. 650 Ma. Older ages, mostly discordant, were obtained in a few zircon cores, showing an upper intercept age of ca. 1.9 Ga. One sample of the Três Figueiras Granodiorite, which crosscut the orthogneiss in the same outcrop, was also investigated. The zircons of this granodiorite are, however, mostly metamitic, preventing the determination of a reliable age. Some concordant analyses from a few grains define ages ranging in the interval between ca. 603 and 1022 Ma. The youngest (ca. 603 Ma) may represent a maximum age for the granodiorite crystallization. Older ages, with discordance Uruguay). All these units show subduction-related continental arc affinities. The identification of a magmatic event of ca. 780-800 Ma in the Porto Alegre region implies that: (i) the collisional magmatism (650 Ma) is

  6. Parametric Modeling of Urban Landscape: Decoding the Brasilia of Lucio Costa from Modernism to Present Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Moura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the case study of the Pilot-Plan of Brasilia, important example of modernist urban design protected as human heritage. Discusses a methodological process to promote visualization of maximum envelops of urban volumes, organized in a set of rules and scripts which structures urban parameters in a logic of volume constructions. Applies City Engine - ESRI facilities to construct and visualize the urban rules. It has the goal to promote characterization, analysis, proposals and simulation of urban parameters in order to support decision making in land use transformation. The research deals with the difficulties of management urban pressure of transformation and the maintenance of urban cultural heritage. The methodology defends the change from authorial urban design to the decoding of collective values and goals. The 3D modeling and dynamic visualization promotes the composition of the whole, which means to work in a relative mode, and not in an absolute sense. Although it had been developed for a particular case study, the protected historical area of Brasilia, it presents methodological processes of how to structure rules of three-dimensional modeling to simulate the maximum constructive authorized by planning legislation (maximum envelopes, so that it can be reapplied in any other situation of definition of parameters in urban master plans and in laws for land use and occupation.

  7. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  8. Improvement in treatment of mixtures generated between batches of different products in OSBRA (Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline) pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotchetkoff Neto, Andre Paulo; Agostineti, Antonio; Almeida, Marcio Manhaes Gomes de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline (OSBRA) starts at the Planalto Refinery (REPLAN) and supplies gasoline, diesel oil and LPG to the mid-west region of Brazil. The pipeline is 786 kilometers long with diameter of 20 inches in its first segment and 178 kilometers with 12 inches in the second. The fuels are pumped by seven unmanned pump stations and are delivered to five tank farms. At first, these products were pumped into the pipeline in batches of diesel or LPG between gasoline batches. These sequences allowed the dilution of the mixtures generated between the two products during the pipeline transportation to the pure product tanks, keeping compliance to the former standards. The diesel/gasoline mixtures were diluted direct to pure product tanks and the LPG/gasoline mixtures were submitted to flashing in a vessel before dilution. In 2001, the National Petroleum Agency changed the LPG and diesel oil standards. This new regulation turned the OSBRA installations unable to dilute the whole mixture volume generated during pipeline transportation. Sending part of the mixture back to the Refinery turned a mandatory task, increasing the costs and making the LPG pipeline transportation unprofitable. To overcome this situation, a new product was developed - QINTER. The QINTER can be diluted in suitable rates either to diesel or gasoline keeping the compliance of these fuels to the new standards at the receiving tanks. The QINTER is currently pumped into the pipeline between the batches of diesel oil and gasoline. The standard solution to treat the mixture created between LPG and gasoline batches, a fractional tower, was studied but it showed to be of dubious profitability and it would compel changes to the existing working schedule time, from Monday to Friday (6:00 am to 10:00 pm) to a 24:00 h/day continuous work. An alternative project was developed. Three flash recirculation vessels were designed to allow the mixtures of LPG with vapor stream and gasoline with liquid stream

  9. Selection of natural treatment processes for algae removal from stabilisation ponds effluents in Brasilia, using multicriterion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neder, K D; Carneiro, G A; Queiroz, T R; de Souza, M A A

    2002-01-01

    A multicriterion methodology is used in the evaluation and selection of the most appropriate alternative(s) for removing algae from stabilisation ponds effluents in a case study in Brasilia. For this purpose, five different natural treatment processes are tested at pilot scale: rock filter, sand filter, floating aquatic plants, constructed wetlands, and overland flow. These pilot units were constructed in Brasilia and set in parallel, each one receiving a portion of the effluent that comes from an existing wastewater treatment plant composed of preliminary treatment, UASB reactors, and high-rate stabilisation ponds. Several evaluation criteria are used in order to relate the capabilities of the post-treatment processes to the multiple objectives in this case. Two multicriterion decision-aid methods--compromise programming and ELECTRE-III--are used to select the most satisfying processes. The top ranking alternatives are indicated for subsequent studies, considering the possible implementation of these technologies to existing plants. PMID:12361031

  10. Spinifex-textured komatiites in the south border of the Carajas ridge, Selva Greenstone belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, Lincoln; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca

    2016-03-01

    Spinifex-textured komatiites in the Selva greenstone belt are the first unequivocal examples of komatiites in the Transition Subdomain of the Carajás Mineral Province. Outcrops of spinifex-textured komatiites, located ∼1.5 km to the south of the Carajás ridge, were discovered during regional exploration for Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposits by VALE. They are associated with a 3.8 km long unit consisting of variable types of ultramafic rocks (talc schist, serpentinite and spinifex-textured komatiite). This ultramafic unit follows the steep dipping NW-SE trending Selva greenstone belt composed mainly by quartz-chlorite schists (interpreted as metasediments) and chlorite-actinolite schists (interpreted as metabasalts). Greenschist facies metamorphic parageneses characterize all rock types in the Selva greenstone belt. The komatiitic rocks in the Selva belt comprise a sequence of flows consisting of an upper spinifex-textured layer and a lower olivine cumulate layer. Although the spinifex and cumulus textures are well preserved in the field, the primary mineralogy of the komatiites has been completely replaced by greenschist facies metamorphic minerals. Platy olivine spinifex texture, consisting of an array of roughly parallel olivine plates, and random spinifex texture, consisting of randomly oriented olivine plates, are the most common primary volcanic textures in komatiites in the Selva greenstone belt. Platy and random spinifex texture is defined by former plates of olivine replaced by serpentine with minor actinolite, chlorite and magnetite, alternating with former matrix replaced by abundant actinolite and minor chlorite, talc, serpentine, and magnetite. The domains between olivine plates in both platy and random spinifex-textured rocks contain irregular arrays of fine-grained parallel crystals, representing primary fine-grained "quench" clinopyroxene crystals replaced by actinolite. Spinifex-textured komatiites have MgO contents bracket between 22.8 and 26.9 wt

  11. Migration and street situations: the use of alcohol in the streets of Brasilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro de Andrade Calil Jabur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends, through a field research, to reconstruct the life trajectory of individuals that migrated to Brasilia in the past three years and are now homeless. It highlights, in the narratives of their daily lives, the use of alcohol as a socializing and disruptive factor in their trajectories within a set of typical vulnerabilities of this population. The nature of the migratory process, in the individual and social senses, is analyzed as a way of contextualizing the debate regarding the life trajectory of the migrant individual. The process of formation, construction, and maintenance of a social identity and biography is based on the idea of socialization, which refers to the conditions in which an individual forms and is formed by the different and continuous social references around them. The interviews conducted based on the listening of life stories (biographical method imply the construction of a set of theoretical and analytical development that discusses the issue of the importance of establishing and maintaining social and emotional ties and the role of alcohol in the daily lives of these individuals.

  12. Joint Statement of the BRIC——Brazil, Russia, India and China Grouping Ⅱ Summit of Heads of State/Government%"金砖四国"领导人第二次正式会晤联合声明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ We,the leaders of the Federative Republic of Brazil,the Russian Federation,the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China,met in Brasilia on April 15,2010 to discuss major issues of the intrenational agenda as well as concrete steps to move forward the cooperation and coordination within BRIC.

  13. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretation of aeromagnetic data over the Lancinha Shear Zone, Southern Ribeira Belt, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo de Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of shear zones at the southern portion of the Ribeira Belt, PR, BR, as well as its recognition in depth is a major challenge. Despite the lack of subsurface information, the influence of such structures on the installation and evolution of the Paraná Basin during the Phanerozoic is widely accepted. Therefore, in this paper, are applied methods of anomaly enhancement (qualitative analysis and estimative of the sources depth (semiquantitative analysis, on the aeromagnetic coverage of the Lancinha Shear Zone area (LSZ in the Paraná state, in order to verify its spatial arrangement in subsurface. The processing resulted in the interpretation of magnetic-structural framework of the study area, which was validated by the depth estimative of the magnetic sources (Euler solutions. The results indicated the extension of the Lancinha, Morro Agudo and Itapirapuã shear zones under the Paraná Basin coverage.

  14. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  15. The provenance and Sm/Nd Model ages of siliciclastic supracrustal rocks of the Faina and Santa Rita Greenstone belts, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Faina and Santa Rita greenstone belts are two N 60 deg C W trending synclinoria separated by a N 30 deg C E strike-slip fault and rest allochtonous on the adjacent Uva and Caicara granite-gneiss complexes. The belts are made up of lower metakomatiites, followed by metabasalts and thick metasedimentary sequences deposited under contrasting paleogeographic settings. In Faina, the sequence consists of two complete shelf cycles, the first resting on basalts by an erosional unconformity. In Santa Rita, the basalts give gradually place to carbonaceous metashales, unconformably overlain by metarhythmites. Provenance based on trace element geochemistry, mineral chemistry of chloride and muscovite, source-are modeling and REE elements indicate that protoliths of the first shelf cycle of Faina and the carbonaceous metashales of Santa Rita formed under the influence of a source area dominated by mafic ultramafic rocks, whilst during the sedimentation of the second shelf cycle and the metarhythmites of Santa Rita the source-area was dominated by TTG granitoids. Sm-Nd model ages of the lower sedimentary packages vary between 3.0 and 2.8 Ga and the upper between 2.7 and 2.6 Ga. These intervals coincide, respectively, with the estimated age of the underlying, and with the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr e U-Pb ages of the main granitoids and gneisses of the adjacent complexes. The same data indicate that, during the sedimentation of the first shelf cycle of Faina and the carbonaceous metashales of Santa Rita, both basins had independent source-areas, but shared the same source during the upper sections. Weathering nature and intensity of the source-area calculated by means of geochemical a data suggest that the dramatic change of provenance from the lower to the upper sections is due to the shift from tectonically stable to unstable regimes, interpreted as resulting from the emergence of the island arc whose roots are represented by the adjacent granite-gneiss complexes. (author)

  16. Gammaspectrometry identification covering Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences in the Serido Belt , northeastern Brazil; Identificacao gamaespectrometrica de placeres rutilo-monaziticos neoproterozoicos no sul da Faixa Serido, nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sebastiao Milton P. da, E-mail: smpsilva@cchla.ufrn.br, E-mail: sebastiaomilton@gmail.com [Laboratorio de Geoprocessamento, Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Crosta, Alvaro P., E-mail: alvaro@ige.unicamp.br [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco J.F., E-mail: francisco.ferreira@ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada- LPGA, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Beurlen, Hartmut, E-mail: beurlen@terra.com.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Adalene M., E-mail: adalene@unb.br [Laboratorio de Geofisica Aplicada, Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo R.R. da, E-mail: marcelor@ufpe.br [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Aerial gamma-ray survey data covering Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences in the Serido Belt were processed and analyzed together with ground gamma-ray data, air photos and geological data for lithogeophysical characterization and mapping of granitic rocks, related pegmatites fields and lithological units of Serido Group. Interpretation was based on individual and ternary images of the three radio-elements and the eU/eTh and eTh/K ratios, and allowed the discovery of thorium anomalies associated with coarse-grained metarenites and metaconglomerates facies intercalated with quartzites of the Equador Formation. High contents of iron oxides, ilmenite, monazite, rutile, titanite and zircon were identified by ore microscopy of polished sections in the metaconglomerate's matrix. Semiquantitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses in minerals of two samples revealed up to 79.4% of Th0{sub 2} and 87.7% of REE in monazites; up to 99.2% of Ti0{sub 2} in ilmenite and rutile and up to 1.81 % of HfO{sub 2} in zircon. Gamma-ray anomalies due to thorium were also identified in association with sediments of Cenozoic age in the region. (author)

  17. Rochas ultramáficas plutônicas do greenstone belt Rio das Velhas na porção central do Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brasil Plutonic ultramafic rocks of the greenstone belt Rio das Velhas in the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Magalhães da Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Em Amarantina, distrito de Ouro Preto, encontram-se rochas ultramáficas expostas em duas áreas com cerca de 500 m² cada. As rochas afloram no Complexo do Bação, que é o embasamento gnáissico do greenstone belt Rio das Velhas, na porção central do Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF. O interesse no estudo petrogenético desses corpos deve-se à preservação parcial de minerais ígneos, ausentes na maior parte das rochas ultramáficas totalmente metamorfizadas do QF. Entre essas rochas, destacam-se os esteatitos e os serpentinitos, devido a sua importância econômica. As rochas ultramáficas de Amarantina possuem textura equigranular, fato que as caracteriza como tendo origem plutônica, isto é, trata-se de metaperidotitos. Possuem grãos maiores de olivina, piroxênio e espinélio da rocha ígnea original distribuídos em matriz metamórfica fina com talco, serpentinas, cloritas, anfibólios e minerais opacos. Escassas arita (NiSbAs e breithauptita (NiSb foram formadas a partir de pentlandita durante o metamorfismo associado a hidrotermalismo. A comparação da composição química com a de um metakomatiito com textura spinifex do QF, bem como com rochas komatitiiticas de outras partes do mundo, mostra que os metaperidotitos são, quimicamente, semelhantes aos komatiitos não-desfalcados em alumínio. Portanto é provável que as rochas ultramáficas estudadas correspondam à porção plutônica do magmatismo komatitiitico do Grupo Nova Lima, que é a unidade basal do greenstone belt Rio das Velhas.In Amarantina, district of Ouro Preto (State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, ultramafic rock exposures are found along two areas of about 500 m² each. The rocks crop out in the Bação complex, which is the gneissic basement of the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt in the central portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF. The interest in a petrogenetic study of the ultramafic rocks is the partial preservation of igneous minerals, which are not observed

  18. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  19. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.)

  20. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques

    2016-07-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial

  1. The Mesoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Serra do Itaberaba Group of the Central Ribeira Belt, Sao Paulo State, Brazil: implications for the age of the overlying Sao Roque Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juliani, Caetano [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: cjuliani@usp.br; Hackspacher, Peter; Fetter, Allen Hutchenson [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail: phack@rc.unesp.br; fetter@rc.unesp.br; Dantas, Elton Luiz [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: elton@unb.br

    2000-03-01

    One of the fundamental problems to understanding the evolution of volcano-sedimentary sequences in southeastern Brazil is constraining their depositional ages. Brasiliano tectonic and metamorphic either obscured or destroyed primary features, such as unconformities, as well as other geologic relationships. This problem is exemplified by the Serra do Itaberaba and Sao Roque groups, where the lack of data about the timing of their deposition has prevented resolution of proposed one-and two-stage geotectonic/depositional models. Recent U-Pb zircon data obtained from metavolcanic rocks in the Sao Roque Group indicate that it was deposited between 628 and 607 Ma. New U-Pb zircon data of 1395{+-} 10 Ma for a metandesite in the basal Morro da Pedra Preta Formation (Serra do Itaberaba Group) indicate the maximum age for the beginning of the deposition of the pelites overlying MORB-like basalt. A metarhyolite of the upper unit, the Nhangucu Formation, contains two zircon populations. One yielded an age of 619 {+-}3 Ma, which defines the crystallization age of the rock, and the other an age of 1449 {+-}3 Ma, interpreted as inherited xenocrystal grains from older units of the Serra do Itaberaba Group. The younger metarhyolite was affected only by the S{sub 2} foliation, generated during the Brasiliano orogenesis, whereas the Middle Proterozoic metavolcano-sedimentary sequence records additional metamorphic and deformational events, confirming the presence of two different geotectonic cycles. (author)

  2. Peraluminous leucogranites of the Cordilheira Suite: A record of Neoproterozoic collision and the generation of the Pelotas Batholith, Dom Feliciano Belt, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; de Campos, Roberto Sacks

    2013-04-01

    The Cordilheira Suite is comprised of peraluminous granites that constitute, together with the Quitéria granite, the beginning of the formation of the Pelotas Batholith in the central portion of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The batholith is composed of seven granitic suites with minor occurrences of gabbro, diorite and subvolcanic rocks. Its evolution between 650 and 550 million years ago is characterised by a ranging from metaluminous to peraluminous rocks and from calc-alkaline to alkaline and peralkaline series. The Cordilheira Suite is composed of the Cordilheira, Arroio Francisquinho, Butiá and Três Figueiras granites, which contain muscovite and/or biotite, with the following accessory minerals: tourmaline, garnet, sillimanite, apatite, zircon, monazite and ilmenite. The granitic bodies are elongate; their ascent and emplacement were controlled by high-angle shear zones oriented at N45-70°E. They have mylonitic structures with magmatic foliation accompanied by a low-angle stretching lineation, indicating that these bodies were emplaced under syn-kinematic conditions during a transcurrent event. The granites have high-K calc-alkaline affinity and are peraluminous. The LILE and REE contents are low. The K2O/Na2O and CaO/Na2O ratios are approximately 1 and less than 0.3, respectively. Pseudosections calculated using the Perple X program suggests that the granites were formed at partial melting temperatures between 740 and 820 °C and pressure between 8.5 and 9 kbar. Petrographic and chemical data suggest that the magmas were generated by the partial melting of the migmatitic pelitic gneisses of the Várzea do Capivarita Complex and, to a lesser degree, orthogneisses of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex, which left a granulitic residue. UHT conditions of granulite facies metamorphism were recorded in the Várzea do Capivarita paragneisses by mineral paragenesis and indicate that temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C and pressures between 4 and 8 kbar were required for

  3. Origin and evolution of the granitic intrusions in the Brusque Group of the Dom Feliciano Belt, south Brazil: Petrostructural analysis and whole-rock/isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Mathias; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Castro, Neivaldo Araújo de

    2016-08-01

    In the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina the Dom Feliciano Belt, formed by the tectonic juxtaposition of different crustal blocks during the Brasiliano-Pan African Orogenic cycle, can be divided into three domains. In the central domain, three granitic suites intrude the metavolcanosedimentary sequence of the Brusque Group: São João Batista (SJBS), Valsungana (VS) and Nova Trento (NTS), from the oldest to the youngest. This extensive magmatism, here referred to as granitic intrusions in the Brusqe Group (GIBG), is coeval with the thermal peak in the host metamorphic successions, but postdates its main foliation. A progressive deformation starting from the magmatic stage throughout the cooling history points to the influence of the late stages of deformation recorded in the Brusque Group. The SJBS consists of gray to white leucocratic, equigranular granites, with aluminous minerals such as muscovite, garnet and tourmaline. The porphyritic VS is the largest of the suites and is characterized by its cm-sized K-feldspar megacrysts in a coarse-grained biotite-rich matrix. The granites from the NTS are equigranular, light gray to pink in color and have biotite as the main mafic mineral, but magmatic muscovite, tourmaline and hornblende can occur as well. Geochemically, the GIBG are mildly peraluminous and show a calc-alkaline affinity. Most intrusions have a high REE fractionation, but some SJBS granites show a characteristic pattern with no fractionation and strong negative Eu anomalies ("seagull pattern"). Elevated Sr(i) values, between 0.707 and 0.735, and negative εNd values as low as -24 points to the melting of old evolved crust. The Nd (TDM) ages are scattered between 1.54 and 2.76 Ga, with a predominance of values around 2.0 Ga. The GIBG have a strong crustal signature that most closely connects, within the regional units, to that of the metasedimentary rocks of the Brusque Group and its crystalline basement, the Camboriú Complex. All three suites

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb age and high temperature conditions of the collisional metamorphism in the Várzea do Capivarita Complex: Implications for the origin of Pelotas Batholith, Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Bom, Francisco Molina; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Junges, Sérgio Luiz; Zvirtes, Gustavo

    2016-03-01

    The Várzea do Capivarita Complex is composed of pelitic gneisses with subordinate calc-silicate rock, marble and rare quartzite. It is part of the neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt, in southern Brazil. The gneisses are associated to veins and tabular leucogranite bodies, which are the product of anatexis of the pelitic gneiss. The paragneisses of the Várzea do Capivarita Complex are tectonically juxtaposed to orthogneisses of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex. This complex is exposed as megaxenoliths in granites of the Encruzilhada do Sul Suite and as smaller fragments in the Quitéria and Cordilheira Granites, all part of the Pelotas Batholith. The metamorphic foliation is oriented to N30°W, with dips between 35 and 55° to the SW and mineral lineation is suborizontal with rake ranging from 15° to 30° and down dip to NW and SE, suggesting deformation associated with a transpressive system. Based on the paragenesis garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-biotite, metamorphism occurred at 720-820° C and pressure of 8-9 kbar, characterizing it as of intermediate pressure and high temperature series. Zircon grains of one sample of garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-biotite gneiss and one of peraluminous leucogranite was dated by the U-Pb SHRIMP method. The paragneiss metamorphic zircon yielded an age of 619 ± 4.3 Ma interpreted as an age of the main metamorphic event, whereas igneous zircon grains from the leucogranite indicates that magma crystallization took place at 620 ± 6.3 Ma. The main metamorphic foliation (S2) of the paragneiss and the leucogranite magmatic foliation (S0) are parallel to each other, indicating that they were formed during the same event. This suggests that anatexis of the paragneisses of the Várzea do Capivarite Complex generated the peraluminous leucogranites right after the climax of the collisional metamorphism.

  5. Crustal evolution of granitoids and gneisses from the Cambaizinho belt, southern Brazil: Review zircon Pb-Pb evaporation ages and Pb-Nd-Sr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deformed granitoids and gneisses from the Cambai Complex (900-700 Ma) along Cambaizinho Creek and in the Vila Nova do Sul region, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were formed in a remarkably short time, about 10 m.y., between 704±13 and 697±3 Ma. The data base of this work includes eighteen zircon Pb/Pb evaporation analyses, five Pb isotope in feldspar and whole rock. The oldest known rocks in the region are polydeformed dioritic gneisses dated by conventional U-Pb zircon at 704±13 Ma. New Pb-Pb zircon evaporation data on the late transcurrent, less deformed and more evolved granitoids (Sanga do Jobim Granitoids) yield a 697± Ma age and indicates that the evolution of the plutonic magmatism in the area was nearly contemporaneous. These data contrast with previous interpretations based on Rb-Sr data which considered that these rock associations were formed during a longer time period (700-640 Ma). All these granitoids intruded the supracrustal sequence. These granitoids yield a minimum age of about 700 Ma for the formation of the supracrustal sequence and its regional dynamothermal metamorphism. Lead isotope composition of K-feldspar from Sanga do Jobim Granitoids plot close to, but slightly below the lead isotope evolution curve of orogeny in the Zartmann and Doe model (1981). This indicates that the setting for these granitoids was that of a juvenile magmatic arc. These new data plus previous data in the region also corroborate that the crustal evolution involved juvenile crust accreted between 760-700 Ma. In contrast, the Cacapava and Sao Sepe Granites intruded the supracrustal sequences along the eastern side of the Sao Gabriel Block at 562 Ma and 550 Ma, respectively, and show Pb and Nd isotope signatures from an old basement. This evidence suggests that the juvenile terrane was thrusted over the older basement situated along the eastern part of the shield during the Dom Feliciano collisional orogeny at about 620-590 Ma (au)

  6. Angiostrongylus costaricensis: first record of its occurrence in the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, and a review of its geographic distribution Angiostrongylus costaricensis: primeiro relato de sua ocorrência no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e revisão de sua distribuição geográfica

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Patrus M. Pena; José de Souza Andrade Filho; Samuel Curvelo de Assis

    1995-01-01

    Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is a parasitic disease caused by Angiostrongylus costaricensis, a metastrongylid nematode with wide geographic distribution, occurring from the United States to Argentina. In Brazil, the disease has been reported from the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Federal District of Brasilia and Minas Gerais. We report here a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in a 9-year-old girl, from Itatiba, State of Espirito Santo, Brazil, submitted to...

  7. Tourmaline and Rutile as Indicators of a Magmatic-hydrothermal Origin for Tourmalinite Layers in the São José do Barreiro Area, NE Ribeira Belt, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianna Maria Garda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourmalines from tourmaline-rich layers intercalated with schists of the Rio Una Unit of the Embu Complex and fromcoarse-grained tourmalinite layers associated with quartzite from São José do Barreiro and Formoso (Central Ribeira Belt,São Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed for major, trace- and rare-earth elements and boron stable isotopes. Two main phasesof tourmaline formation were identified by mineral chemistry. The tourmalines from the schist-hosted tourmaline layers arecharacterized by relatively low MgO (from 4.7 to 6.5%, Na2O (1.5 to 2.1% and CaO (from 0.2 to 1.1% contents andhigh Al2O3 (from 32 to 35% and FeO (from 6.7 to 9.0% contents, and also by two (REECN patterns, one represented by(La/YbCN from 2.7 to 4.3 and positive Eu anomalies, and the other by (La/YbCN from 0.2 to 0.3 and practically no Euanomaly. The variations in major-element contents reflect the composition of the rock being metamorphosed and in whichtourmaline is crystallizing, whereas the (REECN patterns indicate the evolution of the metamorphic fluid in face of changingmetamorphic conditions. The tourmaline of the tourmalinite layers intercalated in quartzite is characterized by relatively highAl2O3 (from 32.3 to 33.92%, FeO (from 6.54 to 7.3% and Na2O (from 1.8 to 2.1% contents and very low total REE (3.5ppm contents, in particular of HREE. The (REECN pattern for this tourmaline is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly,indicating a high fluid/rock ratio. The δ11B values for this tourmaline fall in the -12.3 and -13.9‰ interval. On the other hand,the tourmaline of a massive tourmalinite also associated with quartzite has the highest MgO (from 7.3 to 9.7%, CaO (from0.8 to 2.5%, F, Th, U, Hf, Zr, Y, Sr and total REE (305 ppm contents and the lowest Al2O3 (from 28.6 to 31.8% and FeO(from 5.4 to 8.3% contents, when compared to the other tourmalines analyzed. Differing from all other (REECN patterns,the one that characterizes this tourmaline is LREE-enriched [(La

  8. Comunidade de Syrphidae (Diptera: diversidade e preferências florais no Cinturão Verde (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil Syrphidae (Diptera community: diversity and floral preferences in the Green Belt (Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Nunes Morales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se investigar a comunidade de Syrphidae, do Cinturão Verde de Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brasil, permitindo a obtenção de informações acerca da composição e estrutura desta comunidade, suas preferências florais e interações entre as espécies na utilização de recursos alimentares. Realizaram-se coletas com rede entomológica, entre setembro/2001 a janeiro/2005. Foram capturados 1.283 espécimes de Syrphidae, representados por 88 espécies, distribuídos em 21 gêneros. Eristalinae apresentou o maior número de espécies coletadas, seguida por Syrphinae e Microdontinae. O gênero Palpada Macquart e a espécie P. urotaenia (Curran foram os mais abundantes. As coletas alcançaram cerca de 80% do que se estima para a área de estudo. Coletaram-se 1.187 sirfídeos (74 espécies visitantes de 51 espécies de plantas, de 23 famílias, onde Apiaceae e Asteraceae apresentaram o maior número de visitantes. O grau de especialização alimentar variou de acordo com os tipos de flores visitadas. A facilidade do acesso aos recursos florais e a coloração clara das flores são os principais responsáveis pela atração dos sirfídeos em Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Meliaceae, Oleaceae, Poaceae e Solanaceae. A diversidade da comunidade de Syrphidae é regulada por interações locais entre as espécies, principalmente entre as condições ambientais e disponibilidade de recursos alimentares.The aim of this study was to investigate the Syrphidae community in the area of the Green Belt of Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil, as well as to obtain information on the structure and composition of this community, its floral preferences and the interactions between the species in the food resource utilization. The specimens were collected with entomological net, from September/2001 to January/2005. A total of 1.283 syrphid specimens were collected, totaling 88 species distributed in 21 genera. Eristalinae presented the highest number of

  9. The Brasilia-Buenos Aires Axis: A Real Movement or a Virtual Leaning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arce Suárez

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Argentina and Brazil find themselves in a situation in which the apparent agreement in their internal political changes and the harmony between their leaders seem to be serving as triggering elements for the coordination of their foreign policies. Sharing, asthey do, a series of common problems in their insertion into the multilateral sphere and the regional scene, they also have at their disposal initiatives (G-20 and institutions (Mercosur through which to stage, develop and make stable certain cooperative lines which are very useful to them. The article also points out the risks involved in the continuation of a foreign policy coordination that is more rhetorical than real, on the basis of the historical experience of the last few years.

  10. Informal markets and urban sociabilities in the periphery of Brasilia: the case of Ceilândia - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitner Tavares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of some theoretical landmarks of the theory of the city to after rethink the trajectory of Brasilia in the first years its inauguration in 1960. Initially, a quarrel is become fulfilled, in terms of its process of urban segregation and its consequences in terms of the sprouting , of informal places of commerce. After that, while empiric reference, appeals itself the trajectory of the city of Ceilândia – DF, as consequence of the fast transformation of the urban landscape of Brasília. Furthermore, the sprouting of spaces of sociability of actors will be argued insurgent citizens who faces the exclusion of the modern city from the redefinition of practical solidarity as free market of exchanges and fairs as the case of the Feira do Rolo, a kind of flea market, that in relation to other markets, offers to the consumer many products for cheaper prices. Consequently, the fair simultaneously constitutes a commercial alternative for a working class community; and one has left of the significant collective memory of the city, an immaterial heritage that has been redefined permanently by its inhabitants.

  11. Y al comienzo, todo era yermo? el pasado aún presente de la colonización de Brasilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Serra da SILVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “No princípio era o ermo” (“al comienzo, todo era yermo”. Asé escribieron Tom Jobim y Vinícius de Moraes la letra de la canción “Brasília, Sinfonía de la Alborada”, dedicada a la construcción de la capital del Brasil. Cuestionamos en este artículo ese punto de vista; lejos de ser un “infinito descampado”, en donde “no había nadie”, la región ya tenía una larga historia de ocupación humana. La falta de veracidad de tales presupuestos construye en el presente un discurso des-historizador de todo lo que no corrobora esa visión reduccionista. Eso se manifiesta de forma contundente en el conflicto en curso entre una comunidad indígena residente en el perímetro urbano de la ciudad y grandes empresas constructoras aliadas al gobierno del Distrito Federal, en lo que se refiere al proyecto de un nuevo barrio residencial: el Sector Noroeste de Brasilia. Situamos esa disputa como una continuación de un largo trayecto colonial enmascarado Saúde Indígena Tempus - Actas de Saúde Coletiva Revista Tempus Actas de Saúde Coletiva 122 en un discurso modernizante vacío de sentido histórico, que perpetúa y legitima antiguas prácticas de limpieza étnica desde el período de la colonización.

  12. Brazil-Africa geological links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  13. Pb-Pb age and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope signature of paleoproterozoic syenitic plutonism in the south of Salvador-Curaca mobile belt: Sao Felix Syenitic Massif, Bahia-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sao Felix Syenitic Massif (MSSF) has a tabular shape with about 32 km2 that represents the south expression of the aligned syenitic plutonism, which occur in the middle part of Salvador-Curaca mobile belt (CMSC). Single zircon dating by stepwise Pb evaporation methodology yields an age of 2098 ± 1 Ma to SFSM. This data correlate the emplacement of the SFSM with the late stages of SCMB stabilization. This massif is isotopically characterized by negative epsilon neodymium values (-1.45 to -2.89) and low initial strontium ratio (0.701 to 0.704). SFSM isotopic signature is similar to the ones displayed by the others syenites from the belt and reflects an enriched source which should be related to a metasomatic enriched mantle. (author)

  14. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvânia Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Goiás, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FISCHEL DANIELLE P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic metavolcanic rocks from the Silvânia Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasília Belt. Zircon grains from a metavolcanic sample yielded 2115 ± 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 ± 14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six metavolcanic samples of the Silvânia Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 ± 110 Ma and positive epsilonNd(T = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T DM model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and epsilonNd(T values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T DM value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvânia volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasília Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasília Belt.

  15. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  16. Ocorrência de rochas da fácies granulito no Cinturão Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brasil Occurrence of granulite-facies rocks in the Mineiro Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Souza Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Na região de Lagoa Dourada, inserida no Cinturão Mineiro, ocorrem granitóides paleoproterozóicos, que intrudem seqüências supracrustais arqueanas do greenstone belt Rio das Velhas. Os granitóides são cortados por rochas máficas anfibolitizadas, que portam xenólitos de granulitos. Trata-se de granulitos máficos caracterizados pela textura granoblástica e pela paragênese ortopiroxênio-clinopiroxênio-anfibólio-plagioclásio. Como fases secundárias, registram-se actinolita, cummingtonita, carbonato, epídoto, granada e quartzo. Determinações geotermométricas baseadas nos pares minerais ortopiroxênio-clinopiroxênio e anfibólio-plagioclásio produziram valores de temperatura entre 700 e 853ºC. As fases secundárias são produtos de um processo metamórfi co posterior.Paleoproterozoic granitoids intruding the Archean greenstone belt of Rio das Velhas are found in the region of Lagoa Dourada, which belongs to the Mineiro Belt. The granitoids are cut by amphibolitized mafi c rocks which contain xenoliths of granulite facies rocks. The rocks are mafi c granulites, characterized by their granoblastic texture and by parageneses orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene-amphibole-plagioclase. As secondary minerals, actinolite, carbonate, epidote, cummingtonite, garnet and quartz can be found. Geothermometric determinations based on the mineral pairs orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene and amphibole-plagioclase yielded temperature values between 700ºC and 853ºC. The secondary mineral phases are interpreted as a result of a younger metamorphic event.

  17. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvânia Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Goiás, central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    FISCHEL DANIELLE P.; PIMENTEL MÁRCIO M.; FUCK REINHARDT A.; ARMSTRONG RICHARD

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic metavolcanic rocks from the Silvânia Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasília Belt. Zircon grains from a metavolcanic sample yielded 2115 ± 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 ± 14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six metavolcanic samples of the Silvânia Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 ± 110 Ma and positive epsilon...

