Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) requested that Condor Country Consulting, Inc. (CCCI) perform wet season surveys and manage the dry season sampling for listed branchiopods in two ponded locations within the Site 300 Experimental Test Site. Site 300 is located in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, located between the Cities of Livermore and Tracy. The two pool locations have been identified for possible amphibian enhancement activities in support of the Compensation Plan for impacts tied to the Building 850 soil clean-up project. The Building 850 project design resulted in formal consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as an amendment (File 81420-2009-F-0235) to the site-wide Biological Opinion (BO) (File 1-1-02-F-0062) in the spring of 2009 and requires mitigation for the California tiger salamander (AMCA, Ambystoma californiense) and California red-legged frog (CRLF, Rana draytonii) habitat loss. Both pools contain breeding AMCA, but do not produce metamorphs due to limited hydroperiod. The pool to the southeast (Pool BC-FS-2) is the preferred site for amphibian enhancement activities, and the wetland to northwest (Pool OA-FS-1) is the alternate location for enhancement. However, prior to enhancement, LLNL has been directed by USFWS (BO Conservation Measure 17 iii) to 'conduct USFWS protocol-level branchiopod surveys to determine whether listed brachiopod species are present within the compensation area.' CCCI conducted surveys for listed branchiopods in the 2009-2010 wet season to determine the presence of federally-listed branchiopods at the two pools (previous surveys with negative findings were performed by CCCI in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 onsite). Surveys were conducted to partially satisfy the survey requirements of the USFWS 'Interim Survey Guidelines to Permittees for Recovery Permits under Section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Endangered Species Act for the Listed Vernal Pool Branchiopods' ('Guidelines, USFWS
Full Text Available We conducted a survey of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda of the major salt lakes of Algeria, particularly those of the eastern Hauts Plateaux. The aim of the survey was to complement a previous survey that focused on the freshwater habitats of Numidia, northeast Algeria. The study revealed 8 species, with one taxon new to Algeria and North Africa (Chirocephalus salinus. Data on the status, phenology and habitats of collected and previously known species are presented for 19 taxa. The distribution of many species has been greatly extended and the co-occurrence of Artemia tunisiana and Branchinella spinosa has been recorded. The studied salt lakes, owing to a large production of fairy shrimps, support a great number of wintering and breeding waterbirds, but are subject to increasing human pressure.
Padhye, Sameer; Rabet, Nicolas; Ghate, Hemant
An updated inventory of large branchiopods of the Western Maharashtra state, India is presented for the first time. Employing current identification keys, we have detailed the egg morphology of Eulimnadia indocylindrova, which shares some similarities with E. geayi from South America and E. alluaudi from Madagascar, based on these egg characters. A thorough re-description of few morphological traits of the same species is also presented. We also have described the female of a Cyzicus species seen rarely from the studied region. Distributional comments on few species are also reported.
Sigvardt, Zandra M S; Rogers, D Christopher; Olesen, Jørgen
Male clam shrimps (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, and Cyclestherida) have their first one or two trunk limb pairs modified as "claspers," which are used to hold the female during mating and mate guarding. Clasper morphology has traditionally been important for clam shrimp taxonomy and classification, but little is known about how the males actually use the claspers during amplexus (clasping). Homologies of the various clasper parts ("movable finger," "large palp," "palm," "gripping area," and "small palp") have long been discussed between the three clam shrimp taxa, and studies have shown that only some structures are homologous while others are convergent ("partial homology"). We studied the clasper functionality in four spinicaudatan species using video recordings and scanning electron microscopy, and compared our results with other clam shrimp groups. General mating behavior and carapace morphology was also studied. Generally, spinicaudatan and laevicaudatan claspers function similarly despite some parts being nonhomologous. We mapped clasper morphology and functionality aspects on a branchiopod phylogeny. We suggest that the claspers of the three groups were adapted from an original, simpler clasper, each for a "stronger" grip on the female's carapace margin: 1) Spinicaudata have two clasper pairs bearing an elongated apical club/gripping area with one setal type; 2); Cyclestherida have one clasper pair with clusters of molariform setae on the gripping area and at the movable finger apex; and 3) Laevicaudata have one clasper pair, but have incorporated an additional limb portion into the clasper palm and bear a diverse set of setae. J. Morphol. 278:523-546, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Frase, Thomas; Richter, Stefan
Using immunohistochemical labeling against acetylated a-tubulin and serotonin in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D-reconstruction, we investigated the temporary freshwater pond inhabitant Branchinella sp. (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) for the first time to provide detailed data on the development of the anostracan nervous system. Protocerebral sense organs such as the nauplius eye and frontal filament organs are present as early as the hatching stage L0. In the postnaupliar region, two terminal pioneer neurons grow from posterior to anterior to connect the mandibular neuromeres. The first protocerebral neuropil to emerge is not part of the central complex but represents the median neuropil, and begins to develop from L0+ onwards. In stage L3, the first evidence of developing compound eyes is visible. This is followed by the formation of the visual neuropils and the neuropils of the central complex in the protocerebrum. From the deutocerebral lobes, the projecting neuron tract proceeds to both sides of the lateral protocerebrum, forming a chiasma just behind the central body. In the postnaupliar region, the peripheral nervous system, commissures and connectives develop along an anterior-posterior gradient after the fasciculation of the terminal pioneer neurons with the mandibular neuromere. The peripheral nervous system in the thoracic segments consists of two longitudinal neurite bundles on each side which connect the intersegmental nerves, together with the ventral nervous system forming an orthogon-like network. Here, we discuss, among other things, the evidence of a fourth nauplius eye nerve and decussating projecting neuron tract found in Branchinella sp., and provide arguments to support our view that the crustacean frontal filament (organ) and onychophoran primary antenna are homologous. J. Morphol. 277:1423-1446, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marcoval, M. Alejandra; Pan, Jerónimo; Tang, Yingzhong; Gobler, Christopher J.
We present experiments that examined the grazing and survivorship of zooplankton native (Acartia tonsa) and non-native (Artemia salina) to NY (USA) estuaries when exposed to blooms and cultures of the three harmful algae native to NY, Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens (strains CCMP 1850 and CCMP 1984) and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. During experiments with cultures of A. anophagefferens, clearance rates (CR) of A. salina were significantly greater than those of A. tonsa for both algal strains examined. A. salina fed on cultures of C. polykrikoides at higher rates than all phytoplankton species examined, including the control diet (Rhodomonas salina), and faster than rates of A. tonsa fed C. polykrikoides. During experiments with A. fundyense, A. salina actively grazed all cell concentrations (250-1500 cells ml-1) while A. tonsa did not feed at any concentration. Percent mortality of A. salina and A. tonsa fed A. fundyense for 48 h were 43 ± 7.7% and 72 ± 7.8%, respectively, percentages significantly higher than those of individuals fed all other algal diets. During 25 field experiments using natural blooms of the three HAB species performed across six NY estuaries, A. salina significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities of A. anophagefferens, C. polykrikoides, and A. fundyense relative to the control treatments in all but one experiment. The sum of these findings demonstrates that a failure to graze these HABs by the indigenous copepod, A. tonsa, may permit blooms to occur. In addition, the ability of A. salina to graze these HABs at densities that were inhibitory to A. tonsa suggests that A. salina could, in some circumstances, be considered as a part of mitigation strategy for these events.
