Sample records for brasilia belt brazil

  1. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvania Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, central Brazil

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    Fischel, Danielle P.; Pimentel, Marcio M.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences


    U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic meta volcanic rocks from the Silvania Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasilia Belt. Zircon grains from a meta volcanic sample yielded 2115 {+-} 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 {+-}14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six meta volcanic samples of the Silvania Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 {+-}110 Ma and positive {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T{sub DM} model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and {epsilon}{sub Nd} (T) values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T{sub DM} value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvania volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasilia Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasilia Belt. (author)

  2. LBA-ECO ND-07 Microbial Biomass in Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the microbial biomass in soil samples collected from the Cerrado, a woodlands-savannah area, in Brasilia, Brazil. Microbial biomass was...

  3. Usage of food and beverage labels by supermarket shoppers in Brasilia, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Renata Alves; Coutinho, Janine Giuberti; Recine, Elisabetta


    To investigate whether adults who shop in supermarkets in one part of Brasilia, the capital city of Brazil, use the information contained in food and beverage labels, as well as to characterize this usage...

  4. LBA-ECO ND-07 Microbial Biomass in Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the microbial biomass in soil samples collected from the Cerrado, a woodlands-savannah area, in Brasilia, Brazil. Microbial biomass...

  5. Araxa Group in the type-area: A fragment of Neoproterozoic oceanic crust in the Brasilia Fold Belt; Grupo Araxa em sua area tipo: um fragmento de crosta oceanica Neoproterozoica na faixa de dobramentos Brasilia

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    Seer, Hildor Jose [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Araxa, (CEFET), MG (Brazil); Brod, Jose Affonso; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende; Dardenne, Marcel Auguste [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias


    This study reviews the geological characteristics and puts forward a new evolution model for the Araxa Group in its type-area, the southern segment of the Neo proterozoic Brasilia Belt, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Araxa Group is confined within a thrust sheet belonging to a syn formal regional fold, the Araxa Syn form, overlying two other thrust sheets made of the Ibia and Canastra Groups. The Araxa Group is described as a tectono stratigraphic terrane in the sense of Howell (1993). It comprises an igneous mafic sequence, with fine and coarse grained amphibolites, associated with pelitic meta sedimentary rocks, and subordinate psanmites. All rocks were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies at ca. 630 Ma ago and were intruded by collisional granites. The amphibolites represent original basaltic and gabbroic rocks, with minor ultramafic (serpentinite/ amphibole-talc schist). The basalts are similar to high Fe O tholeiites, with REE signatures that resemble E-MORB and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} =+ 1.1. The meta sedimentary rocks are interpreted as the result of a marine deep-water sedimentation. They have Sm-Nd model ages of 1,9 Ga, and {epsilon}{sub Nd(T)} = -10.21. The amphibolites and metasediments could represent a fragment of back-arc oceanic crust. The data presented here differ significantly from the original definition of Barbosa et al. (1970) who describe the Araxa Group as a pelitic/psanmitic sequence and the collisional granites as a basement complex. (author)

  6. Food flora in 17th century Northeast region of Brazil in Historia Naturalis Brasiliae. (United States)

    Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino


    This article reports historical ethnobotany research conducted from a study of the work Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (Natural History of Brazil), authored by Piso and Marcgrave and published in 1648, with main focus on Caatinga of northeast region of Brazil. Focusing the content analysis on the section dedicated to plant species with multiple uses, Marcgrave's contribution to the aforementioned work, this research had the following objectives: the retrieval of 17th century knowledge about the food uses of the flora in the northeast region of Brazil, including the taxonomic classifications; the identification of plant parts, their modes of consumption and the ethnic group of consumers; and the verification of the use of these species over time. The use of 80 food species at the time of the publication of the work is indicated, some of which are endemic to the Caatinga, such as "umbu" (Spondias tuberosa Arruda), "mandacaru" (Cereus jamacaru DC.) and "carnauba" (Copernicia cerifera Mart.). It is noticeable that among the species listed by Marcgrave, some species still lack current studies indicating their real nutritional value. The present study is an unprecedented work because it introduces, in a systematic way, the food plants described in a study of 17th century Brazil. Finally, this study makes information about plants consumed in the past accessible, aiming to provide material for studies that could develop new food products today.

  7. Natural and anthropogenic rare earth elements in Lago de Paranoá, Brasilia, Brazil (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Baldewein, Linda; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Walde, Detlef; Bühn, Bernhard


    Rare earth elements (REE) belong to the group of particle reactive elements and occur at ultratrace levels in natural waters. They are exclusively trivalent, but Ce and Eu can also be tetravalent and divalent, respectively, depending on the redox-level, the pH and the temperature of the fluid. Due to these redox changes, normalized REE patterns may show Ce and/or Eu anomalies. Recently, these high-tech metals raised significant public attention, as they are of great economic importance and consumption and hence release into the environment increased sharply. The most prominent example of a REE contamination is anthropogenic Gd, which is derived from Gd-based contrast agents used in magnetic resonance imaging. Due to their high stabilities, these compounds are not readily removed by commonly applied waste water treatment technologies and, therefore, are released from treatment plants into surface and ground waters. Hence, this anthropogenic Gd can be used as a tracer for the presence of waste water-derived substances such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products in river, lake, ground and tap waters. Lago de Paranoá is an artificial reservoir lake in the city of Brasilia, Brazil, and is currently considered a potential freshwater resource. The city's two waste water treatment plants are located on its shore and their effluents are discharged into the lake. To investigate the level of contamination, we took water samples at 11 stations in the lake and compared the REE concentrations in unfiltered and filtered (water. The unfiltered water samples show light REE enrichment (LaSN/YbSN: 1.37-1.98) and high REE concentrations (Sum REE: 192 - 476 ng/L), while the unfiltered water samples are heavy REE enriched (LaSN/YbSN: 0.15-0.61) at lower concentrations (Sum REE: 50 - 85 ng/L). This is due to the fact that light REE are preferentially bound to particle surfaces, while the heavy REE are preferentially complexed with ligands in solution. In marked contrast to the

  8. [Work-related accidents, with biological materials, in health care workers in public hospitals in Brasilia, Brazil, 2002/2003]. (United States)

    Caixeta, Roberta de Betânia; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh


    This study evaluates the knowledge and acceptance of biosafety measures by health care professionals in light of the potential risk of occupational transmission of HIV. The survey assessed 570 health care workers from 6 hospitals, randomly selected from all hospitals in the Federal District (Brasilia), Brazil. The sample corresponds to 15.0% of the all health professionals in the selected hospitals. These professionals answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge of biosafety and universal precautions, risk of occupational HIV transmission, work-related accidents, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and acceptance of chemoprophylaxis and HIV testing. The overall accident coefficient was 39.1. Dentists, physicians, and laboratory technicians were those who most frequently suffered such accidents. The accident coefficient was inversely proportional to the hospital capacity. The professionals' knowledge of biosafety concepts and the fact that written norms were displayed in their workstations did not positively affect the work accident coefficient.

  9. Prevalência de cárie dentária em Brasília, Brasil Prevalence of dental caries in Brasilia, Brazil

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    José Maria Pacheco de Souza


    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de um levantamento de cárie dentária, prévio à fluoretação das águas de abastecimento, referentes à Brasília, capital do Brasil.The results of a dental caries survey, before the fluoridation of the water in Brasilia, Brazil's capital, are presented.

  10. Micro-analysis by U-Pb method using LAM-ICPMS and its applications for the evolution of sedimentary basins: the example from Brasilia Belt; Micro-analise pelo metodo U-Pb usando LAM-CIPMS e suas aplicacoes para a evolucao de bacias sedimentares: o exemplo da faixa Brasilia

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    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Matteini, Massimo; Junges, Sergio Luiz; Giustina, Maria Emilia Schutesky Della; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Buhn, Bernhard, E-mail: [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)


    The U-Pb geochronological method using LAM-MC-ICPMS represents an important tool to investigate the geological evolution of sedimentary basins, as well as its geochronology, through the determination of upper limits for the depositional ages of detrital sedimentary rocks. The method has been applied in the Geochronology Laboratory of the Universidade de Brasilia, and in this study, a brief review of the provenance data for the sediments of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt is presented and their significance for the evolution of the orogen is discussed. The results indicate that the Paranoa and Canastra Groups represent passive margin sequences formed along the western margin of the Sao Francisco-Congo continent. The Vazante Group presents similar provenance patterns, although Sm-Nd isotopic results suggest that its upper portions had contributions from younger (Neoproterozoic) sources, possibly from the Neoproterozoic Goias Magmatic Arc. On the other hand, metasediments of the Araxa and Ibia groups contain an important proportion of material derived from Neoproterozoic sources, demonstrating that they represent syn-orogenic basins. The provenance pattern of the Bambui Group is marked by an important Neoproterozoic component, showing that it constitutes a sedimentary sequence which is younger than 600 Ma, representing a foreland basin to the Brasilia Belt. (author)


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    Maurizio Sponga


    Full Text Available The strongly wavy relief transposition for implantation of highways has became intensely used in the last decades by means of tunnels, cuts and fillings, causing impacts to the landscape in result of some factors, as decapitation of surfaces, abrupt transformation of land morphology, disequilibrium of superficial and sub superficial water circulation, waste handling sistems, enchainment of erosive processes etc. As an alleviating measure of part of the impacts generated for the excavations for constructing the roadways, procedures of containment and vegetal resetting of surfaces for reduction of the erosive processes and stabilization of mass movements are adopted. The found terrain are very diversified and several occasions the vegetal covering becomes difficult in reason of the physical-chemical characteristics for germination to be inadequate. In areas of high risk to the occupation with stability problems, commonly they use covering with projected concrete for containment of hillsides, that parallelly causes strong environmental and visual impact in the intervention area, and furthermore, possibly, not consisting insolutions duly adequate or definitive for these situations.The search for alternatives is frequent in academic medium as much as in the private initiative for techniques for containment of hillsides and more economic erosion control, looking for lesser ambient impacts and better results. The search of these alternatives gradually becomes technically systemizing itself, aiming at the recovery of the conditions of dynamic balance of the impacted landscapes due to the explosive increase of social and environmental problems intrinsically related.In this direction, it will be presented the description of a work of vegetal covering by grass in plates, antierosive bioblanket and geocells in fibers of rubberized sisal for the confinement of soil in cut slopes of a highway in Brasilia/DF, in Brazil. This technique presented excellent

  12. People's knowledge and practice about dengue, its vectors, and control means in Brasilia (DF), Brazil : its relevance with entomological factors


    Dégallier, Nicolas; De Tarso Ribeiro Vilarinhos, P.; De Carvalho, M.S.L.; Britto Knox, M.; Caetano, J.


    In South America, the epidemiology and ecology of dengue fever are strongly associated with human habits because the vector #Aedes aegypti$ is strictly urban. Thus, the evaluation of people's knowledge and practice (PKB) is of great importance to improve integrated control measures. A PKP evaluation has been done in a suburb of Brasilia. Thirty questions were submitted to 130 habitants about income level, education, sources of information, specific knowledge about dengue, vector biology, and ...

  13. A six-year follow-up survey of sexually transmitted diseases in Brasilia, the capital of Brazil

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    Simões-Barbosa Augusto


    Full Text Available The notification of sexually transmitted diseases (STD is a prime component of well-designed public health policy. However, peculiar aspects of STD must be taken into account for the correct management of surveillance activities. Here, we describe the distribution of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among patients attended by the gynecological clinics of the principal public hospitals of Brasilia and the Federal District, Brazilian capital, during six years. A total of 142,158 patients had their cervicovaginal samples collected for Papanicolaou preparations and eventual biopsies. Diagnosis was made according to cytological and histological alterations, distinguishing among vaginal infections, and pre-cancerous and cancerous cervical lesions. We also looked at the annual prevalence of the various types of infections and alterations. There was a high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis, with suggestive changes over the years. Pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions increased 2.2 fold during the six years. A large proportion of the cases involved late stages of cervical cancer, indicating the necessity of prompt attendance of the population in a routine gynecological prevention program.

  14. Toxic Metals (Pb and Cd and Their Respective Antagonists (Ca and Zn in Infant Formulas and Milk Marketed in Brasilia, Brazil

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    José G. Dórea


    Full Text Available In non-ideal scenarios involving partial or non-breastfeeding, cow’s milk-based dairy products are mainstream in infant feeding. Therefore, it is important to study the concentrations of potentially neurotoxic contaminants (Pb and Cd and their respective counteracting elements (Ca and Zn in infant dairy products. Fifty-five brands of infant formulas and milk sold in Brasilia, Brazil were analyzed. The dairy products came from areas in the central-west (26%, southeast (29% and south of Brazil (36% extending as far as Argentina (7% and the Netherlands (2%. For toxic Pb and Cd, median concentrations in powdered samples were 0.109 mg/kg and 0.033 mg/kg, respectively; in fluid samples median Pb concentration was 0.084 mg/kg, but median Cd concentration was below the limit of detection and overall values were below reference safety levels. However, 62% of these samples presented higher Pb concentration values than those established by FAO/WHO. Although the inverse correlation between Cd and Zn (Spearman r = −0.116; P = 0.590 was not statistically significant, the positive correlation between Ca and Pb was (Spearman r = 0.619; P < 0.0001. Additionally, there was a significant correlation between Pb and Cd. Furthermore, the study also revealed that provision of the essential trace element Zn in infant formulas can provide adequate amounts of the recommended daily requirements. Infant formulas and milk sold for consumption by infants and children can be an efficient tool to monitor neurotoxic metal risk exposure among young children.

  15. Replacing amalgam with a high-viscosity glass-ionomer in restoring primary teeth: A cost-effectiveness study in Brasilia, Brazil. (United States)

    Goldman, A; Frencken, J E; De Amorim, R G; Leal, S C


    When planning primary oral health care services the cost implications of adopting new intervention practices are important, especially in resource-strapped countries. Although on a trajectory to be phased-out, amalgam remains the standard of care in many countries. Adopting a government perspective, this study compared the costs of performing amalgam and ART/high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) restorations and the consequences of failed restorations over 3 years in suburban Brasilia, Brazil. Cost data were collected prospectively; cost estimates were developed for the study sample and a projection of 1000 single- and 1000 multiple-surface restorations per group. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted in TreeAge Pro. Results were mixed. For single-surface restorations, ART/HVGIC will cost US$51 per failure prevented, while for multiple-surface restorations, ART/HVGIC was cost-effective with a savings of US$11 compared to amalgam. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (Monte Carlo simulation) predicted amalgam would be cost-effective 49.2% of the time compared to HVGIC at 50.6% of the time at a willingness to pay threshold of US$237 per failure prevented. Personnel accounted for more than half the cost burden for both methods; instruments and supplies accounted for about one third. The per restoration cost to replace amalgam with HVGIC ranges from US$1 to a savings of US$0.84. Replacing amalgam with a high-viscosity glass-ionomer as part of the ART method comes at a minimal increase in cost for governments. Increasing the number of restorations seems to diminish the cost burden. ART/HVGIC could be considered a viable alternative to amalgam in primary teeth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. OSBRA right of way characterization in Vila Estrutural, Brasilia, Brazil; Caracterizacao de faixa do OSBRA na Vila Estrutural em Brasilia - evidencia de uma nova relacao da TRANSPETRO com a comunidade

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    Brito, Walderes Lima de; Castro, Newton Camelo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Braga, Gilberto Vieira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In this project we will introduce the relationship experience between TRANSPETRO and Vila Estrutural community, located in Guara, D.C., what we consider a social responsibility practice and an important tool of the integrity maintenance of right of way pipelines, considering the risks caused by other people actions. In this specific case, Vila Estrutural is the most critical one, of Sao Paulo - Brasilia pipelines (OSBRA): irregular occupations, with an estimated population by 25,000 people, with an inhabit strangle and development constructions tendency in the straight ahead direction of pipelines. To deal with this reality, OSBRA management created a strategy called 'Acquaintance Communication', increasing the knowledge about the community (diagnostic), promoting to yours employees an acquaintance culture (qualifying); developing communications strategies with those that live nearby right of the pipelines way (relationship); and finally, building the stonemason of the characterization of the right of way pipelines as a real device and right of the way protection (framing). This work is lined up with the idea of an integrated communication, using many strategies (visits, meetings, argument groups, etc.), constituting in a corporative social responsibility practice, admitting the community right of information and knowing it the right manner of living nearby the right of way pipeline, resulting in the equipment integrity, asserting the community safety and environment maintenance. (author)

  17. Clinical use and control of the dispensing of thalidomide in Brasilia-Federal District, Brazil, from 2001 to 2012

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    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten


    Full Text Available The use of thalidomide was never discontinued in Brazil where it is prescribed for leprosy type 2 reaction. Babies with birth defects compatible with the thalidomide embryopathy phenotype were born after 1965, an indication that control on drug dispensing and use failed in the country. The article reports data on thalidomide dispensing and clinical uses in the Federal District in 2011/12, when new rules were put into effect, and data on drug dispensing and use obtained ten years earlier. It was found that the number of patients making use of thalidomide declined from 819 in 2001 to 369 in 2011/12. Leprosy accounted for over 70% of prescriptions in both time periods analyzed in this study. In the same time interval, however, use for lupus erythematosus decreased from 13.7 to 4.9%, while that for multiple myeloma increased from 2.9 to 20.3% of all prescriptions. Thalidomide prescription for the remaining approved indications was far less frequent, and so was the use for off label indications that accounted for <1% of prescriptions in 2001 and 2011/12. Registration of prescribing doctors, patients and dispensing units at the state department of health, apparently rendered this control more effective and reliable.

  18. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil

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    Morais, Helena C.; Mangabeira, Jacimary A. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Ecologia]. E-mail:; Cabral, Berites C.; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade Federal de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia]. E-mail:


    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (c{sup 2} = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (c{sup 2} 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna. (author)

  19. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura


    constrain the age of. (1) retrograded eclogite from a block along the tectonic contact beneath the uppermost nappe in a stack of passive margin-derived nappes; (2) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the uppermost passive margin-derived nappe; (3) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism...... in the overlying arc-derived nappe. Rare zircons from a retrograded eclogite yield a Pb-206/U-238 age of 678 +/- 29 Ma. which we interpret as most likely to (late close-to-peak-P metamorphism and to provide a minimum age for detachment of the overlying passive margin-derived nappe from the subducting plate. Zircon...

  20. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

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    Militão AG


    Full Text Available Angeliete Garcez Militão,1,2 Margô Gomes de Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Fernanda Rodrigues da Silva,4 Elba Sancho Garcez Militão,3 Raiane Maiara dos Santos Pereira,5 Carmen Silvia Grubert Campbell,2,5 1Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rondonia, Brazil; 2Post-Graduate Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brazil; 4Laboratory of Physical Evaluation and Training, 5Laboratory of Physical Education and Health Studies, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brazil Introduction: Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. Methods: The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40% participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF: the intervention group (IG, n = 17 and the control group (CG, n = 17. The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC, maximum oxygen intake (VO2max, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used

  1. Anomalous heat flow belt along the continental margin of Brazil (United States)

    Hamza, Valiya M.; Vieira, Fabio P.; Silva, Raquel T. A.


    A comprehensive analysis of thermal gradient and heat flow data was carried out for sedimentary basins situated in the continental margin of Brazil (CMB). The results point to the existence of a narrow belt within CMB, where temperature gradients are higher than 30 °C/km and the heat flow is in excess of 70 mW/m2. This anomalous geothermal belt is confined between zones of relatively low to normal heat flow in the adjacent continental and oceanic regions. The width of the belt is somewhat variable, but most of it falls within the range of 100-300 km. The spatial extent is relatively large in the southern (in the basins of Pelotas, Santos and Campos) and northern (in the basins of Potiguar and Ceará) parts, when compared with those in the central parts (in the basins of South Bahia, Sergipe and Alagoas). The characteristics of heat flow anomalies appear to be compatible with those produced by thermal sources at depths in the lower crust. Hence, magma emplacement at the transition zone between lower crust and upper mantle is considered the likely mechanism producing such anomalies. Seismicity within the belt is relatively weak, with focal depths less than 10 km for most of the events. Such observations imply that "tectonic bonding" between continental and oceanic segments, at the transition zone of CMB, is relatively weak. Hence, it is proposed that passive margins like CMB be considered as constituting a type of plate boundary that is aseismic at sub-crustal levels, but allows for escape of significant amounts of earth's internal heat at shallow depths.

  2. Algoma-type Neoproterozoic BIFs and related marbles in the Seridó Belt (NE Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Campos, Marcel S.; Gaucher, Claudio


    The Jucurutu Formation in the Seridó Belt, northeastern Brazil, encompasses fine-to coarse-grained amphibolite-facies marbles, locally with cross-bedding and stromatolites. Banded iron formations (BIF) at three localities in this belt comprise itabirites (actinolite- or cummingtonite-itabirite an...

  3. La costruzione dello spazio pubblico a Brasilia / The Construction of Public Space in Brasilia

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    Martina Landsberger


    Full Text Available Come accade sempre, è attraverso la vista a volo d’uccello che è possibile comprendere con chiarezza il principio compositivo di un luogo. E questo vale anche - e forse soprattutto - per Brasilia, la città di fondazione voluta da Juscelino Kubitschek nel 1956 per decentrare, lontano dalla costa atlantica, il nuovo polo amministrativo e legislativo del Brasile. Di Niemeyer si tende, in generale, a mettere in evidenza la sua particolare capacità nel disegnare le “forme” delle architetture e dei loro spazi interni. Non ci si sofferma quasi mai su quanto accade all’esterno di ognuna di esse, sul modo cioè in cui esse si mettono in relazione con lo spazio della città. / As always happens, it is through the bird’s eye view that it is possible to clearly understand the compositional principle of a place. And this is true also – and perhaps mostly – for Brasilia, the new city that Juscelino Kubitschek decided to build in 1956 to decentralize, far away from the Atlantic coast, the new administrative and legislative pole of Brazil. Generally, in Niemeyer’s work experts tend to stress his peculiar capacity for designing the “shapes” of buildings and of their interior spaces. Hardly ever do experts stop to observe what happens on the outside of each of them, that is on the way in which they establish a relationship with the space of the city.

  4. Effects of a recreational physical activity and healthy habits orientation program, using an illustrated diary, on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese schoolchildren: a pilot study in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil. (United States)

    Militão, Angeliete Garcez; de Oliveira Karnikowski, Margô Gomes; da Silva, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez Militão, Elba Sancho; Dos Santos Pereira, Raiane Maiara; Grubert Campbell, Carmen Silvia


    Educative strategies need to be adopted to encourage the consumption of healthy foods and to promote physical activity in childhood and adolescence. The effects of recreational physical activity and a health-habit orientation program using an illustrated diary on the cardiovascular risk profile of overweight and obese children was investigated. The weight and height of 314 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 11 years old, in a public school in Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil, were recorded. According to the body mass index (BMI) classification proposed by the World Health Organization, 84 were overweight or obese for their age and sex. Of these children, 34 (40%) participated in the study. Students were divided into two groups matched for sex, age, BMI, percent body fat (%BF): the intervention group (IG, n = 17) and the control group (CG, n = 17). The IG underwent a program of 10 weeks of exercise with recreational activities and health-habit orientation using an illustrated diary of habits, while no such interventions were used with the CG during the study period. Before and after the intervention, the children's weight, height, BMI, %BF, waist circumference (WC), maximum oxygen intake (VO2max), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, glucose, eating habits, and physical activity level (PAL) were assessed. In analyzing the data, we used descriptive statistics and paired and unpaired t-tests, using a significance level of 0.05. For assessment of dietary habits, a questionnaire, contingency tables, and the chi-squared test were used, with habits and to increase their physical activity level.

  5. Predictors of Virologic Failure in HIV/AIDS Patients Treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Brasilia, Brazil during 2002–2008

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    Edson José Monteiro Bello M.Sc.


    Full Text Available Little data exists concerning the efficacy of the antiretroviral therapy in the Federal District in Brazil, therefore in order to improve HIV/AIDS patients' therapy and to pinpoint hot spots in the treatment, this research work was conducted. Of 139 HIV/AIDS patients submitted to the highly active antiretroviral therapy, 12.2% failed virologically. The significant associated factors related to unresponsiveness to the lentiviral treatment were: patients' place of origin (OR = 3.28; IC95% = 1.0–9.73; P = 0.032 and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis infection (RR = 2.90; IC95% = 1.19–7.02; P = 0.019. In the logistic regression analysis, the remaining variables in the model were: patients' birthplace (OR = 3.28; IC95% = 1.10–9.73; P = 0.032 and tuberculosis comorbidity (OR = 3.82; IC95% = 1.19–12.22; P = 0.024. The patients enrolled in this survey had an 88.0% therapeutic success rate for the maximum period of one year of treatment, predicting that T CD4 + low values and elevated viral loads at pretreatment should be particularly considered in tuberculosis confection, besides the availability of new antiretroviral drugs displaying optimal activity both in viral suppression and immunological reconstitution.

  6. Ecological aspects of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in the gallery forest of Brasilia National Park, Brazil, with an emphasis on potential vectors of yellow fever

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    Ana Raquel Lira-Vieira


    Full Text Available Introduction We analyzed the vertical and monthly distributions of culicid species in the gallery forest of Brasília National Park, with an emphasis on the potential vectors of yellow fever (YF. Methods Between September 2010 and August 2011, mosquitoes were captured on the ground and in the canopy of the forest for five consecutive days per month, from nine to 15 hours. The mosquitoes were examined to verify natural infection with flaviviruses by isolation in Aedes albopictus Skuse, 1864 cells followed by indirect immunofluorescence. Results We identified 2,677 culicids distributed in 29 species. Most of the mosquitoes were captured at ground level (69% during the rainy season (86%. The most abundant species were Sabethes (Sabethes albiprivus Theobald, 1903; Limatus durhamii Theobald, 1901; Haemagogus (Conopostegus leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon, 1924; Haemagogus (Haemagogus janthinomys Dyar, 1921; Aedes (Ochlerotatus scapularis Rondani, 1848; Psorophora (Janthinosoma ferox Von Humboldt, 1819; and Aedes (Ochlerotatus serratus Theobald, 1901. Limatus durhamii, Limatus durhamii, Psorophora ferox, Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus showed significant differences (p<0.05 in their habitat use. Limatus durhamii was found more often in the canopy, unlike the other species. During the rainy season, the most abundant species were Sa. albiprivus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Limatus durhamii. During the dry season, the potential YF vectors exhibited a very low frequency and abundance, except Aedes scapularis and Aedes serratus. No flavivirus was detected in the 2,677 examined mosquitoes. Conclusions We recommend continued and systematic entomological monitoring in areas vulnerable to the transmission of YF in the Federal District of Brazil.

  7. Accessibility and sustainability: the experiences of hospitality in Brasilia

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    Donária Coelho Duarte


    Full Text Available The article reflects on the relationship between accessibility and Sustainability focusing on People with Disabilities or Reduced Mobility (PWDRM - including people with some sensory or motor disability and people in the so called "third age". It analyses the prospect of tourism in Brazil in the coming years, based on the current preparation scenario for holding mega sporting events - among them FIFA 2014 World Cup - in opposition to the global economic crisis. It highlights the PWDRM as a segment with high potential growth, since it is provided public infrastructure and tourism facilities for their best care. The article focuses on the PWDRM as tourists, discussing how it is ocurring Brasilia Hospitality Industry adapting process to fully adressing the needs of these people. It study also the economic integration and social inclusion of PWDRM as employees of these organizations. Among the data collected in the field research, it emphasizes that from the 29 hotels surveyed, 23 declare having PWDRM adapted facilities, of which 20 have adapted their facilities only due to law requirements. The majority (26 hotels appear to be concerned or already prepared for a potential increase in demand and 21 respondents consider that there is a growing demand from senior guests. Finally, suggestions are made looking for a better accessibility and sustainability in the Brasilia Hospitality Sector and is encouraged a deeper research. Further research is recommended in the subject.

  8. The environmental sustainability of a pilot plant for the manufacture of biodiesel from frying oil: a case study: Universidade de Brasilia UNB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brazil; A sustentabilidade ambiental de uma planta piloto para fabricacao de biodiesel a partir de oleo de fritura: estudo de caso: Universidade de Brasilia UnB/FGA, Gama, DF, Brasil

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    Silva, Glecia Virgolino da; Falla, Pilar Hidalgo; Ginoris, Yovanka Perez; Oliveira, Alessandro Borges de S.; Alves, Marcos Antonio de S. [Universidade de Brasilia (FGA/UnB), Gama, DF (Brazil)


    Whereas the efforts of the Brazilian government and its researchers to explore new renewable energy alternatives such as biofuels, and considering the existing methodologies for the production of biodiesel, including the processes of washing out, which consumes a large amount of water treated, University of Brasilia/FGA/Gama installs in about July 2010 a pilot plant for biodiesel production. The pilot plant will use feedstock used frying oil collected in homes, restaurants and coffee shop in the region, preventing this oil remains released to sewage in natura. Thus, this project aims to develop academic research and the improvement of the community in the city of Gama / DF. This study aimed to carry out preliminary studies of the methodology and water to be used in biodiesel production in order to confirm the reduction of fuel costs the University to contribute to reducing the release of oils into the sewer and use of distillers for water will wash the biodiesel, reducing the energy consumption of the plant. (author)

  9. A new interpretation for the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt, SE Brazil (United States)

    Trouw, Rudolph A. J.; Peternel, Rodrigo; Ribeiro, Andre; Heilbron, Mônica; Vinagre, Rodrigo; Duffles, Patrícia; Trouw, Camilo C.; Fontainha, Marcos; Kussama, Hugo H.


    In southeastern Brazil, the Neoproterozoic NNW-SSE trending southern Brasília belt is apparently truncated by the ENE-WSW central Ribeira belt. Different interpretations in the literature of the transition between these two belts motivated detailed mapping and additional age dating along the contact zone. The result is a new interpretation presented in this paper. The southern Brasília belt resulted from E-W collision between the active margin of the Paranapanema paleocontinent, on the western side, now forming the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe, with the passive margin of the São Francisco paleocontinent on the eastern side. The collision produced an east vergent nappe stack, the Andrelândia Nappe System, along the suture. At its southern extreme the Brasília belt was thought to be cut off by a shear zone, the "Rio Jaguari mylonites", at the contact with the Embu terrane, pertaining to the Central Ribeira belt. Our detailed mapping revealed that the transition between the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (Brasília belt) and the Embu terrane (Ribeira belt) is not a fault but rather a gradational transition that does not strictly coincide with the Rio Jaguari mylonites. A typical Cordilleran type magmatic arc batholith of the Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe with an age of ca. 640 Ma intrudes biotite schists of the Embu terrane and the age of zircon grains from three samples of metasedimentary rocks, one to the south, one to the north and one along the mylonite zone, show a similar pattern of derivation from a Rhyacian source area with rims of 670-600 Ma interpreted as metamorphic overgrowth. We dated by LA-MC-ICPMS laser ablation (U-Pb) zircon grains from a calc-alkaline granite, the Serra do Quebra-Cangalha Batholith, located within the Embu terrane at a distance of about 40 km south of the contact with the Socorro Nappe, yielding an age of 680 ± 13 Ma. This age indicates that the Embu terrane was part of the upper plate (Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe) by this time. Detailed mapping

  10. Prioridades no setor saúde: análise com base em estatísticas de mortalidade de Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brasil, 1977-1978 Health priorities: an analysis based on mortality statistics, Brasilia (Brazil, 1977-1978

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    Maurício Gomes Pereira


    Full Text Available Foi observado, em Brasília (Brasil, no período de 1977-1978, grande número de óbitos em crianças, maior mortalidade no sexo masculino e predominância de mortes, cujas principais causas foram: a perinatais e infecciosas em crianças pré-escolares, b acidentes nos escolares, adolescentes e adultos jovens e c doenças cardiovasculares e tumores após os 45 anos de idade. Esses resultados são valiosos para orientar a aplicação de recursos por parte dos serviços oficiais de saúde.Mortality statistics were investigated in Brasilia (Brazil during 1977-1978. Many deaths were among children. A breakdown into figures showed that mortality was greater among males and the main causes of death were: a perinatal causes and infectious diseases among pre-school children; b accidents among school children, adolescents, and young adults; c heart disease and tumors in the middle-aged and elderly. This information is valuable in planning the utilization of public health resources.

  11. Metal accumulation in soils derived from volcano-sedimentary rocks, Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt, northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Laíse Milena Ribeiro; Gloaguen, Thomas Vincent; Fadigas, Francisco de Souza; Chaves, Joselisa Maria; Martins, Tamires Moraes Oliveira


    Many countries and some Brazilian regions have defined the guideline values for metals in soils. However, the local geological features may be so heterogeneous that global or even regional guideline values cannot be applied. The Greenstone Belts are worldwide geological formations of vast extension, containing mineralization of various metals (e.g., Au, Cr, Ni, and Ag). Natural concentrations of soils must be known to correctly assess the impact of mining. We studied the soils of the Rio Itapicuru Greenstone Belt (RIGB), of Paleoproterozoic age, sampling at 24 sites (0-0.20m) in the areas not or minimally human impacted, equally distributed in the three units of the RIGB: Volcanic Mafic Unit (VMU), Volcanic Felsic Unit (VFU), and Volcano-clastic Sedimentary Unit (SU). The natural pseudo-total concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Fe, and Mn were obtained by acid digestion (EPA3050b) both in the soil and the particle-size fractions (sand and clay+silt). The concentrations of metals in RIGB soils, especially Cr and Ni, are generally higher than those reported for other regions of Brazil or other countries. Even the sedimentary soils have relatively high metal values, naturally contaminated by the VMU of the RIGB; a potential impact on Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks located near the study region is highly expected. Metals are concentrated (80%) in the fine particle-size fraction, implying an easy availability through surface transport (wind and runoff). We introduced a new index, called the Fe-independent accumulation factor - AF -Fe , which reveals that 90-98% of the dynamics of the trace metals is associated with the iron geochemical cycle. We primarily conclude that determining the guideline values for different soil classes in variable geological/geochemical environment and under semiarid climate is meaningless: the concentration of metals in soils is clearly more related to the source material than to the pedogenesis processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  12. Uso de medicamentos por idosos de instituições de longa permanência, Brasília-DF, Brasil Uso de drogas por ancianos en instituciones de larga estadía, Brasilia-DF, Brasil Drug use by elderly residents in long-stay institutions, Brasília-DF, Brazil

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    Mirna Poliana Furtado de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a utilização de medicamentos por 154 idosos de cinco instituições de longa permanência de Brasília-DF, Brasil, por meio de questionário adaptado do Método Dáder. A amostra é caracterizada em sua maioria por homens, com idade de 74,6 anos, com cognição preservada, baixa renda mensal e baixo nível de escolaridade; em uso de quatro a cinco medicamentos. A adesão à farmacoterapia é comprometida pela falta de conhecimento sobre a prescrição médica, dificuldade de acesso e recusa em tomar os medicamentos. Resultados sugerem a necessidade de investimento na capacitação de recursos humanos e em pesquisas na área a fim de proporcionar melhoria da qualidade de vida e redução dos custos com assistência à saúde.El objetivo de este estudio es describir la utilización de medicamentos por 154 ancianos de cinco instituciones de larga permanencia en Brasilia, a través de un cuestionario adaptado del método Dáder. La muestra é caracterizada por predominancia de hombres, con 74,6 años, con la cognición preservada, de bajo rendimiento, baja escolaridad y en uso de cuatro a cinco medicamentos. La adhesión a la farmacoterapia está comprometida debido la falta de conocimiento sobre la prescripción, de la dificultad de acceso y el rechazo a usar los medicamentos. Los resultados apuntan hacia la necesidad de invertir en la formación de recursos humanos y más estudios en el área con el fin de proporcionar mejor calidad de vida y reducción de costos en la atención de salud.The aim of this study is to describe the drug utilization by 154 elderly from five long-stay institutions of Brasilia-DF, Brazil, through a questionnaire adapted from the Dader Method. The sample is characterized mostly of men, age of 74.6 years, with preserved cognition, low income and low education level and in use of four to five medications. The adherence to pharmacotherapy is compromised by low knowledge about current

  13. Perfil socioeconômico, epidemiológico e farmacoterapêutico de idosos institucionalizados de Brasília, Brasil The socio-economic, epidemiological and pharmaco-therapeutic profile of institutionalized elderly individuals in Brasilia, Brazil

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    Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o perfil socioeconômico, epidemiológico e farmacoterapêutico de 154 idosos de cinco Instituições de Longa Permanência de Brasília por meio de questionário adaptado do Método Dáder e complementado com informações dos prontuários. A amostra é caracterizada por indivíduos solteiros e viúvos, em sua maioria homens, com idade média de 74,6 anos, sedentários, com estado cognitivo preservado, baixa renda mensal e baixo nível de escolaridade. O grupo consome de quatro a cinco medicamentos e é acometido, principalmente, por distúrbios psiquiátricos e cardiovasculares. Os medicamentos mais utilizados são os cardiovasculares e os psicofármacos. A adesão à farmacoterapia é comprometida pela falta de conhecimento sobre a prescrição médica atual, dificuldade de acesso e recusa em tomar os medicamentos prescritos. Resultados sugerem que tal perfil influencia a qualidade e a eficácia da terapêutica medicamentosa indicando a necessidade de implementação de um acompanhamento farmacoterapeutico a esses idosos bem como de políticas públicas de saúde mais focadas nas particularidades dessa população a fim de proporcionar melhoria da qualidade de vida e redução dos custos com assistência à saúde.The aim of this study is to describe the socioeconomic, epidemiological and pharmaco-therapeutic profile of 154 elderly individuals from five homes for the aged in Brasilia using a questionnaire adapted from the Dader method and supplemented with information from medical records. The sample is made up of single people and widowers, mostly men, mean age of 74.6 years, with preserved cognition, low income and low education level. The group consumes between four and five medicines and is mainly affected by cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases. The drugs most used are cardiovascular and psychotropic medication. The adherence to pharmacotherapy is prejudiced by lack of knowledge about current

  14. Determining Factors on Environmental Behaviour in Brasilia

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    Alexandre Nascimento de Almeida


    Full Text Available The growing concern about the environment has been changing the people's behaviour, leading to questions about the origin of products and the damage they cause to the environment, resulting in a new type of consumer, known as "green consumer". The purpose is to identify the influence of socio-demographic and psychographic factors on the environmental behaviour of individuals in the city of Brasilia and to provide information for the planning of environmental marketing strategies. Data were collected through a questionnaire and by way of logistic regression as analytical tools.The results indicated that the environmentally conscious individuals are those with higher levels of education and, especially, those who perceive the effectiveness of their environmental actions, however small or isolated.