  18. Association of body composition with sarcopenic obesity in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Silva AO; Karnikowski MGO; Funghetto SS; Stival MM; Lima RM; Souza JC; Navalta JW; Prestes J

    2013-01-01

    Alessandro Oliveira Silva,1,2 Margô Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Marina Morato Stival,3 Ricardo Moreno Lima,3 Jéssica Cardoso de Souza,1 James Wilfred Navalta,4 Jonato Prestes11Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 4University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence o...

  19. Belt-up!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1999-07-01

    Advanced control systems, improved materials and new dust control systems have turned the humble conveyor belt into a sophisticated method for transporting materials. RJB Mining has improved productivity at the Price of Wales colliery in Yorkshire, UK, with the installation of Alstom`s VDM drive system; Qualter Hall`s upgraded conveyor system at the Rugely Power Station in the UK is proving its ability to minimise coal spillage. The article highlights advances by several manufacturers in conveyor technology. 5 photos.

  20. Timing and sources of granite magmatism in the Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil: Insights from zircon in situ U–Pb dating and Hf isotope geochemistry in granites from the São Roque Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Andrade, Sandra; Vasconcellos, Antonio Carlos B. C.; Henrique-Pinto, Renato; Ulbrich, Horstpeter H. G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Eight new in situ U-Pb zircon age determinations by SHRIMP and LA-MC-ICPMS reveal that the main granitic magmatism in the São Roque Domain, which is largely dominated by metaluminous high-K calc-alkaline monzogranites with subordinate peraluminous leucogranites, occurred between 604 ± 3 and 590 ± 4 Ma. This small temporal range is ca. 20-30 Ma younger than previously admitted based on U-Pb TIMS dates from literature, some of which obtained in the same occurrences now dated. The observed discrepancy seems related to the presence of small Paleoproterozoic inherited cores in part of the zircon populations used for TIMS multigrain dating, which could also respond for the unusually high (up to 10 Ma) uncertainty associated with most of these dates. The younger age range now identified for the São Roque granite magmatism has important implications for the evolution of the Ribeira Fold Belt. Whilst previously admitted ages ca. 620-630 Ma substantiated correlations with the widespread and intensely foliated high-K calc-alkaline granitoid rocks of the neighbor Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (potentially associated with an accretionary continental margin), the ∼600-590 Ma interval seems more consistent with a late deformation tectonic setting. Strongly negative εHf(t) characterize the magmatic zircons from the São Roque Domain granites. An eastward increase from -22 in the São Roque Granite to -11 in the Cantareira Granite and neighboring stocks suggests an across-domain shift in granite sources. Such eastward younging of sources, also indicated by Sm-Nd isotope data from granites and supracrustal sequences in neighboring domains, is suggestive that some of the first-order limits and discontinuities in this belt are not defined by the strike-slip fault systems traditionally taken to separate distinct domains. Although the negative εHf(t) and εNd(t) indicate sources with long crustal residence for all studied granite plutons, the observed range is more radiogenic than the

  1. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  2. Experimental models of 'Basement'-controlled salients - application to the proterozoic fold-thrust belt of the quadrilátero ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Caroline J. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaled sandbox models are used to simulate the development of ´basement´-controlled, salients. We investigate the controlling factors on the development of closed curvatures in map-view, considering constant both the sand pack thickness and the space between obstacles. These models are compared with the Fundão-Cambotas Fault System in the Proterozoic fold-thrust belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, along the southeastern margin of the São Francisco craton. In the experiments, a pronounced curvature resulted from the margin-controlled salient process in the presence (i of a basal ductile detachment, or (ii of pre-existing structures. The results suggest that the convex-to-the-foreland, west-vergent Fundão-Cambotas Fault System that borders the Archean basement highs and displaced older Transamazonian structures westward, is partly a consequence of interaction of propagating thrusts with obstacles in the foreland.

  3. Belt conveyor for recycle aggregate

    OpenAIRE

    Bezrodný, Roman

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the belt conveyor for the transport of recycled aggregate in an oblique direction. The aim is to find constructional solutions to the belt conveyor for the assigned transport capacity of 95 000 kg per hour, and the assigned axial distance of 49 m and different height of 12 m. The thesis contains a brief description of the belt conveyor and a description of basic constructional components. It also contains a functional calculation of the capacity and forces acco...

  4. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  5. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  6. Contrasted crustal sources as defined by whole-rock and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of neoproterozoic early post-collisional granitic magmatism within the Southern Brazilian Shear Belt, Camboriú, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florisbal, Luana Moreira; de Assis Janasi, Valdecir; de Fátima Bitencourt, Maria; Stoll Nardi, Lauro Valentim; Heaman, Larry M.

    2012-11-01

    The early phase of post-collisional granitic magmatism in the Camboriú region, south Brazil, is represented by the porphyritic biotite ± hornblende Rio Pequeno Granite (RPG; 630-620 Ma) and the younger (˜610 Ma), equigranular, biotite ± muscovite Serra dos Macacos Granite (SMG). The two granite types share some geochemical characteristics, but the more felsic SMG constitutes a distinctive group not related to RPG by simple fractionation processes, as indicated by its lower FeOt, TiO2, K2O/Na2O and higher Zr Al2O3, Na2O, Ba and Sr when compared to RPG of similar SiO2 range. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes require different sources. The SMG derives from old crustal sources, possibly related to the Paleoproterozoic protoliths of the Camboriú Complex, as indicated by strongly negative ɛNdt (-23 to -24) and unradiogenic Pb (e.g., 206Pb/204Pb = 16.0-16.3; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.3-15.4) and confirmed by previous LA-MC-ICPMS data showing dominant zircon inheritance of Archean to Paleoproterozoic age. In contrast, the RPG shows less negative ɛNdt (-12 to -15) and a distinctive zircon inheritance pattern with no traces of post-1.6 Ga sources. This is indicative of younger sources whose significance in the regional context is still unclear; some contribution of mantle-derived magmas is indicated by coeval mafic dykes and may account for some of the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the least differentiated varieties of the RPG. The transcurrent tectonics seems to have played an essential role in the generation of mantle-derived magmas despite their emplacement within a low-strain zone. It may have facilitated their interaction with crustal melts which seem to be to a large extent the products of reworking of Paleoproterozoic orthogneisses from the Camboriú Complex.

  7. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  8. Updating the Seismic Hazard Determination in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franca, G. S.; Algarte, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This job presents an update of research by Berrocal in 1996 in the determination of seismic hazard for the Southeast of Brazil, based on the earthquake catalog compiled at the Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo and bulletin of Seismological Observatory, Universidade de Brasilia, during the period between 1767 until May 2012. The southeastern Brazil has a level of seismic activity is considered low, typical of intraplate regions. Our database has a total of 3726 events, however 1242 events do not have the magnitude estimated, 1638 events are between magnitudes 0.1 to 1.9 and from 2.0 to 3.9 are 819 events. The largest earthquake in the region occurred on February 28, 1955 with magnitude 6.1 mb (Assumpção, 2000), with its epicenter about 400 km from the coast, this was felt in small cities, especially in Espirito Santo State. The intensity VIII-IX MM was estimated by Berrocal et al. (1984). The database also has four events with magnitude above 5.0 mb in the region that occurred during the past 215 years and a little more than a twenty earthquakes with magnitude between 4.0 and 5.0 mb. Instrumental data are available since the 1970s when the station network was installed in Brasilia. Several other short-period vertical stations have been installed in the region. We used data from the same area defined in the previous survey, located between parallels 15S-32S degree and longitudes 35W-52W degree. It contains the most developed area of Brazil, and the major cities and industrial centers of the country (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte). Major engineering works, hydroelectric and nuclear power plant (Angra dos Reis) are also in this area. Therefore, the results can be applied to the planning and construction of large engineering within that region. With GIS and seismology tools was calculated relative frequency/magnitude for earthquakes mb > 3.0, the value of b with the maximum likelihood method, and so curves of recurrence was

  9. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J

    2010-01-01

    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  10. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  11. Study of thermal conditions at belt slippage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, R.; Pampel, W.; Pfleger, P.

    1987-04-01

    Conveyor belt slippage experiments are carried out on the Chrudim (Czechoslovakia) industrial sized test stand for belt widths up to 1 m and driving drum forces up to 400 kW. The stand is operated jointly by TAKRAF (GDR) and VITKOVICE VUTZ, Prague. From 1972 to 1981, 7 belt conveyor fires occurred in GDR brown coal surface mines due to belt slippage. One of these cases led to a belt fire after only 15 s at 100% belt slippage. Aim of the study was to determine accurate permissible slippage values. Design of the test stand is explained as well as test procedures with belt slippage at the driving drum varying between 10 and 100%. Belt driving parameters were measured along with temperature of the drum surface. The heat penetration parameter b (in kJ/m/sup 2/) was calculated. Maximum temperatures up to 150 C were measured on the drum during partial slippage and 370 C at 100% belt slippage. The ignition temperature of rubber abrasion fines was also analyzed and found to vary between 40 and 318 C, i.e. substantially lower than belt and drum layer ignition temperatures. Graphs and diagram of slippage measurement results are calculated. Values for permissible maximum slippage time for operating belt slippage monitoring devices are shown. These devices are required to be installed in the GDR at heavy mine belt conveyors with driving forces exceeding 500 kW. 8 refs.

  12. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-D. Pautet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km.

    Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  13. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  14. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  15. NONLINEAR DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF VISCOELATIC TRANSMISSION BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghui; Gao Qing; Jian Kailin; Yin Xuegang

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamic responses of viscoelastic axially transmission belts are investigated and the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive model is employed to characterize the material property of belts. The generalized equation of motion is obtained for a viscoelatic axially transmission belts with geometric nonlinearity first, and then is reduced to be a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying Galerkin's method. Finally, the effects of viscosity parameter and elastic parameter and the moving velocity of the belts on the transient responses are investigated by the research of digital simulation.

  16. Pipeline maintenance, evaluation and inspection in water crossing: OSBRA case in Paranaiba River; Inspecao, avaliacao e manutencao de oleoduto em travessia: caso OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo-Brasilia) no Rio Paranaiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Newton Camelo de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Vieira Paulo de Tarso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Attempting to pipeline integrity proceeding of PETROBRAS, the OSBRA (Sao Paulo-Brasilia Pipeline) Management promoted field inspections by divers at Paranaiba River water crossing, located at your right-of-way pipeline. These services were composed by topography, visual inspections and local screened of the pipeline, determining the equipment layout at that water crossing. At Paranaiba River, the pipeline is seated above the river bed. The results indicated high spans in the pipeline structure. Considering this configuration, were made water speed and vibration measurements near the equipment. The activities were executed in order to assist the structural analysis of the pipeline. These studies had concluded to a temporary solution, which consisted in reducing loads and building additional supports. (author)

  17. A Educação Física da Universidade de Brasilia e a Formação de Professores: Aspectos Epistemológicos Physical Education and Teacher Education at the University of Brasilia: epistemological aspects A educación física de la Universidade de Brasília y la formación de profesores: aspectos epistemológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta resultados parciais de pesquisa iniciada em 2004, na Faculdade de Educação Física da Universidade de Brasília, tendo como um dos objetivos identificar os paradigmas norteadores do Curso de Licenciatura em Educação Física da Universidade de Brasília e suas respectivas influências na formação do corpo docente. O referencial teórico transita pela teoria do conhecimento e a pesquisa segue abordagem qualitativa. Conclui-se que o curso de Licenciatura em Educação Física apresenta disputa de campos entre as áreas da Atividade Física e Desempenho Humano e Educação Física, Esporte e Sociedade. A disputa entre estas áreas se constitui em um jogo de linguagens e pode contribuir para legitimar a área de Educação Física, Esporte e Sociedade. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: educação física – Licenciatura – epistemologia – formação de professores This work presents partial results of a research work started in 2004 at the Physical Education College (FEF of the University of Brasilia (UnB, having as one of its goals the identification of the guiding paradigms of the Physical Education BA course at the University of Brasilia and its respective influences in the professional education of FEF/UnB’s faculty. Theoretical references were based on knowledge theories and research was conducted according to the qualitative approach. The conclusion reached is that the Physical Education BA course program presents a battle of ideas between the areas of Physical Activity and Human Performance and Physical Education, Sport and Society. The battle between these areas constitutes a language debate which may contribute to legitimize the field of Physical Education, Sport and Society. KEYWORDS: physical education – BA programs – epistemology – teacher education Este trabajo presenta resultados parciales de una investigación iniciada en 2004 en la Facultad de Educación Física (FEF de la Universidad de Brasilia (Un

  18. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topits, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  19. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  20. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats. PMID:21452095

  1. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. (Geophysics Lab., Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Physics Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (US))

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  2. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.

  3. The Gould's Belt distance survey

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, L; Torres, R M; Dzib, S; Rodriguez, L F; Boden, A F

    2011-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations can provide the position of compact radio sources with an accuracy of order 50 micro-arcseconds. This is sufficient to measure the trigonometric parallax and proper motions of any object within 500 pc of the Sun to better than a few percent. Because they are magnetically active, young stars are often associated with compact radio emission detectable using VLBI techniques. Here we will show how VLBI observations have already constrained the distance to the most often studied nearby regions of star-formation (Taurus, Ophiuchus, Orion, etc.) and have started to provide information on their internal structure and kinematics. We will then briefly describe a large project (called The Gould's Belt Distance Survey) designed to provide a detailed view of star-formation in the Solar neighborhood using VLBI observations.

  4. Binaries in the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, K S; Chiang, E I; Margot, J L; Kern, S D; Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, William M.; Chiang, Eugene I.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Kern, Susan D.

    2007-01-01

    Binaries have played a crucial role many times in the history of modern astronomy and are doing so again in the rapidly evolving exploration of the Kuiper Belt. The large fraction of transneptunian objects that are binary or multiple, 48 such systems are now known, has been an unanticipated windfall. Separations and relative magnitudes measured in discovery images give important information on the statistical properties of the binary population that can be related to competing models of binary formation. Orbits, derived for 13 systems, provide a determination of the system mass. Masses can be used to derive densities and albedos when an independent size measurement is available. Angular momenta and relative sizes of the majority of binaries are consistent with formation by dynamical capture. The small satellites of the largest transneptunian objects, in contrast, are more likely formed from collisions. Correlations of the fraction of binaries with different dynamical populations or with other physical variabl...

  5. Strategy for replacing conveyor belts in complex haulage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysiewicz, L.; Jurdziak, L.; Masella, J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses service life and reliability of conveyor belts used for mine haulage in brown coal surface mining and a method for optimizing belt service life. Based on analysis of operation of 900-1,200 m long belt conveyors in the Konin surface mine, failure rates and factors that influence belt reliability were determined. Effects of joints, length of belt sections and service life of each belt section were analyzed. Formulae for determining the optimum time interval for replacing belt sections on a long belt conveyor were derived. The formulae consider cost of new belt sections, replacement cost and haulage losses associated with possible belt failure caused by excessive belt service life. The optimization procedure has been successfully tested at the Turow surface mine and power plant. 4 refs.

  6. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SangWanLee

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  7. DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF VISCOELASTIC AXIALLY MOVING BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映辉; 高庆; 蹇开林; 殷学纲

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive law and the motion equation of the axially moving belt, the nonlinear dynamic model of the viscoelastic axial moving belt was established. And then it was reduced to be a linear differential system which the analytical solutions with a constant transport velocity and with a harmonically varying transport velocity were obtained by applying Lie group transformations. According to the nonlinear dynamic model, the effects of material parameters and the steady-state velocity and the perturbed axial velocity of the belt on the dynamic responses of the belts were investigated by the research of digital simulation. The result shows: 1 ) The nonlinear vibration frequency of the belt will become small when the relocity of the belt increases. 2 ) Increasing the value of viscosity or decreasing the value of elasticity leads to a deceasing in vibration frequencies. 3 ) The most effects of the transverse amplitudes come from the frequency of the perturbed velocity when the belt moves with harmonic velocity.

  8. Computer-aided design of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolewski, B.; Pytel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Possibilities are discussed for using mathematical models of belt conveyors for development of computer-aided design of conveyors for coal mining. Examples of optimization tasks and methods for their solution using computerized simulation are analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by an algorithm used to design a starter for the drive system of a belt conveyor. Electromagnetic moment and starting current are used as optimization criteria. A simplified model of a belt conveyor is used. The model consists of an equation of motion with variable braking moment and variable moment of inertia. 3 references.

  9. From transmission error measurement to Pulley-Belt slip determination in serpentine belt drives: influence of tensioner and belt characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Manin, Lionel; Michon, Guilhem; Rémond, Didier; Dufour, Regis

    2007-01-01

    Serpentine belt drives are often used in front end accessory drive of automotive engine. The accessories resistant torques are getting higher within new technological innovations as stater-alternator, and belt transmissions are always asked for higher capacity. Two kind of tensioners are used to maintain minimum tension that insure power transmission and minimize slip: dry friction or hydraulic tensioners. An experimental device and a specific transmission error measurement method have been u...

  10. U-Pb zircon geochronology of ''brasiliano'' granitoids from the Serido orogenic belt (Borborema Province, NE Brazil). Ages U-Pb sur zircon de granitoides ''brasilianos'' de la ceinture du Serido (Province Borborema, NE Bresil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leterrier, J.; Bertrand, J.M. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques); Pin, C. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Jardim de Sa, E.

    1994-06-01

    Diorites previously attributed to an early stage of the 'brasiliano' plutonic evolution of the Serido belt yielded U-Pb zircon age of 579 [+-]7 Ma. The age of associated granites is slightly younger although a synchronous emplacement of granites and diorites is suggested by field relationships. Such an age difference may result from difficulties to distinguish 'crystallization age' from 'emplacement age', which is still to be determined precisely. (authors). 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  12. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  13. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  14. Favourable environments for uranium occurences in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the present knowledge of Brazilian Precambrian geology, an attempt is made to divide Precambrian rocks into different regions according to their favourability criteria for uranium concentrations. Paleozoic and Mesozoic occurrences are also mentioned. They are mainly associated with large sedimentary basins. Brazilian uranium occurrences can be grouped into the following environments: (1) Metaconglomerates; (2) Metasomatic rocks (associated with albitization); (3) Vein type; (4) Sandstone type and (5) Intrusive alkalic rock. Upper Proterozoicas folding regions related to mobile belts and large Precambrian unconformities are good targets for uranium exploration in Brazil. (Author)

  15. Two Discrete UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts in the Central Orogenic Belt, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhang Li; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2006-01-01

    An attempt is made to confirm the existence of the two discrete UHP and HP metamorphic belts in the central orogenic belt in China. Detailed geological mapping and structural and petrological analyses of the Kanfenggou (看丰沟) and Xiangfanggou ( 香坊沟 ) slices exposed in the eastern Qinling (秦岭) orogen indicate that they experienced ultrahigh pressure and high pressure metamorphism, respectively. The former, situated in northern Qinling, contains a large volume of fine-grained coesite and quartz pseudomorphs after coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses, whereas the latter, located in southern Qinling, preserves the relicts of a high pressure metamorphic mineral assemblage. Based on extensive fieldwork together with compilations at the scale of the orogenic belt, and a comparison of Pb isotopic compositions between the UHP metamorphic rocks from Kanfenggou slice and the Dabie UHP metamorphic belt, we propose that there are at least two discrete ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belts with different ages and tectonic evolution within the central orogenic belt in China. The first is the South Altun-North Qaidam-North Qinling ultrahigh pressure metamorphic belt of Early Paleozoic age (~ 500-400 Ma). The Kanfenggou ultrahigh pressure slab is located at its eastern segment. The second is the well constrained Dabie ( 大别 )-Sulu ( 苏鲁 ) ultrahigh/ high pressure metamorphic belt of Triassic age (~250-220 Ma). The Xiangfanggou high pressure metamorphic slab is a westward extension of the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh/high pressure metamorphic belt. The Pb isotopic compositions of the UHP metamorphic rocks from Kanfenggou UHP fragment in East Qinling are different from those of the UHP rocks in Dabie UHP metamorphic belt, but are consistent with those of the rocks from the Qinling rock group and Erlangping (二郎坪) rock group. The East Qinling UHP metamorphic belt does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt. These two ultrahigh

  16. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  17. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Tomono, K.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, T. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  19. The Compositions of Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Objects in the Kuiper belt are small and far away thus difficult to study in detail even with the best telescopes available at earth. For much of the early history of the Kuiper belt, studies of the compositions of these objects were relegated to collections of moderate quality spectral and photometric data that remained difficult to interpret. Much early effort was put into simple correlations of surface colors and identifications of spectral features, but it was difficult to connect the observations to a larger understanding of the region. The last decade, however, has seen a blossoming in our understanding of the compositions of objects in the Kuiper belt. This blossoming is a product of the discoveries of larger -- and thus easier to study -- objects, continued dedication to the collection of a now quite large collection of high quality photometric and spectroscopic observations, and continued work at the laboratory and theoretical level. Today we now know of many processes which affect the surface compos...

  20. Perceptual findings on the broadway belt voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeo LeBorgne, Wendy; Lee, Linda; Stemple, Joseph C; Bush, Heather

    2010-11-01

    The present study required raters (casting directors) to evaluate the belt voice quality of 20 musical theater majors who were proficient in the singing style referred to as belting. Two specified vocalizes and six short excerpts from the belting repertoire were used for rating purposes. The raters were asked to judge the belters on a set of seven perceptual parameters (loudness, vibrato, ring, timbre, focus, nasality, and registration breaks), and then report an overall score for these student belters. The four highest and lowest average scores were used to establish the elite and average student belters. A correlation analysis and linear regression analysis provided insight regarding which perceptual judgments correlated most highly with the elite and average scores. The present study found the perceptual ratings of vibrato and ring to be most highly correlated to the elite student belter. In addition, vibrato and ring were found to highly correlate with perceived loudness. PMID:19900789

  1. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles......, the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  2. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  3. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the r

  4. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  5. Sucesso no tratamento do zumbido com terapia em grupo Group therapy for patients with tinnitus at the University of Brasilia Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Holdefer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Embora os tratamentos em grupos para o zumbido sejam uma área bem documentada na literatura internacional, até onde sabemos nunca foram realizados no Brasil. Este estudo apresenta uma experiência bem-sucedida de um tratamento em grupo para zumbido baseado na terapia de retreinamento do zumbido aliada com as técnicas cognitivo-comportamentais. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar pacientes com zumbido antes e depois do tratamento em grupo estruturado baseado da terapia de retreinamento do zumbido e na terapia cognitivo comportamental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo coorte prospectivo: 27 sujeitos aplicaram-se para a pesquisa. Responderam ao inventário do Handicap do Zumbido (THI e à escala da Ansiedade e Depressão Hospitalar (HAD,antes e depois do tratamento. Foram realizadas 6 sessões estruturadas segundo os princípios da terapia de retreinamento do zumbido associada com técnicas cognitivo-comportamentais. RESULTADOS: 27 pacientes iniciaram e 19 terminaram o tratamento (8 excluídos. 47,4% homens, média das idades 47.6. O resultado do THI antes e depois do tratamento foi respectivamente: funcionais, 29 e 14; emocional, 24 e 10; e catastrófico, 12 e 5; a escala HAD: ansiedade, 12 e 9 e depressão, 10 e 6. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento descrito é efetivo na melhora do zumbido.Although group therapy for tinnitus is a well documented field in the international literature, as far as we know it has never been held in Brazil. This study represents a successful experience of a group therapy for tinnitus based on the tinnitus retraining therapy associated with behavioral cognitive techniques. The goal of the present study is to assess patients with tinnitus before and after the group therapy based on the tinnitus retraining therapy and the behavioral cognitive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study: 27 subjects signed in for the study, and answered the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI and the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale (HAD

  6. Detecting Extrasolar Asteroid Belts Through Their Microlensing Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Ethan; Dong, Subo

    2016-01-01

    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called "pseudo-caustics", regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive microlensing light curves across a wide region of belt parameter space and possess remarkably large lensing cross-sections. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys (e.g., WFIRST) may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of $0.1 M_{\\oplus}$.

  7. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  8. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use. PMID:27309488

  9. LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON DRUMS OF DOUBLE DRIVE BELT CONVEYOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利

    1999-01-01

    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  10. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  11. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  12. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  13. Study of the shallow convection over the Belem region in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi Marinho Pires, Luciana; Suselj, Kay; Rossato, Luciana; Teixeira, Joao

    2016-04-01

    The largest forest of the world, the Amazon, presents an interesting and very complex system mixing forests, various topographies, sites of deforestation, cities, and regions close and far from the coast, which influence the climatology of the region. This study was focused in the region of Belem which is considered the rainiest region in the eastern Amazon with precipitation around 2000 mm/year. Belem is the capital of Para state, which is located in northern Brazil, 2,146 kilometers from Brasilia with an area of about 1,059,458 km² and a population of 1,432,844 inhabitants with 26% of the area of the Brazilian Amazon and having 49% of its natural attractions, according to the Organization of American States. Shallow convection and deep convection are among the main components of the local energy balance. An analysis of the performance of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory /NASA model of shallow convection parameterization in a framework of the single column model (SCM) in relation to the cluster of cumulus clouds formed in the coastal region of the Amazon forest due to squall lines is provided. To achieve this purpose infrared images from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), visible images from the GOES-12/METEOSAT satellites, and data obtained by the "Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)" - CHUVA - campaign, during the month of June of 2011, were used. Results demonstrated that the parameterizations performed well in the case where only a core of clouds was observed.

  14. Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  15. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  16. The impact of building-integrated photovoltaics on the energy demand of multi-family dwellings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordenes, Martin; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Braun, Priscila; Ruther, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes (LabEEE), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil); Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LABSOLAR), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    Brazil faces a continuous increase of energy demand and a decrease of available resources to expand the generation system. Residential buildings are responsible for 23% of the national electricity demand. Thus, it is necessary to search for new energy sources to both diversify and complement the energy mix. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is building momentum worldwide and can be an interesting alternative for Brazil due its solar radiation characteristics. This work analyses the potential of seven BIPV technologies implemented in a residential prototype simulated in three different cities in Brazil (Natal, Brasilia and Florianopolis). Simulations were performed using the software tool EnergyPlus to integrate PV power supply with building energy demand (domestic equipment and HVAC systems). The building model is a typical low-cost residential building for middle-class families, as massively constructed all over the country. Architectural input and heat gain schedules are defined from statistical data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica - Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Sistema de Informacoes de Posses de Eletrodomesticos e Habitos de Consumo - Consumer Habits and Appliance Ownership Information System (SIMPHA)). BIPV is considered in all opaque surfaces of the envelope. Results present an interesting potential for decentralized PV power supply even for vertical surfaces at low-latitude sites. In each facade, BIPV power supply can be directly linked to local climatic conditions. In general, for 30% of the year photovoltaic systems generate more energy than building demand, i.e., during this period it could be supplying the energy excess to the public electricity grid. Contrary to the common belief that vertical integration of PV is only suitable for high latitude countries, we show that there is a considerable amount of energy to be harvested from vertical facades at the sites investigated. (Author)

  17. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    OpenAIRE

    Yimei Mao; Zuoying Huang; Guiyun Tian; Hui Zhao; Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of ...

  18. Modal analysis of coupled vibration of belt drive systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; CHEN Li-qun

    2008-01-01

    The modal method is applied to analyze coupled vibration of belt drive systems. A belt drive system is a hybrid system consisting of continuous belts modeled as strings as well as discrete pulleys and a tensioner arm. The characteristic equation of the system is derived from the governing equation. Numerical results demenstrate the effects of the transport speed and the initial tension on natural frequencies.

  19. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  20. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira; Marta De Souza Albernaz

    2014-01-01

    The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%). However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006) that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing...

  1. [Assistance for customers with sexually transmitted diseases at pharmacies in the Federal District, Brazil: an intervention study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, Janeth de Oliveira Silva; Castro, Lia Lusitana Cardozo de; Melo, Gislane Ferreira de; Giavoni, Adriana; Merchán-Hamann, Edgar

    2008-03-01

    A quantitative survey was conducted to analyze the type of assistance provided by pharmacy employees for cases of STDs. Simulated customer visits and interviews were conducted in 70 pharmacies in Brasilia and Taguatinga, Brazil, randomly assigned to two groups, one of which participated in educational activities on STDs. There were 411 simulated client visits to the pharmacies, with the following results: recommendation to seek medical care in 30% of cases, while in 70% of cases the pharmacy employees themselves recommended some drug treatment (although only 16.4% admitted to such practice). None of these suggested treatments was appropriate, based on the syndromic approach. Recommendations for prevention and treatment of partners were rare. Pharmacists recommended consulting a physician more frequently than attendants, and the latter recommended medicines more frequently than the former. Pharmacy workers had only superficial knowledge of STDs. After an educational intervention, none of the indicators showed a significant improvement in either group. The observations point to the need for regulation and intervention to publicize educational practices for the control of diseases like STDs and for the rational use of medicines in pharmacies.

  2. CHAOTIC BELT PHENOMENA IN NONLINEAR ELASTIC BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张年梅; 杨桂通

    2003-01-01

    The chaotic motions of axial compressed nonlinear elastic beam subjected totransverse load were studied. The damping force in the system is nonlinear. Consideringmaterial and geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear governing equation of the system wasderived. By use of nonlinear Galerkin method, differential dynamic system was set up.Melnikov method was used to analyze the characters of the system. The results showed thatchaos may occur in the system when the load parameters P0 and f satisfy some conditions.The zone of chaotic motion was belted. The route from subharmonic bifurcation to chaoswas analyzed. The critical conditions that chaos occurs were determined.

  3. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Greenberg, Richard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Burns, Joseph A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations.

  4. Parametric resonances of convection belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-an YANG; Gao-feng LI

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Coriolis acceleration and the Lagrangian strain formula,a generalized equation for the transverse vibration system of convection belts is derived using Newton's second law.The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations,and an approximate solution of the primary parameter resonance of the system is obtained.The detuning parameter,cross-section area,elastic and viscoelastic parameters,and axial moving speed have a significant influences on the amplitudes of steady-state response and their existence boundaries.Some new dynamical phenomena are revealed.

  5. Denudation History and Paleogeographic Reconstruction of the Phanerozoic of southern Mantiqueira Province, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission

  6. Stabilization of electrostatic accelerator charging belt current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of improving reliability and quality of electrostatic accelerator basic parameters the stabilizer of charging belt current is developed. The stabilizer consists of two units: high-voltage unit and control unit. The charging rectifier assures voltage up to 60 kV at total current load of 750 μA. For the EG- 2.5 and the EGP-10 M accelerators supply circuits of charging device with an earth screen and posAitive voltage supply the needles. t the EGP-10-1 accelerator negative charging voltage is supplied to the screens of the charging device. ''Plus'' of the rectifier is earthed. Charging and recharging are performed by means of brushes slipping over the internal belt side. At all accelerators the stability of charging current mean value is not worse 0.1%. The highest response of the system are obtained at the EG-2.5 accelerator for account of rectifier load by charging current and instrument resistor from 140 to 400 MOhm

  7. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  8. Young Stellar Objects in the Gould Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas; Di Francesco, James; Gutermuth, Robert A; Harvey, Paul M; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M; Matthews, Brenda C; Miller, Jennifer F; Peterson, Dawn E; Young, Kaisa E

    2015-01-01

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0+I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background AGB stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40-0.78 Myr for Class 0+I YSOs and 0.26-0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the ado...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall...

  10. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  11. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  12. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  13. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  14. The white marble used in Brasília, a World Heritage and the capital of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heloisa Barros de Oliveira Frascá, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Created as the Brazilian capital, in the central western part of Brazil, Brasilia is a definitive example of 20th century modernist urbanism. It was built in only four years, from 1956 to 1960, following the project of urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer that intended that every element - from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves - should be in harmony with the city's overall design. This description is from the World Heritage Centre, of Unesco, that nominated Brasilia as a Cultural Heritage Property in 1987. Most of the remarkable buildings designed Oscar Niemeyer, cited by Unesco, are around the Plaza of Three Powers, as the Planalto ("Plateau") Palace, the National Congress, the Supreme Court, the Cathedral, the National Theatre among others. Aside from the worldwide recognition of the architectonic value of these buildings, it is barely mentioned the expressive use of white marble as cladding. Very few are found in the literature about specification criteria, provenance, fixation method and conservation. According to Oscar Niemeyer Foundation, at this moment they know that the stone come from a supplier in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A preliminary research indicated that the marble used in most of Brasilia buildings are from the municipality of Italva, in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ, 2012). In a study carried out by DRM-RJ, in 2003, it is mentioned two white marble commercialized as dimension stone in Italva: "Sparkling Marble" (SM) and "Italva White Marble" (IWM), respectively dolomite-calcite marble and dolomite marble. Their main characteristics are: bulk specific gravity: 2,792 kg/m3 (SM) and 2,852kg/m3 (IWM); water absorption: 0.08 % (SM) and 0.10 % (IWM); uniaxial compression strength: 84.3 MPa (SM) and 88.2 MPa (IWM); modulus of rupture: 9.92 MPa (SM) and 8.75 MPa (IWM); coefficient of linear

  15. Multipliers of Voice Campaign in Brasilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Graziano Magalhães Torres

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of the livings course experiments Technical and Resources of Expressiveness to talk to Public, promoted by NESPROM – CEAM – UNB in 2010-2011, addressing the topic of skills development to speak to the public with safety and confidence, as well as the importance of the use of the voice in this process. It can be observed that by providing students we see advances in expressiveness of the participants during the course and the commitment that perform to obtain a quality result, producing the material based on the information available on the website of the Brazilian society of speech therapy. All present themselves for a second time before the Facilitator, demonstrating safety and the use of the techniques learned. There was satisfaction with the gains on public speaking, even because, talk about a light object and that they all have, as the voice, brings security and trust for the apprentice. Ending a highlight poetry produced by one of the participants completing the course.

  16. Landscape distribution characteristics of northern foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains are about 280 km long and 60 km wide, and the study area extends from Kuitun city to Fukang city. They are transitional belts between mountains and plains, appearing in three rows of folds with different morphologies and their age becoming younger from south to north. Based on GIS and RS methods, and materials of the previous researchers, this paper deals with the genetics of the foothill belts and their landscape features resulting from folding by neotectonic movements, and also describes their length, width and slope by remote sensing image interpretation. The characteristics of the foothill belts are found to be very important for the surrounding environment by preventing groundwater from flowing into plains, changing groundwater, increasing flow of surface runoff, in addition to their roles in protecting the surrounding environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of the foothill belts and influence on its surrounding environment.