Full Text Available The American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is invasive in the Mediterranean region where it has displaced native species (the sexual A. salina, and the clonal A. parthenogenetica from many salt pond complexes. Artemia populations are parasitized by numerous avian cestodes whose effects have been studied in native species. We present a study from the Ebro Delta salterns (NE Spain, in a salt pond where both A. franciscana and native A. salina populations coexist, providing a unique opportunity to compare the parasite loads of the two sexual species in syntopy. The native species had consistently higher infection parameters, largely because the dominant cestode in A. salina adults and juveniles (Flamingolepis liguloides was much rarer in A. franciscana. The most abundant cestodes in the alien species were Eurycestus avoceti (in adults and Flamingolepis flamingo (in juveniles. The abundance of E. avoceti and F. liguloides was higher in the A. franciscana population syntopic with A. salina than in a population sampled at the same time in another pond where the native brine shrimp was absent, possibly because the native shrimp provides a better reservoir for parasite circulation. Infection by cestodes caused red colouration in adult and juvenile A. salina, and also led to castration in a high proportion of adult females. Both these effects were significantly stronger in the native host than in A. franciscana with the same parasite loads. However, for the first time, significant castration effects (for E. avoceti and F. liguloides and colour change (for six cestode species were observed in infected A. franciscana. Avian cestodes are likely to help A. franciscana outcompete native species. At the same time, they are likely to reduce the production of A. franciscana cysts in areas where they are harvested commercially.
Full Text Available Large branchiopod studies were born and bred in the Danube basin in some Eastern European countries (the former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania. The leading expert was the late Dr. Ján Brtek in Slovakia. Large branchiopods are usually habitants of such temporary lakes and ponds as inland bodies of fresh, mineralized, salt water or hypersaline. This article has two distinct goals: (1 to review the history of large branchiopod studies and (2 to draw attention to some of the scientific interest and value of ephemeral aquatic habitats, introducing my reminiscences of Dr. Brtek.
-residence green algae were replaced by blue-green algae. The number of ... A unique rock pool community with a filter-feeding component dominated by Cladocera, and from which large branchiopods were absent, is described. Nutrient ...
A study on the distribution of micro-crustaceans in seven temporary habitats of the province of Sasalı (Izmir) was conducted between 27 March and 10 April 2011. 15 micro-crustacean species, comprising eight ostracods, four branchiopods and three copepods were identified. All species registered represent new reports for ...
Rogers, D. Christopher; Olesen, Jørgen
The Laevicaudata (smooth clam shrimp) are a small group of freshwater bivalved branchiopod crustaceans in need of taxonomic revision. Here the extant Laevicaudata are defined and diagnosed according to modern standards, and synapomorphies are listed, discussed, and illustrated. A catalogue of the...
Full Text Available Branchipus schaefferi Fischer, 1834, is a common and one of the most abundant large branchiopods widely distributed in Europe. In this work, for the first time, we describe and classify some of the most frequently observed morphological anomalies in this species. These are deformities in the head structures as well as in cercopods. Possible causes of such anomalities are discussed in detail. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176019
Sagawa, Kazunori; Yamagata, Hideo; Shiga, Yasuhiro
VASA is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase belonging to the DEAD-box family that, in many organisms, is specifically expressed in germ line cells throughout the life cycle, making it a powerful molecular marker to study germ line development. To obtain further information on germ line development in crustaceans, we cloned VASA cDNAs from three branchiopod species: water fleas Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, and brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. RNA helicase domains in branchiopod VASA were highly conserved among arthropod classes. However, N-terminal RNA-binding domains in branchiopod VASA were highly diverged and, unlike other arthropod VASA reported so far, possessed repeats of retroviral-type zinc finger (CCHC) motifs. Raising specific antibodies against Daphnia VASA revealed that the primordial germ cells (PGCs) in this organism segregate at a very early cleavage stage of embryogenesis in parthenogenetic and sexual eggs. Clusters of PGCs then start to migrate inside the embryo and finally settle at both sides of the intestine, the site of future gonad development. RNA analyses suggested that maternally supplied vasa mRNA was responsible for early VASA expression, while zygotic expression started during blastodermal stage of development.
Jeffery, Nicholas W; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Adamowicz, Sarah J
The region of Churchill, Manitoba, contains a wide variety of habitats representative of both the boreal forest and arctic tundra and has been used as a model site for biodiversity studies for nearly seven decades within Canada. Much previous work has been done in Churchill to study the Daphnia pulex species complex in particular, but no study has completed a wide-scale survey on the crustacean species that inhabit Churchill's aquatic ecosystems using molecular markers. We have employed DNA barcoding to study the diversity of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) in a wide variety of freshwater habitats and to determine the likely origins of the Churchill fauna following the last glaciation. The standard animal barcode marker (COI) was sequenced for 327 specimens, and a 3% divergence threshold was used to delineate potential species. We found 42 provisional and valid branchiopod species from this survey alone, including several cryptic lineages, in comparison with the 25 previously recorded from previous ecological works. Using published sequence data, we explored the phylogeographic affinities of Churchill's branchiopods, finding that the Churchill fauna apparently originated from all directions from multiple glacial refugia (including southern, Beringian, and high arctic regions). Overall, these microcrustaceans are very diverse in Churchill and contain multiple species complexes. The present study introduces among the first sequences for some understudied genera, for which further work is required to delineate species boundaries and develop a more complete understanding of branchiopod diversity over a larger spatial scale.
Full Text Available The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov is attributed to Chytridiomycota based on its size, consistent formation of papillae, and the presence of an internal rhizoidal system. It is the most pristine fossil Chytridiomycota known, especially in terms of rhizoidal development and closely resembles living species in the Rhizophydiales. The spiny resting eggs are attributed to the crustacean Lepidocaris rhyniensis, dating branchiopod adaptation to life in ephemeral pools to the Early Devonian. The new fungal interaction suggests that, as in modern freshwater environments, chytrids were important to the mobilisation of nutrients in early aquatic foodwebs.
Jeffery, Nicholas W.; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Adamowicz, Sarah J.