  15. Monazite ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology in the LAGIR laboratory, Rio de Janeiro State University: protocols and first applications to the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent in SE-Brazil

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    Aguair Neto, Carla Cristiane; Valeriano, Claudio M.; Heilbron, Monica; Lobato, Marcela, E-mail: [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia. Lab. de Geocronologia e Isotopos Radiogenicos; Passarelli, Claudia R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias


    The chemical and spectrometric procedures of the U-Pb geochronology method on monazites, recently installed in the LAGIR laboratory, are described in detail. In addition, preliminary results on monazite samples from the Brasilia and Ribeira belts are reported and discussed in the context of the regional geology. Several experiments for calibration of ion exchange chromatographic columns with the AG-1x8 resin, were performed with HCl, using dissolved natural monazite samples. The Pb blanks of reagents are ∼ 0.5 pg/g in acids and ∼1 pg/g in H{sub 2}O. The total Pb blanks in chemical procedures were below 22 pg. Preliminary results are presented from three case studies related to Brasiliano orogenic belts of SE-Brazil, which correlate very well with previous age determinations from literature: two sub-concordant grains from an Araxa Group quartzite (southern Brasilia belt) define a concordia age of 602.6 ±1.4 Ma; a -0.8% discordant grain from a quartzite of the Sao Fidelis Group (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) yielded a concordia age of 535.3 ± 2.4 Ma; two 0.4 % and 1.3 % discordant monazite grains from the post-collisional Itaoca Granite (Costeiro Domain, central Ribeira belt) define a concordia age of 476.4 ± 1.8 Ma. (author)

  16. Determinação do fator de correção das hortaliças folhosas comercializadas em Brasília Correction factor determination in leafy vegetable crops commercialized in Brasilia, Brazil

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    Aline G Lemos


    modo geral, as perdas avaliadas pelo FC estão mais relacionadas ao manipulador das folhosas e ao estado de conservação das hortaliças do que ao período de safra. Desta forma, para as hortaliças que apresentaram diferenças com relação à época de amostragem, recomenda-se observância quanto ao período de planejamento dos cardápios visando a obtenção do aproveitamento eficiente do produto.Brazil has high indexes of food waste, which affects regional economy and increases social problems. Inadequate planning of food processing, from postharvest to consumption, is one of the reasons of loss. Vegetable crops are live organisms and their durability is affected by the processes of subdivision and cooking. To reduce losses, the determination of the Correction Factor is essential in order to evaluate the losses and the factors which interfere on these losses. This work consists on determining the Correction Factor of the following vegetable crops: Crisphead Lettuce, Unheaded Lettuce, Lettuce, Purple Leafs, Chard, Endive, Watercress, Common Chicory, Borecole Green Collard, Escarole, Spinach, Mustard, Cabbage, Red Cabbage and Rocket Crop. Three sale units of each vegetable crop were acquired at the CEASA in Brasília (Federal District, Brazil, from three different suppliers, with four replicates, a total of 36 samples of each vegetable crop. Aiming to detect the influence of the gathering month on the Partial Correction Factor (CF 1 and Final Correction Factor (CF 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test were carried out. In all tests a level of 5% of statistical significance was considered. The results showed that for the majority of the vegetables, harvest does not influence loss. However for chard, the lower CF occurred at harvest. On the other hand for cabbage, the lower CF occurred at harvest. This way for the majority of the vegetables, the losses evaluated by the CF are more related to handling procedures and conservation. For cabbage, it is recommended

  17. Structural evolution and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages of the Neoproterozoic Maria da Fé shear zone, central Ribeira Belt - SE Brazil (United States)

    Zuquim, M. P. S.; Trouw, R. A. J.; Trouw, C. C.; Tohver, E.


    The Maria da Fé Shear Zone (MFSZ) is a sinistral strike-slip kilometric-scale structure developed in the late Neoproterozoic during the assembly of Gondwana. The MFSZ development is related to the NW-SE collision between the São Francisco Paleocontinent and the Rio Negro Magmatic Arc, which formed the Ribeira Belt. This paper describes the shear zone in detail, concluding that the orientation and age are consistent with NW-SE shortening during the afore mentioned collision. A U-Pb SHRIMP Concordia age of 586.9 ± 8.7 Ma is reported from zircon grains of a granitic dyke that crystallised synkinematically to the main tectonic activity of the shear zone. Another group of zircon grains from the same sample generated an upper intercept age of 2083 ± 43 Ma anchored in the younger Concordia age. These zircon grains are interpreted as relict grains of the basement from which the granite dyke was generated by partial melting. The temperature during mylonitization in the MFSZ was estimated in the range from 450 to 600 °C, based on microstructures in quartz and feldspar. An earlier collision in the same region, between 640 and 610 Ma, led to an extensive nappe-stack with tectonic transport to ENE, integrating the southern Brasilia Belt. One of the thrust zones between these nappes in the studied area is the Cristina Shear Zone with mylonites that were generated under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions. Brittle-ductile E-W metric-scale shear zones are superimposed on the MFSZ, which were active in similar, but probably slightly cooler, metamorphic conditions (≈500 °C).

  18. Vertical displacement during late-collisional escape tectonics (Brasiliano Orogeny) in the Ribeira Belt, São Paulo State, Brazil (United States)

    Hackspacher, P. C.; Godoy, A. M.


    During the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny, West Gondwana formed by collisional processes around the São Francisco-Congo Craton. The Ribeira belt, in southeastern Brazil, resulted from northwestward collision (650-600 Ma), followed by large-scale northeast-southwest dextral strike-slip shear movements related to late-collisional escape tectonics ( ca 600 Ma). In São Paulo State, three groups, also interpreted as terranes, are recognised in the Ribeira Belt, the Embu, Itapira and São Roque Groups. The Embu and Itapira Groups are formed of sillimanite-gneisses, schists and migmatites intruded by Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids, all thrusted northwestward. The São Roque Group is composed of metasediments and metavolcanics in greenschist-facies. Its deformation indicates a transpressional regime associated with tectonic escape. Sub-alkaline granites were emplaced in shallow levels during this regime. Microstructural studies along the Itu, Moreiras and Taxaquara Shear Zones demonstrate the coexistence of horizontal and vertical displacement components during the transpressional regime. The vertical component is regarded as responsible for the lateral juxtaposition of different crustal levels.

  19. The tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, central Brazil: a geochronological and isotopic approach

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    Márcio Martins Pimentel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Brasília Belt is one of the most complete Neoproterozoic orogens in western Gondwana. Rapid progress on the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the belt was achieved due to new U-Pb data, combined with Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf analyses. The evolution of the Brasília orogen happened over a long period of time (900 - 600 Ma involving subduction, magmatism and terrain accretion, as a result of the consumption of the Goiás oceanic lithosphere. Provenance studies, based on U-Pb zircon data, indicate that the sedimentary rock units record different tectonic settings and stages of the evolution of the orogen. The Paranoá and Canastra groups represent passive margin sequences derived from the erosion of the São Francisco Craton. The Araxá and Ibiá groups, however, have dominant Neoproterozoic detrital zircon populations, as young as 650 Ma, suggesting derivation from the Goiás Magmatic Arc. The Goiás Magmatic Arc represents a composite arc terrain, formed by the accretion of older (ca. 0.9 - 0.8 Ga intraoceanic island arc(s, followed by more evolved continental arcs. It extends for several thousand kilometers, from SW Goiás, through NE Brazil and into Africa. Metamorphism took place between 650 - 630 Ma reflecting final closure of the Goiás Ocean and continental collision.

  20. Fatores associados à atividade física em adultos, Brasília, DF Factores asociados con la actividad física en adultos, Brasilia, Brasil Factors associated with physical activity in adults in Brasília, Central-West Brazil

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    Priscilla Marcondelli Dias Thomaz


    seleccionados aleatoriamente. Datos sociodemográficos, peso y altura fueron obtenidos durante una entrevista en domicilio. El cuestionario internacional de actividad física (Ipaq, versión corta, fue utilizado para la medición de la actividad física. Para evaluarse el efecto del sexo, índice de masa corporal (IMC, clasificación socioeconómica y estado civil sobre el escore de actividad física, se realizó análisis de regresión lineal multivariable. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las muestras estaba compuesta por mujeres (57%. El porcentaje de individuos que alcanzó 150 minutos semanales de práctica de actividad física fue de 52% (IC 95%: 47;56 y de inactivos de 21,5% (IC 95%: 17,8;25,3. Solamente en los hombres se observó asociación inversa entre actividad física e IMC. Los tipos de actividades físicas relatados difirieron entre los sexos: entre mujeres, caminar y hacer servicios domésticos; entre los hombres, pedalear, correr, nadar y hacer ejercicios con pesos. Hubo una fuerte asociación con el escore de actividad física: cuanto mayor el IMC, menor el escore de actividad física. CONCLUSIONES: La parcela de individuos inactivos en Brasilia puede ser considerada baja, en contraste con estimaciones de otras ciudades brasileras. Diferencias entre sexos con relación a IMC y escore de actividad física están asociadas al tipo de actividad física practicada.OBJECTIVE: To describe physical activity practice in adults and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with cluster sampling from the four areas of the city of Brasília, Central-West Brazil, in 2006-2007. A sample comprised of 469 adults was obtained from 250 randomly selected households. Sociodemographic data, weight and height were obtained during a household interview. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ was used to measure physical activity. A multivariate linear regression analysis was made to assess the effect of sex, body

  1. Shrimp and conventional U-Pb age, Sm-Nd isotopic characteristics and tectonic significance of the K-rich Itapuranga suite in Goias, Central Brazil

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    Pimentel, Marcio M.; Dantas, Elton L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A. [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia]. E-mail:;; Armstrong, Richard A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences


    The Itapuranga alkali granite and Uruana quartz syenite are large K-rich E W-elongated intrusions, in the central part of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt, central Brazil. They are associated with Pireneus lineaments, which cut the regional NNW-SSE structures of the southern part of the belt. SHRIMP and conventional U-Pb data for the Itapuranga and Uruana intrusions indicate crystallization ages of 624 {+-} 10 Ma and 618 {+-} Ma, respectively. Three zircon cores from the Itapuranga granite yielded U-Pb ages between 1.79 and 1.49 Ga. Sm-Nd T{sub DM} ages for both intrusions are 1.44 Ga and epsilon{sub Nd}(T) values are -5.1 and -5.7, suggesting the input of material derived from older (Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic) sialic crust in the origin of the parental magmas. Magma mixing structures indicate co-existence of mafic and felsic end-members. The felsic end-member of the intrusions is dominantly represented by crust-derived melts, formed in response to the invasion of Paleo/Mesoproterozoic sialic crust by alkali-rich mafic magmas at ca. 620 Ma. These intrusions are roughly contemporaneous with, or perhaps slightly younger than, the peak of regional metamorphism in the southern Brasilia Belt. Their emplacement along the Pireneus lineament suggest a syn-tectonic origin for them, most probably in transtensional settings along these faults. (author)

  2. National Theatre historical monument of Brasilia. Case study.

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    Fonseca Silva, E.


    Full Text Available This work is part of an International Cooperation Agreement for the conservation of historical monuments made of reinforced concrete in Brasilia. This research is based on a routine inspection of the National Theatre of Brasilia, a city recognized by UNESCO in 1987 as world cultural heritage. The structure, entirely made of reinforced concrete, was conceived by architect Oscar Niemeyer, and has a total of 48 m of height and 42,000 m2 of constructed area. After examining the available documentation, the existing damage was then identified and mapped. The concrete shows a good state of conservation, with the exception of some regions of the structure: the damages found were exposed armature, oxidation of armature, infiltration, mold and efflorescence.

    Este trabajo es parte de un Acuerdo de Cooperación Internacional para la conservación de monumentos históricos de hormigón armado en Brasilia. Esta investigación es el resultado de una inspección rutinaria en el Teatro Nacional de Brasilia, ciudad reconocida por la UNESCO, en 1987, como patrimonio cultural de la humanidad. La estructura, toda en hormigón armado, fue concebida por el arquitecto Osear Niemeyer, con un total de 48 m de altura y 42.000 m2 de área construida. Tras investigar la documentación disponible, se procedió a la identificación y al estudio de los daños existentes. El hormigón presenta un buen estado de conservación, salvo en algunas regiones de la estructura: estructura armada expuesta, oxidación de la estructura armada, infiltración, moho y eflorescencia son algunos de los daños que se encontraron.

  3. Violências contra mulheres por parceiro íntimo em área urbana economicamente vulnerável, Brasília, DF Violencias contra mujeres por pareja íntima en área urbana económicamente vulnerable, Brasilia, Brasil Intimate partner violence against women in an economically vulnerable urban area, Central-West Brazil

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    Leides Barroso Azevedo Moura


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de tipos de violência e de comportamentos de controle praticados por parceiros íntimos contra mulheres residentes em área economicamente vulnerável. MÉTODOS: Conduziu-se estudo transversal com 278 mulheres de 15 a 49 anos que tiveram parceiros íntimos alguma vez na vida, residentes em uma área metropolitana de Brasília, DF, em 2007. Utilizou-se processo de amostragem aleatória sistemática. O instrumento de pesquisa constou de um questionário com 58 perguntas desenvolvido pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Foram analisadas as prevalências de violência física, psicológica e sexual. As variáveis independentes consideradas foram características sociodemográficas da mulher, de contexto familiar e comunitário bem como as sociodemográficas do parceiro, de comportamento (freqüência do uso de bebidas ou drogas ilícitas e relacionamento extraconjugal. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de violência psicológica foi a mais alta: 80,2% (n=223 das mulheres entrevistadas relataram pelo menos um ato no decorrer da vida e 50% (n=139 nos últimos 12 meses. A prevalência de violência física ao longo da vida foi (58,6% e nos últimos 12 meses (32%, enquanto a prevalência de mulheres que sofreram violência sexual foi de 28,8% e 15,5%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: As altas prevalências das violências mostram a magnitude da vulnerabilidade e das agressões praticadas contra mulheres nas relações com parceiros íntimos.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de tipos de violencia y de comportamientos de control practicados por parejas íntimas contra mujeres residentes en área económicamente vulnerable. MÉTODOS: Se condujo estudio transversal con 278 mujeres de 15 a 49 años que tuvieron parejas íntimas alguna vez en la vida, residentes en un área metropolitana de Brasilia, capital de Brasil, en 2007. Se utilizó proceso de muestreo aleatorio sistemático. El instrumento de pesquisa constó de un cuestionario


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    Diogo Luis Kurihara


    Full Text Available A census of all the trees on 111 ha was conducted at the University of Brasilia campus. A total of 5,011 trees with DBHover 5 cm were identified and their DBH, diameter at 30 cm on ground level, diameter under the bifurcation point, height up to the firstbifurcation and the total height of the tree were measured. Phenological observation was also carried out. A great diversity of treeswas found composed of 49 botanical families and 154 species. The main species are Acrocomia aculeata, Syagrus oleracea, Ingamarginata, Pterogyne nitens, Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Peltophorum dubium, Pachira aquatica, Syzygium cuminiand Tabebuia impetiginosa.

  5. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite and associated potassic plutons as evidence for Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision in the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, Brazil (United States)

    Costa, Felipe G.; Oliveira, Elson P.; McNaughton, Neal J.


    Several granitic plutons have intruded the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, São Francisco craton, Brazil, in the time interval 2163-2080 Ma, but their tectonic significance is poorly understood. The Fazenda Gavião granodiorite (FGG) is one of a set of plutons emplaced along the western boundary of the greenstone belt with Archaean migmatite-gneiss basement. The pluton is mostly composed of hornblende granodiorite, occasionally crosscut by syn-plutonic mafic dykes. The FGG is metaluminous, medium- to high-K calc-alkaline with relatively constant silica abundances (SiO2 ˜ 63-66 wt%), high Sr (900-800 ppm) and high Ba (1000-1500 ppm). The associated mafic dykes are ultrapotassic, with high abundances of Ba, Sr, MgO, Ni, Cr, and light rare earth elements, suggesting derivation from partial melts of an enriched mantle source. The FGG originated probably by fractional crystallization from a primitive K-rich mafic magma that interacted with crustal melts. Its zircon U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2106 ± 6 Ma indicates that the FGG is younger than the early (2163-2127 Ma) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) and calc-alkaline arc plutons of the greenstone belt, and is closely related in time and space with potassic to ultrapotassic plutons (ca. 2110-2105 Ma). The negative ɛNd(t) of FGG and coeval K-rich plutons of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt contrasts markedly with the positive ɛNd(t) of the older arc plutons, indicating a major change of isotope signatures in granites of the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt with time. This isotope shift may be related to magma contamination with older continental material and/or derivation of the parental potassic magma from enriched lithospheric mantle sources. We suggest that the K-rich plutons were emplaced during or shortly after Palaeoproterozoic arc-continent collision.

  6. Nd-Sr Isotopic Geochemistry and U-Pb Geochronology of the Fé Granitic Gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: Implications for Paleoproterozoic Evolution of the Mineiro Belt, Southern São Francisco Craton, Brazil


    Wilson Teixeira; Ciro Alexandre Ávila; Luciana Cabral Nunes


    The Fé granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked toPaleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, central-easternBrazil. The Fé pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortesgreenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, andpyroxenite in the la...

  7. AIDS and condoms in Brasilia: a telephone survey. (United States)

    Chequer, P; VanOss Marín, B; Paiva, L; Hudes, E S; Piazza, T; Rodrigues, L; Hearst, N


    A telephone survey was conducted to measure AIDS knowledge, media usage and condom attitudes and behaviors among 500 adults aged 18 to 49 in Brasilia, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of the telephone survey method in a developing country. The response rate was 91.6%. Respondents had good knowledge about correct modes of HIV transmission and prevention but also believed HIV was transmitted through blood donation, public toilets, swimming pools, and mosquito bites. TV and newspapers were the most important sources of information on health matters and AIDS, though health workers were considered the most credible sources of such information. Only 19% of sexual encounters in the 4 weeks prior to the survey included condoms. Single and younger respondents and those with more positive attitudes used condoms more frequently. More work is needed to identify appropriate messages to motivate people to use condoms. Telephone surveys regarding AIDS and sexual attitudes and behaviors are feasible in Brasilia, a planned community with universal telephone coverage.

  8. Perfil socioeconomico, epidemiologico e farmacoterapeutico de idosos institucionalizados de Brasilia, Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furtado de Oliveira, Mirna Poliana; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita


    O objetivo deste estudo e descrever o perfil socioeconomico, epidemiologico e farmaco-terapeutico de 154 idosos de cinco Instituicoes de Longa Permanencia de Brasilia por meio de questionario adaptado...

  9. Geochemistry of komatiites and basalts from the Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts, São Francisco Craton, Brazil: Implications for the origin, evolution, and tectonic setting (United States)

    Verma, Sanjeet K.; Oliveira, Elson P.; Silva, Paola M.; Moreno, Juan A.; Amaral, Wagner S.


    The Neoarchean Rio das Velhas and Pitangui greenstone belts are situated in the southern São Francisco Craton, Minas Gerais, Brazil. These greenstone belts were formed between ca. 2.79-2.73 Ga, and consist mostly of mafic to ultramafic volcanics and clastic sediments, with minor chemical sediments and felsic volcanics that were metamorphosed under greenschist facies. Komatiites are found only in the Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, which is composed of high-MgO volcanic rocks that have been identified as komatiites and high-Mg basalts, based on their distinctive geochemical characteristics. The Rio das Velhas komatiites are composed of tremolite + actinolite + serpentine + albite with a relict spinifex-texture. The Rio das Velhas komatiites have a high magnesium content ((MgO)adj ≥ 28 wt.%), an Al-undepleted Munro-type [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj and (CaO/Al2O3)adj] ratio ranging from 27 to 47 and 0.48 to 0.89, relatively low abundances of incompatible elements, a depletion of light rare earth elements (LREE), a pattern of non-fractionated heavy rare- earth elements (HREE), and a low (Gd/Yb)PM ratio (≤ 1.0). Negative Ce anomalies suggest that alteration occurred during greenschist facies metamorphism for the komatiites and high-Mg basalts. The low [(Gd/Yb)PM 18] and high HREE, Y, and Zr content suggest that the Rio das Velhas komatiites were derived from the shallow upper mantle without garnet involvement in the residue. The chemical compositions [(Al2O3/TiO2)adj, (FeO)adj, (MgO)adj, (CaO/Al2O3)adj, Na, Th, Ta, Ni, Cr, Zr, Y, Hf, and REE] indicate that the formation of the komatiites, high-Mg basalts and basalts occurred at different depths and temperatures in a heterogeneous mantle. The komatiites and high-Mg basalts melted at liquidus temperatures of 1450-1550 °C. The Pitangui basalts are enriched in the highly incompatible LILE (large-ion lithophile elements) relative to the moderately incompatible HFS (high field strength) elements. The Zr/Th ratio ranging from 76 to

  10. Geology and geophysics of the Vila Nova Greenstone Belt, northeastern portion of the Amazonian Craton, Amapa, Brazil; Geologia e geofisica do greenstone belt Vila Nova, porcao NE do Craton Amazonico, Amapa, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghetti, Cristiano; Philipp, Ruy Paulo, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil)


    A few outcrops and strong weathering conditions prevail in the region of the Vila Nova Greenstone Belt in the southeastern Amapa (Brazil). This paper describes the use of airborne geophysical data for geological and structural analysis during geological mapping. This integration aims to improve the geological and tectonic understanding of this portion of the Amazonian Craton. The magnetometric and gamma-spectrometric qualitative interpretation of the images took place in a Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Recognition of magnetometric and gamma-ray spectrometric units present in the study area was based on the hierarchical classification of polygons outlined by visual interpretation. The major geological domains and the structural patterns were defined by integration of geophysical data, geological mapping and petrographic analysis. The results allowed the recognition of Archean basement rocks composed of orthogneisses and granitoids of the Tumucumaque Complex, the metavolcano-sedimentary rocks of the Vila Nova Complex and Paleoproterozoic granite massifs. The integration of geophysical and field data resulted in the increase of the geological mapping definition, highlighting the importance of this methodology for recognition of complex structural and lithological fabrics in areas of difficult access and scarce fresh rock outcrops. (author)

  11. Sources of granite magmatism in the Embu Terrane (Ribeira Belt, Brazil): Neoproterozoic crust recycling constrained by elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry (United States)

    Alves, Adriana; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa


    Whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and in situ K-feldspar Pb isotope geochemistry were used to identify the sources involved in the genesis of Neoproterozoic granites from the Embu Terrane, Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil. Granite magmatism spanned over 200 Ma (810-580 Ma), and is dominated by crust-derived relatively low-T (850-750 °C, zircon saturation) biotite granites to biotite-muscovite granites. Two Cryogenian plutons show the least negative εNdt (-8 to -10) and highest mg# (30-40) of the whole set. Their compositions are strongly contrasted, implying distinct sources for the peraluminous (ASI ∼ 1.2) ∼660 Ma Serra do Quebra-Cangalha batholith (metasedimentary rocks from relatively young upper crust with high Rb/Sr and low Th/U) and the metaluminous (ASI = 0.96-1.00) ∼ 630 Ma Santa Catarina Granite. Although not typical, the geochemical signature of these granites may reflect a continental margin arc environment, and they could be products of a prolonged period of oceanic plate consumption started at ∼810 Ma. The predominant Ediacaran (595-580 Ma) plutons have a spread of compositions from biotite granites with SiO2 as low as ∼65% (e.g., Itapeti, Mauá, Sabaúna and Lagoinha granites) to fractionated muscovite granites (Mogi das Cruzes, Santa Branca and Guacuri granites; up to ∼75% SiO2). εNdT are characteristically negative (-12 to -18), with corresponding Nd TDM indicating sources with Paleoproterozoic mean crustal ages (2.0-2.5 Ga). The Guacuri and Santa Branca muscovite granites have the more negative εNdt, highest 87Sr/86Srt (0.714-0.717) and lowest 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, consistent with an old metasedimentary source with low time-integrated Rb/Sr. However, a positive Nd-Sr isotope correlation is suggested by data from the other granites, and would be consistent with mixing between an older source predominant in the Mauá granite and a younger, high Rb/Sr source that is more abundant in the Lagoinha granite sample. The

  12. Restoration of the cathedral of Brasilia: challenges and conflicts of restoration of modern architecture

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    Rachel Filgueiras Paschoalin


    Full Text Available The restoration of modern architecture presents a great challenge today, since modernism breaks relations with the traditional past and creates a new architectural language. The Cathedral of Brasilia, with characteristics such as new materials, new technologies, new infrastructure systems, poses challenges to contemporary thinking, particularly on how to evaluate and intervene in this architecture, when there are not well-defined criteria to guide these activities. This paper aims to make a critical analysis of the work done in the Cathedral of Brasilia, as well as to report the intervention criteria that have been and should be applied in both theory and practice.

  13. Tracing and tracking wastewater-derived substances in freshwater lakes and reservoirs: Anthropogenic gadolinium and geogenic REEs in Lake Paranoá, Brasilia (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Baldewein, Linda; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Walde, Detlef; Bühn, Bernhard


    Total and dissolved rare earth element (REEs) and U concentrations were determined for waters from Lake Paranoá (Brasilia, Brazil) sampled in the dry (November 2012) and wet seasons (July 2013). Shale-normalized REE patterns of all samples display the M-type lanthanide tetrad effect and large positive Gd anomalies, but only the total REE pool shows a positive Ce anomaly, possibly reflecting aeolian and/or fluvial input from surrounding laterites. The positive Gd anomaly increased strongly between 2012 and 2013. It reveals an anthropogenic dissolved Gd source that enters the lake with effluents from wastewater treatment plants, originating from the use of Gd-based contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Because anthropogenic Gd is a tracer for other wastewater-derived substances, such as pharmaceuticals, REE geochemistry offers an inexpensive way to monitor the presence of wastewater-derived substances in the lake, which may be utilized as a drinking water reservoir in the near future.

  14. Academic and Diversity Consequences of Affirmative Action in Brazil (United States)

    Childs, Porsha; Stromquist, Nelly P.


    Since 2001, Brazilian universities have been implementing affirmative-action policies to correct the racial, social and ethnic disparities in university admissions. An examination of the social-inclusion policies at three public universities in Brazil--the University of Brasilia, the Federal University of Bahia and the State University of…

  15. Re-appraisal of the Santa Rita Greenstone Belt stratigraphy, central Brazil, based on new U-Pb SHRIMP age and Sm-Nd data of felsic metavolcanic rocks

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    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Jost, Hardy; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Junges, Sergio Luiz [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:; Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Resende, Marcelo Goncalves [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Curso de Graduacao em Engenharia Ambiental


    The Santa Rita greenstone belt represents one of the supracrustal belts of the Archaen terranes of Goias, central Brazil. The stratigraphic sequence of this greenstone belt comprises a lower of komatities and basalts and an upper metasedimentary unit made of carbonaceous schits, chert, iron formation and marble, unconformably overlain by clastic metasedimentary rocks. Felsic metavolcanics occur at the interface between the metabasalts and the upper metasedimentary pile. U-Pb SHRIMP age for zircons from the felsic metavolcanics reveal that it is not part of the Archaean sequence, but represents the product of mesoproterozoic (1580 {+-} 12 Ma) magmatic event. Sm-Nd isotopic data (initial e{sub CHUR} values between -10.5 and -14.9) and T{sub DM} values of 3.0 and 3.2 Ga, within the range of the surrounding TTG terranes, indicate that the original felsic magmas were produced by re-melting of Archaen crust. The data demonstrate that the Goias greenstone belt contains infolded and imbricated proterozoic rocks, as previously suggested by Sm-Nd isotopic analyses of some of the upper detrital metasedimentary rocks. (author)

  16. Sócrates y Edivaldo Araújo. Performance en la plenaria del Senado. Brasilia, 17.03.04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Virgínia Ribeiro Barbosa


    Full Text Available This paper examines performance as a political manifestation and compares the Socrates’ death performance in Plato’s Phedon with an event occurred at Senado Federal, in Brasilia, 03/17/04.

  17. Accessibility and sustainability: the experiences of hospitality in Brasilia


    Donária Coelho Duarte; Gilson Zehetmeyer Borda


    The article reflects on the relationship between accessibility and Sustainability focusing on People with Disabilities or Reduced Mobility (PWDRM) - including people with some sensory or motor disability and people in the so called "third age". It analyses the prospect of tourism in Brazil in the coming years, based on the current preparation scenario for holding mega sporting events - among them FIFA 2014 World Cup - in opposition to the global economic crisis. It highlights the PWDRM ...

  18. Avaliação antropométrica e dietética de pré-escolares em três creches de Brasília, Distrito Federal Dietary and anthropometric assessment of three pre-schools from Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil

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    Rahilda Conceição Ferreira Brito Tuma


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: traçar o perfil nutricional de crianças em creches de Brasília, DF, para subsidiar a formulação de estratégias de atendimento e controle dos problemas detectados. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal realizado de março a dezembro de 2001, constante de entrevista sobre a situação socioeconômica das famílias, avaliação antropométrica de 230 crianças (87,5% do total de 263 pelos critérios da OMS e padrão do NCHS e análise do consumo alimentar, por meio de pesagem direta, recordatório 24 horas e freqüência de consumo. RESULTADOS: observaram-se 6,1% de excesso de peso e 4,8% de déficit de estatura. A alimentação das creches apresentou adequada distribuição do percentual de energia proveniente dos macronutrientes. Houve diferença significante entre as faixas etárias, para energia, proteína, ferro, cálcio e vitamina C. O perfil de consumo habitual apresentou-se alto em produtos lácteos, arroz/macarrão, feijão, açúcar, pães e margarina; consumo médio de frutas, hortaliças, carne bovina, frango, ovos, biscoito; baixo consumo de peixes,vísceras sucos/chás e leite materno; além da introdução precoce de snack, refrigerante, fast food, enlatados/embutidos e doces/guloseimas. CONCLUSÕES: a ocorrência de excesso de peso acima do esperado na curva normal pode refletir o padrão alimentar, indicando a necessidade de intervenções de educação e saúde, para prevenir doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e melhorar a qualidade vida.OBJECTIVES: to assess nutritional status of children in three nursing schools of Brasília, Brazil. METHODS: in a cross-sectional design, a sample of 230 children (87.5% of 263 was evaluated between March and December of 2001. Interview was used to gather family socio-economic status. Children nutritional status was classified according to WHO using NCHS tables. Food intake was obtained by direct weighed food, 24h-recall and food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: there were a 6

  19. Molecular belts. (United States)

    Evans, Paul J; Jasti, Ramesh


    Rigid hydrocarbon macrocycles with radially-oriented π-systems and continuous conjugation have attracted great interest in recent years. These molecular belts have novel optoelectronic properties and host-guest behavior. Certain belts may also ultimately lead to a rational synthesis of carbon nanotubes. The high strain associated with the nonplanar, conjugated backbones requires the development of new synthetic methods, and clever synthetic design. Herein we describe the synthetic history and properties of these structurally simple but synthetically challenging molecules.

  20. Nd-Sr isotopic geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology of the Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo Granodiorite: implications for paleoproterozoic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern Sao Francisco craton, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Wilson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas]. E-mail:; Avila, Ciro Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia]. E-mail:; Nunes, Luciana Cabral [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite belong to a voluminous felsic-mafic plutonism, tectonically linked to Paleoproterozoic magmatic evolution of the Mineiro Belt, southern portion of the Sao Francisco Craton, central-eastern Brazil. The Fe pluton is located north of the Lenheiros shear zone and is intrusive with respect to the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt and pyroxenite - gabbroic bodies, as indicated by xenoliths of gneiss and amphibolite, in the first case, and pyroxenite in the latter. The Lajedo granodiorite is located south of the Lenheiros shear zone and cuts the metamafic rocks of the Forro peridotite - pyroxenite and mafic and intermediate rocks of the Nazareno greenstone belt, as evidenced by xenoliths from the latter unit. The modal composition of the Fe granitic gneiss lies within the ranges of monzogranite and syenogranite. It is peraluminous and shows a large variation in K{sub 2}O content, which implies a middle-K calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline tendency. The Lajedo modal composition is consistent with granodioritic and tonalitic compositions. It indicates a predominantly peraluminous composition and calc-alkaline character. The U-Pb zircon crystallization age of the Fe granitic gneiss is 2191 {+-} 9 Ma, whereas the Lajedo granodiorite yields 2208 {+-} 26 Ma. The Nd/Sr characteristics of the Fe and Lajedo plutons are consistent with mixtures of enriched mantle (EMI-type), DMM and crustal components during magma genesis in a plutonic arc setting, while the low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sri ratios point to contribution of mafic rock protoliths during magma genesis. This is also in accordance with the characteristic xenoliths observed within the investigated plutons from the Nazareno and Rio das Mortes greenstone belts. The Fe granitic gneiss and Lajedo granodiorite show tectonic characteristics which are comparable to those of nearby coeval plutons: Brito quartz-diorite (2221 +- 2 Ma), Brumado de Cima granodiorite (2219 {+-} 2 Ma), Brumado

  1. Seismic characteristics of central Brazil crust and upper mantle: A deep seismic refraction study (United States)

    Soares, J.E.; Berrocal, J.; Fuck, R.A.; Mooney, W.D.; Ventura, D.B.R.


    A two-dimensional model of the Brazilian central crust and upper mantle was obtained from the traveltime interpretation of deep seismic refraction data from the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, each approximately 300 km long. When the lines were deployed, they overlapped by 50 km, forming an E-W transect approximately 530 km long across the Tocantins Province and western Sa??o Francisco Craton. The Tocantins Province formed during the Neoproterozoic when the Sa??o Francisco, the Paranapanema, and the Amazon cratons collided, following the subduction of the former Goia??s ocean basin. Average crustal VP and VP/VS ratios, Moho topography, and lateral discontinuities within crustal layers suggest that the crust beneath central Brazil can be associated with major geological domains recognized at the surface. The Moho is an irregular interface, between 36 and 44 km deep, that shows evidences of first-order tectonic structures. The 8.05 and 8.23 km s-1 P wave velocities identify the upper mantle beneath the Porangatu and Cavalcante lines, respectively. The observed seismic features allow for the identification of (1) the crust has largely felsic composition in the studied region, (2) the absence of the mafic-ultramafic root beneath the Goia??s magmatic arc, and (3) block tectonics in the foreland fold-and-thrust belt of the northern Brasi??lia Belt during the Neoproterozoic. Seismic data also suggested that the Bouguer gravimetric discontinuities are mainly compensated by differences in mass distribution within the lithospheric mantle. Finally, the Goia??s-Tocantins seismic belt can be interpreted as a natural seismic alignment related to the Neoproterozoic mantle domain. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of soil nitric oxide (NO) flux, soil moisture, and soil nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) concentration measurements on Cerrado...

  3. LBA-ECO ND-07 Nitric Oxide Flux from Cerrado Soils, Brasilia, Brazil: 2004 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of soil nitric oxide (NO) flux, soil moisture, and soil nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4) concentration measurements on...

  4. LBA-ECO ND-07 Hydrochemistry of Natural and Developed Land Cover, Brasilia, Brazil (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports on dissolved nutrient concentrations, as well as dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, conductivity, turbidity, and pH measured in water samples...

  5. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil (United States)

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.


    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  6. The Development of Plasma Thrusters and Its Importance for Space Technology and Science Education at University of Brasilia (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Calvoso, Lui; Gessini, Paolo; Ferreira, Ivan

    Since 2004 The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia (Brazil) is developing Hall Plasma Thurusters for Satellite station keeping and orbit control. The project is supported by CNPq, CAPES, FAP DF and from The Brazillian Space Agency-AEB. The project is part of The UNIESPAÇO Program for Space Activities Development in Brazillian Universities. In this work we are going to present the highlights of this project together with its vital contribution to include University of Brasilia in the Brazillian Space Program. Electric propulsion has already shown, over the years, its great advantages in being used as main and secondary thruster system of several space mission types. Between the many thruster concepts, one that has more tradition in flying real spacecraft is the Hall Effect Thruster (HET). These thrusters, first developed by the USSR in the 1960s, uses, in the traditional design, the radial magnetic field and axial electric field to trap electrons, ionize the gas and accelerate the plasma to therefore generate thrust. In contrast to the usual solution of using electromagnets to generate the magnetic field, the research group of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasília has been working to develop new models of HETs that uses combined permanent magnets to generate the necessary magnetic field, with the main objective of saving electric power in the final system design. Since the beginning of this research line it was developed and implemented two prototypes of the Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PMHT). The first prototype, called P-HALL1, was successfully tested with the using of many diagnostics instruments, including, RF probe, Langmuir probe, Ion collector and Ion energy analyzer. The second prototype, P-HALL2, is currently under testing, and it’s planned the increasing of the plasma diagnostics and technology analysis, with the inclusion of a thrust balance, mass spectroscopy and Doppler broadening. We are also developing an

  7. Great Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Carsten S.; Kristensen, Per S.; Erichsen, Lars


    This paper describes aspects of the soil investigations and geotechnical evaluations for the foundation design of the 6.6 km long Great Belt West Bridge. The gravity foundations rest predominantly on glacial tills and pre-quaternary limestone. Special investigations for assessment of the soil...