  17. a Wave Model for a Pneumatic Tyre Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    PINNINGTON, R. J.; BRISCOE, A. R.

    2002-06-01

    A one-dimensional wave equation of an infinite flattened tyre belt is generated. The belt vibration is controlled by bending, tension, shear and the sidewall stiffness. The dispersion relations for two waves in the belt are calculated and used to find both the input impedance and attenuation on a tyre belt of infinite extent. Tension and the sidewall controls the deformation and stiffness below 100Hz. Waves propagate around the belt above this frequency. The wave speeds due to bending and shear were predicted and measured. The model presented here should be valid for the prediction of tyre response above about 400 Hz when for a car tyre the modal behaviour is observed to cease. In this high-frequency region, the tyre at the input appears to be of infinite extent.

  18. Radiation-belt dynamics during solar minimum. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Holeman, E.

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45 deg. and 55 deg. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  19. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  20. A Study on the Vibration of the Charging Belt in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator has intense influences on the accelerator operation. A calculating model was set up in this paper to study the belt vibration. The results show that the belt tension, belt velocity and belt current all contribute to the belt vibration. There is an optimal relationship among the three factors by which the belt would run most smoothly. There exists a minimum value of optimal tension for various belt velocities. The vibrating frequency of the is generally around several Hz.

  1. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  2. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  3. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  4. Geometry, kinematics and evolution of the Tongbai orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shaoying; XU Bei; WANG Changqiu; ZHAN Sheng; DENG Rongjing

    2006-01-01

    The Tongbai orogenic belt (TOB) is composed of six tectonic units. From south to north these units are: Tongbai gneiss rise (TGR); Hongyihe-Luozhuang eclogite belt (HLE); Maopo-Hujiazhai igneous rock belt (MHI); Zhoujiawan flysch belt (ZFB); Yangzhuang greenschist belt (YGB); and Dongjiazhuang marble belt (DMB).The geometry and kinematic images of the TOB include: the antiformal structures caused by a later uplift process, the top-to-north ductile shear structure that related to a process that the ultrahigh pressure rocks are brought to surface, the top-to-south ductile shear thrust and the sinistrial shear structures related to a south-north direction compression, and the east-west direction fold structures in the upper crust. In the view of the multistage subduction-collision orogenic belt, according to the characters of petrology and its distribution, geometry, kinematics and structural chronology in these tectonic units, tectonic evolution of the TOB can be divided into four stages: oceanic crust subduction during 400-300 Ma, continental collision during 270-250 Ma, continental deep subduction and uplift during 250-205 Ma and doming deformation during 200-185 Ma.

  5. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-11-01

    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  6. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  7. Detection of Small Kuiper Belt Objects by Stellar Occultations

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, R

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the Kuiper Belt is currently limited to those objects that can be detected directly. Objects with diameters less than $\\sim$10km reflect too little light to be detected. These smaller bodies could contain most of the mass in the Kuiper Belt while the abundance of these bodies may constrain the distribution of mass. The overall size distribution of bodies within the Kuiper Belt can also be inferred from the relative abundances of sub-km and larger bodies. Stellar occultations are ...

  8. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  9. Energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare the Gross Domestic Product increase of 4 % in the next years, it is necessary to increase the capacity in Brazil. The government decided actions in favor of the installed capacity growth speeding up and planed investments. This document takes stock on the energy situation in Brazil, the human, political and geographical constraints and the decided measures in favor the energy development. (A.L.B.)

  10. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  11. Algoma-type Neoproterozoic BIFs and related marbles in the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Campos, Marcel S.; Gaucher, Claudio;

    2015-01-01

    for the Jucurutu Formation show negative δ13C values at the base of the formation followed upsection by positive values. At the Ferro do Bonito iron Mine, values as low as ˗12‰ in carbonates just above the contact with underlying BIF are followed by values of ca. ˗5‰ and by positive values up section (+4 to +10....... These carbonates may represent post-glacial cap carbonate sequences deposited in an anoxic to slightly oxic shallow marine environment, as suggested by Ce/Ce* versus Pr/Pr* and Ce/Ce* versus Nd cross-relationships....

  12. 4 National Standards for Rubber Belt Products Issued

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On May 20, National General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine and National Standardization Administration approved to issue 4 national standards for rubber belt products, which come into effect from October 1.

  13. Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160032.html Face-Saving Devices: Seat Belts and Air Bags Using ... 11 percent) suffered facial fractures -- nasal and mid-face fractures most often. Those most likely to suffer ...

  14. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  15. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  16. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness. PMID:20391006

  17. 5m Main Belt Asteroid Population Estimation Using Vesta Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Michael; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    The Main Belt is the largest source of Near-Earth asteroids, but objects 2 pixels in diameter that were counted in a 33km 2 region to give a crater density. By knowing the crater density and making some reasonable assumptions about the orbital distribution of asteroids and the age of Vesta's surface, an estimate of the population of small asteroids in the inner main belt was made. It was found that the inner region of the main asteroid belt contains approximately 20 billion asteroids larger than 5 m. These results agree well with the measured inner Main Belt Size distribution derived by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, WISE (Masiero et al. 2011).

  18. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE CENOZOIC THRUST FOLD BELT IN JINPING, SICHUAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhongli; DENG Yongfu; LIAO Guangyu

    2003-01-01

    The Jinping orogenic belt in Sichuan, China consists mainly of the Jinpingshan intracontinental thrust-nappe belt, foreland thrust-nappe belt and foreland uplift belt. Based on analyses about the characteristics of the structural units in this area, the authors propose in this paper that Chapuzi-Bazhe revival fault belt is the regional boundary fault, and points out that after the formation of the Pre-Sinian basement, the western edge of the Yangtze paraplatform was turned into the passive continental margin in Sinian to Triassic, then into the Mesozoic collision orogenic belt, and finally into the Cenozoic orogenic belt through intracontinental orogeny.

  19. Biofuel and food security. The impact of the EU politics on the production of food with the example of Brasilia; Biokraftstoff und Ernaehrungssicherheit. Die Auswirkungen der EU-Politik auf die Nahrungsmittelproduktion am Beispiel Brasilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration presents a detailed overview of the economic, environmental and social consequences as well as the prospects of increased cultivation of biofuel in the European Union and Brazil and their impact on the bilateral relations. The associated risks and opportunities are identified. The author reports on how much our globalized world is dependent on ecologically and economically sustainable approach.

  20. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  1. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  2. Tribological Properties of Metal V-Belt Type CVT Lubricant

    OpenAIRE

    Keiichi Narita

    2012-01-01

    The priority for lubricant performance for metal V-belt-type CVT (B-CVTFs) should be the improvement of transmittable torque capacity between the belt and pulley plus excellent antishudder properties for lockup clutch used in B-CVTs. This study intends to investigate the effect of lubricant additives for improving these performances of B-CVTs. In addition, surface analysis techniques were utilized to gain a novel insight into the chemical composites and morphology of the tribofilms. As a resu...

  3. Promoting automobile safety belt use by young children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers-Hoag, K M; Thyer, B A; Bailey, J S

    1987-01-01

    A program using behavioral practice, assertiveness training, and social and contrived reinforcers was developed to establish and maintain automobile safety belt use by young children. Sixteen children (ages 4.8 to 7 years) who never used their safety belts during a 5-day preexperimental observation period were randomly assigned to two groups of eight each. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training program. During the 8-day baseline period ...

  4. Design of MGA trajectories for main belt asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 乔栋; 崔平远; 栾恩杰

    2003-01-01

    Asteroid exploration is one of the most sophisticated missions currently being investigated. Gravityassist trajectories have proven valuable in interplanetary missions such as the Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo. In this paper, we design interplanetary trajectory for main belt asteroid exploration mission with the Mars gravityassist (MGA) using "pork chop" plots and patched-conic theory and give some initial valuable trajectory parameters on main belt asteroid exploration mission with MGA.

  5. Occultation Searches for Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, A R; Cooray, Asantha; Farmer, Alison J.

    2003-01-01

    The occultation of background stellar sources by foreground Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) can be used to survey physical properties of the KBO population. We discuss statistics related to a KBO occultation survey, such as the event duration distribution, and suggest that occultation searches can be effectively used to probe the KBO size distribution below 10 km. In particular, we suggest that occultation surveys may be best suited to search for a turnover radius in the KBO size distribution due to collisions between small-size objects. For occultation surveys that monitor stellar sources near the ecliptic over a few square degrees, with time sampling intervals of order 0.1 sec and sensitivity to flux variations of a few percent or more, a turnover radius between 0.1 and 1.0 km can be probed. While occultation surveys will probe the low-radius limit and imaging surveys will detect KBOs of size 100 km or more, statistics of objects with sizes in the intermediate range of around 1 km to 100 km will likely remain un...

  6. Orion revisited III. The Orion Belt population

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, K; Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Ascenso, J; Burkert, A; Forbrich, J; Großschedl, J; Hacar, A; Hasenberger, B; Lombardi, M; Meingast, S; Köhler, R; Teixeira, P S

    2016-01-01

    This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the $\\epsilon$ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0\\,Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (\\textit{XMM-Newton}) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2\\,000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5\\, Myr and likely $\\sim10$\\,Myr and estimate a total of about 2\\,500 mem...

  7. Detecting Mass Loss in Main Belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Erik; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Ridgway, Susan E.; Kotulla, Ralf C.; Valdes, Francisco; Allen, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Sandberg, E., Rajagopal, J., Ridgway, S.E, Kotulla, R., Valdes, F., Allen, L.The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the 4m Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) is being used for a survey of Near Earth Objects (NEOs). Here we attempt to identify mass loss in main belt asteroids (MBAs) from these data. A primary motivation is to understand the role that asteroids may play in supplying dust and gas for debris disks. This work focuses on finding methods to automatically pick out asteroids that have qualities indicating possible mass loss. Two methods were chosen: looking for flux above a certain threshold in the asteroid's radial profile, and comparing its PSF to that of a point source. After sifting through 490 asteroids, several have passed these tests and should be followed up with a more rigorous analysis.Sandberg was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experiences for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829)

  8. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  9. Forming the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt in a light Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Andrew; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Large Kuiper Belt Objects are conventionally thought to have formed out of a massive planetesimal belt that is a few thousand times its current mass. Such a picture, however, is incompatible with multiple lines of evidence. Here, we present a new model for the conglomeration of Cold Classical Kuiper belt objects, out of a solid belt only a few times its current mass, or a few percent of the solid density in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. This is made possible by depositing most of the primordial mass in grains of size centimetre or smaller. These grains collide frequently and maintain a dynamically cold belt out of which large bodies grow efficiently: an order-unity fraction of the solid mass can be converted into large bodies, in contrast to the ~0.1% efficiency in conventional models. Such a light belt may represent the true outer edge of the Solar system, and it may have effectively halted the outward migration of Neptune. In addition to the high efficiency, our model can also produce a mass spectrum that pe...

  10. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, climate and ... 5, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Brazil, by a wide margin, has been the country ...

  11. Delivery of meteorites from the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Michael Craig

    The process of the delivery of meteorites to the surface of the Earth from plausible source regions such as the asteroid belt is currently understood in general terms, but important uncertainties and conflicts remain to be resolved. Stochastic effects of the rare disruptions of large asteroids on the population of meteorite-sized Earth-crossing asteroids can change the flux and the proportions of compositional types in the infalling meteorite population. These changes can be significant in magnitude over timescales of 108 years. Changes of the order of 1 percent can be expected on timescales of 105-106 y, consistent with small differences between the Antarctic meteorites and modern falls. The magnitude of changes depends strongly on poorly-understood details of collisions. Asteroids 961 Gaspra and 243 Ida were recently imaged by the Galileo spacecraft. I use a numerical hydrocode model to examine the outcomes of various sire impacts into targets the sizes of these asteroids. A shock wave fractures the asteroid in advance of crater excavation flow; thus, for impactors larger than 100 m, impacting at 5.3 km s-1, tensile strength is unimportant in these bodies, whether they are initially intact or are 'rubble piles'. Because of the shock-induced fracture, impact results are controlled by gravity. Therefore these asteroids are much more resistant to catastrophic disruption than predicted by previous estimates, which had assumed that strength was controlling these processes for rock targets. Fracture of km-size asteroids is different from fracture in terrestrial experiments using few-cm targets. The composition distribution of delivered meteorites depends on the outcomes of such asteroid impacts.

  12. Activating main belt comets by collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maindl, T. I.; Haghighipour, N.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.

    2016-02-01

    Since their identification as a new class of bodies by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006 active asteroids (or Main Belt Comets, MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest. Given that sublimation of volatile material (presumably water-ice) drives MBC activity, these bodies are probable candidates for delivering a significant amount of Earth's water. Dynamical studies suggest in-situ formation of MBCs as the remnants of the break-up of large icy asteroids. Also, collisions between MBCs and small objects might have exposed sub-surface water-ice triggering the cometary activity of these bodies. In order to advance the effort of understanding the nature of MBC activation, we have investigated these collision processes by simulating the impacts in detail using a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that includes material strength and fracture models. Our simulations cover a range of impact velocities (between 0.5 km/s and 5.3 km/s) and angles, allowing m-sized impactors to erode enough of an MBC's surface to expose volatiles and trigger its activation. We also varied the material strength of the active asteroid's surface to study its influence on crater depths and shapes. As expected, depending on the impact energy, impact angle, and MBC's material strength we observe different crater depths. Across all scenarios however, our results show that the crater depths do not exceed a few meters. This implies that if the activity of MBCs is due to sublimating water-ice, ice has to exist in no deeper than a few meters from the surface.

  13. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  14. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  15. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... notice (FR Doc. 2011-15233) published on pages 35893 and 35894 of the issue for Monday June 20, 2011. Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa...

  16. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses Brazil's corporate governance policy framework. It highlights recent improvements in corporate governance regulation, makes policy recommendations, and provides investors with a benchmark against which to measure corporate governance in Brazil. It is an update of the 2005 corporate governance Report on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Brazil's experience o...

  17. [A better Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  18. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  19. Digital Spectra and Analysis of Altitudinal Belts in Tianshan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baiping; MO Shenguo; WU Hongzhi; XIAO Fei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the framework of the geo-info spectra of montane altitudinal belts, this paper firstly reviews six classification systems for the spectra of mountain altitudinal belts in China and considers that detailed regional study of altitudinal belts is the key for reaching standardization and systemization of mountain altitudinal belts. Only can this furtheridentify and resolve problems with the study of altitudinal belts. The factors forming the spectra of altitudinal belts are analyzed in the Tianshan Mountains of China, and a digital altitudinal belt system is constructed for the northern flank, Southern flank, the heartland, and Ilivalley in the west. The characteristics of each belt are revealed with a summarization of the pattern of areal differentiation of altitudinal belts.

  20. A Physical Model of Electron Radiation Belts of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzato, L.; Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.

    2012-04-01

    Radiation belts causes irreversible damages on on-board instruments materials. That's why for two decades, ONERA proposes studies about radiation belts of magnetized planets. First, in the 90's, the development of a physical model, named Salammbô, carried out a model of the radiation belts of the Earth. Then, for few years, analysis of the magnetosphere of Jupiter and in-situ data (Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo) allow to build a physical model of the radiation belts of Jupiter. Enrolling on the Cassini age and thanks to all information collected, this study permits to adapt Salammbô jovian radiation belts model to the case of Saturn environment. Indeed, some physical processes present in the kronian magnetosphere are similar to those present in the magnetosphere of Jupiter (radial diffusion; interaction of energetic electrons with rings, moons, atmosphere; synchrotron emission). However, some physical processes have to be added to the kronian model (compared to the jovian model) because of the particularity of the magnetosphere of Saturn: interaction of energetic electrons with neutral particles from Enceladus, and wave-particle interaction. This last physical process has been studied in details with the analysis of CASSINI/RPWS (Radio and Plasma Waves Science) data. The major importance of the wave particles interaction is now well known in the case of the radiation belts of the Earth but it is important to investigate on its role in the case of Saturn. So, importance of each physical process has been studied and analysis of Cassini MIMI-LEMMS and CAPS data allows to build a model boundary condition (at L = 6). Finally, results of this study lead to a kronian electrons radiation belts model including radial diffusion, interactions of energetic electrons with rings, moons and neutrals particles and wave-particle interaction (interactions of electrons with atmosphere particles and synchrotron emission are too weak to be taken into account in this model). Then, to

  1. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the southern margin of the Sausar Mobile Belt of central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Ramachandra; Abhinaba Roy

    2001-12-01

    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190 km long, detached narrow, linear, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending belt that is in tectonic contact on its northern margin with the Sausar Group of rocks and is bordered by the Sakoli fold belt in the south. The Bhandara part of the BBG belt is quite restricted, comprising a medium to coarse grained two-pyroxene granulite body that is of gabbroic composition and preserves relic igneous fabric. The main part of the belt in Arjuni-Balaghat section includes metasedimentary (quartzite, BIF, Al- and Mg-Al metapelites) and metaigneous (metaultramafic, amphibolite and two-pyroxene granulite) protoliths interbanded with charnockite and charnockitic gneiss. These rocks, occurring as small bands and enclaves within migmatitic and granitic gneisses, show polyphase deformation and metamorphism. Geochemically, basic compositions show tholeiitic trend without Fe-enrichment, non-komatitic nature, continental affinity and show evolved nature. Mineral parageneses and reaction textures in different rock compositions indicate early prograde, dehydration melt forming reactions followed by orthopyroxene stability with or without melt. Coronitic and symplectitic garnets have formed over earlier minerals indicating onset of retrograde IBC path. Evidences for high temperature ductile shearing are preserved at places. Retrogressive hydration events clearly post-date the above paths. The present study has shown that the BBG belt may form a part of the Bastar Craton and does not represent exhumed oceanic crust of the Bundelkhand Craton. It is further shown that rocks of the BBG belt have undergone an earlier high-grade granulite metamorphism at 2672 ± 54 Ma (Sm-Nd age) and a post-peak granulite metamorphism at 1416 ± 59 Ma (Sm-Nd age, 1380 ± 28 Ma Rb-Sr age). These events were followed by deposition of the Sausar supracrustals and Neoproterozoic Sausar orogeny between 973 ± 63 Ma and 800 ± 16 Ma (Rb-Sr ages).

  2. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H

    2014-03-20

    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt. PMID:24646996

  3. JOVIAN EARLY BOMBARDMENT: PLANETESIMAL EROSION IN THE INNER ASTEROID BELT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turrini, D.; Coradini, A.; Magni, G., E-mail: diego.turrini@ifsi-roma.inaf.it [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133, Rome (Italy)

    2012-05-01

    The asteroid belt is an open window on the history of the solar system, as it preserves records of both its formation process and its secular evolution. The progenitors of the present-day asteroids formed in the Solar Nebula almost contemporary to the giant planets. The actual process producing the first generation of asteroids is uncertain, strongly depending on the physical characteristics of the Solar Nebula, and the different scenarios produce very diverse initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs). In this work, we investigate the implications of the formation of Jupiter, plausibly the first giant planet to form, on the evolution of the primordial asteroid belt. The formation of Jupiter triggered a short but intense period of primordial bombardment, previously unaccounted for, which caused an early phase of enhanced collisional evolution in the asteroid belt. Our results indicate that this Jovian Early Bombardment caused the erosion or the disruption of bodies smaller than a threshold size, which strongly depends on the SFD of the primordial planetesimals. If the asteroid belt was dominated by planetesimals less than 100 km in diameter, the primordial bombardment would have caused the erosion of bodies smaller than 200 km in diameter. If the asteroid belt was instead dominated by larger planetesimals, the bombardment would have resulted in the destruction of bodies as big as 500 km.

  4. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley ``turbine`` (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the ``turbine`` corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the ``turbine`` belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  5. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  6. Research on Dynamic Tension for Belt Conveyor with Constant Force Automatic Take-Up Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guo-ying; CHEN Jing-li; LI Yu-jin

    2003-01-01

    The article Provides a dynamic model for belt conveyor. Based on the drive-force of conveyor, take-up tension of take-up assembly, gravity of conveyor belt and material, and friction between belt and idlers, it gives a viscoelastic dynamic equation for conveyor belt. It presents a calculation method of analytic solution to both viscoelastic dynamic equation and geometric dynamic equation when automatic take-up assembly is applied to belt conveyor. The article also makes a study of design method of limiting and eliminating the conveyor belt's elastic vibration.

  7. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; K Yumuto

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the morphology of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) along 45°W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, Sao Luiz (inclination −0.25°S). was largest positive at Eusebio (inclination 9.34°S) and largest negative at Belem (inclination 7.06°N); both near the fringe of EEJ belt. at Sao Luiz during the daytime was unexpectedly large negative in-spite of a small dip and also located south of the dip equator where should be positive. Center of EEJ was found to be shifted southward of the dip equator by about 1° in latitude. During southern summer, started decreasing from 00 h and reached a minimum value in the afternoon, an abnormal feature not discussed for any station so far. The mid-day value of the direction of vector was 22°-24°W compared to the declination of 19°–21°W in the region.

  8. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  9. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda do Socorro da Silva Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  10. Adult Education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  11. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  12. Two new basaltic asteroids in the Outer Main Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Duffard, R

    2007-01-01

    The identification of other basaltic objects in the asteroid belt is mandatory to explain the diversity in the collection of basaltic meteorites. This diversity requires more than one differentiated parent body, a fact that is consistent with the diversity of differentiated parent bodies implied by the iron meteorites. Based on a list of previously identified candidate basaltic (V-type) asteroids, two asteroids in the outer main belt, (7472) Kumakiri and (10537) 1991 RY16, were spectroscopically observed during an observational run in Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. We confirm the V-type character of these two asteroids that, together with (1459) Magnya, become the only known traces of basaltic found in the outer main belt up to now. We also demonstrate that the searching for candidate V-type asteroids using a photometric survey, like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produces reliable results.

  13. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; I B Ramaprasada Rao; N Srinivasulu

    2001-03-01

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either side by the peninsular gneissic complex. The elevation and slab Bouguer corrected residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex.

  14. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  15. Relativistic surfatron process for Landau resonant electrons in radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Osmane, A

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of the nonlinear wave-particle interactions for relativistic particles have shown that Landau resonant orbits could be efficiently accelerated along the mean background magnetic field for propagation angles $\\theta$ in close proximity to a critical propagation $\\theta_\\textrm{c}$ associated with a Hopf--Hopf bifurcation condition. In this report, we extend previous studies to reach greater modeling capacities for the study of electrons in radiation belts by including longitudinal wave effects and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. We find that even though both effects can limit the surfatron acceleration of electrons in radiation belts, gains in energy of the order of 100 keV, taking place on the order of ten milliseconds, are sufficiently strong for the mechanism to be relevant to radiation belt dynamics.

  16. TAKRAF belt conveyors - effective means of transport for bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterman, L.

    1988-11-01

    Presents belt conveyor types produced by TAKRAF, especially those intended for use at surface mines. The FAM works (Transport Equipment) produces belt conveyors 800-1,400 mm wide, with 2.09-5.24 m/s belt velocity, 460-3,750 m/sup 3//h capacity, max. feed distance 2,500 m and (1-5)x55 kW drive power. The drive stations are based on pontoons or caterpillar vehicles while the end-stations are based on pontoons. Charging hoppers have autonomic drives and are mobile on rail. The described conveyors can also be used in power plants. The FAM works produces 650-800 mm wide conveyors for thermal electric power stations. The conveyors are equipped with metal detectors and metal separators.

  17. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  18. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... are the same as used in this report and here the comparison is satisfactory. We estimate that the prospective Fehmarn Belt bridge will be closed roughly 2% of the timefor light roadway vehicles (unloaded trucks and caravans), corresponding to 7 days per year. This is slightly less than for the Fehmarnsund...

  19. Bifurcation for Dynamical Systems of Planet-Belt Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin

    2002-01-01

    The dynamical systems of planet-belt interaction are studied by the fixed-point analysis and the bifurcation of solutions on the parameter space is discussed. For most cases, our analytical and numerical results show that the locations of fixed points are determined by the parameters and these fixed points are either structurally stable or unstable. In addition to that, there are two special fixed points: the one on the inner edge of the belt is asymptotically stable and the one on the outer ...

  20. Deepwater fold and thrust belt classification, tectonics, structure and hydrocarbon prospectivity: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, C. K.; King, R.; Hillis, R.; Tingay, M.; Backe, G.

    2011-01-01

    and Type 2 systems is reservoir rock. High quality, continent-derived, quartz-rich sandstones are generally prevalent in Type 1 systems. More diagenetically reactive minerals derived from igneous and ophiolitic sources are commonly present in Type 2 systems, or many are simply poor in well-developed turbidite sandstone units. However, some Type 2 systems, particularly those adjacent to active orogenic belts are partially sourced by high quality continent-derived sandstones (e.g. NW Borneo, S. Caspian Sea, Columbus Basin). In some cases very high rates of deposition in accretionary prisms adjacent to orogenic belts, coupled with uplift due to collision, results in accretionary prism related fold belts that pass laterally from sub-aerial to deepwater conditions (e.g. S. Caspian Sea, Indo-Burma Ranges). The six major hydrocarbon producing regions of DWFTBs worldwide (Gulf of Mexico, Niger Delta, NW Borneo, Brazil, West Africa, S. Caspian Sea) stand out as differing from most other DWFTBs in certain fundamental ways, particularly the very large volume of sediment deposited in the basins, and/or the great thickness and extent of salt or overpressured shale sdetachments.

  1. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  2. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  3. Nature of the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dermott, S.F.; Murray, C.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA). Lab. for Planetary Studies)

    1983-01-20

    The distributions of orbital eccentricities and inclinations near the Jovian resonances in the asteroid belt show that the observed Kirkwood gaps in the distribution of the semimajor axes were formed after the asteroids had dispersed from the near-coplanar disk in which they accreted.

  4. Uranium deposits of the Grants, New Mexico mineral belt (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a study of the genesis of the U deposits of the Grants mineral belt. Enrichment of Mg in ore zones is frequently observed, with chlorite being a common product. Clay mineralogic studies argue for chlorite-illite-montmorillonite associations with ores. The methods include scanning electron microscopy, Eh-pH diagrams, activation analysis, and rare earth element studies

  5. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  6. Collisional and dynamic evolution of dust from the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Bo A. S.; Gruen, Eberhard; Dermott, Stanley F.; Durda, Daniel D.

    1992-01-01

    The size and spatial distribution of collisional debris from main belt asteroids is modeled over a 10 million year period. The model dust and meteoroid particles spiral toward the Sun under the action of Poynting-Robertson drag and grind down as they collide with a static background of field particles.

  7. Influence of the Gould Belt on Interstellar Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcharov, George

    2016-01-01

    A new analytical 3D model of interstellar extinction within 500 pc of the Sun as a function of the Galactic spherical coordinates is suggested. This model is physically more justified than the widely used Arenou model, since it takes into account the presence of absorbing matter both in the layer along the equatorial Galactic plane and in the Gould Belt. The extinction in the equatorial layer varies as the sine of the Galactic longitude and in the Gould Belt as the sine of twice the longitude in the Belt plane. The extinction across the layers varies according to a barometric law. It has been found that the absorbing layers intersect at an angle of 17 deg and that the Sun is located near the axial plane of the absorbing layer of the Gould Belt and is probably several parsecs below the axial plane of the equatorial absorbing layer but above the Galactic plane. The model has been tested using the extinction of real stars from three catalogs.

  8. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; D Himabindu; N Srinivasulu

    2003-12-01

    Semi-detailed gravity investigations were carried out over an area of approximately 2750 sq km with maximum N-S and E-W extents of 55 and 50km respectively in the Gadag region in the Dharwar craton with a view to obtain a clearer perception of the structural configuration of the region. From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are inferred: the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep seated fault. While the N-S trend of the Gadag schist belt is bounded on its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is likewise bounded by two other NW-SE major faults. Quantitative evaluation from forward modeling/inversion of five profiles in the region, assuming a density contrast of 0.29 gm/cc of the anomalous schistose body with the gneissic host rocks indicated a synclinal structure plunging to the southeast along its axis for the Gadag schist belt. The maximum width and depth from surface of the schist belt are 22km and 5.6km respectively.

  9. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal. F

  10. WISE Albedos for Tens of Thousands of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Delbo, M.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Mueller, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; WISE Science Team, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    Using thermal IR data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have calculated diameters for tens of thousands of previously known Main Belt asteroids. Using archival optical observations we have also determined albedos for each object. We present our results from this investig

  11. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-01

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone. PMID:20520711

  12. PROPOSALS ON IMPROVING THE EXCAVATION, TRANSPORT AND COAL DEPOSIT, USING THE RUBBER CONVEYOR BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  13. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  14. Heliostat tailored to Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pfahl, Andreas; Bezerra, Pedro; Hölle, Erwin; Liedke, Phillip; Teramoto, Erico Tadao; Hertel, Johannes; Lampkowski, Marcelo; L Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    For Brazil it is important to realize a high local production share because of high import tax rates. The rim drive concept offers an alternative for expensive heliostat drive solutions with slew and linear drives from abroad. By (locally produced) rims the demands on the drives regarding strength and precision are reduced to a very low value and low cost drives can be used. Sandwich facets (which are usually foreseen for rim drive heliostats) are not available from Brazilian manufacturers an...

  15. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  16. Belt(s) of debris resolved around the Sco-Cen star HIP 67497

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnefoy, M; Ménard, F; Vigan, A; Lagrange, A -M; Delorme, P; Boccaletti, A; Lazzoni, C; Galicher, R; Desidera, S; Chauvin, G; Augereau, J C; Mouillet, D; Pinte, C; van der Plas, G; Gratton, R; Beust, H; Beuzit, J L

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, we initiated a survey of Scorpius-Centaurus A-F stars that are predicted to host warm-inner and cold-outer belts of debris similar to the case of the system HR~8799. The survey aims to resolve the disks and detect planets responsible for the disk morphology. In this paper, we study the F-type star HIP~67497 and present a first-order modelisation of the disk in order to derive its main properties. We used the near-infrared integral field spectrograph (IFS) and dual-band imager IRDIS of VLT/SPHERE to obtain angular-differential imaging observations of the circumstellar environnement of HIP~67497. We removed the stellar halo with PCA and TLOCI algorithms. We modeled the disk emission with the GRaTeR code. We resolve a ring-like structure that extends up to $\\sim$450 mas ($\\sim$50 au) from the star in the IRDIS and IFS data. It is best reproduced by models of a non-eccentric ring with an inclination of $80\\pm1^{\\circ}$, a position angle of $-93\\pm1^{\\circ}$, and a semi-major axis of $59\\pm3$ au. We also ...

  17. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  18. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  19. TECTONICS OF THE DABIE OROGENIC BELT, CENTRAL CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fu-sheng; XIA Fei; PENG Hua-ming; DU Yang-song

    2002-01-01

    Tectonically the Dabie orogenic belt consists mainly of the Dabieshan Yanshanian uplifted zone and the Beihuaiyang Variscan-Indosinian folding zone. In the north boundary adjoining the North China Block, there are an Early Palaeozoic ophiolitic mixtite belt and the Hefei Mesozoic-Cenozoic faulted basin which overlaps on the suture belt. In the south of Dabie orogen, there is a secondary tectonic unit called Foreland thrust-faulted structural zone which was mainly formed by the intracontinental subductions during Mesozoic era. The study shows that the Dabie Block is a part of mid-late Proterozoic palaeo-island arc at the north margin of Yangtze Block. During Caledonian period, as a submerged uplift at the northen continental margin of Yangtze Block, the Dabie Block collided with the early Palaeozoic palaeo-island arc at the south margin of North China Block, resulting in the convergence of the North and South China Blocks and the disappearance of oceanic crust. Since then,large-scale intracontinental subductions were followed. Dabie Orogenic Belt is the product of overlapping of Yangtze Block, Dabie Block and North China Block under the mechanism of intracontinental subduction. Indosinian period is the period of chief deformation and high pressure dynamic metamorphism for Dabie Block, and Yanshan period is the main orogenic period in which the remelting of crust caused by basement shearing resulted in large scale thermometamorphism. The present tectonic framework of the orogen was finally formed by the rapid uplifting of the Dabieshan mountains and gliding southwards, which result in the developing of thrust belt on south side and the extensional tectonic movement on north side.

  20. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human–electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes. (paper)

  1. ASSESSMENT OF HOMEOWNERSHIP AND ASSET POVERTY IN THE ALABAMA BLACK BELT AND NON-BLACK BELT COUNTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kanyi, Peter M.; Baharanyi, Ntam; Ngandu, Mudiayi Sylvain; Zabawa, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed homeownership and how it is affected by race, residency in or out of Alabama Black Belt, family status, poverty and other variables. All variables showed significant relationship to Alabama homeownership with single-parenthood showing a negative impact on White homeownership but insignificant to Black homeownership in the region.

  2. Break the Green Belt? The differences between green belt and its alternative green wedge : A comparative study of London and Stockholm

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Luyao

    2012-01-01

    The paper sets out to compare two widely applied planning strategies--- green belt and green wedge--- to understand if as an alternative, the green wedge has more strengths than green belt. Green belt has long been the planning policy with a steady position in UK, and also accepted by other countries, Australia, Japan, Korea for example. But during recent years, this policy has been under accusation for fostering un-sustainability, housing shortage and value degradation of the green space. A ...

  3. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEST METHODS OF THE CONVEYOR BELTS USED IN ENVIRONMENTS ENDANGERED BY EXPLOSION HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  5. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  6. BRAZIL'S CARBON BUDGET FOR 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent history of deforestation in the Amazon region of Brazil is well known. ajor reason for alarm over the rate and magnitude of deforestation in Brazil has been concern that the reduction in vegetation releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that may contr...

  7. Nuclear material control in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Brazil is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Brazil are presented, the facilities and nuclear material under these agreements are listed, and the dificulties on the pratical implementation are discussed. (E.G.)

  8. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  9. Tribological Properties of Metal V-Belt Type CVT Lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Narita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The priority for lubricant performance for metal V-belt-type CVT (B-CVTFs should be the improvement of transmittable torque capacity between the belt and pulley plus excellent antishudder properties for lockup clutch used in B-CVTs. This study intends to investigate the effect of lubricant additives for improving these performances of B-CVTs. In addition, surface analysis techniques were utilized to gain a novel insight into the chemical composites and morphology of the tribofilms. As a result, it is vital for greater torque capacity to give higher boundary friction coefficient between the metal contacting interfaces, and the process of boundary lubricant film formation derived from antiwear additives used in B-CVTFs strongly impacts on the torque capacity. Moreover, it is found that a sort of lubricant formulation gave an excellent antishudder performance for wet clutch with keeping higher friction coefficient between the metals, which would result in improving the performance of B-CVTs.