The region of Churchill, Manitoba, contains a wide variety of habitats representative of both the boreal forest and arctic tundra and has been used as a model site for biodiversity studies for nearly seven decades within Canada. Much previous work has been done in Churchill to study the Daphnia pulex species complex in particular, but no study has completed a wide-scale survey on the crustacean species that inhabit Churchill's aquatic ecosystems using molecular markers. We have employed DNA barcoding to study the diversity of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) in a wide variety of freshwater habitats and to determine the likely origins of the Churchill fauna following the last glaciation. The standard animal barcode marker (COI) was sequenced for 327 specimens, and a 3% divergence threshold was used to delineate potential species. We found 42 provisional and valid branchiopod species from this survey alone, including several cryptic lineages, in comparison with the 25 previously recorded from previous ecological works. Using published sequence data, we explored the phylogeographic affinities of Churchill's branchiopods, finding that the Churchill fauna apparently originated from all directions from multiple glacial refugia (including southern, Beringian, and high arctic regions). Overall, these microcrustaceans are very diverse in Churchill and contain multiple species complexes. The present study introduces among the first sequences for some understudied genera, for which further work is required to delineate species boundaries and develop a more complete understanding of branchiopod diversity over a larger spatial scale. PMID:21610864
Ungerer, Petra; Eriksson, Bo Joakim; Stollewerk, Angelika
Within euarthropods, the morphological and molecular mechanisms of early nervous system development have been analysed in insects and several representatives of chelicerates and myriapods, while data on crustaceans are fragmentary. Neural stem cells (neuroblasts) generate the nervous system in insects and in higher crustaceans (malacostracans); in the remaining euarthropod groups, the chelicerates (e.g. spiders) and myriapods (e.g. millipedes), neuroblasts are missing. In the latter taxa, groups of neural precursors segregate from the neuroectoderm and directly differentiate into neurons and glial cells. In all euarthropod groups, achaete-scute homologues are required for neuroblast/neural precursor group formation. In the insects Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castaneum achaete-scute homologues are initially expressed in clusters of cells (proneural clusters) in the neuroepithelium but expression becomes restricted to the future neuroblast. Subsequently genes such as snail and prospero are expressed in the neuroblasts which are required for asymmetric division and differentiation. In contrast to insects, malacostracan neuroblasts do not segregate into the embryo but remain in the outer neuroepithelium, similar to vertebrate neural stem cells. It has been suggested that neuroblasts are present in another crustacean group, the branchiopods, and that they also remain in the neuroepithelium. This raises the questions how the molecular mechanisms of neuroblast selection have been modified during crustacean and insect evolution and if the segregation or the maintenance of neuroblasts in the neuroepithelium represents the ancestral state. Here we take advantage of the recently published Daphnia pulex (branchiopod) genome and identify genes in Daphnia magna that are known to be required for the selection and asymmetric division of neuroblasts in the fruit fly D. melanogaster. We unambiguously identify neuroblasts in D. magna by molecular marker gene expression and
Full Text Available A new species of laevicaudatan branchiopods, Lynceus insularis sp. nov., is described. It is reported from five sinkholes (dolines in the southern part of New Caledonia. Lynceus insularis sp. nov. is closest to Lynceus species from Australia, but can be separated from these on the basis of clasper morphology and the form of the lamina abdominalis. Lynceus insularis sp. nov. is the first record of a remote insular endemic laevicaudatan. The habitats of the species may be threatened due to hydrological changes, reduction of water supply, acidification of fresh water, invasive species, and/or mining activities in the vicinity.
Swinstrom, Kirsten; Caldwell, Roy; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.
We report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of stomatopods and compare their features to each other and to those of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding sequences were used to explore relationships within the Stomatopoda, within the malacostracan crustaceans, and among crustaceans and insects. Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacostraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.
Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.
The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide...... interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov) is attributed to Chytridiomycota based...
Timms, Brian V
The worldwide genus Eulimnadia previously with only five species described from Australia, is known now to have at least 15 endemic species plus about 10 undescribed species detected by molecular means. Most have variable morphological features, though each has a distinctive resting egg morphology. Many occur in the known branchiopod hot spot of the Paroo/Bulloo catchments in western New South Wales and Queensland. Some are specific to gnammas (rock holes). Given the rarity of males, androdioecious reproduction is probable in most species. Keys are provided for all known Australian species.
Sombke, Andy; Harzsch, Steffen
Myriapods play a crucial role in considerations of evolutionary transformations of arthropod nervous systems. The existing descriptions of the identity and connectivity of myriapod optic neuropils are contradictory. This study asks if the first and second optic neuropil of the scutigeromorph centipede Scutigera coleoptrata correspond to the optic neuropils of Hexapoda and malacostracan Crustacea, the lamina and medulla which are linked by neurites that are arranged in a characteristic optic chiasm. To identify photoreceptor axons, we used immunohistochemistry against histamine which is the universal transmitter of arthropod photoreceptors. Our results provide evidence that the two optic neuropils of S. coleoptrata correspond to the lamina and medulla of Hexapoda and Malacostraca and strongly argue against a correspondence of the optic neuropils in branchiopod crustaceans and scutigeromorphs, as was previously suggested. We conclude that these two retinotopic optic neuropils and an outer optic chiasm are part of the ground pattern of Mandibulata and that the visual systems of branchiopod crustaceans were simplified from this ground pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kiernan, Daniel A; Hertzler, Philip L
The muscle pattern of malacostracan and entomostracan crustacean nauplius larvae was compared using fluorescent phallotoxins. In the dendrobranchiate malacostracan Sicyonia ingentis, F-actin staining was first detected in limb setae at 12 h, likely within sensory nerves. Staining of F-actin was detected in the trunk at 15 h and grew into the naupliar limbs. Sarcomeres were detected at 19 h, identifying the structures as extrinsic limb muscles. The extrinsic limb muscles enlarged but retained their general pattern during the later nauplius stages. Longitudinal trunk muscles and circumferential visceral muscle (VM) developed in the post-naupliar region during nauplius instars 4 and 5, at the time when the gut also formed. In the anostracan branchiopod Artemia salina, the newly hatched nauplius contained an extensive system of extrinsic and intrinsic limb muscles. The gut was almost complete at hatching, along with its associated circumferential VM. Muscles similar in position and structure could be identified in nauplii from the two taxa, but different anatomical origins of extrinsic muscles were evident. Whether the naupliar limb muscles are homologous in malacostracans and branchiopods remains an open question. The strong musculature of the dendrobranchiate naupliar limbs correlates with the use of all three pairs of limbs for swimming.
Lavrov, Dennis V.; Brown, Wesley M.; Boore, Jeffrey L.
Pentastomids are a small group of vermiform animals with unique morphology and parasitic lifestyle. They are generally recognized as being related to the Arthropoda; however, the nature of this relationship is controversial. We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the pentastomid Armillifer armillatus and complete or nearly complete mtDNA sequences from representatives of four previously unsampled groups of Crustacea: Remipedia (Speleonectes tulumensis), Cephalocarida (Hutchinsoniella macracantha), Cirripedia (Pollicipes polymerus) and Branchiura (Argulus americanus). Analyses of the mtDNA gene arrangements and sequences determined in this study indicate unambiguously that pentastomids are a group of modified crustaceans probably related to branchiurans. In addition, gene arrangement comparisons strongly support an unforeseen assemblage of pentastomids with maxillopod and cephalocarid crustaceans, to the exclusion of remipedes, branchiopods, malacostracans and hexapods. PMID:15129965
Zandra M S Sigvardt
Full Text Available Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males. Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata. It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable "finger" of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable "finger", possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the "finger" position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding.