  8. Geochemistry of the waters of the Descoberto River hydrographic basin, Brasilia/DF - Brazil; Geoquimica das aguas da bacia hidrografica do Rio Descoberto, Brasilia/DF - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmo, Marcileia Silva do [Universidade Federal do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail:; Boaventura, Geraldo Resende [Universidade de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Oliveira, Edivan Costa [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Para (CEFET-PA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Quimica


    The objective of this paper is to investigate the physical and chemical quality of the water of the Descoberto River during the dry and rainy seasons by measuring pH, temperature, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, color, alkalinity and NO{sub 3}-, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NH{sub 4}+, Cl{sup -} and HCO{sub 3}-, and the elements Sr, Mo, Cd, Y, Ti, Ca, V, Mg, Fe, Si, Ni, Zr, Cu, Al, Cr, Mn, Ba, Co, Zn, P, Na and K. The results showed high concentrations in both seasons, with dilution along the course of the river, minimizing for a while problems that compromise the quality of the water of this source. However, a progressive deterioration can occur due to an increase in the discharge of pollutants, resulting from population growth, agricultural activities and other factors. (author)

  9. Superposition of structures in the interference zone between the southern Brasília belt and the central Ribeira belt in the region SW of Itajubá (MG, SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vinagre

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study area is localized in the Socorro nappe, part of the southern Brasília belt, with a minor part in the Embu terrane, part of the central Ribeira belt. Three phases of deformation were detected, Dn-1, Dn and Dn+1. Sn-1 seems to be generally transposed into Sn, but in the northwestern part it is well preserved, dipping about 60º to W and SW, with a stretching and/or mineral lineation plunging down dip. The main foliation in most of the area is Sn, dipping about 70º to SSE. Dn folds are tight to isoclinal, with axes that plunge about 40º to SW. Quartz-feldspathic segregation veins are folded by Dn. The structures related to Dn-1 and Dn are cut and modified by four important shear zones ascribed to deformation phase Dn+1. Two samples of a granite that is elongated along the Caxambu shear zone, and also cut by it, were dated. One yielded a crystallization age of 575 ± 5 Ma, and the other one, from the shear zone, an age of 567 ± 8 Ma, interpreted either as representing the age of movement along the Caxambu shear zone, or as metamorphic growth.

  10. Parametric Modeling of Urban Landscape: Decoding the Brasilia of Lucio Costa from Modernism to Present Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clara Moura


    Full Text Available The paper presents the case study of the Pilot-Plan of Brasilia, important example of modernist urban design protected as human heritage. Discusses a methodological process to promote visualization of maximum envelops of urban volumes, organized in a set of rules and scripts which structures urban parameters in a logic of volume constructions. Applies City Engine - ESRI facilities to construct and visualize the urban rules. It has the goal to promote characterization, analysis, proposals and simulation of urban parameters in order to support decision making in land use transformation. The research deals with the difficulties of management urban pressure of transformation and the maintenance of urban cultural heritage. The methodology defends the change from authorial urban design to the decoding of collective values and goals. The 3D modeling and dynamic visualization promotes the composition of the whole, which means to work in a relative mode, and not in an absolute sense. Although it had been developed for a particular case study, the protected historical area of Brasilia, it presents methodological processes of how to structure rules of three-dimensional modeling to simulate the maximum constructive authorized by planning legislation (maximum envelopes, so that it can be reapplied in any other situation of definition of parameters in urban master plans and in laws for land use and occupation.

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America, Brazil: Selections from the 1987 Federal S&T Budget. (United States)


    TECHNOLOGY EUROPE & LATIN AMERICA BRAZIL: SELECTIONS FROM THE 1987 FEDERAL S&T BUDGET [Brasilia MINISTERIO DA CIENCIA E TECNOLOGIA : CIENCIA & TECNOLOGIA ... administration 29 Presidency of the Republic 29 . National Security Council 29 . Armed Forces Staff 31 Ministry of Aeronautics 33 . Ministry of...Office 56 . General Secretariat 56 . Secretariat of Internal Control 58 . Security and Intelligence Division 58 . Administration Department

  12. Prospectivity analysis of gold and iron oxide copper-gold-(silver mineralizations from the Faina Greenstone Belt, Brazil, using multiple data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schievano de Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Faina Greenstone Belt is located in the southern sector of the Goiás Archean Block and has been investigated since the 18th century because of its gold deposits. Recent studies have revealed the polymetallic potential of the belt, which is indicated by anomalous levels of Ag, Cu, Fe and Co in addition to Mn, Ba, Li, Ni, Cr and Zn. This study was developed based on a detailed analysis of two selected target sites, Cascavel and Tinteiro, and multiple data sets, such as airborne geophysics, geochemistry and geological information. These datasets were used to create a final prospectivity map using the fuzzy logic technique. The gold mineralization of Cascavel target is inserted in an orogenic system and occurs in two overlapping quartz veins systems, called Mestre-Cascavel and Cuca, embedded in quartzite with an average thickness 50 cm and guidance N45º-60ºW/25ºSW with free coarse gold in grains 2-3 mm to 3 cm. The prospectivity map created for this prospect generated four first-order favorable areas for mineralization and new medium-favorability foci. The Tinteiro area, derived from studies conducted by Orinoco do Brasil Mineração Ltda., shows polymetallic mineralization associated with an iron oxide-copper-gold ore deposit (IOCG system posterior to Cascavel target mineralization. Its prospectivity map generated 19 new target sites with the potential for Au, Cu and Ag mineralization, suggesting new directions for future prospecting programs.

  13. The Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district, central Brazil: structural and Sm-Nd data to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt (United States)

    D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza


    Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Brası´lia belt.

  14. Laterally bendable belt conveyor (United States)

    Peterson, William J.


    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  15. Stratigraphy, tectonics and detrital zircon U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) geochronology of the Rio Preto Belt and northern Paramirim corridor, NE, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara, Davi da Costa Bezerra Gobira de; Uhlein, Alexandre; Caxito, Fabricio de Andrade; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (CPMTC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisa Professor Manoel Teixeira da Costa; Dussin, Ivo, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Geologia


    Two important Proterozoic metasedimentary sequences, the Rio Preto and Santo Onofre Groups, crop out along the northwestern margin of the Sao Francisco craton and in northern Paramirim corridor, respectively. The Rio Preto Group, involved in the eponymous fold-thrust belt along the northwestern cratonic boundary, comprises the Formosa (garnet schist, quartz schist, quartzite, chlorite-sericite schist and ferriferrous quartz schist) and Canabravinha (quartzite, micaceous quartzite, metarhytmite, phylite, schist and metaturbidite) formations. The Santo Onofre Group occurs exclusively in the Paramirim corridor, and is composed of quartzite and minor carbonaceous or Mn-rich phylite. These units record sedimentation in shallow to deep-water marine settings related to rift basins, and were deformed and metamorphosed under green schist facies conditions during the Brasiliano orogeny. Here we present 427 new detrital zircon U-Pb ages, which constrain the maximum depositional ages of ca. 971 Ma for the Santo Onofre Group, ca. 912 Ma for the Canabravinha Formation, and ca. 65 Ma for the Formosa Formation of the Rio Preto Group. Our data suggests that the Santo Onofre and the Rio Preto Groups accumulated in two distinct basin settings. The latter, composed mostly of sandy rocks, would represent a relatively stable, shallow-marine shelf environment. The Rio Preto Group, with metadiamictite, quartzite, pelitic and rhythmitic rocks, represents a shallow to deep marine environment influenced by gravity flows. Both groups were probably deposited in the Late Tonian, and are potential correlatives of the lower (pre-glacial) units of the Macaubas Group of the Aracuai belt. (author)

  16. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  17. Selection of natural treatment processes for algae removal from stabilisation ponds effluents in Brasilia, using multicriterion methods. (United States)

    Neder, K D; Carneiro, G A; Queiroz, T R; de Souza, M A A


    A multicriterion methodology is used in the evaluation and selection of the most appropriate alternative(s) for removing algae from stabilisation ponds effluents in a case study in Brasilia. For this purpose, five different natural treatment processes are tested at pilot scale: rock filter, sand filter, floating aquatic plants, constructed wetlands, and overland flow. These pilot units were constructed in Brasilia and set in parallel, each one receiving a portion of the effluent that comes from an existing wastewater treatment plant composed of preliminary treatment, UASB reactors, and high-rate stabilisation ponds. Several evaluation criteria are used in order to relate the capabilities of the post-treatment processes to the multiple objectives in this case. Two multicriterion decision-aid methods--compromise programming and ELECTRE-III--are used to select the most satisfying processes. The top ranking alternatives are indicated for subsequent studies, considering the possible implementation of these technologies to existing plants.

  18. Gammaspectrometry identification covering Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences in the Serido Belt , northeastern Brazil; Identificacao gamaespectrometrica de placeres rutilo-monaziticos neoproterozoicos no sul da Faixa Serido, nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sebastiao Milton P. da, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Geoprocessamento, Departamento de Geografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Crosta, Alvaro P., E-mail: [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Francisco J.F., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada- LPGA, Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Beurlen, Hartmut, E-mail: [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Adalene M., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Geofisica Aplicada, Instituto de Geociencias da Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo R.R. da, E-mail: [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    Aerial gamma-ray survey data covering Neoproterozoic supracrustal sequences in the Serido Belt were processed and analyzed together with ground gamma-ray data, air photos and geological data for lithogeophysical characterization and mapping of granitic rocks, related pegmatites fields and lithological units of Serido Group. Interpretation was based on individual and ternary images of the three radio-elements and the eU/eTh and eTh/K ratios, and allowed the discovery of thorium anomalies associated with coarse-grained metarenites and metaconglomerates facies intercalated with quartzites of the Equador Formation. High contents of iron oxides, ilmenite, monazite, rutile, titanite and zircon were identified by ore microscopy of polished sections in the metaconglomerate's matrix. Semiquantitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses in minerals of two samples revealed up to 79.4% of Th0{sub 2} and 87.7% of REE in monazites; up to 99.2% of Ti0{sub 2} in ilmenite and rutile and up to 1.81 % of HfO{sub 2} in zircon. Gamma-ray anomalies due to thorium were also identified in association with sediments of Cenozoic age in the region. (author)

  19. Peraluminous leucogranites of the Cordilheira Suite: A record of Neoproterozoic collision and the generation of the Pelotas Batholith, Dom Feliciano Belt, Southern Brazil (United States)

    Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; de Campos, Roberto Sacks


    The Cordilheira Suite is comprised of peraluminous granites that constitute, together with the Quitéria granite, the beginning of the formation of the Pelotas Batholith in the central portion of the Dom Feliciano Belt. The batholith is composed of seven granitic suites with minor occurrences of gabbro, diorite and subvolcanic rocks. Its evolution between 650 and 550 million years ago is characterised by a ranging from metaluminous to peraluminous rocks and from calc-alkaline to alkaline and peralkaline series. The Cordilheira Suite is composed of the Cordilheira, Arroio Francisquinho, Butiá and Três Figueiras granites, which contain muscovite and/or biotite, with the following accessory minerals: tourmaline, garnet, sillimanite, apatite, zircon, monazite and ilmenite. The granitic bodies are elongate; their ascent and emplacement were controlled by high-angle shear zones oriented at N45-70°E. They have mylonitic structures with magmatic foliation accompanied by a low-angle stretching lineation, indicating that these bodies were emplaced under syn-kinematic conditions during a transcurrent event. The granites have high-K calc-alkaline affinity and are peraluminous. The LILE and REE contents are low. The K2O/Na2O and CaO/Na2O ratios are approximately 1 and less than 0.3, respectively. Pseudosections calculated using the Perple X program suggests that the granites were formed at partial melting temperatures between 740 and 820 °C and pressure between 8.5 and 9 kbar. Petrographic and chemical data suggest that the magmas were generated by the partial melting of the migmatitic pelitic gneisses of the Várzea do Capivarita Complex and, to a lesser degree, orthogneisses of the Arroio dos Ratos Complex, which left a granulitic residue. UHT conditions of granulite facies metamorphism were recorded in the Várzea do Capivarita paragneisses by mineral paragenesis and indicate that temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C and pressures between 4 and 8 kbar were required for

  20. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.


    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  1. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt? (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P


    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  2. Magmatic garnet in the Cordilleran-type Galiléia granitoids of the Araçuaí belt (Brazil): Evidence for crystallization in the lower crust (United States)

    Narduzzi, F.; Farina, F.; Stevens, G.; Lana, C.; Nalini, H. A.


    Magmatic garnet, together with epidote, is a rare mineral association in cordilleran-I-type granitoids and of special petrogenetic significance. The metaluminous to slightly peraluminous (ASI = 0.97-1.07) Galiléia batholith (Brazil) is a large (ca. 30,000 km2), Neoproterozoic (ca. 632-570 Ma) weakly foliated calc-alkaline granitoid body, characterized by the widespread occurrence of garnet (grossular 25-43 mol%) and epidote (pistacite 9.3-22.7 mol%). Field, petrographic and mineral chemical evidence indicates that garnet, epidote, biotite as well as white mica crystals (low-Si phengite), are magmatic. There is no difference in bulk rock major and trace element composition between the Galiléia granitoids and other garnet-free cordilleran-type granitoids worldwide. This evidence strongly suggests that the origin of the uncommon garnet + epidote parageneses is related to the conditions of magma crystallization, such as pressure, temperature and water content. Comparison between the mineral assemblages and mineral compositions from this study and those recorded in crystallization experiments on metaluminous calc-alkaline magmas, as well as within garnet-bearing metaluminous volcanic rocks and granitoids, indicates that the supersolidus coexistence of grossular-rich garnet, epidote and white mica is consistent with magma crystallization at pressures greater than 0.8 GPa (above 25 km depth) and at temperatures below 700 °C, i.e. near the water saturated solidus. Furthermore, resorption textures around garnet (plagioclase ± quartz coronas) and epidote suggest that these minerals have been partially consumed prior to complete crystallization. These findings demonstrate that at 630 Ma the crust underneath the Araçuaí Orogen was already at least 25-30 km thick and relatively cool. However, this contrasts with the marked high heat flow registered from the neighbour Carlos Chagas Batholith located 50 km to the east. In fact such granitoids record granulite

  3. Effect of the atmosphere on the classification of LANDSAT data. [Identifying sugar canes in Brazil (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Morimoto, T.; Kumar, R.; Molion, L. C. B.


    The author has identified the following significant results. In conjunction with Turner's model for the correction of satellite data for atmospheric interference, the LOWTRAN-3 computer was used to calculate the atmospheric interference. Use of the program improved the contrast between different natural targets in the MSS LANDSAT data of Brasilia, Brazil. The classification accuracy of sugar canes was improved by about 9% in the multispectral data of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo.

  4. Counterinsurgency in Brazil: Lessons of the Fighting from 1968 to 1974 (United States)


    intelligence for the conduction of the government. "ABIN: 80 years of Intelligence Activity in Brazil," ABIN. Presidencia da Republica . Gabinete de...Oficial Biography (President Lula Official Biography)," Secretaria de lmprensa. Secretaria de Comunicacao Social. Presidencia da Republica . Brasilia D.F...2010). 59 Brasil, Presidencia da Republica . "Estrutura do Governo Federal (Structure of the Federal Government)," Ministerios online. http

  5. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim


    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  6. Belt Aligning Revisited (United States)

    Yurchenko, Vadim


    The misalignment causes the greatest damage to the conveyor belt. As a result of the interaction of the moving belt with the stationary parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  7. Reconstruction of P-T-t metamorphic conditions from symplectites: insights from Pouso Alegre mafic rocks (Brasília Belt, Brazil) (United States)

    Tedeschi, Mahyra; Lanari, Pierre; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos; Dussin, Ivo; Aurélio Pinheiro, Marco; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas


    Reconstructing the metamorphic history of polycyclic tectono-metamorphic mafic rocks that preserve potential relicts of high-pressure metamorphism is challenging because such rocks are commonly retrogressed and rare in supercrustal sequences. However, pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) information is required to obtain the paleo-geothermal gradients and thus to define those units as markers for suture zones. The mafic rocks from Pouso Alegre in the Meridional Brasília Orogen (SW-Brazil) outcrop as rare lenses within Sil-Grt gneisses, Amp-Grt orthogneisses and Bt granites. They are heavily weathered. They have previously been defined as "retro-eclogites", based on the characteristic symplectite texture and some mineralogical observations. They have been intepreted to mark the suture zone between the Paranapanema and São Francisco cratons, although no quantitative estimates of the pressure is available to support this conclusion. In this study we investigated in detail these samples to refine their P-T-t history. As commonly observed in retrogressed eclogites, the studied mafic rock shows symplectite and corona textures overprinting the former paragenesis of Garnet (Grt) - Clinopyroxene (Cpx) 1 - Amphibole (Amp) 1 - Rutile (Rt). Phase equilibrium modelling shows that this assemblage is stable at 690°C and 13.5 kbar, in line with Zr-in-rutile thermometry (720 ±30° C). Local compositions of the symplectite domains were used to retrieve the jadeite content of Cpx1. This low-Jd cpx is in line with the predictions of the model and confirms a maximum pressure of 14 kbar. The symplectite formed from the reaction Cpx1+Qz+H2O→Cpx2+Amp+Pl+Qz taking place at conditions of 600-750°C and <7 kbar. Zircon and monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology was performed for the mafic and surrounding rocks. Zircon core dates from the mafic rock spread along concordia from ca. 1.7 to 1.0 Ga with a cluster at 1520±17 Ma, which is interpreted as the protolith crystallization age. Zircon rim

  8. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko


    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  9. Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    The region of the solar system immediately beyond Neptune's orbit is densely populated with small bodies. This region, known as the Kuiper Belt, consists of objects that may predate Neptune, the orbits of which provide a fossil record of processes operative in the young solar system. The Kuiper Belt contains some of the Solar System's most primitive, least thermally processed matter. It is probably the source of the short-period comets and Centaurs, and may also supply collisionally generated interplanetary dust. I discuss the properties of the Kuiper Belt and provide an overview of the outstanding scientific issues.

  10. Conveyor belt service machine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... in. and thicker that could reduce the time, cost and injury potential inherent in extending and retracting mine wide section belt conveyors while eliminating the need to use additional machinery in accomplishing such moves...

  11. Radiation Belt Dynamics (United States)


    Distributions Recent analysis of Van Allen Probes observations has forced a reevaluation of models and our understanding of the inner electron radiation belt ...challenge” studies of four chosen recent events well-observed by the Van Allen Probes satellites, with participation by the radiation belt, recently augmented by observations made by the currently orbiting NASA Van Allen Probes satellites, has revealed unexpected behavior and

  12. Galactic Radiation Belts. (United States)


    was formulated by Ortwein et al. 13for analysis of the Jovian radio emission. These authors de- rived their results for an arbitrary dipole-axis...galactic radio sources with the Jovian radiation-belt source, 17suggests a=. intriguing similarity. The related questions of why galactic radiation belts...Space Sciences Laboratory: Atmospheric and ionospheric physics, radiation from the atmosphere, densfty and composition of the upper atmosphere, aurorae

  13. Belt conveyor apparatus (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.


    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  14. Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Barros de Melo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. de Melo C.B., Fino T.C.M., Schwingel F.F., Santiago M.T., de Barros L.F.R., McManus C. & Sá M.E.P. [Dynamics of seizure of animal products in international baggage on Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR.] Dinâmica da apreensão de produtos de origem animal em bagagens internacionais no Aeroporto de Brasília (AIB-PJK/SBBR. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(3:265-276, 2016. Universidade de Brasília, PPGCA, Campus Universitário Darcy Ribeiro, ICC Sul, Asa Norte, Brasília, DF 70910-900, Brasil. E-mail: The risk of introducing infectious agents increases as the volume of imported products rises. The illegal entry of animal products (POA brought in international passenger baggage is a factor that makes up the risk assessment and that grows proportionally to the intensification of international transit passengers. They evaluated the data on seizures of animal products intercepted in international baggage passengers in Airport of Brasilia (AIB-PJK/SBBR between the years 2010 and 2012. The analysis of the dynamics of these seizures considered the POA category, origin, airline and months more frequently and also verified the correlation between these variables. According to retrospective analysis, nearly eight tons of POA were seized from 52 countries throughout the study period. The results showed Portugal (p <0.0001 as the source of passengers who had higher frequency and quantity of seizures, and, added to other European origins, totaled 84.3% of seizures. The months of July, August and September stood out for the highest number of seizures and greater movement of international passengers. The increase in the number of seizures accompanied by a rise in the percentage of inspected passengers (r=0.69, emphasizing the importance of airport surveillance. According to the calculation of relative risk, passengers from African and South American countries showed greater magnitude of risk to bring animal

  15. The Brasilia-Buenos Aires Axis: A Real Movement or a Virtual Leaning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arce Suárez


    Full Text Available Argentina and Brazil find themselves in a situation in which the apparent agreement in their internal political changes and the harmony between their leaders seem to be serving as triggering elements for the coordination of their foreign policies. Sharing, asthey do, a series of common problems in their insertion into the multilateral sphere and the regional scene, they also have at their disposal initiatives (G-20 and institutions (Mercosur through which to stage, develop and make stable certain cooperative lines which are very useful to them. The article also points out the risks involved in the continuation of a foreign policy coordination that is more rhetorical than real, on the basis of the historical experience of the last few years.

  16. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Silvânia Volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite: juvenile Paleoproterozoic crust in the basement of the Neoproterozoic Brasília Belt, Goiás, central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for felsic metavolcanic rocks from the Silvânia Sequence and Jurubatuba Granite in the central part of the Brasília Belt. Zircon grains from a metavolcanic sample yielded 2115 ± 23 Ma and from the granite yielded 2089 ± 14 Ma, interpreted as crystallization ages of these rocks. Six metavolcanic samples of the Silvânia Sequence yielded a six-point whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron indicating a crystallization age of 2262 ± 110 Ma and positive epsilonNd(T = +3.0 interpreted as a juvenile magmatic event. Nd isotopic analyses on samples from the Jurubatuba Granite have Paleoproterozoic T DM model ages between 2.30 and 2.42 Ga and epsilonNd(T values vary between -0.22 and -0.58. The oldest T DM value refers to a sedimentary xenolith in the granite. These results suggest crystallization ages of Silvânia volcanics and Jurubatuba Granite are the first evidence of a ca. 2.14-2.08 juvenile magmatic event in the basement of the central part of the Brasília Belt that implies the presence of arc/suture hidden in reworked basement of the Brasília Belt.

  17. Informal markets and urban sociabilities in the periphery of Brasilia: the case of Ceilândia - DF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitner Tavares


    Full Text Available This article makes use of some theoretical landmarks of the theory of the city to after rethink the trajectory of Brasilia in the first years its inauguration in 1960. Initially, a quarrel is become fulfilled, in terms of its process of urban segregation and its consequences in terms of the sprouting , of informal places of commerce. After that, while empiric reference, appeals itself the trajectory of the city of Ceilândia – DF, as consequence of the fast transformation of the urban landscape of Brasília. Furthermore, the sprouting of spaces of sociability of actors will be argued insurgent citizens who faces the exclusion of the modern city from the redefinition of practical solidarity as free market of exchanges and fairs as the case of the Feira do Rolo, a kind of flea market, that in relation to other markets, offers to the consumer many products for cheaper prices. Consequently, the fair simultaneously constitutes a commercial alternative for a working class community; and one has left of the significant collective memory of the city, an immaterial heritage that has been redefined permanently by its inhabitants.

  18. Comorbilidad entre abuso/dependencia de drogas y el distrés psicológico, Brasilia - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Merchán-Hamann


    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la prevalencia de distrés psicológico en pacientes atendidos en centros públicos especializados en alcohol y drogas en Brasilia, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Es un estudio de prevalencia, en pacientes atendidos en los Centros de Atención Psicosocial - alcohol y drogas. Fue realizado auto-diligenciamiento de un cuestionario, o entrevista en pacientes analfabetos. Fue utilizada la escala K-10 de distrés psicológico. Los resultados muestran que 165 personas participaron, 90% hombres, edad promedio 42.9 (mediana=43. Fue relatado diagnóstico previo de depresión en 40.8% y ansiedad en 37.9%. Hubo diagnóstico actual de depresión y ansiedad en 42.9% y 48.8%, respectivamente. K-10 mostró que 31% tenían niveles severos y ~39% muy severos de distrés. Se concluye que los niveles encontrados de distrés psicológico (severo y muy severo, ~70%, cuya escala es más sensible para ansiedad y depresión, son mayores que los relatados en estudios internacionales.

  19. 77 FR 13560 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30... (United States)


    ... appropriate meetings, especially in light of the high level engagement and support of U.S. education by the U... the Science, Technology, Environment and Math fields.\\1\\ Science Without Borders, a Brazilian...

  20. Geochemical signature and properties of sediment sources and alluvial sediments within the Lago Paranoá catchment, Brasilia DF: a study on anthropogenic introduced chemical elements in an urban river basin. (United States)

    Franz, C; Makeschin, F; Weiß, H; Lorz, C


    One of the largest urban agglomerations in Brazil is the capital Brasilia and its surrounding area. Due to fast urban sprawl and accelerated land use changes, available water supplies are near their limits. The water supply depends largely on surface water collected in reservoirs. There are increasing concerns regarding water shortages due to sediment aggradations, and of water quality due to geochemical modification of sediments from human activities. The concentration of 18 chemical elements and five sediment properties was analyzed from different potential land-based sediment sources and deposited alluvial sediment within the Lago Paranoà catchment. The goal of this study was to assess the distribution of chemical elements and geochemical/physical properties of potential sediment sources in the Lago Paranoá catchment. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to investigate the influence of different land use types on the geochemistry of sediments. Geochemical fingerprints of anthropogenic activities were developed based on the results of the cluster analysis grouping. The anthropogenic input of land use specific geochemical elements was examined and quantified by the calculation of enrichment factors using the local geological background as reference. Through comparison of the geochemical signature of potential sediment sources and alluvial sediments of the Lago Paranoá and sub-catchments, the relative contribution of land use specific sediment sources to the sediment deposition of the main water reservoir were estimated. The existing findings suggest a strong relationship between land use and quantifiable features of sediment geochemistry and indicate that urban land use had the greatest responsibility for recent silting in the Lago Paranoá. This assessment helps to characterize the role of human activities in mixed-used watersheds on sediment properties, and provides essential information to guide management responses


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    negative anomalies of Nb and Ti relative to adjacent elements in multi-element spidergrams. ... that Fe-rich tholeiites associated with rare ..... metabasalts from the Southern Musoma –Mara greenstone belt … 78. *Zimbabwe. *Canada. Simba Sirori Mg-rich metabasalts. Komatiite. Kom. Basalt. Komatiite Kom Basalt. Pb. 7. 5.

  2. The empty primordial asteroid belt. (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre


    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  3. Analysis of the influence of the Colatina Belt in the Campos and Espirito Santo Basins-Brazil; Analise da influencia da Faixa Colatina nas Bacias de Campos e Espirito Santo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gustavo Henrique Teixeira da; Simoes, Luiz Sergio Amarante; Souza, Iata Anderson de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas


    Recent discoveries in the Espirito Santo Basin confirm the importance of it in the national exploratory scenery (oil and gas production). The new fields like Carapo and Camarupim, beyond others, next to already known Golfinho and Canapu, totalize an addition of 560 million barrels. In this way, studies in the area add importance, as the case of the present research, where if it looked to analyze the influence of Colatina Belt in Espirito Santo Basin and secondarily in Campos Basin. The results had been gotten through the integration of diverse data, such as lineaments extracted from images SRTM, potential maps and analyze of seismic lines. It was concluded that the Colatina Belt if projects for the interior of the basins, but that the same one seems to be dislocated in relation to the direct projection of the continental features, being that its influence can be felt with bigger emphasis in the Campos Basin, while in the Espirito Santo it look like to have low importance with regard to the exploration aspects. Also it was verified the presence of numerous halo kinetic structures that affect all the mapped horizons, this element determine great importance in the generation of structural traps. (author)

  4. Y al comienzo, todo era yermo? el pasado aún presente de la colonización de Brasilia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreira Serra da SILVA


    Full Text Available “No princípio era o ermo” (“al comienzo, todo era yermo”. Asé escribieron Tom Jobim y Vinícius de Moraes la letra de la canción “Brasília, Sinfonía de la Alborada”, dedicada a la construcción de la capital del Brasil. Cuestionamos en este artículo ese punto de vista; lejos de ser un “infinito descampado”, en donde “no había nadie”, la región ya tenía una larga historia de ocupación humana. La falta de veracidad de tales presupuestos construye en el presente un discurso des-historizador de todo lo que no corrobora esa visión reduccionista. Eso se manifiesta de forma contundente en el conflicto en curso entre una comunidad indígena residente en el perímetro urbano de la ciudad y grandes empresas constructoras aliadas al gobierno del Distrito Federal, en lo que se refiere al proyecto de un nuevo barrio residencial: el Sector Noroeste de Brasilia. Situamos esa disputa como una continuación de un largo trayecto colonial enmascarado Saúde Indígena Tempus - Actas de Saúde Coletiva Revista Tempus Actas de Saúde Coletiva 122 en un discurso modernizante vacío de sentido histórico, que perpetúa y legitima antiguas prácticas de limpieza étnica desde el período de la colonización.

  5. Deconstructing the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan


    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  6. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain


    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    nearly flat (La/SmCN = 0.71 – 1.08) and light REE enriched (La/SmCN = 2.89). They also show negative anomalies of ..... Jahrb. B72: 109-229. Borg G and Krogh T 1999 Isotopic age data of single zircons from the Archaean. Sukumalnd Greenstone belt, Tanzania. J. Afr. Earth Sci. 29: 301-312. Borg G and Shackleton RM ...

  8. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N


    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  9. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are in...

  10. Rubella Seropositivity in Pregnant Women After Vaccination Campaign in Brazil's Federal District. (United States)

    Nóbrega, Yanna K M; de Carvalho, Bruna C; Nitz, Nadjar; Vital, Tamires E; Leite, Franco B; Sequeira, Inês J; Moreira, Elsa E; de Andrade, Juliana K B; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; Hecht, Mariana M


    Rubella is an acute viral disease that usually does not generate sequels; however, in pregnant women the infection can cause serious abnormalities to fetuses, which are collectively called congenital rubella syndrome. In Brazil, population immunization was started in 1992, but few epidemiological studies have been conducted to assess vaccination coverage and seroconversion since then. The aim of this work is to evaluate the seropositivity of pregnant women to rubella virus after vaccination campaign was carried out in 2008. Serological tests for rubella diagnosis were performed in 87 pregnant women who attended the University of Brasilia Hospital, Federal District, Brazil. Antirubella IgG antibodies were detected in 83 out of 87 pregnant women (95.4%), with an age-independent seroprevalence. Only one woman was positive in IgM serological tests. Our data suggest high levels of vaccination coverage and antirubella immunization in the Brazil Federal District population.

  11. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe


    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning



    Krawiec, Piotr; Marlewski, Adam


    During design of the envelope of a noncircular belt pulley one should take into account several conditions resulting from kinematics and geometry of the uneven-running strand transmission. Design of proper values of pitches for a belt pulley, which enable good cooperation between the belt pulley and the belt, should be carefully done. In available Polish literature and catalogues offered by belt manufacturers, one can find only detailed dimensions of belts with a trapezoidal profile. Informat...

  13. Geography of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.


    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  14. Morbidade em creche de Brasília: estudo longitudinal de incidência de enfermidades no ano de 1977 Morbidity in a Brasilia day care center: a longitudinal study of disease incidence in 1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Low


    Full Text Available Foi feito estudo longitudinal de morbidade em creche de Brasília (Brasil freqüentada por crianças com bom estado nutricional. Foram admitidas na creche durante o ano de 1977 o total de 67 crianças (34 do sexo masculino e 33 do sexo feminino, com idade entre 3 e 21 meses. Infecções de vias aéreas superiores (25,4%, diarréia (23,6% e febre não esclarecida (18,4% representaram dois terços dos diagnósticos. A seguir, em ordem de freqüência, apareceram conjuntivite (15,5%, viroses da infância (7,9%, doenças de pele (3,8%, pequenos acidentes (2,6%, hepatite (2,6% e meningococcemia (0,3%. Houve um total de 343 episódios agudos, dando uma taxa de incidência de 14 enfermidades por criança por ano, independente de sexo e idade.A longitudinal morbidity study was carried out in a day care center in Brasilia (Brazil on a sample of 67 (34 male and 33 female, 3 to 21 months of age well-fed children from middle-class families. A pediatrician was on duty daily in the center. The incidence of disease was: upper respiratory, 25.4%; diarrhea, 23.6%; and undetermined fever, 18.4%. These represented 2/3 of the diagnoses. The other diseases found (and here listed in order of frequency were: conjunctivitis, 15.5%; childhood infections, 7.9%; skin diseases, 3.8%; accidents, 2.6%; hepatitis, 2.6%; and meningitis, 0.3%. There were a total of 343 acute illnesses, giving a mean incidence rate of 14 illnesses per child per year, independent of sex and age. Perhaps the incidence of illnesses would have been lower if the children had not been attending the center, a natural factor in the dissemination of communicable diseases.

  15. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats. (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A


    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  16. Chaos on the conveyor belt


    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a functio...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović


    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  20. Facial trauma in the largest city in Latin America, São Paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law. (United States)

    Barros, Tarley Eloy Pessoa de; Campolongo, Gabriel Denser; Zanluqui, Talita; Duarte, Dayane


    Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian authorities have benefited the population 15 years after the enactment of the law of compulsory seat belts in the city of São Paulo.

  1. Chaos on the conveyor belt (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  2. Chaos on the conveyor belt. (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán


    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  3. Evidence of mingling between contrasting magmas in a deep plutonic environment: the example of Várzea Alegre, in the Ribeira Mobile Belt, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available At the end of the geotectonic cycle that shaped the northern segment of the Ribeira Mobile Belt (Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, a late to post-collisional set of plutonic complexes, consisting of a wide range of lithotypes, intruded all metamorphic units. The Várzea Alegre Intrusive Complex is a post-collisional complex. The younger intrusion consists of an inversely zoned multistage structure envolved by a large early emplaced ring of megaporphyritic charnoenderbitic rocks. The combination of field, petrographic and geochemical data reveals the presence of at least two different series of igneous rocks. The first originated from the partial melting of the mantle. This was previously enriched in incompatible elements, low and intermediate REE and some HFS-elements. A second enrichment in LREE and incompatible elements in this series was due to the mingling with a crustal granitic magma. This mingling process changed the composition of the original tholeiitic magma towards a medium-K calc-alkalic magma to produce a suite of basic to intermediate rock types. The granitic magma from the second high-K, calc-alkalic suite originated from the partial melting of the continental crust, but with strong influence of mantle-derived melts.No final do ciclo tectônico que originou o segmento norte do Cinturão Móvel Ribeira (de idade Proterozóica Superior a Paleozóica, uma série de complexos plutônicos tardi- a pós-colisionais, consistindo de larga gama de litotipos, intrudiu todas as unidades metamórficas. O Complexo Intrusivo de Várzea Alegre é um desses complexos pós-colisionais. A intrusão mais jovem consiste de uma estrutura de multiplos estágios, envolvida por um largo anel de rochas charnoenderbíiticas megaporfirícas de posicionmento anterior. A combinação de dados de campo, petrográficos e geoquímicos revela a presença de pelo menos duas séries distintas de rochas ígneas. A primeira foi originada por fusão parcial do manto

  4. Cratons and orogenic belts of the Brazilian Shield and their contained gold deposits (United States)

    Hartmann, Leó A.; Delgado, Inácio


    The Brazilian Shield extends over much of South America to the east of the Andean Chain, and is partly covered by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks. The three major tectonic units (older than 900 Ma) of the shield are the Amazon, São Francisco, and Rio de la Plata Cratons, whereas rocks of the Neoproterozoic (900-550 Ma) Brasiliano Cycle belts surround the cratons in the eastern half of Brazil. Paleoarchean rocks occur as small cratonic nuclei in northeastern Brazil, but the cratons contain voluminous 3.0-2.6-Ga granitic and greenstone belts and a large volume of Paleoproterozoic rocks. Late Mesoproterozoic belts (~1.2 Ga) occur in the western and northwestern Amazon Craton and possibly in northeastern Brazil. There are voluminous Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic intrusive and volcanic rocks in the Amazon Craton. Belts of reworked crust are common, but the Amazon Craton grew to the north and west mainly during accretionary orogens. The Neoproterozoic Brasiliano Cycle belts contain 5% of juvenile crust in central and southern Brazil, but are dominantly derived from reworking of older crust. It is possible that the cratons were continuous in a super-continent during the Mesoproterozoic prior to the Brasiliano Cycle. Gold deposits are concentrated in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes, including the Carajás and Quadrilátero Ferrífero gold provinces of the Amazon and São Francisco Cratons, respectively, but some also occur in younger terranes. Recent alluvial gold deposits and supergene deposits in the weathering zone are widespread in Brazil.

  5. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers. (United States)


    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  6. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... on or after January 1, 1965, and before July 1, 1971, must be equipped with a Type 1 or Type 2 seat...

  7. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.


    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables

  8. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  9. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section... belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in the area administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  10. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  11. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  13. Kuiper belts around nearby stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, R.; Liseau, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Risacher, C.; Rodmann, J.; Augereau, J-C.; Bergman, P.; Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.


    Context. The existence of dusty debris disks around a large fraction of solar type main-sequence stars, inferred from excess far-IR and submillimetre emission compared to that expected from stellar photospheres, suggests that leftover planetesimal belts analogous to the asteroid-and comet reservoirs

  14. Seat Belts: 1949-1956 (United States)


    The study assesses the impact of the consumer misconceptions, the lack of a seat belt standard, corporate attitudes towards safety, and the role of safety advocates. In addition, the study assesses the validity of the oft-stated hypothesis "safety do...