  10. MINIMIZATION OF CORD WASTAGES IN BELT INDUSTRY USING DMAIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAILESH N. KHEKALE,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing processes tend to produce operational wastages due to various reasons, which can be reduced by identifying and eliminating those using Six Sigma methodologies. In the presented work, DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control has been used to reduce cord wastages in belt manufacturing. Core issues, pain areas or processes related to cord wastages are identified to formulate the problem. Later the concerned data is collected to examine the current performance and process capability; also the root causes are identified. Solutions are found out from improvement point of view, and various tools are properly implemented for tracking the processes. This study reports reduction in cord wastages in belt manufacturing through reduction in DPMO (Defects per Million Opportunities from 549531 to 17240, also the Sigma Level isimproved from 1.37 to 3.6.

  11. Statistical properties of the radiation belt seed population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Huang, C.-L.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Shprits, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the tens and hundreds of keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈0.73 with a time lag of 10-15 h. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of penetration of the seed population determines the inner boundary of the acceleration process. However, we show that an enhanced seed population alone is not enough to produce acceleration in the higher energies, implying that the seed population of hundreds of keV electrons is only one of several conditions required for MeV electron radiation belt acceleration.

  12. Operational experiences with belt rollers for bulk conveying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietl, W.

    1982-05-01

    Explains the design of belt rollers produced by TAKRAF for conveyor belts 0.3 m to 3.0 m wide. Light, medium and heavy-duty rollers are manufactured according to a common basic design; the roller diameters range from 63 mm to 245 mm. Major parameters of rollers are discussed, the theoretical roller service life is calculated. Operational conditions which must be observed in order to obtain the theoretical service life in operation are listed. The principle design of the roller is demonstrated in a scheme, focusing on the axial labyrinth seal. Impact forces on rollers at conveyor feeding stations are analyzed. Tests have been carried out using rollers provided with shock absorbing rubber elements compensating the impact load of the bulk, which, however, did not prove to be advantageous. Conclusions on the design of heavy duty rollers to be used at feeding stations are further outlined. (3 refs.) (In German)

  13. The Analysis of Insects Population on Fields in Forest Belts

    OpenAIRE

    Gribust Irina Romuvaldovna

    2014-01-01

    The introduction into the agricultural and ecological system of multifunctional forest belts contributes to the formation of a qualitatively new environment, and, as a consequence, to the transformation of insects populations. Change of the faunal diversity in transformed agro-ecosystems and identification of entomofauna characteristics by a number of biotic indices, which undergo cumulative impact of organized farm ecosystem components, have not been sufficiently studied. This question is th...

  14. Discovery of the candidate Kuiper belt object 1992 QB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David; Luu, Jane

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of a new faint object in the outer solar system, 1992 QB1, moving beyond the orbit of Neptune is reported. It is suggested that the 1992 QB1 may represent the first detection of a member of the Kuiper belt (Edgworth, 1949; Kuiper, 1951), the hypothesized population of objects beyond Neptune and a possible source of the short-period comets, as suggested by Whipple (1964), Fernandez (1980), and Duncan et al. (1988).

  15. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.

  16. Future aerosol reductions and widening of the northern tropical belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert J.; Ajoku, Osinachi

    2016-06-01

    Observations show that the tropical belt has widened over the past few decades, a phenomenon associated with poleward migration of subtropical dry zones and large-scale atmospheric circulation. Although part of this signal is related to natural climate variability, studies have identified an externally forced contribution primarily associated with greenhouse gases (GHGs) and stratospheric ozone loss. Here we show that the increase in aerosols over the twentieth century has led to contraction of the northern tropical belt, thereby offsetting part of the widening associated with the increase in GHGs. Over the 21st century, however, when aerosol emissions are projected to decrease, the effects of aerosols and GHGs reinforce one another, both contributing to widening of the northern tropical belt. Models that have larger aerosol forcing, by including aerosol indirect effects on cloud albedo and lifetime, yield significantly larger Northern Hemisphere (NH) tropical widening than models with direct aerosol effects only. More targeted simulations show that future reductions in aerosols can drive NH tropical widening as large as greenhouse gases, and idealized simulations show the importance of NH midlatitude aerosol forcing. Mechanistically, the 21st century reduction in aerosols peaks near 40°N, which results in a corresponding maximum increase in surface solar radiation, NH midlatitude tropospheric warming amplification, and a poleward shift in the latitude of maximum baroclinicity, implying a corresponding shift in atmospheric circulation. If models with aerosol indirect effects better represent the real world, then future aerosol changes are likely to be an important -- if not dominant -- driver of NH tropical belt widening.

  17. Development of a new Global RAdiation Belt model: GRAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Lazaro, Didier; Maget, Vincent; Rolland, Guy; Ecoffet, Robert; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Boscher, Daniel; Standarovski, Denis

    2016-07-01

    The well known AP8 and AE8 NASA models are commonly used in the industry to specify the radiation belt environment. Unfortunately, there are some limitations in the use of these models, first due to the covered energy range, but also because in some regions of space, there are discrepancies between the predicted average values and the measurements. Therefore, our aim is to develop a radiation belt model, covering a large region of space and energy, from LEO altitudes to GEO and above, and from plasma to relativistic particles. The aim for the first version is to correct the AP8 and AE8 models where they are deficient or not defined. At geostationary, we developed ten years ago for electrons the IGE-2006 model which was proven to be more accurate than AE8, and used commonly in the industry, covering a broad energy range, from 1keV to 5MeV. From then, a proton model for geostationary orbit was also developed for material applications, followed by the OZONE model covering a narrower energy range but the whole outer electron belt, a SLOT model to asses average electron values for 2file system to switch between models, in order to obtain at each location in space and energy point the most reliable value. Of course, the way the model is developed is well suited to add new local developments or to include international partnership. This model will be called the GRAB model, as Global Radiation Belt model. We will present first beta version during this conference.

  18. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    M. McCarthy

    1989-01-01

    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Offi...

  19. Coralling a distant planet with extreme resonant Kuiper belt objects

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2016-01-01

    The four longest period Kuiper belt objects have orbital periods close to small integer ratios with each other. A hypothetical planet with orbital period $\\sim$17,117 years, semimajor axis $\\sim$665 AU, would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. The orbital geometries and dynamics of resonant orbits constrain the orbital plane, the orbital eccentricity and the mass of such a planet, as well as its current location in its orbital path.

  20. Rotation Period Determination of Four Main-belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Observations of four main-belt asteroids (MBA) revealed the following rotation periods and lightcurve amplitudes: 3861 Lorenz, P = 11.91 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.28 mag; 6173 Jimwestphal P = 2.908 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.41 mag; 10259 Osipovyurij, P = 6.356 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.30 mag; 29470 Higgs, P = 36.31 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.48 mag.

  1. Inner radiation belt source of helium and heavy hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, A. A.; Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S. V.; Mikhailov, V. V.; Casolino, M.; Picozza, P.; Sparvoli, R.

    Nuclear interactions between inner zone protons and atoms in the upper atmosphere provide the main source of energetic H and He isotopes nuclei in the radiation belt. This paper reports on the specified calculations of these isotope intensities using various inner zone proton intensity models (AP-8 and SAMPEX/PET PSB97), the atmosphere drift-averaged composition and density model MSIS-90, and cross-sections of the interaction processes from the GNASH nuclear model code. To calculate drift-averaged densities and energy losses of secondaries, the particles were tracked in the geomagnetic field (modelled through IGRF-95) by integrating numerically the equation of the motion. The calculations take into account the kinematics of nuclear interactions along the whole trajectory of trapped proton. The comparison with new data obtained from the experiments on board RESURS-04 and MITA satellites and with data from SAMPEX and CRRES satellites taken during different phases of solar activity shows that the upper atmosphere is a sufficient source for inner zone helium and heavy hydrogen isotopes. The calculation results are energy spectra and angular distributions of light nuclear isotopes in the inner radiation belt that may be used to develop helium inner radiation belt model and to evaluate their contribution to SEU (single event upset) rates.

  2. Structural setting of the Apennine-Maghrebian thrust belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PieroElter; MarioGrasso; MaurizioParotto; LivioVezzani

    2003-01-01

    The Apennine-Maghrebian fold-and-thrust belt devel-oped from the latest Cretaceous to Early Pleistocene at the subduction-collisional boundary between the Euro-pean and the westward-subducted Ionian and Adria plates. Large parts of the Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere were subducted during an Alpine phase from the Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene. The chain developed through the deformation of major paleogeographic internal domains (tectono-sedimentary sequences of the Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean) and external domains (sedi-mentary sequences derived from the deformation of the continental Adria-African passive mareinL The continu-ity of the Apennine chain is abruptly interrupted in the Calabrian Arc by the extensive klippe of Kabylo-Calabrian crystalline exotic terranes, derived from deformation of the European passive margin.Major complexities (sharp deflections in the arcuate configuration of the thrust belt, out-of-sequence propagation of the thrusts) are referred to contrasting rheology and differential buoyancy of the subducted lithosphere (transitional from conti-nental to oceanic) and consequent differential roll-back of the Adria plate margin, and to competence contrasts in the Mesozoic stratigraphic sequences,where multiple décollement horizons at different stratigraphic levels may have favored significant differential shortening.From the Late Miocene, the geometry of the thrust belt was strongly modified by extensional fault-ing, volcanic activity, crustal thinning and formation of oceanic crust correlated with the development of the Tyrrhenian Basin.

  3. Investigating radiation belt losses though numerical modelling of precipitating fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP may be the most significant inner radiation belt loss process for some electron energy ranges. One area of uncertainty lies in identifying a typical estimate of the precipitating fluxes from the examples given in the literature to date. Here we aim to solve this difficulty through modelling satellite and ground-based observations of onset and decay of the precipitation and its effects in the ionosphere by examining WEP-produced Trimpi perturbations in subionospheric VLF transmissions. In this study we find that typical Trimpi are well described by the effects of WEP spectra derived from the AE-5 inner radiation belt model for typical precipitating energy fluxes. This confirms the validity of the radiation belt lifetimes determined in previous studies using these flux parameters. We find that the large variation in observed Trimpi perturbation size occurring over time scales of minutes to hours is primarily due to differing precipitation flux levels rather than changing WEP spectra. Finally, we show that high-time resolution measurements during the onset of Trimpi perturbations should provide a useful signature for discriminating WEP Trimpi from non-WEP Trimpi, due to the pulsed nature of the WEP arrival.

  4. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Radiation Belt Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, Bill; Ganguli, Guru; Crabtree, Chris; Mithaiwala, Manish; Siefring, Carl; Tejero, Erik

    2014-10-01

    The SMART sounding rocket is designed to probe the nonlinear response of a known ionospheric stimulus. High-speed neutral barium atoms generated by a shaped charge explosion perpendicular to the magnetic field in the ionosphere form a ring velocity distribution of photo-ionized Ba+ that will generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering of lower hybrid waves into whistler/magnetosonic waves has been theoretically predicted, confirmed by simulations, and observed in the lab. The effects of nonlinear scattering on wave evolution and whistler escape to the radiation belts have been studied and observable signatures quantified. The fraction of the neutral atom kinetic energy converted into waves is estimated at 10-12%. SMART will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section with vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors to determine wave spectra in the source region and detect precipitated particles. The Van Allen Probes can detect the propagation of the scattered whistlers and their effects in the radiation belts. By measuring the radiation belt whistler energy density, SMART will confirm the nonlinear scattering process and the connection to weak turbulence. Supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Funds.

  5. Periodicity in tree rings from the corn belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, D M; Stockton, C W; Blasing, T J

    1985-07-26

    Previous tree-ring studies indicated that the total area affected by drought in the western United States has rhythmically expanded and contracted over the past 300 years, with a period near the 18.6-year lunar nodal and 22-year double-sunspot cycles. Recently collected tree-ring data from the U.S. Corn Belt for the years 1680 to 1980 were examined for evidence of either of these cycles on a regional scale. Spectral analysis indicated no periodicity in the eastern part of the Corn Belt, but a significant 18.33-year period in the western part. The period length changed from 17.60 to 20.95 years between the first 150 years and the last 151. High-resolution frequency analysis showed that the structure of the 18.33-year spectral peak was complex, with contributions from several frequencies near both the lunar nodal and double-sunspot periods. A t-test of difference of means in reconstructed annual precipitation weakly corroborated a previous finding of an association between drought area and the phase of the double-sunspot cycle. Both the high-resolution frequency analysis and the t-test results indicate that the periodic component of drought near 20 years is too weak and irregular to be of use in drought forecasting for the Corn Belt.

  6. Detection of Small Kuiper Belt Objects by Stellar Occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, R

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of the Kuiper Belt is currently limited to those objects that can be detected directly. Objects with diameters less than $\\sim$10km reflect too little light to be detected. These smaller bodies could contain most of the mass in the Kuiper Belt while the abundance of these bodies may constrain the distribution of mass. The overall size distribution of bodies within the Kuiper Belt can also be inferred from the relative abundances of sub-km and larger bodies. Stellar occultations are already used to study dark objects in the Solar System, such as asteroids or planetary rings. Occultation by a KBO of a size comparable to, or larger than, that of the Fresnel Scale will result in Fresnel diffraction. Detection of diffraction effects requires fast multiple-star photometry, which will be conducted in July 2007 using the Orthogonal Parallel Transfer Imaging Camera (OPTIC) mounted on the University of Hawaii 2.2m telescope on Mauna Kea. This paper details how knowledge of the mass and structure of the outer ...

  7. Non-Vestoid candidates in the inner Main Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara; Skiff, Brian; Kankiewicz, Pawel; Licandro, Javier; Galiazzo, Mattia; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-10-01

    Most Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) meteorites (analogues to V-type asteroids) are thought to originate from asteroid (4) Vesta. However some HEDs show distinct oxygen isotope ratios and therefore are thought to originate from other asteroids. In this study we try to identify asteroids that may represent parent bodies of those mismatching HEDs. In particular the origin of the anomalous Bunburra Rockhole meteorite was traced back to the inner main asteroid belt, showing that there might be asteroids that are not genetically linked to the asteroid (4) Vesta (the main source of V-type asteroids and HED meteorites) in the inner main belt. In this work we identify V-type asteroids outside the dynamical Vesta family whose rotational properties (retrograde vs prograde rotation) suggest the direction of Yarkovsky drift that sets them apart from typical Vestoids and Vesta fugitives. Specificly Nesvorny et al. 2008 simulated escapes paths from the Vesta family and showed that typical Vesta fugitives in the inner main asteroid belt at semi-major axis a drift or showing Yarkovsky drift direction towards (4) Vesta are the best candidates for non-Vestoidal V-type asteroids and therefore parent bodies of anomalous HED. In this study we have performed accurate photometric observations and determined sense of rotation for several asteroids testing their links to Vesta and anomalous HED. We have found several potential non-Vestoid candidates. Those objects have to be studied in more detail to fully confirm their link to anomalous HEDs.

  8. Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the 3-D structure of the Kuiper Belt dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ~10^-4 primarily show an azimuthally-symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical Kuiper Belt. For models with lower optical depths (10^-6 and 10^-7), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's Kuiper Belt dust, and probably other aspects of the Solar System dust c...

  9. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goiás, Central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    PIMENTEL MÁRCIO M.; DANTAS ELTON L.; FUCK REINHARDT A.; ARMSTRONG RICHARD A.

    2003-01-01

    The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich EW-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus lineaments, which cut the regional NNW-SSE structures of the southern part of the belt. SHRIMP and conventional U-Pb data for the Itapuranga and Uruana intrusions indicate crystallization ages of 624 ± 10 Ma and 618 ± 4 Ma, respectively. Three zircon cores from the Itapuranga g...

  10. Tool Belts: Latitudinal-Belt Predictions for the Persistence of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenbring, Jane; Brocard, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    The ability of rivers to cut through rock and re-establish equilibrium sets the pace of landscape response to uplift. Because of associations between tectonics, erosion, and weathering, high rates of rock uplift may initiate a cascade of processes that are linked to high rates of weathering and eventually sequestration of CO2 over geologic timescales. How long does it take to completely change the topographic form after uplift and where on Earth do relict landscapes persist despite uplift? Large expanses of subdued landscapes are common at high elevation in mountain ranges. Preservation of subdued fragments amongst steeply dissected regions can therefore be a simple matter of chance, reflecting the time it takes for dissection to remove any remaining parcel of the pre-existing topography after a tectonic perturbation. Some of these relicts may, however, possess characteristics - often a product of the climate - that make them intrinsically resistant to dissection. One common mode of conversion of a subdued landscape into a deeply dissected one is the propagation of upstream-migrating erosion waves that transmit the signal of uplift and base level lowering across entire landscapes. Following a shift in tectonic forcing, the Earth's surface progressively adjusts its topographic form over millions of years, seeking to re-establish equilibrium with the new forcing. Here, we show that a high degree of weathering leading to smaller average soil grains at the surface hinders the capacity of rivers to incise. We show that globally, rates of cosmogenic nuclide-derived denudation rates fall into latitudinal belts with (1) low rates of denudation in areas with high temperatures and high precipitation where rock fragments do not persist at the soil surface, (2) high rates of denudation at mid-latitudes where rock fragments exist and are carried efficiently by the river flow, and (3) low rates of denudation at high latitudes where large grains at the surface inhibit channelized

  11. Structure of the Asteroid Belt from the Gas Giants' Growth and Chaotic Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izidoro, André; Raymond, Sean N.; Pierens, Arnaud; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Winter, Othon; Nesvorny, David

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the asteroid belt holds a record of the Solar System's dynamical history. The current belt only contains 10-3 Earth masses yet the asteroids' orbits are dynamically excited, with a large spread in eccentricity and inclination. The belt is also chemically segregated: the inner belt is dominated by dry S-types and the outer belt by hydrated C-types. Here we propose a new model in which the asteroid belt was always low-mass and was partially populated and sculpted by the giant planets on chaotic, resonant orbits. We first show that the compositional dichotomy of the asteroid belt is a simple consequence of Jupiter's growth in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. As Jupiter's core rapidly grew by accreting gas, orbits of nearby planetesimals were perturbed onto Jupiter-crossing trajectories. A significant fraction (~10%) of objects in the neighborhood exterior of Jupiter's orbit were implanted by gas drag into the outer parts of the asteroid belt as C-types. While the gas giants were likely in mean motion resonance at the end of the gaseous disk phase, we show that small perturbations may have driven them into a chaotic but stable state. After the dissipation of the gaseous disk, stochastic variations in the gas giants orbits caused resonances to chaotically jump across the main belt and excite the asteroids' orbits. Our results suggest that the early Solar System was chaotic and introduce a simple framework to understand the origins of the asteroid belt.

  12. Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez-Achury, J.; Coutinho de Almeida, R.; Wijmenga, C.

    2011-01-01

    Gutierrez-Achury J, Coutinho de Almeida R, Wijmenga C (University Medical Centre Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; University of Brasilia School of Health Sciences, Brasilia, DF, Brazil). Shared genetics in coeliac disease and other immune-mediated diseases (Symposiu

  13. The constraints of strain partitioning and geochronology in Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belts on Qinling orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belt lies between the North China Block and Qinling Mountains, in- cluding the Luonan-Luanchuan fault zone and the strong deformation zone to the north of the fault. The ductile shear zone, imbricate brittle fault and duplex structure in the fault zone now are the expression of the same tectonic event in different depth. Such lineation structure exists in the tectonic belts as mineral lineation, elongation lineation, crenulation lineation, sheath folds and so on, indicating NE-directed plate motion. Fold axes and thrusts in the strong deformation zone are inclined to the Luonan-Luanchuan fault zone at small angles. The structures with different natures show a regular pattern, produced during oblique convergence of plates. The convergence factors are as follows:The direction of plate convergence is 22°, 31° and the angle between the plate convergence direction and plate boundary is 73°, 82° respectively in the west and east segment. The Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belt was deformed strongly in 372 Ma, resulted from Erlangping back-arc ocean basin subduction sin- istrally and obliquely to North China Block during the collision of North China Block and South China Block.

  14. The constraints of strain partitioning and geochronology in Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belts on Qinling orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG ChuanZhong; ZHANG GuoWei; WANG YongSheng; LI JiaHao; CHEN ZeChao; CAI ZhiChuan

    2009-01-01

    The Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belt lies between the North China Block and Qinling Mountains,including the Luonan-Luanchuan fault zone and the strong deformation zone to the north of the fault.The ductile shear zone,imbricate brittle fault and duplex structure in the fault zone now are the expression of the same tectonic event in different depth.Such lineation structure exists in the tectonic belts as mineral lineation,elongation lineation,crenulation lineation,sheath folds and so on,indicating NE-directed plate motion.Fold axes and thrusts in the strong deformation zone are inclined to the Luonan-Luanchuan fault zone at small angles.The structures with different natures show a regular pattern,produced during oblique convergence of plates.The convergence factors are as follows:The direction of plate convergence is 22°,31° and the angle between the plate convergence direction and plate boundary is 73°,82° respectively in the west and east segment.The Luonan-Luanchuan tectonic belt was deformed strongly in 372 Ma,resulted from Erlangping back-arc ocean basin subduction sinistrally and obliquely to North China Block during the collision of North China Block and South China Block.

  15. The prevalence of seat belt use in Jamaica. An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandon, I W; Branday, J M; Simeon, D T; Rhoden, A; Thompson, H; Carpenter, R

    1996-03-01

    An observational cross-sectional survey showed that 21.1% of private motor vehicle drivers and 13.5% of front seat passengers voluntarily wore seat belts in Kingston, Jamaica, where there is no law requiring this. Rear passenger utilisation was not examined. Compared to males, females were significantly more likely to wear seat belts when driving but not as front seat passengers. Of all motor vehicles examined, 10.1% were not equipped with seat belts. The oldest group of vehicles were mostly not fitted with seat belts. Drivers of older vehicles were significantly less likely to use seat belts even when the vehicles were equipped with belts. Implementation of legislation can reduce mortality, morbidity and costs from road traffic accidents which are relatively frequent in Jamaica. Male drivers, drivers of older vehicles and all passengers may require specific targeting in an educational and enforcement campaign should legislation, which is highly desirable, be implemented.

  16. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  17. Brazil: public health genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  18. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  19. Experimental Study of Kinetic Properties of Pyrolysis for Conveyor Belt in Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zheng-chang

    2005-01-01

    The combustion of conveyor belt is a leading factor of mine fire. In this paper, the pyrolysis properties of ordinary conveyor belt and fire-resistant belt were studied experimentally with thermo-gravimetric analysis and derivative thermo-gravimetric analysis, and the curves of pyrolysis properties were achieved. On this basis, the activation energy and reaction order of pyrolysis were obtained in combination with theoretical analysis, aiming to provide data for further numerical simulation and simulating experiment of mine fire.

  20. Data From HANE-Generated Radiation Belts and the Origin of Diffusion Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16

    In this presentation we briefly review some of the published data regarding the artificial radiation belts produced by the Starfish and R2 high altitude nuclear explosions in 1962. The data showed slow temporal variations of the belts in altitude (L) and pitch angle ({alpha}) that could be modeled as a diffusion process. That early work formed the basis for more complex radiation belt diffusion models that are in use at present.

  1. The "One Belt and One Road" is an Important Mutually Beneficial and Win-win Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long; Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    The"One Belt and One Road"strategic conception carries the dream of development and prosperity of countries concerned,and gives the ancient Silk Road a brand new content of the time.In September and October 2013,President Xi Jinping proposed building the"New Silk Road Economic Belt"(One Belt)and the"Twenty-first Century Maritime Silk Road"(One Road)strategic conception respectively,emphasizing a mutual-beneficial and win-win

  2. Progress in porphyry copper exploration from the Gangdise belt, Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Youye; DUO Ji; CHENG Shunbo; GAO Shunbao; DAI Fanghua

    2007-01-01

    Recent mineral exploration in the Gangdise porphyry copper deposit belt, an important component of the Himalaya-Tethyan metallogenic belt, has led to the discovery of a number of deposits, as exemplified by the world-class Miocene Qulong porphyry Cu deposit. This paper reviews major advances in the studies of ore genesis and metallogenic regularity and progresses in mineral exploration of porphyry Cu deposits in the belt. Existing problems and suggestion for future exploration also are given.

  3. The Espinharas uranium occurrence, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclam has been exploring for uranium in Brazil since 1976. During this period one uranium ore body has been found in the vicinity of Espinharas, a village in Paraiba State, northeast Brazil. According to present knowledge, the mineralized ore body is caused by metasomatic action. The history of discovery and the exploration work until the end of 1979 is given, showing the conceptual change with increasing knowledge of the mineralized zone. (author)

  4. «Granulite» zircons of the Lapland granulite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulina, T.

    2003-04-01

    An age of the main stage of granulite metamorphism, which followed the overthrusting of the Lapland granulite belt (LGB) is estimated at about 1.91-1.95 Ga (Tugarinov, Bibikova, 1980; Bernard-Griffiths et al., 1984; Bibikova et al., 1993; Mitrofanov et al., 1993). This high-grade metamorphism is dated by U-Pb method on short prismatic gem-quality zircons that are typical for granulites and are interpreted as formed under stress and space-shortage conditions of the high pressure. And the common belief is that these zircon ages are dating the peak conditions of a metamorphic P-T path, since zircon has a high closure temperature of its U-Pb system. We studied rocks with different degree of metamorphism from Yavr and Pados rivers district (Kola Peninsula, Russia) located in the connection zone of the Tanaelv belt and LGB. Samples from the Tanaelv belt were taken from: 1) leucocratic garnet-clinopyroxene-amphibole plagiogneiss, chemically corresponds to andesite and formed under amphibolite facies 2) leucocratic biotite-pyroxene plagiogneiss with mineral association of granulite facies. Lapland granulites are represented by sillimanite-garnet-biotite gneiss from khondalite complex and leuco-mesocratic amphibole-pyroxene-plagioschist, belonging to the charnockite complex. Metamorphic zircons in all studied samples are represented practically by crystals of the same image. These are round or isometric (rarely subidiomorphic-prismatic in mafic granulites) large crystals with bright luster and high transparency. They are colorless or weakly colored into yellowish-pinkish tones. Crystals are zoneless but may contain cores, especially zircons from khondalite, 60% of which contain zoned cores. Thus typically “granulitic” zircon, described in many works, is the dominant type both in granulites of the Lapland belt and in amphiboles gneisses of the Tanaelv belt. Zircons are distinguished by low U contents (up to 100 ppm) and high Th/U and Zr/Hf ratios (0.6-0.7 and 42

  5. The Migration Characteristics of Strong Earthquakes on the North-South Seismic Belt and Its Relation with the South Asia Seismic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yipeng; Ma Jin; Li Chuanyou

    2008-01-01

    Migration of strong earthquakes (M≥7.0) along the North-South Seismic Belt of China since 1500 AD shows three patterns: Approximately equal time and distance interval migration from N to S, varied patterns of migration from S to N and grouped strong earthquake activity in a certain period over the entire seismic belt. Analysis of strong earthquakes in the past hundred years shows that the seismicity on the North-South Seismic Belt is also associated with strong earthquake activities on the South Asia Seismic Belt which extends from Myanmar to Sumatra, Indonesia. Strong earthquakes on the former belt often lag several months or years behind the quakes occurring on the later belt. So, after the occurrence of the December 26, 2004 M8.7 great earthquake off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, the possibility of occurrence of strong earthquakes on the North-South Seismic Belt of China cannot be ignored. The above-mentioned migration characteristics of strong earthquakes are related to the northeastward collision and subduction of the India Plate as well as the interaction between the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and the stable and hard Ordos and Alashan Massifs at its northeastern margin.

  6. Geological characteristics and metallogenic prognosis of main gold deposit in Altai gold ore belt, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yuan-chao; SHEN Ping; ZHENG Qing-dong; LIU Tie-bing; LI Guang-ming

    2004-01-01

    Altai polymetallic mineralization belt is famous copper-polymetallic mineralization belt in the world. There are a lot of gold deposits in the Altai ore belt in Xinjiang, China. These gold deposits belong to two genetic types: volcanogene late-stage hydrothermal type and fractured altered rock type. The authors discuss mainly the geological and mineralized features of fractured altered rock type of gold deposits in Altai gold ore belt. Base on this study, the metallogenic law is summarized and the deep metallogenic prognosis has been done in Duolanasayi and Tuokuzibayi gold deposits, and some mineralized anomalys have been discovered.

  7. Triggering Sublimation-driven Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, N.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.; Dvorak, R.

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of main belt comets (MBCs) is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by meter-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between meter-sized and kilometer-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle, as well as different target material and water-mass fractions. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m, suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water–ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters, as well as on the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. While our results demonstrate that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, they also indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation, providing more ice for sublimation. We present the details of our simulations and discuss their results and implications.

  8. DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.

  9. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some

  10. On the oldest asteroid families in the main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.; Domingos, R. C.; Huaman, M.

    2016-06-01

    Asteroid families are groups of minor bodies produced by high-velocity collisions. After the initial dispersions of the parent bodies fragments, their orbits evolve because of several gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as diffusion in mean-motion resonances, Yarkovsky and Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effects, close encounters of collisions, etc. The subsequent dynamical evolution of asteroid family members may cause some of the original fragments to travel beyond the conventional limits of the asteroid family. Eventually, the whole family will dynamically disperse and no longer be recognizable. A natural question that may arise concerns the time-scales for dispersion of large families. In particular, what is the oldest still recognizable family in the main belt? Are there any families that may date from the late stages of the late heavy bombardment and that could provide clues on our understanding of the primitive Solar system? In this work, we investigate the dynamical stability of seven of the allegedly oldest families in the asteroid main belt. Our results show that none of the seven studied families has a nominally mean estimated age older than 2.7 Gyr, assuming standard values for the parameters describing the strength of the Yarkovsky force. Most `paleo-families' that formed between 2.7 and 3.8 Gyr would be characterized by a very shallow size-frequency distribution, and could be recognizable only if located in a dynamically less active region (such as that of the Koronis family). V-type asteroids in the central main belt could be compatible with a formation from a paleo-Eunomia family.

  11. Extensive Admixture and Selective Pressure Across the Sahel Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triska, Petr; Soares, Pedro; Patin, Etienne; Fernandes, Veronica; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luisa

    2015-11-26

    Genome-wide studies of African populations have the potential to reveal powerful insights into the evolution of our species, as these diverse populations have been exposed to intense selective pressures imposed by infectious diseases, diet, and environmental factors. Within Africa, the Sahel Belt extensively overlaps the geographical center of several endemic infections such as malaria, trypanosomiasis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fevers. We screened 2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms in 161 individuals from 13 Sahelian populations, which together with published data cover Western, Central, and Eastern Sahel, and include both nomadic and sedentary groups. We confirmed the role of this Belt as a main corridor for human migrations across the continent. Strong admixture was observed in both Central and Eastern Sahelian populations, with North Africans and Near Eastern/Arabians, respectively, but it was inexistent in Western Sahelian populations. Genome-wide local ancestry inference in admixed Sahelian populations revealed several candidate regions that were significantly enriched for non-autochthonous haplotypes, and many showed to be under positive selection. The DARC gene region in Arabs and Nubians was enriched for African ancestry, whereas the RAB3GAP1/LCT/MCM6 region in Oromo, the TAS2R gene family in Fulani, and the ALMS1/NAT8 in Turkana and Samburu were enriched for non-African ancestry. Signals of positive selection varied in terms of geographic amplitude. Some genomic regions were selected across the Belt, the most striking example being the malaria-related DARC gene. Others were Western-specific (oxytocin, calcium, and heart pathways), Eastern-specific (lipid pathways), or even population-restricted (TAS2R genes in Fulani, which may reflect sexual selection).

  12. Single beam optical conveyor belt for chiral particles

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, David E

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel paradigm to selectively manipulate and transport small engineered chiral particles and discriminate different enantiomers using unstructured chiral light. It is theoretically shown that the response of a chiral metamaterial particle may be tailored to enable an optical conveyor belt operation with no optical traps, such that for a fixed incident light helicity and independent of the nanoparticle location, it is either steadily pushed towards the direction of the photon flow or steadily pulled against the photon flow. Our findings create new opportunities for unconventional optical manipulations of tailored nanoparticles and may have applications in sorting racemic mixtures of artificial chiral molecules and in particle delivery.

  13. Accuracy and performance analysis of a nuclear belt weigher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear belt weighers have a broad range of applications in the solid particle industry. This work analyzes the accuracy and sensitivity of nuclear weighers for a wide range of operational conditions and design parameters. The problem of the effect of material profile and bulk density variations on the scale performance is quantitatively addressed. A new methodology is developed to calculate the minimum detectable load accounting for both accuracy and sensitivity. Accuracies of less than 1% can be achieved in some ideal situations by proper design of the source length and geometrical configuration. (orig.)

  14. Ultra low frequency waves impact on radiation belt energetic particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG QiuGang; HAO YongQiang; WANG YongFu

    2009-01-01

    One of the most fundamental important issues in the space physics is to understand how solar wind energy transports into the inner magnetosphere.Ultra low frequency(ULF)wave in the magnetosphere and its impact on energetic particles,such as the wave-particle resonance,modulation,and particle acceleration,are extremely important topics in the Earth's radiation belt dynamics and solar windmagnetospheric coupling.In this review,we briefly introduce the recent advances on ULF waves study.Further,we will explore the density structures and ion compositions around the plasmaspheric boundary layer(PBL)and discuss its possible relation to the ULF waves.

  15. Rapid energization of radiation belt electrons by nonlinear wave trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that nonlinear wave trapping plays a significant role in both the generation of whistler-mode chorus emissions and the acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. We have performed particle simulations that successfully reproduce the generation of chorus emissions with rising tones. During this generation process we find that a fraction of resonant electrons are energized very efficiently by special forms of nonlinear wave trapping called relativistic turning acceleration (RTA and ultra-relativistic acceleration (URA. Particle energization by nonlinear wave trapping is a universal acceleration mechanism that can be effective in space and cosmic plasmas that contain a magnetic mirror geometry.

  16. Ultra low frequency waves impact on radiation belt energetic particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    One of the most fundamental important issues in the space physics is to understand how solar wind energy transports into the inner magnetosphere.Ultra low frequency(ULF)wave in the magnetosphere and its impact on energetic particles,such as the wave-particle resonance,modulation,and particle acceleration,are extremely important topics in the Earth’s radiation belt dynamics and solar wind― magnetospheric coupling.In this review,we briefly introduce the recent advances on ULF waves study. Further,we will explore the density structures and ion compositions around the plasmaspheric boundary layer(PBL)and discuss its possible relation to the ULF waves.