Sigvardt, Zandra M S; Olesen, Jørgen
Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis) and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males). Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs) of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata). It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable "finger" of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable "finger", possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the "finger" position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding.
Larval development of Japanese "conchostracans": Part 3, larval development of Lynceus biformis (crustacea, branchiopoda, laevicaudata) based on scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy.
Olesen, Jørgen; Fritsch, Martin; Grygier, Mark J
For comparison with the remarkable larvae of the laevicaudatan (clam shrimp) Lynceus brachyurus, a basic description of the larval sequence of another laevicaudatan branchiopod, the Japanese Lynceus biformis, is provided. Four larval stages have been identified, ranging in size from 258 to 560 μm in length. The first stage has no flattened dorsal shield, in contrast to the three following stages, in which such a shield is present. During development, the only significant changes to the naupliar appendages occur in the antenna at the molt from stage 1 to 2, with the addition of a fourth apical seta to the endopod and a change in the form of the naupliar process, used for food manipulation, from a long, unbranched, pointed spine to a bifid structure. In addition, buds of trunk limbs (five pairs) first appear externally in stage 4 but can be recognized through the cuticle in the previous stage. The larval sequence and larval morphology of L. biformis differ from those of L. brachyurus in at least two respects. L. brachyurus has a dorsal shield in the earliest known stages, but such a shield is lacking in the first stage of L. biformis. Another difference is that L. brachyurus has a huge, flattened, kidney-shaped labrum, whereas that of L. biformis is smaller and bears four robust, denticulate spines on the distal margin. Based on out-group comparison, the morphology of L. biformis, at least in these respects, is likely to represent the ancestral morphology. Despite the partly peculiar morphology of the larvae of Lynceus species, they share many similarities with other branchiopod larvae, at least two of which, the naupliar swimming/feeding apparatus and the mode of development of the trunk limbs, could be considered synapomorphies for the Branchiopoda. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jubeaux, Guillaume; Audouard-Combe, Fabien; Simon, Romain; Tutundjian, Renaud; Salvador, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Chaumot, Arnaud
Cost-effective methodologies along with cross-species applicability constitute key points for biomarker development in ecotoxicology. With the advent of cheaper affordable genomic techniques and high throughput sequencing, omics tools could facilitate the assessment of effects of environmental contaminants for all taxa biodiversity. We assessed the potential of absolute quantification of proteins using mass spectrometry to develop vitellogenin (Vg)-like protein assays for invertebrates. We used available sequences in public databases to rapidly identify Vg-proteotypic peptides in seven species from different main taxa of protostome invertebrates (mollusk bivalves, crustacean amphipods, branchiopods, copepods and isopods, and insect diptera). Functional validation was performed by comparing proteomic signals from reproductive female tissue samples and negative controls (male or juvenile tissues). In a second part, we demonstrate in gammarids, daphnids, drosophilids, and gastropods that the assay validated in Vg-sequenced species can be applied to Vg-unsequenced species thanks to the evolutionary conservation of Vg-proteotypic peptide motifs. Finally, we discuss the relevance of mass spectrometry for biomarker development (specific measurement, rapid development, transferability across species). Our study supplies an illustration of the promising strategy to address the challenge of biodiversity in ecotoxicology, which consists in employing omics tools from comparative and evolutionary perspectives.
Introduction Within arthropods, several crustacean groups are unique in their early development due to their stereotyped cell division patterns and cell lineages. However, it is still unclear whether these cell division patterns are homologous between the various crustacean groups and whether they could indicate the ground pattern of Tetraconata (Crustacea and Hexapoda). In this study we describe the early development of the raptorial water flea Bythotrephes longimanus as a representative of the Cladocera within branchiopods. Results In B. longimanus the early cell lineage and the cell division pattern are stereotyped up to the fifth cell division cycle. As a morphological marker a nurse cell remnant (ncr) identifies the cell lineage of the smallest and division delayed blastomere up to the 16-cell stage. This marker might be indicative of the germ line. By combining histology, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 4D microscopy, we reconstruct the early cell lineage and cell division pattern and follow transient formations of cell morphological structures in their temporal and spatial behavior up to gastrulation. Conclusions Correspondences to the early cleavage pattern of other Cladocera suggest that the described pattern can be assumed to be ancestral for either the entire Cladocera or for the majority of the Cladocera comprising Anomopoda, Ctenopoda and Onychopoda. The comparison to the cell division patterns of other crustacean groups such as Malacostraca, Ostracoda, and Copepoda reveals similarities that allow for a discussion of a common pattern for the crustacean groups and a ground pattern for the Tetraconata. PMID:24507018
Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Minae; Araki, Marina; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen
Elaborate regulation of insect metamorphosis is the consequence of physiological cooperation among multiple endocrine factors such as juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids. Hormone-induced transcription factors play important roles in substantive interactions between hormonal signaling pathways. In insects, zinc finger transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) is a key gene of the endocrine signaling pathway in which it is directly upregulated by JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met) in the presence of JH and then regulates multiple downstream factors, including components of the ecdysteroid signaling pathway. Although JH also plays a role in various biological phenomena in other arthropod species, little is known about the molecular basis of the JH signaling pathway. Here we cloned Kr-h1 from a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia pulex, (DappuKr-h1) and analyzed its expression profile and developmental function together with consideration of its relationship to the JH signaling pathway. We suggest that DappuKr-h1 lacks JH responsiveness and regulatory relationship with the JH receptor. Moreover our loss-of-function analysis revealed that maternal mRNA of DappuKr-h1 plays a critical role in early development independent from the JH signaling pathway. These findings provide insights about whether and how the JH signaling pathway influenced evolution, leading to greater diversity in phylum Arthropoda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Thi s paper presents a very complete inventory of the branchiopods and copepods that inhabit the salt lakes (salinity >3‰ of Mongolia. The inventory was based on samples collected from 108 salt lakes over the course of seven limnological expeditions in most of the Mongolian territory between 2005 and 2009. The salinity of the lakes ranged from 3.4 to 76‰ S. A total of 43 taxa were identifi ed: 7 Anostraca, 1 Spinicaudata, 1 Notostraca, 1 Leptodoridae, 1 Ctenopoda, 15 Anomopoda and 17 Copepoda. Thirteen taxa are limited to the Asiatic portion and the rest are known throughout the Palearctic region. One taxon, Phallocryptus sp. has not yet been described in scientifi c literature. The taxonomic position of Artemia sp. in Mongolia has still not been clarifi ed. All of the species are eurysaline and, except for Artemia sp. and Cletocamptus retrogressus , which are the most halophile, they can live in waters with less than 10‰ S. Thirty-three species appear only in mesosaline waters (3–20‰ S, fi ve do not exceed the mesosaline level (50‰ S and fi ve can live in hypersaline waters (>50‰ S.