  15. Life cycle carbon emissions inventory of brick masonry and light steel framing houses in Brasilia: proposal of design guidelines for low-carbon social housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rosse Caldas

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the CO2eq emissions during the life cycle of two social housing projects in the city of Brasilia. A house of ceramic brick masonry was compared to a light steel framing one. The life cycle carbon emissions assessment (LCCO2A with a cradle-to-grave approach was used. The relation between the thermal performance of the wall systems and CO2eq emissions in the operational phase of the houses were evaluated using the DesignBuilder software. In addition, six scenarios composed of three CO2eq emission factors from the Brazilian electrical grid and two schedules of occupation of houses (full and part time were evaluated. The brick masonry house presented less CO2eq emissions than the light steel framing one. For both houses, the operational phase was the most significant regarding the total CO2eq emissions (50% to 70%, followed by the construction (20% to 30%, maintenance (11% to 20% and end-of-life (lower than 1% phases. The results also showed the importance of considering different CO2eq emission factors for the Brazilian context in the operational phase. Finally, based on the results obtained, design guidelines for low carbon social housing were proposed.

  16. Ring current and radiation belts (United States)

    Williams, D. J.


    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  17. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E


    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  18. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts.


    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J


    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and esp...

  19. Seismic imaging of a transform segment of the Maranhão-Barreirinhas-Ceará margin, NW Brazil (United States)

    Schnurle, Philippe; Moulin, Maryline; Gallais, Flora; Afilhado, Alexandra; Afonso Dias, Nuno; Soares, José; Loureiro, Afonso; Fuck, Reinhardt; Cupertino, José; Viana, Adriano; Matias, Luís; Evain, Mikael; Aslanian, Daniel


    The structure of the North-East equatorial Brazilian margin was investigated during the MAGIC (Margins of brAzil, Ghana and Ivory Coast) seismic experiment, a project conducted by IFREMER (Institut Francais de Recherche pour l'Exploration de la Mer), UnB (University of Brasilia), FCUL (Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa) and Petrobras. The survey consists of 5 deep seismic profiles totaling 1900 km of marine multi-channel seismic reflection and wide angle acquisition with 143 deployments of short-period OBS's from the IFREMER pool. Three of the profiles were extended into land using Land Seismic Stations (LSS) from the Brazilian pool at a total of 50 points. This study focuses on the MC1 and MC5 wide-angle profiles: MC5 spans NW-SE 720 km in length, from the São Paulo Double Fracture Zone to the Borborema-Cearà margin. MC-1 spans parallel east of MC5, 360 km in length, in the presumed oceanic domain. Our main objective is to understand the fundamental processes which lead to the thinning and finally to the breakup of the continental crust in a specific context of a pull-apart system with two strike-slip borders. The experiment was devised to obtain the 2D structure along the profiles from joint pre-stack depth migration of the reflection data, and tomography and forward modeling of the OBS records. Along the MC1/MC5 wide-angle transects, 5 major sectors are identified: - the São Paulo Double Fracture Zone and the volcanic line associated to the southern São Paulo strike-slip zone presenting a 4.5 km thick volcano-sedimentary basin on top of a 5.5 km thick basement; - the intermediate domain, formed by the 4.5 km thick Basin III, the 7.5 km thick Basin II (interleaved by a 0.5-1 km thick volcanic layer), and the 5.5 km thick Basin I composing the continental slope. While the crust remains about 6 km thick, its acoustic velocity evolves from two-layer typical (4.8-6 km/s and 6.1-6.8 km/s) beneath Basin III to two-layer high velocity (6.1-6.8 km

  20. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.


    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  1. A model of the secondary radiation belt


    Selesnick, R. S.; Looper, M. D.; Mewaldt, R. A.


    Products of nuclear reactions between primary radiation belt protons and constituents of the tenuous upper atmosphere form a collocated secondary radiation belt. A calculation of the time-dependent secondary intensity provides a model specification of this environmental component for low- and medium-altitude satellite orbits. It is based on an earlier model of the radiation belt protons, the novel feature being a determination of the secondary source function from nuclear reaction cross secti...

  2. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  3. Puzzling Snowballs: Main Belt Comets (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Meech, Karen


    Main belt comets (MBCs) are a class of newly discovered objects that exhibit comet-like appearances and yet are dynamically indistinguishable from ordinary main belt asteroids. The measured size and albedo of MBCs are similar to those of classical comets. At present, six MBCs have been discovered, namely 133P/Elst-Pizarro, 176P/LINEAR, 238P/Read, P/2008 R1, P/La Sagra and P/2006 VW139. The total number of active MBCs is estimated to be at the level of a few hundreds (Hsieh & Jewitt, 2006). Several explanations for the activity of MBCs have been suggested. These include impact ejection, sublimation and rotational instability. However, since renewed activity has been observed in 133P and 238P at successive perihelion passages, the most likely explanation may be a thermally-driven process - e.g sublimation of exposed surface ice. Although the proximity of MBCs to the Sun (r ~ 3 AU) makes the survival of surface ice improbable, thermal models have shown that water ice is thermally stable under a regolith layer a few meters thick. The study of MBCs has recently been complicated by the discoveries of two asteroid collisional events (P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) and (596) Scheila) in 2010, where comet-like dust coma/tail have been attributed to recent impacts. If MBCs are indeed icy, they represent the closest and the third established reservoir of comets (after the Oort cloud and the Kuiper belt). As such, they may have been an important source of water for the Earth's oceans. I will review the current state of MBC studies, present the latest observational results and discuss possible mechanisms that could produce the observed activity. I will also talk about current and future space missions that are dedicated or closely related to MBC studies.

  4. New component of radiation belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)


    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV.

  5. Use of seat belt and enforcement of seat belt laws in Pakistan. (United States)

    Klair, Ashfaq Ahmad; Arfan, Muhammad


    Traffic crashes are a leading cause of deaths and injuries in Pakistan. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately 30,131 people die in road crashes annually on Pakistani roads (WHO 2013). The use of seat belts can be effective in reducing road crash fatalities in Pakistan but under existing seat belt laws, seat belt use is mandatory only for drivers and is limited to specific vehicles and roads. Primarily, this study was aimed to measure seat belt use rates among Pakistani vehicle occupants. It was meant to investigate the factors influencing the compliance behavior of seat belt use among vehicle drivers. The second objective was to gauge the enforcement of seat belt laws and their effectiveness in Pakistan. A first ever national survey was conducted for the systematic recording of seat belt use rates among Pakistani drivers and front passengers on 5 different kinds of roads. Factors influencing compliance with seat belt use were gauged through a questionnaire for 5 different kinds of roads. Commitment level of different traffic police organizations to enforce seat belt laws was also measured through their previous year's enforcement data. Average seat belt use rates were 20% with the highest on motorways (53%) and the lowest on rural roads (5%). Unawareness of the law/usefulness, seat belt not fitted, discomfort, forgetfulness, low speed, and careless attitude were major reasons for noncompliance with seat belt laws among Pakistani drivers. Seat belt use rates were directly proportional to law enforcement strength and the National Highways and Motorways Police (NH&MP) showed maximum enforcement on M-2. There is a dire need to revise existing seat belt laws in order to raise seat belt use rates in Pakistan.

  6. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech. (United States)


    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  7. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt (United States)

    Anderson, Terry


    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  8. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick (United States)

    Staley, Mark


    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  9. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.


    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  10. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui


    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  11. Use of seatbelts in cars with automatic belts. (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N J


    Use of seatbelts in late model cars with automatic or manual belt systems was observed in suburban Washington, DC, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. In cars with automatic two-point belt systems, the use of shoulder belts by drivers was substantially higher than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts. This finding was true in varying degrees whatever the type of automatic belt, including cars with detachable nonmotorized belts, cars with detachable motorized belts, and especially cars with nondetachable motorized belts. Most of these automatic shoulder belts systems include manual lap belts. Use of lap belts was lower in cars with automatic two-point belt systems than in the same model cars with manual three-point belts; precisely how much lower could not be reliably estimated in this survey. Use of shoulder and lap belts was slightly higher in General Motors cars with detachable automatic three-point belts compared with the same model cars with manual three-point belts; in Hondas there was no difference in the rates of use of manual three-point belts and the rates of use of automatic three-point belts. PMID:1561301

  12. Investigating the nature of interprofessional collaboration in primary care across the Western Health Region of Brasília, Brazil: A study protocol. (United States)

    Pinho, Diana; Parreira, Clelia; Queiroz, Elizabeth; Abbad, Gardênia; Reeves, Scott


    Primary care can provide a supportive context for the development of interprofessional collaborative practice owing to its nature and dynamics. In Brazil, a number of practice changes have already occurred to primary care, notably the implementation of the Family Health Strategy which promoted interprofessional collaboration (IPC). In Brasilia, a new arrangement was implemented in 2016 that focused on an expansion of primary healthcare. However, it is not clear how these reforms will affect the nature of IPC or the delivery of patient care. The article presents a study protocol which describes a study that aims to explore the nature of IPC in the context of primary care in the Western Health Region of Brasilia. A sequential mixed methods design will be used to gather both quantitative and qualitative data. Initially, we will translate, cross-culturally adapt, and validate an IPC scale for a survey of primary care teams. We will then undertake a series of focus groups with a purposeful sample of team members to explore the results from the survey. Quantitative data will be analysed with descriptive and multivariate statistics. A content analysis will be undertaken with the focus group data. We expect that the results will illuminate a range of elements linked to IPC in primary care as well as identify areas for improving IPC skills, patient safety, quality of care, and healthcare outcomes in this clinical context.

  13. From transmission error measurement to Pulley-Belt slip determination in serpentine belt drives : influence of tensioner and belt characteristics


    Manin, Lionel; Michon, Guilhem; Rémond, Didier; Dufour, Regis


    Serpentine belt drives are often used in front end accessory drive of automotive engine. The accessories resistant torques are getting higher within new technological innovations as stater-alternator, and belt transmissions are always asked for higher capacity. Two kind of tensioners are used to maintain minimum tension that insure power transmission and minimize slip: dry friction or hydraulic tensioners. An experimental device and a specific transmission error measurement method have been u...

  14. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 24, 2011 ... and injuries can be reduced drastically because seat belts retain occupants in ... has been estimated that using seat belts can reduce the risk of fatalities in a ..... were about three times more likely to wear seatbelts than. Table 2: Availability of seat belts in the vehicles. Seat belt available. Car (%). Bus (%).

  15. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14108 - Overhead drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 57.14108 Section 57.14108... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts shall be guarded to contain the whipping action of a broken belt if that action could be hazardous to...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. 1926.104 Section... Saving Equipment § 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards. (a) Lifelines, safety belts, and lanyards shall be used only for employee safeguarding. Any lifeline, safety belt, or lanyard actually...

  18. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in functional...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  2. Spotlight: Brazil. (United States)

    Carter, M


    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  3. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-D. Pautet


    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km.

    Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  4. Simultaneous observations of equatorial F-region plasma depletions over Brazil during the Spread-F Experiment (SpreadFEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-D. Pautet


    Full Text Available From September to November 2005, the NASA Living with a Star program supported the Spread-F Experiment campaign (SpreadFEx in Brazil to study the effects of convectively generated gravity waves on the ionosphere and their role in seeding Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, and associated equatorial plasma bubbles. Several US and Brazilian institutes deployed a broad range of instruments (all-sky imagers, digisondes, photometers, meteor/VHF radars, GPS receivers covering a large area of Brazil. The campaign was divided in two observational phases centered on the September and October new moon periods. During these periods, an Utah State University (USU all-sky CCD imager operated at São João d'Aliança (14.8° S, 47.6° W, near Brasilia, and a Brazilian all-sky CCD imager located at Cariri (7.4° S, 36° W, observed simultaneously the evolution of the ionospheric bubbles in the OI (630 nm emission and the mesospheric gravity wave field. The two sites had approximately the same magnetic latitude (9–10° S but were separated in longitude by ~1500 km. Plasma bubbles were observed on every clear night (17 from Brasilia and 19 from Cariri, with 8 coincident nights. These joint datasets provided important information for characterizing the ionospheric depletions during the campaign and to perform a novel longitudinal investigation of their variability. Measurements of the drift velocities at both sites are in good agreement with previous studies, however, the overlapping fields of view revealed significant differences in the occurrence and structure of the plasma bubbles, providing new evidence for localized generation. This paper summarizes the observed bubble characteristics important for related investigations of their seeding mechanisms associated with gravity wave activity.

  5. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors


    Gao Yang


    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  6. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund


    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  7. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.


    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  8. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  9. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu


    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  10. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA


    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  11. Decay rate of the second radiation belt (United States)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  12. Decay rate of the second radiation belt. (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E


    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  13. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  14. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.


    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  15. Pipeline maintenance, evaluation and inspection in water crossing: OSBRA case in Paranaiba River; Inspecao, avaliacao e manutencao de oleoduto em travessia: caso OSBRA (Oleoduto Sao Paulo-Brasilia) no Rio Paranaiba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Newton Camelo de; Spagnolo, Rodrigo Alves; Vieira Paulo de Tarso [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Attempting to pipeline integrity proceeding of PETROBRAS, the OSBRA (Sao Paulo-Brasilia Pipeline) Management promoted field inspections by divers at Paranaiba River water crossing, located at your right-of-way pipeline. These services were composed by topography, visual inspections and local screened of the pipeline, determining the equipment layout at that water crossing. At Paranaiba River, the pipeline is seated above the river bed. The results indicated high spans in the pipeline structure. Considering this configuration, were made water speed and vibration measurements near the equipment. The activities were executed in order to assist the structural analysis of the pipeline. These studies had concluded to a temporary solution, which consisted in reducing loads and building additional supports. (author)

  16. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  17. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt. (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap


    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  18. A Educação Física da Universidade de Brasilia e a Formação de Professores: Aspectos Epistemológicos Physical Education and Teacher Education at the University of Brasilia: epistemological aspects A educación física de la Universidade de Brasília y la formación de profesores: aspectos epistemológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta resultados parciais de pesquisa iniciada em 2004, na Faculdade de Educação Física da Universidade de Brasília, tendo como um dos objetivos identificar os paradigmas norteadores do Curso de Licenciatura em Educação Física da Universidade de Brasília e suas respectivas influências na formação do corpo docente. O referencial teórico transita pela teoria do conhecimento e a pesquisa segue abordagem qualitativa. Conclui-se que o curso de Licenciatura em Educação Física apresenta disputa de campos entre as áreas da Atividade Física e Desempenho Humano e Educação Física, Esporte e Sociedade. A disputa entre estas áreas se constitui em um jogo de linguagens e pode contribuir para legitimar a área de Educação Física, Esporte e Sociedade. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: educação física – Licenciatura – epistemologia – formação de professores This work presents partial results of a research work started in 2004 at the Physical Education College (FEF of the University of Brasilia (UnB, having as one of its goals the identification of the guiding paradigms of the Physical Education BA course at the University of Brasilia and its respective influences in the professional education of FEF/UnB’s faculty. Theoretical references were based on knowledge theories and research was conducted according to the qualitative approach. The conclusion reached is that the Physical Education BA course program presents a battle of ideas between the areas of Physical Activity and Human Performance and Physical Education, Sport and Society. The battle between these areas constitutes a language debate which may contribute to legitimize the field of Physical Education, Sport and Society. KEYWORDS: physical education – BA programs – epistemology – teacher education Este trabajo presenta resultados parciales de una investigación iniciada en 2004 en la Facultad de Educación Física (FEF de la Universidad de Brasilia (Un

  19. Theoretical study of influence of belt tension of intermediate belt conveyor drive on value of zone of relative slip of traction and carrying belts (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Grishin, A. V.


    The issue of the influence of tension of the traction belt of intermediate drive of the multi-drive belt conveyor on the value of zones of relative rest and sliding of the traction and carrying belts is considered. A variety of values of proportional band of tractive effort regulation of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor while it is being controlled by the tensioning device was obtained in percentage terms. Recommendations on the control of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor by means of the tensioning device when starting and productivity changes are provided.

  20. Lubricants for Metal Belt Continuously Variable Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Narita


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the effects of lubricant additives and base stock used in metal belt continuously variable transmissions (CVT fluids on the CVT transmission torque capacity. Additive formulation composed of phosphorus anti-wear agent, calcium detergent, and dispersant improved the friction coefficient between the metals. The analysis on the post-test surface suggests that the friction behavior strongly depends on the local morphology of the tribofilms derived from lubricant additives. Examining the effect of base stock on the torque capacity in actual belt CVTs revealed that SN (synthetic naphthene exhibited 10% higher torque capacity than that of PAO (polyalphaolefin. It is believed that the difference in the torque capacity is due to the difference in the oil-film shearing force generated by the relative sliding between the belt and pulley.

  1. Structure of the Kuiper Belt Dust Disk (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Kaufmann, D. E.

    An overview of the Kuiper belt dust disk is provided in this chapter. Mutual collisions among Kuiper belt objects should produce a dust disk in the outer solar system similar to the observed circumstellar dust disks. As the Kuiper belt dust particles migrate toward the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag, they are perturbed by the giant planets. Mean-motion resonances with Neptune and gravitational scattering by Saturn and Jupiter alter their orbital evolution dramatically. Asa result, large-scale structures are created in the disk. Descriptions of the dynamics involved, and the numerical simulations required to unveil the disk features, are included. Implications for extrasolar planet detection from circumstellar dust disk modeling are also discussed.

  2. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maia Dias Ledo


    Full Text Available Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae related to Rhinella schneideri (Anura, Bufonidae, Bothrops moojeni (Reptilia, Serpentes and Mabuya frenata (Reptilia, Lacertilia carcasses in Brasília, Brazil. This paper presents a list of necrophagous insects associated with small size carrions of two reptiles and one amphibian, found in areas of riparian forests and Cerrado sensu stricto physiognomies in a Conservation Unit located in Brasilia, Distrito Federal. We found seven species of insects related to these carcasses, being five Sarcophagidae, one Calliphoridae and one Braconidae parasitoid wasp. Lucilia eximia and Peckia (Pattonella intermutans were the most abundant species in the study, corroborating with other studies that suggests that these species have specializations for colonization of small size animal carcasses.



    Ismet Ibishi; Ahmet Latifi; Gzim Ibishi; Kadri Sejdiu; Melihate Shala-Galica; Bekim Latifi


    In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension ...

  4. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K


    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave‐derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp , which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models...

  5. Chain Versus Belt – System Comparison of Future Timing Drives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Howlett, Michael; Ausserhofer, Norbert; Schoeffmann, Wolfgang; Truffinet, Caroline; Zurk, Andreas


    ... and the quality requirements of timing drives. In the paper the main timing drive concepts, chain drive, dry belt and wet belt were analyzed and rated based on the functional influencing factors as target parameters to allow a scientifically...

  6. Evaluation of safety belt education program for employees (United States)


    This research was designed to determine the effectiveness of a nine-month safety belt educational program, utilizing various informational materials developed by NHTSA, in increasing safety belt usage among corporate employees. The materials used inc...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  8. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energetic electrons are trapped in the Earth's radiation belts which occupy a toroidal region between 3 and 7 RE above the Earth's surface. Rapid loss of electrons from the radiation belts is known as dropouts. The source and loss mechanisms regulating the radiation belts population are not yet understood entirely, ...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums except...

  10. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where there...

  11. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142... § 142.42 Safety belts and lifelines. (a) Except when moving from one location to another, personnel engaged in an activity where there is a hazard of falling 10 or more feet shall wear a safety belt or...

  12. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver has...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  14. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn...

  15. Seat belts and shoulder harnesses : smart protection in small airplanes. (United States)


    Seat belts alone will protect you only in minor impacts. : Using shoulder belts in small aircraft would reduce major injuries by 88% and fatalities by 20%. Shoulder belt kits are now available for most airplanes. : Proper use and installation of chil...

  16. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1413 - Safety belts: passenger warning device. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts: passenger warning device. 29....1413 Safety belts: passenger warning device. (a) If there are means to indicate to the passengers when safety belts should be fastened, they must be installed to be operated from either pilot seat. (b) Each...

  18. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  19. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  20. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley. A person...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  3. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  4. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Mission (United States)

    Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry; Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr; Takahashi, Kazue; Sibeck, David; Grebowsky, Joseph; Kessel, Ramona

    Understanding of radiation belt physics has matured to the extent that we have identified a set of processes which interplay to cause the creation and variation of radiation populations. These universal processes operate coherently across the planetary radiation belts of the solar system, and have far reaching impacts even beyond. Improvements in our understanding of these processes will substantially enhance our ability to predict radiation dynamics and mitigate the impacts on space assets. An important link in developing fully predictive understanding of such processes is the Radiation Belt Storm Probes mission to be launched into Earth's radiation belts in 2012 as a part of NASA's Living with a Star program. RBSP comprises two spacecraft making in situ measurements for at least 2 years in nearly the same highly elliptical, low inclination orbits (1.1 x 5.8 RE, 10 degrees). The orbits are slightly different so that 1 spacecraft laps the other spacecraft about every 2.5 months, allowing separation of spatial from temporal affects over spatial scales ranging from 0.1 to 5 RE. The unusually comprehensive suite of instruments, identical on the two spacecraft, measures the particle spectra (electrons, ions, ion compositions), fields (E and B), and wave distributions (dE and dB) that are needed to resolve the most critical science questions. Here we describe the RBSP mission characteristics, review the most pressing science issues that need to be resolved to develop predictive understanding, and describe how RBSP will be used to resolve those issues.

  5. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS..., harness, or other restraining means for each occupant, unless the Administrator finds it unnecessary. If...

  6. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites (United States)

    Uwe Friedel


    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  7. Research on an Active Seat Belt System (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  8. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir


    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles, the ...

  9. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.


    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  10. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes


    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  11. Development of damage detector for coal conveyor belt; Sekitan conveyor belt sonsho tanchiki no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)


    To realize the automatic detection of disconnection of conveyor belt steel cords used at a coal handling facility in thermal power plants, a damage detector for conveyor belt with a non-contact magnetic balance type highly sensitive sensor and a data processing system having real-time display function of detected signals has been developed in a cooperation with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries (IHI). A detection method of steel cord disconnection has been designed, by which the disconnection can be detected using a detecting coil as a change of magnetic balance with equivalent magnetic fields in opposite direction generated by two magnetic coils. Detecting performance was confirmed by making dummy disconnection with width of 2 mm in the steel cords of conveyor belt at the Numazu large-capacity coal handling and storage demonstration plant of IHI. Joint observation performance using an actually working conveyor belt was also confirmed at the Hekinan Thermal Power Plant of Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. Through the tests under four different velocities of conveyor belt, it was confirmed that disconnection and belt joints can be detected accurately. 9 figs.

  12. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang


    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  13. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.


    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  14. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013. (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L


    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  15. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.


    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  16. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions. (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T


    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  17. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics. (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa


    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A binary main-belt comet (United States)

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Mutchler, Max; Weaver, Harold; Larson, Stephen


    Asteroids are primitive Solar System bodies that evolve both collisionally and through disruptions arising from rapid rotation. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids and to the release of dust, both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a subset of the asteroids called main-belt comets, the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei. The kilometre-sized main-belt asteroid 288P (300163) showed activity for several months around its perihelion 2011 (ref. 11), suspected to be sustained by the sublimation of water ice and supported by rapid rotation, while at least one component rotates slowly with a period of 16 hours (ref. 14). The object 288P is part of a young family of at least 11 asteroids that formed from a precursor about 10 kilometres in diameter during a shattering collision 7.5 million years ago. Here we report that 288P is a binary main-belt comet. It is different from the known asteroid binaries in its combination of wide separation, near-equal component size, high eccentricity and comet-like activity. The observations also provide strong support for sublimation as the driver of activity in 288P and show that sublimation torques may play an important part in binary orbit evolution.

  19. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt (United States)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.


    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  20. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  1. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  2. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.


    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  3. Normative misperceptions of peer seat belt use among high school students and their relationship to personal seat belt use. (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A; Linkenbach, Jeffrey W; Lande, Gary; Neighbors, Clayton


    This research examined gender-specific perceptions of peer seat belt use norms among high school students and their relationship with one's own seat belt use. We expected that students would underestimate the seat belt use of their peers and that these perceptions would be positively associated with their own seat belt use. High school students from 4 schools (N = 3348; 52% male) completed measures assessing perceived seat belt use and personal seat belt use. Findings demonstrated that students perceived that others engaged in less seat belt use than they do and that perceived norms were positively associated with one's own seat belt use. Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents' behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seat belt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms-based interventions designed to increase seat belt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents.

  4. Random Deterioration Process of Conveyor Belt Evaluated by Statistical Analysis of Core Failures Detected Along Belt Axis and Elapsed Time (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek; Kirjanów, Agata; Kozlowski, Tomasz


    Magnetic diagnostic methods are used for steel cord belt condition evaluation since the beginning of 1970s. Initially they generated an analogue signal for several tens of centimetres of conveyor belts scanned sequentially with one measuring head in several cycles or the whole width of the belt at one time thanks to the installation of many measuring heads across the entire cross section. This did not allow identification of single centimetre failures, but rather an aggregate assessment of the state of quite wide waist. Modern diagnostic devices, thanks to miniaturization, allow up to 200 heads per belt width to identify damage of individual cords. Instead of analogue signals, they generate a zero-one digital signal corresponding to a change in the magnetic field sign, which can illustrate damage on 2D images. This makes it easier to identify the location and size of the damage in the belt image. Statistical analysis of digital signals summed up for consecutive sections along the belt axis allows to present both the source signal and its aggregation for band of a given width to form aggregate measures of belt damage such as the damage density per 1 meter of belt. Observation of changes in these measurements at different times allows on evaluation of its rate of change over time, which can be used to forecast future belt condition and to select the proper moment of preventive belt replacement to another one to avoid emergency downtimes (egg in underground mines) or to recondition of belts (egg. in lignite surface mines). The paper presents the results of investigations of the damage condition of a core of a single belt segment working in one of the copper ore underground mines. Scanning of the belt condition was performed few times at intervals of several months. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the changes in core condition, showing the random character of the damage process along the axis and its change over time.

  5. Modeling Resonant Structure in the Kuiper Belt (United States)

    Holmes, E. K.; Dermott, S. F.; Grogan, K.


    There is a possible connection between structure in circumstellar disks and the presence of planets, our own zodiacal cloud being the prime example. Asymmetries in such a disk could be diagnostic of planets which would be otherwise undetectable. At least three different types of asymmetries can serve to indicate bodies orbiting a star in a disk: (1) a warp in the plane of symmetry of the disk, (2) an offset in the center of symmetry of the disk with respect to the central star, and (3) density anomalies in the plane of the disk due to resonant trapping of dust particles. In the asteroid belt, collisions between asteroids supply dust particles to the zodiacal cloud. By comparison, it has been postulated that collisions between KBOs could initiate a collisional cascade which would produce a Kuiper dust disk. In fact, the Kuiper Belt is the region of our solar system that is most analogous to the planetary debris disks we see around other stars such as Vega, β Pic, Fomalhaut, and ɛ Eridani (Backman and Paresce 1993). A Kuiper Disk would most likely have a resonant structure, with two concentrations in brightness along the ecliptic longitude. This large scale structure arises because many of the KBOs, the Plutinos, are in the 2:3 mean motion resonance with Neptune. By running numerical integrations of particles in Pluto-like orbits, the resonant structure of the Kuiper belt can be studied by determining the percentage of particles trapped in the resonance as a function of their initial velocity and beta, where β = Frad}/F{grav. The dynamical evolution of the particles is followed from source to sink with Poynting Robertson light drag, solar wind drag, radiation pressure, and the effects of planetary gravitational perturbations included. This research was funded in part by a NASA GSRP grant.

  6. Escape of asteroids from the main belt (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert


    Aims: We locate escape routes from the main asteroid belt, particularly into the near-Earth-object (NEO) region, and estimate the relative fluxes for different escape routes as a function of object size under the influence of the Yarkovsky semimajor-axis drift. Methods: We integrated the orbits of 78 355 known and 14 094 cloned main-belt objects and Cybele and Hilda asteroids (hereafter collectively called MBOs) for 100 Myr and recorded the characteristics of the escaping objects. The selected sample of MBOs with perihelion distance q > 1.3 au and semimajor axis a random spin obliquities (either 0 deg or 180 deg) for each test asteroid. Results: We find more than ten obvious escape routes from the asteroid belt to the NEO region, and they typically coincide with low-order mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and secular resonances. The locations of the escape routes are independent of the semimajor-axis drift rate and thus are also independent of the asteroid diameter. The locations of the escape routes are likewise unaffected when we added a model for Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) cycles coupled with secular evolution of the rotation pole as a result of the solar gravitational torque. A Yarkovsky-only model predicts a flux of asteroids entering the NEO region that is too high compared to the observationally constrained flux, and the discrepancy grows larger for smaller asteroids. A combined Yarkovsky and YORP model predicts a flux of small NEOs that is approximately a factor of 5 too low compared to an observationally constrained estimate. This suggests that the characteristic timescale of the YORP cycle is longer than our canonical YORP model predicts.

  7. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrall, P.


    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  8. An Evaluation Study of a CALL Application: With BELT or without BELT (United States)

    Genc, Humeyra


    The present study tried to evaluate the 6th grade students' attitudes towards the use of a CALL program which is called BELT Success used in English language learning course in a private school, the relationship to students' attitudes to their English language proficiency level, and finally teachers` experiences and opinions towards the use of…

  9. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry


    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  10. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea


    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  11. The regulation of a project of the deregulation: UBER in Brazil and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Aurélie Laurence Defossez


    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper focuses on the regulation of Uber at regional level (Sao Paulo and Brasilia, national level (European Member States and supranational level (The European Commission initiative, which are often too restrictive. Methodology/approach/design – This article analyses standards and literature on regulation, as well as the role of competition. Attention was specially drawn to the market failure theory for justifying regulation, advocated by Breyer, Ogus and Baldwin & Cave. Due to the fact that there will be an evaluation of the regulations in place, consequentialism, welfarism and Pareto are briefly mentioned. Findings – None of the current regulatory responses, at the exception to Sao Paulo and the initiative by the European Commission that are not based exclusively on market failure theory, are working. Indeed, Uber is still banned in various cities. In others, the regulatory burden is so high that it takes away any incentives that Uber created. Regulation is not the only exit to market failure, competition must play a role. Uber is based on deregulation of the market and to try to regulate such concept with conventional theories will only lead to failures and restrictions. Practical implications – This article discusses the possible improvements to the already existing regulations. Originality/value – This paper correlates the regulation of Uber in Brazil and in Europe, explaining the difficulties these regulations are creating for Uber.

  12. Sucesso no tratamento do zumbido com terapia em grupo Group therapy for patients with tinnitus at the University of Brasilia Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Holdefer


    Full Text Available Embora os tratamentos em grupos para o zumbido sejam uma área bem documentada na literatura internacional, até onde sabemos nunca foram realizados no Brasil. Este estudo apresenta uma experiência bem-sucedida de um tratamento em grupo para zumbido baseado na terapia de retreinamento do zumbido aliada com as técnicas cognitivo-comportamentais. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar pacientes com zumbido antes e depois do tratamento em grupo estruturado baseado da terapia de retreinamento do zumbido e na terapia cognitivo comportamental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo coorte prospectivo: 27 sujeitos aplicaram-se para a pesquisa. Responderam ao inventário do Handicap do Zumbido (THI e à escala da Ansiedade e Depressão Hospitalar (HAD,antes e depois do tratamento. Foram realizadas 6 sessões estruturadas segundo os princípios da terapia de retreinamento do zumbido associada com técnicas cognitivo-comportamentais. RESULTADOS: 27 pacientes iniciaram e 19 terminaram o tratamento (8 excluídos. 47,4% homens, média das idades 47.6. O resultado do THI antes e depois do tratamento foi respectivamente: funcionais, 29 e 14; emocional, 24 e 10; e catastrófico, 12 e 5; a escala HAD: ansiedade, 12 e 9 e depressão, 10 e 6. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento descrito é efetivo na melhora do zumbido.Although group therapy for tinnitus is a well documented field in the international literature, as far as we know it has never been held in Brazil. This study represents a successful experience of a group therapy for tinnitus based on the tinnitus retraining therapy associated with behavioral cognitive techniques. The goal of the present study is to assess patients with tinnitus before and after the group therapy based on the tinnitus retraining therapy and the behavioral cognitive therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study: 27 subjects signed in for the study, and answered the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI and the Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale (HAD

  13. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    that help the government promote creativity and entrepreneurship. □ Wage inequalities in Brazil and India. Funding: $247,200. Duration: 2013–2015. Grantee: Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento, Brazil. Although poverty in Brazil and India has diminished, inequality among wage earners remains high. Think tanks ...

  14. Biochemical Education in Brazil. (United States)

    Vella, F.


    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  15. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts. (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels


    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  16. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma


    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  17. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE. (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K


    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  18. Manaus, Brazil (United States)


    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface

  19. Behavior analysis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Cláudio Todorov


    Full Text Available La historia del análisis del comportamiento en Brasil comenzó con la visita de Fred S. Keller a la Universidad de São Paulo en 1961, cuando él era un académico de la Fundación Fullbright; en aquella época, Keller presentó los trabajos de Skinner a los psicólogos brasileños. Su primer asistente fue Carolina Martuscelli Bori, en aquel entonces una psicóloga social influenciada por el trabajo de Kurt Lewin. Orientada inicialmente por Keller, Carolina Bori fue la principal fuerza de difusión del análisis del comportamiento en Brasil, comenzando con el curso de psicología en la Universidad de Brasilia, en el cual, durante agosto de 1964, se dictó el primer curso de Análisis Experimental de la Conducta. La mayoría de los analistas del comportamiento de hoy en día fueron directa o indirectamente estudiantes de Carolina Bori. Actualmente varios programas de psicología en el país ofrecen cursos de análisis del comportamiento

  20. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte


    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  1. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep


    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  2. Energy Saving for Belt Conveyors by Speed Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.


    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  3. Estimates of effectiveness of safety belts under discussion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.


    The use of safety belts reduces the change to be injured or killed in an accident. It has been proven in laboratories by impact tests. To determine the effectivety of safety belts in real terms before- and- after comparisons are made with adjustments for other influences. It seems probable that

  4. Seat Belt Use During Pregnancy in a Nigerian Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine compliance with car seat belt amongst antenatal patients and also identify the reasons for poor compliance with seat belt use. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Committee of the hospital prior to carrying out this study. This study was conducted between October and ...

  5. 46 CFR 169.825 - Wearing of safety belts. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wearing of safety belts. 169.825 Section 169.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Operations § 169.825 Wearing of safety belts. The master of each vessel shall ensure that each person wears...

  6. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.


    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  7. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor (United States)

    Tavares, Abraão; Faria, Allbens


    We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  8. Design and Selection of a Belt Conveyor System for Increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of the modifications could not be realised as any increase in plant capacity beyond 850 t/h resulted in increased spillage on belt conveyor CB among a series of conveyors in the plant flow sheet. In this paper, the causes of the spillage on conveyor CB were investigated and a belt conveyor system capable of

  9. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão


    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  10. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.


    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  11. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)


    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  12. Neptune's Eccentricity and the Nature of the Kuiper Belt (United States)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.


    The small eccentricity of Neptune may be a direct consequence of apsidal wave interaction with the trans-Neptune population of debris called the Kuiper belt. The Kuiper belt is subject to resonant perturbations from Neptune, so that the transport of angular momentum by density waves can result in orbital evolution of Neptune as well as changes in the structure of the Kuiper belt. In particular, for a belt eroded out to the vicinity of Neptune's 2:1 resonance at about 48 astronomical units, Neptune's eccentricity can damp to its current value over the age of the solar system if the belt contains slightly more than an earth mass of material out to about 75 astronomical units.

  13. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.


    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  14. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers : traffic tech. (United States)


    Wearing a seat belt has been shown effective in avoiding : or reducing serious injury due to traffic crashes. While : belt use rates in the United States increased from under : 60% in 1994 to 83% in 2008, a substantial number of drivers : still drive...

  15. Wampum Belts with Initials and/or Dates as Design Elements: A Preliminary Review of One Subcategory of Political Belts (United States)

    Becker, Marshall Joseph; Lainey, Jonathan


    Data on seventeen relatively well-documented examples as a preliminary review to an ongoing study of all that is known about belts that are a subcategory of the secular-political category is discussed. Evidence indicates that Wampum belts with initials and/or dates as design elements can clearly be demonstrated as but one subcategory of…

  16. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding


    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  17. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt (United States)

    Hsieh, Henry H.


    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  18. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds (United States)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.


    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  19. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.


    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  20. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.


    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  1. Measuring and modeling twilight's Belt of Venus. (United States)

    Lee, Raymond L


    The Belt of Venus (or antitwilight arch) is a reddish band often seen above the antisolar horizon during clear civil twilights, and immediately beneath it is the bluish-gray earth's shadow (or dark segment) cast on the atmosphere. Although both skylight phenomena have prompted decades of scientific research, surprisingly few measurements exist of their spectral, colorimetric, and photometric structure. Hyperspectral imaging of several clear twilights supplies these missing radiometric details and reveals some common spectral features of the antisolar sky at twilight: (1) color differences between the dark segment and the sunlit sky above the antitwilight arch are small or nil; (2) antisolar color and luminance extremes usually occur at different elevation angles; and (3) the two twilight phenomena are most vivid for modest aerosol optical depths. A second-order scattering model that includes extinction by aerosols and ozone provides some preliminary radiative transfer explanations of these twilight features' color and brightness.