  17. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tests...... were primarily conducted in smooth flow for various ratios between vertical and torsional frequencies of vibration. Limited testing was also conducted in turbulent flow and for different angles of attack. The analysis technique described allowed extraction of seven aerodynamic derivatives including...

  18. Horizontal-belt filtration at Randfontein Estates Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes tests on horizontal-belt filters for the filtration of gold and uranium. The promising results led to the installation of 17 such filters (ten of them 120 m2 in size) in the mine's metallurgical plants, and their operation is discussed. Although several problems were encountered both in operation and maintenance, it is concluded that, with correct operation and suitable filter cloths, exceptionally good metallurgical recoveries can be achieved at filtration rates twice to three times higher than those on rotary filters

  19. Colloidal Microworms Propelling via a Cooperative Hydrodynamic Conveyor Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Tierno, Pietro

    2015-09-25

    We study propulsion arising from microscopic colloidal rotors dynamically assembled and driven in a viscous fluid upon application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field. Close to a confining plate, the motion of this self-assembled microscopic worm results from the cooperative flow generated by the spinning particles which act as a hydrodynamic "conveyor belt." Chains of rotors propel faster than individual ones, until reaching a saturation speed at distances where induced-flow additivity vanishes. By combining experiments and theoretical arguments, we elucidate the mechanism of motion and fully characterize the propulsion speed in terms of the field parameters. PMID:26451584

  20. Radial diffusion of radiation belt electrons in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kara Lynn

    It is becoming increasingly important to understand the dynamics of radiation belt energetic particles given their potentially hazardous effects on satellites and our ever-increasing dependence on those satellites. There is a need to determine whether existing two-dimensional models are adequate in estimating the dynamics of the radiation belts or if a three-dimensional model is required. Discussion of general space physics and radiation belt topology is followed by an account of existing models and how these models can be improved by extending dynamic calculations from two dimensions to three. A model is then developed describing magnetic and electric fields associated with poloidal mode Pc5 ULF waves. The frequency and L dependence of the ULF wave power is included in this model by incorporating published ground-based magnetometer data. The influence of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves in the Pc5 frequency range on radiation belt electrons in a dipole magnetic field is examined. This is the first analysis in three dimensions utilizing model ULF wave electric and magnetic fields in the guiding center trajectories of relativistic electrons. It is demonstrated here that realistic spectral characteristics play a significant role in the rate of diffusion of relativistic electrons via drift resonance with poloidal mode ULF waves. Radial diffusion rates including bounce motion are calculated for alphaeq ≥ 50° (lambda ≤ 20°). Energy, L and pitch angle dependence of diffusion rates are calculated for L-independent, L-dependent, frequency independent and frequency dependent field power. During geomagnetic storms when ULF wave power is increased, ULF waves are a significant driver of increased fluxes of relativistic electrons inside geosynchronous orbit. Diffusion time scales obtained here, when frequency and L dependence compared to observations of ULF wave power is included, support this conclusion. A compression is then added to the dipole field model and diffusion

  1. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David LaRose

    2006-07-01

    This document details progress on the project ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2005 to May 14, 2006. Highlights include significant improvements in the accuracy and reliability of computer-vision based vulcanized splice detection, deployment of the vulcanized splice detection algorithms for daily use in two working mines, and successful demonstration of an early prototype of a Smart-Camera based system for on-site mechanical splice detection in coal mine installations.

  2. WFIRST Ultra-Precise Astrometry I: Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    I show that the WFIRST microlensing survey will enable detection and precision orbit determination of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) down to H_vega=28.2 over an effective area of about 17 square deg. Typical fractional period errors will be ~1.5% X 10^{0.4(H-28.2)} with similar errors in other parameters for roughly 5000 KBOs. Binary companions to detected KBOs can be detected to even fainter limits, H_vega=29, corresponding to R~31 and effective diameters D~7.5 km. This will provide an unprecedented probe of orbital resonance and KBO mass measurements.

  3. Structural, Petrographic and Geochemical Characteristics of Mafic Dikes Intrusive in Metasedimentary Rocks of the Crixás Greenstone Belt, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Jost

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mafic dikes and stocks are a common feature in the Archean terrain of Goiás, Central Brazil, where they occur asswarms of 2.3 - 2.5 Ga within the granite-gneiss complexes (2.8 e 2.7 Ga, as well as intrusions related to the komatiite andbasalt flows of the greenstone belts lower stratigraphic units, but were unknown within the upper metasedimentary units.Detailed study of core sections from several drill-sites in the area of the Crixás greenstone belt gold deposits showed thatdike intrusion occurred after the main Paleoproterozoic deformation and metamorphism of the metasedimentary units,and literature data indicate that the magmatic zircons from the dikes yielded an age of 2,170 ± 17 Ma. Petrographic andgeochemical data show that they have the composition of epicratonic high-Ti diabases, which are similar to the largecontinental flood basalts of the Paraná Basin. The age of the intrusions may be correlated with the short time-interval of theRhyacian (2.20 to 2.17 Ga, during which successive localized episodes of mantle plume volcanism occurred on the Earth.

  4. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  5. Architecture and Channel-Belt Clustering in the Fluvial lower Wasatch Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisel, J. R.; Pyles, D. R.; Bracken, B.; Rosenbaum, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Eocene lower Wasatch Formation of the Uinta Basin contains exceptional outcrops of low net-sand content (27% sand) fluvial strata. This study quantitatively documents the stratigraphy of a 7 km wide by 300 meter thick strike-oriented outcrop in order to develop a quantitative data base that can be used to improve our knowledge of how some fluvial systems evolve over geologic time scales. Data used to document the outcrop are: (1) 550 meters of decimeter to half meter scale resolution stratigraphic columns that document grain size and physical sedimentary structures; (2) detailed photopanels used to document architectural style and lithofacies types in the outcrop; (3) thickness, width, and spatial position for all channel belts in the outcrop, and (4) directional measurements of paleocurrent indicators. Two channel-belt styles are recognized: lateral and downstream accreting channel belts; both of which occur as either single or multi-story. Floodplain strata are well exposed and consist of overbank fines and sand-rich crevasse splay deposits. Key upward and lateral characteristics of the outcrop documented herein are the following. First, the shapes of 243 channels are documented. The average width, thickness and aspect ratios of the channel belts are 110 m, 7 m, and 16:1, respectively. Importantly, the size and shape of channel belts does not change upward through the 300 meter transect. Second, channels are documented to spatially cluster. 9 clusters are documented using a spatial statistic. Key upward patterns in channel belt clustering are a marked change from non-amalgamated isolated channel-belt clusters to amalgamated channel-belt clusters. Critically, stratal surfaces can be correlated from mudstone units within the clusters to time-equivalent floodplain strata adjacent to the cluster demonstrating that clusters are not confined within fluvial valleys. Finally, proportions of floodplain and channel belt elements underlying clusters and channel belts

  6. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping

    2016-02-01

    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  7. Triggering Sublimation-Driven Activity of Main Belt Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Haghighipour, Nader; Schaefer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of Main Belt Comets are due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by m-sized bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between m-sized and km-sized objects using a smooth particle hydrodynamics approach. Simulations have been carried out for different values of the impact velocity and impact angle as well as different target material and water-mass fraction. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Results also show that ice-exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters as well as the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions...

  8. Study of the NWC electrons belt observed on DEMETER Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xinqiao; Wang, Ping; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Xuemin; Huang, Jianping; Shi, Feng; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yanbing; Meng, Xiangcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Parrot, M

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the data from 2007 to 2008, which is observed by IDP onboard DEMETER satellite, during ten months of NWC working and seven months of NWC shutdown. The characteristic of the space instantaneous electron belts, which come from the influence of the VLF transmitted by NWC, is studied comprehensively. The main distribution region of the NWC electron belts and the flux change are given. We also studied the distribution characteristic of the average energy spectrum in different magnetic shell at the height of DEMETER orbit and the difference of the average energy spectrum of the electrons in the drift loss-cone between day and night. As a result, the powerful power of NWC transmitter and the 19.8 kHz narrow bandwidth VLF emission not only created a momentary electrons enhancement region, which strides 180 degree in them longitude direction and from 1.6 to 1.9 in L value, with the rise of the electrons flux reaching to 3 orders of magnitude mostly, but also induced the enhancement or loss of electrons in ...

  9. A Method for Determining Sedimentary Micro-Facies Belts Automatically

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linfu Xue; Qitai Mei; Quan Sun

    2003-01-01

    It is important to understand the distribution of sedimentary facies, especially the distribution of sand body that is the key for oil production and exploration. The secondary oil recovery requires analyzing a great deal of data accumulated within decades of oil field development. At many cases sedimentary micro-facies maps need to be reconstructed and redrawn frequently, which is time-consuming and heavy. This paper presents an integrated approach for determining the distribution of sedimentary micro-facies, tracing the micro-facies boundary, and drawing the map of sedimentary micro-facies belts automatically by computer technique. The approach is based on the division and correlation of strata of multiple wells as well as analysis of sedimentary facies. The approach includes transform, gridding, interpolation, superposing, searching boundary and drawing the map of sedimentary facies belts, and employs the spatial interpolation method and "worm" interpolation method to determine the distribution of sedimentary micro-facies including sand ribbon and/or sand blanket. The computer software developed on the basis of the above principle provides a tool for quick visualization and understanding the distribution of sedimentary micro-facies and reservoir. Satisfied results have been achieveed by applying the technique to the Putaohua Oil Field in Songliao Basin, China.

  10. Polyphase thrust tectonic in the Barberton greenstone belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, I. A.

    1986-01-01

    In the circa 3.5 by-old Barberton greenstone belt, the supracrustal rocks form a thick and strongly deformed thrust complex. Structural studies in the southern part of the belt have shown that 2 separate phases of over-thrusting (D sub 1 and D sub 2) successively dismembered the original stratigraphy. Thrust nappes were subsequently refolded during later deformations (D sub 3 and D sub 4). This report deals with the second thrusting event which, in the study region appears to be dominant, and (unlike the earlier thrusting), affects the entire supracrustal pile. The supracrustal rocks form a predominantly NE/SW oriented, SE dipping tectonic fan (the D sub 2 fan) in which tectonic slices of ophiolitic-like rocks are interleaved with younger sedimentary sequences of the Diepgezet and malalotcha groups. Structural and sedimentological data indicate that the D sub 2 tectonic fan was formed during a prolonged, multi-stage regional horizontal shortening event during which several types of internal deformation mechanisms were successively and/or simultaneously active. Movement appears to have been predominantly to the NW and to the N. During D sub 2, periods of quiescence and sedimentation followed periods of thrust propagation. Although the exact kinematics which led to the formation of this fan is not yet known, paleoenvironmental interpretations together with structural data suggest that D sub 2 was probably related to (an) Archean collision(s).

  11. Finding the Faintest Exozodi and Asteroid Belt Analogs in WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rahul; Metchev, S.; Heinze, A.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of circumstellar dust in the terrestrial planet zone and asteroid belt regions of stars can be ascertained from the excess flux from main sequence stars in the near to mid-infrared wavelengths. Finding dust in these regions around stars is significant as it traces material related to terrestrial planet formation. In this study, we use the WISE All-Sky Survey data to detect circumstellar debris disks at the 12 and 22 μm bandpasses (W3 and W4, respectively). We present the detection of a sample of over 220 exozodi and asteroid belt analog candidates, 74% of which are brand new detections all at confidence levels >95%. This was done by cross-matching Hipparcos main-sequence stars with the WISE All-Sky Data Release for stars within 75 pc and outside the galactic plane (|b|>5°) and then seeking color excesses at W3 and W4. In addition to applying the standard WISE photometric flags and filters to remove contaminants from our sample, we also improved our selection techniques by correcting for previously unknown systematic behavior in the WISE photometry. Our debris disk candidates are reliable detections as well as unprecedentedly faint, due in large part to these improved selection techniques.

  12. Main-Belt Comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H; Novakovic, Bojan; Yang, Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Micheli, Marco; Denneau, Larry; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Jedicke, Robert; Kleyna, Jan; Veres, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard J; Ansdell, Megan; Elliott, Garrett T; Keane, Jacqueline V; Meech, Karen J; Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Riesen, Timm E; Sheppard, Scott S; Sonnett, Sarah; Tholen, David J; Urban, Laurie; Kaiser, Nick; Chambers, K C; Burgett, William S; Magnier, Eugene A; Morgan, Jeffrey S; Price, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    We present initial results from observations and numerical analyses aimed at characterizing main-belt comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS). Optical monitoring observations were made between October 2012 and February 2013 using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, the Keck I telescope, the Baade and Clay Magellan telescopes, Faulkes Telescope South, the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope. The object's intrinsic brightness approximately doubles from the time of its discovery in early October until mid-November and then decreases by ~60% between late December and early February, similar to photometric behavior exhibited by several other main-belt comets and unlike that exhibited by disrupted asteroid (596) Scheila. We also used Keck to conduct spectroscopic searches for CN emission as well as absorption at 0.7 microns that could indicate the presence of hydrated minerals, finding an upper limit CN production rate of QCN100 Myr and is unlikely to be a rec...

  13. Automation of belts; Automatizacion de Cintas de Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the most important aspects, and the results of the project DEVELOPMENT AND COMMISSIONING OF AN INTEGRATED HAULAGE AND VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEM IN A MINE USING VERY LONG SUBLEVEL-CAVING WINNING METHOD. Project's targets were to develop, implement and commission a distributed control system for underground mining, which should allow the control and optimisation of the whole (continuous) haulage network. It should also integrate statutory safety features required for both winning and haulage. The system is capable of controlling the most common devices used in underground coal mining transport networks, like conveyor belts, armored conveyors, regulation silos, etc. from the winning faces to the surface, and also the interlocks between them. Moreover, the system implements statutory safety functions for conveyor belt operation, and for mining activities carried out in culls de sac. Specifically, for its relationship with the transport system, it should monitor secondary ventilation, fire damp and toxic gases concentration, and mains power presence in the culls de sac, which have already reached a length of 2000 m. The prototype was installed in the mine that Carbones de Pedraforca owns in Saldes, Barcelona. (Author)

  14. The Distribution of Basaltic Asteroids in the Main Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Gaidos, Eric; Willman, Mark; Nesvorny, David; Fevig, Ronald; Ivezic, Zeljko

    2008-01-01

    We present the observational results of a survey designed to target and detect asteroids whose colors are similar to those of Vesta family members and thus may be considered as candidates for having a basaltic composition. Fifty basaltic candidates were selected with orbital elements that lie outside of the Vesta dynamical family. Optical and near-infrared spectra were used to assign a taxonomic type to 11 of the 50 candidates. Ten of these were spectroscopically confirmed as V-type asteroids, suggesting that most of the candidates are basaltic and can be used to constrain the distribution of basaltic material in the Main Belt. Using our catalog of V-type candidates and the success rate of the survey, we calculate unbiased size-frequency and semi-major axis distributions of V-type asteroids. These distributions, in addition to an estimate for the total mass of basaltic material, suggest that Vesta was the predominant contributor to the basaltic asteroid inventory of the Main Belt, however scattered planetesim...

  15. Future Rangeland Ecosystems in the Dryland Belt of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jiaguo

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges humans are facing is sustainably managing water and land resources under changing global environment. This issue is especially pertinent in dryland belt in Asia where freshwater is scarce and shared among many nations. The region is heavily dependent on the diminishing Himalayan glaciers and limited and changing precipitation patterns. With increasing climate variability and a regional warming trend water security issues are acute and if not properly addressed could affect regional stability and lead to international conflicts. Solutions to these urgent regional issues are lacking and further research efforts are needed. Adaptive strategies addressing the complex and multifaceted water resource issues in the region will require a co-design and co-delivery of knowledge specific to the region and must consider exogenous factors such as policies of neighbouring countries and changing precipitation patterns due to climate change. There is a need to determine and fund scientific research priorities and practical approaches co-developed by local stakeholders and scientists to change the region's paradigm to "science for society". This presentation will summarize the collective outcome from a focused group discussion at the international workshop on "Future Earth and Science for Society" to be held from February 25-27, 2015 at Michigan State University, including knowledge gaps, research priorities, a general framework and international collaborations to move forward to addressing the future of the dyrland belt of Asia.

  16. Main-Belt Comet 238P/Read Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H; Pittichova, Jana

    2011-01-01

    We present a series of observations of the return of activity in main-belt comet 238P/Read. Using data obtained in July and August 2010 when 238P appeared to be largely inactive, we find best-fit IAU phase function parameters of H=19.05+/-0.05 mag, corresponding to a nucleus radius of r_n ~ 0.4 km (assuming an albedo of p_R=0.05), and G=-0.03+/-0.05. Observations from September 2010 onward show a clear rise in activity, causing both a notable change in visible morphology and increasing photometric excesses beyond what would be expected based on bare nucleus observations. By the end of the observing period reported on here, the dust mass in the coma shows indications of reaching a level comparable to that observed in 2005, but further observations are highly encouraged once 238P again becomes observable from Earth in mid-2011 to confirm whether this level of activity is achieved, or if a notable decrease in activity strength compared to 2005 can be detected. Comet 238P is now the second main-belt comet (after ...

  17. Localized re-definition of legal justice: the feminine of the south in the early constitutional transition and its practice by the Consumer Protection Office of the MPDFT-Brasilia-Brazil - a framework for cross-border disputes in EC Consumer Law and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Lúcia Helena Barbosa de

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents an alternative reading of law as a way to settle conflicts and dispense justice through the eyes of the feminine and their ethics of care as elaborated by Carol Gilligan. An elective articulation between cultural feminism and postmodern ethics has been defended rather than coincidence. It shows the aporias of modernity through the reading of postmodernity, especially the undeniable exigencies of Levinas’ ethics of alterity and the reading done by Derrida ...

  18. Using Brazil's Racial Continuum to Examine the Short-Term Effects of Affirmative Action in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M.; Tannuri-Pianto, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Brasilia established racial quotas. We find that quotas raised the proportion of black students, and that displacing applicants were from lower socioeconomic status families than displaced applicants. The evidence suggests that racial quotas did not reduce the preuniversity effort of applicants or students. Additionally,…

  19. Paleoproterozoic postcollisional magmatic belt of the southern Siberian craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salnikova, E. B.; Larin, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Levitsky, V. I.; Reznitsky, L. Z.; Kovach, V. P.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2003-04-01

    Paleoproterozoic time is characterized by large-scale collisional and postcollisional magmatic activity evidenced in the most of ancient cratons. This global event is related to the Arctic supercontinent assemblage (Rogers, 1996). The formation of postcollisional magmatic belt at 1.9-1.8 Ga within the south-west flanking of the Siberian craton is a remarkable example of these processes happened during overall lithospheric convergence. This belt is extends for about 3000 km from the southern Enisey ridge at the west to the central Aldan shield at the east. Within the central Aldan shield the latest collisional event occurred 1925+/-5 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003) and post-collisional subalkaline S- and I-type granites emplaced at 1916+/-10 Ma (Bibikova et al., 1989), 1901+/-1 Ma (Frost et al., 1998) and 1899+/-6 Ma (Kotov et al, 2003). However at the southern Olekma terrain (western Aldan shield) the syncollisional granites have formed at 1906+/-4 Ma and postcollisional Kodar granitoids were generated at 1876-1873 Ma (Larin et al., 2000). The is a tendency outlined in timing of postcollision processes to the west (in modern coordinates). Ages of postcollisional Kevakta granitoid plutons (1846+/-8 Ma) and volcanics of North-Baikal volcano-plutonic belt (1869+/-6 Ma 1856+/-3 Ma), Baikal folded area, support this tendency. Emplacement of the Primorsky complex postcollisional rapakivi-type granitoids (southern Baikal lake) occurred at 1859+/-16 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2002). New results of U-Pb single zircon and baddeleyite dating demonstrate that formation of late-synkinematic syenite, charnockite and pegmatitic veins (1856±12 Ma, 1853±20 Ma) and calciphyre (1868±2 Ma) within the eastern part of the Sharyzhalgay block (southern Baikal lake) occurred virtually within the same episode. Postcollisional intrusive charnockite of the Shumikha complex from the western Sharyzhalgay block dated at 1861±1 Ma (Donskaya et al., 2001) and 1871±17 Ma (Levitsky et al., 2002). Subalcaline

  20. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  1. Policing violence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, E

    1999-03-01

    This article is an excerpted summary of a speech on female police and domestic violence. The speech was given by a woman affiliated with the Association of Women Workers at an Oxfam workshop in northern Brazil. This organization successfully lobbied for female police, which resulted in more reports of domestic violence, especially rape. The organization is active in 13 counties. Female police are trained and usually given respect by police chiefs. In one city, in 1997, the appointment of female police resulted in registered reports of 387 cases of violence and hospital reports of 503 cases, of which 14% were child rape. During January-April 1998, there were 126 registered cases and 168 hospital cases. Policewomen formed a partnership over the past 2 years with the Human Rights Group and other popular political groups to train female police about laws. The compulsory course focused on four areas: legal concepts, penalties, and procedures on registration of complaints; the Brazilian Penal Code; civil law; and world judicial bureaucracies. Training includes a 1 month internship with the program's lawyer. Over 20 women have completed the course to date. Training in some cases resulted in greater expertise among the female police than their Police Chiefs. Female police have experienced harassment by local authorities. PMID:12295035

  2. Brazil, China, US: a triangular relation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Augusto Guilhon-Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is divided in three sections. The first one explores the so-called "strategic partnership" between Brazil and China. In the second section we shall examine how US-China relations in the global system could affect both Brazil-US, and Brazil-China bilateral relations. A final section presents some recommendations for Brazil strategic orientations regarding the current systemic transition in the allotment of global power.

  3. The Evolution of Reforestation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of reforestation in Brazil and makes an evaluation of federal government policies used to stimulate that activity. Despite the huge increase of reforestation areas in Brazil since the 1970s, what put up Brazil as the sixth large country with reforested areas, a scarcity of roundwood from reforested areas is happing in that country during the first decade of the 21st century. Federal government implemented three programs to foster the reforestation in Brazil d...

  4. Northwest trending tectonic belt in the middle Yanshan Orogenic Belt of northeast Hebei Province, North China:Tectonic evolution and geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Changhou; WU; Ganguo; WANG; Genhou; ZHANG; Weijie

    2004-01-01

    The northwest trending tectonic belt in the middle part of the Mesozoic intraplate Yanshan Orogenic Belt, northeast Hebei Province, is composed of thrusts, extensional faults,strike-slip faults and syntectonic sedimentations as well. The northeastward basement-involved major thrusting deformation occurred between 174Ma and 168MaBP and was followed by an intrusion of the granitic plutonic rocks. As a part of the post-thrusting extensional deformations a northwest extending volcano-sedimentation system of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous formed in the southwest side of the belt. These volcano-sedimentary sequences are divided into Tuchengzi Formation, Zhangjiakou Formation, Yixian Formation and Jiufotang Formation respectively. They are characterized by southeastward migration as a result of the increasing down-dip slip displacement along the major extensional fault toward the southeast of the belt.The provenance area of the Jiufotang Formation north to it experienced southwestward thrusting during and after its later sedimentation. The thrusting in this stage resulted in the formation of an asymmetric footwall syncline with vergence to SW in the Jiufotang Formation in the NE side of the basin. Finally a dextral strike-slip deformation occurred along the NW tectonic belt. The striking tectono-geomorphological features and present seismic activities along this belt indicate that it has been being active since Cenozoic era and is still in the active state at present. This northwest extending tectonic belt was following the same direction and location as the existing fault systems within the basement as revealed by former geological and geophysical studies. So it is reasonable to infer the Mesozoic deformation along this belt to be a result of reactivation of the basement structures in a favorable tectonic stress field. The reactivation of basement structures might be taken as one of the mechanisms of intraplate deformation and orogeny.

  5. A mathematical analysis of a belt system with a low and time-varying velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweken, Gede

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis a mathematical analysis has been given for model which describes the transversal vibrations of belt systems. The belt speed is assumed to be time-varying and to be small compared to the wave speed. Not only linear string-like or beam-like models but also nonlinear models have been stu

  6. A Parametric Energy Model for Energy Management of Long Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebello Mathaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As electricity prices continue to rise, the increasing need for energy management requires better understanding of models for energy-consuming applications, such as conveyor belts. Conveyor belts are used in a wide range of industries, including power generation, mining and mineral processing. Conveyor technological advances are leading to increasingly long conveyor belts being commissioned. Thus, the energy consumption of each individual belt conveyor unit is becoming increasingly significant. This paper proposes a generic energy model for belt conveyors with long troughed belts. The model has a two-parameter power equation, and it uses a partial differential equation to capture the variable amount of material mass per unit length throughout the belt length. Verification results show that the power consumption calculations of the newly proposed simpler model are consistent with those of a known non-linear model with an error of less than 4%. The online parameter identification set-up of the model is proposed. Simulations indicate that the parameters can be identified successfully from data with up to 15% measurement noise. Results show that the proposed model gives better predictions of the power consumed and material delivered by a long conveyor belt than the steady-state models in the current literature.

  7. Planck intermediate results. XII: Diffuse Galactic components in the Gould Belt System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.;

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the diffuse low-frequency Galactic components in the Southern part of the Gould Belt system (130^\\circ\\leq l\\leq 230^\\circ and -50^\\circ\\leq b\\leq -10^\\circ). Strong ultra-violet (UV) flux coming from the Gould Belt super-association is responsible for bright diffuse...

  8. Thrust Belts and Foreland Basins——SGF/SGE Joint Earth Science Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier Lacombe; Jér(o)me Lavé; Fran(c)ois Roure

    2006-01-01

    @@ What is the important geologic information that thrust belts and foreland basins have recorded on the erogenic evolution of adjacent mountain belts? How can they reveal the coupled influence of deep (flexure, plate rheology and kinematics) and surficial (erosion, sedimentation) geological processes?

  9. Lithofacies Associations and Depositional Environments of the Neogene Molasse succession, Pishin Belt, northwestern Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal K.; Kassi, Akhtar M.; Friis, Henrik;

    The Pishin Belt is a NE-SW trending mixed flysch and molasse basin, situated at the northwestern part of Pakistan, bordered by Afghan Block of the Eurasian Plate in the west and Indian Plate in the east. Western boundary of the belt is marked by the well-known Chaman Transform Fault, whereas the ...

  10. Illicit Drug Use and the Social Context of HIV/AIDS in Alabama's Black Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen

    2007-01-01

    Context: The rural Black Belt of Alabama is among the poorest areas of the nation. Poverty, lack of health infrastructure, and health disparities involving HIV/AIDS and other diseases reflect the lower life expectancy of people in the region. The Black Belt region has the highest HIV rates in rural America. Purpose: Using Alabama as a case…

  11. The sedimentary dynamics in natural and human-influenced delta channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobo, N.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the increased anthropogenic influence on the within-channel belt sedimentary dynamics in the Rhine delta. To make this investigation, the sedimentary dynamics within the life-cycle of a single channel belt were reconstructed for three key periods of increasing human impact, w

  12. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Airplane Flight Manual (14 CFR 23.1581(j)). See 36 FR 12511; see also 14 CFR 23.562, 23.785; Legal... 121, part 91 did not require that each person have a separate seat and/or seat belt. See 36 FR 12511... Belt and Seating Requirements for General Aviation Flights AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  13. Critical taper wedge mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts on Venus - Initial results from Magellan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppe, John; Connors, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Examples of fold-and-thrust belts from a variety of tectonic settings on Venus are introduced. Predictions for the mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts on Venus are examined on the basis of wedge theory, rock mechanics data, and currently known conditions on Venus. The theoretical predictions are then compared with new Magellan data.

  14. Islam in Brazil or the Islam of Brazil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Peres de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the Islam lived and practiced by Muslim communities in Brazil. It attempts to understand the identity that this religion is acquiring in the Brazilian religious field. It discusses the discrepancy between figures presented by the official census and Muslim sources and offers models to think about the emergence of Muslim communities and possible changes due to the entrance of "new Muslims" (converted Brazilians without Muslim origin. Based on empirical data, it discusses the difficulties found and strategies used by the communities. It suggests that Islam in Brazil is starting to put down roots and to have a profile of its own.

  15. Brazil: Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos E. Ludeña; Maria Netto

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the implications of GHG emissions reduction targets in the Brazilian economy it is important to understand the sector composition of these emissions in Brazil. According to the 2010 Second National Communications of Brazil to the UNFCCC, in 2005, the majority of Brazil's emissions (87.2%) corresponded to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  16. OUT Success Stories: Rural Electrification in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States and Brazil are collaborating to bring electricity to some 5 million households in rural Brazil. Over the next decade, there is a potential to install approximately 500 megawatts (MW) of solar home systems and 1000 MW of community systems, bringing light to households, schools, and health clinics throughout rural Brazil

  17. Preface to special issue: Granite magmatism in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; de Pinho Guimarães, Ignez; Nardi, Lauro Valentim Stoll

    2016-07-01

    Granites are important both to the geologic evolution and to the economy of Brazil. Deposits of precious and rare metals, such as Au, Sn and many others, are directly or indirectly associated with granites, especially in the geologically under-explored Amazon region. On the opposite eastern side of the country, expanding exploitation of natural granite as dimension stone makes Brazil currently the world's second largest exporter of granite blocks. Granites are a major constituent of the Brazilian Archean-Proterozoic cratonic domains (the Amazon and São Francisco cratons) and their surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts. The granites are thus fundamental markers of the major events of crustal generation and recycling that shaped the South American Platform. As a result, Brazilian granites have received great attention from the national and international community, and a number of influential meetings focused on the study of granites were held in the country in the last three decades. These meetings include the two International Symposia on Granites and Associated Mineralization (Salvador, January 21-31, 1987, and August 24-29, 1997), the Symposium on Rapakivi Granites and Related Rocks (Belém, August 2-5, 1995) and the Symposium on Magmatism, Crustal Evolution, and Metallogenesis of the Amazonian Craton (Belém, August 2006). Special issues dedicated to contributions presented at these meetings in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences (Sial et al., 1998), Lithos (Stephens et al., 1999), Canadian Mineralogist (Dall'Agnol and Ramo, 2006), Precambrian Research (Ramo et al., 2002) and Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (Dall'Agnol and Bettencourt, 1997; Sial et al., 1999a) are still important references on the knowledge of Brazilian granites and granite petrology in general.

  18. Triggering Comet-Like Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Maindl, Thomas I.; Schaefer, Christoph; Speith, Roland; Dvorak, Rudolf

    2016-10-01

    Main-belt comets (MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest since their identification as activated asteroids by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006. It has been suggested that the comet-like activity of these objects are due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice that has been exposed as a result of their surfaces being impacted by small (e.g, m-sized) bodies. We have examined the viability of this scenario by simulating impacts between m-sized impactors and km-sized targets using a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach. We have carried out simulations for a range of impact velocities and angles, material type and strength, and water content of the target allowing m-sized impactors to erode enough of an MBC's surface to trigger its activation. Results indicate that for the range of impact velocities corresponding to those in the asteroid belt, the depth of an impact crater is slightly larger than 10 m suggesting that if the activation of MBCs is due to the sublimation of sub-surface water-ice, this ice has to exist no deeper than a few meters from the surface. Our simulations point to a clearly notable spread in the aggregated crater depths due to different impact energy, impact angles, and MBC's water contents showing deeper craters due to less overall material strength. Results also show that ice-exposure occurs in the bottom and on the interior surface of impact craters as well as the surface of the target where some of the ejected icy inclusions are re-accreted. Our results, in addition to demonstrating that the impact scenario is indeed a viable mechanism to expose ice and trigger the activity of MBCs, indicate that the activity of the current MBCs is likely due to ice sublimation from multiple impact sites and/or the water contents of these objects (and other asteroids in the outer asteroid belt) is larger than the 5% that is traditionally considered in models of terrestrial planet formation. We present details of our simulations and discuss their

  19. Photometry of Main Belt and Trojan asteroids with K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Gyula; Kiss, Csaba; Pal, Andras; Szabo, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Due to the failure of the second reaction wheel, a new mission was conceived for the otherwise healthy Kepler space telescope. In the course of the K2 Mission, the telescope is staring at the plane of the Ecliptic, hence thousands of Solar System bodies cross the K2 fields, usually causing extra noise in the highly accurate photometric data.We could measure the first continuous asteroid light curves, covering several days wthout interruption, that has been unprecedented to date. We studied the K2 superstamps covering the M35 and Neptune/Nereid fields observed in the long cadence (29.4-min sampling) mode. Asteroid light curves are generated by applying elongated apertures. We investigated the photometric precision that the K2 Mission can deliver on moving Solar System bodies, and determined the first uninterrupted optical light curves of main-belt and Trojan asteroids. We use thed Lomb-Scargle method to find periodicities due to rotation.We derived K2 light curves of 924 main-belt asteroids in the M35 field, and 96 in the path of Neptune and Nereid. Due to the faintness of the asteroids and the high density of stars in the M35 field, 4.0% of the asteroids with at least 12 data points show clear periodicities or trend signalling a long rotational period, as opposed to 15.9% in the less crowded Neptune field. We found that the duty cycle of the observations had to reach ˜ 60% in order to successfully recover rotational periods.The derived period-amplitude diagram is consistent to the known distribution of Main Belt asteroids. For Trojan asteroids, the contribution of our 56 objects with newly determined precise period and amplitude is in the order of all previously known asteroids. The comparison with earth-based determinations showed a previous bias toward short periods and has also proven that asteroid periods >20 hour can be unreliable in a few cases because of daylight time and diurnal calibrations. These biases are avoided from the space. We present an unbiased

  20. Periodic responses of a pulley-belt system with one-way clutch under inertia excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu

    2015-09-01

    The stable steady-state periodic response of a two-pulley belt drive system coupled with an accessory by a one-way clutch is presented. For the first time, the pulley-belt system is studied under double excitations. Specifically, the dual excitations consist of harmonic motion of the driving pulley and inertia excitation. The belt spans are modeled as axially moving viscoelastic beams by considering belt bending stiffness. Therefore, integro-partial-differential equations are derived for governing the transverse vibrations of the belt spans. Moreover, the transverse vibrations of the moving belt are coupled with the rotation vibrations of the pulleys by nonlinear dynamic tension. For describing the unidirectional decoupling function of the one-way device, rotation vibrations of the driven pulley and accessory are modeled as coupled piecewise ordinary differential equations. In order to eliminate the influence of the boundary of the belt spans, the non-trivial equilibriums of the pulley-belt system are numerically determined. Furthermore, A nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous dynamical system is derived by introducing a coordinate transform. Coupled vibrations of the pulley-belt system are investigated via the Galerkin truncation. The natural frequencies of the coupled vibrations are obtained by using the fast Fourier transform. Moreover, frequency-response curves are abstracted from time histories. Therefore, resonance areas of the belt spans, the driven pulley and the accessory are presented. Furthermore, validity of the Galerkin method is examined by comparing with the differential and integral quadrature methods (DQM & IQM). By comparing the results with and without one-way device, significant damping effect of clutch on the dynamic response is discovered. Furthermore, the effects of the intensity of the driving pulley excitation and the inertia excitation are studied. Moreover, numerical results demonstrate that the two excitations interact on the steady

  1. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  2. Country watch: Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  3. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak. PMID:26927450

  4. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  5. The Development of the “One Belt and One Road” and Its Impacts on China-U.S. Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; Liping

    2015-01-01

    In 2013,Chinese President Xi Jinping has taken the initiatives of promoting the"One Belt and One Road".The"One Belt"refers to the Silk Road Economic Belt,and"One Road"to the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road.The"One Belt and One Road"has become one important part of China’s strategy of domestic economic and social development,as well as one important part of China’s foreign strategy.