Thomas C. Mathers
Full Text Available ‘Living fossils’, a phrase first coined by Darwin, are defined as species with limited recent diversification and high morphological stasis over long periods of evolutionary time. Morphological stasis, however, can potentially lead to diversification rates being underestimated. Notostraca, or tadpole shrimps, is an ancient, globally distributed order of branchiopod crustaceans regarded as ‘living fossils’ because their rich fossil record dates back to the early Devonian and their morphology is highly conserved. Recent phylogenetic reconstructions have shown a strong biogeographic signal, suggesting diversification due to continental breakup, and widespread cryptic speciation. However, morphological conservatism makes it difficult to place fossil taxa in a phylogenetic context. Here we reveal for the first time the timing and tempo of tadpole shrimp diversification by inferring a robust multilocus phylogeny of Branchiopoda and applying Bayesian divergence dating techniques using reliable fossil calibrations external to Notostraca. Our results suggest at least two bouts of global radiation in Notostraca, one of them recent, so questioning the validity of the ‘living fossils’ concept in groups where cryptic speciation is widespread.
Blaxter Mark L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Branchiopod crustaceans in the genus Daphnia are key model organisms for investigating interactions between genes and the environment. One major theme of research on Daphnia species has been the evolution of resistance to pathogens and parasites, but lack of knowledge of the Daphnia immune system has limited the study of immune responses. Here we provide a survey of the immune-related genome of D. pulex, derived from the newly completed genome sequence. Genes likely to be involved in innate immune responses were identified by comparison to homologues from other arthropods. For each candidate, the gene model was refined, and we conducted an analysis of sequence divergence from homologues from other taxa. Results and conclusion We found that some immune pathways, in particular the TOLL pathway, are fairly well conserved between insects and Daphnia, while other elements, in particular antimicrobial peptides, could not be recovered from the genome sequence. We also found considerable variation in gene family copy number when comparing Daphnia to insects and present phylogenetic analyses to shed light on the evolution of a range of conserved immune gene families.
Wong, Yue Him
The most recent phylogenomic study suggested that Bryozoa (Ectoprocta), Brachiopoda, and Phoronida are monophyletic, implying that the lophophore of bryozoans, phoronids and brachiopods is a synapomorphy. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of the lophophore development of the Lophophorata clade can therefore provide us a new insight into the formation of the diverse morphological traits in metazoans. In the present study, we profiled the transcriptome of the Bryozoan (Ectoproct) Bugula neritina during the swimming larval stage (SW) and the early (4 h) and late (24 h) metamorphic stages using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Various genes that function in development, the immune response and neurogenesis showed differential expression levels during metamorphosis. In situ hybridization of 23 genes that participate in the Wnt, BMP, Notch, and Hedgehog signaling pathways revealed their regulatory roles in the development of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract. Our findings support the hypothesis that developmental precursors of the lophophore and the ancestrula digestive tract are pre-patterned by the differential expression of key developmental genes according to their fate. This study provides a foundation to better understand the developmental divergence and/or convergence among developmental precursors of the lophophore of bryozoans, branchiopods and phoronids.
Ronshaugen, Matthew; McGinnis, Nadine; McGinnis, William
A fascinating question in biology is how molecular changes in developmental pathways lead to macroevolutionary changes in morphology. Mutations in homeotic (Hox) genes have long been suggested as potential causes of morphological evolution, and there is abundant evidence that some changes in Hox expression patterns correlate with transitions in animal axial pattern. A major morphological transition in metazoans occurred about 400 million years ago, when six-legged insects diverged from crustacean-like arthropod ancestors with multiple limbs. In Drosophila melanogaster and other insects, the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and abdominal A (AbdA, also abd-A) Hox proteins are expressed largely in the abdominal segments, where they can suppress thoracic leg development during embryogenesis. In a branchiopod crustacean, Ubx/AbdA proteins are expressed in both thorax and abdomen, including the limb primordia, but do not repress limbs. Previous studies led us to propose that gain and loss of transcriptional activation and repression functions in Hox proteins was a plausible mechanism to diversify morphology during animal evolution. Here we show that naturally selected alteration of the Ubx protein is linked to the evolutionary transition to hexapod limb pattern.
Nathan J. Kenny
Full Text Available The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10−6. We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods.
Understanding how individual photoreceptor cells factor in the spectral sensitivity of a visual system is essential to explain how they contribute to the visual ecology of the animal in question. Existing methods that model the absorption of visual pigments use templates which correspond closely to data from thin cross-sections of photoreceptor cells. However, few modeling approaches use a single framework to incorporate physical parameters of real photoreceptors, which can be fused, and can form vertical tiers. Akaike's information criterion (AICc) was used here to select absorptance models of multiple classes of photoreceptor cells that maximize information, given visual system spectral sensitivity data obtained using extracellular electroretinograms and structural parameters obtained by histological methods. This framework was first used to select among alternative hypotheses of photoreceptor number. It identified spectral classes from a range of dark-adapted visual systems which have between one and four spectral photoreceptor classes. These were the velvet worm, Principapillatus hitoyensis, the branchiopod water flea, Daphnia magna, normal humans, and humans with enhanced S-cone syndrome, a condition in which S-cone frequency is increased due to mutations in a transcription factor that controls photoreceptor expression. Data from the Asian swallowtail, Papilio xuthus, which has at least five main spectral photoreceptor classes in its compound eyes, were included to illustrate potential effects of model over-simplification on multi-model inference. The multi-model framework was then used with parameters of spectral photoreceptor classes and the structural photoreceptor array kept constant. The goal was to map relative opsin expression to visual pigment concentration. It identified relative opsin expression differences for two populations of the bluefin killifish, Lucania goodei. The modeling approach presented here will be useful in selecting the most likely
Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Zwick, Andreas; Hussey, April; Ball, Bernard; Wetzer, Regina; Martin, Joel W; Cunningham, Clifford W
The remarkable antiquity, diversity and ecological significance of arthropods have inspired numerous attempts to resolve their deep phylogenetic history, but the results of two decades of intensive molecular phylogenetics have been mixed. The discovery that terrestrial insects (Hexapoda) are more closely related to aquatic Crustacea than to the terrestrial centipedes and millipedes (Myriapoda) was an early, if exceptional, success. More typically, analyses based on limited samples of taxa and genes have generated results that are inconsistent, weakly supported and highly sensitive to analytical conditions. Here we present strongly supported results from likelihood, Bayesian and parsimony analyses of over 41 kilobases of aligned DNA sequence from 62 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from 75 arthropod species. These species represent every major arthropod lineage, plus five species of tardigrades and onychophorans as outgroups. Our results strongly support Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) but also strongly favour the traditional morphology-based Mandibulata (Myriapoda plus Pancrustacea) over the molecule-based Paradoxopoda (Myriapoda plus Chelicerata). In addition to Hexapoda, Pancrustacea includes three major extant lineages of 'crustaceans', each spanning a significant range of morphological disparity. These are Oligostraca (ostracods, mystacocarids, branchiurans and pentastomids), Vericrustacea (malacostracans, thecostracans, copepods and branchiopods) and Xenocarida (cephalocarids and remipedes). Finally, within Pancrustacea we identify Xenocarida as the long-sought sister group to the Hexapoda, a result confirming that 'crustaceans' are not monophyletic. These results provide a statistically well-supported phylogenetic framework for the largest animal phylum and represent a step towards ending the often-heated, century-long debate on arthropod relationships.
Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Andrew, David R
Traditional hypotheses regarding the relationships of the major arthropod lineages focus on suites of comparable characters, often those that address features of the exoskeleton. However, because of the enormous morphological variety among arthropods, external characters may lead to ambiguities of interpretation and definition, particularly when species have undergone evolutionary simplification and reversal. Here we present the results of a cladistic analysis using morphological characters associated with brains and central nervous systems, based on the evidence that cerebral organization is generally robust over geological time. Well-resolved, strongly supported phylogenies were obtained from a neuromorphological character set representing a variety of discrete neuroanatomical traits. Phylogenetic hypotheses from this analysis support many accepted relationships, including monophyletic Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda, paraphyletic Crustacea and the union of Hexapoda and Crustacea (Tetraconata). They also support Mandibulata (Myriapoda + Tetraconata). One problematic result, which can be explained by symplesiomorphies that are likely to have evolved in deep time, is the inability to resolve Onychophora as a taxon distinct from Arthropoda. Crucially, neuronal cladistics supports the heterodox conclusion that both Hexapoda and Malacostraca are derived from a common ancestor that possessed a suite of discrete neural centers comprising an elaborate brain. Remipedes and copepods, both resolved as basal to Branchiopoda share a neural ground pattern with Malacostraca. These findings distinguish Hexapoda (Insecta) from Branchiopoda, which is the sister group of the clade Malacostraca + Hexapoda. The present study resolves branchiopod crustaceans as descendents of an ancestor with a complex brain, which means that they have evolved secondary simplification and the loss or reduction of numerous neural systems. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Criel, Godelieve R J; Van Oostveldt, Patrick; MacRae, Thomas H
Epidermally derived tendon cells attach the exoskeleton (cuticle) of the Branchiopod crustacean, Artemia franciscana, to underlying muscle in the hindgut, while the structurally similar transalar tendon (epithelial) cells, which also arise from the epidermis and are polarized, connect dorsal and ventral exopodite surfaces. To establish these latter attachments the transalar tendon cells interact with cuticles on opposite sides of the exopodite by way of their apical surfaces and with one another via basal regions, or the cuticle attachments may be mediated through linkages with phagocytic storage cells found in the hemolymph. In some cases, phyllopod tendon cells attach directly to muscle cells. Tendon cells in the hindgut of Artemia possess microtubule bundles, as do the transalar cells, and they extend from the basal myotendinal junction to the apical domain located near the cuticle. The bundled microtubules intermingle with thin filaments reminiscent of microfilaments, but intermediate filament-like structures are absent. Microtubule bundles converging at apical cell surfaces contact structures termed apical invaginations, composed of cytoplasmic membrane infoldings associated with electron-dense material. Intracuticular rods protrude from apical invaginations, either into the cuticle during intermolt or the molting fluid in premolt. Confocal microscopy of immunofluorescently stained samples revealed tyrosinated, detyrosinated, and acetylated tubulins, the first time posttranslationally modified isoforms of this protein have been demonstrated in crustacean tendon cells. Microfilaments, as shown by staining with phalloidin, coincided spatially with microtubule bundles. Artemia tendon cells clearly represent an interesting system for study of cytoskeleton organization within the context of cytoplasmic polarity and the results in this article indicate functional cooperation of microtubules and microfilaments. These cytoskeletal elements, either acting independently
Full Text Available Studying the species distribution of Limnadiidae, a family of crustaceans, in environments favourable to their growth and reproduction is made difficult by their extremely short life cycle and the transient existence of adult forms. However, the eggs of these branchiopods are highly resistant to environmental extremes and persist in the soil of humidified and dried pools. We therefore studied the capacity to detect populations of Limnadiidae and identify them at the species level using egg morphology. We investigated influences of pool sediments on Eulimnadia (clam shrimp egg morphology and asked whether we could rely on this morphology after various lengths of time in the soil to recognise species. We studied sediment collected from temporary pools in four Neotropical areas: Minas Gerais and Bahia (Brazil, French Guiana, and Martinique. These samples represented diverse geographical regions and climates and allowed us to study the four most widely distributed Eulimnadia species in the Neotropics: E. colombiensis, E. cylindrova, E. geayi, and E. magdalensis. Our results indicated that soil abrasion is superficial and does not affect the general shape of the eggs (cylindrical or spherical. However, details of egg ornamentation can be severely affected by the combined effects of erosion and filling with sediments, which can lead to difficulties in species identification. In the particular case of the spherical eggs of E. magdalensis, this species cannot be unequivocally identified without clean eggs collected from adults after breeding or from eggs recently deposited in the field. This work and the investigative methods described herein should facilitate identification of Eulimnadia species and promote further study of Limnadiidae crustaceans in the field.