  2. Recognition and characterisation of high-grade ignimbrites from the Neoproterozoic rhyolitic volcanism in southernmost Brazil


    Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Machado, Adriane; Rossetti, Lucas de Magalhães May; Pierosan, Ronaldo


    Neoproterozoic magmatism in southern Brazil is associated with translithospheric shear belts and strike-slip basins in a post-collisional setting related to the last stages of the Brasilian-Pan African Orogenic Cycle. It evolved from an association of high-K calc-alkaline, leucocratic-peraluminous and continental tholeiitic magmas, to an association with shoshonitic magmas and, eventually, to an association with magmas of the sodic mildly alkaline series. This magmatism varies from metalumino...

  3. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.


    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  4. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay


    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  5. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech


    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  6. The impact of building-integrated photovoltaics on the energy demand of multi-family dwellings in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordenes, Martin; Marinoski, Deivis Luis; Braun, Priscila; Ruther, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Eficiencia Energetica em Edificacoes (LabEEE), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil); Laboratorio de Energia Solar (LABSOLAR), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina/UFSC, Caixa Postal 476, Florianopolis, SC 88040-900, (Brazil)


    Brazil faces a continuous increase of energy demand and a decrease of available resources to expand the generation system. Residential buildings are responsible for 23% of the national electricity demand. Thus, it is necessary to search for new energy sources to both diversify and complement the energy mix. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is building momentum worldwide and can be an interesting alternative for Brazil due its solar radiation characteristics. This work analyses the potential of seven BIPV technologies implemented in a residential prototype simulated in three different cities in Brazil (Natal, Brasilia and Florianopolis). Simulations were performed using the software tool EnergyPlus to integrate PV power supply with building energy demand (domestic equipment and HVAC systems). The building model is a typical low-cost residential building for middle-class families, as massively constructed all over the country. Architectural input and heat gain schedules are defined from statistical data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica - Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and Sistema de Informacoes de Posses de Eletrodomesticos e Habitos de Consumo - Consumer Habits and Appliance Ownership Information System (SIMPHA)). BIPV is considered in all opaque surfaces of the envelope. Results present an interesting potential for decentralized PV power supply even for vertical surfaces at low-latitude sites. In each facade, BIPV power supply can be directly linked to local climatic conditions. In general, for 30% of the year photovoltaic systems generate more energy than building demand, i.e., during this period it could be supplying the energy excess to the public electricity grid. Contrary to the common belief that vertical integration of PV is only suitable for high latitude countries, we show that there is a considerable amount of energy to be harvested from vertical facades at the sites investigated. (Author)

  7. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran


    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  8. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.


    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  9. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt (United States)


    Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts , Nature, 437, 227–230, doi:10.1038/nature03939. Kessel, R. L., N. J. mission of the Van Allen Probes Key Points: • Quantified upper limit of MeV electrons in the inner belt • Actual MeV electron intensity likely...have not happened yet since the launch of Van Allen Probes, significant enhancements of MeV electrons do not occur in the inner belt even

  10. Feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, HG


    Full Text Available -effective dewatering technologies, electro-osmotic belt filtering was developed by Smollen and Kafaar in 1995. The mechanical equipment resembles a belt filter press but the belts are stainless steel, woven belts, which act as the electrodes. In this study...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ


    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  12. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van


    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  13. Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets: BELT Study Comparing Trouser Supporters Used as Medical Devices in a Manikin Model of Wound Bleeding. (United States)

    Bequette, Blake W; Kragh, John F; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A


    The purpose of the present study is to compare several models of commercially designed belts as used as a tourniquet. In the Belts Evaluated as Limb Tourniquets (BELT) study, an experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of pants belts as nonimprovised medical devices to control hemorrhage in a manikin. Models of belts included Tourni-belt, Tourniquet Belt, ParaBelt, and Battle Buddy. Data collected included effectiveness, time to stop bleeding, total time of application, pressure, blood loss, and composite results (score count of good results; composite outcome good if every component was good). Differences in effectiveness percentages among models were not statistically significant. The difference in mean between users was statistically significant for stop time, total time, pressure, blood loss, composite score, and composite outcome. Mean time to stop bleeding differed for only 1 pair of models after the Tukey-Kramer adjustment; ParaBelt was faster than Tourniquet Belt. Mean total time of application differed between ParaBelt-Tourniquet Belt and Tourni-belt-Tourniquet Belt; the former model in both pairs was faster. No significant difference in mean blood loss measured by model was found. For composite outcome score, no pairwise difference between models was significant. For composite outcome (good-bad), ParaBelt had good results in 75% of tests; the other 3 models had significantly worse results. In a preliminary laboratory analysis of belt tourniquet models using a manikin, performance differed by model. ParaBelt performed better than other models for the composite outcome. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  15. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay. (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette


    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  16. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the Northwest...

  17. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maug, 2003 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Maug in the...

  18. May 2006 Click It or Ticket seat belt mobilization evaluation (United States)


    Click It or Ticket (CIOT) mobilizations are intense, short-duration, seat belt publicity and enforcement programs. The 2006 national mobilization involved approximately $27 million of purchased media. Law enforcement agencies across the nation report...

  19. Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Kim, C. K.; Stokes, M.; Ho, G.; Cooper, S.; Ukhorskiy, A.; Manweiler, J. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Haggerty, D. K.; Brandt, P.; Sitnov, M.; Keika, K.; Hayes, J. R.; Brown, L. E.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hutcheson, J. C.; Nelson, K. S.; Paschalidis, N.; Rossano, E.; Kerem, S.


    The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) on the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft is the magnetosphere ring current instrument that will provide data for answering the three over-arching questions for the Van Allen Probes Program: RBSPICE will determine "how space weather creates the storm-time ring current around Earth, how that ring current supplies and supports the creation of the radiation belt populations," and how the ring current is involved in radiation belt losses. RBSPICE is a time-of-flight versus total energy instrument that measures ions over the energy range from ˜20 keV to ˜1 MeV. RBSPICE will also measure electrons over the energy range ˜25 keV to ˜1 MeV in order to provide instrument background information in the radiation belts. A description of the instrument and its data products are provided in this chapter.

  20. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    100. Huin A K, Chattopadhyay A and Khan A S 1998 A reappraisal of stratigraphy and structure of the Sausar mobile belt around Deolapar-Pauni-Manegaon area,. Nagpur district, Maharashtra, India; In: International. Seminar on Precambrian ...

  1. Jupiter's radiation belt ions - A comparison of theory and observation (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Thorne, Richard M.; Mei, YI


    Radial profiles are constructed for the Jovian radiation belt flux-tube content Y-asterisk from the reported phase-space density of energetic particles obtained from Voyager 1 data over the range L = 6 to L = 9. These experimental profiles are compared with theoretical solutions for Y-asterisk from an interchange-diffusion model of the coupled radiation belt and Iogenic ion populations. Subject to certain limitations of the Voyager 1 data, the model solutions are found to be consistent with the data for a variety of input parameters. Model solutions are also found corresponding to radiation belt ions that are expected to be mainly responsible for the auroral energy input. Comparison of the present theoretical profiles with the data implies that the energetic radiation belt ions should have a peak loss rate within a factor of three of that for strong diffusion scattering.

  2. Calculated limits for particle fluxes in Jupiter's Van Allen belts (United States)

    Haffner, J.


    Electron and proton fluxes in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated, along with the envelopes of dose rates. The following assumptions are made: the particles in the Jupiter belts are influenced only by the magnetic field of the planet; the particles act correspondingly to the particles in the Earth's belts and the Earth's belts can be used as a model; the magnetic field of Jupiter is essentially a dipole; the radiation of a decimetric nature received from Jupiter is synchrotron radiation due to the electrons, and to a first approximation it is emitted isotropically; and the strength of the emission in the decimetric wavelength range gives an upper bound considering how strong the field can be and how many electrons there are. The point dose rates for tissue and 0.1 gram/cm aluminum shielding at about 3 Jupiter radii are 10000 rads/hr for electrons and 1000 rads/hr for protons.

  3. Restraint use (seat belt and child passenger seat) survey (United States)


    In Arizona, lack of restraint usage (seat belts and child passenger seats) was a contributing factor to an average of 687 fatalities per year which is nearly 60% of total fatalities. These tragic statistics could be dramatically decreased if effectiv...

  4. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza


    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  5. Observer-based fault diagnosis for trucks belt tensioner


    Dubuc, Donatien; Sename, Olivier; Bresch-Pietri, Delphine; Gauthier, Christophe


    International audience; This paper deals with the monitoring of a serpentine belt tensioner performance, a critical automotive engine component guaranteeing the cooling system efficiency. A belt tensioner fault will affect the transmission, deteriorate the water pump efficiency, and eventually, lead the engine to stall. Monitoring this component is thus a key to design predictive or corrective maintenance. In this paper, we propose to estimate a parameter which is shown to be characteristic o...

  6. The 2010-2011 revival of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (United States)

    Giles, R. S.; Fletcher, L. N.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Orton, G. S.; Rogers, J. H.


    In 2009-2010, Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt (SEB) faded to a very pale colour before the 2010-2011 revival restored the belt to its ordinary dark appearance. Mid-infrared images of the revival were taken using VISIR (VLT) across a range of wavelengths from 7 to 25 μm. These were used to retrieve changes in temperature and aerosol optical depth as the revival proceeded between November 2010 and September 2011.

  7. Preparation and characterization of highly planar flexible silver crystal belts. (United States)

    Varade, Dharmesh; Haraguchi, Kazutoshi


    We report a novel simple one-pot strategy for fabricating pure and highly planar silver (Ag) crystal belts. Unique single-crystal Ag belts (high width-to-thickness ratio ~50) were successfully synthesized in high yield (80 wt%) by reducing AgNO3 using N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) as a reducing and a structure-determining agent in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) under mild conditions.

  8. IDRC in Brazil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    biotechnology and nanotechnology could help to develop natural resources in a more sustainable way. □ Reconstruction in Haiti. Funding: $300,700. Duration: 2009–2012. Grantee: Pró-Ensino Sociedade Civil, Brazil. Researchers from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Chile have been supporting their coun- tries' efforts to ...

  9. Civil society participation in the health system: the case of Brazil's Health Councils. (United States)

    Martinez, Martha Gabriela; Kohler, Jillian Clare


    Brazil created Health Councils to bring together civil society groups, heath professionals, and government officials in the discussion of health policies and health system resource allocation. However, several studies have concluded that Health Councils are not very influential on healthcare policy. This study probes this issue further by providing a descriptive account of some of the challenges civil society face within Brazil's Health Councils. Forty semi-structured interviews with Health Council Members at the municipal, state and national levels were conducted in June and July of 2013 and May of 2014. The geographical location of the interviewees covered all five regions of Brazil (North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, South) for a total of 5 different municipal Health Councils, 8 different state Health Councils, and the national Health Council in Brasilia. Interview data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Health Councils are limited by a lack of legal authority, which limits their ability to hold the government accountable for its health service performance, and thus hinders their ability to fulfill their mandate. Equally important, their membership guidelines create a limited level of inclusivity that seems to benefit only well-organized civil society groups. There is a reported lack of support and recognition from the relevant government that negatively affects the degree to which Health Council deliberations are implemented. Other deficiencies include an insufficient amount of resources for Health Council operations, and a lack of training for Health Council members. Lastly, strong individual interests among Health Council members tend to influence how members participate in Health Council discussions. Brazil's Health Councils fall short in providing an effective forum through which civil society can actively participate in health policy and resource allocation decision-making processes. Restrictive membership guidelines, a lack of autonomy from the

  10. Denouement of Jovian radiation belt theory (United States)

    Coroniti, F. V.


    Predictions of theoretical models of Jupiter's radiation belts are compared with Pioneer 10 measurements. A brief quasi-historical review is given of the evolution of the basic theoretical ideas with emphasis on the three physical processes that were believed to be dominant in the Jovian electron fluxes: radial-diffusion transport, limitation of particle fluxes by plasma wave turbulence, and particle losses from collisional sweep-up by the Galilean satellites. Pioneer 10 data on the inner zone are discussed which yield the clearest evidence for radial diffusion being the dominant transport process, the synchrotron flux density is estimated using Pioneer 10 measurements, and the observed outer-zone electron fluxes are favorably compared with the qualitative and quantitative predictions of the whistler-mode stable-trapping model. The outer-zone electron-precipitation flux is estimated, and it is suggested that precipitation could affect the structure of the Jovian ionosphere. Satellite sweep-up is shown to be less severe than had been anticipated.

  11. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.


    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  12. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.


    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  13. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony


    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  14. Multipliers of Voice Campaign in Brasilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Graziano Magalhães Torres


    Full Text Available Report of the livings course experiments Technical and Resources of Expressiveness to talk to Public, promoted by NESPROM – CEAM – UNB in 2010-2011, addressing the topic of skills development to speak to the public with safety and confidence, as well as the importance of the use of the voice in this process. It can be observed that by providing students we see advances in expressiveness of the participants during the course and the commitment that perform to obtain a quality result, producing the material based on the information available on the website of the Brazilian society of speech therapy. All present themselves for a second time before the Facilitator, demonstrating safety and the use of the techniques learned. There was satisfaction with the gains on public speaking, even because, talk about a light object and that they all have, as the voice, brings security and trust for the apprentice. Ending a highlight poetry produced by one of the participants completing the course.

  15. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.


    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D value may seem strange, considering the solar system is only 4.56 Gy old. One way to interpret it is that the main belt once had more mass that was eliminated by early dynamical processes between 4--4.56 Ga. This would allow for more early grinding, and it would suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped SFD is a ''fossil'' from a more violent early epoch. Simulations suggest that most D > 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V

  16. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.


    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  17. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.


    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include

  18. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)


    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  19. The Great Belt coherence experiment. [Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Kristensen, L.; Courtney, M.S.


    We have studied theoretically and experimentally lateral spectral coherences of turbulent velocity components over water at the height of 70 m. Simple theoretical considerations show that if these coherences are known it is possible with just the knowledge of the spectra to calculate the power spectrum of the lift forces on the bridge deck. These considerations also show that the force spectrum at a particular frequency {omega} = {omega}{sub 0} grows with the mean wind speed U raised to a power which can be as large as 17/3, i.e. the r.m.s. amplitude of the force at that frequency is proportional to U{sup 17/6}. We have shown quantitatively that only if the displacement D between the measured wind speed components is small compared to the scale of the turbulence do we know for certain that the coherences are parameterless functions of the dimensionless variable {omega}D/U with the implication that the coherence of identical velocity components goes to one as {omega} goes to zero. The experimental data were obtained from three sonic anemometers mounted at the top of two 70 m masts on the island Sprogoe in the middle of the Great Belt between Zealand and Fyn. The displacements were 15.0, 32.5 and 47.5 m. The data shows that the coherences only for the smallest displacement approach one as the frequency goes to zero. The larger the displacement the smaller the coherence at zero frequency. A dynamic ''shear distortion'' model explains the behavior of the coherence quite well and makes it possible to predict the coherence on basis of velocity spectra measured at one point. Simple exponential fit to the actual data have been obtained. (author) 23 refs.

  20. The white marble used in Brasília, a World Heritage and the capital of Brazil (United States)

    Heloisa Barros de Oliveira Frascá, Maria


    Created as the Brazilian capital, in the central western part of Brazil, Brasilia is a definitive example of 20th century modernist urbanism. It was built in only four years, from 1956 to 1960, following the project of urban planner Lucio Costa and architect Oscar Niemeyer that intended that every element - from the layout of the residential and administrative districts (often compared to the shape of a bird in flight) to the symmetry of the buildings themselves - should be in harmony with the city's overall design. This description is from the World Heritage Centre, of Unesco, that nominated Brasilia as a Cultural Heritage Property in 1987. Most of the remarkable buildings designed Oscar Niemeyer, cited by Unesco, are around the Plaza of Three Powers, as the Planalto ("Plateau") Palace, the National Congress, the Supreme Court, the Cathedral, the National Theatre among others. Aside from the worldwide recognition of the architectonic value of these buildings, it is barely mentioned the expressive use of white marble as cladding. Very few are found in the literature about specification criteria, provenance, fixation method and conservation. According to Oscar Niemeyer Foundation, at this moment they know that the stone come from a supplier in the State of Rio de Janeiro. A preliminary research indicated that the marble used in most of Brasilia buildings are from the municipality of Italva, in the northwest of the State of Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ, 2012). In a study carried out by DRM-RJ, in 2003, it is mentioned two white marble commercialized as dimension stone in Italva: "Sparkling Marble" (SM) and "Italva White Marble" (IWM), respectively dolomite-calcite marble and dolomite marble. Their main characteristics are: bulk specific gravity: 2,792 kg/m3 (SM) and 2,852kg/m3 (IWM); water absorption: 0.08 % (SM) and 0.10 % (IWM); uniaxial compression strength: 84.3 MPa (SM) and 88.2 MPa (IWM); modulus of rupture: 9.92 MPa (SM) and 8.75 MPa (IWM); coefficient of linear

  1. Electrospun nanofiber belts made from high performance copolyimide. (United States)

    Chen, Shuiliang; Hu, Ping; Greiner, Andreas; Cheng, Chuyun; Cheng, Haofang; Chen, Fangfang; Hou, Haoqing


    Electrospun nanofibers based on copolyimides were made, aiming at finding a promising method for improving the mechanical properties of electrospun polyimide nanofibers. The copolyimide had a backbone consisting of 3,3',4,4'-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), biphenylamide (BPA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) residues. The structure and composition of the copolyimide was controlled by the ratio of rigid BPA and flexible ODA moieties. The electrospun copolyimide nanofibers were collected in the form of a belt using a rotating disc with a rim of 8 mm width. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, x-ray scattering and tensile testing, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the nanofiber belts. The nanofibers had a diameter range from 80 to 300 nm and were well aligned in the belts. The thermal stability of the nanofiber belts was over 460 °C. The tensile test showed that the copolyimide nanofiber belts had much better mechanical properties than either of the flexible and rigid homo-polyimide (homo-PI) nanofiber belts. The tensile strength, modulus and elongation to break of the copolyimide nanofiber belt with BPA/ODA ratio of 40/60 are respectively 1.1 ± 0.1 GPa, 6.2 ± 0.7 GPa and 20.8 ± 1.2%, compared to 459 ± 36 MPa, 2.1 ± 0.3 GPa and 41.3 ± 2.2% for BPDA/ODA homo-PI as well as 384 ± 18 MPa, 11.5 ± 0.6 GPa and 3.9 ± 0.1% for BPDA/BPA homo-PI. The important feature is that the electrospun polymer nanofibers can be made very strong by using copolyimides as spinning materials.

  2. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt (United States)


    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  3. Focus on Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Brazil, the largest country in South America with a population of almost 140 million, has been plagued since the early 1980s by high foreign debt (approximately US$121 billion at present) and hyperinflation (nearly 600 percent over the past 12 months). These factors, in combination with the slower than anticipated growth in electricity demand, have been instrumental in curtailing nuclear power development in the country. Following recommendations advanced in a commissioned study for improving Brazil`s nuclear program, Brazilian President Jose Sarney announced on August 31st the restructuring of the country`s nuclear industry.

  4. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction (United States)


    .... Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa de Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to become bank holding companies by...

  5. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt1), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness2, 3), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  6. Rotationally driven 'zebra stripes' in Earth's inner radiation belt. (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Mitchell, D G; Takahashi, K; Lanzerotti, L J; Mauk, B H


    Structured features on top of nominally smooth distributions of radiation-belt particles at Earth have been previously associated with particle acceleration and transport mechanisms powered exclusively by enhanced solar-wind activity. Although planetary rotation is considered to be important for particle acceleration at Jupiter and Saturn, the electric field produced in the inner magnetosphere by Earth's rotation can change the velocity of trapped particles by only about 1-2 kilometres per second, so rotation has been thought inconsequential for radiation-belt electrons with velocities of about 100,000 kilometres per second. Here we report that the distributions of energetic electrons across the entire spatial extent of Earth's inner radiation belt are organized in regular, highly structured and unexpected 'zebra stripes', even when the solar-wind activity is low. Modelling reveals that the patterns are produced by Earth's rotation. Radiation-belt electrons are trapped in Earth's dipole-like magnetic field, where they undergo slow longitudinal drift motion around the planet because of the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field. Earth's rotation induces global diurnal variations of magnetic and electric fields that resonantly interact with electrons whose drift period is close to 24 hours, modifying electron fluxes over a broad energy range into regular patterns composed of multiple stripes extending over the entire span of the inner radiation belt.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  8. On static contact of belt and different pulleys (United States)

    Belyaev, A. K.; Eliseev, V. V.; Irschik, H.; Oborin, E. A.


    The fitting of a looped belt on two pulleys with different radii is considered. A geometrically nonlinear model with account for tension and transverse shear is applied for modeling the belt. The pulleys are considered rigid bodies, and the belt-pulley contact is assumed frictionless. The problem has an axis of symmetry, therefore the boundary value problem is formulated and solved for a half of the belt. The considered part consists of three segments, two contact segments and a free span segment between them. The introduction of a dimensionless material coordinate at all segments leads to a system of ordinary differential equations of fifteenth order. The nonlinear boundary value problem for this system and boundary conditions is solved numerically with the shooting method and the finite difference method. As a result, the belt shape including the rotation angle, the forces, moments and contact pressure are determined. The contact pressure increases near the end point of contact areas, however no concentrated contact forces occur.

  9. Angle stations in or for endless conveyor belts (United States)

    Steel, Alan


    In an angle station for an endless conveyor belt, there are presented to each incoming run of the belt stationary curved guide members (18, 19) of the shape of a major segment of a right-circular cylinder and having in the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) thereof rectangular openings (15) arranged in parallel and helical paths and through which project small freely-rotatable rollers (14), the continuously-changing segments of the curved surfaces of which projecting through said openings (15) are in attitude to change the direction of travel of the belt (13) through during passage of the belt about the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) of the guide member (18 or 19). The rectangular openings (15) are arranged with their longer edges lengthwise of the diagonals representing the mean of the helix but with those of a plurality of the rows nearest to each end of the part-cylindrical portion (16 or 17) slightly out of axial symmetry with said diagonals, being slightly inclined in a direction about the intersections (40) of the diagonals of the main portion of the openings, to provide a "toe-in" attitude in relation to the line of run of the endless conveyor belt.

  10. Fall protection characteristics of safety belts and human impact tolerance. (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt, which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness, which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  11. Inertial compensation for belt acceleration in an instrumented treadmill. (United States)

    Hnat, Sandra K; van den Bogert, Antonie J


    Instrumented treadmills provide a convenient means for applying horizontal perturbations during gait or standing. However, varying the treadmill belt speed introduces inertial artifacts in the sagittal plane moment component of the ground reaction force. Here we present a compensation method based on a second-order dynamic model that predicts inertial pitch moment from belt acceleration. The method was tested experimentally on an unloaded treadmill at a slow belt speed with small random variations (1.20±0.10m/s) and at a faster belt speed with large random variations (2.00±0.50m/s). Inertial artifacts of up to 12Nm (root-mean-square, RMS) and 30Nm (peak) were observed. Coefficients of the model were calibrated on one trial and then used to predict and compensate the pitch moment of another trial with different random variations. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were 72.08% and 96.75% for the slow and fast conditions, respectively. After compensation, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the inertial artifact was reduced by 47.37% for the slow speed and 81.98% for fast speed, leaving only 1.5Nm and 2.1Nm of artifact uncorrected, respectively. It was concluded that the compensation technique reduced inertial errors substantially, thereby improving the accuracy in joint moment calculations on an instrumented treadmill with varying belt speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lamellar assembly of cadmium selenide nanoclusters into quantum belts. (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Fudong; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gibbons, Patrick C; Buhro, William E


    Here, we elucidate a double-lamellar-template pathway for the formation of CdSe quantum belts. The lamellar templates form initially by dissolution of the CdX(2) precursors in the n-octylamine solvent. Exposure of the precursor templates to selenourea at room temperature ultimately affords (CdSe)(13) nanoclusters entrained within the double-lamellar templates. Upon heating, the nanoclusters are transformed to CdSe quantum belts having widths, lengths, and thicknesses that are predetermined by the dimensions within the templates. This template synthesis is responsible for the excellent optical properties exhibited by the quantum belts. We propose that the templated-growth pathway is responsible for the formation of the various flat, colloidal nanocrystals recently discovered, including nanoribbons, nanoplatelets, nanosheets, and nanodisks.

  13. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.


    is given both as a total percentage of time and as a mean distribution of restrictions over the year. We perform the same analysis for the Øresund and the Great Belt bridge and compare the result with the actualfractions. Only during the last year of operation of the Øresund bridge the criteria......This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... are the same as used in this report and here the comparison is satisfactory. We estimate that the prospective Fehmarn Belt bridge will be closed roughly 2% of the timefor light roadway vehicles (unloaded trucks and caravans), corresponding to 7 days per year. This is slightly less than for the Fehmarnsund...

  14. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.


    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  15. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Mauk, B. H.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Fox, N. J.


    The goal of NASA's Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to the variable inputs of energy from the Sun. The investigations selected for this 2-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in early 2012 address this task by making extensive observations of the plasma waves, thermal, ring current, and relativistic particle populations, and DC electric and magnetic fields within the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. We first describe the current mission concept within the scope of NASA's strategic plan and the Vision for Exploration, and then consider how its observations will be used to define and quantify the processes that accelerate, transport, and remove particles in the Earth's radiation belts.

  16. Radiation Belt Environment Model: Application to Space Weather and Beyond (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.


    Understanding the dynamics and variability of the radiation belts are of great scientific and space weather significance. A physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has been developed to simulate and predict the radiation particle intensities. The RBE model considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. It takes into account the particle drift in realistic, time-varying magnetic and electric field, and includes diffusive effects of wave-particle interactions with various wave modes in the magnetosphere. The RBE model has been used to perform event studies and real-time prediction of energetic electron fluxes. In this talk, we will describe the RBE model equation, inputs and capabilities. Recent advancement in space weather application and artificial radiation belt study will be discussed as well.

  17. A minimalistic and optimized conveyor belt for neutral atoms. (United States)

    Roy, Ritayan; Condylis, Paul C; Prakash, Vindhiya; Sahagun, Daniel; Hessmo, Björn


    Here we report of a design and the performance of an optimized micro-fabricated conveyor belt for precise and adiabatic transportation of cold atoms. A theoretical model is presented to determine optimal currents in conductors used for the transportation. We experimentally demonstrate a fast adiabatic transportation of Rubidium ( 87 Rb) cold atoms with minimal loss and heating with as few as three conveyor belt conductors. This novel design of a multilayered conveyor belt structure is fabricated in aluminium nitride (AlN) because of its outstanding thermal and electrical properties. This demonstration would pave a way for a compact and portable quantum device required for quantum information processing and sensors, where precise positioning of cold atoms is desirable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  19. Validation of Meteornom solar irradiation data for three regions in Brazil (United States)

    Pereira, E. B.; Teixeira, V. A.; Martins, F. R.


    This work is a part of a study to identify available and reliable sources of solar irradiation data in Brazil - with a strong focus on their relevance for PV and CSP applications. One of these sources is the Meteonorm . Meteonorm is a comprehensive meteorological reference. It gives access to a catalogue of solar radiation data and meteorological data for solar applications and system design at any desired location in the world. The current report provides an evaluation of the solar irradiation data derived from version 7.0 of the Meteonorm software for Brazil. This evaluation was made by using the observation data of horizontal global solar irradiation from the SONDA/BSRN network for Petrolina (PTR), Brasilia (BRB), and São Martinho do Serra (SMS). These sites were chosen based on a careful data quality control, absence of daily gaps, and less than 60% of missing data per month. The Meteonorm data were generated with real input monthly average for each selected validation sites for the years 2011, 2013, and 2014. The analysis was performed by relative and cumulative frequency of annual and seasonal solar irradiance, based on the methodology proposed by Pierre Inechen, 2006. The results showed little interannual variability for the validation sites and presented a recurrent occurrence of the value of 1000W.m-2 for stations PTR and BRB. The Meteonorm was able to represent the high frequencies in these locations, however, presented an interannual variation greater than observed, and an overestimation of values. As for the seasonal analysis, it was possible to verify that the quarters which varied the most from one year to the next were the Dec-Jan-Feb and Sep-Oct-Nov in BRB station; Dec-Jan-Feb and Mar-Apr-May in the PTR station; and Dec-Jan-Feb in the SMS station. The Meteornorm was able identify the months of highest and lowest variability in the BRB and SMS stations, except PTR station which yielded a large variability for all quarters. Regarding the relative

  20. Piezoelectric belts as a method for measuring chest and abdominal movement for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis. (United States)

    Vaughn, Courtney M; Clemmons, Pamela


    Distinguishing obstructive sleep apnea from central apnea depends upon accurate measure of chest and abdominal movement. American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) polysomnography guidelines recommend the use of respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) belts but not piezoelectrode (PE) belts for measuring chest and abdominal movements. To compare these two sensors, we measured the signal amplitude for 10 RIP belts and 10 PE belts stretched by mechanical distraction across six distances (2.5 to 15.0 centimeters) and replicated 10 times for each belt. Amplitudes were measured using the Stellate Harmonie (Stellate Systems, Inc., Natus Medical, Inc., San Carlos, California, USA) recording system. A Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient was calculated. All RIP belts performed well at all distraction lengths and demonstrated linear performance. Eight of 10 PE belts performed well through all measures whereas, two showed nonlinear increase in signal on stretch of greater than 12.5 centimeters. Signals from PE belts highly correlated with the distance of distraction (r = 0.96 to 0.99) and the RIP belts (r = 0.98 to 0.99). These results suggest that PE belts perform similarly to RIP belts at distraction distances up to 10.0 centimeters. Further testing on biological models is needed to determine if PE belts are a suitable alternative for RIP belts in polysomnography.

  1. Predictors of rear seat belt use among U.S. adults, 2012. (United States)

    Bhat, Geeta; Beck, Laurie; Bergen, Gwen; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo


    Seat belt use reduces the risk of injuries and fatalities among motor vehicle occupants in a crash, but belt use in rear seating positions is consistently lower than front seating positions. Knowledge is limited concerning factors associated with seat belt use among adult rear seat passengers. Data from the 2012 ConsumerStyles survey were used to calculate weighted percentages of self-reported rear seat belt use by demographic characteristics and type of rear seat belt use enforcement. Multivariable regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for rear seat belt use, adjusting for person-, household- and geographic-level demographic variables as well as for type of seat belt law in place in the state. Rear seat belt use varied by age, race, geographic region, metropolitan status, and type of enforcement. Multivariable regression showed that respondents living in states with primary (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR): 1.23) and secondary (APR: 1.11) rear seat belt use enforcement laws were significantly more likely to report always wearing a seat belt in the rear seat compared with those living in a state with no rear seat belt use enforcement law. Several factors were associated with self-reported seat belt use in rear seating positions. Evidence suggests that primary enforcement covering all seating positions is an effective intervention that can be employed to increase seat belt use and in turn prevent motor vehicle injuries to rear-seated occupants. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Brazil and the US; A Bright Future? (United States)


    Information Service, Latin America, 31 October, pp. D2-D3. 34. "Discrepancies with U.S. Sarney Visit Viewed," Brasilia Radio Nacional da Amazonia Network...Cruzado plan. President Sarney has announced that his government’s main efforts will be internal, focusing on the quality of life of its people. Sarney...military bases have been established in remote border areas in the north (C3ya Norte), r’-f.ecting a concern foL developments in Suriname and the

  3. Structural framework of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehr, M.; Cosgrove, J.W. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Royal School of Mines


    Data gleaned from the literature on the Zagros have been compiled and used in conjunction with new interpretations to provide a better picture of the structures, sedimentation history and deformation of this hydrocarbon rich Mountain Belt. The belt parallel Mountain Front, the N-S trending Kazerun, lzeh and E-W trending Bala Rud Fault Zones are defined as the master structural elements of the Belt. These fault zones divide the Zagros basin into zones with different stratigraphic successions and different rheological profiles. This resulted in different structural styles developing along the belt during the subsequent collision. The Kazerun and lzeh Fault Zones acted as the depositional system transition zone between the Lurestan and Fars regions in Jurassic-Cretaceous time and partly controlled the distribution of the Kazhdumi Formation (one of the major source rocks). By the end of the Cretaceous the NW-SE trending Mountain Front Fault divided the present Folded Belt of the Zagros into a major foreland basin to the southwest, and a piggyback basin to the northeast. Activity along other major (transfer) fault zones including the lzeh, Kazerun and Bala Rud Fault zones occurred at this time and controlled the sedimentation and subsidence of the Dezful Embayment the main target region for hydrocarbon exploration. These fault zones controlled the thickness of the Asmari Formation (one of the main reservoirs) and also the considerable thickness and facies changes of the Gachsaran Formation (the major seal to the Asmari Formation). The present morphology of the mountain belt is interpreted as being mainly related to the pinning of the Mountain Front Fault to the northwest of the Dezful Embayment and to the north of the Strait of Hormuz. (author)

  4. Does warm debris dust stem from asteroid belts? (United States)

    Geiler, Fabian; Krivov, Alexander V.


    Many debris discs reveal a two-component structure, with a cold outer and a warm inner component. While the former are likely massive analogues of the Kuiper belt, the origin of the latter is still a matter of debate. In this work, we investigate whether the warm dust may be a signature of asteroid belt analogues. In the scenario tested here, the current two-belt architecture stems from an originally extended protoplanetary disc, in which planets have opened a gap separating it into the outer and inner discs which, after the gas dispersal, experience a steady-state collisional decay. This idea is explored with an analytic collisional evolution model for a sample of 225 debris discs from a Spitzer/IRS catalogue that are likely to possess a two-component structure. We find that the vast majority of systems (220 out of 225, or 98 per cent) are compatible with this scenario. For their progenitors, original protoplanetary discs, we find an average surface density slope of -0.93 ± 0.06 and an average initial mass of (3.3^{+0.4}_{-0.3})× 10^{-3} solar masses, both of which are in agreement with the values inferred from submillimetre surveys. However, dust production by short-period comets and - more rarely - inward transport from the outer belts may be viable, and not mutually excluding, alternatives to the asteroid belt scenario. The remaining five discs (2 per cent of the sample: HIP 11486, HIP 23497, HIP 57971, HIP 85790, HIP 89770) harbour inner components that appear inconsistent with dust production in an 'asteroid belt.' Warm dust in these systems must either be replenished from cometary sources or represent an aftermath of a recent rare event, such as a major collision or planetary system instability.

  5. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  6. Global storm time depletion of the outer electron belt. (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Barnes, R J


    The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (>0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where the magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity, electron intensities in the belt can vary by orders of magnitude at different spatial and temporal scales. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the main-phase depletions: adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused by the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere, and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the adiabatic effect and magnetopause loss to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of 17 March 2013 storm. The intensities of >1 MeV electrons were depleted by more than an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 h after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with an inductive electric field. Comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer experiment shows that magnetopause loss accounts for most of the observed depletion at L >5, while at lower L shells the depletion is adiabatic. Both magnetopause loss and the adiabatic effect are controlled by the change in global configuration of the magnetic field due to storm time development of the ring current; a simulation of electron evolution without a ring current produces a much weaker depletion.

  7. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar


    Thomas, Robert James; De Waele, Bert; Schofield, David; Goodenough, Kathryn Mary; Horstwood, Matthew; Tucker, Robert; Bauer, Wilfried; Annells, Richard; Howard, Keith; Walsh, Greg; Rabarimanana, Mamy; Rafahatelo, Jean-Marie; Ralison, Vonimanitre; Randriamananjara, Theogene


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1: 100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of fourteen U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the ...

  8. The Main Belt Comets and ice in the Solar System (United States)

    Snodgrass, Colin; Agarwal, Jessica; Combi, Michael; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Hsieh, Henry H.; Hui, Man-To; Jehin, Emmanuel; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Knight, Matthew M.; Opitom, Cyrielle; Orosei, Roberto; de Val-Borro, Miguel; Yang, Bin


    We review the evidence for buried ice in the asteroid belt; specifically the questions around the so-called Main Belt Comets (MBCs). We summarise the evidence for water throughout the Solar System, and describe the various methods for detecting it, including remote sensing from ultraviolet to radio wavelengths. We review progress in the first decade of study of MBCs, including observations, modelling of ice survival, and discussion on their origins. We then look at which methods will likely be most effective for further progress, including the key challenge of direct detection of (escaping) water in these bodies.

  9. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance


    HINO, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki


    Abstract: Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt1 ), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness2, 3 ), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for ...

  10. Fine Belt-Buckles of Walrus Ivory – also Made in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else


    On the production of decorative artefacts in Norse Greenland - and new finds of walrus ivory belt buckles......On the production of decorative artefacts in Norse Greenland - and new finds of walrus ivory belt buckles...

  11. Analysis on the Bending Stiffness and the Form Force of the Pipe Conveyor Belt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun Xiaoxia; Meng Wenjun; Zhao Hui; Yuan Yuan; Yang Zhengmao


      The bending stiffness and the form force of the pipe conveyor have a grate influence on the performance of conveyor belt into tube, the wear and tear of conveyor belt, running resistance and stability for pipe conveyor...

  12. Biofuel and food security. The impact of the EU politics on the production of food with the example of Brasilia; Biokraftstoff und Ernaehrungssicherheit. Die Auswirkungen der EU-Politik auf die Nahrungsmittelproduktion am Beispiel Brasilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf, Andrea


    The author of the book under consideration presents a detailed overview of the economic, environmental and social consequences as well as the prospects of increased cultivation of biofuel in the European Union and Brazil and their impact on the bilateral relations. The associated risks and opportunities are identified. The author reports on how much our globalized world is dependent on ecologically and economically sustainable approach.