  6. Oral health policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Health network as a secondary care measure, setting up Regional Laboratories of Dental Prosthesis and a more extensive fluoridation of the public water supply.

  7. Inner Radiation Belt Generation of Light Nuclei Isotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galper, A. M.; Koldashov, S. V.; Leonv, A. A.; Mikhailov, V. V.

    2003-07-01

    Nuclear interactions between inner zone protons and atoms in the upper atmosphere provide the essential source of H and He isotop es nuclei in radiation belt. This paper reports the calculations of these isotop es intensities from the inner zone proton intensity model AP-8, the atmosphere drift-averaged composition and densities model MSIS-90, and cross sections for the various interaction processes. To calculate drift-averaged densities and energy losses of secondaries the particles are traced in geomagnetic field according IGRF-95 model by numerical solution of motion equation. The calculations account for nuclear interactions kinematic along the whole trapped protons trajectories. The results of calculations are compared with experimental data from SAMPEX, CRRES, RESURS-04 and MITA satellites taken during different solar activity phases. The comparison with observational data shows that the atmosphere is sufficient source for inner zone 4 He, 3 He,2 H and 3 H for L-shell less than 1.3.

  8. A Tropical "NAT-like" belt observed from space

    CERN Document Server

    Chepfer, Hélène; 10.1029/2008GL036289

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of cold tropical tropopause clouds are examined on a global scale, using two years of space-borne lidar observations from CALIPSO (June 2006 ? May 2008). The linear depolarization ratio, color ratio and backscatter signal are analyzed in tropical clouds colder than 200 K in a way similar to recent studies of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs). It is found that the three categories of particles encountered in PSC (Ice, Sulfate Ternary Solutions or STS, and Nitric Acid Trihydrate or NAT) do also occur in tropical cold cloud layers. Particles with optical properties similar to NAT are few, but they cover the tropical belt and represent about 20% of cold cloud tropical particles. The optical behavior of these particles requires them to be small, non-spherical, optically thin, and persistent in the TTL at temperatures colder than 200 K; NAT particles and very small ice crystals meet these criteria.

  9. Exploring the Jupiter's and Saturn's radiation belts with LOFAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien N.; Zarka, Philippe; Pater Imke, de; Hess, Sebastien; Tasse, Cyril; Courtin, Regis; Hofstadter, Mark; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Nettelmann, Nadine; lorenzato, Lise

    2014-05-01

    Since its detection in the mid-fifties, the decimeter synchrotron radiation (DIM), originating from the radiation belts of Jupiter, has been extensively observed over a wide spectrum (from >300 MHz to 22 GHz) by various radio instruments (VLA, ATCA, WSRT, Cassini...). They provided accurate flux measurements as well as resolved maps of the emission that revealed spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities. The strong magnetic field (~4.2 G at the equator) is responsible for the radio emission generated by relativistic electrons. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility configuration (fast rotating 'dipole' magnetic field, beamed radio emission) and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) (e.g. de Pater & Klein, 1989; de Pater & Dunn, 2003; Bagenal (ed.) et al., 2004; Santos-Costa, 2009, 2011). A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons populating the inner magnetosphere over a wide frequency range. The low frequencies are associated with electron of lower energies situated in weaker magnetic field regions. LOFAR, the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) (van Haarlem et al., 2012), the last generation of versatile and digital ground-based radio interferometer operates in the [30-250] MHz bandwidth. It brings very high time (~μsec), frequency (~kHz) and angular (~asec) resolutions and huge sensitivities (~mJy). In November 2011, a single 10-hour track enabled to cover an entire planetary rotation and led to image, for the first time, the radiation belts between 127-172 MHz (Girard et al. 2012, 2013). In Feb 2013, an 11-hour joint LOFAR/WSRT observing campaign seized the dyname state of the radiation belts from 45 MHz up to 5 GHz. We will present the current study of the radiation belts

  10. On the oldest asteroid families in the main belt

    CERN Document Server

    Carruba, V; Aljbaae, S; Domingos, R C; Huaman, M

    2016-01-01

    Asteroid families are groups of minor bodies produced by high-velocity collisions. After the initial dispersions of the parent bodies fragments, their orbits evolve because of several gravitational and non-gravitational effects,such as diffusion in mean-motion resonances, Yarkovsky and YORP effects, close encounters of collisions, etc. The subsequent dynamical evolution of asteroid family members may cause some of the original fragments to travel beyond the conventional limits of the asteroid family. Eventually, the whole family will dynamically disperse and no longer be recognizable. A natural question that may arise concerns the timescales for dispersion of large families. In particular, what is the oldest still recognizable family in the main belt? Are there any families that may date from the late stages of the Late Heavy Bombardment and that could provide clues on our understanding of the primitive Solar System? In this work, we investigate the dynamical stability of seven of the allegedly oldest familie...

  11. An on-belt elemental analyser for the cement industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C S; Tickner, J R; Sowerby, B D; Abernethy, D A; McEwan, A J; Rainey, S; Stevens, R; Manias, C; Retallack, D

    2001-01-01

    On-line control of raw mill feed composition is a key factor in the improved control of cement plants. A new and improved on-conveyor belt elemental analyser for cement raw mill feed based on neutron inelastic scatter and capture techniques has been developed and tested successfully in Adelaide Brighton's Birkenhead cement plant on highly segregated material with a depth range of 100 to 180 mm. Dynamic tests in the plant have shown analyser RMS total errors of 0.49, 0.52, 0.38 and 0.23 wt% (on a loss free basis) for CaO, SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 respectively, when 10-minute counting periods are used. PMID:11144240

  12. Why style matters - uncertainty and structural interpretation in thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rob; Bond, Clare; Watkins, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Structural complexity together with challenging seismic imaging make for significant uncertainty in developing geometric interpretations of fold and thrust belts. Here we examine these issues and develop more realistic approaches to building interpretations. At all scales, the best tests of the internal consistency of individual interpretations come from structural restoration (section balancing), provided allowance is made for heterogeneity in stratigraphy and strain. However, many existing balancing approaches give misleading perceptions of interpretational risk - both on the scale of individual fold-thrust (trap) structures and in regional cross-sections. At the trap-scale, idealised models are widely cited - fault-bend-fold, fault-propagation folding and trishear. These make entirely arbitrary choices for fault localisation and layer-by-layer deformation: precise relationships between faults and fold geometry are generally invalidated by real-world conditions of stratigraphic variation and distributed strain. Furthermore, subsurface predictions made using these idealisations for hydrocarbon exploration commonly fail the test of drilling. Rarely acknowledged, the geometric reliability of seismic images depends on the assigned seismic velocity model, which in turn relies on geological interpretation. Thus iterative approaches are required between geology and geophysics. The portfolio of commonly cited outcrop analogues is strongly biased to examples that simply conform to idealised models - apparently abnormal structures are rarely described - or even photographed! Insight can come from gravity-driven deep-water fold-belts where part of the spectrum of fold-thrust complexity is resolved through seismic imaging. This imagery shows deformation complexity in fold forelimbs and backlimbs. However, the applicability of these, weakly lithified systems to well-lithified successions (e.g. carbonates) of many foreland thrust belts remains conjectural. Examples of

  13. Qinling Orogenic Belt: Its Palaeozoic- Mesozoic Evolution and Metallogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The formation, development and evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt can be divided into three stages: (1) formation and development of Precambrian basement in the Late Archaean- Palaeoproterozoic (3.0- 1.6 Ga), (2) plate evolution (0.8- 0.2 Ga), and (3) intracontinental orogeny and tectonic evolution in the Mesozoic. The Devonian (D) and Triassic (T) were the key transition period of the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. That is to say, in the Devonian, the Qinling micro-plate was separated from the northern margin of the Yangtze plate (passive continental margin). This period witnessed transition of the micro-plate from the compressional to extensional state, and consequently three types of sedimentary basins were formed, namely, the rift hydrothermal basin in the micro-plate, restricted ocean basin in the south, and residual ocean basin resulting from collision on the northern margin. In the Triassic the Qinling area was turned into the intracontinental orogen.The Devonian and Triassic were the main periods of enrichment of large amounts of metals. In the Devonian, many sedex-type massive Pb-Zn- (Cu)-Ag deposits were formed in the hydrothermal basins. In the Triassic (Indosinian-Yanshanian movements), many sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits and reworked sedimentary type Pb-Zn-Hg-Sb (Au) deposits were formed in the rift hydrothermal basins. Many ductile shear zone-related gold deposits were formed in the restricted ocean basins and residual ocean basins on the two sides of the Qinling micro-plate. The above-mentioned discussion indicates that metallogenesis is not only consistent with geological events, but also controlled by them.

  14. A Path Planning Method for Robotic Belt Surface Grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; YUN Chao

    2011-01-01

    The flexible contact and machining with wide strip are two prominent advantages for the robotic belt grinding system,which can be widely used to improve the surface quality and machining efficiency while finishing the workpieces with sculptured surfaces.There lacks research on grinding path planning with the constraint of curvature.With complicated contact between the contact wheel and the workpiece,the grinding paths for robot can be obtained by the theory of contact kinematics.The grinding process must satisfy the universal demands of the belt grinding technologies,and the most important thing is to make the contact wheel conform to the local geometrical features on the contact area.For the local surfaces with small curvature,the curve length between the neighboring cutting locations becomes longer to ensure processing efficiency.Otherwise,for the local areas with large curvature,the curve length becomes shorter to ensure machining accuracy.A series of planes are created to intersect with the target surface to be ground,and the corresponding sectional profile curves are obtained.For each curve,the curve length between the neighboring cutting points is optimized by inserting a cutter location at the local area with large curvatures.A method of generating the grinding paths including curve length spacing optimization is set up.The validity is completely approved by the off-line simulation,and during the grinding experiments with the method,the quality of surface is improved.The path planning method provides a theoretical support for the smooth and accuracy path of robotic surface grinding.

  15. Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hudson, M. K.; Kress, B. T.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation belt protons in the kinetic energy range 24 to 76 MeV are being measured by the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope on each of the two Van Allen Probes. Data have been processed for the purpose of studying variability in the trapped proton intensity during October 2013 to August 2015. For the lower energies (≲32 MeV), equatorial proton intensity near L = 2 showed a steady increase that is consistent with inward diffusion of trapped solar protons, as shown by positive radial gradients in phase space density at fixed values of the first two adiabatic invariants. It is postulated that these protons were trapped with enhanced efficiency during the 7 March 2012 solar proton event. A model that includes radial diffusion, along with known trapped proton source and loss processes, shows that the observed average rate of increase near L = 2 is predicted by the same model diffusion coefficient that is required to form the entire proton radiation belt, down to low L, over an extended (˜103 year) interval. A slower intensity decrease for lower energies near L = 1.5 may also be caused by inward diffusion, though it is faster than predicted by the model. Higher-energy (≳40 MeV) protons near the L = 1.5 intensity maximum are from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay. Their observed intensity is lower than expected by a factor ˜2, but the discrepancy is resolved by adding an unspecified loss process to the model with a mean lifetime ˜120 years.

  16. Two kinds of silicalites in Mount Ailao belt, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of radiolarian silicalites at the bottom and top of the ophiolite in the Mount (Mt.) Ailao belt, Yunnan Province, are dealt with in this work in terms of geology, micro-paleontology, isotope and REE. The first kind of silicalite was defined as the turbidite formation. In this category, the radiolarian species lived in the Late Devonian (D3). The corresponding ecologic assemblage, composed of δ 30Si (0.4‰-0.5‰, average 0.03‰), δ Ce (0.77- 0.97, average 0.85) and LaN /YbN (0.77-1.06, average 0.96) of silicalite, shows that it occurred in the abyssal environment. The second kind of silicalite was defined as the mud-siliceous formation. Contacting conformably with the basalt of the ophiolite suit, the radiolarian silicalite at the top of ophiolite was in the category of the component units of the ophiolite in the Mt. Ailao belt. In this category, the radiolarian species lived in the Early Carboniferous (C1-). The corresponding ecologic assemblage, composed of d 30Si (0.2‰-1.3‰, averaging 0.7‰), dδCe (0.88- 0.92, averaging 0.90) and LaN /YbN (0.77-1.45, averaging 1.22), of silicalites indicate that it occurred in the bathyal environment. All these facts domonstrate that the Mt. Ailao must have been a small ocean basin at that time.

  17. Major shear zones of southern Brazil and Uruguay: escape tectonics in the eastern border of Rio de La plata and Paranapanema cratons during the Western Gondwana amalgamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, C. R.; Basei, M. A. S.; Wemmer, K.; Siga, O.; Oyhantçabal, P.

    2011-04-01

    The Mantiqueira Province represents a series of supracrustal segments of the South-American counterpart formed during the Gondwana Supercontinent agglutination. In this crustal domain, the process of escape tectonics played a conspicuous role, generating important NE-N-S-trending lineaments. The oblique component of the motions of the colliding tectonic blocks defined the transpressional character of the main suture zones: Lancinha-Itariri, Cubatão-Arcádia-Areal, Serrinha-Rio Palmital in the Ribeira Belt and Sierra Ballena-Major Gercino in the Dom Feliciano Belt. The process as a whole lasted for ca. 60 Ma, since the initial collision phase until the lateral escape phase predominantly marked by dextral and subordinate sinistral transpressional shear zones. In the Dom Feliciano Belt, southern Brazil and Uruguay, transpressional event at 630-600 Ma is recognized and in the Ribeira Belt, despite less coevally, the transpressional event occurred between 590 and 560 Ma in its northern-central portion and between ca. 625 and 595 Ma in its central-southern portion. The kinematics of several shear zones with simultaneous movement in opposite directions at their terminations is explained by the sinuosity of these lineaments in relation to a predominantly continuous westward compression.

  18. Brazil and CERN get closer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The map of countries affiliated to CERN may in future include Brazil. On a visit to CERN last week, the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology, Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg, expressed his country's interest in closer links to the Laboratory.   Luciano Maiani and the Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology Ronaldo Mota Sardenberg shake hands on CERN-Brazil co-operation. During his visit, the Minister and CERN Director General Luciano Maiani issued a joint statement for the continuation of a Co-operation Agreement first established in 1990. They also agreed to study the possibility of Brazil joining CERN-led Grid computing infrastructure projects. Brazilian physicists are already involved in the LHCb, ATLAS and CMS experiments. At the conclusion of the Minister's visit, he and Director-General Maiani agreed to establish a Working Group to examine ways of strengthening Brazil's links with CERN, and to prepare the way for a Brazilian request to CERN Council to become an Observer at th...

  19. [Nuptiality among Brazil's black population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquo, E

    1987-08-01

    Data from a three percent sample of the 1980 census of Brazil are used to analyze nuptiality trends by ethnic group. The focus is on the homogamy of marriage by color and age and on the marriage patterns of the black population.

  20. Violence in Schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Angel

    1995-01-01

    The causes of violence in schools, as in society, are multiple and complex; they are rooted in the intolerable economic and social conditions created by Brazil's development model, characterized by unequal wealth distribution, widespread poverty, and an exclusive society. By mirroring this exclusionary process, the educational system is inherently…

  1. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  2. First ultraviolet reflectance measurements of several Kuiper Belt objects, Kuiper Belt object satellites, and new ultraviolet measurements of A Centaur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, S. A.; Schindhelm, E. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Cunningham, N. J., E-mail: astern@swri.edu [Nebraska Wesleyan University, 5000 Saint Paul Avenue, Lincoln, NE 68504 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We observed the 2600-3200 Å (hereafter, mid-UV) reflectance of two Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), two KBO satellites, and a Centaur, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Other than measurements of the Pluto system, these constitute the first UV measurements obtained of KBOs, and KBO satellites, and new HST UV measurements of the Centaur 2060 Chiron. We find significant differences among these objects, constrain the sizes and densities of Haumea's satellites, and report the detection of a possible spectral absorption band in Haumea's spectrum near 3050 Å. Comparisons of these objects to previously published UV reflectance measurements of Pluto and Charon are also made here.

  3. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.; Honary, F.

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, or electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. However, this has failed to accurately reproduce the third belt. Using a data-driven, time-dependent specification of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves we show for the first time how the third radiation belt is established as a simple, elegant consequence of storm-time extremely fast outward ULF wave transport. High-frequency wave-particle scattering loss into the atmosphere is not needed in this case. When rapid ULF wave transport coupled to a dynamic boundary is accurately specified, the sensitive dynamics controlling the enigmatic ultra-relativistic third radiation belt are naturally explained.

  4. Optimizing the Pipe Diameter of the Pipe Belt Conveyor Based on Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yong-cun; Wang, Shuang; Hu, Kun; Li, De-yong

    2016-03-01

    In order to increase the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and reduce lateral pressure of the supporting roller set, this study aims to optimize the pipe diameter of the pipe belt conveyor. A mechanical model of the pipe belt conveyor with six supporting roller sets in the belt bearing section was built based on the infinitesimal method, and the formula for calculating the lateral pressure of each supporting roller was deduced on the basis of reasonable assumption. Simulated analysis was carried out on the operation process of the pipe belt conveyor by using the discrete element method. The result showed that, when the other conditions were certain, as the pipe diameter increased, the average lateral pressure of the supporting roller set increased, with a gradually decreasing increment, which was consistent with the calculated result of the theoretical formula. An optimized pipe diameter under the current conditions was obtained by fitting the curve of the formula for calculating the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and its simulation curve. It provided a certain reference value for improving the transport efficiency and prolonging the service life of the pipe belt conveyor.

  5. Seat belt syndrome: Delayed or missed intestinal injuries, a case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ozaibi, Labib; Adnan, Judy; Hassan, Batool; Al-Mazroui, Alya; Al-Badri, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Seat belt injuries are not uncommon. The use of seat belts is associated with a unique injury profile collectively termed “the seat belt syndrome”. The aim is to aid in the early diagnosis of seat belt injuries. Case presentation Two different patients presented to the emergency after sustaining a motor vehicle accident. Both were the drivers, restrained and had a frontal impact. On presentation they were hemodynamically stable with mild tenderness on the abdomen and the abdominal computed tomography (CT) did not show any signs of bowel or mesenteric injuries. The signs of peritonitis became obvious after 24 h in one case and after 3 days in the other. Discussion Early diagnosis provides better outcomes for patients with seat belt injuries, but this remains a challenge to trauma surgeons. The typical findings of peritonitis might not be present initially. The presence of abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) increases the chance of intraabdominal injuries by eight folds. Conclusion Clinical signs of intestinal injuries might not be obvious on presentation. In the presence of seat belt sign the possibility of bowl injury must be suspected. Admit the patient for observation even if no clinical or radiological findings are present at presentation. PMID:26826929

  6. Metamorphism and plutonism in the Quetico Belt, Superior Province, N.W. Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Quetico Belt lies between the metavolcanic Wawa-Shebandowan and Wabigoon Belts. It consists of marginal metasedimentary rocks and central pelitic, gneissic and plutonic rocks. Metamorphism is Barrovian, at depths less than 10 km, and grade increases from margins to core of the belt: the outermost pelites are at chlorite-muscovite grade; inward a garnet-andalusite zone formed throughout the inner margin; and the central zone ranges form garnet-andalusite in the west and garnet-sillimanite-muscovite to garnet-sillimanite-cordierite and rare kyanite 6 to 150 km to the east. This increase is correlated with granitic intrusives. Migmatites in the core have intrusive leucosomes in the west and locally derived ones in the east. Isograd surfaces are steep where the belt is narrow and dip gently where it is wide. The Quetico Park intrusive complex of the central region of the Quetico Belt shows a zonation across it 20 to 50 km width from older, medium grained biotite composition to younger, coarse to pegmatitic granitic composition. Sediment of the Quetico basin had its source in the bordering metavolcanic belts and was deposited ca. 2.75 to 2.70 Ga ago. Boundaries of the belt dip inward, so it essentially is a graben of inter-arc or back-arc type.

  7. Ocorrência de acidente de trabalho por materiais perfurocortantes e fluidos biológicos em estudantes e trabalhadores da saúde de um hospital escola de Brasília Frecuencia de accidentes del trabajo causados por instrumentos puntiagudo-cortantes y fluidos biológicos entre estudiantes y personal de un hospital escuela de la ciudad de Brasilia Occurrence of work accidents caused by sharp-edged hollow-pointed equipment and biological fluids among medical students and health personnel in a Brasília university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Eri Shimizu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available estudo teve por objetivo verificar e analisar a ocorrência de acidentes de trabalho causados por materiais perfurocortantes e fluidos biológicos em estudantes e trabalhadores da área da saúde. Foi realizado em um hospital-escola de Brasilia. A coleta de dados foi feita a partir dos registros de acidentes de trabalho mantidos pela Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar e referentes ao período de agosto de 1998 a junho de 2000. Verificou-se que 117 pessoas sofreram acidentes de trabalho, em sua grande maioria causados por agulhas. Concluiu-se que existe a necessidade de melhoria nos sistemas de prevenção de acidentes na instituição.El objetivo del estudio fue el de verificar y analizar la frecuencia de accidentes del trabajo causados por instrumentos puntiagudo-cortantes entre estudiantes y personal de un hospital escuela de la ciudad de Brasilia. Los datos, recogidos de los registros de accidentes del trabajo de la Comisión de Control de Infección Hospitalaria, corresponden al periodo entre agosto de 1998 y junio de 2000. Se verifico que 117 personas sufrieron accidentes del trabajo, en su gran mayoría causados por agujas. Se llegó a la conclusión de que es necesario mejorar el sistema de prevención de accidentes en dicha institución.The objective of the study was to check and analyze the occurrence of work accidents caused by sharp-edged hollow-pointed equipment and biological fluids among medical students and health personnel. It was carried out in a Brasilia university hospital. The data were collected from records of work accidents kept by the Hospital Infection Control Committee, from August 1998 to June 2000. It has turned out that 117 persons were victims of work accidents, the vast majority of them caused by needles. The study has reached the conclusion that the accident prevention system must be improved at the above mentioned hospital.

  8. The Relative Deep Penetrations of Energetic Electrons and Ions into the Slot Region and Inner Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H.; Li, X.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere are distributed into two regions: the inner radiation belt and the outer radiation belt, with the slot region in between separating the two belts. Though many studies have focused on the outer belt dynamics, the energetic electrons in the slot region and especially inner belt did not receive much attention until recently. A number of new features regarding electrons in the low L region have been reported lately, including the abundance of 10s-100s of keV electrons in the inner belt, the frequent deep injections of 100s of keV electrons, and 90°-minimum pitch angle distributions of 100s of keV electrons in the inner belt and slot region. In this presentation, we focus on the relative deep injections into the slot region and inner belt of energetic electrons and ions using observations from HOPE and MagEIS instruments on the Van Allen Probes. It is shown that while 10s - 100s of keV electrons penetrate commonly deep into the low L region and are persistent in the inner belt, the deep injections of ions with similar energies occur rarely, possibly due to the fast loss of ions in the low L region. The energy spectra and pitch angle distributions of electrons and ions during injections are also very different, indicating the existence of different physical mechanisms acting on them. In addition, some intriguing similarities between lower energy ions and higher energy electrons will also be discussed.

  9. A method for automated control of belt velocity changes with an instrumented treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel-Lipsker, Jacob W; Hahn, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Increased practice difficulty during asymmetrical split-belt treadmill rehabilitation has been shown to improve gait outcomes during retention and transfer tests. However, research in this area has been limited by manual treadmill operation. In the case of variable practice, which requires stride-by-stride changes to treadmill belt velocities, the treadmill control must be automated. This paper presents a method for automation of asymmetrical split-belt treadmill walking, and evaluates how well this method performs with regards to timing of gait events. One participant walked asymmetrically for 100 strides, where the non-dominant limb was driven at their self-selected walking speed, while the other limb was driven randomly on a stride-by-stride basis. In the control loop, the key factors to insure that the treadmill belt had accelerated to its new velocity safely during the swing phase were the sampling rate of the A/D converter, processing time within the controller software, and acceleration of the treadmill belt. The combination of these three factors resulted in a total control loop time during each swing phase that satisfied these requirements with a factor of safety that was greater than 4. Further, a polynomial fit indicated that belt acceleration was the largest contributor to changes in this total time. This approach appears to be safe and reliable for stride-by-stride adjustment of treadmill belt speed, making it suitable for future asymmetrical split-belt walking studies. Further, it can be incorporated into virtual reality rehabilitation paradigms that utilize split-belt treadmill walking. PMID:26654110

  10. Pb Isotope Mapping in the Tongbai-Dabie Orogenic Belt, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; ZHONG Zengqiu; WANG Linsen; Zhang Benren

    2008-01-01

    Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt in Central China is a part of the collisional belt between the Yangtze and North China cratons. It represents one of the most extensive ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) and high-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The Pb isotope mapping in this area is a significant method to constrain the crustal structure and tectonic evolution and to identify the tectonic boundaries within the vertical tectonic stack. Based on the Pb isotope compositions of the Dabie complex (DBC), the Tongbai complex (TBC), UHP and HP metamorphic rocks and associated foliated granites, the lower metamorphosed rocks from North Huaiyang (NHY) tectonic belt, and Cretaceous granites in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt, we determined the Pb isotope geochemical map of the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The Pb isotope map shows that the Pb isotope compositions are similar within each geological body or lithotectonic unit, but the Pb isotope compositions of different lithotectonic units show systematic variations in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt. The NHY tectonic belt contrasts strongly with the Tongbal-Dabie UHP-HP metamorphic belt in Pb isotope compositions.It is suggested that the line along the Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, the north limit of the Tongbai-Dabie UHP and HP metamorphic rocks, represents an important tectonic boundary. Within the Tongbai-Dabie HP -UHP metamorphic belt, to the south of Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, the vertical variations of Pb isotope compositions in different lithotectonic units and the spatial relationship among different major lithotectonic units have been constrained.

  11. The population question in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Population control programs were instituted in Brazil in the 1960s and resulted in as 50% reduction of the fertility rate in 20 years with a reduction in population growth from 2.9%/year in the 1960s to 2.1% in the 1980s. The rapid urbanization which has occurred in Brazil also contributed to this process. While the Brazilian government has eschewed foreign intervention, it encourages the population control programs which are funded by international agencies. The women's movement became involved in policies relating to reproductive rights in 1980, and attempts were made to change the focus of women's health care and the right of women to make reproductive choices. 71% of Brazilian women of reproductive age who are married or living in consensual union use contraception. This compares with 70% of women in developed countries. In Brazil, however, 44% of the women have been sterilized, 41% use oral contraceptives (OCs), and 12% use natural or barrier methods, compared to 7, 13, and 41%, respectively, in developed countries. Sterilization is illegal in Brazil, although it is widespread; the high number of Cesarean section births may determine a medical need for sterilization (after three such deliveries, for example). Abortion is also illegal (except in cases of rape or if the mother's life is in danger) and widespread. The 2 to 3 million abortions each year are thought to be the third cause of maternal mortality. Studies of OC use have shown that Brazilian women often use OCs without medical monitoring or in cases when the contraceptive is absolutely contraindicated. In the past few years, Brazilian women's groups have demanded that the government deal with the issue of family planning in order to stop the intervention of international population control agencies. Brazil has never had the sufficiently modern and effective policy to help women to use contraception safely during the various stages of their reproductive lives. PMID:12286343

  12. Analysis on damage cause of belt eyes for bypass feedwater isolation valves of Daya Bay and Ling'ao NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When all of bypass feedwater isolation valves of Daya Bay and Ling'ao NPPs were inspected under disassembled condition, it was found that the belt eyes were damaged in various degrees. The analysis on macro appearance, chemical composition, metallographic, Scanning Electron Microscope and fluid mechanics simulation were carried out on the damaged belt eyes. The results show that the flow rate of belt eye is well above the manufacturer's recommendation so that flow accelerated corrosion and cavitation erosion occur on the belt eyes. According to the damage causes of the belt eyes, corresponding corrective actions are proposed. (authors)

  13. Three Alkali—Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Bewly Discovered in the Mt.Kunlkun—Mt.Altun Region,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 等

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt.Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive fock belt, the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beeilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt.The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period,and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period,which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China.The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  14. Three Alkali-Rich Intrusive Rock Belts Newly Discovered in the Mt. Kunlun-Mt. Altun Region, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱笑青; 王元龙; 毕华; 王中刚

    2002-01-01

    The newly discovered three alkali-rich intrusive rock belts in the Mt. Kunlun Mt.Altun region of southern Xinjiang are the Lapeiquan-Yitunbulak alkali-rich intrusive rock belt,the Gez-Taxkorgan alkali-rich intrusive rock belt and the Beilisai-Abulash alkali-rich intrusive rock belt. The former two belts were formed during the Yanshanian period, and the third one was formed during the Himalayan period, which is the youngest alkali-rich intrusive rock belt in China. The discovery of the alkali-rich intrusive rock belts is of great significance in shedding light on the history of tectono-magmatic activities in this region.

  15. TERRAIN TECTONICS OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN FOLDED BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Buslov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The terrain analysis concept envisages primarily a possibility of approximation of fragments / terrains of various geodynamic settings which belong to different plates. The terrain analysis can supplement the theory of plate tectonics in solving problems of geodynamics and tectonics of regions of the crust with complex structures. The Central Asian belt is among such complicated regions. Terrain structures occurred as a result of combined movements in the system of 'frontal' and/or oblique subduction – collision. In studies of geological objects, it is required first of all to prove their (vertical and horizontal autochthony in relations to each other and then proceed to paleogeodynamic, paleotectonic and paleogeographic reconstructions. Obviously, such a complex approach needs data to be obtained by a variety of research methods, including those applied to study geologic structures, stratigraphy, paleontology, paleogeography, lithothlogy, geochemistry, geochronology, paleomagnetism etc. Only by correlating such data collected from inter-disciplinary studies of the regions, it is possible to establish reliable characteristics of the geological settings and avoid mistakes and misinterpretations that may be associated with the 'stratigraphic' approach to solutions of both regional and global problems of geodynamics and tectonics of folded areas. The terrain analysis of the Central Asian folded belt suggests that its tectonic structure combines marginal continental rock complexes that were formed by the evolution of two major oceanic plates. One of them is the plate of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. As the analogue of the current Indo-Atlantic segment of Earth, it is characterised by the presence of continental blocks in the composition of the oceanic crust and the formation of oceanic basins resulting from the breakup of Rodinia and Gondvana. In the course of its evolution, super-continents disintegrated, and the blocks were reunited into the Kazakhstan

  16. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in... competitive factors in Brazil affecting U.S. and Brazilian agricultural sales in third country markets....