Suzuki, Masataka G; Tochigi, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Honami; Aoki, Fugaku; Miyamoto, Norio
The transformer (tra) gene is an intermediate component of the sex determination hierarchy in many insect species. The homolog of tra is also found in two branchiopod crustacean species but is not known outside arthropods. We have isolated a tra homolog in the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, which is a hemichordate belonging to the deuterostome superphylum. The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of the S. kowalevskii tra homolog (Sktra) has a 3786-bp open reading frame that encodes a 1261-amino acid sequence including a TRA-CAM domain and an arginine/serine (RS)-rich domain, both of which are characteristic of TRA orthologs. Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that Sktra showed no differences in expression patterns between testes and ovaries, but its expression level was approximately 7.5-fold higher in the testes than in the ovaries. TRA, together with the protein product of the transformer-2 (tra-2) gene, assembles on doublesex (dsx) pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) via the cis-regulatory element, enhancing female-specific splicing of dsx in Drosophila. To understand functional conservation of the SkTRA protein as a dsx-splicing activator, we investigated whether SkTRA is capable of inducing female-specific splicing of the Drosophila dsx. Ectopic expression of Sktra cDNA in insect cultured cells did not induce the female-specific splicing of dsx. On the other hand, forced expression of Sktra-2 (a tra-2 homolog of S. kowalevskii) was able to induce the female-specific dsx splicing. These results demonstrate that the function as a dsx-splicing activator is not conserved in SkTRA even though SkTRA-2 is capable of functionally replacing the Drosophila TRA-2. We have also found a tra homolog in an echinoderm genome. This study provides the first evidence that that tra is conserved not only in arthropods but also in basal species of deuterostoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthropods are the most diverse animal phylum, but their genomic resources are relatively few. While the genome of the branchiopod Daphnia pulex is now available, no other large-scale crustacean genomic resources are available for comparison. In particular, genomic resources are lacking for the most tractable laboratory model of crustacean development, the amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis. Insight into shared and divergent characters of crustacean genomes will facilitate interpretation of future developmental, biomedical, and ecological research using crustacean models. Results To generate a transcriptome enriched for maternally provided and zygotically transcribed developmental genes, we created cDNA from ovaries and embryos of P. hawaiensis. Using 454 pyrosequencing, we sequenced over 1.1 billion bases of this cDNA, and assembled them de novo to create, to our knowledge, the second largest crustacean genomic resource to date. We found an unusually high proportion of C2H2 zinc finger-containing transcripts, as has also been reported for the genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Consistent with previous reports, we detected trans-spliced transcripts, but found that they did not noticeably impact transcriptome assembly. Our assembly products yielded 19,067 unique BLAST hits against nr (E-value cutoff e-10. These included over 400 predicted transcripts with significant similarity to D. pulex sequences but not to sequences of any other animal. Annotation of several hundred genes revealed P. hawaiensis homologues of genes involved in development, gametogenesis, and a majority of the members of six major conserved metazoan signaling pathways. Conclusions The amphipod P. hawaiensis has higher transcript complexity than known insect transcriptomes, and trans-splicing does not appear to be a major contributor to this complexity. We discuss the importance of a reliable comparative genomic framework within which to consider findings
Eyun, Seong-Il; Soh, Ho Young; Posavi, Marijan; Munro, James B; Hughes, Daniel S T; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Park, Eun-Ok; Silva, Joana C; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Lee, Carol Eunmi
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive data set. In particular, odorant receptors were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear. We also examine hypotheses on which arthropod CRG family is most ancient. Thus, we reconstructed phylogenies of CRGs, including those from new arthropod genomes and transcriptomes, and mapped CRG gains and losses across arthropod lineages. Our analysis was strengthened by including crustaceans, especially copepods, which reside outside the hexapod/branchiopod clade within the subphylum Pancrustacea. We generated the first high-resolution genome sequence of the copepod Eurytemora affinis and annotated its CRGs. We found odorant receptors and odorant binding proteins present only in hexapods (insects) and absent from all other arthropod lineages, indicating that they are not universal adaptations to land. Gustatory receptors likely represent the oldest chemosensory receptors among CRGs, dating back to the Placozoa. We also clarified and confirmed the evolutionary history of antennal ionotropic receptors across the Arthropoda. All antennal ionotropic receptors in E. affinis were expressed more highly in males than in females, suggestive of an association with male mate-recognition behavior. This study is the most comprehensive comparative analysis to date of CRG family evolution across the largest and most speciose metazoan phylum Arthropoda. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Gerald A LeBlanc
Full Text Available Environmental signals to maternal organisms can result in developmental alterations in progeny. One such example is environmental sex determination in Branchiopod crustaceans. We previously demonstrated that the hormone methyl farnesoate could orchestrate environmental sex determination in the early embryo to the male phenotype. Presently, we identify a transcription factor that is activated by methyl farnesoate and explore the extent and significance of this transgenerational signaling pathway.Several candidate transcription factors were cloned from the water flea Daphnia pulex and evaluated for activation by methyl farnesoate. One of the factors evaluated, the complex of two bHLH-PAS proteins, dappuMet and SRC, activated a reporter gene in response to methyl farnesoate. Several juvenoid compounds were definitively evaluated for their ability to activate this receptor complex (methyl farnesoate receptor, MfR in vitro and stimulate male sex determination in vivo. Potency to activate the MfR correlated to potency to stimulate male sex determination of offspring (pyriproxyfen>methyl farnesoate>methoprene, kinoprene. Daphnids were exposed to concentrations of pyriproxyfen and physiologic responses determined over multiple generations. Survivial, growth, and sex of maternal organisms were not affected by pyriproxyfen exposure. Sex ratio among offspring (generation 2 were increasingly skewed in favor of males with increasing pyriproxyfen concentration; while, the number of offspring per brood was progressively reduced. Female generation 2 daphnids were reared to reproductive maturity in the absence of pyriproxyfen. Sex ratios of offspring (generation 3 were not affected in this pyriproxyfen lineage, however, the number of offspring per brood, again, was significantly reduced.Results reveal likely components to a hormone/receptor signaling pathway in a crustacean that orchestrates transgenerational modifications to important population metrics (sex
LeBlanc, Gerald A.; Wang, Ying H.; Holmes, Charisse N.; Kwon, Gwijun; Medlock, Elizabeth K.
Background Environmental signals to maternal organisms can result in developmental alterations in progeny. One such example is environmental sex determination in Branchiopod crustaceans. We previously demonstrated that the hormone methyl farnesoate could orchestrate environmental sex determination in the early embryo to the male phenotype. Presently, we identify a transcription factor that is activated by methyl farnesoate and explore the extent and significance of this transgenerational signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings Several candidate transcription factors were cloned from the water flea Daphnia pulex and evaluated for activation by methyl farnesoate. One of the factors evaluated, the complex of two bHLH-PAS proteins, dappuMet and SRC, activated a reporter gene in response to methyl farnesoate. Several juvenoid compounds were definitively evaluated for their ability to activate this receptor complex (methyl farnesoate receptor, MfR) in vitro and stimulate male sex determination in vivo. Potency to activate the MfR correlated to potency to stimulate male sex determination of offspring (pyriproxyfen>methyl farnesoate>methoprene, kinoprene). Daphnids were exposed to concentrations of pyriproxyfen and physiologic responses determined over multiple generations. Survivial, growth, and sex of maternal organisms were not affected by pyriproxyfen exposure. Sex ratio among offspring (generation 2) were increasingly skewed in favor of males with increasing pyriproxyfen concentration; while, the number of offspring per brood was progressively reduced. Female generation 2 daphnids were reared to reproductive maturity in the absence of pyriproxyfen. Sex ratios of offspring (generation 3) were not affected in this pyriproxyfen lineage, however, the number of offspring per brood, again, was significantly reduced. Conclusions Results reveal likely components to a hormone/receptor signaling pathway in a crustacean that orchestrates transgenerational modifications
Vieira Santos, Vanessa Santana; Caixeta, Evelyn Siqueira; Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário de; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa
The continued widespread use of larvicides in Aedes aegypti control programs is still a necessary strategy, since there are no apparent efficient vaccines against arboviruses. However, chemical approaches may affect nontarget organisms and produce detrimental effects to environmental health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct toxicity testing for pyriproxyfen at different concentrations using Daphnia magna and Artemia salina as model organisms to evaluate the ecotoxicological parameters. This study describes the toxicological effects of pyriproxyfen on both microcrustaceans, which are widely used in bioassays because of their sensitivity to changes in hydrosphere. Data demonstrated that the calculated EC50-48h value of pyriproxyfen was 2.5 μg/for D. magna and A. salina; the no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) of pyriproxyfen were found to be 0.63 and 1.25 μg/L for Artemia salina and Daphnia magna, respectively. In chronic toxicity and reproduction tests on D. magna, a calculated CL50-7day (lethality on 50% of daphnids after 7 days of chronic test) and an EC50-21day (50% reduction in the reproductive output of parental daphnids after 21 days of exposure) higher than 1.25 μg/L pyriproxyfen were observed. The time of first reproduction was significantly increased in D. magna after exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of pyriproxyfen, but other reproduction parameters were not markedly altered. Environmental risk assessment revealed that pyriproxyfen is highly toxic for both branchiopods. Data demonstrated that pyriproxyfen may produce adverse effects on the aquatic ecosystem at concentrations required to control Ae. aegypti.
Ivey, Chris D.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Rogers, Christopher; Raimondo, Sandy; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.
Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. Because few data exist about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, it is difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24-h) lethality/immobilization tests was conducted with 3 species of fairy shrimp (B. lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor. The same chemicals were tested in 48-h tests with other branchiopods (the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and in 96-h tests with snails (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea stagnalis). Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for B. lynchi were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.975) with EC50s for the commercially available fairy shrimp species T. platyurus for most chemicals tested. Comparison of EC50s for fairy shrimp and EC50s for invertebrate taxa tested concurrently and with other published toxicity data indicated that fairy shrimp were relatively sensitive to potassium and several trace metals compared with other invertebrate taxa, although cladocerans, amphipods, and mussels had similar broad toxicant sensitivity. Interspecies correlation estimation models for predicting toxicity to fairy shrimp from surrogate species indicated that models with cladocerans and freshwater mussels as surrogates produced the best predictions of the sensitivity of fairy shrimp to contaminants. The results of these studies indicate that fairy shrimp are relatively sensitive to a range of toxicants, but Endangered Species Act-listed fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta were not consistently more sensitive than other fairy shrimp taxa. Environ Toxicol Chem
The Notostraca is a small ancient crustacean order dating back to the Carboniferous and possibly up to the Devonian period. In fact, there are Upper Triassic Triops fossils from Germany which are almost indistinguishable from the present Triops cancriformis and thus Triops is considered to be one of the best examples of evolutionary stasis or `living fossil'. Fossil records have shown that the occurrence of Triops is linked to strata resulting from inland freshwater bodies with alternating phases of flooding and drying out. Still today Notostraca species are known from ephemeral ponds and puddles throughout the world. Several Large Branchiopod species such as the European T. cancriformis present adaptations to desiccation, the main one being the production of thick-walled resting cysts. A high number of resting cysts is laid during the flooded period into the pond sediment or is fixed on plants during the adulthood. The drought resistant portion of cysts undergoes an extreme form of diapause. During this resting time the embryo is protected by different (cement)-layers against desiccation, UV-radiation and pressure. Thus their life cycle is perfectly adapted to extreme environments which resulted in the survival of more than 200 Million years. Among the Notostraca a wide range of reproductive modes are present including bisexual -the putatively ancestral state -, androdioecious and hermaphrodite populations. As hermaphroditism and androdioecy confer a colonisation advantage, Triops are suitable for populating experiments whatsoever. Triops is an ideal model organism due to their easy culture and breeding in the lab. Without any impact on the hatching success the resting cysts can easily be extracted from the soil and prepared for controlled experiments. Furthermore their biology has been studied in depth and optimal breeding conditions are known. The ancient group "travelled" successfully through time and is now ready for experiments in the outer space. At the
Full Text Available L'approvisionnement quotidien en nourriture est, en règle générale, le principal facteur limitant de productions à grande échelle de jeunes poissons marins.La pêche de plancton dans la nature a été, et reste, le moyen d'expérimentation le plus immédiat, et le plus satisfaisant sur le plan qualitatif. Mais la récolte des quantités nécessaires, au moment voulu, devient très délicate dès que l'on dépasse l'échelle de l'aquarium. Le développement, ces dernières décennies, de techniques de production en masse d'animaux-proies a permis le lancement d'élevages à grande échelle. Parmi ces proies, le Branchiopode Artemia salina et le Rotifère Brachionus plicatilis dominent incontestablement ; tandis que l'élevage des Copépodes, part la plus intéressante du plancton naturel, reste encore mal maîtrisé. Cependant , l'élevage et l'emploi de proies vivantes, quelles qu'elles soient, imposent la réalisation d'installations coûteuses et l'emploi d'un abondant personnel qualifié. Il en est résulté récemment un important effort de recherche en direction de nourritures inertes, broyats , poudres et aliments composés, généralement abandonnés après les échecs enregistrés pendant les premières années du siècle. Quelques résultats encourageants ont été obtenus, mais ils restent limités et soulèvent de délicats problèmes d'hygiène des bacs d'élevage. L'emploi de proies vivantes , au moins pendant le premier mois des élevages , reste donc encore une obligation. Dans ce contexte, l'essentiel de l'effort actuel tend , d'une part à réduire leur durée d'emploi au minimum possible et, d'autre part, à rendre leur production plus rationnelle , en recherchant des méthodes qui évitent, pour leur alimentation , de faire appel à des algues planctoniques vivantes.
Full Text Available . A revised classification of Malacostraca based on a phylogenetic analysis is presented. For this purpose 68 morphological characters were cladistically treated using the parsimony programme Paup 4.10. The system here proposed is a reflection of the cladistic tree produced by TABACARU & DANIELOPOL (2011. The following aspects are in the present contribution developed: (1 We consider, in accordance with a widely held opinion of carcinologists, that Phyllocarida (Ord. Leptostraca displays essential synapomorphies with Malacostraca, namely tagmosis 5+7+8+telson, fixation of the gonopore on the 6th female thoracic-segment and on the 8th male-thoracic segment. Based on this assertion Phyllocarida belongs to the Class Malacostraca. Hence we do not share either the ancient view of H. MILNE EDWARDS (1840, who included Nebalia into the Ordo Phyllopodes, Legio Branchiopodes Latreille, or the more recent opinions of SCHRAM (1986, WHEELER (1997 and WILLS (1998 who consider Phyllocarida as belonging to Phyllopoda; (2 the Class Malacostraca is dichotomously separated into Subclasses, Phyllocarida and Eumalacostraca. This is due to the fact that Hoplocarida shares essential synapomorphies with the Eumalacostraca, namely loss of 7th somite of the pleon, thoracic endopod built as stenopod and pleopods of the 6th somite of pleon differentiated as uropods. This opinion is in contradiction with those of other carcinologists who, presupposing a distinct origin of Hoplocarida, consider the Class Malacostraca separated in three Subclasses: Phyllocarida, Hoplocarida and Eumalacostraca (SCHRAM, 1978, 1981; MCLAUGHLIN, 1980; BOWMAN & ABELE, 1982; KUNZE, 1983; DAHL, 1983; AHYONG, 1997; MARTIN & DAVIS, 2001; WELLS & HOUSTON, 2002; FOREST, 2004 ; (3 in our opinion the Superorder Syncarida Packard, 1885 (including the orders Bathynellacea Chappuis, 1915 and Anaspidacea Calman, 1904 does not represent a monophyllum. We accept the view of SERBAN (1972 following which