  13. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) Study. Think tanks in Brazil and India ... to climate change. IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  14. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Inequality and the labour market : what can we learn from comparing India and Brazil?; project paper H (f). Rapports. Report on Policy Dialogue on Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India : project paper G.2. Rapports. Vocational education and training (VET), inequality and the labour market in Brazil and India : a policy ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bakhanovich


    Full Text Available Impact of technological process parameters (pressing pressure, duration and vulcanization temperature on drive toothed belt longevity has been investigated. Optimum parameters of the technological process that permit to improve a belt resource have been determined. Methodology for determination of a number of cycles intended for loading of belt teeth according to a test duration and transmission parameters has been developed. The paper presents results of industrial resource tests of drive toothed belts manufactured in accordance with an optimized technology

  16. Electron acceleration and loss caused by wave-particle interactions in the Van Allen radiation belts


    Kersten, Tobias


    Modern society relies substantially on satellite technology as it is involved in vital services like telecommunication services, Earth observation, navigation, and many more. There are more than 1000 operational satellites in Earth orbit and most of these spend at least some of their time in the harsh environment of the Van Allen radiation belts. The radiation belts are usually split into two regions, the inner and the outer radiation belt. While the inner belt is considered stable, the flux ...

  17. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt


    Mann, I. R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, K. R.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A.; Milling, D. K.; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Singer, H. J.; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.


    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave-particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss,...

  18. Long-Term Benefits of Prompts to Use Safety Belts among Drivers Exiting Senior Communities (United States)

    Cox, Cory D.; Cox, Brian S.; Cox, Daniel J.


    Senior drivers are vulnerable to automobile crashes and subsequent injury and death. Safety belts reduce health risks associated with auto crashes. Therefore, it is important to encourage senior drivers to wear safety belts while driving. Using a repeated baseline design (AAB), we previously reported that motivating signs boosted safety belt usage…

  19. A shared 336 kb haplotype associated with the belt pattern in three divergent cattle breeds. (United States)

    Drögemüller, C; Demmel, S; Engensteiner, M; Rieder, S; Leeb, T


    We recently mapped the belt mutation in Brown Swiss cattle to a 922 kb interval on BTA3. In this study, we analysed two additional cattle breeds with the belted phenotype: Galloway and Dutch Belted (Lakenvelder). By genotyping microsatellites in solid-coloured and belted Galloways, we confirmed that the belt mutation in Galloways is strongly associated with the same chromosomal locus as in Brown Swiss cattle. Subsequently, we analysed 36 SNPs in the belt interval in three breeds. We identified a single belt-associated haplotype for each of the analysed breeds. The three breed-specific belt haplotypes share alleles in four blocks. Three of these blocks comprise only one single or two consecutive markers, while the largest shared haplotype block encompasses nine consecutive SNPs in a 336 kb interval. The large shared haplotype across divergent breeds suggests a common mutation for the belt phenotype in all three breeds. We identified a potential candidate gene within this interval coding for the developmental transcription factor HES6. We re-sequenced the complete HES6 coding sequence in belted and solid-coloured cattle but did not find belt-associated polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence in favour of a common founder for the belt phenotype in different cattle breeds and have resulted in an improved fine-mapping of the causative mutation.

  20. 29 CFR 1926.959 - Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. 1926.959... and Distribution § 1926.959 Lineman's body belts, safety straps, and lanyards. (a) General...'s body belts, safety straps and lanyards acquired for use after the effective date of this subpart...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (United States)


    ... belts. 56.14130 Section 56.14130 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel...

  2. Evaluation of Maine's seat belt law change from secondary to primary enforcement. (United States)


    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77% to 84%; night 69% to 81%). Although daytime belt use ...

  3. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use (United States)


    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation establishing...

  4. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order 13043...

  5. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate. (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national average...

  6. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate (United States)


    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National Average...

  7. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and is...

  8. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.


    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  9. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131 Section 57.14131 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained...

  10. 30 CFR 14.22 - Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. 14..., EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS Technical Requirements § 14.22 Test for flame resistance of conveyor belts. (a) Test procedures. The test...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT


    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  12. WISE Albedos for Tens of Thousands of Main Belt Asteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R.; Dailey, J.; Delbo, M.; Grav, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Mueller, M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; WISE Science Team, [No Value


    Using thermal IR data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission we have calculated diameters for tens of thousands of previously known Main Belt asteroids. Using archival optical observations we have also determined albedos for each object. We present our results from this

  13. ALMA Discovery of Dust Belts around Proxima Centauri (United States)

    Anglada, Guillem; Amado, Pedro J.; Ortiz, Jose L.; Gómez, José F.; Macías, Enrique; Alberdi, Antxon; Osorio, Mayra; Gómez, José L.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pérez-Torres, Miguel A.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Berdiñas, Zaira M.; Jenkins, James S.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Lara, Luisa M.; López-González, Maria J.; López-Puertas, Manuel; Morales, Nicolas; Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Anita M. S.; Rodríguez-López, Cristina; Rodriguez, Eloy


    Proxima Centauri, the star closest to our Sun, is known to host at least one terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit. Here we report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) detection of the star at 1.3 mm wavelength and the discovery of a belt of dust orbiting around it at distances ranging between 1 and 4 au, approximately. Given the low luminosity of the Proxima Centauri star, we estimate a characteristic temperature of about 40 K for this dust, which might constitute the dust component of a small-scale analog to our solar system’s Kuiper Belt. The estimated total mass, including dust and bodies up to 50 km in size, is of the order of 0.01 Earth masses, which is similar to that of the solar Kuiper Belt. Our data also show a hint of warmer dust closer to the star. We also find signs of two additional features that might be associated with the Proxima Centauri system that still require further observations to be confirmed: an outer extremely cold (about 10 K) belt around the star at about 30 au, with an orbital plane that is tilted about 45° with respect to the plane of the sky; additionally, we marginally detect a compact 1.3 mm emission source at a projected distance of about 1.2 arcsec from the star, the nature of which is still unknown.

  14. Some control problems of continuously variable belt transmission (United States)

    Radzymiński, B.


    Control problems of continuously variable belt transmission used in passenger cars have been discussed. Pulley adjustment solutions and choice of control and feedback signals are the main topics. Intention to use such a transmission as part of a complex system containing mechanical energy storage caused that the adjustment transition time become crucial problem.

  15. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.


    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tes...... for automating the process of extracting aerodynamic derivatives from recorded time histories of coupled vertical and torsional motion....

  16. Stride length asymmetry in split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamer, W.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.


    The number of studies utilizing a split-belt treadmill is rapidly increasing in recent years. This has led to some confusion regarding the definitions of reported gait parameters. The purpose of this paper is to clearly present the definitions of the gait parameters that are commonly used in

  17. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)


    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  18. The Chemical Composition of an Extrasolar Kuiper-Belt-Object (United States)

    Xu, S.; Zuckerman, B.; Dufour, P.; Young, E. D.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.


    The Kuiper Belt of our solar system is a source of short-period comets that may have delivered water and other volatiles to Earth and the other terrestrial planets. However, the distribution of water and other volatiles in extrasolar planetary systems is largely unknown. We report the discovery of an accretion of a Kuiper-Belt-Object analog onto the atmosphere of the white dwarf WD 1425+540. The heavy elements C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Ca, Fe, and Ni are detected, with nitrogen observed for the first time in extrasolar planetary debris. The nitrogen mass fraction is ˜2%, comparable to that in comet Halley and higher than in any other known solar system object. The lower limit to the accreted mass is ˜1022 g, which is about one hundred thousand times the typical mass of a short-period comet. In addition, WD 1425+540 has a wide binary companion, which could facilitate perturbing a Kuiper-Belt-Object analog into the white dwarf’s tidal radius. This finding shows that analogs to objects in our Kuiper Belt exist around other stars and could be responsible for the delivery of volatiles to terrestrial planets beyond the solar system. Part of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among Caltech, the University of California and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Sleeping sickness (ss) in the Abraka Belt: a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sleeping sickness (SS) in the Abraka belt: a preliminary geographical description of the disease focus.Annals Biomedical Sciences 2002;1:111-117.This retrospective study provides an analysis of the epidemiological data on Sleeping Sickness (SS) cases between January 1999 and December 2001 at the Baptist Medical ...

  20. Reconnaissance geochemical study of a part of Igarra Schist Belt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geochemical exploration of Orle district within the Igarra schist belt in southwestern Nigeria was carried out using reconnaissance stream-sediment survey. A total of 56 samples were collected and chemically analysed for 22 trace elements including Au, Ag, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Mo, Hg, Sb, Tl, Sc, Cr, Ni, La, W, V, U, Th, ...

  1. Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke


    Palaeogene clay samples were obtained by high quality boring and sampling techniques (Geobore S-system), during the extensive site investigations for building a bridge in the Fehmarn Belt area to link between Rødbyhavn in Denmark and Puttgarden in Germany. The Palaeogene clay is rich in smectite...

  2. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection. (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W


    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone.

  3. What kinds of people do not use seat belts? (United States)

    Helsing, K J; Comstock, G W


    In the course of a Community Mental Health Epidemiology study conducted in Washington County, Maryland between December, 1971 and July, 1974, interviews were conducted with randomly selected adults in a weekly systematic sampling of households. In a subsequent re-interview of 1009 respondents who had family cars with seat belts, nearly 47 per cent said they did not use them. Non-use of seat belts was significantly higher among females and among persons with less than high school education or low income. Non-use of seat belts was also higher among those who felt that their station in life as measured by the Cantril ladder was unsatisfactory, who felt powerless to change at least some aspects of their lives, and who were infrequent church attenders. Significant associations were also found with infrequency of two other preventive health behaviors, dental checkups and Pap tests. Among young adults the tendency seemed to be for marriage to increase the non-use of seat belts among females but to decrease non-use among males. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:911016

  4. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep ...

  5. Impact Tests of HBU-X Automatic Lap Belt Prototypes. (United States)


    technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER HENNINGE. VON GIERKE, Dr Ing Director Biodynamics and...SYSTEM loed cells will be wine <i to provide a positive output Mhen the belt 1s pulled. +Z -z AMRL BBP COORDINATE SYSTEM ( Left Hand Rule ) FIGURE

  6. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125.211 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held child...

  7. Geochemistry of amphibolites from the Kolar Schist Belt (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S.; Hanson, G. N.; Rajamani, V.


    How the Nd isotope data suggest that the amphibolites from the schist belt were derived from long-term depleted mantle sources at about 2.7 Ga is described. Trace element and Pb isotope data from the amphibolites also suggest that the sources for the amphibolites on the western and eastern sides of the narrow schist belt were derived from different sources. The Pb data from one outcrop of the central tholeiitic amphibolites lies on a 2.7 Ga isochron with a low model. The other amphibolites (W komatiitic, E komatiitic, and E tholeiitic) do not define isochrons, but suggest that they were derived from sources with distinct histories of U/Pb. There is some suggestion that the E komatiitic amphibolites may have been contaminated by fluids carrying Pb from a long-term, high U/Pb source, such as the old granitic crust on the west side of the schist belt. This is consistent with published galena Pb isotope data from the ore lodes within the belt, which also show a history of long-term U/Pb enrichment.

  8. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the most important gold-mining and production regions in the circum-Pacific metallogenic zone. Research has been conducted in this area since the 1960s, however, the timing of the gold mineralisation is still unresolved, and ...

  9. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the features that ...

  10. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing (United States)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi


    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  11. Rapid Loss of Radiation Belt Relativistic Electrons by EMIC Waves (United States)

    Su, Zhenpeng; Gao, Zhonglei; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.


    How relativistic electrons are lost is an important question surrounding the complex dynamics of the Earth's outer radiation belt. Radial loss to the magnetopause and local loss to the atmosphere are two main competing paradigms. Here on the basis of the analysis of a radiation belt storm event on 27 February 2014, we present new evidence for the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave-driven local precipitation loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of the outer radiation belt. During the main phase of this storm, the radial profile of relativistic electron phase space density was quasi-monotonic, qualitatively inconsistent with the prediction of radial loss theory. The local loss at low L shells was required to prevent the development of phase space density peak resulting from the radial loss process at high L shells. The rapid loss of relativistic electrons in the heart of outer radiation belt was observed as a dip structure of the electron flux temporal profile closely related to intense EMIC waves. Our simulations further confirm that the observed EMIC waves within a quite limited longitudinal region were able to reduce the off-equatorially mirroring relativistic electron fluxes by up to 2 orders of magnitude within about 1.5 h.

  12. On the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Camporeale (Enrico); Shprits, Y. (Yuri); M.H. Chandorkar (Mandar); Drozdov, A. (Alexander); S.P. Wing (Simon)


    textabstractWe present the first study of the uncertainties associated with radiation belt simulations, performed in the standard quasi-linear diffusion framework. In particular, we estimate how uncertainties of some input parameters propagate through the nonlinear simulation, producing a

  13. Dynamics of the low altitude secondary proton radiation belt. (United States)

    Gusev, A A; Kohno, T; Spjeldvik, W N; Martin, I M; Pugacheva, G I; Turtelli, A


    At the interface between the upper atmosphere and the radiation belt region, there exists a secondary radiation belt consisting mainly of energetic ions that have become neutralized in the ring current and the main radiation belt and then re-ionized by collisions in the inner exosphere. The time history of the proton fluxes in the 0.64-35 MeV energy range was traced in the equatorial region beneath the main radiation belts during the three year period from 21 February 1984 to 26 March 1987 using data obtained with the HEP experiment on board the Japanese OHZORA satellite. During most of this period a fairly small proton flux of -1.2 cm-2 S-1 sr-1 was detected on geomagnetic field lines in the range 1.05 < L < 1.15. We report a few surprisingly deep and rapid flux decreases (flux reduction by typically two orders of magnitude). These flux decreases were also long in duration (lasting up to three months). We also registered abrupt flux increases where the magnitude of the proton flux enhancements could reach three orders of magnitude with an enhancement duration of 1-3 days. Possible reasons for these unexpected phenomena are discussed.

  14. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: Constrains from rare earth element, fluid inclusion geochemistry and geochronology. Zhixin Huang Wanming Yuan Changming Wang Xiangwei Liu Xiaotong Xu Liya Yang. Volume ...

  15. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...

  16. Stone Quarries and Sourcing in the Carolina Slate Belt (United States)


    collaborative project involving both geologists and archaeologists. The archaeological impetus for this project was provided by Jeff Irwin and Chris Moore...transported material. The senior author has observed six caches (all but one collected by amateurs ) of metavolcanic material. Cached material includes...analysis) are not without precedent. Although rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt have interested geologists for many years, a geoarchaeological

  17. A photometric search for active Main Belt asteroids (United States)

    Cikota, S.; Ortiz, J. L.; Cikota, A.; Morales, N.; Tancredi, G.


    It is well known that some Main Belt asteroids show comet-like features. A representative example is the first known Main Belt comet 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. If the mechanisms causing this activity are too weak to develop visually evident comae or tails, the objects stay unnoticed. We are presenting a novel way to search for active asteroids, based on looking for objects with deviations from their expected brightnesses in a database. Just by using the MPCAT-OBS Observation Archive we have found five new candidate objects that possibly show a type of comet-like activity, and the already known Main Belt comet 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. Four of the new candidates, (315) Constantia, (1026) Ingrid, (3646) Aduatiques, and (24 684) 1990 EU4, show brightness deviations independent of the object's heliocentric distance, while (35 101) 1991 PL16 shows deviations dependent on its heliocentric distance, which could be an indication of a thermal triggered mechanism. The method could be implemented in future sky survey programmes to detect outbursts on Main Belt objects almost simultaneously with their occurrence.

  18. Characterization of Main Belt Comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro (United States)

    Kaluna, H. M.; Meech, K. J.; Pittichova, J.; Zenn, T.; Sonnett, S.; Riesen, T.; Hsieh, H. H.


    We are using an extensive data set collected on the main belt comet 133P/Elst-Pizarro to gain insight into nucleus properties. The new information provided by this data set has provided us with constraints on the surface properties and activity in 133P.

  19. Formation and decay of the inner electron radiation belt (United States)

    Su, Y. J.; Selesnick, R.


    The inner electron radiation belt was found, early in the space age, to be highly variable with rapid injections followed by slower decay. Highly structured energy spectra were also observed (now known in energy-time spectrograms as "zebra stripes"). Inner belt formation was explained by inward diffusion. However, even the fastest diffusion is expected to require a period of many days, while observations show frequent rapid injections across the entire inner belt (as low as L=1.2) during periods of belt. In this presentation, we will explain the rapid injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra, as observed from Van Allen Probes for electrons with energies of 100-400 keV, by the action of large-scale electric fields. In addition, a case study of a non-diffusive fast injection event that occurred on March 17, 2013, is simulated by a test particle code which demonstrates the sensitivity of electron intensity to the selected electric field model.

  20. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts. (United States)

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E


    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  1. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Ogunjobi


    Jun 6, 2017 ... study identifies radiation belt electron dropouts which are ultimately triggered when solar wind stream interfaces (SI) arrived at ... (Plasmapause); indicating a combination of electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) and whistler mode waves as the contributing ... density known as the slot (Van-Allen 1959). Elec-.

  2. Geochemistry of Gold Deposits in Anka Schist Belt, Northwestern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Gold quartz veins have been identified associated with the rock formations of the Anka Schist Belt forming eight gold deposits that include Kuba I, Kuba II, Doka, Dumi I, Dumi II, Zurzurfa I, Zurzurfa II, Jameson and Kwali. The present study involves the use of major and trace elements to characterize some of the.

  3. Jupiter's belts and zones: Contradictory evidence for upwelling and downwelling (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Juno Science Team


    Early authors (Hess and Panofsky 1951, Ingersoll and Cuzzi 1969, Barcilon and Gierasch 1970) noted that the zonal winds are cyclonic in the belts and anticyclonic in the zones. From the thermal wind equation they concluded that the air below the clouds is colder at the belts and warmer at the zones. Hot air rising and cold air sinking led to the notion of downwelling in the belts and upwelling in the zones, which agreed with observations of clear air and low ammonia vapor in the belts and cloudy air and high ammonia vapor in the zones (Gierasch et al. 1986). However, lightning in the belts seemed to contradict that idea, based on the assumption that lightning and convection require upwelling of moist air from below (Little et al. 1999, Ingersoll et al. 2000). Convergence of the eddy momentum flux on the poleward sides of the zones (Salyk et al. 2006) supports the inference based on lightning by implying convergence of the meridional flow in the zones. Here we argue that lightning in the belts does not require upwelling. Instead, there is a threshold for moist convection that is triggered when the thickness of the weather layer drops below a critical value (Li and Ingersoll 2006, Thomson and McIntyre 2016). We also argue that the convergence of the eddy momentum flux does not require equatorward flow. Instead, the meridional flow is controlled by the sign of the potential vorticity (PV) gradient, which is southward on the equatorward sides of the zones (Ingersoll et al. 2017), implying divergence of the meridional flow in the zones. This is a new idea and is based on the observation that the predicted flat parts of the PV staircase (Dritschel and McIntyre 2008), might actually be sloping inward, since the curvature of the zonal velocity profile U_yy exceeds beta at the centers of the westward jets (Ingersoll and Cuzzi 1969, Ingersoll et al. 1981, Limaye et al. 1986, Li et al. 2004, Read et al. 2006). These arguments agree with observations of upwelling in the zones

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Marcondes


    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is among the most important vector-borne diseases that occur in Brazil, mainly due to its zoonotic nature. It is currently present in almost all Brazilian territory, and its control is a challenge both for veterinarians and for public health officials. The etiologic agent is Leishmania infantum (syn chagasi, and the main vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Of all animals identified as reservoirs of VL, the dog is considered the most important domestic reservoir. Although the disease has already been identified in cats, the epidemiological role of this animal species is still unclear. This article presents a brief review of the epidemiological situation of the disease, its mode of transmission, clinical features in dogs and cats as well as possible risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease in Brazil.

  5. [A better Brazil]. (United States)

    Lesser, Jeffrey


    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  6. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue? (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher


    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  7. Contact binaries in the Trans-neptunian Belt (United States)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.


    A contact binary is made up of two objects that are almost touching or in contact with each other. These systems have been found in the Near-Earth Object population, the main belt of asteroids, the Jupiter Trojans, the comet population and even in the Trans-neptunian belt.Several studies suggest that up to 30% of the Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) could be contact binaries (Sheppard & Jewitt 2004, Lacerda 2011). Contact binaries are not resolvable with the Hubble Space Telescope because of the small separation between the system's components (Noll et al. 2008). Only lightcurves with a characteristic V-/U-shape at the minimum/maximum of brightness and a large amplitude can identify these contact binaries. Despite an expected high fraction of contact binaries, 2001 QG298 is the only confirmed contact binary in the Trans-Neptunian belt, and 2003 SQ317 is a candidate to this class of systems (Sheppard & Jewitt 2004, Lacerda et al. 2014).Recently, using the Lowell’s 4.3m Discovery Channel Telescope and the 6.5m Magellan Telescope, we started a search for contact binaries at the edge of our Solar System. So far, our survey focused on about 40 objects in different dynamical groups of the Trans-Neptunian belt for sparse or complete lightcurves. We report the discovery of 5 new potential contact binaries converting the current estimate of potential/confirmed contact binaries to 7 objects. With one epoch of observations per object, we are not able to model in detail the systems, but we derive estimate for basic information such as shape, size, density of both objects as well as the separation between the system’s components. In this work, we will present these new systems, their basic characteristics, and we will discuss the potential main reservoir of contact binaries in the Trans-neptunian belt.

  8. Scientific integrity in Brazil. (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins


    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  9. Constraints on the gas content of the Fomalhaut debris belt. Can gas-dust interactions explain the belt's morphology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cataldi, G.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Chen, C. H.; Dent, W. R. F.; Kamp, I.; Roberge, A.; Vandenbussche, B.

    Context. The 440 Myr old main-sequence A-star Fomalhaut is surrounded by an eccentric debris belt with sharp edges. This sort of a morphology is usually attributed to planetary perturbations, but the orbit of the only planetary candidate detected so far, Fomalhaut b, is too eccentric to efficiently

  10. Brazil's mental health adventure. (United States)

    Weingarten, Richard


    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  11. Laboratory testing of conveyor textile belt joints used in underground mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hardygóra


    Full Text Available In order to achieve the high standards of safety and operational reliability required of belt conveyors, there is a requirement for systematic testing of conveyor belts and their joints. This article describes joint testing methods and presents an analysis of the causes of reduced strength of multi-ply belt joints. Testing was carried out at the Belt Conveying Laboratory (LTT of Wroclaw University of Technology. Presented here is a proprietary method for the measurement of stress distribution in conveyor belt adhesive joints.

  12. Eand P opportunities in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castilho, Marcelo [National Petroleum Agency of Brasil (Brazil)


    Brazil is one of the world's largest economies and the country also has significant heavy oil reserves. This report from the National Petroleum Agency of Brazil aims at presenting the situation of the oil and gas sector in Brazil in terms of resources, production, regulatory framework and opportunities for the future. Brazil has numerous sedimentary basins at its disposal, most of them being prospected by both national and foreign companies from all over the world. Brazil has over 14 billion barrels of proven reserves, its production is 2,1 MMBbl/d and heavy oil represents almost 40% of that production. The National Petroleum Agency of Brazil is responsible for the implementation of oil sector policy with the aims of maintaining self-sufficiency, implementing good practices in terms of health and safety, and increasing local content. This paper pointed out that Brazil has an important opportunity to enhance its energy sector through the development of heavy oil.

  13. Portugal, a Brazil Colony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cid, Pedro


    ... a new America, in fact, some say that this new vague of migrants towards the terrinha, as Brazilians like to call Portugal, is connected to the strong barriers imposed by the US government, in recent years, to Brazilian citizens willing to enter the United States and to the rippling tide of anti-American feeling in Brazil, right now. Apart from...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Adrian PĂUN


    Full Text Available Conveyor belts are used for a long period of time in the industry branches where potentially explosive atmospheres could occur. Dangerous phenomena which can be in direct connection with the use of conveyor belts are the ones regarding: - sparks influence over the coating layer and/or resistance internal structure of the stopped conveyor belt; - propagation of a flame along the length of a conveyor belt that was exposed to a energy source relative high like a fire or due to blockage of a conveyor belt as a result of the driving mechanism still operating, that generate a local heating of the conveyor belt in contact with the driving drum, rollers or any other heating source generated by friction. Determining the safety parameters characteristic of the conveyor belts by employing test methods allows assessment of the safety level as well as certification of their explosion protection quality when used in environments with explosion danger.

  15. Dynamics of the earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere (geophysical monograph series)

    CERN Document Server


    Dynamics of the Earth's Radiation Belts and Inner Magnetosphere draws together current knowledge of the radiation belts prior to the launch of Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RPSP) and other imminent space missions, making this volume timely and unique. The volume will serve as a useful benchmark at this exciting and pivotal period in radiation belt research in advance of the new discoveries that the RPSP mission will surely bring. Highlights include the following: a review of the current state of the art of radiation belt science; a complete and up-to-date account of the wave-particle interactions that control the dynamical acceleration and loss processes of particles in the Earth's radiation belts and inner magnetosphere; a discussion emphasizing the importance of the cross-energy coupling of the particle populations of the radiation belts, ring current, and plasmasphere in controlling the dynamics of the inner magnetosphe...

  16. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel. (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C


    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  17. Proterozoic orogenic belts and rifting of Indian cratons: Geophysical constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Mishra


    Full Text Available The Aravalli–Delhi and Satpura Mobile Belts (ADMB and SMB and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB in India form major Proterozoic mobile belts with adjoining cratons and contemporary basins. The most convincing features of the ADMB and the SMB have been the crustal layers dipping from both sides in opposite directions, crustal thickening (∼45 km and high density and high conductivity rocks in upper/lower crust associated with faults/thrusts. These observations indicate convergence while domal type reflectors in the lower crust suggest an extensional rifting phase. In case of the SMB, even the remnant of the subducting slab characterized by high conductive and low density slab in lithospheric mantle up to ∼120 km across the Purna–Godavari river faults has been traced which may be caused by fluids due to metamorphism. Subduction related intrusives of the SMB south of it and the ADMB west of it suggest N–S and E–W directed convergence and subduction during Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence. The simultaneous E–W convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and Marwar craton (Western Rajasthan across the ADMB and the N–S convergence between the Bundelkhand craton and the Bhandara and Dharwar cratons across the SMB suggest that the forces of convergence might have been in a NE–SW direction with E–W and N–S components in the two cases, respectively. This explains the arcuate shaped collision zone of the ADMB and the SMB which are connected in their western part. The Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB also shows signatures of E–W directed Meso–Neoproterozoic convergence with East Antarctica similar to ADMB in north India. Foreland basins such as Vindhyan (ADMB–SMB, and Kurnool (EGMB Supergroups of rocks were formed during this convergence. Older rocks such as Aravalli (ADMB, Mahakoshal–Bijawar (SMB, and Cuddapah (EGMB Supergroups of rocks with several basic/ultrabasic intrusives along these mobile belts, plausibly formed during

  18. Diabetes Care in Brazil. (United States)

    Coutinho, Walmir F; Silva Júnior, Wellington Santana


    The diabetes epidemic affects most countries across the world and is increasing at alarming rates in Latin America. Nearly 12 million individuals have diabetes in Brazil, and the current prevalence ranges from 6.3% to 13.5%, depending on the region and the diagnostic criteria adopted in each study. To provide an overview of diabetes care in Brazil, focusing on studies of diabetes epidemiology, prevalence of patients within the standard targets of care, and economic burden of diabetes and its complications. SciELO and PubMed searches were performed for the terms "diabetes," "Brazil," "Brazilian," and "health system"; relevant literature from 1990 to 2015 was selected. Additional articles identified from reference list searches were also included. All articles selected were published in Portuguese and/or English. Recent studies detected a prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus of nearly 20%. Among patients with type 1 diabetes, almost 90% fail to reach target of glycemic control, with less than 30% receiving treatment for both hypertension and dyslipidemia. More than 75% of patients with type 2 diabetes are either overweight or obese. Most of these patients fail to reach glycemic targets (42.1%) and less than 30% reached the target for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only 0.2% of patients reach all these anthropometric and metabolic targets. Brazil is the fourth country in the world in number of patients with diabetes. Regardless of the diabetes type, the majority of patients do not meet other metabolic control goals. The economic burden of diabetes and its complications in Brazil is extremely high, and more effective approaches for preventions and management are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. The Madong Early Paleozoic fold-thrust belt in southern Tarim Basin (United States)

    Li, Yue-Jun; Wen, Lei; Li, Hui-Li; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Zheng, Duo-Ming; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang; Jia, Tie-Gan


    The Madong fold-thrust belt, which strikes NE-SW and thrusts southeastward, locates in the southern Tarim Basin. It is a part of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt, and so is the Tangnan fold-thrust belt on the southeast of Madong. The Madong and Tangnan fold-thrust belts developed in Cambrian-Ordovician strata, and the Middle Cambrian gypsum-salt layer serves as the main décollement surface. The Middle Silurian and above strata unconformably overlie Madong while the upper Lower Silurian unconformably overlie Tangnan. On the basis of the facts that: (1) the Upper Ordovician is the youngest strata involved in the fold-thrust deformation, (2) the upper-Lower to Middle Silurian is the oldest strata unconformably overlying the foreland fold-thrust belt (including Madong and Tangnan), and growth strata exist in the upper part of the Upper Ordovician, we infer that the deformation time of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt (including Madong and Tangnan) was during the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian. Tangnan is the residual of the major part of the foreland fold-thrust belt. Its northwestward thrust direction represents the main thrust direction of the foreland fold-thrust belt. Madong is the front belt of the foreland fold-thrust belt. It mainly thrusts southeastward and serves as the back-thrust belt of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic foreland fold-thrust belt. It is a triangle zone between Madong and Tangnan. The Madong fold-thrust belt is the best-preserved section of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic collisional orogenic belt, and thus is an important geological record of the Kunlun Early Paleozoic orogeny.

  20. Self-reported safety belt use among emergency department patients in Boston, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Patricia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety belt use is 80% nationally, yet only 63% in Massachusetts. Safety belt use among potentially at-risk groups in Boston is unknown. We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of belt non-use among emergency department (ED patients in Boston. Methods A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted on non-urgent ED patients age ≥18. A closed-ended survey was administered by interview. Safety belt use was defined via two methods: a single-item and a multiple-item measure of safety belt use. Each was scored using a 5-point frequency scale. Responses were used to categorize safety belt use as 'always' or less than 'always'. Outcome for multivariate logistic regression analysis was safety belt use less than 'always'. Results Of 478 patients approached, 381 (80% participated. Participants were 48% female, 48% African-American, 40% White, median age 39. Among participants, 250 (66% had been in a car crash; 234 (61% had a valid driver's license, and 42 (11% had been ticketed for belt non-use. Using two different survey measures, a single-item and a multiple-item measure, safety belt use 'always' was 51% and 36% respectively. According to separate regression models, factors associated with belt non-use included male gender, alcohol consumption >5 drinks in one episode, riding with others that drink and drive, ever receiving a citation for belt non-use, believing that safety belt use is 'uncomfortable', and that 'I just forget', while 'It's my usual habit' was protective. Conclusion ED patients at an urban hospital in Boston have considerably lower self-reported safety belt use than state or national estimates. An ED-based intervention to increase safety belt use among this hard-to-reach population warrants consideration.

  1. The extreme Kuiper Belt binary 2001 QW322. (United States)

    Petit, J-M; Kavelaars, J J; Gladman, B J; Margot, J L; Nicholson, P D; Jones, R L; Parker, J Wm; Ashby, M L N; Bagatin, A Campo; Benavidez, P; Coffey, J; Rousselot, P; Mousis, O; Taylor, P A


    The study of binary Kuiper Belt objects helps to probe the dynamic conditions present during planet formation in the solar system. We report on the mutual-orbit determination of 2001 QW322, a Kuiper Belt binary with a very large separation whose properties challenge binary-formation and -evolution theories. Six years of tracking indicate that the binary's mutual-orbit period is approximately 25 to 30 years, that the orbit pole is retrograde and inclined 50 degrees to 62 degrees from the ecliptic plane, and, most surprisingly, that the mutual orbital eccentricity is <0.4. The semimajor axis of 105,000 to 135,000 kilometers is 10 times that of other near-equal-mass binaries. Because this weakly bound binary is prone to orbital disruption by interlopers, its lifetime in its present state is probably less than 1 billion years.

  2. Flying through an African Greenstone Belt by EMusic (United States)

    Menghini, Antonio; Pontani, Stefano


    This performance will simulate a flying over and across a "Greenstone Belt" area in Sierra Leone, that was investigated by means of Airborne EM method for detecting gold. VTEM (Versatile Time Domain Electromagnetic - Geotech Ltd) data were sonified according to the procedure (EMusic) defined by Menghini and Pontani (2016). The soundtrack of the video showing a journey through the survey area (also into the subsurface) describes the different geophysical responses, provided by the regolith aquifer, the granitic-gneiss basement and by the greenstone belt bedrock. It represents a funny way to disseminate the knowledge and the utility of the geophysical methods towards common audience. References Menghini, A., and Pontani, S., (2016): What is the Sound of the Earth? First Break, 34, 41-46.

  3. Calculations of synchrotron emission from the terrestrial radiation belts (United States)

    Johnson, R.


    A theoretical model was developed to allow for the calculation of the synchrotron emission arising from high energy electrons trapped in the Van Allen belts of a planet with a dipole magnetic field. The model is general enough to allow for the calculation of the intensity of radiation received by an observer at any distance from and any latitude about the planet. The model is used to compute the emission from the earth's Van Allen belts that one should expect at various latitudes at a distance of 1.92 earth radii, the position of the Radio Astronomy Explorer satellite that was launched in 1968, for the frequencies 1.3 MHz and 2.2 MHz.

  4. Upper hybrid waves and energetic electrons in the radiation belt (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Hwang, Junga; Shin, Dae-Kyu


    Van Allen radiation belt is characterized by energetic electrons and ions trapped in the Earth's dipolar magnetic field lines and persisting for long periods. It is also permeated by high-frequency electrostatic fluctuations whose peak intensity occurs near the upper hybrid frequency. Such a phenomenon can be understood in terms of spontaneous emission of electrostatic multiple harmonic electron cyclotron waves by thermal plasmas. In the literature, the upper hybrid fluctuations are used as a proxy for determining the electron number density, but they also contain important information concerning the energetic electrons in the radiation belt and possibly the ring current electrons. The companion paper analyzes sample quiet time events and demonstrates that the upper hybrid fluctuations are predominantly emitted by tenuous population of energetic electrons. The present paper supplements detailed formalism of spontaneous thermal emission of multiple-harmonic cyclotron waves that include upper hybrid fluctuations.

  5. Chorus Wave Energy Budget Analysis in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.


    Whistler-mode chorus emissions are important electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously scatter and accelerate electrons of the outer radiation belt, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts. Here, we present an analysis of Van Allen Probes electric and magnetic field VLF waveform data, evaluating the wave energy budget, and show that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to very oblique waves. Such waves, with a generally much smaller (up to 10 times) magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have comparable or even larger total energy. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts and also provide nonlinear effects due to wave-particle interaction through the Landau resonance due to the significant electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field.

  6. Critical phenomenon of granular flow on a conveyor belt. (United States)

    De-Song, Bao; Xun-Sheng, Zhang; Guang-Lei, Xu; Zheng-Quan, Pan; Xiao-Wei, Tang; Kun-Quan, Lu


    The relationship between the granular wafer movement on a two-dimensional conveyor belt and the size of the exit together with the velocity of the conveyor belt has been studied in the experiment. The result shows that there is a critical speed v(c) for the granular flow when the exit width d is fixed (where d=R/D, D being the diameter of a granular wafers). When vv(c), the flow rate Q is described as Q=Crho(v)(beta)(d-k)(3/2). These are the effects of the interaction among the granular wafers and the change of the states of the granular flow due to the changing of the speed or the exit width d.

  7. Hysteretic behavior of a belt tensioner: modeling and experimental investigation


    Michon, Guilhem; Manin, Lionel; Dufour, Regis


    In this paper we describe the modeling of the hysteretic behavior of belt tensioners. An initial experimental device is composed only of the tensioner by using forcing frequencies, preloads and deflection amplitudes. It permits the identification of the parameters of the restoring force model used. Comparison of the measured and predicted force deflection loops of the tensioner subjected to large deflections permits preliminary validation of the model.The second experimental device consists o...

  8. Rotation Periods for Three Main-belt Asteroids (United States)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Baj, Giorgio; Tinella, Vito; Bachini, Mauro; Succi, Giacomo; Casalnuovo, Giovanni Battista; Bacci, Paolo


    Photometric observations of three main-belt asteroids were made from Italy in order to determine their synodic rotation periods. For 1022 Olympiada the period is 3.834 ± 0.001 hr, amplitude 0.66 mag. For 1602 Indiana the results are 2.601 ± 0.001 hr and 0.16 mag. and for 2501 Lohja we report 3.809 ± 0.001 hr and 0.44 mag.

  9. Accelerated Comparative Fatigue Strength Testing of Belt Adhesive Joints (United States)

    Bajda, Miroslaw; Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek


    Belt joints are the weakest link in the serial structure that creates an endless loop of spliced belt segments. This affects not only the lower strength of adhesive joints of textile belts in comparison to vulcanized splices, but also the replacement of traditional glues to more ecological but with other strength parameters. This is reflected in the lowered durability of adhesive joints, which in underground coal mines is nearly twice shorter than the operating time of belts. Vulcanized splices require high precision in performance, they need long time to achieve cross-linking of the friction mixture and, above all, they require specialized equipment (vulcanization press) which is not readily available and often takes much time to be delivered down, which means reduced mining output or even downtime. All this reduces the reliability and durability of adhesive joints. In addition, due to the consolidation on the Polish coal market, mines are joined into large economic units serviced by a smaller number of processing plants. The consequence is to extend the transport routes downstream and increase reliability requirements. The greater number of conveyors in the chain reduces reliability of supply and increases production losses. With high fixed costs of underground mines, the reduction in mining output is reflected in the increase in unit costs, and this at low coal prices on the market can mean substantial losses for mines. The paper describes the comparative study of fatigue strength of shortened samples of adhesive joints conducted to compare many different variants of joints (various adhesives and materials). Shortened samples were exposed to accelerated fatigue in the usually long-lasting dynamic studies, allowing more variants to be tested at the same time. High correlation between the results obtained for shortened (100 mm) and traditional full-length (3×250 mm) samples renders accelerated tests possible.