  17. Sustained effect of resistance training on blood pressure and hand grip strength following a detraining period in elderly hypertensive women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento D da C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dahan da Cunha Nascimento,1,5,8 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,1,8 Franklin M Benik,2 Keila Elizabeth Fontana,3 Frederico Ribeiro Neto,8 Frederico Santos de Santana,5,8 Leopoldo Santos-Neto,4 Renato André Sousa Silva,1,5,6 Alessandro Oliveira Silva,1,7 Darlan Lopes Farias,1,7 Sandor Balsamo,4,5,8 Jonato Prestes1 1Postgraduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil; 2Department of Kinesiology and Sports Studies Graduate Program, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA; 3Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil; 4Graduate Program in Medical Sciences of the University of Brasilia, School of Medicine and Rheumatology Service, University Hospital of Brasilia (HUB, Brasilia, Brazil; 5Department of Physical Education, University Center Euro American University Center, Brasilia, Brazil; 6Center of Excellence in Medicine of Exercise (CEMEx, Brasilia, Brazil; 7Center University of Brasilia (UNICEUB, Brasilia, Brazil; 8Strength Training and Health Research Group (GEPEEFS, Brasilia, Brazil Introduction: Hypertension is the most prevalent modifiable risk factor with a high prevalence among older adults. Exercise is a nonpharmacological treatment shown to benefit all patients with hypertension. Objective: This study examined the effects of a 14-week moderate intensity resistance training program (RT on the maintenance of blood pressure and hand grip strength during an extended detraining period in elderly hypertensive women. Methods: Twelve hypertensive sedentary elderly women completed 14 weeks of whole body RT at a moderate perceived exertion following a detraining period of 14 weeks. Results: Following the training period, participants demonstrated an increase in absolute hand grip strength (P=0.001, relative hand grip strength (P=0.032 and a decrease of systolic (P=0.001, diastolic (P=0.008, and mean blood pressure (P=0.002 when compared to pre-exercise values. In addition, these

  18. New insights into main belt asteroid collisional lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henych, Tomas; Holsapple, Keith

    2016-10-01

    We are developing a new Monte Carlo code to study the collisional and spin evolution of main belt asteroids. A byproduct is information on asteroid lifetimes. We find new interpretations and values of those lifetimes.In the conventional approach, the "collisional lifetime" is measured by the time when an asteroid is struck by an impactor large enough to remove one-half of the target's mass. That event is called a catastrophic disruption (CD). From an assumed population of impactors and Poisson statistics, one can estimate the largest expected impactor to impact in a given time interval to get its expected collisional lifetime. However, our Monte Carlo simulations give lifetimes that are distinctly shorter. That raises questions about the basic definition of catastrophic disruption.During its presence in the main belt, many other asteroids of all sizes continually strike a target asteroid. Before the CD one happens, there are many small impacts, and a few less than but not equal to the CD one. Each impact erodes the target asteroid. Very commonly, it is eroded to a much smaller mass before some CD event. We will present examples.So what shall we define as its collisional lifetime? Should it be the time for which its mass is reduced to one-half of its original mass, irrespective of how that happened, perhaps from many impacts? Or when any single impact reduces its mass to one-half of its original mass? Or when a single impact reduces it to one-half of its current mass?We propose that collisional lifetime is defined as the time at which it reaches 50% of its original mass, from any combination of small and/or large events. We use cratering and ejecta scaling formulas (e.g. Holsapple, 1993, Housen and Holsapple, 2011) to calculate the eroded mass history of the target for a history of impactors and calculate the outcome of any impact using the current size. In the gravity regime, the eroded body is easier to disrupt. We will present our lifetime estimates and those of

  19. The absolute magnitude distribution of Kuiper Belt objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Brown, Michael E. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Parker, Alex [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Batygin, Konstantin, E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-02-20

    Here we measure the absolute magnitude distributions (H-distribution) of the dynamically excited and quiescent (hot and cold) Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), and test if they share the same H-distribution as the Jupiter Trojans. From a compilation of all useable ecliptic surveys, we find that the KBO H-distributions are well described by broken power laws. The cold population has a bright-end slope, α{sub 1}=1.5{sub −0.2}{sup +0.4}, and break magnitude, H{sub B}=6.9{sub −0.2}{sup +0.1} (r'-band). The hot population has a shallower bright-end slope of, α{sub 1}=0.87{sub −0.2}{sup +0.07}, and break magnitude H{sub B}=7.7{sub −0.5}{sup +1.0}. Both populations share similar faint-end slopes of α{sub 2} ∼ 0.2. We estimate the masses of the hot and cold populations are ∼0.01 and ∼3 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ⊕}. The broken power-law fit to the Trojan H-distribution has α{sub 1} = 1.0 ± 0.2, α{sub 2} = 0.36 ± 0.01, and H {sub B} = 8.3. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test reveals that the probability that the Trojans and cold KBOs share the same parent H-distribution is less than 1 in 1000. When the bimodal albedo distribution of the hot objects is accounted for, there is no evidence that the H-distributions of the Trojans and hot KBOs differ. Our findings are in agreement with the predictions of the Nice model in terms of both mass and H-distribution of the hot and Trojan populations. Wide-field survey data suggest that the brightest few hot objects, with H{sub r{sup ′}}≲3, do not fall on the steep power-law slope of fainter hot objects. Under the standard hierarchical model of planetesimal formation, it is difficult to account for the similar break diameters of the hot and cold populations given the low mass of the cold belt.

  20. The Main Asteroid Belt: The Crossroads of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, main belt asteroids are leftover planetary building blocks that never accreted enough material to become planets. They are therefore keys to understanding how the Solar System formed and evolved. They may also provide clues to the origin of life, as similar bodies may have delivered organics and water to the early Earth.Strong associations between asteroids and meteorites emerged thanks to multi-technique observations, modeling, in situ and sample return analyses. Spacecraft images revolutionized our knowledge of these small worlds. Asteroids are stunning in their diversity in terms of physical properties. Their gravity varies by more orders of magnitude than its variation among the terrestrial planets, including the Moon. Each rendezvous with an asteroid thus turned our geological understanding on its head as each asteroid is affected in different ways by a variety of processes such as landslides, faulting, and impact cratering. Composition also varies, from ice-rich to lunar-like to chondritic.Nearly every asteroid we see today, whether of primitive or evolved compositions, is the product of a complex history involving accretion and one or more episodes of catastrophic disruption that sometimes resulted in families of smaller asteroids that have distinct and indicative petrogenic relationships. These families provide the best data to study the impact disruption process at scales far larger than those accessible in laboratory. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of early asteroids grew large enough to thermally differentiate. Their traces are scattered pieces of their metal-rich cores and, more rarely, their mantles and crusts.Asteroids represent stages on the rocky road to planet formation. They have great stories to tell about the formation and evolution of our Solar System as well as other planetary systems: asteroid belts seem common around Sun-like stars. We will review our current knowledge on their properties, their link to

  1. Improved electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) belt press for food products. Phase 3, Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Battelle`s electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process improves the performance of mechanical dewatering processes for several food products (such as corn fiber) by superimposing electric and ultrasonic fields. EAD has the potential to save 0.027 to 0.035 quad/yr energy by 1995 in the food processing industry, which consumed 0.15 to 0.18 quad in 1986. This report covers Phase III for demonstrating the EAD prototype on corn wet milling products (corn fiber and gluten); only Task 1 (prototype preparation and planning) was completed. EAD performance was examined in the laboratory; availability of a test site was examined. The single-roll, postdewatering EAD belt press prototype can accept material predewatered by a screw press, centrifuge, or any other mechanical dewatering device. The two-belt system, utilizing a copper-polymer cathode belt, performed as well as the three-belt system used in Phase II.

  2. Dynamics simulation of the belt conveyor possessing feedback loop during starting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Ping-yuan; ZHANG Hai-tao; LIU Jun

    2005-01-01

    Synthesizing the mechanical models of the belt, the driver and the take-up device, the dynamics model was established on the longitudinal vibration of the overall belt conveyor system with finite elemental method, and S-function simulation block of asynchronous motor owing feedback function was built in Matlab/Simulink software, the simulation block indicates that motor rotation speed and its output moment vary with load and time, and the motor is a dynamic feedback system in working process. The state space block was adopted to express model of the belt. Thus it created simulation model of established dynamic model of overall belt conveyor system with Matlab/Simulink software, and simulates the course of starting by properly setting simulation parameters, and processes data for visualization.

  3. Percentage of Drivers and Front Seat Passengers Wearing Seat Belts, 2012, Region 9 - San Francisco

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Source for national data: National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS), 2012. Source for state data: State Observational Survey of Seat Belt Use, 2012.

  4. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Kauai, Main Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 7 sites at Kauai in the Main...

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Ofu-Olosega, American Samoa, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Ofu-Olosega in the...

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Maro Reef, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at Maro Reef in October,...

  7. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Pearl and Hermes Reef, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at Pearl Hermes Reef in...

  8. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Laysan Island, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan Island in...

  9. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at French frigate Shoals, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at French Frigate Shoals...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at the Midway Atoll, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Midway Atoll in...

  11. Principal Resonance of Parametrically Excited Moving Viscoelastic Belts with Geometrical Nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯之超; 祖武争

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed on moving belts subjected to geometric nonlinearity and initial tension fluctuation.To incorporate more accurately the damping mechanism of belt material, linear viscoelastic models are adopted in a unified form of differential operators.To circumvent high-order differential vibration equation of time-varying coefficients and with gyroscopic and nonlinear terms, where analytical solution is almost impossible, a systematic approach is presented by reforming the motion equation and directly using the method of multiple scales.To exemplify the procedure, the solutions at principal resonance are obtained and their stability conditions are derived for employing a Kelvin-Voigt model to reflect the property of the belt material.The solutions and stability conditions successfully reduce to those for using Kelvin model and elastic model, which validate the present approaches.Numerical simulations highlight the effects of tension fluctuations and translating speeds on the stability of the belt vibration.

  12. Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Yuri Y.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C.; Usanova, Maria E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Agapitov, Oleksiy V.; Zhelavskaya, Irina S.; Raita, Tero J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Baker, Daniel N.; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A.

    2016-01-01

    The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes. PMID:27678050

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Johnston Island, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Island in...

  14. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-08-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  15. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Santa Rosa Bank, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Santa Rosa Bank in the...

  16. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Santa Rosa Reef, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Santa Rosa Reef in the...

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Midway Atoll, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in July,...

  18. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Rose, American Samoa, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose in the American...

  19. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  20. Motivating signage prompts safety belt use among drivers exiting senior communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, B S; Cox, A B; Cox, D J

    2000-01-01

    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using an AB design, replicated five times, we evaluated the short- and long-term effects of a sign with the message "BUCKLE UP, STAY SAFE" attached to a stop sign at the exits of five different senior communities. Safety belt use was stable during two pretreatment assessments averaged across the five sites and 250 drivers (72% and 68% usage), but significantly increased following installation of these signs (94% usage). Six months after installation of the signs, the effect persisted (88% usage). Use of such signs may be a cost-effective way of promoting safety belt use.

  1. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Midway, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway in the NW...

  2. Watershed regressions for pesticides (WARP) for predicting atrazine concentration in Corn Belt streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models, previously developed for atrazine at the national scale, can be improved for application to the U.S. Corn Belt region by developing region-specific models that include important watershed characteristics that are influential in predicting atrazine concentration statistics within the Corn Belt. WARP models for the Corn Belt (WARP-CB) were developed for predicting annual maximum moving-average (14-, 21-, 30-, 60-, and 90-day durations) and annual 95th-percentile atrazine concentrations in streams of the Corn Belt region. All streams used in development of WARP-CB models drain watersheds with atrazine use intensity greater than 17 kilograms per square kilometer (kg/km2). The WARP-CB models accounted for 53 to 62 percent of the variability in the various concentration statistics among the model-development sites.

  3. The WISE Survey of the Albedo Distribution of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, J.; Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Delbó, M.; Mueller, M.; WISE Team, [No Value

    2010-01-01

    Using date from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) we investigate the albedo distribution across the main belt of asteroids. When complete WISE will measure albedos and diameters for ~100,000 asteroids.

  4. The Contraction/Expansion History of Charon with implication for its Planetary Scale Tectonic Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Malamud, Uri; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The New-Horizons mission to the Kuiper Belt has recently revealed intriguing features on the surface of Charon, including a network of chasmata, cutting across or around a series of high topography features, conjoining to form a belt. It is proposed that this tectonic belt is a consequence of contraction/expansion episodes in the moon's evolution associated particularly with compaction, differentiation and geophysical reactions of the interior. The proposed scenario involves no need for solidification of a vast subsurface ocean and/or a warm initial state. This scenario is based on a new, detailed thermo-physical evolution model of Charon that includes multiple processes. According to the model, Charon experiences two contraction/expansion episodes in its history that may provide the proper environment for the formation of the tectonic belt. This outcome remains qualitatively the same even if we assume a different initial composition and mass. Two alternative explanations for the precise localization and orie...

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Pathfinder Reef, Marianas Archipelago, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Pathfinder Reef in the...

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites at Baker in the Pacific...

  7. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Ta'u, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Ta'u Islands in...

  8. Poleward expansion of the tropical belt derived from upper tropospheric water vapour

    OpenAIRE

    You, Qinglong; Min, Jinzhong; Kang, Shichang; Pepin, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Based on intersatellite-calibrated high-resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS) upper tropospheric water vapour (UTWV) brightness temperatures, the width of the tropical belt is defined as the distance between the latitudes at which maximum HIRS UTWV brightness temperatures are recorded in both hemispheres. Poleward expansion of the tropical belt is evident during 1979–2013 on an annual basis, with an average global magnitude of 1.57° latitude per decade. Most rapid widening is evident i...

  9. EFFECTS OF BELT SPEED, PRESSURE AND GRIT SIZE ON THE SANDING OF Pinus elliottii WOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Manoel Cléber de Sampaio Alves; Luiz Fernando Frezzatti Santiago; Marcos Tadeu Tiburcio Gonçalves; Ivaldo De Domênico Valarelli; Francisco Mateus Faria de Almeida Varasquim

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate the influence of the factors (belt speed, pressure and grit size) on the output parameters (temperature and surface roughness) for Pinus elliottii wood sanding, processed parallel to the fibers. Three levels of belt speed, three levels of pressure and four levels of grit size were employed, with six replicates for each process, totaling 216 observations. The experiment conducted under a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The results were...

  10. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    OpenAIRE

    Korrapati Kotinagu; Nelapati Krishnaiah

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of...

  11. MEASURING RESULTS NUMERAL TREATMENT OF IMPULSIVE CURRENTS BY MEANS OF ROGOVSKY BELT APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Batygin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of numerical processing of measurement results of pulse currents by means of Rogovsky belt application is offered in the given work. It is shown that at measurement of signals by digital oscillographs and further numerical transformation of target signals, the possibilities of Rogovsky belt without the application of additional devices that in turn allows to define parameters of pulse currents with any peak-time characteristics essentially expand.

  12. The New Horizons Pluto Kuiper belt Mission: An Overview with Historical Context

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, S. Alan

    2007-01-01

    NASA's New Horizons (NH) Pluto-Kuiper belt (PKB) mission was launched on 19 January 2006 on a Jupiter Gravity Assist (JGA) trajectory toward the Pluto system for a 14 July 2015 closest approach; Jupiter closest approach occurred on 28 February 2007. It was competitively selected by NASA for development on 29 November 2001. New Horizons is the first mission to the Pluto system and the Kuiper belt; and will complete the reconnaissance of the classical planets. The ~400 kg spacecraft carries sev...

  13. The Physiologic Responses of Dutch Belted Rabbits Infected with Inhalational Anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, William S.; Hardcastle, Jason M; Brining, Douglas L; Weaver, Lori E; Ponce, Cindy; Whorton, Elbert B.; Johnny W. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a category A priority pathogen that causes extensive damage in humans. For this reason, B. anthracis has been the focus of numerous studies using various animal models. In this study, we explored physiologic parameters in Dutch belted rabbits with inhalation anthrax to characterize the disease progression in this model. To this end, we infected Dutch belted rabbits with 100 LD50 B. anthracis Ames spores by nasal instillation and continuou...

  14. Measurement and monitoring of electrocardiogram belt tension in premature infants for assessment of respiratory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegyi Thomas

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG in premature infants with conventional adhesive-backed electrodes can harm their sensitive skin. Use of an electrode belt prevents skin irritation, but the effect of belt pressure on respiratory function is unknown. A strain gauge sensor is described which measures applied belt tension. Method The device frame was comprised of an aluminum housing and slide to minimize the device weight. Velcro tabs connected housing and slide to opposite tabs located at the electrode belt ends. The slide was connected to a leaf spring, to which were bonded two piezoresistive transducers in a half-bridge circuit configuration. The device was tested for linearity and calibrated. The effect on infant respiratory function of constant belt tension in the normal range (30 g–90 g was determined. Results The mechanical response to a step input was second order (fn = 401 Hz, ζ = 0.08. The relationship between applied tension and output voltage was linear in the range 25–225 gm of applied tension (r2 = 0.99. Measured device sensitivity was 2.18 mV/gm tension using a 5 V bridge excitation voltage. When belt tension was increased in the normal range from 30 gm to 90 gm, there was no significant change in heart rate and most respiratory functions during monitoring. At an intermediate level of tension of 50 gm, pulmonary resistance and work of breathing significantly decreased. Conclusion The mechanical and electrical design of a device for monitoring electrocardiogram electrode belt tension is described. Within the typical range of application tension, cardiovascular and respiratory function are not substantially negatively affected by electrode belt force.

  15. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Gyawu; Quansah, Joseph E.; Souleymane Fall; Gichuhi, Peter N; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there we...

  16. Aeromagnetic and aeromagnetic-based geologic maps of the Coastal Belt, Franciscan Complex, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex represents a Late Cretaceous to Miocene accretionary prism and overlying slope deposits. Its equivalents may extend from the offshore outer borderland of southern California to north of the Mendocino Triple Junction under the Eel River Basin and in the offshore of Cascadia. The Coastal belt is exposed on land in northern California, yet its structure and stratigraphy are incompletely known because of discontinuous exposure, structural disruption, and lithologically non-distinctive clastic rocks. The intent of this report is to make available, in map form, aeromagnetic data covering the Coastal belt that provide a new dataset to aid in mapping, understanding, and interpreting the incompletely understood geology and structure in northern California. The newly merged aeromagnetic data over the Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex reveal long, linear anomalies that indicate remarkably coherent structure within a terrane where mapping at the surface indicates complex deformation and that has been described as "broken formation" and, even locally as "melange". The anomalies in the Coastal belt are primarily sourced by volcanic-rich graywackes and exotic blocks of basalt. Some anomalies along the contact of the Coastal belt with the Central belt are likely caused by local interleaving of components of the Coast Ranges ophiolite. These data can be used to map additional exotic blocks within the Coastal belt and to distinguish lithologically indistinct graywackes within the Coastal terrane. Using anomaly asymmetry allows projection of these "layers" into the subsurface. This analysis indicates predominant northeast dips consistent with tectonic interleaving of blocks within a subduction zone.

  17. Optimal linear filters for radiometric transport belt balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to a very short measuring path, dynamic measurement can be performed with the radiometric transport band balance. The stochastic perturbations of the measured signal afford the use of adequate filter algorithms. In the case of highly dynamical measurements it may even become necessary to improve the dynamics of the drive system. With essential improvements, the loading measurements can be performed far in front of the belt discharge location. For this purpose a solution is developed on the basis of an optimal control loop synthesis. A simpler solution is based on the optimal choise of the measuring point in order to compensate partially for the inertance of the drive. In addition a linear filter is used to process the radiometric signals. For the optimal design of this filter a method is used, which allows to limit the pulse response to a final time interval. As a consequence, analytical equations can be deduced for the calculation and discussion of the expected filter characteristic. (orig./DG)

  18. Interpreting the Densities of the Kuiper Belt's Dwarf Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    Kuiper Belt objects with absolute magnitude less than 3 (radius $\\gtrsim$500 km), the dwarf planets, have a range of different ice/rock ratios, and are more rock-rich than their smaller counterparts. Many of these objects have moons, which suggests that collisions may have played a role in modifying their compositions. We show that the dwarf planets fall into two categories when analysed by their mean densities and satellite-to-primary size ratio. Systems with large moons, such as Pluto/Charon and Orcus/Vanth, can form in low-velocity grazing collisions in which both bodies retain their compositions. We propose that these systems retain a primordial composition, with a density of about 1.8 g/cm$^3$. Triton, thought to be a captured KBO, could have lost enough ice during its early orbital evolution to explain its rock-enrichment relative to the primordial material. Systems with small moons, Eris, Haumea, and Quaoar, formed from a different type of collision in which icy material, perhaps a few tens of percent ...

  19. Uraniferous mineralizations in the Kuusamo Schist Belt, northeastern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kouveraara Co-Cu-Au mineralization was found in 1982 with the aid of a geophysical ground survey. This survey was connected with research on the Kouvervaara uranium mineralization in the Early Proterozoic Kuusamo Schist Belt, located just south of the Arctic Circle. In further work, using the Kouvervaara sulphide mineralization as a reference, six Co and Au bearing sulphide mineralizations were discovered, with the help of low altitude aerial geophysical techniques. The Co-Au mineralizations, hosted by the Sericite Quartzite Formation, occur within the hydrothermally altered zones. These zones consist of chloritization, carbonatization, sulphidization, sericitization and albitization, the latter being the most extensive. Excluding the Juomasuo mineralization, uranium is only a trace element in these mineralizations. Other characteristic trace elements are molybdenum and tungsten. The Sivakkaharju and Konttiaho Co-Au-U-Mo mineralizations were found by radiometric ground surveys carried out in 1985 and 1986. These hydrothermal mineralizations occur within brecciated quartz-albite-carbonate rocks and are good manifestations of the positive correlation between uranium and gold in the Kuusamo area. Compared with the other sulphide mineralizations, the Au, U, and Mo contents are remarkably high. Genetically, the mineralizations in the Kuusamo area are associated with deep seated fracture and fault zones, controlled by ancient intracontinental hot spot activity and continental rifting. (author). 31 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Structural style of the Marathon thrust belt, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Robert G.; Varga, Robert J.; Altany, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    The Marathon portion of the Ouachita thrust belt consists of a highly deformed allochthonous wedge of Cambrian-Pennsylvanian slope strata (Marathon facies) that was transported to the northwest and emplaced over Pennsylvanian foredeep sediments. The foredeep strata in turn overlie early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments which are deformed by late Paleozoic basement-involved reverse faults. The Dugout Creek thrust is the basal thrust of the allochthon. Shortening in this sheet and overlying sheets is ˜80%. Steep imbricate faults link the Dugout Creek thrust to upper level detachments forming complex duplex zones. Progressive thrusting and shortening within the allochthon folded the upper level detachments and associated thrust sheets. The Caballos Novaculite is the most competent unit within the Marathon facies and controlled development of prominent detachment folds. Deeper imbricate sheets composed of the Late Pennsylvanian foredeep strata, and possibly early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments developed concurrently with emplacement of the Marathon allochthon and folded the overlying allochthon. Following termination of thrusting in the earliest Permian, subsidence and deposition shifted northward to the Delaware, Midland and Val Verde foreland basins.

  1. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, C.L. [North Texas Univ., Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Biology; Ashwood, T.L.; Cox, D.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species.

  2. Earthquake source characteristics along the arcuate Himalayan belt: Geodynamic implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prosanta Kumar Khan; Md Afroz Ansari; S Mohanty

    2014-07-01

    The occurrences of moderate to large magnitude earthquakes and associated subsurface geological processes were critically examined in the backdrop of Indian plate obliquity, stress obliquity, topography, and the late Tertiary regional tectonics for understanding the evolving dynamics and kinematics in the central part of the Himalayas. The higher topographic areas are likely associated with the zones of depressions, and the lower topographic areas are found around the ridges located in the frontal part of the orogen. A positive correlation between plate and stress obliquities is established for this diffuse plate boundary. We propose that the zone of sharp bending of the descending Indian lithosphere is the nodal area of major stress accumulation which is released occasionally in form of earthquakes. The lateral geometry of the Himalayas shows clusters of seismicity at an angle of ∼20° from the centre part of the arc. Such spatial distribution is interpreted in terms of compression across the arc and extension parallel to the arc. This biaxial deformation results in the development of dilational shear fractures, observed along the orogenic belt, at an angle of ∼20° from the principal compressive stress axis.

  3. Geochronological review of Sambagawa metamorphic belt in Southwest Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on almost all available published age data, the protolith ages, peak metamorphic ages and cooling rate of the Sambagawa metamorphic belt have been discussed and the latest constraints on the ages of the Sambagawa metamorphism and subduction-related accretionary evolutions were summarized. Peak metamorphic conditions attained within the Kuma nappe complex at ca. 145~185 Ma, and uplift through ca. 500℃ at ca. 150 Ma and 350~400℃ at ca. 110~ 115 Ma. The protolith sediments of the Besshi nappe complex were accumulated and subsequently progressively subducted and suffered high P-T prograde metamorphism during the Kuma nappe complex uplifting. The Besshi nappe complex arrived maximum metamorphic conditions at ca. 110 ~ 120 Ma and subsequently started rapid uplift with the cooling rate of ca. 14.2℃/Ma at ca. 75 ~85 Ma, followed with the cooling rate of ca. 6.0 ~8.9℃/Ma. The Oboke nappe complex started subduction later than other tectonic units and arrived the peak metamorphic conditions at ca. 75 Ma, which followed by the uplift with a cooling rate of ca. 8℃/Ma.

  4. The Gould Belt 'MISFITS' Survey: The Real Solar Neighborhood Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Heiderman, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    We present an HCO$^{+}$ J=3-2 survey of Class 0+I and Flat SED young stellar objects (YSOs) found in the Gould Belt clouds by surveys with Spitzer. Our goal is to provide a uniform Stage 0+I source indicator for these embedded protostar candidates. We made single point HCO$^{+}$ J = 3-2 measurements toward the source positions at the CSO and APEX of 546 YSOs (89% of the Class 0+I + Flat SED sample). Using the criteria from van Kempen et al. (2009), we classify sources as Stage 0+I or bona fide protostars and find that 84% of detected sources meet the criteria. We recommend a timescale for the evolution of Stage 0+I (embedded protostars) of 0.54 Myr. We find significant correlations of HCO$^{+}$ integrated intensity with ${\\alpha}$ and $T_{bol}$ but not with $L_{bol}$. The detection fraction increases smoothly as a function of ${\\alpha}$ and $L_{bol}$, while decreasing smoothly with $T_{bol}$. Using the Stage 0+I sources tightens the relation between protostars and high extinction regions of the cloud; 89% of ...

  5. Volatile Loss and Classification of Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, R E; Young, L A; Volkov, A N; Schmidt, C

    2015-01-01

    Observations indicate that some of the largest Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) have retained volatiles in the gas phase, which implies the presence of an atmosphere that can affect their reflectance spectra and thermal balance. Volatile escape rates driven by solar heating of the surface were estimated by Schaller and Brown (2007) (SB) and Levi and Podolak (2009)(LP) using Jeans escape from the surface and a hydrodynamic model respectively. Based on recent molecular kinetic simulations these rates can be hugely in error (e.g., a factor of $\\sim 10^{16}$ for the SB estimate for Pluto). In this paper we estimate the loss of primordial N$_2$ for several large KBOs guided by recent molecular kinetic simulations of escape due to solar heating of the surface and due to UV/EUV heating of the upper atmosphere. For the latter we extrapolate simulations of escape from Pluto (Erwin et al. 2013) using the energy limited escape model recently validated for the KBOs of interest by molecular kinetic simulations (Johnson et al. 2...

  6. Initial highlights from the Herschel Gould Belt survey

    CERN Document Server

    André, Ph; Bontemps, S; Könyves, V; Motte, F; Schneider, N; Didelon, P; Minier, V; Saraceno, P; Ward-Thompson, D; Di Francesco, J; White, G; Molinari, S; Testi, L; Abergel, A; Griffin, M; Henning, Th; Royer, P; Merín, B; Vavrek, R; Attard, M; Arzoumanian, D; Wilson, C D; Ade, P; Aussel, H; Baluteau, J -P; Benedettini, M; Bernard, J -Ph; Blommaert, J A D L; Cambrésy, L; Cox, P; Di Giorgio, A; Hargrave, P; Hennemann, M; Huang, M; Kirk, J; Krause, O; Launhardt, R; Leeks, S; Pennec, J Le; Li, J Z; Martin, P; Maury, A; Olofsson, G; Omont, A; Peretto, N; Pezzuto, S; Prusti, T; Roussel, H; Russeil, D; Sauvage, M; Sibthorpe, B; Sicilia-Aguilar, A; Spinoglio, L; Waelkens, C; Woodcraft, A; Zavagno, A

    2010-01-01

    We summarize the first results from the Gould Belt survey, obtained toward the Aquila Rift and Polaris Flare regions during the 'science demonstration phase' of Herschel. Our 70-500 micron images taken in parallel mode with the SPIRE and PACS cameras reveal a wealth of filamentary structure, as well as numerous dense cores embedded in the filaments. Between ~ 350 and 500 prestellar cores and ~ 45-60 Class 0 protostars can be identified in the Aquila field, while ~ unbound starless cores and no protostars are observed in the Polaris field. The prestellar core mass function (CMF) derived for the Aquila region bears a strong resemblance to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), already confirming the close connection between the CMF and the IMF with much better statistics than earlier studies. Comparing and contrasting our Herschel results in Aquila and Polaris, we propose an observationally-driven scenario for core formation according to which complex networks of long, thin filaments form first within molecul...

  7. Storm/substorm signatures in the outer belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of the ring current region is compared for periods of storm and substorm activity, with an attempt to isolate the contributions of both processes. The authors investigate CRRES particle data in an overview format that allows the display of long-term variations of the outer radiation belt. They compare the evolution of the ring current population to indicators of storm (Dst) and substorm (AE) activity and examine compositional changes. Substorm activity leads to the intensification of the ring current at higher L (L ∼ 6) and lower ring current energies compared to storms (L ∼ 4). The O+/H+ ratio during substorms remains low, near 10%, but is much enhanced during storms (can exceed 100%). They conclude that repeated substorms with an AE ∼ 900 nT lead to a ΔDst of ∼ 30 nT, but do not contribute to Dst during storm main phase as substorm injections do not form a symmetric ring current during such disturbed times

  8. Baseline air quality evaluation for the Venezuelan Orinoco Bitumen Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve a harmonic relationship between oil exploration and production activities and the environment, Petroleos de Venezuela and its affiliated companies conducted environmental evaluations of the physical and bionic media in the Orinoco Bitumen Belt. This region covers an area of approximately 42000 km2 with estimated bitumen reserves on the order of 3 x 1012 barrels, one of the largest bitumen reservoirs in the world. This paper presents the results of a study of baseline air quality conditions: an emissions inventory, surface and upper layer meteorological conditions and measurements of air quality parameters of interest (CO, HC, NOx, SO2, H2S and T.S.P.) taken by a network of automated air quality stations using standard international reference techniques. The temporal (hourly and daily basis) and spatial air quality variability and the variables/activities that might determine the observed trends are discussed. NO, NO2, SO2 and H2S concentrations were lower than the detection limits of the analytical methods, while O3 and CO 1-hour average levels ranged from 5-30 ppb and 0.5-1.8 ppm, respectively, and T.S.P. daily means varied from 10-50 μg/m3, all of which is close to natural background concentrations. Maximum hourly average reactive hydrocarbon concentrations of 0.37 ppm were found near a producing oil field

  9. Two Color Populations of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Romanishin, William; Consolmagno, Guy

    2016-10-01

    We present new optical colors for 64 Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Centaur objects measured with the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) and the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). By combining these new colors with our previously published colors, we increase the sample size of our survey to 154 objects. Our survey is unique in that the uncertainties in our color measurements are less than half the uncertainties in the color measurements reported by other researchers in the literature. Small uncertainties are essential for discerning between a unimodal and a bimodal distribution of colors for these objects as well as detecting correlations between colors and orbital elements. From our survey, it appears red Centaurs have a broader color distribution than grey Centaurs. We find red Centaurs have a smaller orbital inclination angle distribution than grey Centaurs at the 99.3% confidence level. Furthermore, we find that our entire sample of KBOs and Centaurs exhibits bimodal colors at the 99.4% confidence level. KBOs and Centaurs with HV > 7.0 have bimodal colors at the 99.96% confidence level and KBOs with HV < 6.0 have bimodal colors at the 96.3% confidence level.We are grateful to the NASA Solar System Observations Program for support, NAU for joining the Discovery Channel Telescope Partnership, and the Vatican Observatory for the consistent allocation of telescope time over the last 12 years of this project.

  10. Mechanism of hydro-viscous soft start of belt conveyor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-rui; HOU You-fu

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of a hydro-viscous soft start is of great importance in the design of a hydro-viscous clutch and its control system. To explain the mechanism of a hydro-viscous soft start, the startup process of a belt conveyor was numerically analyzed with the modified Reynolds equation, an energy equation and a temperature-viscosity equation. The effect of temperature and grooves of the friction disk surface on torque transfer and load capacity of the oil film have also been analyzed. The results show that 1) the grooves are the basis of forming dynamic pressure but they may reduce the capacity of torque transfer to a certain extent,2) during the startup process, temperature has little effect on torque transfer and load capacity and the variation in load capacity of the oil film is very small, indicating that it is preferable to use the flow rate as a control object than the pressure of the feed cylinder.The results have been verified by an experiment.

  11. First results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Taurus

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, J M; Palmeirim, P; Andre, Ph; Griffin, M J; Hargrave, P J; Konyves, V; Bernard, J P; Nutter, D J; Sibthorpe, B; Di Francesco, J; Abergel, A; Arzoumanian, D; Benedettini, M; Bontemps, S; Elia, D; Hennemann, M; Hill, T; Men'shchikov, A; Motte, F; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Peretto, N; Pezzuto, S; Rygl, K L J; Sadavoy, S I; Schisano, E; Schneider, N; Testi, L; White, G

    2013-01-01

    The whole of the Taurus region (a total area of 52 sq. deg.) has been observed by the Herschel SPIRE and PACS instruments at wavelengths of 70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 {\\mu}m as part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. In this paper we present the first results from the part of the Taurus region that includes the Barnard 18 and L1536 clouds. A new source-finding routine, the Cardiff Source-finding AlgoRithm (CSAR), is introduced, which is loosely based on CLUMPFIND, but that also generates a structure tree, or dendrogram, which can be used to interpret hierarchical clump structure in a complex region. Sources were extracted from the data using the hierarchical version of CSAR and plotted on a mass-size diagram. We found a hierarchy of objects with sizes in the range 0.024-2.7 pc. Previous studies showed that gravitationally bound prestellar cores and unbound starless clumps appeared in different places on the mass-size diagram. However, it was unclear whether this was due to a lack of instrumental dynamic range ...

  12. Belted kingfishers as ecological monitors of contamination: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquatic systems serve as transport pathways and reservoirs for most of the contaminants known to be present on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Organisms that live in aquatic systems accumulate some of these contaminants from their food and directly from the water or sediment. A wide array of terrestrial organisms feeds on aquatic organisms and may accumulate contaminants from aquatic prey. The belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) is a piscivorous and territorial avian species that may be a suitable monitor of contaminant accumulation at specific sites on the ORR. A kingfisher collected on White Oak Lake in 1991 had a 137Cs concentration of 568 pCi/g in muscle tissue, which exceeds levels found in any other waterfowl collected from the lake. An investigation into the efficacy of using the kingfisher as an ecological indicator of aquatic contaminants on the ORR was initiated in late August 1992. The primary objective of this study was to acquire information concerning the ecology of the kingfisher to determine how the species could be used within the framework of the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A second important objective of the study was to examine the possible somatic and reproductive effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Hg, and various radioactive contaminants on piscivorous birds by reviewing pollution ecology studies conducted on those species

  13. Arable weed flora in the Western Siberian grain belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kämpf, Immo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Between Ekaterinburg and Nowosibirsk, in the Western Siberian grain belt, spring wheat is grown on fertile Chernozem soils. Field and farm sizes are large but the land-use intensity per area is low compared to Central Europe. Fertilizers and pesticides are applied only in low to moderate quantities and yields range between 10 and 20 dt ha-1. We studied the arable weed flora in the northern forest steppe zone of Tyumen region using a randomized sampling design. Surprisingly, the species richness was only moderate, on average 9.8 ± 3.8 species per 100 m². Compared to weed communities of Bashkiria (Southern Ural and less intensively used arable land of Central Europe these numbers are rather low. Moreover, most of the recorded species were cosmopolitans or widely distributed throughout the temperate zone. We suggest that the land use intensity was high enough to reduce the density of a number of weed species in a way that they were not registered by our random sampling design. The limited conservational value of the weed vegetation of large grain fields in Tyumen leads to the conclusion that if intensification of land use is unavoidable, it should be directed to arable land and not to ex-arable land or ancient grassland, which is of higher conservation value.

  14. Size Distribution of Main-Belt Asteroids with High Inclination

    CERN Document Server

    Terai, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the size distribution of high-inclination main-belt asteroids (MBAs) to explore asteroid collisional evolution under hypervelocity collisions of around 10 km/s. We performed a wide-field survey for high-inclination sub-km MBAs using the 8.2-m Subaru Telescope with the Subaru Prime Focus Camera (Suprime-Cam). Suprime-Cam archival data were also used. A total of 616 MBA candidates were detected in an area of 9.0 deg^2 with a limiting magnitude of 24.0 mag in the SDSS r filter. Most of candidate diameters were estimated to be smaller than 1 km. We found a scarcity of sub-km MBAs with high inclination. Cumulative size distributions (CSDs) were constructed using Subaru data and published asteroid catalogs. The power-law indexes of the CSDs were 2.17 +/- 0.02 for low-inclination ( 15 deg) MBAs in the 0.7-50 km diameter range. The high-inclination MBAs had a shallower CSD. We also found that the CSD of S-like MBAs had a small slope with high inclination, whereas the slope did not vary with inclinatio...

  15. Kuiper belt structure around nearby super-Earth host stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Grant M; Marmier, Maxime; Greaves, Jane S; Wyatt, Mark C; Bryden, Geoffrey; Holland, Wayne; Lovis, Christophe; Matthews, Brenda C; Pepe, Francesco; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Udry, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    We present new observations of the Kuiper belt analogues around HD 38858 and HD 20794, hosts of super-Earth mass planets within 1 au. As two of the four nearby G-type stars (with HD 69830 and 61 Vir) that form the basis of a possible correlation between low-mass planets and debris disc brightness, these systems are of particular interest. The disc around HD 38858 is well resolved with Herschel and we constrain the disc geometry and radial structure. We also present a probable JCMT sub-mm continuum detection of the disc and a CO J=2-1 upper limit. The disc around HD 20794 is much fainter and appears marginally resolved with Herschel, and is constrained to be less extended than the discs around 61 Vir and HD 38858. We also set limits on the radial location of hot dust recently detected around HD 20794 with near-IR interferometry. We present HARPS upper limits on unseen planets in these four systems, ruling out additional super-Earths within a few au, and Saturn-mass planets within 10 au. We consider the disc st...

  16. Imaging Jupiter's radiation belts down to 127 MHz with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, J N; Tasse, C; Hess, S; de Pater, I; Santos-Costa, D; Nenon, Q; Sicard, A; Bourdarie, S; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Bell, M E; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Breton, R P; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corbel, S; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, M; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markov, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Moldon, J; Munk, H; Nelles, A; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Schwarz, D; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wucknitz, O

    2015-01-01

    Context. Observing Jupiter's synchrotron emission from the Earth remains today the sole method to scrutinize the distribution and dynamical behavior of the ultra energetic electrons magnetically trapped around the planet (because in-situ particle data are limited in the inner magnetosphere). Aims. We perform the first resolved and low-frequency imaging of the synchrotron emission with LOFAR at 127 MHz. The radiation comes from low energy electrons (~1-30 MeV) which map a broad region of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. Methods (see article for complete abstract) Results. The first resolved images of Jupiter's radiation belts at 127-172 MHz are obtained along with total integrated flux densities. They are compared with previous observations at higher frequencies and show a larger extent of the synchrotron emission source (>=4 $R_J$). The asymmetry and the dynamic of east-west emission peaks are measured and the presence of a hot spot at lambda_III=230 {\\deg} $\\pm$ 25 {\\deg}. Spectral flux density measurements ar...

  17. Dynamical delivery of volatiles to the outer main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Sharp, Philip W.

    2014-04-01

    We quantify the relative contribution of volatiles supplied from outer Solar System planetesimal reservoirs to large wet asteroids during the first few My after the beginning of the Solar System. To that end, we simulate the fate of planetesimals originating within different regions of the Solar System - and thus characterized by different chemical inventories - using a highly accurate integrator tuned to handle close planet/planetesimal encounters. The fraction of icy planetesimals crossing the Asteroid Belt was relatively significant, and our simulations show that planetesimals originating from the Jupiter/Saturn region were orders of magnitude more abundant than those stemming from the Uranus and Neptune regions when the planets were just embryos. As the planets reached their full masses the Jupiter/Saturn and Saturn/Uranus regions contributed similar fractions of planetesimals for any material remaining in these reservoirs late in the stage of planetary formation, This implies that large asteroids like Ceres accreted very little material enriched in low-eutectic volatiles (e.g., methanol, nitrogen and methane ices, etc.) and clathrate hydrates expected to condense at the very low temperatures predicted for beyond Saturn’s orbit in current early solar nebula models. Further, a large fraction of the content in organics of Ceres and neighboring ice-rich objects originates from the outer Solar System.

  18. Brazil, oil and statoil: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Linchausen, Harald Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed some light on what challenges Brazil faces concerning its oil reserves. It also considers Statoil’s situation and attempts to analyse the challenges both face. Hotelling’s rule and Dunning’s OLI framework are presented and used in order to complete this analysis. The thesis starts by looking at the history of petroleum in Brazil and Norway. Next, the theoretical framework is outlined. The challenges for both Brazil and Statoil are presented and anal...

  19. Brazil: The Future of Modern Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Matthey; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fuller, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations m...

  20. Corruption - Can Brazil win this war?

    OpenAIRE

    Washington de Queiroz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Corruption in Brazil is endemic and has increased since the end of the military transition regime in 1985, a year marked by an indirect presidential election, which was followed by the 1988 Constitutional Reform. The present thesis answers the research question of how corruption affects well-being in Brazil" by investigating the existing cause-effect relationships and complex dynamics and logic between corruption and related variables in Brazil, with each of the twenty-s...

  1. Brazil's Economy:Too Hot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Brazil has a lot to be proud of.A decade of faster growth and progressive social policies has brought a prosperity that is ever more widely shared.The unemployment rate for April, at 6.4%, is the lowest on record.Credit is booming, particularly to the swelling numbers who have moved out of poverty and into the middle class.Income inequality, though still high, has fallen sharply.For most Brazilians life has never been so good.

  2. Brazil: Mechanisms of Direct Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Bovo, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    In the structure of Brazilian Government, regarding both the executive as well as the executive powers, the increase in ways in which society can participate in decisions of public interest, stands out. Among the shared or participatory managerial policies implemented in Brazil, the following are noteworthy: the participatory budget, managerial councils, committees dealing with watersheds, thematic conferences, plebiscites, public meetings and referenda. However, if compared to the size of Br...

  3. State Government Bailouts in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilaqua, Afonso S.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the consolidation of democracy after the end of the military regime in the mid-1980s, Brazil has gone through a period of remarkable decentralization both in fiscal and political terms. The move towards decentralized management and control of public finances has been followed by a series of bailouts of state governments by the federal government. The lack of effective control on borrowing, coupled with reputational effects originating from these repeated bailout operations, red...

  4. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto; Bosco, Edson Del; Ferreira, Julio Guimaraes [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma] (and others)

    2003-07-01

    The general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief view of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide are described. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experiment Tokamak spheric) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 a the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  5. Spherical tokamak development in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, G.O.; Del Bosco, E.; Ferreira, J.G.; Berni, L.A.; Oliveira, R.M.; Andrade, M.C.R.; Shibata, C.S.; Ueda, M.; Barroso, J.J.; Castro, P.J. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma; Barbosa, L.F.W. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Patire Junior, H. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Mecanica Espacial e Controle; The high-power microwave sources group

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes the general characteristics of spherical tokamaks, or spherical tori, with a brief overview of work in this area already performed or in progress at several institutions worldwide. The paper presents also the steps in the development of the ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) project, its research program, technical characteristics and operating conditions as of December, 2002 at the Associated Plasma Laboratory (LAP) of the National Space Research Institute (INPE) in Brazil. (author)

  6. The Roles of Transport and Wave-Particle Interactions on Radiation Belt Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Glocer, Alex; Zheng, Qiuhua

    2011-01-01

    Particle fluxes in the radiation belts can vary dramatically during geomagnetic active periods. Transport and wave-particle interactions are believed to be the two main types of mechanisms that control the radiation belt dynamics. Major transport processes include substorm dipolarization and injection, radial diffusion, convection, adiabatic acceleration and deceleration, and magnetopause shadowing. Energetic electrons and ions are also subjected to pitch-angle and energy diffusion when interact with plasma waves in the radiation belts. Important wave modes include whistler mode chorus waves, plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and magnetosonic waves. We investigate the relative roles of transport and wave associated processes in radiation belt variations. Energetic electron fluxes during several storms are simulated using our Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model. The model includes important transport and wave processes such as substorm dipolarization in global MHD fields, chorus waves, and plasmaspheric hiss. We discuss the effects of these competing processes at different phases of the storms and validate the results by comparison with satellite and ground-based observations. Keywords: Radiation Belts, Space Weather, Wave-Particle Interaction, Storm and Substorm

  7. On the formation and evolution of asteroid belts and their potential significance for life

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Rebecca G

    2012-01-01

    Suggestions have been made that asteroid belts may be important both for the existence of life and perhaps even for the evolution of complex life on a planet. Using numerical models for protoplanetary discs we calculate the location of the snow line, and we propose that asteroid belts are most likely to form in its vicinity. We then show that observations of warm dust in exo-solar systems, thought to be produced by collisions between asteroids in a belt, indicate that asteroid belts (when they exist), indeed coincide with the radial location and the temperature of the snow line. Giant planets form outside the snow line and prevent planet formation just inside of their orbit creating an asteroid belt there. However, the migration of giant planets through the asteroid belt likely disperses the compact formation. We examine existing observations of giant exo-planets and find that less than 4% are at radial locations outside of the snow line. This definitely may be the consequence of observational selection effec...

  8. Biomechanical caracterisation of lumbar belt by full-field techniques: Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnaire, Rebecca; Calmels, Paul; Convert, Reynald

    2013-01-01

    In France, 50% of the population per year is suffering from low back pain. Lumbar belt are frequently proposed as a part of the treatment of this pathology. However mechanical ways of working of this medical device is not clearly understood, but abdominal pressure is often related. So an optical method was developed in this study to measure strain in lumbar belt and trunk interface and to derive a pressure estimation. Optical method consisted of coupling fringe projection and digital image correlation (DIC). Measurement has been carried out on the right side of a manikin wearing a lumbar belt. Average strain is 0.2 and average pressure is 1 kPa. Continuation of this study will be comparison of strain and pressure in different areas of lumbar belt (left side, front and back) and comparison of different lumbar belts. Results will be used in a finite elements model to determine lumbar belt impact in intern body. In long term, this kind of study will be done on human.

  9. Discussion about the relationship between seismic belt and seismic statistical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘华; 金严; 胡聿贤

    2003-01-01

    This paper makes a summary of status of delimitation of seismic zones and belts of China firstly in aspects of studying history, purpose, usage, delimiting principles, various presenting forms and main specialties. Then the viewpoints are emphasized, making geographical divisions by seismicity is just the most important purpose of delimiting seismic belts and the concept of seismic belt is also quite different from that of seismic statistical zone used in CPSHA method. The concept of seismic statistical zone and its history of evolvement are introduced too. Large differences between these two concepts exist separately in their statistical property, actual meaning, gradation, required scale, and property of refusing to overlap each other, aim and usage of delimitation. But in current engineering practice, these two concepts are confused. On the one hand, it causes no fit theory for delimiting seismic statistical zone in PSHA to be set up; on the other hand, researches about delimitation of seismic belts with purposes of seismicity zoning and studying on structural environment, mechanism of earthquake generating also pause to go ahead. Major conclusions are given in the end of this paper, that seismic statistical zone bases on the result of seismic belt delimiting, it only arises in and can be used in the especial PSHA method of China with considering spatially and temporally inhomogeneous seismic activities, and its concept should be clearly differentiated from the concept of seismic belt.

  10. Seismic tomography beneath the orogenic belts and adjacent basins of northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional velocity images of the crust and upper mantlebeneath orogenic belts and adjacent basins of the northwestern continent of China are reconstructed by seismic tomography, based on arrival data of P wave recorded in seismic networks in Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu of China and Kyrgyzstan. The velocity images of upper crust demonstrate the tectonic framework on the ground surface. High velocities are observed beneath orogenic belts, and low velocities are observed in the basins and depressions that are obviously related to unconsolidated sediments. The velocity image in mid-crust maintains the above features, and in addition low velocities appear in some earthquake regions and a low velocity boundary separates the western Tianshan Mts. from eastern Tianshan Mts. The orogenic belts and the northern Tibetan plateau have a Moho depth over 50 km, whereas the depths of the Moho in basins and depressions are smaller than 50 km. The velocity images of upper mantle clearly reveal the colliding relationship and location of deep boundaries of the continental blocks in northwestern China, indicating a weakness of the upper mantle structure of orogenic belts. The top depth of upper mantle asthenosphere varies from place to place. It seems shallower under the northern Tibetan plateau, Altay and Qilian Mts., and deeper under the Tarim and Tianshan regions. Hot mantle probably rose to the bottom of some orogenic belts along tectonic boundaries when continental blocks collided to each other. Therefore their dynamic features are closely correlated to the formation and evolution of orogenic belts in northwestern China.

  11. Development of Computational Models for Coiling Process with the Belt Wrapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yonghui; Park, Hyunchul

    2016-10-01

    This study introduces coiling mechanism with the belt wrapper to understand a force equilibrium for successful coiling. By establishing a finite element (FE) model, strips were coiled 2 to 3 rotations by the belt wrapper on the sleeve without coiling tension T, then T was applied to the opposite side of the strips near the pinch roller, and the belt wrapper was removed from the strip coil at the same time. Additionally, analytical model corresponding to FE model was defined by thick and thin cylinder theorems to quantize coiling mechanisms. Especially elasticity of the belt wrapper E [N/m2], coiling tension T [N/m2], and friction coefficient μ were checked on how these variables affect each other, were converted into pressure P [N/m2], and P were used to calculate when the strip coil come untied. For instance, the strip coil came untied when E was lower than 1 × 109 N/m2 corresponding to ( {{{{Pressure}} {{on}} {{outmost}} {{of the belt wrapper}} P_{{o,belt}} }/{{{Pressure} {{on}} {{innermost}} {{of the sleeve}} P_{{i,sleeve}} }} = 0.877} ) . Lastly, radial stress on the outmost of the sleeve σ r,o,sleeve [N/m2] according to E were compared to the previous coiling method with the grooved joint to see how these methods are different. Based on these results, this paper suggests coiling criteria to avoid coiling failure of slip of the strip coil.

  12. The Hawaii Trails Project: Comet-Hunting in the Main Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H

    2009-01-01

    The mysterious solar system object 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro is dynamically asteroidal, yet displays recurrent comet-like dust emission. Two scenarios were hypothesized to explain this unusual behavior: (1) 133P is a classical comet from the outer solar system that has evolved onto a main-belt orbit, or (2) 133P is a dynamically ordinary main-belt asteroid on which subsurface ice has recently been exposed. If (1) is correct, the expected rarity of a dynamical transition onto an asteroidal orbit implies that 133P could be alone in the main belt. In contrast, if (2) is correct, other icy main-belt objects should exist and could also exhibit cometary activity. Believing 133P to be a dynamically ordinary, yet icy main-belt asteroid, I set out to test the primary prediction of the hypothesis: that 133P-like objects should be common and could be found by an appropriately designed observational survey. I conducted just such a survey -- the Hawaii Trails Project -- of selected main-belt asteroids in a search for objec...

  13. Classification of the rift zones of venus: Rift valleys and graben belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, E. N.

    2016-05-01

    The spatial distribution of rift zones of Venus, their topographic configuration, morphometric parameters, and the type of volcanism associating with rifts were analyzed. This allowed the main characteristic features of rifts to be revealed and two different types of rift-forming structures, serving for classification of rift zones as rift valleys and graben belts, to be isolated. These structural types (facies) of rift zones are differently expressed in the relief: rift valleys are individual deep (several kilometers) W-shaped canyons, while graben belts are clusters of multiple V-shaped and rather shallow (hundreds of meters) depressions. Graben belts are longer and wider, as compared to rift valleys. Rift valleys are spatially associated with dome-shaped volcanic rises and large volcanos (concentrated volcanic sources), while graben belts do not exhibit such associations. Volcanic activity in the graben belts are presented by spacious lava fields with no apparent sources of volcanism. Graben belts and rift valleys were formed during the Atlian Period of geologic history of Venus, and they characterized the tectonic style of the planet at the late stages of its geologic evolution. Formation of this or that structural facies of the rift zones of Venus were probably governed by the thickness of the lithosphere, its rheological properties, and the development degree of the mantle diapirs associating with rift zones.

  14. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  15. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  16. Association between sarcopenia and quality of life in quilombola elderly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Neto LS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Sinésio Silva Neto,1–3 Margô GO Karnikowski,2 Neila B Osório,3 Leonardo C Pereira,2 Marcilio B Mendes,1 Dayani Galato,2 Liana B Gomide Matheus,4 João Paulo C Matheus2,4 1School of Medicine, Federal University of Tocantins, Palmas, Tocantins, 2Graduate Program in Health Sciences and Technology, Ceilândia College, University of Brasilia, Federal District, 3Graduate Program in Education, Federal University of Tocantins, Palmas, Tocantins, 4School of Physiotherapy, Ceilândia College, University of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil Introduction: Currently, there is no single consensual definition of sarcopenia in the literature. This creates a challenge for the evaluation of its prevalence and its direct or indirect impact on the quality of life of elderly populations of different races and ethnicities. Furthermore, no studies as yet have analyzed these variables in populations of elderly subjects of the "quilombola" ethnic group. Objective: We aimed to verify the association between sarcopenia and quality of life in quilombola elderly using the Baumgartner and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP criteria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 70 male and female participants (mean age: 65.58±6.67 years. Quality of life was evaluated using the multidimensional 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 of the Medical Outcomes Study. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the Baumgartner cutoff for appendicular skeletal muscle mass and the criteria recommended by the EWGSOP. Muscle mass and fat mass percentages were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while handgrip strength (HGS was evaluated using a hand-held dynamometer. Physical performance was assessed through a gait speed test. Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 15% according to the Baumgartner cutoff and 10% according to EWGSOP criteria. Quilombola elderly classified as physically active or very active were at least six times less

  17. Origin and dynamics of the northern South American coastal savanna belt during the Holocene - the role of climate, sea-level, fire and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Kamaleddin; Cohen, Marcelo; Behling, Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Presence of a coastal savanna belt expanding from British Guiana to northeastern Brazil cannot be explained by present-day climate. Using pollen and charcoal analyses on an 11.6 k old sediment core from a coastal depression in the savanna belt near the mouth of the Amazon River we investigated the paleoenvironmental history to shed light on this question. Results indicate that small areas of savanna accompanied by a forest type composed primarily by the genus Micropholis (Sapotaceae) that has no modern analog existed at the beginning of the Holocene. After 11,200 cal yr BP, savanna accompanied by few trees replaced the forest. In depressions swamp forest developed and by ca 10,000 cal yr BP replaced by Mauritia swamps. Between 8500 and 5600 cal yr BP gallery forest (composed mainly of Euphorbiaceae) and swamp forest succeeded the treeless savanna. The modern vegetation with alternating gallery forest and savanna developed after 5600 cal yr BP. We suggest that the early Holocene no-analog forest is a relict of previously more extensive forest under cooler and moister Lateglacial conditions. The early Holocene savanna expansion indicates a drier phase probably related to the shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) towards its northernmost position. The mid-Holocene forest expansion is probably a result of the combined influence of equatorwards shift of ITCZ joining the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ). The ecosystem variability during the last 5600 cal yr BP, formed perhaps under influence of intensified ENSO condition. High charcoal concentrations, especially during the early Holocene, indicate that natural and/or anthropogenic fires may have maintained the savanna. However, our results propose that climate change is the main driving factor for the formation of the coastal savanna in this region. Our results also show that the early Holocene sea level rise established mangroves near the study site until 7500 cal yr BP and promoted swamp formation in

  18. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  19. ORBITS, MASSES, AND EVOLUTION OF MAIN BELT TRIPLE (87) SYLVIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Julia; Margot, Jean-Luc [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rojo, Patricio [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-08-15

    Sylvia is a triple asteroid system located in the main belt. We report new adaptive optics observations of this system that extend the baseline of existing astrometric observations to a decade. We present the first fully dynamical three-body model for this system by fitting to all available astrometric measurements. This model simultaneously fits for individual masses, orbits, and primary oblateness. We find that Sylvia is composed of a dominant central mass surrounded by two satellites orbiting at 706.5 {+-} 2.5 km and 1357 {+-} 4.0 km, i.e., about 5 and nearly 10 primary radii. We derive individual masses of 1.484{sup +0.016}{sub -0.014} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} kg for the primary (corresponding to a density of 1.29 {+-} 0.39 g cm{sup -3}), 7.33{sup +4.7}{sub -2.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} kg for the inner satellite, and 9.32{sup +20.7}{sub -8.3} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} kg for the outer satellite. The oblateness of the primary induces substantial precession and the J{sub 2} value can be constrained to the range of 0.0985-0.1. The orbits of the satellites are relatively circular with eccentricities less than 0.04. The spin axis of the primary body and the orbital poles of both satellites are all aligned within about 2 deg of each other, indicating a nearly coplanar configuration and suggestive of satellite formation in or near the equatorial plane of the primary. We also investigate the past orbital evolution of the system by simulating the effects of a recent passage through 3:1 mean-motion eccentricity-type resonances. In some scenarios this allow us to place constraints on interior structure and past eccentricities.

  20. Interpreting the densities of the Kuiper belt's dwarf planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Amy C.; Schwamb, Megan E.

    2016-08-01

    Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) with absolute magnitude less than 3 (radius ≳500 km), the dwarf planets, have a range of different ice/rock ratios, and are more rock-rich than their smaller counterparts. Many of these objects have moons, which suggests that collisions may have played a role in modifying their compositions. We show that the dwarf planets fall into two categories when analysed by their mean densities and satellite-to-primary size ratio. Systems with large moons, such as Pluto/Charon and Orcus/Vanth, can form in low-velocity grazing collisions in which both bodies retain their compositions. We propose that these systems retain a primordial composition, with a density of about 1.8 g cm-3. Triton, thought to be a captured KBO, could have lost enough ice during its early orbital evolution to explain its rock-enrichment relative to the primordial material. Systems with small moons, Eris, Haumea, and Quaoar, formed from a different type of collision in which icy material, perhaps a few tens of percent of the total colliding mass, is lost. The fragments would not remain in physical or dynamical proximity to the parent body. The ice loss process has not yet been demonstrated numerically, which could be due to the paucity of KBO origin simulations, or missing physical processes in the impact models. If our hypothesis is correct, we predict that large KBOs with small moons should be denser than the primordial material, and that the mean density of Orcus should be close to the primordial value.

  1. Triggering Comet-Like Activity of Main Belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighipour, N.; Maindl, T. I.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.; Dvorak, R.

    2016-01-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs) have attracted a great deal of interest since their identification as a new class of bodies by Hsieh and Jewitt in 2006. Much of this interest is due to the implication that MBC activity is driven by the sublimation of volatile material (presumed to be water-ice) presenting these bodies as probable candidates for the delivery of a significant fraction of Earth's water. Results of the studies of the dynamics of MBCs suggest that these objects might have formed in-situ as the remnants of the break-up of large icy asteroids. Simulations also show that collisions among MBCs and small objects could have played an important role in triggering the cometary activity of these bodies. Such collisions might have exposed sub-surface water-ice which sublimated and created thin atmospheres and tails around MBCs. In order to drive the effort of understanding the nature of the activation of MBCs, we have investigated these collision processes by simulating the impacts in detail using a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) approach that includes material strength and fracture models. We have carried out simulations for a range of impact velocities and angles, allowing m-sized impactors to erode enough of an MBC's surface to expose volatiles and trigger its activation. Impact velocities were varied between 0.5 km/s and 5.3 km/s, and the projectile radius was chosen to be 1 m. As expected, we observe significantly different crater depths depending on the impact energy, impact angle, and MBC's material strength. Results show that for all values of impact velocity and angle, crater depths are only a few meters, implying that if the activity of MBCs is due to the sublimation of water-ice, ice has to exist in no deeper than a few meters from the surface. We present details of our simulations and discuss the implications of their results.

  2. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    In 1962, several satellites were lost following high altitude nuclear tests by the United States and the Soviet Union. These satellite failures were caused by energetic electrons injected into the earth's radiation belts from the beta decay of bomb produced fission fragments and neutrons. It has been 40 years since the last high altitude nuclear test; there are now many more satellites in orbit, and it is important to understand their vulnerability to radiation belt pumping from nuclear explosions at high altitude or in space. This report presents the results of a calculation of the contribution of neutron beta decay to artificial belt pumping. For most high altitude nuclear explosions, neutrons are expected to make a smaller contribution than fission products to the total trapped electron inventory, and their contribution is usually neglected. However, the neutron contribution may dominate in cases where the fission product contribution is suppressed due to the altitude or geomagnetic latitude of the nuclear explosion, and for regions of the radiation belts with field lines far from the detonation point. In any case, an accurate model of belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions, and a self-consistent explanation of the 1962 data, require inclusion of the neutron contribution. One recent analysis of satellite measurements of electron flux from the 1962 tests found that a better fit to the data is obtained if the neutron contribution to the trapped electron inventory was larger than that of the fission products [l]. Belt pumping from high altitude nuclear explosions is a complicated process. Fission fragments are dispersed as part of the ionized bomb debris, which is constrained and guided by the earth's magnetic field. Those fission products that beta decay before being lost to the earth's atmosphere can contribute trapped energetic electrons to the earth's radiation belts. There has been a large effort to develop computer models for

  3. Motion Track Modeling and Analysis of Belt Spindle under Combined Effects of Bending Moment-Torque-Thermal Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐向阳; 高卫国; 刘腾; 张大卫

    2015-01-01

    The motion track of belt spindle is important for the radial error of belt spindle. An analytical modeling method for the motion track of belt spindle under the combined effects of bending moment-torque-thermal deforma-tion is proposed in this paper. Three running phases of belt spindle have been analyzed and modeled:the start-up phase with leaping change due to the change in force and bending moment, the accelerating phase with axis deflection, and the constant speed phase with axis regression because of the combined effects of bending moment-torque-thermal de-formation. The simulation and test were completed on the belt spindle of SKVM850 machine tool, which illustrates the variation law of the radial error of belt spindle during the whole running phases.

  4. What effect do substorms have on the content of the radiation belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, I. J.; Murphy, K. R.; Freeman, M. P.; Huang, C.‐L.; Spence, H. E.; Boyd, A. J.; Coxon, J. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Kalmoni, N. M. E.; Watt, C. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Substorms are fundamental and dynamic processes in the magnetosphere, converting captured solar wind magnetic energy into plasma energy. These substorms have been suggested to be a key driver of energetic electron enhancements in the outer radiation belts. Substorms inject a keV “seed” population into the inner magnetosphere which is subsequently energized through wave‐particle interactions up to relativistic energies; however, the extent to which substorms enhance the radiation belts, either directly or indirectly, has never before been quantified. In this study, we examine increases and decreases in the total radiation belt electron content (TRBEC) following substorms and geomagnetically quiet intervals. Our results show that the radiation belts are inherently lossy, shown by a negative median change in TRBEC at all intervals following substorms and quiet intervals. However, there are up to 3 times as many increases in TRBEC following substorm intervals. There is a lag of 1–3 days between the substorm or quiet intervals and their greatest effect on radiation belt content, shown in the difference between the occurrence of increases and losses in TRBEC following substorms and quiet intervals, the mean change in TRBEC following substorms or quiet intervals, and the cross correlation between SuperMAG AL (SML) and TRBEC. However, there is a statistically significant effect on the occurrence of increases and decreases in TRBEC up to a lag of 6 days. Increases in radiation belt content show a significant correlation with SML and SYM‐H, but decreases in the radiation belt show no apparent link with magnetospheric activity levels.

  5. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  6. What controls the growth and shape of the Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Djordje; Hirschmiller, John; Mallyon, Deirdre

    2014-05-01

    We provide empirical evidence for the impact of surface processes on the structure and geometry of the present-day foreland fold-and-thrust belt (FTB) of the Himalaya. We have reconstructed and analysed ten balanced cross sections distributed along the entire length of the Himalayan arc. Here, we focus on the Siwalik Group, which represents the deformed part of the foreland basin and consists of synorogenic middle Miocene to Pleistocene sediments that form the youngest and frontal part of the Himalayan orogen. Within the active foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the Himalaya, extension, strain rate, and belt morphology vary systematically from west to east. Strain rates correlate well with west-to east increases in convergence rates according to both long-term plate velocity data and GPS data, suggesting that Pliocene to Holocene shortening is externally imposed and related to plate convergence rates. Conversely, the eastward decrease in belt width corresponds to an eastward increase in rainfall rates and specific stream power. Although mass accretion rates have not been well constrained, we argue that they remain relatively constant along the FTB. We suggest that the morphology of the Himalayan FTB is controlled primarily by erosion, in accordance with the critical taper model. Surface material removal is mainly controlled through rainfall and runoff and can be expressed as specific stream power. Thus, we propose that climatically induced erosion is the principal control on Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt morphology. We test this hypothesis through a series of 1D numerical models. Among the parameters controlling the form of a wedge, lithology, erodibility, and rock mechanical properties are relatively homogeneous throughout the belt. Hence, within the range of observed values in the Himalaya, we investigate the sensitivity of the shape of the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt to the sole-out depth of the basal décollement, flux of tectonically added material

  7. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  8. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  9. History of nuclear power in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, L.P.

    2006-07-15

    The 1973 energy crisis prompted the United States to suspend supplies of enriched uranium to the reactor being built in Brazil, Angra I. In 1975, the Brazil-Germany Nuclear Agreement was announced. The Programme was a failure. Today the Angra II nuclear reactor has been completed, the only reactor completed under the agreement with Germany. Brazil's last military President implemented the Parallel Nuclear Programme, which included uranium enrichment with the justification of developing the technology that had not been transferred through the Nuclear Agreement with Germany. In 1986, the existence of a deep shaft drilled by the Air Force was revealed. A Technical Report concluded that it had all the characteristics and dimensions required to test a nuclear bomb. Some years later, the Civilian Government acknowledged the existence of an underground nuclear explosion facility and symbolically sealed this shaft. The situation in Brazil has improved recently. Brazil ratified the Treaty of Tlatelolco on the denuclearisation of Latin America and established ABACC, an agency handling mutual inspections of nuclear facilities in Brazil and Argentina. Brazil also signed the Nuclear Weapons Non-Proliferation Treaty. The uranium enrichment activities are being transferred to a civilian industry. More importantly, I do not believe that the uranium enrichment project is intended to endow Brazil with the capacity to produce nuclear weapons. (author)

  10. Inequality and Economic Development in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses three questions : why do inequalities matter for Brazil's development? Why does Brazil occupy a position of very high inequality in the international community? And, What should public policy do about it? Excessive income inequality is unfair, and undesirable on ethical grounds, and can bring adverse effects on economic growth, health outcomes, social cohesion, and cri...

  11. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  12. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  13. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  14. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  15. Brazil Low Carbon Case Study : Waste

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesis the findings for the waste sector of a broader study, the Brazil low carbon study, which was undertaken by the World Bank in its initiative to support Brazil's integrated effort towards reducing national and global emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) while promoting long term development. The purpose of the present report is to assist in the preparation of public poli...

  16. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  17. Aspergillus bertholletius sp. nov. from Brazil Nuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Marta H.; Pitt, John I.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.;

    2012-01-01

    During a study on the mycobiota of brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) in Brazil, a new Aspergillus species, A. bertholletius, was found, and is described here. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data as well as partial beta-tubulin, calmodulin and ITS sequ...

  18. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  19. Canonical Correlation Factors Causing the Formation of Accumulated Sand-belts along the Oasis Fringe in Hexi Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang; Zhaofeng; Wang; Qiangqiang; Zhang; Jianhui; Tang; Jinnian; Zhu; Shujuan; Fan; Baoli; Zhang; Dabiao; Liu; Shizeng; Zhang; Guozhong; Li; Aide

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated sand-belts refer to those formed along the oasis fringe,especially at the upwind location,due to the accumulation of sand blocked by farmland windbreak. In the 60 years since the foundation of new China,a lot of trees have been planted for desertification combating in northwest and north China,thus,accumulated sand-belts were formed at the upwind location. The formation and the ecological effects of the accumulated sand-belts along the oasis fringe is a new scientific concern. To study the formation causes of these belts in Hexi corridor,21 samples were selected,and the height / width of the belts,as well as the vegetation,soil,soil moisture and climatic factors were investigated. This paper analyzed the correlation between the height / width of the belts and the vegetation,soil,soil moisture and climatic factors using the methods of variance analysis,correlation analysis and canonical correlation analysis. The results indicate that: the accumulated sand-belts take a trend of being high and wide in the east whereas low and narrow in the west,and most of the parts tend to be stable; the species on the belts are dominated by Tamarix austromongolica,the vegetation cover and the pure vegetation cover of different dominant species on the leeward slope of the accumulated sand-belts vary significantly. The canonical correlation analysis shows that: the height and width of accumulated sand-belt is the interaction of precipitation,distance to the sand source,leeward vegetation cover and annual average wind speed. Moreover,the height of accumulated sand-belts are negatively correlated to the soil moisture at the depth of 30- 50 cm,air humidity and leeward vegetation cover,and the width of the belts is also negatively correlated with the distance to the sand source. The ecological effects of the accumulated sand-belts are both positive( stopping sands from moving into farmland,protective role as an obstacle)and negative( when the belts decay and activate one day

  20. The Pattern and Evolution of the Permian Palaeobiogeography and Tectonic Palaeogeography in Jilin and Heilongjiang Orogenic Belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Liu Pengju

    2000-01-01

    The orogenic belt locates between the North China plate and Siberia plate. The Permian palaeobiogeography and tectonic palaeogeography changed quickly and clearly. The line from Changchun to Yanji is an important palaeobiogeographic provincing line, which may be the collission suture belt of the North China plate and north middle massifs. The orogenic belt has been divided into 2 regions: the North middle massif region and the North Margin of North China plate, the pattern and evolution of Permian palaeobiogeography in the present area were discussed and the Permian biota mixture and its significants were analysed. Then, Based on the above, the Permian tectonic palaeogeography of the orogenic belt is reconstructed.