  10. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.


    Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.

  11. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex. 1. Introduction. Detailed geophysical appraisal of the northern schist belts of the Dharwar craton, (i.e. ...

  12. Beryllium resources of the tin-spodumene belt, North Carolina (United States)

    Griffitts, Wallace R.


    Pegmatite dikes in the tin-spodumene belt of North and South Carolina uniformly contain about 0.05 percent BeO. The most abundant minerals in the pegmatite contain from 0. 0001 to 0.01 percent BeO. Beryl, having 12.0 to 12.3 percent BeO, is the only beryllium-rich mineral and contains more than 80 percent of the total beryllium in the rock. Beryl-bearing pegmatite crops out on hillsides near streams that flow through the pegmatite belt. Much of the pegmatite contains spodumene, feldspar, mica, cassiterite, and columbite, as well as beryl, but separating these minerals will require milling. The minable spodumene ore in the Kings Mountain area, above a depth of 300 feet contains about 40,000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 6, 000 tons of BeO, if 80 percent of the BeO is assumed to be in beryl. Other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 238,000 tons of beryl, or 35, 900 tons of BeO. On the basis of the same assumptions the spodumene ore above a depth of 300 feet 1 in the Beaverdam Creek area contains 6, 000 tons of beryl, or 800 tons of BeO, and all other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 13, 000 tons of beryl, or 1, 700 tons of BeO. The entire tin-spodumene belt contains 823, 000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 122,800 tons of BeO. Little beryllium was found in the Piedmont province outside of the tin-spodumene belt.

  13. Cofilin activation during podosome belt formation in osteoclasts. (United States)

    Blangy, Anne; Touaitahuata, Heiani; Cres, Gaelle; Pawlak, Geraldine


    Podosomes are dynamic actin-based structures found constitutively in cells of monocytic origin such as macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts. They have been involved in osteoclast cell adhesion, motility and matrix degradation, and all these functions rely on the ability of podosomes to form supra-molecular structures called podosome belts or sealing zones on mineralized substrates. Podosomes contain two distinct domains, an actin-rich core enriched in actin polymerization regulators, surrounded by a ring of signaling and plaque molecules. The organization of podosome arrays into belts is linked to actin dynamics. Cofilin is an actin-severing protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. Cofilin is present in lamellipodia and invadopodia where it regulates actin polymerization. In this report, we show that cofilin is a novel component of the podosome belt, the mature osteoclast adhesion structure. Time-course analysis demonstrated that cofilin is activated during primary osteoclast differentiation, at the time of podosome belt assembly. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of active cofilin in the podosome core structure, whereas phosphorylated, inactive cofilin is concentrated in the podosome cloud. Pharmacological studies unraveled the role of a specific cofilin phosphatase to achieve cofilin activation during osteoclast differentiation. We ruled out the implication of PP1/PP2A and PTEN in this process, and rather provided evidence for the involvement of SSH1. In summary, our data involve cofilin as a regulator of podosome organization that is activated during osteoclast differentiation by a RANKL-mediated signaling pathway targeting the SSH1 phosphatase.

  14. Cofilin activation during podosome belt formation in osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Blangy

    Full Text Available Podosomes are dynamic actin-based structures found constitutively in cells of monocytic origin such as macrophages, dendritic cells and osteoclasts. They have been involved in osteoclast cell adhesion, motility and matrix degradation, and all these functions rely on the ability of podosomes to form supra-molecular structures called podosome belts or sealing zones on mineralized substrates. Podosomes contain two distinct domains, an actin-rich core enriched in actin polymerization regulators, surrounded by a ring of signaling and plaque molecules. The organization of podosome arrays into belts is linked to actin dynamics. Cofilin is an actin-severing protein that is known to regulate cytoskeleton architecture and cell migration. Cofilin is present in lamellipodia and invadopodia where it regulates actin polymerization. In this report, we show that cofilin is a novel component of the podosome belt, the mature osteoclast adhesion structure. Time-course analysis demonstrated that cofilin is activated during primary osteoclast differentiation, at the time of podosome belt assembly. Immunofluorescence studies reveal a localization of active cofilin in the podosome core structure, whereas phosphorylated, inactive cofilin is concentrated in the podosome cloud. Pharmacological studies unraveled the role of a specific cofilin phosphatase to achieve cofilin activation during osteoclast differentiation. We ruled out the implication of PP1/PP2A and PTEN in this process, and rather provided evidence for the involvement of SSH1. In summary, our data involve cofilin as a regulator of podosome organization that is activated during osteoclast differentiation by a RANKL-mediated signaling pathway targeting the SSH1 phosphatase.

  15. [A Dutch roadmap for care without belts usage]. (United States)

    Hamers, J P H; Gulpers, M J M; Bleijlevens, M H C; Capezuti, E; van Rossum, E


    The use of physical restraints still is highly prevalent in institutional long term care settings for older people. We know that the use of restrictive measures, such as belt restraints, do have many negative consequences for residents, and even can be harmful to their health. However, this knowledge does not result in a reduction of physical restraints. This paper describes the search for an intervention (EXBELT) aiming to safely reduce and prevent the use of belt restraints in nursing homes. EXBELT consists of a promotion of institutional policy change that discourages use of belt restraints, nursing home staff education, availability of alternative interventions, and consultation by a nurse specialist. Effect evaluations show that EXBELT is effective on the short and long term. According to a process evaluation, EXBELT was largely performed according to protocol and very well received by nursing home staff and resident's relatives. However, concurrently it is stated that the reduction of physical restraints in Dutch nursing home care runs slowly. The conclusion is that continuing focus is needed to reduce physical restraints in nursing homes and to prevent its use in home care.

  16. Metallogenic belt and mineral deposit maps of northeast Asia (United States)

    Obolenskiy, Alexander A.; Rodionov, Sergey M.; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Gerel, Ochir; Hwang, Duk-Hwan; Miller, Robert J.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Smelov, Alexander P.; Yan, Hongquan; Seminskiy, Zhan V.


    This report contains explanatory material and summary tables for lode mineral deposits and placer districts (Map A, sheet 1) and metallogenic belts of Northeast Asia (Maps B, C, and D on sheets 2, 3, and 4, respectively). The map region includes eastern Siberia, southeastern Russia, Mongolia, northeast China, and Japan. A large group of geologists—members of the joint international project, Major Mineral Deposits, Metallogenesis, and Tectonics of Northeast Asia—prepared the maps, tables, and introductory text. This is a cooperative project with the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Mongolian National University, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian Technical University, Mineral Resources Authority of Mongolia, Geological Research Institute, Jilin University, China Geological Survey, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Japan, and U.S. Geological Survey. This report is one of a series of reports on the mineral resources, geodynamics, and metallogenesis of Northeast Asia. Companion studies include (1) a detailed geodynamics map of Northeast Asia (Parfenov and others, 2003); (2) a compilation of major mineral deposit models (Rodionov and Nokleberg, 2000; Rodionov and others, 2000); (3) a series of metallogenic belt maps (Obolenskiy and others, 2004); (4) location map of lode mineral deposits and placer districts of Northeast Asia (Ariunbileg and others, 2003b); (5) descriptions of metallogenic belts (Rodionov and others, 2004); (6) a database on significant metalliferous and selected nonmetalliferous lode deposits and selected placer districts (Ariunbileg and others, 2003a); and (7) a series of summary project publications (Ariunbileg and 74 others, 2003b).

  17. A social media program to increase adolescent seat belt use. (United States)

    Drake, Stacy A; Zhang, Ni; Applewhite, Courtney; Fowler, Katherine; Holcomb, John B


    In response to motor vehicle crashes remaining the leading cause of death for teenagers in the United States, a nursing clinical group (n = 10) in conjunction with a local hospital injury prevention program created an educational campaign to bolster seat belt use. The nursing students created an Instagram account to serve as an educational tool to promote seat belt use among teenagers aged 14-19, and the program was presented at three high school health fairs. In all, 135 postings were made to the account over a 3-month period. The number of likes posted by high school students was the unit of analysis. The most significant result (p = .01) was the difference between postings most liked (celebrities wearing seat belts) and least liked (postings made at the high school health fair), otherwise, differences among postings liked (humor postings, response requests, pictures of celebrities, factual data) were not significant. Instagram user engagement, measured in number of likes, is indicative that social media provides platforms to promote injury prevention efforts. Further research is needed to identify measurable elements of social media and to follow-up on behavioral changes following participation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Investigating radiation belt losses though numerical modelling of precipitating fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP may be the most significant inner radiation belt loss process for some electron energy ranges. One area of uncertainty lies in identifying a typical estimate of the precipitating fluxes from the examples given in the literature to date. Here we aim to solve this difficulty through modelling satellite and ground-based observations of onset and decay of the precipitation and its effects in the ionosphere by examining WEP-produced Trimpi perturbations in subionospheric VLF transmissions. In this study we find that typical Trimpi are well described by the effects of WEP spectra derived from the AE-5 inner radiation belt model for typical precipitating energy fluxes. This confirms the validity of the radiation belt lifetimes determined in previous studies using these flux parameters. We find that the large variation in observed Trimpi perturbation size occurring over time scales of minutes to hours is primarily due to differing precipitation flux levels rather than changing WEP spectra. Finally, we show that high-time resolution measurements during the onset of Trimpi perturbations should provide a useful signature for discriminating WEP Trimpi from non-WEP Trimpi, due to the pulsed nature of the WEP arrival.

  19. Modeling the Inner Magnetosphere: Radiation Belts, Ring Current, and Composition (United States)

    Glocer, Alex


    The space environment is a complex system defined by regions of differing length scales, characteristic energies, and physical processes. It is often difficult, or impossible, to treat all aspects of the space environment relative to a particular problem with a single model. In our studies, we utilize several models working in tandem to examine this highly interconnected system. The methodology and results will be presented for three focused topics: 1) Rapid radiation belt electron enhancements, 2) Ring current study of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs), Dst, and plasma composition, and 3) Examination of the outflow of ionospheric ions. In the first study, we use a coupled MHD magnetosphere - kinetic radiation belt model to explain recent Akebono/RDM observations of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. In the second study, we present initial results of a ring current study using a newly coupled kinetic ring current model with an MHD magnetosphere model. Results of a dst study for four geomagnetic events are shown. Moreover, direct comparison with TWINS ENA images are used to infer the role that composition plays in the ring current. In the final study, we directly model the transport of plasma from the ionosphere to the magnetosphere. We especially focus on the role of photoelectrons and and wave-particle interactions. The modeling methodology for each of these studies will be detailed along with the results.

  20. Evolution of planet crossing asteroids in the inner Main Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, A O; Roig, F, E-mail: [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, 20921-400, RJ (Brazil)


    We studied the dynamical evolution of asteroids in terrestrial planet crossing orbits, located between 2.1 and 2.5 AU. The evolution is analyzed by direct numerical integration of massless particles under the gravitational influence of all planets from Venus to Neptune. The simulations include the Yarkovsky effect, introduced as a non conservative force that produces a slow variation of the average orbital semimajor axis. Our analysis focuses on the test particles that can reach the middle and outer regions of the Main Belt (semimajor axis > 2.5 AU) during their evolution, since these may be relevant for understanding the transport mechanisms of asteroids from the inner Belt. These mechanisms could help to explain, for example, the existence of basaltic asteroids beyond 2.5 AU assuming that these bodies originate in the Vesta family, located at {approx} 2.3 AU. We found that, although some orbits that reach the middle and outer regions of the Belt can become temporarily detached from the planet crossing regime, and may have their orbital eccentricities damped due to capture at some mean motion resonances, such orbits survive for only a few hundred thousand years and, ultimately, the test particles return to the planet crossing regime being eventually discarded by close encounters with the planets. These results seem to indicate that a transport mechanism based only on planetary encounters and resonant capture might not be efficient enough to justify the presence of basaltic asteroids beyond 2.5 AU.

  1. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives. (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R


    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Pconveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Equine influenza in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Filippsen Favaro


    Full Text Available Equine influenza virus (EIV (H3N8 and H7N7 is the causative agent of equine influenza, or equine flu. The H7N7 subtype has been considered to be extinct worldwide since 1980. Affected animals have respiratory symptoms that can be worsened by secondary bacterial respiratory infection, thereby leading to great economic losses in the horse-breeding industry. In Brazil, equine influenza outbreaks were first reported in 1963 and studies on hemagglutination antibodies against viral subtypes in Brazilian horses have been conducted since then. The objective of the present review was to present the history of the emergence of EIV around the world and in Brazil and the studies that have thus far been developed on EIV in Brazilian equines.

  3. Comparisons between the diverse electron radiation belts of the solar system; Implications for radiation belt studies at Earth (United States)

    Mauk, B. H.; Fox, N. J.


    Recent studies have demonstrated that several different processes limit the most intense relativistic electron intensities within the diverse radiation belts in the solar system. Specifically, the most intense radiation belt intensities at Earth, Uranus and Jupiter all appear to be limited by a differential and relativistic version of the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit, which relies on strong whistler-wave-stimulated losses acting in a non-linear feedback mode through reflection of the waves back into the system. The most intense observed intensities at Netune and Saturn reside below those allowed by the Kennel-Petschek limit. At Neptune the absence of dynamic injection phenomena may be limiting the acceleration of relativistic electrons. At Saturn, scattering and absorption by dense clouds of gas and dust from the plumes of the moon Enceladus appear to be responsible for limiting radiation belt intensities. Even given this diversity of behaviors within the solar system, the substantial consistency of electron spectral behaviors within the very different magnetospheres of Earth, Jupiter, and Uranus is rather remarkable. For Earth studies, the utilization of the Kennel-Petschek limit has fallen on disfavor as some of the simplifying assumptions that have gone into that original theory have been challenged by observations, specifically of the behavior of whistler waves within Earth’s inner and middle magnetosphere. Our results suggest strongly that the Kennel-Petschek theory is robust to the diversity of magnetospheric and whistler mode behaviors and that it still has important implications for the behavior of Earth’s radiation belts.

  4. Innovation Policies of Brazil (United States)


    and Embraer (aircraft manufacture), and private multinational companies include Vale (mining), Volkswagen do Brasil (automotive and biofuels...innovation. The high cost of doing business in Brazil known as custo Brasil is a barrier to starting and growing new businesses and arises from high...Exterior, MDIC) 1960 Responsible for policy development of industry, trade and services National Bank for Economic and Social Development ( Banco


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Falcão Uchôa


    Full Text Available This article aims at pointing out the origins and the evolution of Stylistics in Brazil. After an introduction about the emergence, in Europe, of Stylistics as a discipline in the field of language studies, the article concerns itself with the contributions of Philology, Linguistics, the Theory of Literature and Grammar to the study of the most different stylistic devices employed by writers, particularly by Brazilian ones.

  6. Hydrocarbons in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Alto Paraguay basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Afonso C.R. [Fundacao Univ. do Amazonas, Manaus (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias; Kerkis, Alexei; Hidalgo, Renata L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geologia Sedimentar; Riccomini, Claudio; Fairchild, Thomas R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    Full text of publication follows: A singular occurrence of hydrocarbons (bitumen) was found in Neo proterozoic carbonate rocks of the Araras Formation (Alto Paraguay basin) in the Terconi quarry (Mirassol d'Oeste, Mato Grosso, Brazil). The bitumen occurs in a transgressive carbonate succession overlying Varanger tillites, that consists of two facies associations: (1) lagoon complex, with pink parallel-laminated dolomicrites and fenestral stromatolitic biostromite, and (2) tidal-flat complex, represented by terrigenous gray micrites and pseudosparites, with parallel lamination, asymmetric ripple marks, tepee breccia, planar stromatolites and evaporites. When fresh, the bitumen is compact and vitreous, filling fractures, stylolites and dissolution cavities, generally associated with calcite cement and euhedral dolomite crystals. Microscopic examination shows the bitumen filling pores of primary (fenestral) and secondary (moldic and intragranular) origins. As the first record of hydrocarbon in Neoproterozoic rocks of the Paraguay Belt, this occurrence opens a new perspective for the evaluation of oil potential in Precambrian rocks of Central Brazil. (author)

  7. Relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Federal District, Brazil, 2003-2012. (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda Monteiro de Castro; Martins, Eder de Souza; Pedrosa, Daniella Melo Arnaud Sampaio; Evangelista, Maria do Socorro Nantua

    Despite the high rate of tuberculosis indicators in Brazil, the Federal District shows a low prevalence of the disease. To analyze the relationship between climatic factors and air quality with tuberculosis in the Brazilian Federal District. This was an ecological and descriptive study comparing 3927 new cases of Tuberculosis registered at the Federal District Tuberculosis Control Program with data from the National Institute of Meteorology, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Brazilian Agricultural Research Institute, Brasilia Environmental Institute, and the Federal District Planning Company. From 2003 to 2012, there has been a higher incidence of Tuberculosis (27.0%) in male patients in the winter (27.2%). Patients under 15 years of age (28.6%) and older than 64 years (27.1%) were more affected in the fall. For youth and adults (15-64 years), the highest number of cases was reported during winter (44.3%). The disease was prevalent with ultraviolet radiation over 17MJ/m2 (67.8%; p=pollution levels dropped to 15.2% between 2003 and 2012. Smoke levels decreased to 31.9%. In the Sobradinho region, particulate matter dropped to 13.1% and smoke to 19.3%, coinciding with the reduction of Tuberculosis incidence rates during the same period. The results should guide surveillance actions for Tuberculosis control and elimination and indicate the need to expand observation time to new climate indicators and air quality. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Schistosomiasis control in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Naftale


    Full Text Available In 1975 the Special Programme for Schistosomiasis Control was introduced in Brazil with the objective of controlling this parasitic disease in six northeastern states. The methodology applied varied largely from state to state, but was based mainly on chemotherapy, This Programme was modified about ten years after it beginning with the main goals including control of morbidity and the blockage of establishment of new foci in non-endemic areas. In two states, Bahia and Minas Gerais, the schistosomiasis control programme started in 1979 and 1983, respectively. The recently made evaluation of those two programmes is the main focus of this paper. It must also be pointed out, that the great majority of the studies performed by different researchers in Brazil, at different endemic areas, consistently found significant decrease on prevalence and incidence, when control measures are repeatedly used for several years. Significant decrease of hepatosplenic forms in the studied areas is well documented in Brazil. After more than 20 years of schistosomiasis control programmes in our country, chemotherapy has shown to be a very important tool for the control of morbidity and to decrease prevalence and incidence in endemic areas. Nevertheless, in medium and long terms, sanitation, water supply, sewage draining and health education seem to be the real tools when the aim is persistent and definitive schistosomiasis control.

  9. Radiopharmacy education in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Santos-Oliveira


    Full Text Available The number of schools of pharmacy has been increasing each year in Brazil. From 2002 to 2013 over 300 new schools were opened in Brazil with a final number of 415 schools of pharmacy in operation around the country. Of these schools, only 28 schools offer a course in radiopharmacy (7.77%. However, the demand for such trained professionals has grown exponentially in Brazil, especially following amendment 49 (February 2006 that broke the monopoly on the production, distribution, and marketing of short half-life radiopharmaceuticals, and the recent constitutional amendment project 517/2010, which was approved in the last instance and is waiting for final approval by the President. Thus, in this scenario, there are a total of 417 radiopharmacy services across the country waiting for qualified professionals to fill posts. However, while there are insufficient trained professionals, radiopharmacy services under the aegis of Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria - Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency allow biomedical scientists and biologists to perform specialized functions as developed in radiopharmacy services without the presence of radiopharmacists.

  10. Health promotion in Brazil. (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes


    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  11. Lithologies, structure and basement-cover relationships in the schist belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Masquelin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This work is the result of a multiyear effort to use field geology to describe lithologies, to establish contact relationships and to create a sketch of the tectonic evolution of the Meso- to Neoproterozoic metasedimentary successions within the Schist Belt of the Dom Feliciano Belt. This low-grade metamorphic cover rests on the high-grade metamorphic basement of the La China and Las Tetas complexes. This basement is Archean-Paleoproterozoic in age. The Schist Belt is overlapped unconformably by the Barriga Negra formation. The Lavalleja complex and the Barriga Negra formation both deformed together during the D2 deformation event (~ 570 -540 Ma, but the Barriga Negra only partially recorded the D2 transpressive event, whereas the Lavalleja complex was affected by both the D1 tangential event and the D2 event. Event D1 would have developed a fold nappe with vergence to the south. This hypothesis is supported by different structures: (i recumbent and upright folds oriented E-W, (ii subhorizontal mylonitic foliation in marbles (calc-schists, (iii stretching lineations plunging towards the SW in metaconglomerates of the Las Tetas Complex, and (iv a reworking of the subhorizontal foliation parallel to the Sarandí del Yí strike-slip shear zone.

  12. Timing belts - development milestones and innovations; Meilensteine und Innovationen der Zahnriemenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H. [ContiTech Antriebssysteme GmbH, Hannover (Germany)


    Modern Timing Belts made of high temperature resistant elastomers for camshaft drives are designed for engine lifetime. Timing Belt drives gained in Europe 75% market share because of their advantages. The Belt drives generate up to 25% less friction than chain drives and create significantly lower noise levels. The new generation of Timing Belts are manufactured using: - special fibre glass types to transmit high forces with very high length stability - reinforced and Teflon treated fabrics to reduce friction and noise -high temperature resistant HNBR Elastomer to cover the temperature range (-40 C to +150 C) New belt drive developments are using Oval sprocket technology to eliminate unwanted vibrations and to reduce drive forces by 35%. Oil resistant Belts can substitute oil lubricated chains used for oil pump and camshaft drives to reduce the friction and noise level of the chain drives. (orig.)

  13. Possibilities for utilizing scrap rubber conveyor belts in manufacturing mine cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owinski, A.; Furmanik, K.


    Utilization of scrap conveyor belts removed due to wear in manufacturing mine cars used in underground coal mines is evaluated. Tests show that rubber packs (sandwiches) consisting of conveyor belt elements successfully replace springing in mine cars. The rubber packs are bent at an angle of 90 or 120 degrees to increase their damping properties. Evaluations show that service life of rubber springing is longer than 3 years. Replacing steel springs in car buffers with rubber belt packs is a further possibility. The rubber packs in car buffers absorb up to 35% of shock energy. Sections of scrap belts could also be used to reduce buildup of coal in mine cars. Belt sections are fastened to the bottom of mine cars. Belt deformation during car self-dumping (or unloading in a rotary tippler) reduces coal adhesion to the car body and prevents buildup. 4 references.

  14. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan


    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  15. Habits and customs of crab catchers in southern Bahia, Brazil. (United States)

    Firmo, Angélica M S; Tognella, Mônica M P; Tenório, Gabrielle D; Barboza, Raynner R D; Alves, Rômulo R N


    Brazilian mangrove forests are widely distributed along the coast and exploited by groups of people with customs and habits as diverse as the biology of the mangrove ecosystems. This study identifies different methods of extracting crabs that inhabit the mangrove belts; some of these activities, such as catching individual crabs by hand, are aimed at maintaining natural stocks of this species in Mucuri (south Bahia), Brazil. In the studied community, illegal hunting activities that violate Brazilian legislation limiting the use of tangle-netting in mangrove ecosystem were observed. According to our observations, fishermen, to catch individual crabs, use the tangle-netting technique seeking to increase income and are from families that have no tradition of extraction. This analysis leads us to conclude that catchers from economically marginalised social groups enter mangroves for purposes of survival rather than for purposes of subsistence, because the catching by tangle-netting is a predatory technique. Tangle-netting  technique increase caught but also increases their mortality rate. We emphasise that traditional catching methods are unique to Brazil and that manual capturing of crab should be preserved through public policies aimed at maintaining the crab population.

  16. Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Labour Market Inequality in Brazil and India: A Comparative Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) Study ... and the Institute for Human Development in Delhi who will develop comparable measures of inequality in wage income and examine contributing factors such as ... Centro Brasileiro de Analise e Planejamento.

  17. Various production methods are being tried in the Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Venezuela's state-owned Corporacion Venezolana del Petroleo (CVP) and Mobil Oil Co. de Venezuela intend to make an in-situ combustion test in the Orinoco Oil Belt, which is also known as the Orinoco Tar Belt. Estimates of oil in place in the Tar Belt are as high as 700 billion bbl in deposits located in an area 53 km by 600 km. Evaluation of all possible production processes is being continued.

  18. [Use of seat belts and mobile phone while driving in Florence: trend from 2005 to 2009]. (United States)

    Lorini, Chiara; Pellegrino, Elettra; Mannocci, Federico; Allodi, Guendalina; Indiani, Laura; Mersi, Anna; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Santini, Maria Grazia; Garofalo, Giorgio; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo


    to evaluate the trend over time of the use of seat belts by drivers and passengers of cars and vans and the use of hand held mobile phone while driving in Florence from 2005 to 2009. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: direct observations (58,773 vehicles) have been conducted to detect the use of seat belts by occupants of cars and vans, and the use of mobile phone while driving. It has been carried out correlation analysis between the use of the seat belt by occupants of vehicles and between the simultaneous use of this device and mobile phone while driving.Moreover, it has been carried out time series analysis (ARIMA Box Jenkins) of in the prevalence of the use of seat belts by occupants of vehicles observed, of mobile phone by drivers and the trend of the risk to drive using the mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to drive using the mobile phone with fastened seat belt. seat belts were used on average by 75.7% of drivers, 75.5% of front passengers and 25.1% of rear passengers. The average mobile phone use while driving was 4.5%. Drivers most frequently fasten seat belt if front passengers use it and while they do not use mobile phone. The use of seat belts by drivers and front passengers has not changed over time, whereas the use of mobile phone while driving has significantly increased. The prevalence of using mobile phone with unfastened seat belt rather than to use it with fastened seat belt while driving has significantly decreased over the years, indicating an increase in the use of mobile phone, especially among those who fasten the seat belt. it is necessary to plan and realize stronger interventions in the whole area.

  19. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes


    I. P. Pakhotin; A. Y. Drozdov; Yuri Shprits; R. J. Boynton; D. A. Subbotin; M. A. Balikhin


    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system ...

  20. Pattern of seat belt use by drivers in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (United States)


    Background In Trinidad and Tobago, the law on the mandatory use of seat belts was passed in 1995, but this law is hardly enforced. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of seat belt use by motor vehicle drivers in the country. Findings A cross-sectional study of 959 motor vehicle drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Pearson Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis in order to determine the possible predictors of seat belt use by the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago. A majority of the drivers sometimes (51.8%) or always (31.6%) use a seat belt. About 16.7%, 29% and 54.2% of the drivers perceived that the other drivers use their seat belts more frequently, with the same frequency and less frequently respectively compared to themselves. The main reason for not using seat belt by the drivers was given as frequent stops (40.7%) and the main motivation to use seat belt by the drivers was given as stiffer penalties for non-compliance with the seat belt law (44.5%). The predictors of seat belt use were male driver, no formal or lower level of education, driving for less than 10 years, and the perception that the other drivers use seat belts with the same or higher frequency compared to the respondents. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago always use a seat belt when driving. There is the need to enforce the seat belt legislation in the country. PMID:21679410

  1. Data From HANE-Generated Radiation Belts and the Origin of Diffusion Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winske, Dan [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In this presentation we briefly review some of the published data regarding the artificial radiation belts produced by the Starfish and R2 high altitude nuclear explosions in 1962. The data showed slow temporal variations of the belts in altitude (L) and pitch angle ({alpha}) that could be modeled as a diffusion process. That early work formed the basis for more complex radiation belt diffusion models that are in use at present.

  2. Charles S. Peirce on creative metaphor: A case study of the conveyor belt methaphor in Oceanography.


    Brüning, R.; Lohmann, Gerrit


    With Charles Sanders Peirce's semiotical theory two different kinds of creative metaphorical reasoning in science can be identified. The building of remainder metaphors is especially important for creating new scientific models. We show that the conveyor belt metaphor provides an excellent example for Peirce's theory. The conveyor belt metaphor has recently been invented in order to describe the oceanic transport system. The paradigm of the oceanic conveyor belt strongly influenced the geosci...

  3. Effects of seat belts worn by pregnant drivers during low-impact collisions. (United States)

    Motozawa, Yasuki; Hitosugi, Masahito; Abe, Takeshi; Tokudome, Shogo


    The aim of this study was to understand the injury mechanisms of pregnant drivers and associated fetal outcomes. Frontal and rear impact tests using a dummy representing the anthropometry of a pregnant woman were conducted. In frontal impact tests without a seat belt, abdominal pressure peaked at the point where the dummy contacted the steering wheel. Rear impact tests without a seat belt showed that the dummy moved forward because of rebound and contacted the steering wheel, which was avoided when a seat belt was worn. Wearing a seat belt reduces abdominal pressure or prevents contact with the steering wheel during collisions. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The evolution of Saturn's radiation belts modulated by changes in radial diffusion (United States)

    Kollmann, P.; Roussos, E.; Kotova, A.; Paranicas, C.; Krupp, N.


    Globally magnetized planets, such as the Earth1 and Saturn2, are surrounded by radiation belts of protons and electrons with kinetic energies well into the million electronvolt range. The Earth's proton belt is supplied locally from galactic cosmic rays interacting with the atmosphere3, as well as from slow inward radial transport4. Its intensity shows a relationship with the solar cycle4,5 and abrupt dropouts due to geomagnetic storms6,7. Saturn's proton belts are simpler than the Earth's because cosmic rays are the principal source of energetic protons8 with virtually no contribution from inward transport, and these belts can therefore act as a prototype to understand more complex radiation belts. However, the time dependence of Saturn's proton belts had not been observed over sufficiently long timescales to test the driving mechanisms unambiguously. Here we analyse the evolution of Saturn's proton belts over a solar cycle using in-situ measurements from the Cassini Saturn orbiter and a numerical model. We find that the intensity in Saturn's proton radiation belts usually rises over time, interrupted by periods that last over a year for which the intensity is gradually dropping. These observations are inconsistent with predictions based on a modulation in the cosmic-ray source, as could be expected4,9 based on the evolution of the Earth's proton belts. We demonstrate that Saturn's intensity dropouts result instead from losses due to abrupt changes in magnetospheric radial diffusion.

  5. Prevalence of rear seat belt use among pregnant women in a suburban area of Japan. (United States)

    Ogawa, Shota; Shinozaki, Hiromitsu; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Itoh, Masahiro; Soda, Masayuki; Kameda, Takashi; Ozawa, Kiyoshi; Yokota, Hidemi; Kamioka, Kiyoshi; Minegishi, Takashi


    The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and influencing factors of rear seat belt use among pregnant women. Questionnaires were given to 1546 pregnant women who visited obstetrics clinics and hospitals for prenatal checkups from October to December 2013. A total of 1494 pregnant women (96.6%) agreed to participate in this study and completed the questionnaire. Fewer than 20% of the rear-seat passengers 'always' used seat belts before and during pregnancy, whereas a third 'never' used a seat belt before or during pregnancy. There was no significant decrease in seat belt use by rear-seat passengers during compared to before pregnancy. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, knowledge of how to use a seat belt during pregnancy, belief in the compulsory use of a rear seat belt and driver behavioral characteristics before pregnancy were associated with rear seat belt use during pregnancy. The prevalence of fastening seat belts was substantially low. The provision of information regarding proper seat belt use and its role in protecting the fetus may increase use. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Application of software solutions for modeling and analysis of parameters of belt drive in engineering (United States)

    Timerbaev, N. F.; Sadrtdinov, A. R.; Prosvirnikov, D. B.; Fomin, A. A.; Stepanov, V. V.


    The application of software systems in engineering when developing the belt drive designs and evaluating their characteristics is considered. A technique for calculating and analyzing belt drives is described using the example of calculating V-belt and flat-belt drives using a software solution. As a result of the belt drive analysis, belt profiles, belt cross-sectional dimensions, drive and driven sheave diameters and power parameters are determined, and graphics images of the dependences of belt’s prestressing force and the force acting on the shaft from the diameter of the driving sheave are obtained. By approximating the results of calculations, theoretical equations for calculating the power parameters of the belt drives were derived. Carrying out the analysis of belt drives with the use of software solutions allows one to avoid computational errors and to optimize the design and performance. At the same time, a convenient and intuitive interface, as well as an integrated graphical editor, provide visibility of the output data and allow the accelerated engineering analysis of the development object.

  7. Study on the application of permanent magnet synchronous motors in underground belt conveyors (United States)

    Ma, S. H.


    This paper analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of drive devices of belt conveyors from the angle of energy saving, and summarizes the application advantages and using problems of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system in belt conveyors. An example is given to demonstrate the energy saving effect of this system compared with other driving methods. This paper points out the application prospect of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system on belt conveyors and other large mining machines in coal mine. This paper is aimed to provide the design direction for the designer and the choice basis for the user on belt conveyor.

  8. BAOBAB (Big And Outrageously Bold Asteroid Belt) Project (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.; Thomas, C. A; Englander, J. A.; Ruesch, O.; Hosseini, S.; Goossens, S. J.; Mazarico, E. M.; Schmerr, N.


    One of the intriguing results of NASA's Dawn mission is the composition and structure of the Main Asteroid Belt's only known dwarf planet, Ceres [1]. It has a top layer of dehydrated clays and salts [2] and an icy-rocky mantle [3,4]. It is widely known that the asteroid belt failed to accrete as a planet by resonances between the Sun and Jupiter. About 20-30 asteroids >100 km diameter are probably differentiated protoplanets [5]. 1) how many more and which ones are fragments of protoplanets? 2) How many and which ones are primordial rubble piles left over from condensation of the solar nebula? 3) How would we go about gaining better and more complete characterization of the mass, interior structure and composition of the Main Belt asteroid population? 4) What is the relationship between asteroids and ocean worlds? Bulk parameters such as the mass, density, and porosity, are important to characterize the structure of any celestial body, and for asteroids in particular, they can shed light on the conditions in the early solar system. Asteroid density estimates exist but currently they are often based on assumed properties of taxonomic classes, or through astronomical survey data where interactions with asteroids are weak at best resulting in large measurement uncertainty. We only have direct density estimates from spacecraft encounters for a few asteroids at this time. Knowledge of the asteroids is significant not only to understand their role in solar system workings, but also to assess their potential as space resources, as impact hazards on Earth, or even as harboring life forms. And for the distant future, we want to know if the idea put forth in a contest sponsored by Physics Today, to surface the asteroids into highly reflecting, polished surfaces and use them as a massively segmented mirror for astrophysical exploration [6], is feasible.

  9. The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: formation and evolution (United States)

    Xu, Bei; Xu, Wenliang


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends from the northern Eurasian continent in the west via Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and northeast part of China to the Russia Far East in the east. It is characterized by complex trench-arc-basin subduction system, exotic terrane (microcontinents) accretion, massive generation of juvenile crust during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic (e.g., Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; Sengör et al., 1993). A lot of papers about formation and evolution of the CAOB have been published and new field observations and geochemical data for key areas of the CAOB challenge to previous assessments. Several areas previously defined as juvenile are now shown to have mixed crustal compositions. For example, Kröner et al. (2014, in press) estimated that the distribution of various crustal provinces is truly juvenile crustal material ca. 20%, mixed crust ca. 30%, old crust ca. 50%,respectively, in the CAOB, similar to those in other accretionary orogens through Earth history. A two-stage model for the evolution of the CAOB has been suggested based on recent data from the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan (Gao et al., 2011; Su et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017), which suggests the process of the formation and evolution of the CAOB includes closure of the Paleo Asian ocean (PAO), formation of orogenic belt before the late Paleozoic and crustal extension and magmatism resulted from plume upon the young orogenic belt after the late Paleozoic. This new model changes previous concept that the CAOB developed through the Paleozoic and is supported by recent researches on the eastern CAOB.

  10. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients. (United States)

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K


    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV-even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presentedThe coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m valueThe electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic.

  11. Collisions and drag in debris discs with eccentric parent belts (United States)

    Löhne, T.; Krivov, A. V.; Kirchschlager, F.; Sende, J. A.; Wolf, S.


    Context. High-resolution images of circumstellar debris discs reveal off-centred rings that indicate past or ongoing perturbation, possibly caused by secular gravitational interaction with unseen stellar or substellar companions. The purely dynamical aspects of this departure from radial symmetry are well understood. However, the observed dust is subject to additional forces and effects, most notably collisions and drag. Aims: To complement the studies of dynamics, we therefore aim to understand how the addition of collisional evolution and drag forces creates new asymmetries and strengthens or overrides existing ones. Methods: We augmented our existing numerical code Analysis of Collisional Evolution (ACE) by an azimuthal dimension, the longitude of periapse. A set of fiducial discs with global eccentricities ranging from 0 to 0.4 was evolved over gigayear timescales. Size distribution and spatial variation of dust were analysed and interpreted. We discuss the basic impact of belt eccentricity on spectral energy distributions and images. Results: We find features imposed on characteristic timescales. First, radiation pressure defines size cut-offs that differ between periapse and apoapse, resulting in an asymmetric halo. The differences in size distribution make the observable asymmetry of the halo depend on wavelength. Second, collisional equilibrium prefers smaller grains on the apastron side of the parent belt, reducing the effect of pericentre glow and the overall asymmetry. Third, Poynting-Robertson drag fills the region interior to an eccentric belt such that the apastron side is more tenuous. Interpretation and prediction of the appearance in scattered light is problematic when spatial and size distribution are coupled.

  12. DREAM3D simulations of inner-belt dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Gregory Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A 1973 paper by Lyons and Thorne explains the two-belt structure for electrons in the inner magnetosphere as a balance between inward radial diffusion and loss to the atmosphere, where the loss to the atmosphere is enabled by pitch-angle scattering from Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. In the 1973 paper, equilibrium solutions to a decoupled set of 1D radial diffusion equations, one for each value of the first invariant of motion, μ, were computed to produce the equilibrium two-belt structure. Each 1D radial diffusion equation incorporated an L-and μ-dependent `lifetime' due to the Coulomb and wave-particle interactions. This decoupling of the problem is appropriate under the assumption that radial diffusion is slow in comparison to pitch-angle scattering. However, for some values of μ and L the lifetime associated with pitch-angle scattering is comparable to the timescale associated with radial diffusion, suggesting that the true equilibrium solutions might reflect `coupled modes' involving pitch-angle scattering and radial diffusion and thus requiring a 3D diffusion model. In the work we show here, we have computed the equilibrium solutions using our 3D diffusion model, DREAM3D, that allows for such coupling. We find that the 3D equilibrium solutions are quite similar to the solutions shown in the 1973 paper when we use the same physical models for radial diffusion and pitch-angle scattering from hiss. However, we show that the equilibrium solutions are quite sensitive to various aspects of the physics model employed in the 1973 paper that can be improved, suggesting that additional work needs to be done to understand the two-belt structure.

  13. Event-Specific Quantification of Radiation Belt Radial Diffusion (United States)

    Tu, W.; Sarris, T. E.; Ozeke, L.


    Recently, there has been a great emphasis on developing event-specific inputs for radiation belt models, since they are proven critical for reproducing the observed radiation belt dynamics during strong events. For example, our DREAM3D simulation of the 8-9 October 2012 storm demonstrates that event-specific chorus wave model and seed population are critical to reproduce the strong enhancement of MeV electrons in this event. However, the observed fast electron dropout preceding the enhancement was not captured by the simulation, which could be due to the combined effects of fast outward radial diffusion of radiation belt electrons with magnetopause shadowing and enhanced electron precipitation. Without an event-specific quantification of radial diffusion, we cannot resolve the relative contribution of outward radial diffusion and precipitation to the observed electron dropout or realistically reproduce the dynamics during the event. In this work, we provide physical quantification of radial diffusion specific to the October 2012 event by including both real-time and global distributions of ULF waves from a constellation of wave measurements and event-specific estimation of ULF wave mode structure. The global maps of ULF waves during the event are constructed by combining the real-time measurements from the Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and GOES satellites in space and a large array of ground magnetometers. The real-time ULF wave mode structure is then estimated using the new Cross-Wavelet Transform technique, applied to various azimuthally aligned pairs of ULF wave measurements that are located at the same L shells. The cross power and phase differences between the time series are calculated using the technique, based on which the wave power per mode number is estimated. Finally, the physically estimated radial diffusion coefficients specific to the event are applied to the DREAM3D model to quantify the relative contribution of radial diffusion to the electron dynamics

  14. Fabrication and Operation of a Nano-Optical Conveyor Belt. (United States)

    Ryan, Jason; Zheng, Yuxin; Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus


    The technique of using focused laser beams to trap and exert forces on small particles has enabled many pivotal discoveries in the nanoscale biological and physical sciences over the past few decades. The progress made in this field invites further study of even smaller systems and at a larger scale, with tools that could be distributed more easily and made more widely available. Unfortunately, the fundamental laws of diffraction limit the minimum size of the focal spot of a laser beam, which makes particles smaller than a half-wavelength in diameter hard to trap and generally prevents an operator from discriminating between particles which are closer together than one half-wavelength. This precludes the optical manipulation of many closely-spaced nanoparticles and limits the resolution of optical-mechanical systems. Furthermore, manipulation using focused beams requires beam-forming or steering optics, which can be very bulky and expensive. To address these limitations in the system scalability of conventional optical trapping our lab has devised an alternative technique which utilizes near-field optics to move particles across a chip. Instead of focusing laser beams in the far-field, the optical near field of plasmonic resonators produces the necessary local optical intensity enhancement to overcome the restrictions of diffraction and manipulate particles at higher resolution. Closely-spaced resonators produce strong optical traps which can be addressed to mediate the hand-off of particles from one to the next in a conveyor-belt-like fashion. Here, we describe how to design and produce a conveyor belt using a gold surface patterned with plasmonic C-shaped resonators and how to operate it with polarized laser light to achieve super-resolution nanoparticle manipulation and transport. The nano-optical conveyor belt chip can be produced using lithography techniques and easily packaged and distributed.

  15. Musgos pleurocárpicos das matas de galeria da Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, RECOR, Distrito Federal, Brasil Pleurocarpous mosses from the gallery forests at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, RECOR, Distrito Federal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Aguiar Saraiva Câmara


    Full Text Available A Reserva Ecológica do IBGE, localizada a 35 km ao sul do centro da cidade de Brasília é possuidora de área representativa do bioma cerrado sendo uma das Áreas Núcleo da Reserva da Biosfera do Cerrado, criada em 1993, pela UNESCO. Neste trabalho são apresentados os musgos pleurocárpicos que ocorrem na reserva e que estão representados por nove famílias e 15 espécies. A família com maior número de especies encontrada é Sematophyllaceae (quatro. Foram encontradas cinco novas ocorrências para o Distrito Federal e seis para a região CentroOeste. São apresentadas chaves e diagnoses.IBGE's Ecological Reserve is located 35 km from downtown Brasilia. It contains an important area of the cerrado biome and is a core area of the Cerrado Biosphere Reserve created by UNESCO in 1993. Here we present the pleurocarpous mosses found in the reserve, with nine families and 15 species. The family with most species is Sematophyllaceae (four. We found six new occurrences for Midwest Brazil and five for the Federal District. Keys and descriptions are provided.

  16. Upward Lightning in Brazil (United States)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.


    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  17. A deep space inventory tour of the main asteroid belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbings, Alison; Bowles, Neil; Snodgrass, Colin


    A consortium of international scientists and industry partners are proposing the Main Belt Inventory Mission as a candidate in the next forthcoming ESA medium class mission call. The inventory mission will characterise a broad range of statistically significant asteroid samples throughout the Main...... a key tracer to understanding the dynamic evolution of the solar system, offer an insight into its early history and the origins of life forming material. Furthermore, by combing visible, near-infrared and thermal spectroscopy, the mission will unlock information on the major rock forming minerals...

  18. Collision rates and impact velocities in the Main Asteroid Belt (United States)

    Farinella, Paolo; Davis, Donald R.


    Wetherill's (1967) algorithm is presently used to compute the mutual collision probabilities and impact velocities of a set of 682 asteroids with large-than-50-km radius representative of a bias-free sample of asteroid orbits. While collision probabilities are nearly independent of eccentricities, a significant decrease is associated with larger inclinations. Collisional velocities grow steeply with orbital eccentricity and inclination, but with curiously small variation across the asteroid belt. Family asteroids are noted to undergo collisions with other family members 2-3 times more often than with nonmembers.

  19. Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt Revival in 2010/11 (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Jacquesson, M.; Adamoli, G.; Vedovato, M.; Mettig, H.-J.


    A Revival of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) is the most impressive organised disturbance that occurs on Jupiter. It starts with a single vigorous outbreak from which vigorous storms and disturbances spread around the planet in the different zonal currents. The Revival that began in 2010 has been better observed than any before it. Here we present analysis of the amateur images of the event, in visible light and a methane absorption band. These results substantiate previous descriptions of SEB Revivals with much greater precision, showing a high degree of organisation, but also raise new puzzles as the usual zonal wind patterns were altered.

  20. How child-resistant are stroller belt buckles? (United States)

    Ridenour, M V


    70 children, between the ages of 24 and 36 months, participated in the assessment of three different styles of stroller seat buckles representing difficulties for children to disconnect the buckle mechanism in the restraint system. None could prevent all the children from opening the restraint system. One was much easier for children to open than the other two styles. Stroller-restraint buckles provide false security to parents who use strollers, as there are no published standards regarding the use of children's stroller seat-belt buckles as a safety device.

  1. V-type asteroids in the middle main belt (United States)

    Roig, F.; Nesvorný, D.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Lazzaro, D.


    V-type asteroids are bodies whose surfaces are constituted of basalt. In the Main Asteroid Belt, most of these asteroids are assumed to come from the basaltic crust of Asteroid (4) Vesta. This idea is mainly supported by (i) the fact that almost all the known V-type asteroids are in the same region of the belt as (4) Vesta, i.e., the inner belt (semi-major axis 2.1astro-ph/0609420], located at ˜2.54 AU, raises the question of whether it came from (4) Vesta or not. In this paper, we present spectroscopic observations indicating the existence of another V-type asteroid at ˜2.53 AU, (40521) 1999RL95, and we investigate the possibility that these two asteroids evolved from the Vesta family to their present orbits by a semi-major axis drift due to the Yarkovsky effect. The main problem with this scenario is that the asteroids need to cross the 3/1 mean motion resonance with Jupiter, which is highly unstable. Combining N-body numerical simulations of the orbital evolution, that include the Yarkovsky effect, with Monte Carlo models, we compute the probability that an asteroid of a given diameter D evolves from the Vesta family and crosses over the 3/1 resonance, reaching a stable orbit in the middle belt. Our results indicate that an asteroid like (21238) 1995WV7 has a low probability (˜1%) of having evolved through this mechanism due to its large size ( D˜5 km), because the Yarkovsky effect is not sufficiently efficient for such large asteroids. However, the mechanism might explain the orbits of smaller bodies like (40521) 1999RL95 ( D˜3 km) with ˜70-100% probability, provided that we assume that the Vesta family formed ≳3.5 Gy ago. We estimate the debiased population of V-type asteroids that might exist in the same region as (21238) and (40521) ( 2.51 km may come from the Vesta family by crossing over the 3/1 resonance. The remaining 70-90% must have a different origin.

  2. Novel Solution for Leg Motion with 5-Link Belt Mechanism (United States)

    E. Ch., Lovasz; Pop, C.; Pop, F.; Dolga, V.


    From the analysis of Theo Jansen walking mechanism and of the path curve that it describes the reduced capability for crossing over obstacles of the Jansen leg (1 DOF) is pointed out. By using a 5 link belt mechanism with 2 DOF can be adapted for generating similar Jansen mechanism path curve, where the step height of this path can be increased. For this purpose a mathematical model is conceived in order to analyse and determine the parameters for driving and control of the operation of the novel walking leg solution.

  3. Rapid energization of radiation belt electrons by nonlinear wave trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh


    Full Text Available We show that nonlinear wave trapping plays a significant role in both the generation of whistler-mode chorus emissions and the acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. We have performed particle simulations that successfully reproduce the generation of chorus emissions with rising tones. During this generation process we find that a fraction of resonant electrons are energized very efficiently by special forms of nonlinear wave trapping called relativistic turning acceleration (RTA and ultra-relativistic acceleration (URA. Particle energization by nonlinear wave trapping is a universal acceleration mechanism that can be effective in space and cosmic plasmas that contain a magnetic mirror geometry.

  4. The radiation belt origin of Uranus' nightside radio emission (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.


    On the basis of the location of the source field lines of the smooth nightside component of Uranus kilometric radiation, the most likely free energy source is the outer radiation belts. As the terminator sweeps over the magnetic north polar region, precipitation of electrons generated by solar heating of the upper atmosphere and submergence of the electron mirror points deeper in the atmosphere will create a backscattered electron distribution with an enhanced population at large pitch angles. The clocklike radio emission turns out to be a direct consequence of the terminator's control of the emission process.

  5. A New Perspective on Trapped Radiation Belts in Planetary Atmospheres (United States)

    Diaz, A.; Lodhi, M. A. K.; Wilson, T. L.


    The charged particle fluxes trapped in the magnetic dipole fields of certain planets in our Solar System are interesting signatures of planetary properties in space physics. They also represent a source of potentially hazardous radiation to spacecraft during planetary and interplanetary exploration. The Earth s trapped radiation belts have been studied for years and the physical mechanisms by which primary radiation from the Sun and Galaxy is captured is well understood. The higher-energy particles collide with molecules in the planetary atmosphere and initiate large cascades of secondary radiation which itself becomes trapped by the magnetic dipole field of the planet. Some of it is even backscattered as albedo neutrons.

  6. Geological evolution of the Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt, northern Madagascar (United States)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Schofield, D.I.; Goodenough, K.M.; Horstwood, M.; Tucker, R.; Bauer, W.; Annells, R.; Howard, K. J.; Walsh, G.; Rabarimanana, M.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.


    The broadly east-west trending, Late Neoproterozoic Bemarivo Belt in northern Madagascar has been re-surveyed at 1:100 000 scale as part of a large multi-disciplinary World Bank-sponsored project. The work included acquisition of 14 U-Pb zircon dates and whole-rock major and trace element geochemical data of representative rocks. The belt has previously been modelled as a juvenile Neoproterozoic arc and our findings broadly support that model. The integrated datasets indicate that the Bemarivo Belt is separated by a major ductile shear zone into northern and southern "terranes", each with different lithostratigraphy and ages. However, both formed as Neoproterozoic arc/marginal basin assemblages that were translated southwards over the north-south trending domains of "cratonic" Madagascar, during the main collisional phase of the East African Orogeny at ca. 540 Ma. The older, southern terrane consists of a sequence of high-grade paragneisses (Sahantaha Group), which were derived from a Palaeoproterozoic source and formed a marginal sequence to the Archaean cratons to the south. These rocks are intruded by an extensive suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Antsirabe Nord Suite. Four samples from this suite yielded U-Pb SHRIMP ages at ca. 750 Ma. The northern terrane consists of three groups of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks, including a possible Archaean sequence (Betsiaka Group: maximum depositional age approximately 2477 Ma) and two volcano-sedimentary sequences (high-grade Milanoa Group: maximum depositional age approximately 750 Ma; low grade Daraina Group: extrusive age = 720-740 Ma). These supracrustal rocks are intruded by another suite of arc-generated metamorphosed plutonic rocks, known as the Manambato Suite, 4 samples of which gave U-Pb SHRIMP ages between 705 and 718 Ma. Whole-rock geochemical data confirm the calc-alkaline, arc-related nature of the plutonic rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Daraina and Milanoa groups also

  7. Colloidal Microworms Propelling via a Cooperative Hydrodynamic Conveyor Belt. (United States)

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Ortiz-Ambriz, Antonio; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Tierno, Pietro


    We study propulsion arising from microscopic colloidal rotors dynamically assembled and driven in a viscous fluid upon application of an elliptically polarized rotating magnetic field. Close to a confining plate, the motion of this self-assembled microscopic worm results from the cooperative flow generated by the spinning particles which act as a hydrodynamic "conveyor belt." Chains of rotors propel faster than individual ones, until reaching a saturation speed at distances where induced-flow additivity vanishes. By combining experiments and theoretical arguments, we elucidate the mechanism of motion and fully characterize the propulsion speed in terms of the field parameters.

  8. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part I: Theory. (United States)

    Hansen, Paul; Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hesselink, Lambertus


    We propose a method for peristaltic transport of nanoparticles using the optical force field over a nanostructured surface. Nanostructures may be designed to produce strong near-field hot spots when illuminated. The hot spots function as optical traps, separately addressable by their resonant wavelengths and polarizations. By activating closely packed traps sequentially, nanoparticles may be handed off between adjacent traps in a peristaltic fashion. A linear repeating structure of three separately addressable traps forms a "nano-optical conveyor belt"; a unit cell with four separately addressable traps permits controlled peristaltic transport in the plane. Using specifically designed activation sequences allows particle sorting.

  9. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil. (United States)

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M


    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy.

  10. 75 FR 35444 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission To Brazil (United States)


    .... They are reportedly stepping up aggressive marketing techniques. The federal government plans to invest... is intended to tap immediate opportunities in the private and public security areas in Rio de Janeiro... proposed schedule allows for about a day and a half in Rio de Janeiro and S o Paulo and a visit to Brasilia...

  11. 75 FR 15687 - Safety and Security Equipment and Services Trade Mission to Brazil (United States)


    .... They are ] reportedly stepping up aggressive marketing techniques. The federal government plans to... intended to tap immediate opportunities in the private and public security areas in Rio de Janeiro... proposed schedule allows for about a day and a half in Rio de Janeiro and S o Paulo and a visit to Brasilia...

  12. Vital signs: seat belt use among long-haul truck drivers--United States, 2010. (United States)

    Chen, Guang X; Collins, James W; Sieber, W Karl; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L; Lincoln, Jennifer E; Birdsey, Jan; Hitchcock, Edward M; Robinson, Cynthia F


    Motor vehicle crashes were the leading cause of occupational fatalities in the United States in 2012, accounting for 25% of deaths. Truck drivers accounted for 46% of these deaths. This study estimates the prevalence of seat belt use and identifies factors associated with nonuse of seat belts among long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs), a group of workers at high risk for fatalities resulting from truck crashes. CDC analyzed data from its 2010 national survey of LHTD health and injury. A total of 1,265 drivers completed the survey interview. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between seat belt nonuse and risk factors. An estimated 86.1% of LHTDs reported often using a seat belt, 7.8% used it sometimes, and 6.0% never. Reporting never using a belt was associated with often driving ≥10 mph (16 kph) over the speed limit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.9), working for a company with no written safety program (AOR = 2.8), receiving two or more tickets for moving violations in the preceding 12 months (AOR = 2.2), living in a state without a primary belt law (AOR = 2.1); and being female (AOR = 2.3). Approximately 14% of LHTDs are at increased risk for injury and death because they do not use a seat belt on every trip. Safety programs and other management interventions, engineering changes, and design changes might increase seat belt use among LHTDs. Primary state belt laws can help increase belt use among LHTDs. Manufacturers can use recently collected anthropometric data to design better-fitting and more comfortable seat belt systems.

  13. Biomechanical considerations for assessing interactions of children and small occupants with inflatable seat belts. (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Sundararajan, Srinivasan; Board, Derek; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Miller, Carl S; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W


    NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents. Tests simulating a 6-year-old child asleep in a booster seat, with its head lying directly on its shoulder on top of the inflatable seat belt, were considered by engineering judgment, to represent a worst case scenario for interaction of an inflating seat belt with the head and neck of a child and/or small occupant. All evaluations resulted in ATD responses below Injury Assessment Reference Values reported by Mertz et al. (2003). In addition, the tests of the PMHS subjects resulted in no injuries from interaction of the inflating seat belt with the heads, necks, and chests of the subjects. Given the results from the ATD and PMHS tests, it was concluded that the injury risk to children and small occupants from deployment of inflatable seat belt systems is low.

  14. Mechanisms of abdominal organ injury in seat belt-restrained children. (United States)

    Arbogast, Kristy B; Kent, Richard W; Menon, Rajiv A; Ghati, Yoganand; Durbin, Dennis R; Rouhana, Stephen W


    Previous research has identified key predictors of elevated abdominal injury risk in seat belt-restrained child vehicle occupants; however these data cannot be used to isolate specific mechanisms or sources of injury to suggest strategies for prevention. Using a large child-focused crash surveillance system, cases of seat belt-restrained children who sustained an internal abdominal injury in a frontal crash were studied using standard crash investigation protocols. A second group of cases of restrained children in similar crashes without abdominal injury was investigated. Medical, crash, and child characteristics of each case were analyzed in the context of known biomechanics of abdominal injury to determine the mechanisms of injury and associated kinematics. Review of 21 cases of abdominal injury identified belt loading directly over the injured organ as the most common mechanism of injury. Three unique kinematic patterns were identified that varied by the initial position of the lap belt and kinematics of the upper torso. Sixty percent of the drivers and 90% of the other child occupants in these crashes sustained either no or minor injury. In the 16 no abdominal injury cases, all but one sustained external bruising to their abdomen and contact injury to the head and face. This evaluation of crashes in which belted children did and did not sustain abdominal injuries revealed key characteristics about their mechanism. In this data set, belt compression directly on the abdomen, manifested by improper initial placement of the seat belt, poor child posture, or misuse of the shoulder belt, resulted in abdominal injury in low-severity crashes in which other occupants sustained little injury. The cases pointed to control of torso excursion by consistent use of the shoulder belt and suggested that technologies such as lap belt pretensioners or belt-positioning booster seats might be a possible strategy, among others, for prevention.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz


    Full Text Available Purpose. A drive is one of the basic elements of belt conveyers. To determine the drive power it is necessary to conduct calculations by standard methodologies expounded in modern technical literature. Such calculations demand a fair amount of time. The basic design parameters of a belt conveyer include type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions. The article aims to build the parametric dependence of belt conveyer drive power on its design parameters, that takes into account standard dimensions and parameters of belts, idlers and pulleys. Methodology. The work examines a belt conveyer with two areas: sloping and horizontal. Using the methodology for pulling calculation by means of belt conveyer encirclement, there are built parametric dependences of pull forces in the characteristic conveyer path points on the type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions. Findings. For the belt conveyers of the considered type there are built parametric dependences of drive power on type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions, taking into account the belt standard dimensions and corresponding assumptions in relation to idler and pulley types. Originality.This is the first developed parametric dependence of two-area (sloping and horizontal belt conveyer drive power on type of load, design efficiency, geometrical dimensions and path configuration, operation conditions that takes into account standard dimensions and parameters of belts, idlers and pulleys. Practical value. Use of the built drive power dependences on design parameters for the belt conveyers with sloping and horizontal areas gives an opportunity of relatively rapid determination of drive power approximate value at the design stage. Also it allows quality selection of its basic elements at specific design characteristics and

  16. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes. (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming


    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  17. Heparin pharmacovigilance in Brazil. (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela Rezende Garcia; Viana, Thércia Guedes; Peixoto, Eliane R de M; Barros, Fabiana C R de; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Perini, Edson


    To investigate the biological origin of injectable unfractioned heparin available in Brazilian market by discussing the impact of the profile of commercial products and the changes in heparin monograph on the drug safety. The Anvisa data base for the Registered Products of Pharmaceutical Companies and the Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Specialties (DEF 2008/2009) were searched. A survey with industries having an active permission for marketing the drug in Brazil was conducted. Five companies were granted a permission to market unfractioned heparin in Brazil. Three of them are porcine in origin and two of them are bovine in origin, with only one explicitly showing this information in the package insert. The effectiveness and safety of heparin studied in non-Brazilian populations may not represent the Brazilian reality, since most countries no longer produce bovine heparin. The currently marketed heparin has approximately 10% less anticoagulant activity than that previously produced and this change may have clinical implications. Evidence about the lack of dose interchangeability between bovine and porcine heparins and the unique safety profile of these drugs indicates the need to follow the treatment and the patients' response. Events threatening the patient's safety must be reported to the pharmacovigilance system in each particular country.

  18. Region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno


    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A.A. Wambier


    Full Text Available This study deals in a succinct way with the Brazilian model of civil procedural law. There is an historical approach specifically about Portuguese law which was in force in Brazil at the beginning (until 1832, after what there comes a brief description of the judiciary structure (courts and judges and only then we talk about the scope of civil procedure, its fundamental principles and, in a “law in practice” approach, access to justice. The role of a judge towards deciding “according to statutes and evidence” is analysed and the current importance of case law is deeply focused, mainly according to the new CPC (in force since 2015 and so are appellate proceedings, class actions, enforcement proceedings and ADR. The last items concern the role and the importance of academia, and some interesting cultural observations, where we deal with the very serious crisis, both ethical and economic, that Brazil is living now, in the political sphere. The judiciary branch is now our only hope.

  20. Automation of belts; Automatizacion de Cintas de Interior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document presents the most important aspects, and the results of the project DEVELOPMENT AND COMMISSIONING OF AN INTEGRATED HAULAGE AND VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEM IN A MINE USING VERY LONG SUBLEVEL-CAVING WINNING METHOD. Project's targets were to develop, implement and commission a distributed control system for underground mining, which should allow the control and optimisation of the whole (continuous) haulage network. It should also integrate statutory safety features required for both winning and haulage. The system is capable of controlling the most common devices used in underground coal mining transport networks, like conveyor belts, armored conveyors, regulation silos, etc. from the winning faces to the surface, and also the interlocks between them. Moreover, the system implements statutory safety functions for conveyor belt operation, and for mining activities carried out in culls de sac. Specifically, for its relationship with the transport system, it should monitor secondary ventilation, fire damp and toxic gases concentration, and mains power presence in the culls de sac, which have already reached a length of 2000 m. The prototype was installed in the mine that Carbones de Pedraforca owns in Saldes, Barcelona. (Author)

  1. Initial Highlights from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (United States)

    André, Philippe; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    The Herschel Space Observatory provides a unique opportunity to improve our global un-derstanding of the earliest phases of star formation. I will present an overview of the first results from the Gould Belt survey (cf., one of the largest key projects with Herschel. The immediate objective of this SPIRE/PACS imaging survey is to obtain complete samples of nearby prestellar cores and Class 0 protostars with well char-acterized luminosities, temperatures, and density profiles, as well as robust core mass func-tions and protostar luminosity functions, in a variety of star-forming environments. Thanks to its high sensitivity and large spatial dynamic range, this survey can also probe, for the first time, the link between diffuse cirrus-like structures and compact self-gravitating cores. The main scientific goal is to elucidate the physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of prestellar cores out of the diffuse interstellar medium, crucial for understanding the origin of the stellar initial mass function. The first results, obtained toward the Aquila Rift and Polaris Flare regions during the 'Science Demonstration Phase' (SDP), are very promising (cf. kshops/presentations/IR/25A ndreG ouldBeltS DP 2009.pdf ).Basedonth


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso


    Full Text Available China´s interests in Central Asia were propelled, with the launching of the initiative “One Belt, One Road”, renamed as “The Belt and Road Initiative”, better known as the New Silk Road. Thanks to the infrastructure investment China will become interconnected with other regions of the world, breaking up its secular isolation and will send its products to the global market more easily by land and sea. One principal question in this revolutionary change has to do with China´s hypothetical second intentions of geopolitical influence on the countries affected by the new routes (countries of transit or final destination. The article tries to answer the following questions: Does the People's Republic of China aim only to revive its internal labour market, reduce its industrial overcapacity and boost its exports? Is globalization coming to an end or is it entering a new phase of interconnectivity? How does this affect the relations between Russia and China in the Asian region?

  3. Internal Charging Design Environments for the Earths Radiation Belts (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Edwards, David L.


    Relativistic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts are a widely recognized threat to spacecraft because they penetrate lightly shielded vehicle hulls and deep into insulating materials where they accumulate to sufficient levels to produce electrostatic discharges. Strategies for evaluating the magnitude of the relativistic electron flux environment and its potential for producing ESD events are varied. Simple "rule of thumb" estimates such as the widely used 10(exp 10) e-/sq cm fluence within 10 hour threshold for the onset of pulsing in dielectric materials provide a quick estimate of when to expect charging issues. More sophisticated strategies based on models of the trapped electron flux within the Earth s magnetic field provide time dependent estimates of electron flux along spacecraft orbits and orbit integrate electron flux. Finally, measurements of electron flux can be used to demonstrate mean and extreme relativistic electron environments. This presentation will evaluate strategies used to specify energetic electron flux and fluence environments along spacecraft trajectories in the Earth s radiation belts.

  4. PCNA tool belts and polymerase bridges form during translesion synthesis. (United States)

    Boehm, Elizabeth M; Spies, Maria; Washington, M Todd


    Large multi-protein complexes play important roles in many biological processes, including DNA replication and repair, transcription, and signal transduction. One of the challenges in studying such complexes is to understand their mechanisms of assembly and disassembly and their architectures. Using single-molecule total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, we have examined the assembly and disassembly of the multi-protein complex that carries out translesion synthesis, the error-prone replication of damaged DNA. We show that the ternary complexes containing proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and two non-classical DNA polymerases, Rev1 and DNA polymerase η, have two architectures: PCNA tool belts and Rev1 bridges. Moreover, these complexes are dynamic and their architectures can interconvert without dissociation. The formation of PCNA tool belts and Rev1 bridges and the ability of these complexes to change architectures are likely means of facilitating selection of the appropriate non-classical polymerase and polymerase-switching events. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Depositional Characteristics of River's Transition from Meander to Braided Belt (United States)

    Li, Shengli


    We describe characteristics of meander-braided transition belt and its sedimentary sequences. We classify abandoned channels into three types: avulsion, chute cut-off and neck cut-off based on the correlation between sinuosity and channel abandonment. Our study on the sedimentary characteristics and river's transitions from proximal to distal zones in Permian fluvial outcrops of the Beijing suburbs leads us to understand the main factor that causes the meander to braided transitions; that is the change in sediment supply, which itself is caused by changes in climate conditions. Three abandoned channels have been distinguished in this outcrop study. Furthermore, we have studied a typical fluvial Permian gas field in the Ordos Basin as an application to subsurface formation. We analyze the distribution of fluvial deposition using meander-braided transition and abandoned channel patterns. Our study has revealed that fluvial changes occurs from braided to meander-braided transition and then to high-sinuosity meandering channel from the northern to the southern part of the study area. Three abandoned channels were identified in the transitional and meandering belts of the gas field. Keywords: Characteristics of Meander-braided Transition; Fluvial Sedimentary Sequence; Abandoned Channel; Permian Fluvial Environment; The Ordos Basin

  6. The Kuiper Belt Survey of the GEST Mission (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Bennett, D. P.; Clampin, M.; Drake, A. J.; Gould, A.; Horne, K.; Horner, S. D.; Jewitt, D. C.; Langston, G. I.; Lauer, T. R.; Lumsdaine, A.; Minniti, D.; Peale, S. J.; Rhie, S. H.; Shao, M.; Stevenson, R. L.; Tenerelli, D.; Tytler, D.; Woolf, N. J.


    A secondary science goal of the proposed Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) is to discover ~ 100,000 new Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Using a fraction of each season when GEST's primary target, the Galactic bulge, is not visible, GEST will survey ~ 1200 square degrees of sky near the ecliptic plane down to a limiting red magnitude of R ~ 26.5. GEST's KBO survey will be repeated at specific weekly, monthly, and yearly intervals to permit orbit determination. GEST will also do a deep KBO survey which aims to detect KBOs as faint as 29th magnitude in a single 1 square degree field. The number of KBOs that GEST will discover excedes the number of known KBOs by a factor of ~ 300 and the number of KBOs expected from other proposed telescopes by a factor of 10. This will enable the measurement of the number of KBOs in the more distant mean motion resonances, the measurement of the radial extent of the Kuiper Belt, and the measurement of the relative abundances of the classical, resonant and scattered KBO populations.

  7. Short-Term Forecasting of Radiation Belt and Ring Current (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching


    A computer program implements a mathematical model of the radiation-belt and ring-current plasmas resulting from interactions between the solar wind and the Earth s magnetic field, for the purpose of predicting fluxes of energetic electrons (10 keV to 5 MeV) and protons (10 keV to 1 MeV), which are hazardous to humans and spacecraft. Given solar-wind and interplanetary-magnetic-field data as inputs, the program solves the convection-diffusion equations of plasma distribution functions in the range of 2 to 10 Earth radii. Phenomena represented in the model include particle drifts resulting from the gradient and curvature of the magnetic field; electric fields associated with the rotation of the Earth, convection, and temporal variation of the magnetic field; and losses along particle-drift paths. The model can readily accommodate new magnetic- and electric-field submodels and new information regarding physical processes that drive the radiation-belt and ring-current plasmas. Despite the complexity of the model, the program can be run in real time on ordinary computers. At present, the program can calculate present electron and proton fluxes; after further development, it should be able to predict the fluxes 24 hours in advance

  8. Nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation. (United States)

    Wang, Guanghui; Ying, Zhoufeng; Ho, Ho-pui; Huang, Ying; Zou, Ningmu; Zhang, Xuping


    We propose a plasmonic nano-optical conveyor belt for peristaltic transport of nano-particles. Instead of illumination from the top, waveguide-coupled excitation is used for trapping particles with a higher degree of precision and flexibility. Graded nano-rods with individual dimensions coded to have resonance at specific wavelengths are incorporated along the waveguide in order to produce spatially addressable hot spots. Consequently, by switching the excitation wavelength sequentially, particles can be transported to adjacent optical traps along the waveguide. The feasibility of this design is analyzed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain and Maxwell stress tensor methods. Simulation results show that this system is capable of exciting addressable traps and moving particles in a peristaltic fashion with tens of nanometers resolution. It is the first, to the best of our knowledge, report about a nano-optical conveyor belt with waveguide-coupled excitation, which is very important for scalability and on-chip integration. The proposed approach offers a new design direction for integrated waveguide-based optical manipulation devices and its application in large scale lab-on-a-chip integration.

  9. Future Rangeland Ecosystems in the Dryland Belt of Asia (United States)

    Qi, Jiaguo


    One of the greatest challenges humans are facing is sustainably managing water and land resources under changing global environment. This issue is especially pertinent in dryland belt in Asia where freshwater is scarce and shared among many nations. The region is heavily dependent on the diminishing Himalayan glaciers and limited and changing precipitation patterns. With increasing climate variability and a regional warming trend water security issues are acute and if not properly addressed could affect regional stability and lead to international conflicts. Solutions to these urgent regional issues are lacking and further research efforts are needed. Adaptive strategies addressing the complex and multifaceted water resource issues in the region will require a co-design and co-delivery of knowledge specific to the region and must consider exogenous factors such as policies of neighbouring countries and changing precipitation patterns due to climate change. There is a need to determine and fund scientific research priorities and practical approaches co-developed by local stakeholders and scientists to change the region's paradigm to "science for society". This presentation will summarize the collective outcome from a focused group discussion at the international workshop on "Future Earth and Science for Society" to be held from February 25-27, 2015 at Michigan State University, including knowledge gaps, research priorities, a general framework and international collaborations to move forward to addressing the future of the dyrland belt of Asia.

  10. Simulations of inner radiation belt proton loss during geomagnetic storms (United States)

    Engel, M. A.; Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Selesnick, R. S.


    The loss of protons in the outer part of the inner radiation belt (L = 2 to 3) during the 6 April 2000 solar energetic particles event has been investigated using test particle simulations that follow full Lorentz trajectories with both magnetic and electric fields calculated from an empirical model. The electric fields are calculated as inductive fields generated by the time-changing magnetic field, which is achieved by time stepping analytic magnetic fields. The simulation results are compared with proton measurements from the highly elliptical orbit satellite for three different energy ranges (8.5-35 MeV, 16-40 MeV, and 27-45 MeV) as well as previous modeling work done. In previous work, inner zone radiation belt loss during geomagnetic storms has been modeled by simulating field line curvature scattering in static magnetic field snapshots with no electric field. The inclusion of the inductive electric field causes an increase in loss to lower L shells, improving the agreement with the satellite data.

  11. A study of the forest and aquatic ecology of the Bitumen belt of Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the forest and aquatic ecology of the Bitumen belt of Ogun state, Nigeria. Z O Opafunso, J O Okunlola. Abstract. A study of the forest and acquatic ecology of the bitumen belt of Ogun State, Nigeria was carried out. The status of the acquatic and wildlife species in the study area was investigated over a period of six ...

  12. Resonance strategies for the belting style : Results of a single female subject study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bestebreurtje, ME; Schutte, HK

    This study explores resonance strategies used for the belting style and associated vocal fold vibratory patterns, for the vowels /epsilon/, /a/, /i/, and /u/ on G4 and B4-flat. Acoustic spectra of belted vowels and their unoptimized, "speechlike" equivalents were compared. Vocal fold vibratory

  13. Demonstration of the Trauma Nurses Talk Tough seat belt diversion program in North Carolina. (United States)


    Trauma Nurses Talk Tough is a seat belt diversion program originally developed at the Legacy Emanuel Hospital in Portland, Oregon, in 1988. Attendance at the course is a condition for a one-time dismissal of a seat belt citation without fine or court...

  14. Injury pattern as an indication of seat belt failure in ejected vehicle occupants. (United States)

    Freeman, Michael D; Eriksson, Anders; Leith, Wendy


    Prior authors have suggested that when occupant ejection occurs in association with a seat belt failure, entanglement of the outboard upper extremity (OUE) with the retracting shoulder belt will invariably occur, leaving injury pattern evidence of belt use. In the present investigation, the authors assessed this theory using data accessed from the NASS-CDS for ejected front seat occupants of passenger vehicles. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between seat belt failure status and injuries. Injury types associated with seat belt failure were significant OUE and head injuries (OR = 3.87, [95% CI 1.2, 13.0] and 3.1, [95% CI 1.0, 9.7], respectively). The two injury types were found to be a predictor of seat belt use and subsequent failure only if combined with a high (≥0.8) precrash probability of belt use. The injury pattern associated with a seat belt failure-related ejection has limited use in the forensic investigation of crash-related ejections. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Enforcement or incentives ? : promoting safety belt use among military personnel in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.


    During a nationwide campaign to promote safety belt use among military personnel, a field study was conducted at 12 different military bases in the netherlands. Amount of enforcement, type of publicity, and incentive strategies were varied among military bases. Observations of safety belt use among

  16. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is ...

  17. Seat belts and the law : mandatory use laws and the legal consequences of non-use (United States)


    This report analyzes the current legal status of the seat belt defense in civil actions. Particular emphasis is given to factors which have altered the evolution of the seat belt defense since 1982, the most significant being the passage of laws mand...

  18. Alkaline intrusion in a granulite ensemble in the Eastern Ghats belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The alkaline complex of Koraput, Orissa, India, is one of several bodies in the high-grade Eastern. Ghats belt, but this one is an integral part of the high-grade belt and remote from the western boundary against the Bastar craton. The Koraput complex forms a lozenge-shaped intrusion into the metapelitic granulites and is ...

  19. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. 29.785 Section 29.785 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and Cargo Accommodations § 29.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) Each seat...

  20. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. 121.311 Section 121.311 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.311 Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless...