WorldWideScience

Sample records for branching processes

  1. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu......Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning...... and computation and subsequently design and bespoke CNC fabrication. The question whether this allows for a new approach to the uniqueness that is offered to us by nature is discussed in a series of workshops and projects, which explore the performative potential of naturally grown materials....

  2. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  3. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  4. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  5. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  6. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  7. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  8. A note on random catalytic branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Mike; Kauffman, Stuart

    2018-01-21

    A variety of evolutionary processes in biology can be viewed as settings where organisms 'catalyse' the formation of new types of organisms. One example, relevant to the origin of life, is where transient biological colonies (e.g. prokaryotes or protocells) give rise to new colonies via lateral gene transfer. In this short note, we describe and analyse a simple random process which models such settings. By applying theory from general birth-death processes, we describe how the survival of a population under catalytic diversification depends on interplay of the catalysis rate and the initial population size. We also note how such process can also be viewed within the framework of 'self-sustaining autocatalytic networks'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On connection between the q-processes and the branching processes allowing immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Imomov, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we consider the Branching Processes with non-generating tra- jectories in remote future. Such processes are called as Q-processes. We discover a deeper connection between the Q-processes and the Galton-Watson Branching Processes allowing Immigration. The asymptotical properties of trajectories of Q-processes are investigated. The total progeny of Q-processes is studied.

  10. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  11. An introduction to branching measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, Eugene B

    1994-01-01

    For about half a century, two classes of stochastic processes-Gaussian processes and processes with independent increments-have played an important role in the development of stochastic analysis and its applications. During the last decade, a third class-branching measure-valued (BMV) processes-has also been the subject of much research. A common feature of all three classes is that their finite-dimensional distributions are infinitely divisible, allowing the use of the powerful analytic tool of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. All three classes, in an infinite-dimensional setting, provide means for study of physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This is the first monograph devoted to the theory of BMV processes. Dynkin first constructs a large class of BMV processes, called superprocesses, by passing to the limit from branching particle systems. Then he proves that, under certain restrictions, a general BMV process is a superprocess. A special chapter is devoted to the connections between ...

  12. Uniqueness of Stationary Measures for Branching Processes and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Harris [3] using classical methods of functional iteration developed by Fatou [4]. It had already been pointed out by Fatou that if the coefficients are...E. HARRIS, 7’he Theory of Branching Processes, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1963. [4] P. FATOU , "Sur les 6quations fonctionelles," Bull. Soc. Math

  13. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  14. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  15. Leading Process Branch Instability in Lis1+/− Nonradially Migrating Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Pallavi P.; Simonet, Jacqueline C.; Shapiro, William

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian forebrain development requires extensive migration, yet the mechanisms through which migrating neurons sense and respond to guidance cues are not well understood. Similar to the axon growth cone, the leading process and branches of neurons may guide migration, but the cytoskeletal events that regulate branching are unknown. We have previously shown that loss of microtubule-associated protein Lis1 reduces branching during migration compared with wild-type neurons. Using time-lapse imaging of Lis1+/− and Lis1+/+ cells migrating from medial ganglionic eminence explant cultures, we show that the branching defect is not due to a failure to initiate branches but a defect in the stabilization of new branches. The leading processes of Lis1+/− neurons have reduced expression of stabilized, acetylated microtubules compared with Lis1+/+ neurons. To determine whether Lis1 modulates branch stability through its role as the noncatalytic β regulatory subunit of platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase 1b, exogenous PAF was applied to wild-type cells. Excess PAF added to wild-type neurons phenocopies the branch instability observed in Lis1+/− neurons, and a PAF antagonist rescues leading process branching in Lis1+/− neurons. These data highlight a role for Lis1, acting through the PAF pathway, in leading process branching and microtubule stabilization. PMID:19861636

  16. A reconsideration of Lotka's extinction probability using a bisexual branching process

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, David M.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally recognized that Alfred Lotka made the first application of standard Galton-Watson branching process theory to calculate an extinction probability in a specific population (using asexual reproduction). This note applies bisexual Galton-Watson branching process theory to the calculation of an extinction probability from Lotka's data, yielding a somewhat higher value.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of the Process for Microbial Production of Branched Chained Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modelling of branched chained amino acids production. One of important branched chained amino acid is L-valine. The aim of the article is synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  18. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages with Multi-Type Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Junjian; Sun, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multi-type branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multi-type branching process can effectively predi...

  19. Two-Type Reducible Age-Dependent Branching Processes With Non-Homogeneous Poisson Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrien, Ollivier; Yanev, Nikolay M

    2011-01-01

    Two type reducible age-dependent branching stochastic processes with non-homogeneous Poisson immigration are considered as models of renewal cell population dynamics. The asymptotic behaviour of the first moments of the process with or without immigration is investigated. Several classes of asymptotic behavior are identified for the population dynamics. Our results are also useful for developing associated methods of statistical inference.

  20. The Specific Features of design and process engineering in branch of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosedko, V. V.; Yanishevskaya, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    Production output of industrial enterprise is organized in debugged working mechanisms at each stage of product’s life cycle from initial design documentation to product and finishing it with utilization. The topic of article is mathematical model of the system design and process engineering in branch of the industrial enterprise, statistical processing of estimated implementation results of developed mathematical model in branch, and demonstration of advantages at application at this enterprise. During the creation of model a data flow about driving of information, orders, details and modules in branch of enterprise groups of divisions were classified. Proceeding from the analysis of divisions activity, a data flow, details and documents the state graph of design and process engineering was constructed, transitions were described and coefficients are appropriated. To each condition of system of the constructed state graph the corresponding limiting state probabilities were defined, and also Kolmogorov’s equations are worked out. When integration of sets of equations of Kolmogorov the state probability of system activity the specified divisions and production as function of time in each instant is defined. On the basis of developed mathematical model of uniform system of designing and process engineering and manufacture, and a state graph by authors statistical processing the application of mathematical model results was carried out, and also advantage at application at this enterprise is shown. Researches on studying of loading services probability of branch and third-party contractors (the orders received from branch within a month) were conducted. The developed mathematical model of system design and process engineering and manufacture can be applied to definition of activity state probability of divisions and manufacture as function of time in each instant that will allow to keep account of loading of performance of work in branches of the enterprise.

  1. The Effectiveness Analysis of Waiting Processes in the Different Branches of a Bank by Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ÖZÇİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the appreciable increase in the number of bank branches every year, nowadays queues for services don’t decrease and even become parts of our daily lives. By minimizing waiting processes the least, increasing customer satisfaction should be one of branch managers’ main goals. A quick and also customer oriented service with high quality is the most important factor for customer loyalty. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in six different branches of two banks operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by six branches of two banks called as A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. At the end of study it is presented to the company some advices that can bring benefits to the staff and customers. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in three different branches of a bank operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by three branches of the bank called A1, A2 and A3. At last it is presented to the company some advices that can bring more benefits to the staff and clients.

  2. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  3. Prospects for direct neutron capture measurements on s-process branching point isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Kaeppeler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Palomo, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria Electronica, Sevilla (Spain); Reifarth, R. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of several unstable key isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure directly due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, where high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. At present there are about 21 relevant s-process branching point isotopes whose cross section could not be measured yet over the neutron energy range of interest for astrophysics. However, the situation is changing with some very recent developments and upcoming technologies. This work introduces three techniques that will change the current paradigm in the field: the use of γ-ray imaging techniques in (n, γ) experiments, the production of moderated neutron beams using high-power lasers, and double capture experiments in Maxwellian neutron beams. (orig.)

  4. Sensitivity analysis of a branching process evolving on a network with application in epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Blondel, Vincent D

    2015-01-01

    We perform an analytical sensitivity analysis for a model of a continuous-time branching process evolving on a fixed network. This allows us to determine the relative importance of the model parameters to the growth of the population on the network. We then apply our results to the early stages of an influenza-like epidemic spreading among a set of cities connected by air routes in the United States. We also consider vaccination and analyze the sensitivity of the total size of the epidemic with respect to the fraction of vaccinated people. Our analysis shows that the epidemic growth is more sensitive with respect to transmission rates within cities than travel rates between cities. More generally, we highlight the fact that branching processes offer a powerful stochastic modeling tool with analytical formulas for sensitivity which are easy to use in practice.

  5. The McMillan Theorem for Colored Branching Processes and Dimensions of Random Fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bakhtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the simplest colored branching process, we prove an analog to the McMillan theorem and calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of random fractals defined in terms of the limit behavior of empirical measures generated by finite genetic lines. In this setting, the role of Shannon’s entropy is played by the Kullback–Leibler divergence, and the Hausdorff dimensions are computed by means of the so-called Billingsley–Kullback entropy, defined in the paper.

  6. Simple unified view of branching process statistics: Random walks in balanced logarithmic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Santo, Serena; Villegas, Pablo; Burioni, Raffaella; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the problem of deriving the mean-field values of avalanche exponents in systems with absorbing states. These are well known to coincide with those of unbiased branching processes. Here we show that for at least four different universality classes (directed percolation, dynamical percolation, the voter model or compact directed percolation class, and the Manna class of stochastic sandpiles) this common result can be obtained by mapping the corresponding Langevin equations describing each of them into a random walker confined to the origin by a logarithmic potential. We report on the emergence of nonuniversal continuously varying exponent values stemming from the presence of small external driving - that might induce avalanche merging - that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been noticed in the past. Many of the other results derived here appear in the literature as independently derived for individual universality classes or for the branching process itself. Still, we believe that a simple and unified perspective as the one presented here can help (1) clarify the overall picture, (2) underline the superuniversality of the behavior as well as the dependence on external driving, and (3) avoid the common existing confusion between unbiased branching processes (equivalent to a random walker in a balanced logarithmic potential) and standard (unconfined) random walkers.

  7. Simulating the Emergence and Survival of Mutations Using a Self Regulating Multitype Branching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Mode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for an experimenter to study the emergence and survival of mutations, because mutations are rare events so that large experimental population must be maintained to ensure a reasonable chance that a mutation will be observed. In his famous book, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Sir R. A. Fisher introduced branching processes into evolutionary genetics as a framework for studying the emergence and survival of mutations in an evolving population. During the lifespan of Fisher, computer technology had not advanced to a point at which it became an effective tool for simulating the phenomenon of the emergence and survival of mutations, but given the wide availability of personal desktop and laptop computers, it is now possible and financially feasible for investigators to perform Monte Carlo Simulation experiments. In this paper all computer simulation experiments were carried out within a framework of self regulating multitype branching processes, which are part of a stochastic working paradigm. Emergence and survival of mutations could also be studied within a deterministic paradigm, which raises the issue as to what sense are predictions based on the stochastic and deterministic models are consistent. To come to grips with this issue, a technique was used such that a deterministic model could be embedded in a branching process so that the predictions of both the stochastic and deterministic compared based on the same assigned values of parameters.

  8. Measurement of the Branching Ratio for the Process $b \\to \\tau^{-}\\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, R.J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Couchman, J.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; Von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Surrow, B.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The inclusive branching ratio for the process b -> tau nu X has been measured using hadronic Z decays collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP in the years 1992-2000. The result is: BR(b -> tau nu X) = (2.78 +/- 0.18 +/- 0.51)% This measurement is consistent with the Standard Model expectation and puts a constraint of tan(beta) / M(H+/-) < 0.53 GeV-1 at the 95% confidence level on Type II Two Higgs Doublet Models.

  9. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  10. Neutron capture at the s-process branching points $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl

    CERN Multimedia

    Branching points in the s-process are very special isotopes for which there is a competition between the neutron capture and the subsequent b-decay chain producing the heavy elements beyond Fe. Typically, the knowledge on the associated capture cross sections is very poor due to the difficulty in obtaining enough material of these radioactive isotopes and to measure the cross section of a sample with an intrinsic activity; indeed only 2 out o the 21 ${s}$-process branching points have ever been measured by using the time-of-flight method. In this experiment we aim at measuring for the first time the capture cross sections of $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl, both of crucial importance for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in AGB stars. The combination of both (n,$\\gamma$) measurements on $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl will allow one to accurately constrain neutron density and the strength of the 13C(α,n) source in low mass AGB stars. Additionally, the cross section of $^{204}$Tl is also of cosmo-chrono...

  11. The neutron capture cross section of the ${s}$-process branch point isotope $^{63}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis in massive stars plays an important role in Galactic chemical evolution as well as for the analysis of abundance patterns in very old metal-poor halo stars. The so-called weak ${s}$-process component, which is responsible for most of the ${s}$ abundances between Fe and Sr, turned out to be very sensitive to the stellar neutron capture cross sections in this mass region and, in particular, of isotopes near the seed distribution around Fe. In this context, the unstable isotope $^{63}$Ni is of particular interest because it represents the first branching point in the reaction path of the ${s}$-process. We propose to measure this cross section at n_TOF from thermal energies up to 500 keV, covering the entire range of astrophysical interest. These data are needed to replace uncertain theoretical predicitons by first experimental information to understand the consequences of the $^{63}$Ni branching for the abundance pattern of the subsequent isotopes, especially for $^{63}$Cu and $^{...

  12. The (n, $\\gamma$) reaction in the s-process branching point $^{59}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the $^{59}$Ni(n,$\\gamma$)$^{56}$Fe cross section at the neutron time of flight (n TOF) facility with a dedicated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detector. The (n, ) reaction in the radioactive $^{59}$Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as it can be seen as a rst branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. There is a strong discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data les for this isotope. The aim of the measurement is to clarify this disagreement. The clear energy separation of the reaction products of neutron induced reactions in $^{59}$Ni makes it a very suitable candidate for a rst cross section measurement with the CVD diamond detector, which should serve in the future for similar measurements at n_TOF.

  13. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point 59Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Weiß, C; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Vlachoudis, V.; Altstadt, S.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L.S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Riego, A.; Robles, M.S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive 59Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as 59Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n_TOF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the 59Ni(n, α)56Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  14. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point 59Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, C.; Guerrero, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Vlachoudis, V.; Altstadt, S.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L. S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2014-06-01

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive 59Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as 59Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n_TOF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the 59Ni(n, α)56Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  15. 12 CFR 545.95 - What processing procedures apply to my home or branch office application or notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to my home or branch office application or notice? (a) Processing procedures. Applications and... approve an amendment to your charter in connection with a home office relocation under this section. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What processing procedures apply to my home or...

  16. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  17. A branching process, its application in biology: influence of demographic parameters on the social structure in mammal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Lormier, G; Masson, J P; Ménard, N; Pierre, J S

    2006-02-07

    Branching processes are widely used in biology. This theoretical tool is used in cell dynamics, epidemics and population dynamics. In population dynamics, branching processes are mainly used to access extinction probabilities of populations, groups or families, with the Galton-Watson branching process. Many mammal species live in socially-structured groups, and the smallest units of these groups are lineages (or families) of kin-related individuals. In many primate species, these lineages are matrilines, as females remain in their natal groups most of the time, whereas males generally disperse. Lineage parameters, such as numbers of matrilines, size of each matriline and average degree of relatedness, could strongly influence the genetic composition of groups. Evidence indicates that division along matrilines could induce substantial differentiation among fission groups. Here, we develop a novel mathematical model based on the branching process theory describing demographic dynamics of groups. The main result of this model is an explicit analytical expression of the joint distribution of numbers of lineages and sizes of socially-structured groups. We investigated the influence of parameters such as natality and mortality on the outcome of the process, including extinction probability. Finally, we discuss this theoretical result with respect to biological significance.

  18. Synthesis of porous carbon nanofiber with bamboo-like carbon nanofiber branches by one-step carbonization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Hwa; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2017-04-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) with CNF branches (PCNF/bCNF) were synthesized by a simple heat treatment method. Conventional methods to synthesize this unique structure usually follow a typical route, which consists of CNF preparation, catalyst deposition, and secondary CNF growth. In contrast, our method utilized a one-step carbonization process of polymer nanofibers, which were electrospun from a one-pot solution consisted of polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene (PS), and iron acetylacetonate. Various structures of PCNF/CNF were synthesized by changing the solution composition and molecular weight of PS. It was verified that the content and molecular weight of PS were critical for the growth of catalyst particles and subsequent growth of CNF branches. The morphology, phase of catalyst, and carbon structure of PCNF/bCNF were analyzed at different temperature steps during carbonization. It was found that pores were generated by the evaporation of PS and the catalyst particles were formed on the surface of PCNF at 700 °C. The gases originated from the evaporation of PS acted as a carbon source for the growth of CNF branches that started at 900 °C. Finally, when the carbonization process was finished at 1200 °C, uniform and abundant CNF branches were formed on the surface of PCNF.

  19. Chemical control of branched broomrape in processing tomato using sulfonylureas in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Conversa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the efficacy and the selectivity of three sulfonylureas (SUs rimsulfuron (RS, chlorsulfuron (CS and triasulfuron (TS for Phelipanche ramosa control in processing tomato. In 2014 a single dose (D (75, 15 and 22.5 g ha–1 active ingredient – a.i.– of RS, CS and TS, respectively, split into three applications at equal rate, was delivered into the soil layer interested by the roots using two herbigation methods i through the drip irrigation system (DH or ii by foliar spray followed by overhead irrigation (FH. In 2015 SUs were applied in pre-transplant at one third of D, and in post-transplant at the dose D, at onehalf and at one-fourth of D, delivered in 3 rates by drip herbigation. In both experiments RS gave the best broomrape control and the highest yield increase compared with the untreated crop and CS improved crop yield similarly to RS despite being less effective in contrasting branched broomrape, In 2014, the foliar application of TS and CS resulted in plant injuries which, more significantly with TS, caused lower numbers and fresh weight of fruits as well as a lower crop productivity increase. In the same year the drip herbigation with TS resulted in the lowest broomrape control and tomato yield increase. In 2015, the best parasite control and tomato yield performances were obtained with RS and CS when applied in pre-transplant at 25.0 and 5.0 g ha–1 a.i., respectively, and in post-transplant at 75.0 and 15.0 g ha–1 a.i., respectively. With TS, the pre-transplant application a.i. was the most effective among the TS treatments resulting in a yield improvement similar to RS and CS, while it was confirmed the low broomrape control when applied through drip irrigation due to its low mobility in the soil. More research is needed in order to better exploit the combination of pre- and post-transplant applications in the chemical control of P. ramosa of tomato under the conditions in southern Italy.

  20. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cailloux

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same processing conditions, PD,L-LA with the lower D enantiomer molar content revealed a higher reactivity towards the reactive agent, induced by its higher thermal sensitivity. REXCalendering process seemed to minimize the degradations reactions during processing, although a competition between degradation and chain extension/branching reactions took place in both processes. Finally, the rheological characterization revealed a higher degree of modification in the melt rheological behaviour for REX-Calendered samples.

  1. A single carbon fiber microelectrode with branching carbon nanotubes for bioelectrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyan; Lu, Xin; Tze, William T Y; Wang, Ping

    2010-06-15

    Carbon fiber electrodes are greatly promising for microelectronic applications including high performance biosensors, miniaturized transmitters, and energy storage and generation devices. For biosensor applications, one drawback of using carbon fiber microelectrodes, especially single fiber electrodes, is the weak electronic signals, a consequence of low surface area of fibers, which ultimately limit the sensitivity of the sensors. In this paper, we report a novel single fiber microelectrode with branched carbon nanotubes for enhanced sensing performance. The fiber microelectrode was prepared from carbonization of cellulose fibers. Upon introduction of carbon nanotubes, the carbon fibers exhibited a significant increase in the specific surface area from fiber electrode with such a hierarchical structure was examined for redox reactions of coenzyme NAD(H) which is useful to mediate the assays and transformations of a broad range of biochemicals. Experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes enhanced the redox reactions on surfaces of the electrode by reducing the oxidation potential of NAD(H) from 0.8 to 0.55 V. The single carbon fiber with branched nanotubes was also examined for the detection of glycerol, and the results showed linear responding signals in a concentration range of 40-250 microM. These results are comparable to the properties of fossil-based carbon materials, and thus our cellulose-based carbon electrodes provide a potentially sustainable alternative in bioelectrochemical applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.

  3. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  4. On the Inclusion of Self Regulating Branching Processes in the Working Paradigm of Evolutionary and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Mode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal goal of this methodological paper is to suggest to a generalaudience in the genetics community that the consideration of recentdevelopments of self regulating branching processes may lead to thepossibility of including this class of stochastic processes as part ofworking paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics. This class ofbranching processes is self regulating in the sense that an evolvingpopulation will grow only to a total population size that can be sustainedby the environment. From the mathematical point of view the class processesunder consideration belongs to a subfield of probability and statisticssometimes referred to as computational applied probability and stochasticprocesses. Computer intensive methods based on Monte Carlo simulationprocedures have been used to empirically work out the predictions of aformulation by assigning numerical values to some point in the parameterspace and computing replications of realizations of the process overthousands of generations of evolution. Statistical methods are then used onsuch samples of simulated data to produce informative summarizations of thedata that provide insights into the evolutionary implications of computerexperiments. Briefly, it is also possible to embed deterministic non-lineardifference equations in the stochastic process by using a statisticalprocedure to estimate the sample functions of the process, which hasinteresting methodological implications as to whether stochastic ordeterministic formulations may be applied separately or in combination inthe study of evolution. It is recognized that the literature on populationgenetics contains a substantial number of papers in which Monte Carlosimulation methods have been used. But, this extensive literature is beyondthe scope of this paper, which is focused on potential applications of selfregulating branching processes in evolutionary and population genetics.

  5. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  6. Renewed limit theorems for the discrete-time Branching Process and its conditioned limiting law interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Imomov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our principal aim is to observe a Markov discrete-time process of population growth with long-living trajectory. First we study asymptotical decay of generating function of Galton-Watson process for all cases as the Basic Lemma. Afterwards we get a Differential analogue of the Basic Lemma. This Lemma plays main role in our discussions throughout the paper. Hereupon we improve and supplement classical results concerning Galton-Watson process. Further we investigate properties of the population process so called Q-process. In particular we obtain a joint limit law of Q-process and its total state. And also we state and prove the analogue of Law of large numbers and the Central limit theorem for total state of Q-process.

  7. A framework for analysis of abortive colony size distributions using a model of branching processes in irradiated normal human fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Sakashita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonogenicity gives important information about the cellular reproductive potential following ionizing irradiation, but an abortive colony that fails to continue to grow remains poorly characterized. It was recently reported that the fraction of abortive colonies increases with increasing dose. Thus, we set out to investigate the production kinetics of abortive colonies using a model of branching processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We firstly plotted the experimentally determined colony size distribution of abortive colonies in irradiated normal human fibroblasts, and found the linear relationship on the log-linear or log-log plot. By applying the simple model of branching processes to the linear relationship, we found the persistent reproductive cell death (RCD over several generations following irradiation. To verify the estimated probability of RCD, abortive colony size distribution (≤ 15 cells and the surviving fraction were simulated by the Monte Carlo computational approach for colony expansion. Parameters estimated from the log-log fit demonstrated the good performance in both simulations than those from the log-linear fit. Radiation-induced RCD, i.e. excess probability, lasted over 16 generations and mainly consisted of two components in the early (<3 generations and late phases. Intriguingly, the survival curve was sensitive to the excess probability over 5 generations, whereas abortive colony size distribution was robust against it. These results suggest that, whereas short-term RCD is critical to the abortive colony size distribution, long-lasting RCD is important for the dose response of the surviving fraction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present model provides a single framework for understanding the behavior of primary cell colonies in culture following irradiation.

  8. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the s-Process Branching Points 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Lerendegui-Marco, Jorge; Casanovas, Adria; Cortes-Giraldo, Miguel A.; Dressler, Rugard; Halfon, Shlomi; Heinitz, Stephan; Kivel, Niko; Köster, Ulli; Paul, Michael; Quesada-Molina, Jose Manuel; Schumann, Dorothea; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Tessler, Moshe; Weissman, Leo

    The neutron capture cross section of several key unstable isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, for which high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. As part of a new program to measure some of these important branching points, radioactive targets of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl have been produced by irradiation of stable isotopes (146Nd, 170Er, and 203Tl) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) high flux reactor. After breeding in the reactor and a certain cooling period, the resulting mixed 204Tl/203Tl sample was used directly while 147Pm and 171Tm were radiochemically separated in non-carrier-added quality at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), then prepared as targets. A set of theses samples has been used for time-of-flight measurements at the CERN n_TOF facility using the 19 and 185 m beam lines, during 2014 and 2015. The capture cascades were detected with a set of four C6D6 scintillators, allowing to observe the associated neutron capture resonances. The results presented in this work are the first ever determination of the resonance capture cross sections of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl. Activation experiments on the same 147Pm and 171Tm targets with a high-intensity quasi-Maxwellian flux of neutrons have been performed using the SARAF accelerator and the Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) in order to extract the corresponding Maxwellian Average Cross Section (MACS). The experimental setups are here described together with the first, preliminary results of the n_TOF measurement.

  9. Stochastic modeling of stress erythropoiesis using a two-type age-dependent branching process with immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrien, O; Peslak, S A; Yanev, N M; Palis, J

    2015-06-01

    The erythroid lineage is a particularly sensitive target of radiation injury. We model the dynamics of immature (BFU-E) and mature (CFU-E) erythroid progenitors, which have markedly different kinetics of recovery, following sublethal total body irradiation using a two-type reducible age-dependent branching process with immigration. Properties of the expectation and variance of the frequencies of both types of progenitors are presented. Their explicit expressions are derived when the process is Markovian, and their asymptotic behavior is identified in the age-dependent (non-Markovian) case. Analysis of experimental data on the kinetics of BFU-E and CFU-E reveals that the probability of self-renewal increases transiently for both cell types following sublethal irradiation. In addition, the probability of self-renewal increased more for CFU-E than for BFU-E. The strategy adopted by the erythroid lineage ensures replenishment of the BFU-E compartment while optimizing the rate of CFU-E recovery. Finally, our analysis also indicates that radiation exposure causes a delay in BFU-E recovery consistent with injury to the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment that give rise to BFU-E. Erythroid progenitor self-renewal is thus an integral component of the recovery of the erythron in response to stress.

  10. Space-time decoupling in the branching process in the mutant étoile of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, Zofia; Billoud, Bernard; Le Bail, Aude; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2011-12-01

    Ectocarpus siliculosus is being developed as a model organism for brown algal genetics and genomics. Brown algae are phylogenetically distant from the other multicellular phyla (green lineage, red algae, fungi and metazoan) and therefore might offer the opportunity to study novel and alternative developmental processes that lead to the establishment of multicellularity. E. siliculosus develops as uniseriate filaments, thereby displaying one of the simplest architectures among multicellular organisms. The young sporophyte grows as a primary filament and then branching occurs, preferentially at the center of the filament. We recently described the first morphogenetic mutant étoile (etl) in a brown alga, produced by UVB mutagenesis in E. siliculosus. We showed that a single recessive mutation was responsible for a defect in both cell differentiation and the very early branching pattern (first and second branch emergences). Here, we supplement this study by reporting the branching defects observed subsequently, i.e. for the later stages corresponding to the emergence of up to the first six secondary filaments, and we show that the branching process is composed of at least two distinct components: time and position. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  11. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  12. Grain size associations of branched tetraether lipids in soils and riverbank sediments: influence of hydrodynamic sorting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterse, Francien; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the abundance and distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in grain size fractions of 7 globally distributed river flank sediments and catchment soils in order to determine if and how the initial soil-brGDGT signature is influenced by hydrodynamic sorting upon entering a river and during subsequent transport from land to sea. BrGDGTs are hypothesized to form associations with high-surface-area fine-grained minerals in soils. Such associations, if maintained during transport, may impart resistance to degradation and promote downstream transport, reducing potential interferences by aquatic brGDGTs. We find that brGDGTs are indeed primarily associated with organic carbon (OC) bound to the clay-silt fraction (soils and river sediments, and that these associations appear to be maintained during river transport. However, the relative distribution of individual brGDGTs among size fractions is relatively uniform, suggesting that brGDGTs are well mixed in river sediments and that OC-mineral associations are continuously renewed. Consequently, the brGDGT signature finally stored in continental margin sediments appears insensitive to differential particle transport processes. Nevertheless, the lower (upstream) temperature signal generally reflected by brGDGTs in river sediments may also be explained by a contribution of in situ produced brGDGTs leading to an underestimation of reconstructed air temperatures.

  13. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  14. Growth patterns in mesophotic octocorals: Timing the branching process in the highly-valuable Mediterranean Corallium rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Maria Carla; Priori, Cristina; Erra, Fabrizio; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    This study examined colony growth in the long-lived red coral Corallium rubrum, a slow growing octocoral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea and neighboring Atlantic areas and one of the most valuable of all marine species. Age and growth rate were determined on 165 sections of colony bases and branches by means of a validated age dating method in populations living between 50 and 130 m in the NW Mediterranean. The ratio between minimum and maximum diameter remained constant, indicating proportional growth of colony bases. No significant difference was found between the growth rate of bases and branches. A significantly different branching pattern (colony height/number of branches) and average growth rate were found between the colonies of the different geographic areas. As growth rate decreases with age, this was due to the different age structure of the two samples. The maximum lifespan was found to be 106 years, a value not determined previously for C. rubrum colonies, and the average age of colonies at first branching was about 10 years. Linear growth varied widely between colonies as well as between branches in the same colony, confirming the lack of any strict relation between height and age. The study illustrates the growth of a mesophotic, heavily exploited Corallidae.

  15. Branched polymers on branched polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Jonsson, Thordur

    1996-01-01

    We study an ensemble of branched polymers which are embedded on other branched polymers. This is a toy model which allows us to study explicitly the reaction of a statistical system on an underlying geometrical structure, a problem of interest in the study of the interaction of matter and quantized gravity. We find a phase transition at which the embedded polymers begin to cover the basis polymers. At the phase transition point the susceptibility exponent $\\gamma$ takes the value 3/4 and the ...

  16. The control of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  17. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one-step reactive extrusion-calendering process: physical aging and fracture behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, Jonathan; Santana Pérez, Orlando Onofre; FRANCO URQUIZA, EDGAR ADRIAN; Bou Serra, Jordi; Carrasco Alonso, Félix Ángel; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa

    2014-01-01

    The architectural modifications of a linear poly(D,L-Lactide) acid (PD,L-LA) commercial grade were induced by a one-step reactive extrusion-calendering process using a styrene-glycidyl acrylate copolymer as reactive agent. The melt degradation was counteracted by chain extension and branching reactions, leading to a stabilization of the melt properties and an increase in the molecular weight. For such modified samples [poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-reactive extrusion (REX)], the rate of physical ag...

  18. Serial Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Within a 8-day workshop 19 students of KADK explored the performative potential of naturally angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, but swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. The workshop questioned whether contemporary informa...... information technology with its potential for individual fabrication allows for a new approach to the uniqueness that is offered to us by nature....

  19. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cailloux, J; Santana, O. O; Franco-Urquiza, E; Bou, J. J; Carrasco, F; Gamez-Perez, J; Maspoch, M. L

    2013-01-01

    One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering) was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent...

  20. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, J.; O. O. Santana; E. Franco-Urquiza; J. J. Bou; F. Carrasco; J. Gamez-Perez; Maspoch, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering) was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same pro...

  1. 36 CFR 1260.54 - What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for Executive Branch information is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Mandatory Review § 1260.54 What is the appeal process when a... Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel, Attn: Mandatory Review Appeals, c/o Information Security..., 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. ...

  2. Molecular Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakai, Takayoshi; Larsen, Melinda; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2004-01-01

    .... This mini-review describes a recently developed and tested set of approaches for identifying and characterizing molecules essential for branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes...

  3. Multidimensional treatment of stochastic solvent dynamics in photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer processes: sequential, concerted, and complex branching mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudackov, Alexander V; Hazra, Anirban; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-10-14

    A theoretical approach for the multidimensional treatment of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes in solution is presented. This methodology is based on the multistate continuum theory with an arbitrary number of diabatic electronic states representing the relevant charge distributions in a general PCET system. The active electrons and transferring proton(s) are treated quantum mechanically, and the electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces are represented as functions of multiple scalar solvent coordinates corresponding to the single electron and proton transfer reactions involved in the PCET process. A dynamical formulation of the dielectric continuum theory is used to derive a set of coupled generalized Langevin equations of motion describing the time evolution of these collective solvent coordinates. The parameters in the Langevin equations depend on the solvent properties, such as the dielectric constants, relaxation time, and molecular moment of inertia, as well as the solute properties. The dynamics of selected intramolecular nuclear coordinates, such as the proton donor-acceptor distance or a torsional angle within the PCET complex, may also be included in this formulation. A surface hopping method in conjunction with the Langevin equations of motion is used to simulate the nonadiabatic dynamics on the multidimensional electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces following photoexcitation. This theoretical treatment enables the description of both sequential and concerted mechanisms, as well as more complex processes involving a combination of these mechanisms. The application of this methodology to a series of model systems corresponding to collinear and orthogonal PCET illustrates fundamental aspects of these different mechanisms and elucidates the significance of proton vibrational relaxation and nonequilibrium solvent dynamics. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. Long chain branching of PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Fahnhorst, Grant; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2017-05-01

    A trifunctional aziridine linker, trimethylolpropane tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinepropionate) (TTMAP), was melt blended with linear polylactic acid (PLA) to make star branched PLA. Adding pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) led to long chain branched (LCB) PLA. Mixing torque evolution during melt processing revealed high reactivity of aziridine with the carboxyl end group on PLA and an incomplete reaction of PMDA with the hydroxyl end group. Star-shaped PLA exhibited higher viscosity but no strain hardening in extensional flow while LCB PLA showed significant extensional hardening. Excess TTMAP in the branching reaction resulted in gel formation, which led to failure at low strain in extension. PMDA conversion was estimated based on gelation theory. The strain rate dependence of extensional hardening indicated that the LCB PLA had a low concentration of long chain branched molecules with an H-shaped topology. Unlike current methods used to branch PLA, free radical chemistry or use of an epoxy functional oligomers, our branching strategy produced strain hardening with less increase in shear viscosity. This study provides guidelines for design of polymers with low shear viscosity, which reduces pressure drop in extrusion, combined with strong extensional hardening, which enhances performance in processes that involve melt stretching.

  5. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  6. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  7. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. EUROPIUM s-PROCESS SIGNATURE AT CLOSE-TO-SOLAR METALLICITY IN STARDUST SiC GRAINS FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Janaina N.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Holden, Peter [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Gyngard, Frank; Zinner, Ernst [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Cristallo, Sergio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, INAF, via Maggini snc, Teramo I-64100 (Italy); Rauscher, Thomas, E-mail: janaina.avila@anu.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    Individual mainstream stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains and a SiC-enriched bulk sample from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite have been analyzed by the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe-Reverse Geometry for Eu isotopes. The mainstream grains are believed to have condensed in the outflows of {approx}1.5-3 M{sub Sun} carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The {sup 151}Eu fractions [fr({sup 151}Eu) = {sup 151}Eu/({sup 151}Eu+{sup 153}Eu)] derived from our measurements are compared with previous astronomical observations of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars enriched in elements made by slow neutron captures (the s-process). Despite the difference in metallicity between the parent stars of the grains and the metal-poor stars, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements agree well with fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from astronomical observations. We have also compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of Eu isotopic ratios in the envelope of AGB stars. Because of the low Eu abundances in the SiC grains, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements show large uncertainties, in most cases being larger than the difference between solar and predicted fr({sup 151}Eu) values. The SiC aggregate yields a fr({sup 151}Eu) value within the range observed in the single grains and provides a more precise result (fr({sup 151}Eu) = 0.54 {+-} 0.03, 95% conf.), but is approximately 12% higher than current s-process predictions. The AGB models can match the SiC data if we use an improved formalism to evaluate the contribution of excited nuclear states in the calculation of the {sup 151}Sm(n, {gamma}) stellar reaction rate.

  9. Critical role of alkyl chain branching of organic semiconductors in enabling solution-processed N-channel organic thin-film transistors with mobility of up to 3.50 cm² V(-1) s(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Hu, Yunbin; Schuettfort, Torben; Di, Chong-an; Gao, Xike; McNeill, Christopher R; Thomsen, Lars; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Yuan, Wei; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-02-13

    Substituted side chains are fundamental units in solution processable organic semiconductors in order to achieve a balance of close intermolecular stacking, high crystallinity, and good compatibility with different wet techniques. Based on four air-stable solution-processed naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups (NDI-DTYM2) that bear branched alkyl chains with varied side-chain length and different branching position, we have carried out systematic studies on the relationship between film microstructure and charge transport in their organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). In particular synchrotron measurements (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure) are combined with device optimization studies to probe the interplay between molecular structure, molecular packing, and OTFT mobility. It is found that the side-chain length has a moderate influence on thin-film microstructure but leads to only limited changes in OTFT performance. In contrast, the position of branching point results in subtle, yet critical changes in molecular packing and leads to dramatic differences in electron mobility ranging from ~0.001 to >3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Incorporating a NDI-DTYM2 core with three-branched N-alkyl substituents of C(11,6) results in a dense in-plane molecular packing with an unit cell area of 127 Å(2), larger domain sizes of up to 1000 × 3000 nm(2), and an electron mobility of up to 3.50 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is an unprecedented value for ambient stable n-channel solution-processed OTFTs reported to date. These results demonstrate that variation of the alkyl chain branching point is a powerful strategy for tuning of molecular packing to enable high charge transport mobilities.

  10. Mechanisms of Side Branching and Tip Splitting in a Model of Branching Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yina; Sun, Mingzhu; Garfinkel, Alan; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side

  11. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  12. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  13. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  14. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is

  16. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  17. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  18. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  19. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  20. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  1. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanwoua, Julienne; Bairam, Emna; Delaire, Mickael; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modeling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  2. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  3. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  4. Resistance to change in the Management Information System: an analysis of the institutionalization of IT structures and processes in an organization of the Brazilian Judicial Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Junqueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the resistance factors to change the Management Information System - MIS, in an organization of the Brazilian judiciary, describing how the actions of the actors can inhibit the institutionalization of management control practices. We use the case study method, with the framework of Burns and Scapens (2000 to understand the process in which the rules become habits and routines and are institutionalized. Huy’s framework (2001 were used to explain how the ideal types of planned change to analyzing can explain resistance factors. The cut chosen for analysis was the IT structures and processes recommended by law and supported by the literature in the field. We conducted interviews, document analysis and field notes for the collection and discourse analysis elements - DA for data analysis. The results indicate that the structures and processes IT should form the MIS of organization are not fully institutionalized, although the coercive pressure to change. Thus, we observe a purely ceremonial use of various processes of MIS and concluded that if senior management does not exercise its coordinating role and support the process of change and if there is no proper training of servers, hardly the rules become will habits and patterns, or they will be institutionalized. The study contributes to the field to describe how failures in planning the change and / or the lack of interest of senior management, coupled with the lack of training of staff inhibits the institutionalization of new rules, even when these are established coercively.

  5. A Unifying Theory of Branching Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Scheele, Colinda L G J; Moad, Mohammad; Drogo, Nicholas; Heer, Rakesh; Sampogna, Rosemary V; van Rheenen, Jacco; Simons, Benjamin D

    2017-09-21

    The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that, in mouse mammary gland, kidney, and human prostate, these features can be explained quantitatively within a single unifying framework of branching and annihilating random walks. Based on quantitative analyses of large-scale organ reconstructions and proliferation kinetics measurements, we propose that morphogenesis follows from the proliferative activity of equipotent tips that stochastically branch and randomly explore their environment but compete neutrally for space, becoming proliferatively inactive when in proximity with neighboring ducts. These results show that complex branched epithelial structures develop as a self-organized process, reliant upon a strikingly simple but generic rule, without recourse to a rigid and deterministic sequence of genetically programmed events. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  7. Durability of branches in branched and fenestrated endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Tara M; Greenberg, Roy K; Eagleton, Matthew J; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2013-04-01

    Branched and fenestrated repair has been shown to be effective for treatment of complex aortic aneurysms. However, the long-term durability of branches is not well reported. Prospective data collected for all patients enrolled in a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption trial for branched and fenestrated endografts were analyzed. Retrospective review of imaging studies and electronic records was used to supplement the dataset. Incidences of branch stent secondary intervention, stent fracture, migration, branch-related rupture, and death were calculated. A time-to-event analysis was performed for secondary intervention for any branch. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify related variables. Branch instability, a composite outcome of any branch event, was reported as a function of exponential decay to capture the loss of freedom from complications over time. Between the years 2001 and 2010, 650 patients underwent endovascular aortic repair with branched or fenestrated devices. Over 9 years of follow-up (mean [standard deviation], 3 [2.3] years), secondary procedures were performed for 0.6% of celiac, 4% of superior mesenteric artery (SMA), 6% of right renal artery, and 5% of left renal artery stents. Mean time to reintervention was 237 (354) days. The 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year freedom from branch intervention was 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96%-99%), 94% (95% CI, 92%-96%), and 84% (95% CI, 78%-90%), respectively. Death from branch stent complications occurred in three patients, two related to SMA thrombosis and one due to an unstented SMA scallop. Multivariable analysis revealed no factors as independent predictors of need for branch reintervention. Branches, after branched or fenestrated aortic repair, appear to be durable and are rarely the cause of patient death. The absence of long-term data on branch patency in open repair precludes comparison, yet the lower morbidity and mortality risk coupled with longer

  8. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  9. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  10. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  11. Ab initio study of the HO2+NO reaction: Prediction of the total rate constant and product branching ratios for the forward and reverse processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R. S.; Lin, M. C.

    2003-11-01

    The mechanisms for HO2+NO and its reverse reactions have been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital and transition-state theory calculations. The species involved have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) level and their energies refined by single-point calculations with the highest scheme of the modified Gaussian-2 method. Ab initio results show that formation of HO+NO2 from HO2+NO by the direct fragmentation of the peroxynitrous acid, HOONO intermediate, is predominant; the alternative path occurring by the isomerization of HOONO to HONO2 is 5.2 kcal/mol less favorable. The stepwise formation of HNO+O2 from HOONO is energetically unfavorable; the barriers for the direct H abstract reactions via singlet and triplet paths are found to be rather high also. Rate constant calculations show that the forward reaction is pressure independent below 10 atm; the reverse OH+NO2 reactions producing HONO2 and HOONO appear to be strongly pressure dependent; below 1 atm, the yield of HOONO from HO+NO2 is <2.5% at 300-400 K, it reaches 12.2% and 9.1%, respectively, at 300 and 400 K at 3.8×104 Torr pressure. The low- and high-pressure rate constants with He as a third-body for the formation of HOONO and HONO2 from the HO+NO2 reaction can be expressed by k0 (HOONO)=3.15×102 T-12.3 exp(-585/T), k0 (HONO2)=3.32×10-6 T-8.8 exp(-1569/T)cm6 molecule-2 s-1 and k∞ (HOONO)=1.71×10-10 T-0.24 exp(100/T) and k∞ (HONO2)=4.74×10-9T-0.82 exp(21/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, in the temperature range of 200-2000 K. The unimolecular decomposition rate constant (in Ar) of HNO3 can be expressed as kd∞ (HNO3)=2.30×1023T-2.27 exp(-26317/T) s-1 and kd0 (HNO3)=1.27×1015 T-6.55exp(-26038/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. The predicted values are all in close agreement with experimental data for both forward and reverse processes.

  12. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    Authorizations Since 1999, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 10 The FY2012 level of...Congresses, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 11 Members’ Representational...vehicles; communications equipment; security equipment and its installation; dignitary protection; intelligence analysis; hazardous material response

  13. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    reflect different features of the global structure, and it is categorically shown that this dimensional analysis results in effective structure characterization of these materials. Small-angle scattering of x-rays and neutrons can be used to quantify branch content and characterize the structure, through application of concepts native to fractal geometry. The application of the scaling model to nano-particulate aggregates yields quantitative information regarding the structure of these materials. In-situ small and ultra small angle x-ray scattering data collected on fumed silica and soot particles is presented in Chapter II. These measurements were performed at Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, UNICAT beam-line and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, ID2 beam-line. The dimensional analysis is successful in not only giving an average snap-shot of the nano-particulate aggregates, but also yields information regarding the growth processes involved in the complex pyrolysis technique of synthesizing these materials. In case of macromolecular systems, the minimum path dimension, dmin, is shown to reflect the thermodynamics of the system. This is categorically established in Chapter III on hyperbranched polymers, where the scaling model accurately predicts the good-solvent to theta-condition transition in these highly branched polymers with increasing molar mass. The scaling model is applied to the long standing problem of quantifying long chain branching in polyethylene in Chapter IV. Small angle neutron scattering data on dilute solutions of polyethylene were obtained at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (SAND beam-line); NIST center for Neutron Scattering (NG3 beam-line); and Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LQD beam-line). This work, for the first time in literature, reports the length of a long chain branch in polyethylene in terms of the average molar mass of the branches, and the average number of carbon atoms in the long

  14. Extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal dynamics during branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental developmental process which results in amplification of epithelial surface area for exchanging molecules in organs including the lung, kidney, mammary gland and salivary gland. These complex tree-like structures are built by iterative rounds of simple routines of epithelial morphogenesis, including bud formation, extension, and bifurcation, that require constant remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cytoskeleton. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the role of the ECM and cytoskeletal dynamics in branching morphogenesis across these different organs. The cellular and molecular mechanisms shared during this morphogenetic process provide insight into the development of other branching organs. PMID:22609561

  15. Models of lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Vertebrate airway has a tree-like-branched structure. This structure is generated by repeated tip splitting, which is called branching morphogenesis. Although this phenomenon is extensively studied in developmental biology, the mechanism of the pattern formation is not well understood. Conversely, there are many tree-like structures in purely physical or chemical systems, and their pattern formation mechanisms are well-understood using mathematical models. Recent studies correlate these biological observations and mathematical models to understand lung branching morphogenesis. These models use slightly different mechanisms. In this article, we will review recent progress in modelling lung branching morphogenesis, and future directions to experimentally verify the models. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  17. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...... giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R ~ 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality...... found that the four CN peaks may be paired—the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations...

  18. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  19. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  20. Branch prediction in the pentium family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    1998-01-01

    How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions.......How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions....

  1. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  2. STUDYING OF POSSIBILITY A WILLOW WHITE (SALIX ALBA L.) BRANCHES STERILIZATION BY IONIZING RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ольга Олеговна Фролова; Анна Степановна Саушкина; Майя Викторовна Мазурина; Ася Юрьевна Айрапетова; Евгения Геннадьевна Компанцева; Евгения Владимировна Компанцева

    2014-01-01

    There was determined a quantity of microorganisms in Salix alba L. branches specimens after processing by ionizing radiation (0,25–5 kGy). The powder of S. alba branches conform to recommended requirements for a standard "Microbiological purity" after processing by the minimal radiation dose, that’s why offered method of sterilization is effective. Ionizing radiation is acceptable for S. alba branches processing, because it doesn't influence significantly on the structure and the quantity of ...

  3. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  4. Branching diffusion with particle interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Engländer, János; Zhang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    A $d$-dimensional branching diffusion, $Z$, is investigated, where the linear attraction or repulsion between particles is competing with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck drift, with parameter $b$ (we take $b>0$ for inward O-U and $b0$) or repulsion ($\\gamma 0$, while escapes to infinity exponentially fast (rate $|b|$) when $b

  5. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  6. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 72, Revision 1 (FGE.72Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic, branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of these and straight-chain aliphatic saturated alcohols evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 23 aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA at their 61st meeting. This revision is made due...... threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel agrees with the application of the Procedure as performed by the JECFA for all 23 substances considered in this FGE and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances...

  7. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  8. [Biomass dynamics of tree branches of higher order. A model analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskiĭ, V V

    2012-01-01

    The sectional model of biomass dynamics of freely growing tree brahcnes of all orders is presented. The model is an extension of the sectional tree biomass model proposed earlier. The branches model showed bell-shaped dynamics of a branches biomass and, accordingly, boundedness of branch orders number. The important element of the model of branches system is the inter-verticil green biomass. The model is parameterized on the basis of published data on lifespan of branches of different orders and age in which the biomass of skeletal branches of spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst, reaches the maximum. When adding known peculiarities of spruce growth (such as the initial growth inhibiton and presence of the inter-verticil branches) to the model of biomass dynamics of regular branches system, good appproximation of all natural data by model values is obtained. The possible mechanism of inter-verticil branches appearance in response to improvement of a tree growth conditions, and also their function in a tree growth process, namely replacement of regular branches incapable of appropriate response, is described. Initiation of appearing and/or waking of the sleeping (adventive) buds which give rise to inter-verticil branches is probably caused by rise of pressure of photosynthates in a tree phloem what the published results of experiments on a decapitaion of branches of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) also testify.

  9. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    astogeny in S. pistillata is a regulated process expressed through programmed events and not directly related to simple energy trade-off principles or to environmental conditions, and that branch polarity and apical dominance do not dictate colony astogeny. Therefore, plasticity and astogenic disparities encompass a diversity of genetic (fixed and flexible induced responses.

  10. Branched endografts for thoracoabdominal aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Roy; Eagleton, Matthew; Mastracci, Tara

    2010-12-01

    Endovascular management of thoracoabdominal aneurysms has been studied since 2001, with marked advances allowing for the treatment of complex anatomic situations including chronic aortic dissections, tortuous anatomy, and extensive aneurysms that involve the visceral segment, aortic arch, and iliacs as well. However, the technology is not widely disseminated, and a thorough understanding of the engineering principles, imaging techniques, and devices available is required. Reinforced fenestrated branches coupled with balloon expandable stent grafts, and side-arm branch designs mated with self-expanding stent grafts have been used. Pure fenestrated designs were used for juxtarenal aneurysms, whereas thoracoabdominal aneurysms were treated with reinforced fenestrated branches or hybrid devices including side-arm branches and reinforced fenestrated branches. Intraoperative fusion techniques have been used since 2009, whereby preoperative computed tomographic data are fused with intraoperative fluoroscopy. Long-term survival in accordance with extent of disease was assessed with life table analysis techniques, and differences were analyzed using the log rank test. Intermediate-term data pertaining to patency related to both types of branches and paraplegia have been evaluated and previously published. A total of 406 patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysms and 227 patients with juxtarenal aneurysms have been enrolled in a prospective study. Perioperative and 2-year survival were most closely related to extent of initial disease and were estimated to be 1.8% and 82% for juxtarenal aneurysms, 2.3% and 82% for type IV, and 5.2% and 74% for type II and III thoracoabdominal aneurysms at 24 months, respectively. When patients undergoing endovascular repair (ER group) were matched with those having contemporary surgical repair (SR group) for anatomic disease extent, mortality was similar at 30 days (5.7% ER vs 8.3% SR; P = .2) and at 12 months (15.6% ER vs 15.9% SR; P = .9

  11. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-06

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions.

  13. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  14. Vere-Jones' self-similar branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichev, A; Sornette, D

    2005-11-01

    Motivated by its potential application to earthquake statistics as well as for its intrinsic interest in the theory of branching processes, we study the exactly self-similar branching process introduced recently by Vere-Jones. This model extends the ETAS class of conditional self-excited branching point-processes of triggered seismicity by removing the problematic need for a minimum (as well as maximum) earthquake size. To make the theory convergent without the need for the usual ultraviolet and infrared cutoffs, the distribution of magnitudes m' of daughters of first-generation of a mother of magnitude m has two branches m m with exponent beta + d, where beta and d are two positive parameters. We investigate the condition and nature of the subcritical, critical, and supercritical regime in this and in an extended version interpolating smoothly between several models. We predict that the distribution of magnitudes of events triggered by a mother of magnitude m over all generations has also two branches m' sequences, we conclude that the two branches of the distribution of aftershocks are not directly observable and the model is compatible with real seismic catalogs. In summary, the exactly self-similar Vere-Jones model provides an attractive new approach to model triggered seismicity, which alleviates delicate questions on the role of magnitude cutoffs in other non-self-similar models. The new prediction concerning two branches in the distribution of magnitudes of aftershocks could be tested with recently introduced stochastic reconstruction methods, tailored to disentangle the different triggered sequences.

  15. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  16. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blanc

    Full Text Available Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme

  17. Coulomb branch localization in quiver quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kazutoshi; Sasai, Yuya [Institute of Physics, Meiji Gakuin University,1518 Kamikurata-cho, Yokohama, 244-8539 (Japan)

    2016-02-16

    We show how to exactly calculate the refined indices of N=4U(1)×U(N) supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics in the Coulomb branch by using the localization technique. The Coulomb branch localization is discussed from the viewpoint of both non-linear and gauged linear sigma models. A classification of fixed points in the Coulomb branch differs from one in the Higgs branch, but the derived indices completely agree with the results which were obtained by the localization in the Higgs branch. In the Coulomb branch localization, the refined indices can be written as a summation over different sets of the Coulomb branch fixed points. We also discuss a space-time picture of the fixed points in the Coulomb branch.

  18. Do tree split probabilities determine the branch lengths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Benny; Steel, Mike

    2015-06-07

    The evolution of aligned DNA sequence sites is generally modeled by a Markov process operating along the edges of a phylogenetic tree. It is well known that the probability distribution on the site patterns at the tips of the tree determines the tree topology, and its branch lengths. However, the number of patterns is typically much larger than the number of edges, suggesting considerable redundancy in the branch length estimation. In this paper we ask whether the probabilities of just the 'edge-specific' patterns (the ones that correspond to a change of state on a single edge) suffice to recover the branch lengths of the tree, under a symmetric 2-state Markov process. We first show that this holds provided the branch lengths are sufficiently short, by applying the inverse function theorem. We then consider whether this restriction to short branch lengths is necessary. We show that for trees with up to four leaves it can be lifted. This leaves open the interesting question of whether this holds in general. Our results also extend to certain Markov processes on more than 2-states, such as the Jukes-Cantor model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  20. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well.

  1. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  2. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of Apple (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne eFanwoua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modelling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  3. Modified parton branching model for multi-particle production in hadronic collisions: Application to SUSY particle branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanyuan, Zhang

    The stochastic branching model of multi-particle productions in high energy collision has theoretical basis in perturbative QCD, and also successfully describes the experimental data for a wide energy range. However, over the years, little attention has been put on the branching model for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. In this thesis, a stochastic branching model has been built to describe the pure supersymmetric particle jets evolution. This model is a modified two-phase stochastic branching process, or more precisely a two phase Simple Birth Process plus Poisson Process. The general case that the jets contain both ordinary particle jets and supersymmetric particle jets has also been investigated. We get the multiplicity distribution of the general case, which contains a Hypergeometric function in its expression. We apply this new multiplicity distribution to the current experimental data of pp collision at center of mass energy √s = 0.9, 2.36, 7 TeV. The fitting shows the supersymmetric particles haven't participate branching at current collision energy.

  4. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  5. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  6. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  7. The Branching Point in Erythro-Myeloid Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perié, Leïla; Duffy, Ken R; Kok, Lianne; de Boer, Rob J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074214152; Schumacher, Ton N

    2015-01-01

    Development of mature blood cell progenies from hematopoietic stem cells involves the transition through lineage-restricted progenitors. The first branching point along this developmental process is thought to separate the erythro-myeloid and lymphoid lineage fate by yielding two intermediate

  8. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  9. Measurement of the pion branching ratio at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrunot, C.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, S.; Kettell, S. H.; Kuno, Y.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L.; Numao, T.; Sher, A.; Sullivan, T.; Vavilov, D.; Yoshida, M.

    2012-09-01

    The branching ratio of pion decays, R = Γ(π+→e+νe+π+→e+νeγ)/Γ(π+→μ+νμ+π+→μ+νμγ is one of the most accurately calculated decay processes involving hadrons and has provided one of the most stringent tests of the hypothesis of electron-muon universality in weak interactions. The current experimental branching ratio Rexp = (1.230±0.004)×10-4 is 40 times less precise than the theoretical prediction RSM = 1.2352(1)10-4. The TRIUMF PIENU experiment aims at measuring the pion branching ratio with a precision improved by at least a factor five.

  10. Branched morphology of Nb powder particles fabricated by calciothermic reduction in CaCl2 melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Natsui, Shungo; Kikuchi, Tatsuya

    2017-11-01

    A new branched morphology of metallic niobium powder particles was produced by calciothermic reduction of niobium oxides in molten CaCl2. The influence of some reaction parameters on the powder particle morphology was studied, and the formation mechanism was investigated. It was found that the formation of intermediate complex niobium oxides (CaxNb2Oy) was crucial in the formation of niobium powder particles with the branched morphology. Based on this finding, the formation mechanism of the branched morphology in four stages was proposed. These Nb powder particles with microscopic branches can prevent particle sintering during the fabrication process of electric capacitors, allowing the latter to exhibit a higher capacitance.

  11. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Chalmers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ethan K.; Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally. PMID:26998842

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kelsey; Kita, Elizabeth M; Scott, Ethan K; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-03-01

    Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally.

  15. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia

    2010-04-15

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  17. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric (University of Texas at Austin)

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  18. Quantification of Structural Topology in Branched Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    Complex molecular structures occur in various natural and synthetic materials. From common plastics like polyethylene to proteins like hemoglobin, the significant effect of the molecular structure of these materials on their properties cannot be understated. Hence, it is fundamental to comprehensively characterize these complex structures. In the case of polyethylene, branching plays a significant role in determining its structure-property relationships. Various characterization techniques are available to measure the branch content in polyethylene. Qualitative techniques based on gel permeation chromatography and rheology; and absolute measurements from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are commonly used to estimate branch content. Drawbacks posed by these common techniques have been well documented in literature. Further, these techniques are unable to provide a comprehensive picture of the structural topology of polyethylene which is crucial to understanding the structure-property relationships of these systems. In this dissertation, a novel scaling approach is described to quantify branching in polyethylene. The approach is useful in quantifying both short-chain and long-chain branch contents in polyethylene. Additionally, unique measurements such as average long-chain branch length and hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content are available through this approach. Such enhanced topological information can help us better understand the effect of catalyst systems on the structure of polyethylene as well as the effect of branching on the polymer's physical properties. The scaling approach was successful in quantifying the structure of variety of model and commercial branched polyethylene systems. Specific examples of high-density and linear low-density polyethylene as well as hydrogenated polybutadienes are discussed here. The dissertation is intended to standardize and corroborate the scaling approach in quantifying the structure of branched polymers. The

  19. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

  20. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  1. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants.

  2. A Unifying Theory of Branching Morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Scheele, Colinda L G J; Moad, Mohammad; Drogo, Nicholas; Heer, Rakesh; Sampogna, Rosemary V; van Rheenen, Jacco; Simons, Benjamin D

    2017-01-01

    The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that,

  3. Variants of the left aortic arch branches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Variants of the left aortic arch branches. N Z Makhanya. MB ChB. R T Mamogale. MB 0113. N Khan. FCRaD (0). Department of Diagnostic Radiology. Medical University of Southern Africa. Abstract. The normal aorta has three branches from its arch, but variations in this pattern are not uncommon. Our.

  4. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  5. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Gong, Saijie; Hao, Zhaojun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2015-10-14

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the "wedding flower". However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  6. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  7. Improved β Decay Branching Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Golovko, V.

    2008-04-01

    The work we report here aims at increasing the precision possible in the measurement of branching ratios for superallowed β^+decays. Such highly accurate values are essential in generating precise ft-values for 0^+->0^+decays, which can then be used to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix [1]. The required precision is ˜0.1% or better. While this limit was already achieved in the case of ^34Ar [2], it would have been very difficult, if not impossible, to achieve it for other β^+-decays without an upgrade to our acquisition and data-reduction systems. We have thus improved the controls over all the key elements in our experimental set-up: we now have direct control over the dead-time for the singles and coincidence channels and <0.1 mm control over the source-detector distance. In addition, we have extensively studied the efficiency of the β-detector with source-measurements tested against various Monte Carlo programs [3]. We have tested our new acquisition set-up on ^60Co and ^22Na (β^- and β^+ emitters respectively) to validate our new methods. Preliminary results on the two sources are statistically consistent with the expected values. An ^34Ar decay experiment using the new experimental configuration has already been performed and is currently analyzed. [1] J.C. Hardy and I.S. Towner, PRC 71, 055501 (2005) [2] V. Iacob et al., BAPS 52(3)B16; BAPS 52(9)HF3 [3] V. Golovko et al., BAPS 52(9)DH4; this BAPS

  8. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  9. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer’s interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  10. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  11. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight excit...

  12. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  13. 77 FR 39143 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... executive branch qualified trust, an entity must meet the strict requirements for independence set forth in... this subpart. A parent or guardian may execute the umbrella trust agreement on behalf of a required...

  14. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  15. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  16. How Banks Go Abroad : Branches or Subsidiaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Eugenio; Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni; Martínez Pería, Maria Soledad

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine the factors that influence banks' type of organizational form when operating in foreign markets using an original database of the branches and subsidiaries in Latin America and Eastern Europe of the top 100 international banks. They find that regulation, taxation, the degree of desired penetration in the local market, and host-country economic and political risks matter. Banks are more likely to operate as branches in countries that have higher corporate taxes and when the...

  17. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  18. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  19. Better branch prediction through prophet/critic hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón Samper, Ayose Jesús; Stark, Jared; Ramírez Bellido, Alejandro; Lai, Konrad; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2005-01-01

    The prophet/critic hybrid conditional branch predictor has two component predictors. The prophet uses a branch's history to predict its direction. We call this prediction and the ones for branches following it the branch future. The critic uses the branch's history and future to critique the prophet's prediction. The hybrid combines the prophet's prediction with the critique, either agrees or disagree, forming the branch's overall prediction. Results shows these hybrids can reduce mispredicts...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Schemes for Correlated Branch Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Cliff; Gloy, Nicolas; Smith, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Modern high-performance architectures require extremely accurate branch prediction to overcome the performance limitations of conditional branches. We present a framework that categorizes branch prediction schemes by the way in which they partition dynamic branches and by the kind of predictor that they use. The framework allows us to compare and contrast branch prediction schemes, and to analyze why they work. We use the framework to show how a static correlated branch prediction scheme incr...

  1. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Characterization, treatment and utilization of rice husk ash in production processes of the industrial branch; Caracterizacao, tratamento e aproveitamento das cinzas da casca do arroz em processos produtivos do ramo industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stracke, Marcelo Paulo; Schmidt, Julia Isabel; Steffen, Ana Cristina; Sokolovicz, Boris; Kieckow, Flavio, E-mail: stracke@santoangelo.uri.br [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Santo Angelo, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The rice husk ash (CCA) is a black powder rich in silica (contents above 90%) with many industrial applications. The ash was obtained from a rice processing industry in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this work the purpose is to characterize the rice husk ash and eliminate the residual carbon by methods such as acid leaching. The white ash is obtained by a chemical process followed by heating between 600 and 800 °C. The results were analyzed in DR-X, TGA and DSC. The DR-X analysis showed that the samples present high levels of silica in the crystalline form of quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. The white ash was obtained with high purity and presented a good result in the manufacture of paints. (author)

  3. Behavior of Steel Branch Connections during Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sládek A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behavior of the branch connection made of low-alloyed steel with yield stress of 355 MPa during low-cycle bending test is investigated in the article. Numerical prediction of the stress and strain distribution are described and experimentally verified by fatigue test of the branch connection sample. Experimental verification is based on low-cycle bending testing of the steel pipes welded by manual metal arc process and loaded by external force in the appropriate distance. Stresses and displacement of the samples induced by bending moment were measured by unidirectional strain gauges and displacement transducers. Samples were loaded in different testing levels according to required stress for 2.106 cycles. Increase of the stress value was applied until the crack formation and growth was observed. Results showed a high agreement of numerical and experimental results of stress and displacement.

  4. Automated Detection of Branch Shaking Locations for Robotic Cherry Harvesting Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Amatya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Automation in cherry harvesting is essential to reduce the demand for seasonal labor for cherry picking and reduce the cost of production. The mechanical shaking of tree branches is one of the widely studied and used techniques for harvesting small tree fruit crops like cherries. To automate the branch shaking operation, different methods of detecting branches and cherries in full foliage canopies of the cherry tree have been developed previously. The next step in this process is the localization of shaking positions in the detected tree branches for mechanical shaking. In this study, a method of locating shaking positions for automated cherry harvesting was developed based on branch and cherry pixel locations determined using RGB images and 3D camera images. First, branch and cherry regions were located in 2D RGB images. Depth information provided by a 3D camera was then mapped on to the RGB images using a standard stereo calibration method. The overall root mean square error in estimating the distance to desired shaking points was 0.064 m. Cherry trees trained in two different canopy architectures, Y-trellis and vertical trellis systems, were used in this study. Harvesting testing was carried out by shaking tree branches at the locations selected by the algorithm. For the Y-trellis system, the maximum fruit removal efficiency of 92.9% was achieved using up to five shaking events per branch. However, maximum fruit removal efficiency for the vertical trellis system was 86.6% with up to four shakings per branch. However, it was found that only three shakings per branch would achieve a fruit removal percentage of 92.3% and 86.4% in Y and vertical trellis systems respectively.

  5. Improved Li(+) Storage through Homogeneous N-Doping within Highly Branched Tubular Graphitic Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinyang; Xue, Yanming; Zhang, Chao; Weng, Qunhong; Dai, Pengcheng; Yang, Yijun; Zhou, Min; Li, Cuiling; Cui, Qiuhong; Kang, Xiaohong; Tang, Chengchun; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Wang, Xi

    2017-02-01

    A novel carbon structure, highly branched homogeneous-N-doped graphitic (BNG) tubular foam, is designed via a novel N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-mediated chemical vapor deposition method. More structural defects are found at the branched portions as compared with the flat tube domains providing abundant active sites and spacious reservoirs for Li(+) storage. An individual BNG branch nanobattery is constructed and tested using in situ transmission electron microscopy and the lithiation process is directly visualized in real time. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Research on pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches via the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bingliang; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2017-10-01

    This study aims at investigating the pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches by the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) and thermogravimetric experiments. Then the Discrete DAEM method is used to describe pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches dominated by 12 characterized reactions. The decomposition mechanism of Camellia sinensis branches and interaction with components are observed. And the reaction at 350.77°C is a significant boundary of the first and second reaction range. The pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches at the heating rate of 10,000°C/min is predicted and provides valuable references for gasification or combustion. The relationship and function between four typical indexes and heating rates from 10 to 10,000°C/min are revealed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  8. Measurement of Tau Lepton Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, N.

    2003-12-19

    We present {tau}{sup -} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270) and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup -} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

  9. Selection of Microbes and Conditions that Induced Bio-Cracking of Branched Hydrocarbon Squalane

    OpenAIRE

    Gailiūtė, I.; Grigiškis, S.; Žėkaitė, G.; Čipinytė, V.

    2015-01-01

    Biological oil hydrocarbons degradation is a complicated process, influenced by hydrocarbons properties, microorganisms and environmental conditions. The aim of this work was to select microbial strain, capable of degrading heavy branched hydrocarbons for further application in environment remediation and bio-cracking. Also, it was necessary to select optimal conditions (temperature, pH, concentration and etc.) for selected microbial strain degrading heavy branched hydrocarbons. Since crude o...

  10. Research of the temperature field of welding of saddle branch to polyethylene pipe at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, Nikolai P.; Vasileva, Maria A.; Andreev, Boris I.

    2017-11-01

    The thermal process of welding a saddle branch to a polyethylene pipe is considered with the heat of the phase transition taken into account. The corresponding three-dimensional nonlinear equation of thermal conductivity is solved by the finite element method in a complex domain. The technological operations necessary for welding the saddle branch to the polyethylene pipe at air temperatures below standard are defined based on the study of the dynamics of the temperature field during welding at various ambient temperatures.

  11. Crack branching in cross-ply composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Saponara, Valeria

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this research work is to examine the behavior of an interface crack in a cross-ply laminate which is subject to static and fatigue loading. The failure mechanism analyzed here is crack branching (or crack kinking or intra-layer crack): the delamination located between two different plies starts growing as an interface crack and then may branch into the less tough ply. The specimens were manufactured from different types of Glass/Epoxy and Graphite/Epoxy, by hand lay-up, vacuum bagging and cure in autoclave. Each specimen had a delamination starter. Static mixed mode tests and compressive fatigue tests were performed. Experiments showed the scale of the problem, one ply thickness, and some significant features, like contact in the branched crack. The amount of scatter in the experiments required use of statistics. Exploratory Data Analysis and a factorial design of experiments based on a 8 x 8 Hadamard matrix were used. Experiments and statistics show that there is a critical branching angle above which crack growth is greatly accelerated. This angle seems: (1) not to be affected by the specimens' life; (2) not to depend on the specimen geometry and loading conditions; (3) to strongly depend on the amount of contact in the branched crack. Numerical analysis was conducted to predict crack propagation based on the actual displacement/load curves for static tests. This method allows us to predict the total crack propagation in 2D conditions, while neglecting branching. Finally, the existence of a solution based on analytic continuation is discussed.

  12. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.

    2012-01-01

    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Etiolated Juvenile Tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia Branches during Different Cutting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of hard-branch cuttings of tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust is restricted by the low rooting rate; however, etiolated juvenile tetraploid black locust branches result in a significantly higher rooting rate of cuttings compared with non-etiolated juvenile tetraploid branches. To identify proteins that influence the juvenile tetraploid branch rooting process, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to analyze proteomic differences in the phloem of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated and non-etiolated juvenile branches during different cutting periods. A total of 58 protein spots differed in expression level, and 16 protein spots were only expressed in etiolated branches or non-etiolated ones. A total of 40 highly expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, 14 of which were accurately retrieved. They include nucleoglucoprotein metabolic proteins, signaling proteins, lignin synthesis proteins and phyllochlorin. These results help to reveal the mechanism of juvenile tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated branch rooting and provide a valuable reference for the improvement of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia cutting techniques.

  14. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Following guidelines under RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation (RI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their filled coal ash pond (FCAP) and associated areas on McCoy Branch. The RI process was initiated and assessments were presented. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented between 1986 and 1994 for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The required ecological risk assessments of McCoy Branch watershed included provisions for biological monitoring of the watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline bypassing upper McCoy Branch and further, after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program may also determine whether the goals of protection of human health and the environment of McCoy Branch are being accomplished.

  15. The unique branching patterns of Deinococcus glycogen branching enzymes are determined by their N-terminal domains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo, M.; Kralj, S.; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) or 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzymes (EC 2.4.1.18) introduce alpha-1,6 branching points in alpha-glucans, e.g., glycogen. To identify structural features in GBEs that determine their branching pattern specificity, the Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus

  16. Partial Order Reduction for Probabilistic Branching Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; d' Argenio, P.R.; Größer, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    In the past, partial order reduction has been used successfully to combat the state explosion problem in the context of model checking for non-probabilistic systems. For both linear time and branching time specifications, methods have been developed to apply partial order reduction in the context of

  17. Simple statistical model for branched aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule...

  18. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  19. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  20. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  1. Headward growth and branching in subterranean channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad; Ionkin, Nikolay; Panaitescu, Andreea

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the erosive growth of channels in a thin subsurface sedimentary layer driven by hydrodynamic drag toward understanding subterranean networks and their relation to river networks charged by ground water. Building on a model based on experimental observations of fluid-driven evolution of bed porosity, we focus on the characteristics of the channel growth and their bifurcations in a horizontal rectangular domain subject to various fluid source and sink distributions. We find that the erosion front between low- and high-porosity regions becomes unstable, giving rise to branched channel networks, depending on the spatial fluctuations of the fluid flow near the front and the degree to which the flow is above the erodibility threshold of the medium. Focusing on the growth of a network starting from a single channel, and by identifying the channel heads and their branch points, we find that the number of branches increases sublinearly and is affected by the source distribution. The mean angles between branches are found to be systematically lower than river networks in humid climates and depend on the domain geometry.

  2. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  3. Geodynamics branch data base for main magnetic field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Robert A.; Baldwin, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The data sets used in geomagnetic field modeling at GSFC are described. Data are measured and obtained from a variety of information and sources. For clarity, data sets from different sources are categorized and processed separately. The data base is composed of magnetic observatory data, surface data, high quality aeromagnetic, high quality total intensity marine data, satellite data, and repeat data. These individual data categories are described in detail in a series of notebooks in the Geodynamics Branch, GSFC. This catalog reviews the original data sets, the processing history, and the final data sets available for each individual category of the data base and is to be used as a reference manual for the notebooks. Each data type used in geomagnetic field modeling has varying levels of complexity requiring specialized processing routines for satellite and observatory data and two general routines for processing aeromagnetic, marine, land survey, and repeat data.

  4. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  5. Self-catalytic branch growth of SnO 2 nanowire junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Campbell, L. J.; Zhou, W. L.

    2004-10-01

    Multiple branched SnO2 nanowire junctions have been synthesized by thermal evaporation of SnO powder. Their nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microcopy. It was observed that Sn nanoparticles generated from decomposition of the SnO powder acted as self-catalysts to control the SnO2 nanojunction growth. Orthorhombic SnO2 was found as a dominate phase in nanojunction growth instead of rutile structure. The branches and stems of nanojunctions were found to be an epitaxial growth by electron diffraction analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy observation. The growth directions of the branched SnO2 nanojunctions were along the orthorhombic [1 1 0] and [ 1 1 bar 0 ] . A self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism is proposed to describe the growth process of the branched SnO2 nanowire junctions.

  6. The contribution of specific cell subpopulations to submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae Ryong; Larsen, Melinda

    2015-06-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program responsible for generating a large surface to volume ratio in many secretory and absorptive organs. To accomplish branching morphogenesis, spatiotemporal regulation of specific cell subpopulations is required. Here, we review recent studies that define the contributions of distinct cell subpopulations to specific cellular processes during branching morphogenesis in the mammalian submandibular salivary gland, including the initiation of the gland, the coordination of cleft formation, and the contribution of stem/progenitor cells to morphogenesis. In conclusion, we provide an overview of technological advances that have opened opportunities to further probe the contributions of specific cell subpopulations and to define the integration of events required for branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CFD Modelling of Local Hemodynamics in Intracranial Aneurysms Harboring Arterial Branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Vladimir; Grigoryeva, Elena; Dolotova, Daria; Blagosklonova, Evgenia; Gavrilov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    The main cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage is an intracranial aneurysm's rupture. The choice of treatment approach is exceptionally difficult in cases of aneurysms with additional branches on the aneurysm's dome or neck. The impact of the arterial branches on local hemodynamics is still unclear and controversial question. At the same time, up-to-date methods of image processing and mathematical modeling provide a way to investigate the hemodynamic environment of aneurysms. The paper discusses hemodynamic aspects of aneurysms harboring arterial branch through the use of patient-specific 3D models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The analysis showed that the presence of the arterial branches has a great influence on flow streamlines and wall shear stress, particularly for side wall aneurysm.

  8. Mapping of branch sites in trans-spliced pre-mRNAs of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, E; Perry, K L; Agabian, N

    1989-01-01

    The process of trans splicing is essential to the maturation of all mRNAs in the Trypanosomatidae, a family of protozoan parasites, and to specific mRNAs in several species of nematode. In Trypanosoma brucei, a 39-nucleotide (nt) leader sequence originating from a small, 139-nt donor RNA (the spliced leader [SL] RNA) is spliced to the 5' end of mRNAs. An intermediate in this trans-splicing process is a Y structure which contains the 3' 100 nt of the SL RNA covalently linked to the pre-mRNA via a 2'-5' phosphodiester bond at the branch point residue. We mapped the branch points in T. brucei alpha- and beta-tubulin pre-mRNAs. The primary branch acceptors for the alpha- and beta-tubulins are 44 and 56 nt upstream of the 3' splice sites, respectively, and are A residues. Minor branch acceptors were detected 42 and 49 nt upstream of the alpha-tubulin splice site and 58 nt upstream of the splice site in beta-tubulin. The regions surrounding these branch points lack homology to the consensus sequences determined for mammalian cells and yeasts; there is also no conservation among the sequences themselves. Thus, the identified sequences suggest that the mechanism of branch point recognition in T. brucei differs from the mechanism of recognition by U2 RNA that has been proposed for other eucaryotes. Images PMID:2479824

  9. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  10. Melatonin inhibits embryonic salivary gland branching morphogenesis by regulating both epithelial cell adhesion and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana-Koshino, Aya; Ono, Hitomi; Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or "brake" of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development.

  11. Calculating hazard rates of introgression with branching processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Atiyo

    2012-01-01

    Introgression is the permanent incorporation of genes from the genome of one population into that of another through hybridisation and backcrossing. With the advent of genetically modified crops, the potential that transgenes might introgress from cultivated to wild plants has become a point of

  12. Critical age-dependent branching Markov processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sample, i, and trace the genealogical tree T ∈ Ti(k),(Ti(k) is the collection of all possible labelled trees with k leaves given by i), until their most recent common ancestor. For any leaf ij in T , let 1 = n(ij , 1) < n(ij , 2) < ··· < n(ij ,Nij ) be the labels of the internal nodes on the path from leaf ij to the root. We list the ancestoral death ...

  13. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation a multitype branching process model

    CERN Document Server

    Macken, Catherine A

    1988-01-01

    The body contains many cellular systems that require the continuous production of new, fully functional, differentiated cells to replace cells lacking or having limited self-renewal capabilities that die or are damaged during the lifetime of an individual. Such systems include the epidermis, the epithelial lining of the gut, and the blood. For example, erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack nuclei and thus are incapable of self-replication. They have a life span in the circulation of about 120 days. Mature granulocytes, which also lack proliferative capacity, have a much shorter life span - typically 12 hours, though this may be reduced to only two or three hours in times of serious tissue infection. Perhaps a more familiar example is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer is composed of fully mature, dead epidermal cells that must be replaced by the descendants of stem cells lodged in lower layers of the epidermis (cf. Alberts et al. , 1983). In total, to supply the normal steady-state demands of cells, an...

  14. Vascular branches from cutaneous nerve of the forearm and hand: application to better understanding raynaud's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K; Ohmichi, M; Ohmichi, Y; Yakura, T; Hammer, N; Mizuno, D; Naito, M; Nakano, T

    2017-09-29

    Cutaneous nerves have branches called vascular branches (VBs) that reach arteries. VBs are thought to be involved in arterial constriction, and this is the rationale for periarterial sympathectomy as a treatment option for Raynaud's disease. However, the branching patterns and distribution areas of the VBs remain largely unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anatomical structures of the VBs of the cutaneous nerves. Forty hands and forearms were examined to assess the branching patterns and distribution areas of the VBs of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN), the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN), the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN), and the palmar cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve (PCUN). VBs reaching the radial and ulnar arteries were observed in all specimens. The branching patterns were classified into six types. The mean distance between the radial styloid process and the point where the VBs reached the radial artery was 34.3 ± 4.8 mm in the SBRN and 38.5 ± 15.8 mm in the LACN. The mean distance between the ulnar styloid process and the point where the VBs reached the ulnar artery was 60.3 ± 25.9 mm in the MACN and 43.8 ± 26.0 mm in the PCUN. This study showed that the VBs of the cutaneous nerves have diverse branching patterns. The VBs of the SBRN had a more limited distribution areas than those of the other nerves. Clin. Anat., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  17. Universal scaling in the branching of the tree of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Alejandro Herrada

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns and processes of diversification of life in the planet is a key challenge of science. The Tree of Life represents such diversification processes through the evolutionary relationships among the different taxa, and can be extended down to intra-specific relationships. Here we examine the topological properties of a large set of interspecific and intraspecific phylogenies and show that the branching patterns follow allometric rules conserved across the different levels in the Tree of Life, all significantly departing from those expected from the standard null models. The finding of non-random universal patterns of phylogenetic differentiation suggests that similar evolutionary forces drive diversification across the broad range of scales, from macro-evolutionary to micro-evolutionary processes, shaping the diversity of life on the planet.

  18. Electron Waveguide Y-branch Switches Controlled by Pt/GaAs Schottky Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, E.; Hieke, K.

    Electron waveguide Y-branch switches have been fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. These are controlled by Pt/GaAs Schottky contacts, which were realized by an in-situ electrochemical process. In this paper we describe the fabrication process as well as present results from conductance measurements in the fabricated devices.

  19. Dielectric response of branched copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Khalil J.; Al-Amar, Mohammad M.; Mezei, Gellert; Guda, Ramakrishna; Burns, Clement A.

    2017-09-01

    The dielectric constant of pressed pellets and thin films of branched copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was investigated as a function of frequency from 0.1 kHz to 1 MHz and temperature from 20 °C to 100 °C. Surface morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The high-frequency values of the dielectric constant of pellets and thin films are ~3.5 and ~5.8, respectively. The response was only weakly dependent on frequency and temperature. The branched structure of the CuPc molecules helped to cancel out the effects of low-frequency polarization mechanisms. A planar delocalized charge system with two-dimensional localization was found using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  20. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... was first suggested by Saul Kripke in a letter to A.N. Prior, dated September 3, 1958, and it is shown how the elaboration of the idea in the course of the correspondence was intimately intervowen with considerations of how to represent indeterminism and of the adequacy of tensed logic in light of special...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  1. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  2. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  3. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  4. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  5. Multiple-Block Ahead Branch Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec, André; Jourdan, Stéphan; Sainrat, Pascal; Michaud, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    A basic rule in computer architecture is that a processor cannot execute an application faster than it fetches its instructions. To overcome the instruction fetch bottleneck shown in wide-dispatch «brainiac» processors, this paper presents a novel cost-effective mechanism called the multiple-block ahead branch predictor that predicts in an efficient way addresses of multiple basic blocks in a single cycle. Moreover and unlike the previous multiple predictor schemes, the multiple-block ahead b...

  6. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  7. Preserving the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J.; Ruurda, Jelle P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van der Horst, Sylvia; Bleys, Ronald L A W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/134440455; van Hillegersberg, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    Background: Pulmonary vagus branches are transected as part of a transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy for cancer. This may contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Studies in which sparing of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic

  8. Asymmetric Branching in Biological Resource Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Alexander Byers

    There is a remarkable relationship between an organism's metabolic rate (resting power consumption) and the organism's mass. It may be a universal law of nature that an organism's resting metabolic rate is proportional to its mass to the power of 3/4. This relationship, known as Kleiber's Law, appears to be valid for both plants and animals. This law is important because it implies that larger organisms are more efficient than smaller organisms, and knowledge regarding metabolic rates are essential to a multitude of other fields in ecology and biology. This includes modeling the interactions of many species across multiple trophic levels, distributions of species abundances across large spatial landscapes, and even medical diagnostics for respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies. Previous models of vascular networks that seek to identify the origin of metabolic scaling have all been based on the unrealistic assumption of perfectly symmetric branching. In this dissertation I will present a theory of asymmetric branching in self-similar vascular networks (published by Brummer et al. in [9]). The theory shows that there can exist a suite of vascular forms that result in the often observed 3/4 metabolic scaling exponent of Kleiber's Law. Furthermore, the theory makes predictions regarding major morphological features related to vascular branching patterns and their relationships to metabolic scaling. These predictions are suggestive of evolutionary convergence in vascular branching. To test these predictions, I will present an analysis of real mammalian and plant vascular data that shows: (i) broad patterns in vascular networks across entire animal kingdoms and (ii) within these patterns, plant and mammalian vascular networks can be uniquely distinguished from one another (publication in preparation by Brummer et al.). I will also present results from a computational study in support of point (i). Namely, that asymmetric branching may be the optimal strategy to

  9. A case of 'Masquerading' bundle branch block: a forgotten concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A

    2014-01-01

    'Masquerading' bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and 'Masquerading' bundle branch block in ECG. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Editor's Choice - Effect of Branch Stent Choice on Branch-related Outcomes in Complex Aortic Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, T M; Carrell, T; Constantinou, J; Dias, N; Martin-Gonzalez, T; Katsargyris, A; Modarai, B; Resch, T; Verhoeven, E L G; Burnell, M; Haulon, S

    2016-04-01

    The use of branched stent grafts for the treatment of thoracoabdominal aneurysms [TAAA] is increasing, but mating stent graft choice has not been studied. This study combined experience of five high volume centres to assess a preferred mating stent. Data from five centres were retrospectively combined. Patients were included if they underwent stent graft for treatment of TAAA that used only branches to mate with visceral and renal vessels. All patients with fenestrations in their device were excluded. Perioperative details, reintervention, occlusion, and death were recorded. Outcome of occlusion or reintervention, as well as a composite outcome of any death, occlusion, or reintervention was planned using a per-patient, and per-branch analysis. In 235 included patients, there were 940 vessels available for placement of mating stent. The average age of included patients was 70 years (SD 7.9), and 179 of the 235 were male. Medical comorbidities included diabetes in 29/234 (12.4%), current smoker in 81/233 (34.8%), and COPD in 77/234 (32.9%). The primary stent deployed was self-expanding in 556 branches, balloon expandable in 231 branches, and was unknown in 92 branches. After a mean of 20.7 months (SD 25) follow-up, there have been 44 incidents of occlusion or reintervention, of which 40 culprit stents are known. Where the stent placed is known, the event rate in renal branches (35/437, 8%) is higher than that of visceral branches (8/443, 1.8%). There is no difference in occlusion or reintervention between self-expanding and balloon expandable stents (HR 0.95, p = .91) but there is a statistically significant difference between renal and visceral artery occlusions (HR 3.51, p = 0.001). There appears to be no difference in occlusion or reintervention rate for branch vessels mated with balloon expandable compared with self-expanding stents. Renal events appear to outnumber visceral events in this population. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery

  11. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected Load...

  12. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this chapter...

  13. Dendrimers and methods of preparing same through proportionate branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yihua (Bruce); Yue, Xuyi

    2015-09-15

    The present invention provides for monodispersed dendrimers having a core, branches and periphery ends, wherein the number of branches increases exponentially from the core to the periphery end and the length of the branches increases exponentially from the periphery end to the core, thereby providing for attachment of chemical species at the periphery ends without exhibiting steric hindrance.

  14. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...

  15. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  16. 4D Biofabrication of Branching Multicellular Structures: A Morphogenesis Simulation Based on Turing’s Reaction-Diffusion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolu; Yang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    The recently emerged four-dimensional (4D) biofabrication technique aims to create dynamic three-dimensional (3D) biological structures that can transform their shapes or functionalities with time when an external stimulus is imposed or when cell postprinting self-assembly occurs. The evolution of 3D pattern of branching geometry via self-assembly of cells is critical for 4D biofabrication of artificial organs or tissues with branched geometry. However, it is still unclear that how the formation and evolution of these branching pattern are biologically encoded. We study the 4D fabrication of lung branching structures utilizing a simulation model on the reaction-diffusion mechanism, which is established using partial differential equations of four variables, describing the reaction and diffusion process of morphogens with time during the development process of lung branching. The simulation results present the forming process of 3D branching pattern, and also interpret the behaviors of side branching and tip splitting as the stalk growing, through 3D visualization of numerical simulation.

  17. Baseline left bundle branch block with right bundle branch escape complexes in a patient with coronary artery disease, presents like an alternating bundle branch block: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimaraj, Arvind; Abusin, Salaheldin; Margeta, Bosko

    2008-01-01

    Alternating bundle branch block (ABBB) is a less commonly encountered phenomenon with the advent of re-perfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. ECGs simulating the appearance of an ABBB need to be carefully analysed. We present an ECG showing a baseline Left Bundle Branch Block(LBBB) progressing to a high grade AV block with escape complexes having a Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) morphology. Such an ECG can be mistaken for an ABBB if not analysed carefully. PMID:19116014

  18. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from th...

  19. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  20. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  1. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  2. Anomaly matching on the Higgs branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji; Zafrir, Gabi

    2017-12-01

    We point out that we can almost always determine by the anomaly matching the full anomaly polynomial of a supersymmetric theory in 2d, 4d or 6d if we assume that its Higgs branch is the one-instanton moduli space of some group G. This method not only provides by far the simplest method to compute the central charges of known theories of this class, e.g. 4d E 6,7,8 theories of Minahan and Nemeschansky or the 6d E-string theory, but also gives us new pieces of information about unknown theories of this class.

  3. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Dental Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tevfik Oğurel; Zafer Onaran; Reyhan Oğurel; Nurgül Örnek; Nesrin Büyüktortop Gökçınar; Kemal Örnek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To describe a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following dental extraction and to point out the ophthalmic complications of dental procedures to ophthalmologists and dentists. Case. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with painless sudden visual loss in her left eye after tooth extraction two days ago. In her left eye the best corrected visual acuity was 6/30 and fundus examination revealed peripapillary flame-shaped hemorrhages and pale retina in the upper temporal arc...

  4. The function of heparan sulfate during branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Pineda, Dallas L.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental process in the development of diverse epithelial organs such as the lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, prostate, salivary, lacrimal and mammary glands. A unifying theme during organogenesis is the importance of epithelial cell interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors (GFs). The diverse developmental mechanisms giving rise to these epithelial organs involve many organ-specific GFs, but a unifying paradigm during organogenesis is the regulation of GF activity by heparan sulfates (HS) on the cell surface and in the ECM. This primarily involves the interactions of GFs with the sulfated side-chains of HS proteoglycans. HS is one of the most diverse biopolymers and modulates GF binding and signaling at the cell surface and in the ECM of all tissues. Here, we review what is known about how HS regulates branching morphogenesis of epithelial organs with emphasis on the developing salivary gland, which is a classic model to investigate epithelial-ECM interactions. We also address the structure, biosynthesis, turnover and function of HS during organogenesis. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms that control HS dynamics may aid in the development of therapeutic interventions for diseases and novel strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:27609403

  5. Multi-Branch Fully Convolutional Network for Face Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng

    2017-07-20

    Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully convolutional network (MB-FCN) for face detection, which considers both efficiency and effectiveness in the design process. Our MB-FCN detector can deal with faces at all scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. As such, our MB-FCN model saves computation and thus is more efficient, compared to previous methods that make multiple passes. For each branch, the specific skip connections of the convolutional feature maps at different layers are exploited to represent faces in specific scale ranges. Specifically, small faces can be represented with both shallow fine-grained and deep powerful coarse features. With this representation, superior improvement in performance is registered for the task of detecting small faces. We test our MB-FCN detector on two public face detection benchmarks, including FDDB and WIDER FACE. Extensive experiments show that our detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on all these datasets in general and by a substantial margin on the most challenging among them (e.g. WIDER FACE Hard subset). Also, MB-FCN runs at 15 FPS on a GPU for images of size 640 x 480 with no assumption on the minimum detectable face size.

  6. Power system transient stability analysis based on branch potential characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huan; Wang, Zengping

    2017-09-01

    Branch potential function is proposed based on the power system network preserving model. The concept of thermodynamics-entropy, is introduced to describe spatial distribution characteristics of the branch potential energy. Branch potential energy was analysed in time and space domain., with transient stability index proposed accordingly. The larger disturbance energy line fault injected to grid is, the larger branch energy entropy will be, and the more energy accumulated on key branches is, the more prone to lose stability the system will be. Simulation results on IEEE system proved its feasibility.

  7. Vertical profile of branch CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce tree: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Pavelka, M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite woody-tissue CO2 effluxes having been recognized as an important component of forest carbon budget due to the fraction of assimilates used and the dramatic increase in woody with stand development, there is limited research to determine the CO2 efflux vertical variability of woody-tissue components. For a better understanding and quantification of branch woody-tissue CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to identify the environmental factors influencing it and the role of the branch distribution within the canopy. The proper assessment of this forest component will improve the knowledge of the ratio between ecosystem respiration and gross primary production at forest ecosystem. In order to achieve this goal, branch CO2 efflux of Norway spruce tree was measured in ten branches at five different whorls during the growing season 2004 (from June till October) in campaigns of 3-4 times per month at the Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic, using a portable infrared gas analyzer operating as a closed system. Branch woody tissue temperature was measured continuously in ten minutes intervals for each sample position during the whole experiment period. On the basis of relation between CO2 efflux rate and woody tissue temperature a value of Q10 and normalized CO2 efflux rate (E10 - CO2 efflux rate at 10° C) were calculated for each sampled position. Estimated Q10 values ranged from 2.12 to 2.89 and E10 ranged from 0.41 to 1.19 ?molCO2m-2 s-1. Differences in branch CO2 efflux were found between orientations; East side branches presented higher efflux rate than west side branches. The highest branch CO2 efflux rate values were measured in August and the lowest in October, which were connected with woody tissue temperature and ontogenetic processes during these periods. Branch CO2 efflux was significantly and positively correlated with branch position within canopy and woody tissue temperature. Branches from the upper whorls showed higher respiration activity

  8. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...

  9. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  10. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  11. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Toon A. B.; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Miquerol, Lucile; Opthof, Tobias; Gros, Daniel; Vos, Marc A.; Jongsma, Habo J.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Recordings of the electrical activity of mouse bundle branches ( BBs) suggest reduced conduction velocity ( CV) in the midseptal compared with the proximal part of the BB. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this slowing of conduction. Methods and

  12. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties

  13. Regional Branching Reconsidered: Emergence of the Fuel Cell Industry in European Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, Anne Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    that entrepreneurial spin-offs dominate regional diversification. Second, the study corroborates the assumption that the process of regional branching relies on knowledge generated by nonindustrial actors such as universities and research institutes. Third, the findings suggest that care should be taken in ascribing...

  14. Food Design Thinking: A Branch of Design Thinking Specific to Food Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampollo, Francesca; Peacock, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Is there a need for a set of methods within Design Thinking tailored specifically for the Food Design process? Is there a need for a branch of Design Thinking dedicated to Food Design alone? Chefs are not generally trained in Design or Design Thinking, and we are only just beginning to understand how they ideate and what recourses are available to…

  15. Additional chain-branching pathways in the low-temperature oxidation of branched alkanes

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2015-12-31

    Chain-branching reactions represent a general motif in chemistry, encountered in atmospheric chemistry, combustion, polymerization, and photochemistry; the nature and amount of radicals generated by chain-branching are decisive for the reaction progress, its energy signature, and the time towards its completion. In this study, experimental evidence for two new types of chain-branching reactions is presented, based upon detection of highly oxidized multifunctional molecules (HOM) formed during the gas-phase low-temperature oxidation of a branched alkane under conditions relevant to combustion. The oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane (DMH) in a jet-stirred reactor (JSR) was studied using synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet photoionization molecular beam mass spectrometry (SVUV-PI-MBMS). Specifically, species with four and five oxygen atoms were probed, having molecular formulas of C8H14O4 (e.g., diketo-hydroperoxide/keto-hydroperoxy cyclic ether) and C8H16O5 (e.g., keto-dihydroperoxide/dihydroperoxy cyclic ether), respectively. The formation of C8H16O5 species involves alternative isomerization of OOQOOH radicals via intramolecular H-atom migration, followed by third O2 addition, intramolecular isomerization, and OH release; C8H14O4 species are proposed to result from subsequent reactions of C8H16O5 species. The mechanistic pathways involving these species are related to those proposed as a source of low-volatility highly oxygenated species in Earth\\'s troposphere. At the higher temperatures relevant to auto-ignition, they can result in a net increase of hydroxyl radical production, so these are additional radical chain-branching pathways for ignition. The results presented herein extend the conceptual basis of reaction mechanisms used to predict the reaction behavior of ignition, and have implications on atmospheric gas-phase chemistry and the oxidative stability of organic substances. © 2015 The Combustion Institute.

  16. Technological parameters of welding of branch saddles to polyethylene pipes at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, N. P.; Vasilieva, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The present paper outlines a procedure for determination of dynamics of the temperature field during the welding of the branch saddle to the polyethylene gas pipeline at ambient temperatures below the normative. The analysis is accomplished by the finite element method with the heat of the phase transition taken into account. Methods of the visualization of data sets reveal the possibility of controlling the thermal process by preheating and thermal insulation during welding of the branch saddle to the pipe at low temperatures and the possibility of obtaining the dynamics of the temperature field at which a high-quality welded joint is formed.

  17. Measurement of the B+ --> rho+ pi0 Branching Fraction and Direct CP Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, R; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Altenburg, D D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Asgeirsson, D J; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Bechtle, P; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D S; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Briand, H; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Corwin, L A; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Amo-Sánchez, P; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Denig, A G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Dvoretskii, A; Ebert, M; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fang, F; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Gaz, A; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Golubev, V B; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Graugès-Pous, E; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Hadavand, H K; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jain, V; Jasper, H; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; Judd, D; Kadyk, J A; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kolb, J A; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, W; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, S; Li, X; Lista, L; Liu, H; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; Long, O; Lopez-March, N; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Mclachlin, S E; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Merkel, J; Messner, R; Meyer, N T; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mishra, K; Mohanty, G B; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Nagel, M; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, B; Pan, Y; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Park, W; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petrella, A; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Prell, S; Prencipe, E; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pruvot, S; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Regensburger, J J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roberts, D A; Robertson, A I; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schilling, C J; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Sherwood, D J; Simard, M; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Todyshev, K Yu; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Volk, A; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walker, D; Walsh, J J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wren, A C; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; al, et

    2007-01-01

    We present improved measurements of the branching fraction and CP asymmetry for the process B+ --> rho+ pi0. The data sample corresponding to 211/fb comprises 232 million Y(4S)-->BBbar decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. The yield and CP asymmetry are measured using an extended maximum likelihood fitting method. The branching fraction and CP asymmetry are found to be BR(B+ --> rho+ pi0)= [10.2 +- 1.4(stat) +- 0.9(syst)] x 10^-6 and Acp (B+ --> rho+ pi0) = -0.01 +- 0.13(stat) +- 0.02(syst).

  18. Assessment of Pen Branch delta and corridor vegetation changes using multispectral scanner data 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data were used to monitor natural succession of wetland vegetation species over a three-year period from 1992 through 1994 for Pen Branch on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Image processing techniques were used to identify and measure wetland vegetation communities in the lower portion of the Pen Branch corridor and delta. The study provided a reliable means for monitoring medium- and large-scale changes in a diverse environment. Findings from the study will be used to support decisions regarding remediation efforts following the cessation of cooling water discharge from K reactor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina.

  19. Transient ST-segment elevation in precordial leads by acute marginal branch occlusion during stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Leidimar Carballo; Esteban, Marcos T Rodríguez; Niebla, Javier García

    2016-01-01

    The isolated right ventricular infarction is a rare entity. Our case presented a selective occlusion of an acute marginal branch that supplies the right ventricular free wall with isolated ST elevation in precordial leads simulating an occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and without pseudonormalization in inferior due to the non-involvement of the main branch in the ischemic process. Our case clearly illustrates a rare differential diagnosis when a new ST segment elevation appears in earlier precordial leads in patients with symptoms of myocardial ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluctuation limit theorems for age-dependent critical binary branching systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo-Salas Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an age-dependent branching particle system in ℝd, where the particles are subject to α-stable migration (0 < α ≤ 2, critical binary branching, and general (non-arithmetic lifetimes distribution. The population starts off from a Poisson random field in ℝd with Lebesgue intensity. We prove functional central limit theorems and strong laws of large numbers under two rescalings: high particle density, and a space-time rescaling that preserves the migration distribution. Properties of the limit processes such as Markov property, almost sure continuity of paths and generalized Langevin equation, are also investigated.

  1. Quantification of branching in model three-arm star polyethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    2012-01-24

    The versatility of a novel scaling approach in quantifying the structure of model well-defined 3-arm star polyethylene molecules is presented. Many commercial polyethylenes have long side branches, and the nature and quantity of these branches varies widely among the various forms. For instance, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is typically a highly branched structure with broad distributions in branch content, branch lengths and branch generation (in hyperbranched structures). This makes it difficult to accurately quantify the structure and the inherent structure-property relationships. To overcome this drawback, model well-defined hydrogenated polybutadiene (HPB) structures have been synthesized via anionic polymerization and hydrogenation to serve as model analogues to long-chain branched polyethylene. In this article, model 3-arm star polyethylene molecules are quantified using the scaling approach. Along with the long-chain branch content in polyethylene, the approach also provides unique measurements of long-chain branch length and hyperbranch content. Such detailed description facilitates better understanding of the effect of branching on the physical properties of polyethylene. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Simulation of branching blood flows on parallel computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xue; Hwang, Feng-Nan; Shandas, Robin; Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    We present a fully parallel nonlinearly implicit algorithm for the numerical simulation of some branching blood flow problems, which require efficient and robust solver technologies in order to handle the high nonlinearity and the complex geometry. Parallel processing is necessary because of the large number of mesh points needed to accurately discretize the system of differential equations. In this paper we introduce a parallel Newton-Krylov-Schwarz based implicit method, and software for distributed memory parallel computers, for solving the nonlinear algebraic systems arising from a Q2-Q1 finite element discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that we use to model the blood flow in the left anterior descending coronary artery.

  3. Measurement of the K+ --> pi+ nu nu branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, S.; /Brookhaven; Anisimovsky, V.V.; /Moscow, INR; Aoki, M.; /TRIUMF; Ardebili, M.; /Princeton U.; Artamonov, A.V.; /Serpukhov, IHEP; Atiya, M.; /Brookhaven; Bassalleck, B.; /New Mexico U.; Bazarko, A.O.; /Princeton U.; Bhuyan, B.; /Brookhaven; Blackmore, E.W.; /TRIUMF; Bryman, D.A.; /British Columbia U. /Tsinghua U., Beijing /TRIUMF

    2008-03-01

    Experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory studied the rare decay K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}} and other processes with an exposure of 1.77 x 10{sup 12} k{sup +}'s. The data were analyzed using a blind analysis technique yielding one candidate event with an estimated background of 0.30 {+-} 0.03 events. Combining this result with the observation of two candidate events by the predecessor experiment E787 gave the branching ratio B(K{sup +}-->pi{sup +} nu{ovr {nu}}) = (1.47{sub -0.89}{sup +1.30}) x 10{sup -10}, consistent with the standard model prediction of (0.74 {+-} 0.20) x 10{sup -10}. This is a more detailed report of results previously published [V.V. Anisimovsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 031801 (2004)].

  4. Derrida's Generalized Random Energy models; 4, Continuous state branching and coalescents

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we conclude our analysis of Derrida's Generalized Random Energy Models (GREM) by identifying the thermodynamic limit with a one-parameter family of probability measures related to a continuous state branching process introduced by Neveu. Using a construction introduced by Bertoin and Le Gall in terms of a coherent family of subordinators related to Neveu's branching process, we show how the Gibbs geometry of the limiting Gibbs measure is given in terms of the genealogy of this process via a deterministic time-change. This construction is fully universal in that all different models (characterized by the covariance of the underlying Gaussian process) differ only through that time change, which in turn is expressed in terms of Parisi's overlap distribution. The proof uses strongly the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities that impose the structure of Neveu's process as the only possible asymptotic random mechanism.

  5. Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geenen, P.V.; Bennis, J.

    1989-04-04

    A process is described for minimizing the cracking tendency and uncontrolled dimensional change, and improving the strength of a rammed plastic refractory reactor liner comprising phosphate-bonded silicon carbide or phosphate-bonded alumina. It consists of heating the reactor liner placed or mounted in a reactor, prior to its first use, from ambient temperature up to a temperature of from about 490/sup 0/C to about 510/sup 0/C, the heating being carried out by heating the liner at a rate to produce a temperature increase of the liner not greater than about 6/sup 0/C per hour.

  6. Photocurrent enhancement from diketopyrrolopyrrole polymer solar cells through alkyl-chain branching point manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meager, Iain; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Mollinger, Sonya; Schroeder, Bob C; Bronstein, Hugo; Beatrup, Daniel; Vezie, Michelle S; Kirchartz, Thomas; Salleo, Alberto; Nelson, Jenny; McCulloch, Iain

    2013-08-07

    Systematically moving the alkyl-chain branching position away from the polymer backbone afforded two new thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPPTT-T) polymers. When used as donor materials in polymer:fullerene solar cells, efficiencies exceeding 7% were achieved without the use of processing additives. The effect of the position of the alkyl-chain branching point on the thin-film morphology was investigated using X-ray scattering techniques and the effects on the photovoltaic and charge-transport properties were also studied. For both solar cell and transistor devices, moving the branching point further from the backbone was beneficial. This is the first time that this effect has been shown to improve solar cell performance. Strong evidence is presented for changes in microstructure across the series, which is most likely the cause for the photocurrent enhancement.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a hyper-branched water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Francesco; Caldera, Fabrizio; Cavalli, Roberta; Mele, Andrea; Punta, Carlo; Melone, Lucio; Castiglione, Franca; Rossi, Barbara; Ferro, Monica; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Venuti, Valentina; Scalarone, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    A new hyper-branched water-soluble polymer was synthesized by reacting β-cyclodextrin with pyromellitic dianhydride beyond the critical conditions that allow the phenomenon of gelation to occur. The molar ratio between the monomers is a crucial parameter that rules the gelation process. Nevertheless, the concentration of monomers in the solvent phase plays a key role as well. Hyper-branched β-cyclodextrin-based polymers were obtained performing the syntheses with excess of solvent and cross-linking agent, and the conditions for critical dilution were determined experimentally. A hyper-branched polymer with very high water solubility was obtained and fully characterized both as for its chemical structure and for its capability to encapsulate substances. Fluorescein was used as probe molecule to test the complexation properties of the new material.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of a hyper-branched water-soluble β-cyclodextrin polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Trotta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new hyper-branched water-soluble polymer was synthesized by reacting β-cyclodextrin with pyromellitic dianhydride beyond the critical conditions that allow the phenomenon of gelation to occur. The molar ratio between the monomers is a crucial parameter that rules the gelation process. Nevertheless, the concentration of monomers in the solvent phase plays a key role as well. Hyper-branched β-cyclodextrin-based polymers were obtained performing the syntheses with excess of solvent and cross-linking agent, and the conditions for critical dilution were determined experimentally. A hyper-branched polymer with very high water solubility was obtained and fully characterized both as for its chemical structure and for its capability to encapsulate substances. Fluorescein was used as probe molecule to test the complexation properties of the new material.

  9. Branched polymeric media: Perchlorate-selective resins from hyperbranched polyethyleneimine

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Dennis P.

    2012-10-02

    Perchlorate (ClO4 -) is a persistent contaminant found in drinking groundwater sources in the United States. Ion exchange (IX) with selective and disposable resins based on cross-linked styrene divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) beads is currently the most commonly utilized process for removing low concentrations of ClO4 - (10-100 ppb) from contaminated drinking water sources. However, due to the low exchange capacity of perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins (∼0.5-0.8 eq/L), the overall cost becomes prohibitive when treating groundwater with higher concentration of ClO4 - (e.g., 100-1000 ppb). In this article, we describe a new perchlorate-selective resin with high exchange capacity. This new resin was prepared by alkylation of branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) beads obtained from an inverse suspension polymerization process. Batch and column studies show that our new PEI resin with mixed hexyl/ethyl quaternary ammonium chloride exchange sites can selectively extract trace amounts of ClO4 - from a makeup groundwater (to below detection limit) in the presence of competing ions. In addition, this resin has a strong-base exchange capacity of 1.4 eq/L, which is 1.75-2.33 times larger than those of commercial perchlorate-selective STY-DVB resins. The overall results of our studies suggest that branched PEI beads provide versatile and promising building blocks for the preparation of perchlorate-selective resins with high exchange capacity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch 2005 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 595, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in Fiscal Year (FY) 2005. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics including spacecraft navigation (autonomous and ground based); spacecraft trajectory design and maneuver planning; attitude analysis; attitude determination and sensor calibration; and attitude control subsystem (ACS) analysis and design. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, other government agencies, academia, and private industry.

  11. Viscous thread behavior in branching microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubaud, Thomas; Hu, Xiaoyi; Sauzade, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We experimentally study the properties of viscous core-annular flows using miscible fluids in bifurcating microchannels. A viscous filament is first generated using a square hydrodynamic focusing junction by injecting a thick fluid into the central channel and a thin fluid from the side-channels. This method allows us to produce miscible fluid threads of various sizes and lateral positions in the channel, and enables the systematic study of thread transport and stability from low to moderate Reynolds numbers in branching microfluidic networks. We examine, in particular, the role of viscous buckling instabilities on thread behavior and the formation of complex viscous mixtures and stratifications at the small-scale. This work is supported by NSF (CBET-1150389).

  12. Unquenched flavor on the Higgs branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faedo, Antón F. [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Mateos, David [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA),Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica & Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tarrío, Javier [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles andInternational Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2016-11-04

    We construct the gravity duals of the Higgs branches of three-dimensional (four-dimensional) super Yang-Mills theories coupled to N{sub f} quark flavors. The effect of the quarks on the color degrees of freedom is included, and corresponds on the gravity side to the backreaction of N{sub f} flavor D6-branes (D7-branes) on the background of N{sub c} color D2-branes (D3-branes). The Higgsing of the gauge group arises from the dissolution of some color branes inside the flavor branes. The dissolved color branes are represented by non-Abelian instantons whose backreaction is also included. The result is a cascading-like solution in which the effective number of color branes varies along the holographic direction. In the three-dimensional case the solution may include an arbitrary number of quasi-conformal (walking) regions.

  13. Hidden branches: developments in root system architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmont, Karen S; Sibout, Richard; Hardtke, Christian S

    2007-01-01

    The root system is fundamentally important for plant growth and survival because of its role in water and nutrient uptake. Therefore, plants rely on modulation of root system architecture (RSA) to respond to a changing soil environment. Although RSA is a highly plastic trait and varies both between and among species, the basic root system morphology and its plasticity are controlled by inherent genetic factors. These mediate the modification of RSA, mostly at the level of root branching, in response to a suite of biotic and abiotic factors. Recent progress in the understanding of the molecular basis of these responses suggests that they largely feed through hormone homeostasis and signaling pathways. Novel factors implicated in the regulation of RSA in response to the myriad endogenous and exogenous signals are also increasingly isolated through alternative approaches such as quantitative trait locus analysis.

  14. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, John H.

    We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in AdS5 × S5 with N units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the U(1) factor of 𝒩 = 4 U(N + 1) super Yang-Mills theory, spontaneously broken to U(N) × U(1) by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action (HEA). We construct an SL(2, Z) multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that they reproduce the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble, which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

  15. Branch xylem density variations across Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Baker, T. R.; Santos, A. J. B.; Mercado, L. M.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Aguilar, A.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Bonal, D.; Costa, A. C. L.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares de Almeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Schwarz, M.; Sota, A.; Schmerler, J.; Vieira, I.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.

    2008-05-01

    Measurements of branch xylem density, Dx, were made for 1466 trees representing 503 species, sampled from 80 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 240 kg m-3 for a Brosimum parinarioides from Tapajos in West Pará, Brazil to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average Dx across the sample plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that geographic location and plot accounted for 33% of the variation with species identity accounting for an additional 27%; the remaining "residual" 40% of the variance accounted for by tree to tree (within species) variation. Variations in plot means, were, however, hardly accountable at all by differences in species composition. Rather, it would seem that variations of xylem density at plot level must be explained by the effects of soils and/or climate. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the xylem density of the more widely distributed species varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing and in a predictable manner. Exceptions to this general rule may be some pioneers belonging to Pourouma and Miconia and some species within the genera Brosimum, Rinorea and Trichillia which seem to be more constrained in terms of this plasticity than most species sampled as part of this study.

  16. Tradeoffs Between Branch Mispredictions and Comparisons for Sorting Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    Branch mispredictions is an important factor affecting the running time in practice. In this paper we consider tradeoffs between the number of branch mispredictions and the number of comparisons for sorting algorithms in the comparison model. We prove that a sorting algorithm using O(dnlog n......) comparisons performs Omega(nlogd n) branch mispredictions. We show that Multiway MergeSort achieves this tradeoff by adopting a multiway merger with a low number of branch mispredictions. For adaptive sorting algorithms we similarly obtain that an algorithm performing O(dn(1+log (1+Inv/n))) comparisons must...... perform Omega(nlogd (1+Inv/n)) branch mispredictions, where Inv is the number of inversions in the input. This tradeoff can be achieved by GenericSort by Estivill-Castro and Wood by adopting a multiway division protocol and a multiway merging algorithm with a low number of branch mispredictions....

  17. Patterned cell and matrix dynamics in branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaohe; Sekiguchi, Rei; Daley, William P; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2017-03-06

    Many embryonic organs undergo branching morphogenesis to maximize their functional epithelial surface area. Branching morphogenesis requires the coordinated interplay of multiple types of cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM). During branching morphogenesis, new branches form by "budding" or "clefting." Cell migration, proliferation, rearrangement, deformation, and ECM dynamics have varied roles in driving budding versus clefting in different organs. Elongation of the newly formed branch and final maturation of the tip involve cellular mechanisms that include cell elongation, intercalation, convergent extension, proliferation, and differentiation. New methodologies such as high-resolution live imaging, tension sensors, and force-mapping techniques are providing exciting new opportunities for future research into branching morphogenesis. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply.

  18. Adsorption of annealed branched polymers on curved surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jef; Erdemci-Tandogan, Gonca; Zandi, Roya

    Annealed branched polymers play important roles in many biological and industrial systems, notable among them single stranded RNA (ssRNA) that in solution takes on a branched secondary structure. Using a mean field theory, we both perturbatively and numerically examine the adsorption of annealed branched polymers on surfaces of several different geometries in a good solvent. Independent of the geometry of the wall, we observe that as branching density increases, surface tension decreases. However, we find a coupling between the branching density and curvature in that a further lowering of surface tension occurs when the wall curves towards the polymer, but the amount of lowering of surface tension decreases when the wall curves away from the polymer. This work was inspired by the idea of using functionalized gold nano-particles to bind RNA for gene delivery. Understanding the mechanisms involved with the adsorption of annealed branched polymers onto different surfaces will play a critical role in many biomedical technologies.

  19. The complexity of finding arc-disjoint branching flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Jensen, J.; Havet, Frédéric; Yeo, Anders

    2016-01-01

    unit of flow from a given source s to all other vertices, generalizes the concept of arc-disjoint out-branchings (spanning out-trees) in a digraph. A pair of out-branchings Bs,1+,Bs,2+ from a root s in a digraph D=(V,A) on n vertices corresponds to arc-disjoint branching flows x1,x2 (the arcs carrying...

  20. University Competition and Transnational Education: The Choice of Branch Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Poyago-Theotoky; Alessandro Tampieri

    2015-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework in which an elitist and a non- elitist university in a developed country compete by choosing their admission standards and deciding whether or not to open a branch campus in a developing country. Students from a developing country attend university either if a branch campus is opened or if they can afford to move to the developed country. We characterise the equi- libria by focussing on the relationship between the investment costs of a branch campus and the...

  1. A Counterflow Diffusion Flame Study Of Branched Octane Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    public release; distribution is unlimited. A counterflow diffusion flame study of branched octane isomers The views, opinions and/or findings contained...MC 0934 La Jolla, CA 92093 -0934 ABSTRACT A counterflow diffusion flame study of branched octane isomers Report Title Conventional petroleum, Fischer...counterflow diffusion flame study of branched octane isomers Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 61657.7-EG REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

  2. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hammer

    Full Text Available Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation.Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections.Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22% was more common than left-sided branching (12% and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2.Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  3. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Niels; Glätzner, Juliane; Feja, Christine; Kühne, Christian; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Planitzer, Uwe; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Tillmann, Bernhard N; Winkler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation. Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides) in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections. Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally) and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22%) was more common than left-sided branching (12%) and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm) and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2). Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation.

  4. Functional morphology, biomechanics and biomimetic potential of stem–branch connections in Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Masselter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Branching in plants is one of the most important assets for developing large arborescent growth forms with complex crowns. While the form and development of branching in gymnosperms and dicotyledonous trees is widely understood, very little is known about branching patterns and the structure of branch–stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons. For a better and quantitative understanding of the functional morphology of branch–stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons, we investigated the two species Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis. While D. reflexa is able to develop large arborescent forms with conspicuous crowns by anomalous secondary growth, F. insignis remains relatively small and is only capable of primary growth. Biomechanical investigations were performed by applying vertical loads up to rupture to lateral branches of both species. This allows the analysis of the fracture mechanics and the determination of the maximal force, stress and strain at rupture as well as the fracture toughness. Functional morphology was correlated with the mechanical behaviour of these plants and compared to data of other dicotyledonous trees. The high energy absorption found in the rupture process of lateral branches of D. reflexa and F. insignis makes them promising biological concept generators with a high potential for biomimetic implementation, i.e., for the development of branched fibre-reinforced technical composites. A wide range of constructional elements with branched (sub-structures can be optimised by using solutions inspired by plant ramifications, e.g., in automotive and aerospace engineering, architecture, sports equipment and prosthetic manufacturing.

  5. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  6. Photoinduced Acrylate Polymerization: Unexpected Reduction in Chain Branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenn, Benjamin; Reekmans, Gunter; Adriaensens, Peter; Junkers, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The branching stemming from midchain radical formation in n-butyl acrylate polymerization is investigated via melt-state (13) C NMR measurements. The dependence of the degree of branching (DB) on the monomer conversion of the system is examined for photoinduced polymerizations, revealing a steady increase in branching with conversion. For polymerization at moderate light intensities, an increase in branching from 0.03% to 0.37% is observed for polymerizations at 60 °C, which is fivefold below the level of branching observed in thermally initiated polymerizations under otherwise identical reaction conditions. The reason for this overall reduction in branching remains momentarily unclear; yet, a strong dependence of branching on light intensity is observed. While polymerization under a 1 W LED lamp results at almost full monomer conversion in branching degrees of 0.22%, polymerization under a 400 W lamp yields 1.81% of chain branches. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Bilateral Frosted Branch Angiitis in a Patient with Tuberculous Meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Liping; Du, Fang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Yusheng

    2015-06-01

    To present a case of frosted branch angiitis with tuberculous meningoencephalitis who was followed up for 18 months after treatment. Case report. A 19-year-old female with tuberculous meningoencephalitis complained of bilateral blurred vision, and presented with frosted branch angiitis and macula edema in both eyes. Treatment with systemic glucocorticoid and standard anti-tuberculosis medicine totally resolved the retinal periphlebitis and macular edema, with vision improvement achieved at the 18-month follow-up. Frosted branch angiitis could be secondary to tuberculous meningoencephalitis. Based on standard anti-tuberculosis medicine, systemic glucocorticoid may help in the remission of frosted branch angiitis.

  8. Toward integration and interaction of branches in sport psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiroshi Sekiya

    2009-01-01

    .... Members of the JSSP have developed various research associations in branches and related fields of sport psychology, such as motor learning, motivation, social sport psychology, clinical sport...

  9. Branched RNA: A New Architecture for RNA Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aviñó

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Branched RNAs with two and four strands were synthesized. These structures were used to obtain branched siRNA. The branched siRNA duplexes had similar inhibitory capacity as those of unmodified siRNA duplexes, as deduced from gene silencing experiments of the TNF-α protein. Branched RNAs are considered novel structures for siRNA technology, and they provide an innovative tool for specific gene inhibition. As the method described here is compatible with most RNA modifications described to date, these compounds may be further functionalized to obtain more potent siRNA derivatives and can be attached to suitable delivery systems.

  10. Drivers of apoplastic freezing in gymnosperm and angiosperm branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Mayr, Stefan; Salmon, Yann; Cochard, Hervé; Hölttä, Teemu

    2018-01-01

    It is not well understood what determines the degree of supercooling of apoplastic sap in trees, although it determines the number and duration of annual freeze-thaw cycles in a given environment. We studied the linkage between apoplastic ice nucleation temperature, tree water status, and conduit size. We used branches of 10 gymnosperms and 16 angiosperms collected from an arboretum in Helsinki (Finland) in winter and spring. Branches with lower relative water content froze at lower temperatures, and branch water content was lower in winter than in spring. A bench drying experiment with Picea abies confirmed that decreasing branch water potential decreases apoplastic ice nucleation temperature. The studied angiosperms froze on average 2.0 and 1.8°C closer to zero Celsius than the studied gymnosperms during winter and spring, respectively. This was caused by higher relative water content in angiosperms; when branches were saturated with water, apoplastic ice nucleation temperature of gymnosperms increased to slightly higher temperature than that of angiosperms. Apoplastic ice nucleation temperature in sampled branches was positively correlated with xylem conduit diameter as shown before, but saturating the branches removed the correlation. Decrease in ice nucleation temperature decreased the duration of freezing, which could have an effect on winter embolism formation via the time available for gas escape during ice propagation. The apoplastic ice nucleation temperature varied not only between branches but also within a branch between consecutive freeze-thaw cycles demonstrating the stochastic nature of ice nucleation.

  11. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of branched polymers and polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborieau, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Branched polymers are among the most important polymers, ranging from polyolefins to polysaccharides. Branching plays a key role in the chain dynamics. It is thus very important for application properties such as mechanical and adhesive properties and digestibility. It also plays a key role in viscous properties, and thus in the mechanism of the separation of these polymers in size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Critically reviewing the literature, particularly on SEC of polyolefins, polyacrylates and starch, we discuss common pitfalls but also highlight some unexplored possibilities to characterize branched polymers. The presence of a few long-chain branches has been shown to lead to a poor separation in SEC, as evidenced by multiple-detection SEC or multidimensional liquid chromatography. The local dispersity can be large in that case, and the accuracy of molecular weight determination achieved by current methods is poor, although hydrodynamic volume distributions offer alternatives. In contrast, highly branched polymers do not suffer from this extensive incomplete separation in terms of molecular weight. Figure Representation of (a) a linear polymer chain and various branched polymer structures with (b) longchain branches (amylose-like), (c) short-chain branches (amylopectin-like), (d) both short-chain and long-chain branches (polyacrylate- or polyethylene-like). PMID:20967430

  12. Groundwater availability in the Crouch Branch and McQueen Branch aquifers, Chesterfield County, South Carolina, 1900-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce G.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2014-01-01

    , totaled about 1,117 square miles. Major types of data used as input to the model included groundwater levels, groundwater-use data, and hydrostratigraphic data, along with estimates and measurements of stream base flows made specifically for this study. The groundwater-flow model was calibrated to groundwater-level and stream base-flow conditions from 1900 to 2012 using 39 stress periods. The model was calibrated with an automated parameter-estimation approach using the computer program PEST, and the model used regularized inversion and pilot points. The groundwater-flow model was calibrated using field data that included groundwater levels that had been collected between 1940 and 2012 from 239 wells and base-flow measurements from 44 locations distributed within the study area. To better understand recharge and inter-aquifer interactions, seven wells were equipped with continuous groundwater-level recording equipment during the course of the study, between 2008 and 2012. These water levels were included in the model calibration process. The observed groundwater levels were compared to the simulated ones, and acceptable calibration fits were achieved. Root mean square error for the simulated groundwater levels compared to all observed groundwater levels was 9.3 feet for the Crouch Branch aquifer and 8.6 feet for the McQueen Branch aquifer. The calibrated groundwater-flow model was then used to calculate groundwater budgets for the entire study area and for two sub-areas. The sub-areas are the Alligator Rural Water and Sewer Company well field near McBee, South Carolina, and the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge acquisition boundary area. For the overall model area, recharge rates vary from 56 to 1,679 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) with a mean of 737 Mgal/d over the simulation period (1900–2012). The simulated water budget for the streams and rivers varies from 653 to 1,127 Mgal/d with a mean of 944 Mgal/d. The simulated “storage-in term” ranges from 0

  13. SLICER: inferring branched, nonlinear cellular trajectories from single cell RNA-seq data

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Joshua D; Hartemink, Alexander J.; Prins, Jan F.

    2016-01-01

    Single cell experiments provide an unprecedented opportunity to reconstruct a sequence of changes in a biological process from individual ?snapshots? of cells. However, nonlinear gene expression changes, genes unrelated to the process, and the possibility of branching trajectories make this a challenging problem. We develop SLICER (Selective Locally Linear Inference of Cellular Expression Relationships) to address these challenges. SLICER can infer highly nonlinear trajectories, select genes ...

  14. Rac1 modulates mammalian lung branching morphogenesis in part through canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danopoulos, Soula; Krainock, Michael; Toubat, Omar; Thornton, Matthew; Grubbs, Brendan; Al Alam, Denise

    2016-12-01

    Lung branching morphogenesis relies on a number of factors, including proper epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, cell polarity, and migration. Rac1, a small Rho GTPase, orchestrates a number of these cellular processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, cellular alignment, and polarization. Furthermore, Rac1 modulates both noncanonical and canonical Wnt signaling, important pathways in lung branching morphogenesis. Culture of embryonic mouse lung explants in the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in branching. Increased cell death and BrdU uptake were notably seen in the mesenchyme, while no direct effect on the epithelium was observed. Moreover, vasculogenesis was impaired following Rac1 inhibition as shown by decreased Vegfa expression and impaired LacZ staining in Flk1-Lacz reporter mice. Rac1 inhibition decreased Fgf10 expression in conjunction with many of its associated factors. Moreover, using the reporter lines TOPGAL and Axin2-LacZ, there was an evident decrease in canonical Wnt signaling in the explants treated with the Rac1 inhibitor. Activation of canonical Wnt pathway using WNT3a or WNT7b only partially rescued the branching inhibition. Moreover, these results were validated on human explants, where Rac1 inhibition resulted in impaired branching and decreased AXIN2 and FGFR2b expression. We therefore conclude that Rac1 regulates lung branching morphogenesis, in part through canonical Wnt signaling. However, the exact mechanisms by which Rac1 interacts with canonical Wnt in human and mouse lung requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Biosorption of cadmium, lead, and uranium by powder of poplar leaves and branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Amin, Y; Al-Akel, B; Al-Naama, T

    2010-02-01

    The removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biosorption plays an important role in water pollution control. In this study, dried leaves and branches of poplar trees were studied for removing some toxic elements (cadmium, lead, and uranium) from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium experiments were systematically carried out in a batch process, covering various process parameters that include agitation time, adsorbent size and dosage, initial cadmium, lead and uranium concentration, and pH of the aqueous solution. Adsorption behavior was found to follow Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. The results have shown that both dried leaves and branches can be effectively used for removing uranium, while only branches were found to remove lead and cadmium completely from the aqueous solution. The maximum biosorption capacity of leaves for uranium was found to be 2.3 mg g(-1) and 1.7 mg g(-1) and 2.1 mg g(-1) for lead and cadmium on branches, respectively. In addition, the studied biomass materials were used in removing lead and cadmium from contaminated water and the method was found to be effective.

  16. Application of Multi-Objective Optimization on the Basis of Ratio Analysis (MOORA Method for Bank Branch Location Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorener

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Location selection problem in banking is an important issue for the commercial success in competitive environment. There is a strategic fit between the location selection decision and overall performance of a new branch. Providing physical service in requested location as well as alternative distribution channels to meet profitable client needs is the current problematic to achieve the competitive advantage over the rivalry in financial system. In this paper, an integrated model has been developed to support in the decision of branch location selection for a new bank branch. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP technique has been conducted to prioritize of evaluation criteria, and multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis (MOORA method has been applied to rank location alternatives of bank branch.   

  17. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  19. Disorders of branched chain amino acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, I; Venditti, C P

    2016-11-07

    The three essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine and valine, share the first enzymatic steps in their metabolic pathways, including a reversible transamination followed by an irreversible oxidative decarboxylation to coenzyme-A derivatives. The respective oxidative pathways subsequently diverge and at the final steps yield acetyl- and/or propionyl-CoA that enter the Krebs cycle. Many disorders in these pathways are diagnosed through expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is the only disorder of the group that is associated with elevated body fluid levels of the BCAAs. Due to the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation step distal enzymatic blocks in the pathways do not result in the accumulation of amino acids, but rather to CoA-activated small carboxylic acids identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of urine and are therefore classified as organic acidurias. Disorders in these pathways can present with a neonatal onset severe-, or chronic intermittent- or progressive forms. Metabolic instability and increased morbidity and mortality are shared between inborn errors in the BCAA pathways, while treatment options remain limited, comprised mainly of dietary management and in some cases solid organ transplantation.

  20. Correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerchkovitz, Efrat [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Ishtiaque, Nafiz [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Karasik, Avner; Komargodski, Zohar [Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2017-01-24

    We consider the correlation functions of Coulomb branch operators in four-dimensional N=2 Superconformal Field Theories (SCFTs) involving exactly one anti-chiral operator. These extremal correlators are the “minimal' non-holomorphic local observables in the theory. We show that they can be expressed in terms of certain determinants of derivatives of the four-sphere partition function of an appropriate deformation of the SCFT. This relation between the extremal correlators and the deformed four-sphere partition function is non-trivial due to the presence of conformal anomalies, which lead to operator mixing on the sphere. Evaluating the deformed four-sphere partition function using supersymmetric localization, we compute the extremal correlators explicitly in many interesting examples. Additionally, the representation of the extremal correlators mentioned above leads to a system of integrable differential equations. We compare our exact results with previous perturbative computations and with the four-dimensional tt{sup ∗} equations. We also use our results to study some of the asymptotic properties of the perturbative series expansions we obtain in N=2 SQCD.

  1. Multiple branched adaptive steered molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Gungor; Keyes, Thomas; Quirk, Stephen; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2014-08-01

    Steered molecular dynamics, SMD, [S. Park and K. Schulten, J. Chem. Phys. 120, 5946 (2004)] combined with Jarzynski's equality has been used widely in generating free energy profiles for various biological problems, e.g., protein folding and ligand binding. However, the calculated averages are generally dominated by "rare events" from the ensemble of nonequilibrium trajectories. The recently proposed adaptive steered molecular dynamics, ASMD, introduced a new idea for selecting important events and eliminating the non-contributing trajectories, thus decreasing the overall computation needed. ASMD was shown to reduce the number of trajectories needed by a factor of 10 in a benchmarking study of decaalanine stretching. Here we propose a novel, highly efficient "multiple branching" (MB) version, MB-ASMD, which obtains a more complete enhanced sampling of the important trajectories, while still eliminating non-contributing segments. Compared to selecting a single configuration in ASMD, MB-ASMD offers to select multiple configurations at each segment along the reaction coordinate based on the distribution of work trajectories. We show that MB-ASMD has all benefits of ASMD such as faster convergence of the PMF even when pulling 1000 times faster than the reversible limit while greatly reducing the probability of getting trapped in a non-significant path. We also analyze the hydrogen bond breaking within the decaalanine peptide as we force the helix into a random coil and confirm ASMD results with less noise in the numerical averages.

  2. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  3. Generalized and synthetic regression estimators for randomized branch sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2015-01-01

    In felled-tree studies, ratio and regression estimators are commonly used to convert more readily measured branch characteristics to dry crown mass estimates. In some cases, data from multiple trees are pooled to form these estimates. This research evaluates the utility of both tactics in the estimation of crown biomass following randomized branch sampling (...

  4. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; de Boer, Thomas; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  5. Chemical Analysis of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in M62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Ferraro, F. R.; Origlia, L.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.

    2015-01-01

    We have collected UVES-FLAMES high-resolution spectra for a sample of 6 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and 13 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) M62 (NGC 6266). Here we present the detailed abundance analysis of iron, titanium, and light elements (O, Na, Mg, and Al).

  6. On parallel Branch and Bound frameworks for Global Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, Juan F.R.; Salmerón, José M.G.; Hendrix, Eligius M.T.; Asenjo, Rafael; Casado, Leocadio G.

    2017-01-01

    Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithms are known to exhibit an irregularity of the search tree. Therefore, developing a parallel approach for this kind of algorithms is a challenge. The efficiency of a B&B algorithm depends on the chosen Branching, Bounding, Selection, Rejection, and Termination

  7. Identity and dynamics of mammary stem cells during branching morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, Colinda L.G.J.; Hannezo, Edouard; Muraro, Mauro J.; Zomer, Anoek; Langedijk, Nathalia S.M.; Van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Simons, Benjamin D; Van Rheenen, Jacco

    2017-01-01

    During puberty, the mouse mammary gland develops into a highly branched epithelial network. Owing to the absence of exclusive stem cell markers, the location, multiplicity, dynamics and fate of mammary stem cells (MaSCs), which drive branching morphogenesis, are unknown. Here we show that

  8. Branching patterns of left coronary artery among North Indians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The left coronary artery displays variations in pattern, number and distribution of its branches. These variations influence the manifestation and extent of the coronary artery disease affecting the left main branch. A total of 100 North Indian cadaveric hearts were dissected to observe the main trunk of the left coronary artery.

  9. Construction Of Bank Branches: Critical Issues For Successful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to highlight some of the more critical lessons learnt through the author's experience as part of the development of over 40 bank branches, and proposes an approach that may lead to successful branch delivery. It does this using the framework of the project management body of knowledge, PMBoK.

  10. 33 CFR 117.927 - Coosaw River (Whale Branch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coosaw River (Whale Branch). 117.927 Section 117.927 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Whale Branch). The draw of the Seaboard System Railroad bridge, mile 5.3 at Seabrook, and the draw of...

  11. Branching random walks with displacements coming from a power law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthanil Roy Joint work with Ayan Bhattacharya and Rajat Subhra Hazra

    2015-07-04

    Branching random walks with displacements coming from a power law. Parthanil Roy. Joint work with Ayan Bhattacharya and Rajat Subhra Hazra. Indian Statistical Institute. July 04, 2015. Parthanil Roy (I.S.I.). Branching random walk. July 04, 2015. 1 / 14 ...

  12. Anatomic Variations in the Palmar Cutaneous Branch of the Median ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysesthesias due to palmar cutaneous branch of median nerve injuries infrequently follow carpal tunnel release surgeries. Objective: To determine the course of palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve in wrist of adult Nigerians, identify the common variations, determine its relations to the palmaris longus (PL) in the ...

  13. Acoustic Resonance in Cylindrical Tubes with Side Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    branches and tubes that change diameter. 4. Musical Instrument Design A flute is essentially a hollow tube with a way at one end to modulate the...an integer (1,2,3,…). 12 Figure 5. Tube with no holes. The addition of a side branch effectively changes the length of the tube, so in a flute

  14. Biogeochemical generation of dissolved inorganic carbon and nitrogen in the North Branch of inner Changjiang Estuary in a dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wei-Dong; Yan, Xiu-Li; Qi, Di

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the surface water carbonate system, nutrients, and relevant hydrochemical parameters in the inner Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary in early spring 2009 and 2010. The two surveys were carried out shortly after spring-tide days, and covered both the channel-like South Branch and the freshwater-blocked North Branch. In the North Branch, with a water residence time of approximately one month, we detected remarkable partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) of 930-1518 μatm with a salinity range of 4.5-17.4, which were substantially higher than the South Branch pCO2 values of 700-1100 μatm at salinities of less than 0.88. The North Branch pCO2 distribution pattern is unique compared with many other estuaries where aquatic pCO2 normally declines with salinity increase. Furthermore, the biogeochemical additions of ammonium (7.4-65.7 μmol kg-1) and alkalinity (196-695 μmol kg-1) were identified in salinities between 4 and 16 in the North Branch. Based on field data analyses and simplified stoichiometric equations, we suggest that the relatively high North Branch pCO2 values and estuarine additions of dissolved inorganic nitrogen/carbon in the mid-salinity area were strongly associated with each other. These signals were primarily controlled by biogeochemical processes in the North Branch, combining biogenic organic matter decomposition (i.e. respiration), ammonia oxidation, CaCO3 dissolution, and CO2 degassing. In the upper reach of the South Branch, notable salinity values of 0.20-0.88 were detected, indicating saltwater spillover from the North Branch. These spillover waters had minor contributions (1.5-6.9%) to the springtime nutrient, dissolved inorganic carbon, and alkalinity export fluxes from Changjiang to the adjacent East China Sea. This is the first attempt to understand the biogeochemical controls of the unique pCO2 distributions in the North Branch, and to evaluate the effects of saltwater spillover from the North Branch on dry-season export fluxes

  15. Branched terthiophenes in organic electronics: from small molecules to polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, Martin; Goll, Miriam; Ludwigs, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    A zoo of chemical structures is accessible when the branched unit 2,2':3',2″-terthiophene (3T) is included both in structurally well-defined small molecules and polymer-like architectures. The first part of this review article highlights literature on all-thiophene based branched oligomers including dendrimers as well as combinations of 3T-units with functional moieties for light-harvesting systems. Motivated by the perfectly branched macromolecular dendrimers both electropolymerization as well as chemical approaches are presented as methods for the preparation of branched polythiophenes with different branching densities. Structure-function relationships between the molecular architecture and optical and electronic properties are discussed throughout the article. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. [Bundle-branch block depending on the heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolov, L

    1975-01-01

    Five patients are reported, admitted to the hospital, with diseases predominantly of the cardio-vascular system. During the electrocardiographic examinations bundle branch block was established, depending on heart rate. It fluctuated within the physiological limits from 50 to 90/min. In three of the patients, the bundle branch block appeared with the quickening of the heart rate (tachycardia-depending bundle branch block) and in two of the patients--the bundle branch block appeared during the slowing down of the heart action and disappeared with its quickening (bradicardia-depending bundle branch block). A brief literature review is presented and attention is paid to the possible diagnostic errors and the treatment mode of those patients with cardiac tonic and antiarrhythmic medicaments.

  17. Sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiwakar, Muthuswamy; Khan, Zubair A

    2016-12-01

    The need for and consequence of sacrificing the buccal branch of the facial nerve during parotidectomy is unknown. We sought to determine the indication, frequency, and functional outcome of buccal branch sacrifice. We conducted a prospective study of all cases of parotidectomy at a tertiary referral center. Of 100 consecutive cases of parotidectomy, the buccal branch was sacrificed in 23 cases. This subgroup was more likely to have anterior or deep lesions (p < .001), retrograde facial nerve dissection (p = .037), and immediate postoperative upper and lower facial weakness (p = .051 and .002, respectively). However, if the temporozygomatic and cervicomandibular branches were anatomically preserved, full facial (including buccal) function was restored. Deep or anterior lesions may warrant sacrifice of the buccal branch for adequate access and excision. However, this does not result in long-term impairment of facial function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1821-1825, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Quantification of Consistent Subjective Logic Tree Branch Weights for PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, A. K.; Scherbaum, F.

    2012-04-01

    The development of quantitative models for the rate of exceedance of seismically generated ground motion parameters is the target of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). In regions of low to moderate seismicity, the selection and evaluation of source- and/or ground-motion models is often a major challenge to hazard analysts and affected by large epistemic uncertainties. In PSHA this type of uncertainties is commonly treated within a logic tree framework in which the branch weights express the degree-of-belief values of an expert in the corresponding set of models. For the calculation of the distribution of hazard curves, these branch weights are subsequently used as subjective probabilities. However the quality of the results depends strongly on the "quality" of the expert knowledge. A major challenge for experts in this context is to provide weight estimates which are logically consistent (in the sense of Kolmogorov's axioms) and to be aware of and to deal with the multitude of heuristics and biases which affect human judgment under uncertainty. For example, people tend to give smaller weights to each branch of a logic tree the more branches it has, starting with equal weights for all branches and then adjusting this uniform distribution based on his/her beliefs about how the branches differ. This effect is known as pruning bias.¹ A similar unwanted effect, which may even wrongly suggest robustness of the corresponding hazard estimates, will appear in cases where all models are first judged according to some numerical quality measure approach and the resulting weights are subsequently normalized to sum up to one.2 To address these problems, we have developed interactive graphical tools for the determination of logic tree branch weights in form of logically consistent subjective probabilities, based on the concepts suggested in Curtis and Wood (2004).3 Instead of determining the set of weights for all the models in a single step, the computer driven

  19. Selective branch prediction reversal by correlating with data values and control flow

    OpenAIRE

    Aragón, Juan Luis; González, José; García Carrasco, José M.; González Colás, Antonio María

    2001-01-01

    Branch prediction is one of the main hurdles in the roadmap towards deeper pipelines and higher clock frequencies. This work presents a new approach to enhancing current branch predictors: Selective Branch Prediction Reversal. The rationale behind this proposal is the fact that many branch mispredictions can be avoided if branch prediction is selectively reversed. We present a Branch Prediction Reversal Unit (BPRU) that selectively reverses branch predictions by correlating with the predicted...

  20. Species Specificity in the Biosynthesis of Branched Paraffins in Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1968-01-01

    Isobutyrate-1-14C and l-isoleucine-U-14C fed through the petiole labeled the surface lipids of broccoli leaves, but the incorporation was much less than from straight chain precursors. Not more than one-third of the 14C incorporated into the surface lipids was found in the C29 paraffin and derivatives, whereas more than two-thirds of the 14C from straight chain precursors are usually found in these compounds. The small amount of 14C incorporated into the paraffin fraction was found in the n-C29 paraffin rather than branched paraffins showing that the 14C in the paraffin must have come from degradation products. Radio gas-liquid chromatography of the saturated fatty acids showed that, in addition to the n-C16 acid which was formed from both branched precursors, isoleucine-U-14C gave rise to branched C15, C17, and C19 fatty acids, and isobutyrate-1-14C gave rise to branched C16 and C18 acids. Thus the reason for the failure of broccoli leaf to incorporate branched precursors into branched paraffins is not the unavailability of branched fatty acids, but the absolute specificity of the system that synthesizes paraffins, probably the elongation-decar-boxylation enzyme complex. Consistent with this view, no labeled branched fatty acids longer than C19 could be found in the broccoli leaf. The branched fatty acids were also found in the surface lipids indicating that the epidermal layer of cells did have access to branched chains. Thus the paraffin synthesizing enzyme system is specific for straight chains in broccoli, but the fatty acid synthetase is not. PMID:16656932

  1. In-Medium Parton Branching Beyond Eikonal Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolinário, Liliana

    2017-03-01

    The description of the in-medium modifications of partonic showers has been at the forefront of current theoretical and experimental efforts in heavy-ion collisions. It provides a unique laboratory to extend our knowledge frontier of the theory of the strong interactions, and to assess the properties of the hot and dense medium (QGP) that is produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. The theory of jet quenching, a commonly used alias for the modifications of the parton branching resulting from the interactions with the QGP, has been significantly developed over the last years. Within a weak coupling approach, several elementary processes that build up the parton shower evolution, such as single gluon emissions, interference effects between successive emissions and corrections to radiative energy loss of massive quarks, have been addressed both at eikonal accuracy and beyond by taking into account the Brownian motion that high-energy particles experience when traversing a hot and dense medium. In this work, by using the setup of single gluon emission from a color correlated quark-antiquark pair in a singlet state (qbar{q} antenna), we calculate the in-medium gluon radiation spectrum beyond the eikonal approximation. The results show that we are able to factorize broadening effects from the modifications of the radiation process itself. This constitutes the final proof that a probabilistic picture of the parton shower evolution holds even in the presence of a QGP.

  2. Synthesis of branched polyglucans by the tandem action of potato phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Reixach, Marta Palomo; van der Maarel, Marc; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Schouten, Arend Jan; Loos, Katja

    2008-01-01

    An enzymatic tandem reaction is described in which the enzymes phosphorylase and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) catalyze the synthesis of branched polyglucans from glucose-1-phosphate (G-1-P). Phosphorylase consumes G-1-P and polymerizes linear amylose while DR GBE

  3. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: lqmeee@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-09-14

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  4. Analysis of linseed (Linum usitatissiumum L. plant branching as related to variability and interdependence of traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Branching process of two linseed cultivars ('Hungarian Gold' and 'Opal' was analysed each year of vegetation between 1999 and 2002 characterised by different weather course. The estimation included also the extent and variability of selected morphological traits and structural traits. as well as correlation between them. On the basis of biometric measurements the hierarchy of plant shoots has been established within a plant, and four plant groups were distinguished: 1-. 2-, 3- and 4-shoot plants. It was demonstrated that the intensity of linseed branching depended mainly on young plant planting density and, to a certain extent also the weather conditions in April and May. In the years when the weather course favoured vegetation. between 23 and 40% plants per stand were branched. Beside increasing its productivity linseed branching may also inhibit a development of secondary weed infestation of the canopy. Similar plant groups with analogous shoot hierarchy formed in both linseed cultivars. Bio social position of shoot on a plant determined the extent of its traits. A dominance of the maiii shoot over lateral shoots was marked, especially concerning the number of seed vessels. Particularly big prevalence of the main shoot over lateral ones was visible in 3- and 4-9hoot plants. Lateral shoots had greater variability of morphological traits, especially concerning the number of seed vessels per shoot. Linear, exponential and power interdependencies between traits of linseed cultivars were also revealed.

  5. Disruptive selection as a driver of evolutionary branching and caste evolution in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planqué, R; Powell, S; Franks, N R; van den Berg, J B

    2016-11-01

    Theory suggests that evolutionary branching via disruptive selection may be a relatively common and powerful force driving phenotypic divergence. Here, we extend this theory to social insects, which have novel social axes of phenotypic diversification. Our model, built around turtle ant (Cephalotes) biology, is used to explore whether disruptive selection can drive the evolutionary branching of divergent colony phenotypes that include a novel soldier caste. Soldier evolution is a recurrent theme in social insect diversification that is exemplified in the turtle ants. We show that phenotypic mutants can gain competitive advantages that induce disruptive selection and subsequent branching. A soldier caste does not generally appear before branching, but can evolve from subsequent competition. The soldier caste then evolves in association with specialized resource preferences that maximize defensive performance. Overall, our model indicates that resource specialization may occur in the absence of morphological specialization, but that when morphological specialization evolves, it is always in association with resource specialization. This evolutionary coupling of ecological and morphological specialization is consistent with recent empirical evidence, but contrary to predictions of classical caste theory. Our model provides a new theoretical understanding of the ecology of caste evolution that explicitly considers the process of adaptive phenotypic divergence and diversification. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Universal poroelastic mechanism for hydraulic signals in biomimetic and natural branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louf, J-F; Guéna, G; Badel, E; Forterre, Y

    2017-10-17

    Plants constantly undergo external mechanical loads such as wind or touch and respond to these stimuli by acclimating their growth processes. A fascinating feature of this mechanical-induced growth response is that it can occur rapidly and at long distance from the initial site of stimulation, suggesting the existence of a fast signal that propagates across the whole plant. The nature and origin of the signal is still not understood, but it has been recently suggested that it could be purely mechanical and originate from the coupling between the local deformation of the tissues (bending) and the water pressure in the plant vascular system. Here, we address the physical origin of this hydromechanical coupling using a biomimetic strategy. We designed soft artificial branches perforated with longitudinal liquid-filled channels that mimic the basic features of natural stems and branches. In response to bending, a strong overpressure is generated in the channels that varies quadratically with the bending curvature. A model based on a mechanism analogous to the ovalization of hollow tubes enables us to predict quantitatively this nonlinear poroelastic response and identify the key physical parameters that control the generation of the pressure pulse. Further experiments conducted on natural tree branches reveal the same phenomenology. Once rescaled by the model prediction, both the biomimetic and natural branches fall on the same master curve, enlightening the universality of our poroelastic mechanism for the generation of hydraulic signals in plants.

  7. Extra-muscular branching and distribution of obturator nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zare

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the obturator nerve distribution pattern is essential in reconstructive surgery and rehabilitation. To reveal pathway and branching of the nerve, 64 fixed cadavers in Bushehr and Tehran University of Medical Sciences were evaluated. In all cases, the obturator nerve arised from the anterior branches of the 2nd-4th lumbar nerves and passed through the medial side of psoas muscle to pelvis and in obturator grove divided to anterior and posterior branches the anterior division passed over the external obturator muscle.The skin of the medial side of thigh in 3.12% of cases was innervated by a direct branch of anterior branch.The posterior division of obturator nerve passed over the external obturator muscle in 3.12% and passed through it in 96.88% of cases. The articular branch for knee joint passed through the distal part of adductor magnus muscle in 82.8% and through the Hunter channel along with femoral artery in 17.2% of cases. Therefore, the distribution pattern of obturator nerve is accordant with the other researches except for adductor brevis muscle which was innervated only by the anterior branch of obturator nerve.

  8. Optimization of multi-branch switched diversity systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2009-10-01

    A performance optimization based on the optimal switching threshold(s) for a multi-branch switched diversity system is discussed in this paper. For the conventional multi-branch switched diversity system with a single switching threshold, the optimal switching threshold is a function of both the average channel SNR and the number of diversity branches, where computing the optimal switching threshold is not a simple task when the number of diversity branches is high. The newly proposed multi-branch switched diversity system is based on a sequence of switching thresholds, instead of a single switching threshold, where a different diversity branch uses a different switching threshold for signal comparison. Thanks to the fact that each switching threshold in the sequence can be optimized only based on the number of the remaining diversity branches, the proposed system makes it easy to find these switching thresholds. Furthermore, some selected numerical and simulation results show that the proposed switched diversity system with the sequence of optimal switching thresholds outperforms the conventional system with the single optimal switching threshold. © 2009 IEEE.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Branched Polystyrene through Radical Suspension Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical solvent-free suspension polymerization of styrene with 3-mercapto hexyl-methacrylate (MHM as the branching monomer has been carried out using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as the initiator to prepare branched polymer beads of high purity. The molecular weight and branching structure of the polymers have been characterized by triple detection size exclusion chromatography (TD-SEC, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The glass transition temperature and rheological properties have been measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and rotational rheometry. At mole ratios of MHM to AIBN less than 1.0, gelation was successfully avoided and branched polystyrene beads were prepared in the absence of any solvent. Branched polystyrene has a relatively higher molecular weight and narrower polydispersity (Mw.MALLS = 1,036,000 g·mol−1, Mw/Mn = 7.76 than those obtained in solution polymerization. Compared with their linear analogues, lower glass transition temperature and decreased chain entanglement were observed in the presently obtained branched polystyrene because of the effects of branching.

  10. Wind-Induced Reconfigurations in Flexible Branched Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Wind induced stresses are the major mechanical cause of failure in trees. We know that the branching mechanism has an important effect on the stress distribution and stability of a tree in the wind. Eloy in PRL 2011, showed that Leonardo da Vinci's original observation which states the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes is the best configuration for resisting wind-induced fracture in rigid trees. However, prediction of the fracture risk and pattern of a tree is also a function of their reconfiguration capabilities and how they mitigate large wind-induced stresses. In this studies through developing an efficient numerical simulation of flexible branched trees, we explore the role of the tree flexibility on the optimal branching. Our results show that the probability of a tree breaking at any point depends on both the cross-section changes in the branching nodes and the level of tree flexibility. It is found that the branching mechanism based on Leonardo da Vinci's original observation leads to a uniform stress distribution over a wide range of flexibilities but the pattern changes for more flexible systems.

  11. Multiple innovations underpinned branching form diversification in mosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudert, Yoan; Bell, Neil E; Edelin, Claude; Harrison, C Jill

    2017-07-01

    Broad-scale evolutionary comparisons have shown that branching forms arose by convergence in vascular plants and bryophytes, but the trajectory of branching form diversification in bryophytes is unclear. Mosses are the most species-rich bryophyte lineage and two sub-groups are circumscribed by alternative reproductive organ placements. In one, reproductive organs form apically, terminating growth of the primary shoot (gametophore) axis. In the other, reproductive organs develop on very short lateral branches. A switch from apical to lateral reproductive organ development is proposed to have primed branching form diversification. Moss gametophores have modular development and each module develops from a single apical cell. Here we define the architectures of 175 mosses by the number of module classes, branching patterns and the pattern in which similar modules repeat. Using ancestral character state reconstruction we identify two stages of architectural diversification. During a first stage there were sequential changes in the module repetition pattern, reproductive organ position, branching pattern and the number of module classes. During a second stage, vegetative changes occurred independently of reproductive fate. The results pinpoint the nature of developmental change priming branching form diversification in mosses and provide a framework for mechanistic studies of architectural diversification. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. [Microsurgical anatomy of perforating branches of anterior communicating artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego, H; N'Da, H; Viart, L; Foulon, P; Le Gars, D; Havet, E; Peltier, J

    2015-03-01

    The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) gives perforating branches to the optic chiasma, the hypothalamus and the corpus callosum. Perforating branches are variable (number, direction). Nevertheless, their knowledge is crucial during surgery of this area to spare injuries leading to ischemic post-operative complications. The objective was to update the anatomical knowledge about perforating branches of the ACoA. The study was led on a series of seven brains taken from human cadavers. An injection of latex neoprene was performed for every case. The region of interest was observed under operating microscope. Were examined: the length of the ACoA, its diameter, its orientation, its configuration and perforating branches (number and areas). Three cases on five presented with an anatomical variation at the level of the ACoA. The average length of AcoA was 2.1 millimeters (min: 2, max: 2.2). The average diameter of the ACoA was 1.67 mm (min: 1.1, max: 2.1). The average number of perforating branches was 4.2 (min: 2, max: 6). The presence of a median artery of the corpus callosum seemed to correlated with a low number of perforating branches. Branches supplying the optic chiasma seemed to be more numerous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Craniotomy and the temporal branch of the facial nerve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekar, L; Bláha, M; Schwab, J; Melechovský, D

    2004-05-01

    The surgical anatomy of the temporal branch of the facial nerve was studied in the anatomical laboratory. The temporal branch divides into an anterior, middle (frontal), and a posterior ramus after it pierces the parotid fascia. The anterior ramus innervates orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles; the middle branch is for the ipsilateral frontalis muscle. The posterior branch innervates the anterior and superior auricular and tragus muscles. Below the zygomatic arch, the temporal branch of the facial nerve is located in the subcutaneous tissue. Above the arch, it continues in the subgaleal space with the superficial temporal fascia deeply. The terminal twigs of the temporal branch penetrate the galea to reach their target muscles that are all located superficial to the galea. There is a significant variability in the course of the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Occasionally, the terminal twigs of the middle ramus may penetrate superficial layer of superficial temporal fascia and run in the intrafascial fat pad before entering the frontalis muscle. There are four available operative techniques in this anatomical location. The subgaleal dissection of a temporofrontal scalp flap is associated with a high incidence of postoperative palsy of the temporal branch of the facial nerve and cosmetically bothersome results. Reflecting the scalp and temporalis muscle together as a single layer is the safest procedure. Unfortunately, this technique can not be used for the transzygomatic approaches and the bulky temporalis muscle may compromise basal exposure in the pterional route. Third technique was described and propagated by Yasargil. He proposed a subgaleal dissection up to the anterior one-fourth of the temporalis muscle where the dissection has to be deepened between the two layers of the superficial temporal fascia (in the interfascial fat pad). This approach may also infrequently injure the temporal branch in case of anatomical variation. The last

  14. On Computational Power of Quantum Read-Once Branching Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ablayev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review our current results concerning the computational power of quantum read-once branching programs. First of all, based on the circuit presentation of quantum branching programs and our variant of quantum fingerprinting technique, we show that any Boolean function with linear polynomial presentation can be computed by a quantum read-once branching program using a relatively small (usually logarithmic in the size of input number of qubits. Then we show that the described class of Boolean functions is closed under the polynomial projections.

  15. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    bound sets that prevents us from solving the bi-objective LP-relaxation of each branching node. To strengthen the lower bound sets, we propose a bi-objective cutting plane algorithm that dynamically adjusts the weights of the objective functions such that different parts of the feasible set...... are strengthened by cutting planes. In addition, we suggest an extension of the branching strategy "Pareto branching''. Extensive computational results obtained for the bi-objective single source capacitated facility location problem prove the effectiveness of the algorithms....

  16. Business Systems Branch Abilities, Capabilities, and Services Web Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Pena, Aida Yoguely

    2009-01-01

    During the INSPIRE summer internship I acted as the Business Systems Branch Capability Owner for the Kennedy Web-based Initiative for Communicating Capabilities System (KWICC), with the responsibility of creating a portal that describes the services provided by this Branch. This project will help others achieve a clear view ofthe services that the Business System Branch provides to NASA and the Kennedy Space Center. After collecting the data through the interviews with subject matter experts and the literature in Business World and other web sites I identified discrepancies, made the necessary corrections to the sites and placed the information from the report into the KWICC web page.

  17. The Prevalence of Hearing Loss within Selected U.S. Army Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-31

    for public release; distribution unlimited ’l. W SYMBUYION STATUMENT (of IA. ga~ta totod~ In Vlocik 20, 11 dilo ~roiit from R,ýpoet) Preard in... analysis . The results suggest t-at the prevalence of hearing loss is approx- imately the same in the infantry, armor, and artillery branches. InFs contrast...Eve S. Kaplan, Biometrics and Information Processing, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research,for her valuable assistance during the computer analysis

  18. It takes a village to raise a branch: Cellular mechanisms of the initiation of axon collateral branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijo-Weingart, Lorena; Gallo, Gianluca

    2017-10-01

    The formation of axon collateral branches from the pre-existing shafts of axons is an important aspect of neurodevelopment and the response of the nervous system to injury. This article provides an overview of the role of the cytoskeleton and signaling mechanisms in the formation of axon collateral branches. Both the actin filament and microtubule components of the cytoskeleton are required for the formation of axon branches. Recent work has begun to shed light on how these two elements of the cytoskeleton are integrated by proteins that functionally or physically link the cytoskeleton. While a number of signaling pathways have been determined as having a role in the formation of axon branches, the complexity of the downstream mechanisms and links to specific signaling pathways remain to be fully determined. The regulation of intra-axonal protein synthesis and organelle function are also emerging as components of signal-induced axon branching. Although much has been learned in the last couple of decades about the mechanistic basis of axon branching we can look forward to continue elucidating this complex biological phenomenon with the aim of understanding how multiple signaling pathways, cytoskeletal regulators and organelles are coordinated locally along the axon to give rise to a branch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  20. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  1. Arginine-glycine-aspartic acid functional branched semi-interpenetrating hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenderleith, Richard A; Pateman, Christopher J; Rodenburg, Cornelia; Haycock, John W; Claeyssens, Frederik; Sammon, Chris; Rimmer, Stephen

    2015-10-14

    For the first time a series of functional hydrogels based on semi-interpenetrating networks with both branched and crosslinked polymer components have been prepared and we show the successful use of these materials as substrates for cell culture. The materials consist of highly branched poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)s with peptide functionalised end groups in a continuous phase of crosslinked poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). Functionalisation of the end groups of the branched polymer component with the GRGDS peptide produces a hydrogel that supports cell adhesion and proliferation. The materials provide a new synthetic functional biomaterial that has many of the features of extracellular matrix, and as such can be used to support tissue regeneration and cell culture. This class of high water content hydrogel material has important advantages over other functional hydrogels in its synthesis and does not require post-processing modifications nor are functional-monomers, which change the polymerisation process, required. Thus, the systems are amenable to large scale and bespoke manufacturing using conventional moulding or additive manufacturing techniques. Processing using additive manufacturing is exemplified by producing tubes using microstereolithography.

  2. Estimating single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce by airborne laser scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauglin, Marius; Dibdiakova, Janka; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik

    2013-05-01

    The use of forest biomass for bioenergy purposes, directly or through refinement processes, has increased in the last decade. One example of such use is the utilization of logging residues. Branch biomass constitutes typically a considerable part of the logging residues, and should be quantified and included in future forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used when collecting data for forest inventories, and even methods to derive information at the single-tree level has been described. Procedures for estimation of single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce using features derived from ALS data are proposed in the present study. As field reference data the dry weight branch biomass of 50 trees were obtained through destructive sampling. Variables were further derived from the ALS echoes from each tree, including crown volume calculated from an interpolated crown surface constructed with a radial basis function. Spatial information derived from the pulse vectors were also incorporated when calculating the crown volume. Regression models with branch biomass as response variable were fit to the data, and the prediction accuracy assessed through a cross-validation procedure. Random forest regression models were compared to stepwise and simple linear least squares models. In the present study branch biomass was estimated with a higher accuracy by the best ALS-based models than by existing allometric biomass equations based on field measurements. An improved prediction accuracy was observed when incorporating information from the laser pulse vectors into the calculation of the crown volume variable, and a linear model with the crown volume as a single predictor gave the best overall results with a root mean square error of 35% in the validation.

  3. Ab initio study of key branching reactions in biodiesel and Fischer-Tropsch fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alexander C; Francisco, Joseph S

    2011-11-30

    Many biologically and Fischer-Tropsch synthesized fuels contain branched alkanes which, during their combustion and atmospheric oxidation mechanism, produce methylalkyl radicals. As a result, an accurate description of the chemistry of these species is essential to integrating these fuels into our energy systems. Even though branched alkanes make up roughly one-third of the compounds in gasoline and diesel fuels, both experimental and theoretical data on methylalkyl radicals and their reactions are scarce, especially for larger chain systems and combustion conditions. The present work investigates all the hydrogen migration reactions available to the n-methylprop-1-yl through n-methylhept-1-yl radicals, for n = 2-6, using the CBS-Q, G2, and G4 composite computational methods, over a wide temperature range. The resulting thermodynamic and kinetic parameters are used to determine the effect that the presence of the methyl group has on these important unimolecular, chain branching reactions, for the reactions involving not only a tertiary abstraction site but also all the primary and secondary sites. The activation energies of hydrogen migration reactions with the methyl group, either within or immediately outside the ring, are found to be roughly 0.8-1.6 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy than expected on the basis of analogous reactions in n-alkyl radicals. An important implication of this result is that the current method of using rate parameters derived from n-alkyl radicals to predict the chain branching characteristics of methylated alkyl radicals significantly underpredicts the importance of these reactions in atmospheric and combustion processes. Discussion of a possible cause for this phenomenon and its effect on the overall combustion mechanism of branched hydrocarbons is presented. Of particular concern is that 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane, which is currently used to model branched alkanes in diesel fuel surrogates, is predicted to have a much lower activation

  4. Ret and Etv4 Promote Directed Movements of Progenitor Cells during Renal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Riccio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud forms the renal collecting duct system and is critical for normal nephron number, while low nephron number is implicated in hypertension and renal disease. Ureteric bud growth and branching requires GDNF signaling from the surrounding mesenchyme to cells at the ureteric bud tips, via the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and coreceptor Gfrα1; Ret signaling up-regulates transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5, which are also critical for branching. Despite extensive knowledge of the genetic control of these events, it is not understood, at the cellular level, how renal branching morphogenesis is achieved or how Ret signaling influences epithelial cell behaviors to promote this process. Analysis of chimeric embryos previously suggested a role for Ret signaling in promoting cell rearrangements in the nephric duct, but this method was unsuited to study individual cell behaviors during ureteric bud branching. Here, we use Mosaic Analysis with Double Markers (MADM, combined with organ culture and time-lapse imaging, to trace the movements and divisions of individual ureteric bud tip cells. We first examine wild-type clones and then Ret or Etv4 mutant/wild-type clones in which the mutant and wild-type sister cells are differentially and heritably marked by green and red fluorescent proteins. We find that, in normal kidneys, most individual tip cells behave as self-renewing progenitors, some of whose progeny remain at the tips while others populate the growing UB trunks. In Ret or Etv4 MADM clones, the wild-type cells generated at a UB tip are much more likely to remain at, or move to, the new tips during branching and elongation, while their Ret-/- or Etv4-/- sister cells tend to lag behind and contribute only to the trunks. By tracking successive mitoses in a cell lineage, we find that Ret signaling has little effect on proliferation, in contrast to its effects on cell movement. Our results show that Ret

  5. Fire Management Plan Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Fire Management Plan (FMP) is to identify and integrate all wildland fire management related activities within the context of the Big Branch...

  6. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000 system.

  7. Antibiotics and renal branching morphogenesis: comparison of toxicities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueters, R.R.G.; Kusters, L.J.; Klaasen, A.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den; Schreuder, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many premature born neonates receive antibiotic drugs to treat infections, which are applied during active nephrogenesis. We studied the impact of clinical concentrations of gentamicin and alternatives, ceftazidime and meropenem, on ureteric branching. METHODS: Mice metanephroi were

  8. Branching innovation, recombinant innovation, and endogenous technological transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/207145253; Izquierdo, L.; Zeppini, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model of technological transitions based on two different types of innovations. Branching innovations refer to technological improvements along a particular path, while recombinant innovations represent fusions of multiple paths. Recombinant innovations create "short-cuts" which reduce

  9. 47 CFR 32.6341 - Large private branch exchange expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... branch exchanges. Expenses associated with company internal use communication equipment shall be recorded... Section 32.6341 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6341...

  10. Establishment report: Reforestation of the Pen Branch corridor and delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Dulohery, N.J.; Bunton, C.S.; Trettin, C.C.; McKee, W.H. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the role of the USDA Forest Service in the reforestation of the Pen Branch floodplain and delta. The report focuses upon the reforestation activities and monitoring to characterize the sites.

  11. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-2006, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains five data files, in comma-separated format (.csv), derived from the Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) vegetation inventory in eastern Tennessee....

  12. Horizontal Branch stars as AmFm/HgMn stars

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, G.; Richer, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations and models for horizontal branch stars are briefly described and compared to models for AmFm stars. The limitations of those models are emphasized by a comparison to observations and models for HgMn stars.

  13. Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Big Branch National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  14. Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — These quick facts use data from the 2011 Employment of Veterans in the Federal Executive Branch to compare Veteran employment in the Federal Government by agency,...

  15. BOREAS TE-04 Branch Bag Data from Boreal Tree Species

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Contains 1996 TE-04 data of branch bag studies of photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance of boreal forest species using the open MPH-1000...

  16. VT West Branch Natural Channel Post Monitoring 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  17. VT West Branch Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Because of the well known problems of the river, the West Branch was identified as a restoration implementation site to be funded as part of the...

  18. Branching Out in Roots: Uncovering Form, Function, and Regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jonathan A.; Rasmussen, Amanda; Traini, Richard; Voß, Ute; Sturrock, Craig; Mooney, Sacha J.; Wells, Darren M.; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Root branching is critical for plants to secure anchorage and ensure the supply of water, minerals, and nutrients. To date, research on root branching has focused on lateral root development in young seedlings. However, many other programs of postembryonic root organogenesis exist in angiosperms. In cereal crops, the majority of the mature root system is composed of several classes of adventitious roots that include crown roots and brace roots. In this Update, we initially describe the diversity of postembryonic root forms. Next, we review recent advances in our understanding of the genes, signals, and mechanisms regulating lateral root and adventitious root branching in the plant models Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa). While many common signals, regulatory components, and mechanisms have been identified that control the initiation, morphogenesis, and emergence of new lateral and adventitious root organs, much more remains to be done. We conclude by discussing the challenges and opportunities facing root branching research. PMID:25136060

  19. News and Events - Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest news from the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branch and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Nanodelivery Systems and Devices Branchstaff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  20. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  1. Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Big Branch Marsh NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  2. Morphometric study of the shoulder and subclavicular innervation by the intermediate and lateral branches of supraclavicular nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, Eric; Duparc, Fabrice; Tobenas-Dujardin, Anne-Claire; Muller, Jean-Michel; Fréger, Pierre

    2007-12-01

    The supraclavicular (intermediate) and supra-acromial (lateral) branches of supraclavicular nerves contribute to the innervation of the thorax, shoulder, and neck. Despite their clinical and surgical interest, they are not often considered for descriptive anatomy. The goal of this work was to clarify the morphometric knowledge of these two branches and to discuss the clinical relevance of the anatomical features. Intermediate and lateral branches of supraclavicular nerves of 14 necks (8 embalmed cadavers) were dissected using magnifying glasses. Macroscopic parameters were measured and nerve relationships were recorded. In 12 cases, the intermediate and lateral branches arose from a common trunk behind the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle, at a mean distance of 96 mm (70-137) from the sternal angle. The intermediate branch divided into two or three secondary rami. Its most internal ramus crossed the middle third of the clavicle and its most external ramus crossed the second lateral quarter of the bone. The distance between the two farthest nerve endings of this branch was at mean of 98 mm (85-125). The mean distance of the most distal nerve ending from the clavicle was 46 mm (30-63). The lateral branch divided into two or three rami in eight cases and did not divide in six cases. Its most anterior rami crossed the trapezius muscle at a mean distance from the clavicular insertion of 17 mm (12-24). In 13 cases, these rami ended posteriorly or at the level of the anterior border of the acromion process and in 12 cases, they ended laterally or at the level of the acromion process with a mean distance 10.4 mm (0-24). In case of deficiency of these nerves, pain or sensitive deficit can occur without motor trouble. The factors of acute or chronic injury are direct compression, nerve stretching, repetitive stresses, and direct wound. Moreover, several neck or shoulder surgical approaches are dangerous for these nerves.

  3. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model

    OpenAIRE

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tugrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age $\\tau$ as $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$. Depending on the exponent $\\alpha$, the scaling of tree depth with tree size $n$ displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition ($\\alpha=1$) tree depth grows as $(\\log n)^2$. This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus p...

  4. Pediatric Oncology Branch - training- resident electives | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resident Electives Select pediatric residents may be approved for a 4-week elective rotation at the Pediatric Oncology Branch. This rotation emphasizes the important connection between research and patient care in pediatric oncology. The resident is supervised directly by the Branch’s attending physician and clinical fellows. Residents attend daily in-patient and out-patient rounds, multiple weekly Branch conferences, and are expected to research relevant topics and present a 30-minute talk toward the end of their rotation.

  5. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  6. Exploring branch predictability limits with the MTAGE+SC predictor *

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec, André

    2016-01-01

    International audience; In the previous championship CBP-4, the winner of the unlimited storage track [5], poTAGE-SC was combining several TAGE based predictors using different forms of histories (local, global, and frequency), a COLT inspired [3] prediction combiner and a statistical corrector (SC) predictor [8, 10] fed with various forms of branch histories. With MTAGE-SC, we improve this predictor in two ways. First through incorporating new forms of branch histories, adding a new TAGE com...

  7. Staff utilisation in branches of a large Canadian bank

    OpenAIRE

    Asmild, Mette; Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider staffing decisions in branches of a large Canadian bank. The bank has well-developed staffing models and the branches work in a highly competitive environment. One would therefore expect limited ’inefficiency’ in the sense of wasted resources and over-staffing. Using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) we nevertheless find considerable ’inefficiency’ which raises the question whether this is best interpreted as waste or if the apparent inefficiency may ...

  8. Branched-chain amino acids for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Koretz, R L; Kjaergard, L L

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be caused by a decreased plasma ratio of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to aromatic amino acids. Treatment with BCAA may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  9. Extracellular matrix and growth factors in branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    The unifying hypothesis of the NSCORT in gravitational biology postulates that the ECM and growth factors are key interrelated components of a macromolecular regulatory system. The ECM is known to be important in growth and branching morphogenesis of embryonic organs. Growth factors have been detected in the developing embryo, and often the pattern of localization is associated with areas undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Causal relationships between these components may be of fundamental importance in control of branching morphogenesis.

  10. Human vagus nerve branching in the cervical region

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Hammer; Juliane Glätzner; Christine Feja; Christian Kühne; Jürgen Meixensberger; Uwe Planitzer; Stefan Schleifenbaum; Tillmann, Bernhard N.; Dirk Winkler

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve...

  11. Branch Prediction based on Histories of Multi-Branch Execution Patterns for Speculative Execution

    OpenAIRE

    児島,彰; 弘中,哲夫; 高山,毅; 藤野,清次

    1997-01-01

    最近のパイプライン型プロセッサでは、条件分岐でのパイプラインの乱れによる速度低下を抑制するために、分岐予測とそれに使った投機的実行が行われている。ただし、予測失敗時にはペナルティが大きいので、分岐予測の精度向上が望まれる。これまでの分岐予測では、単独の条件分岐に対して過去に分岐したか、どうかの履歴を取り、その情報に基づいて、分岐するかしかないかを予測している。本研究では、さらに分岐予測の精度を高めるため、連続して実行される複数の条件分岐の分岐パターンに対して履歴をとり、この履歴からの分岐予測を従来の手法に組み合わせる方法を提案する。また、この手法による分岐予測の有効性を実際のプログラムを用いて評価する。 / Superscalar processors and superpipeline processors use branch prediction and speculative execution to avoid suffering pipeline bubbles at conditional branches. The costs of recovering pipe...

  12. Density functional steric analysis of linear and branched alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Daniel H; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-12-16

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (E(s)[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (E(e)[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (E(q)[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  13. Growth of modern branched columnar stromatolites in Lake Joyce, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, T J; Sumner, D Y; Hawes, I; Jungblut, A D; Andersen, D T

    2015-07-01

    Modern decimeter-scale columnar stromatolites from Lake Joyce, Antarctica, show a change in branching pattern during a period of lake level rise. Branching patterns correspond to a change in cyanobacterial community composition as preserved in authigenic calcite crystals. The transition in stromatolite morphology is preserved by mineralized layers that contain microfossils and cylindrical molds of cyanobacterial filaments. The molds are composed of two populations with different diameters. Large diameter molds (>2.8 μm) are abundant in calcite forming the oldest stromatolite layers, but are absent from younger layers. In contrast, stromatolites layers. Loss of large diameter molds corresponds to the transition from smooth-sided stromatolitic columns to branched and irregular columns. Mold diameters are similar to trichome diameters of the four most abundant living cyanobacteria morphotypes in Lake Joyce: Phormidium autumnale morphotypes have trichome diameters >3.5 μm, whereas Leptolyngbya antarctica, L. fragilis, and Pseudanabaena frigida morphotypes have diameters stromatolite growth, but disappeared from the community through time. We hypothesize that the mat-smoothing behavior of P. autumnale morphotypes inhibited nucleation of stromatolite branches. When P. autumnale morphotypes were excluded from the community, potentially reflecting a rise in lake level, short-wavelength roughness provided nuclei for stromatolite branches. This growth history provides a conceptual model for initiation of branched stromatolite growth resulting from a change in microbial community composition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  15. Branch induction in spur-type Delicious apple nursery trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popenoe, J.

    1987-01-01

    Long sylleptic shoots produced on apple trees in the nursery result in increased early yields once the trees are planted in the orchard. Spur-type Delicious trees do not naturally produce branches in the nursery. To achieve branched spur-type Delicious trees, applications of combinations of growth regulators benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellic acid 4 + 7 (GA) and leaf removal (LR) techniques were tested. Spacings of 15, 25, 35, and 45 cm and MM.106, M.7, M.26 and seedling rootstocks were tested for their effects on branching. Carbon partitioning changes caused by these treatments were evaluated by dry weight analysis and for benzyladenine, leaf removal and tipping treatments by {sup 14}C-photoassimilate labelling. Possible involvement of roots produced cytokinins was examined by {sup 14}C-benzyladenine labeling through the xylem and by analyzing relationships between root mass and branching characteristics. Although partitioning of {sup 14}C-photoassimilate was increased to the top of the plant by BA sprays, and to the bottom of the plant by LR and tipping for up to six days after treatment, final plant weights were not different. No relationship between branching and root mass or {sup 14}C-benzyladenine mobilization was found. This evidence indicates branched trees possessed no greater dry weight than unbranched trees, only a redistribution of the dry weight into a form more suited to early fruit production in high density planting systems.

  16. IRREGULAR TRICHOME BRANCH 2 (ITB2) encodes a putative aminophospholipid translocase that regulates trichome branch elongation in Arabidopsis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaoguo; Oppenheimer, David G

    2009-01-01

    ... to result in reduced plant size when plants were grown under cold conditions. During a genetic screen for mutations that affect trichome shape, we isolated several alleles of the irregular trichome branch 2 (itb2) mutation...

  17. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... beginning the process of creating the trust. The Office of Government Ethics is the only entity that has the... any organization affiliated with any interested party, and is not and has not been a partner of, or... party or any representative of an interested party learns about such employment or consultation, the...

  18. Nanocrystals with linear and branched topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Milliron, Delia; Manna, Liberato; Hughes, Steven M.

    2007-12-04

    Disclosed herein are nanostructures comprising distinct dots and rods coupled through potential barriers of tuneable height and width, and arranged in three dimensional space at well defined angles and distances. Such control allows investigation of potential applications ranging from quantum information processing to artificial photosynthesis.

  19. AXILLARY ARTERY- A STUDY ON BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswary Thampi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery is of considerable importance. There may be variations in the origin of branches, additional branches or 2 or more from common trunk or the artery may arise separately. The anomalous branching pattern can be correlated to the developmental defects of vasculature during embryonic life. The axillary artery is a part of axis artery of upper limb. Morphological variations of axillary artery of upper limb is very important for vascular surgeons, cardiologists, anaesthetists, radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons. Present study is aimed at finding out the branching pattern of axillary artery, clinical significance and to correlate its embryological basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 20 formalin fixed cadavers (40 limbs, which were allotted to the undergraduate, postgraduate students and BDS students of Government Medical College, Kottayam. Cadavers were numbered 1-20 and the axillary artery and its branches were dissected on both sides following the classical incision and dissection procedure taking care to preserve all branches. The artery was studied under the following headings- 1. Origin of all branches; 2. Course and variation. RESULTS In the present study, it was observed that the branching pattern of axillary artery showed variations in 80% of cases. 8 upper limbs showed normal pattern of distribution (20%. The branches revealed different levels of origin and distribution from the normal pattern. The most common variations observed in the origin of subscapular artery and anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries together constitute 40%. The remaining 40% of variations were observed in superior thoracic (17.5%, thoracoacromial (12.5% and lateral thoracic (10%. These observations in the arterial variations highlights the awareness during regional surgeries and other interventional procedures. CONCLUSION Variations observed in this

  20. Conversion of raw lignocellulosic biomass into branched long-chain alkanes through three tandem steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunrui; Ding, Daqian; Xia, Qineng; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Yanqin

    2016-07-07

    Synthesis of branched long-chain alkanes from renewable biomass has attracted intensive interest in recent years, but the feedstock for this synthesis is restricted to platform chemicals. Here, we develop an effective and energy-efficient process to convert raw lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., corncob) into branched diesel-range alkanes through three tandem steps for the first time. Furfural and isopropyl levulinate (LA ester) were prepared from hemicellulose and cellulose fractions of corncob in toluene/water biphasic system with added isopropanol, which was followed by double aldol condensation of furfural with LA ester into C15 oxygenates and the final hydrodeoxygenation of C15 oxygenates into branched long-chain alkanes. The core point of this tandem process is the addition of isopropanol in the first step, which enables the spontaneous transfer of levulinic acid (LA) into the toluene phase in the form of LA ester through esterification, resulting in LA ester co-existing with furfural in the same phase, which is the basis for double aldol condensation in the toluene phase. Moreover, the acidic aqueous phase and toluene can be reused and the residues, including lignin and humins in aqueous phase, can be separated and carbonized to porous carbon materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Channel branching and zigzagging in negative cloud-to-ground lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhuling; Lu, Gaopeng; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-14

    A fundamental question in lightning flash concerns why the discharge channel propagates in a zig-zag manner and produces extensive branches. Here we report the optical observation of two negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharges with very high temporal resolution of 180,000 frames per second, which shows in detail the dependence of channel branching and tortuous behavior on the stepping process of the leader development. It is found that the clustered space leaders formed in parallel ahead of the channel tip during an individual step process. The leader branching is due to the multiple connection of the clustered space leaders with the same root channel tip, which occur almost simultaneously, or successively as some space leaders/stems resurrect after interruption. Meanwhile, the irregularity of angles between the clustered space leaders and the advancing direction of leader tip is the origin of channel tortuosity. The statistical analysis on 96 steps shows a geometric-mean value of 4.4 m for the step length, ranging between 1.3 and 8.6 m, while the distance from the center of space leader to the channel is 3.6 m, ranging between 2.1 and 6.9 m. More than 50% steps occurred within an angle range of ±30° from the advancing direction of the leader.

  2. Development of Test Method for Simple Shear and Prediction of Hardening Behavior Considering the Branchings Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bang, Sungsik; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Kim, Naksoo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study we establish a process to predict hardening behavior considering the Branchings effect for zircaloy-4 sheets. When a metal is compressed after tension in forming, the yield strength decreases. For this reason, the Branchings effect should be considered in FE simulations of spring-back. We suggested a suitable specimen size and a method for determining the optimum tightening torque for simple shear tests. Shear stress-strain curves are obtained for five materials. We developed a method to convert the shear load-displacement curve to the effective stress-strain curve with Fea. We simulated the simple shear forward/reverse test using the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model. We also investigated the change of the load-displacement curve by varying the hardening coefficients. We determined the hardening coefficients so that they follow the hardening behavior of zircaloy-4 in experiments.

  3. Does Occipital Alpha Neurofeedback Require Critical Branching to Causally Influence LTRCs and Deterministic ERPs?

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Critical branching is a form of theoretical interaction between simple units, which, in the case of the human brain are assumed to be neuronal elements. Zhigalov, Kaplan, & Palva (Clin Neurophysiol 2016;127:288-89) revealed that neurofeedback flash stimulation phase-locked to high-amplitude occipital alpha influences the stimulus-locked occipital alpha-band averages and the power scaling of long-range temporal correlations of alpha-band amplitude fluctuations. At first, it might seem that neurofeedback influenced critical branching alongside there being an interaction between ongoing neuronal activity and evoked responses. However, the causal relations between these neuronal Long Range Temporal Correlations, sustained attention, and any avalanche dynamics are called into question, as is the assertion of Zhigalov et al. that the neurofeedback flashes are unconsciously processed rather than capturing attention. Uncorrected concerns about false discovery rate and an objective mathematical error in the cited ...

  4. Hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch nanostructure for photocurrent enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Chang Fu; Chong, Su Kong; Rahman, Saadah Abdul; Omar, Fatin Saiha; Huang, Nay Ming; Majlis, Burhanuddin Yeop; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2014-09-01

    Hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch nanostructures (NSs) have been synthesized by hot wire assisted chemical vapor deposition method for trunk Si nanowires (NWs) on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate and followed by the vapor transport condensation (VTC) method for zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) which was laterally grown from each Si nanowires (NWs). A spin coating method has been used for zinc oxide (ZnO) seeding. This method is better compared with other group where they used sputtering method for the same process. The sputtering method only results in the growth of ZnO NRs on top of the Si trunk. Our method shows improvement by having the growth evenly distributed on the lateral sides and caps of the Si trunks, resulting in pine-leave-like NSs. Field emission scanning electron microscope image shows the hierarchical nanostructures resembling the shape of the leaves of pine trees. Single crystalline structure for the ZnO branch grown laterally from the crystalline Si trunk has been identified by using a lattice-resolved transmission electron microscope. A preliminary photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell testing has been setup to characterize the photocurrent of sole array of ZnO NR growth by both hydrothermal-grown (HTG) method and VTC method on ITO substrates. VTC-grown ZnO NRs showed greater photocurrent effect due to its better structural properties. The measured photocurrent was also compared with the array of hierarchical Si/ZnO trunk-branch NSs. The cell with the array of Si/ZnO trunk-branch NSs revealed four-fold magnitude enhancement in photocurrent density compared with the sole array of ZnO NRs obtain from VTC processes.

  5. One rule to grow them all: a general theory of neuronal branching and its practical application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Cuntz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the principles governing axonal and dendritic branching is essential for unravelling the functionality of single neurons and the way in which they connect. Nevertheless, no formalism has yet been described which can capture the general features of neuronal branching. Here we propose such a formalism, which is derived from the expression of dendritic arborizations as locally optimized graphs. Inspired by Ramón y Cajal's laws of conservation of cytoplasm and conduction time in neural circuitry, we show that this graphical representation can be used to optimize these variables. This approach allows us to generate synthetic branching geometries which replicate morphological features of any tested neuron. The essential structure of a neuronal tree is thereby captured by the density profile of its spanning field and by a single parameter, a balancing factor weighing the costs for material and conduction time. This balancing factor determines a neuron's electrotonic compartmentalization. Additions to this rule, when required in the construction process, can be directly attributed to developmental processes or a neuron's computational role within its neural circuit. The simulations presented here are implemented in an open-source software package, the "TREES toolbox," which provides a general set of tools for analyzing, manipulating, and generating dendritic structure, including a tool to create synthetic members of any particular cell group and an approach for a model-based supervised automatic morphological reconstruction from fluorescent image stacks. These approaches provide new insights into the constraints governing dendritic architectures. They also provide a novel framework for modelling and analyzing neuronal branching structures and for constructing realistic synthetic neural networks.

  6. Monocytes and macrophages form branched cell columns in matrigel: implications for a role in neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelina, Mirela; Krishnan, Padma; Moldovan, Leni; Moldovan, Nicanor I

    2004-12-01

    Linear arrays of cells, or cell columns, have been observed in the extracellular matrix prior to neovascularization, but their nature and significance remains elusive. Based on the emerging evidence implicating a role for monocytes and macrophages (MC/MPH) in vasculogenesis, we hypothesized that MC/MPH also can form linear or branched columns, facilitating the co-migration and the spatial arrangement of other cell types. To test this hypothesis, we studied the distribution of MC/MPH effected by chemotactic migration in novel in vitro and in vivo models of development. We induced transversal and lateral migration of THP-1 monocytoid cells in Matrigel in vitro. The effect of this process on co-localization of other micro-objects was assessed using erythrocytes and micron-sized plastic beads. In vivo, we analyzed MC/MPH infiltration in subcutaneously implanted Matrigel plugs containing angiogenic factors and across a microporous filter comprising the wall of a chamber filled with Matrigel, also placed subcutaneously in mice. In vitro, we found that migrating THP-1 cells induced the lasting degradation of Matrigel and produced cell columns, a process amplified by monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). We also report the co-localization of erythrocytes with THP-1 cells in cell columns. Endothelium-free tunnels containing MC/MPH, neutrophils, or erythrocytes were also observed in the Matrigel-filled chambers. In free subcutaneous Matrigel plugs, we found MC/MPH-based columns harboring isolated Tie-2+ cells (a marker of endothelial progenitor phenotype), as well as fibroblasts, dendritic cells, and adypocytes. Many of these cell columns displayed conspicuous branching. Our data demonstrate formation of branched MC/MPH cell columns in vitro and in vivo, a previously unrecognized pattern of penetration of extracellular matrices by inflammatory cells. Thus, monocytes and macrophages influence the distribution of neovessels as well as their branching points. These cells

  7. Branching between fragmentation and functionalization pathways in the oxidation of atmospheric organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J. H.; Smith, J. D.; Wilson, K. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Ahmed, M.; Leone, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    Oxidation reactions that affect the volatility of organics are of central importance to the chemistry of the troposphere, as they lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol, and can change the properties or loadings of existing particulate matter via oxidative processing ("aging"). Atmospheric oxidation can decrease the vapor pressure of an organic compound by adding oxygen-containing functional groups (increasing its polarity), or increase vapor pressure by breaking carbon-carbon bonds (decreasing its molecular weight). Despite being a fundamental determinant of the changes to volatilities of atmospheric organics, the functionalization/fragmentation branching ratio is not well-constrained for large atmospheric organics, especially for highly oxidized ones. Here we present laboratory measurements of this branching ratio for the heterogeneous oxidation of particulate organics. Particles of pure squalane (a branched C30 alkane) are sent into a flow reactor and are rapidly oxidized by exposure to high levels of OH; particle size and composition are measured as a function of OH exposure using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). Oxidation reactions are found to decrease particle mass, indicating volatilization (from carbon-carbon bond breaking) and also to increase the oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio of the particulate organics, indicating the addition of functional groups. The relative rates of these two processes allows for the determination of the branching ratio between fragmentation and functionalization. Functionalization is found to dominate the oxidation of the pure hydrocarbon, but the importance of fragmentation increases as the organics become increasingly oxidized. Fragmentation pathways appear to dominate for organics with O/C ratios above ~30%.

  8. Potato Sprout Inhibition and Tuber Quality after Post-Harvest Treatment with Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) Leaves and Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talei, Daryush; Bina, Fatemeh; Valdiani, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Storage of potatoes is one of the most important concerns in maintaining freshness and nutritional quality in the storage process. To achieve this, an experiment was carried out with five different storage conditions at various temperatures using fresh rosemary leaves and branches with three repl...

  9. Introduction: Wilting Leaves and Rotting Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shefferson, Richard; Jones, Owen; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    We humans have long wondered about the seemingly inevitable physiological decline that happens after our maturity. This phenomenon, known as ‘senescence’, is recognised as the physiological deterioration that results in increasing age-specific mortality or decreasing age-specific fertility...... at or beyond some age in maturity. But is this phenomenon universal, and is it always the result of the same processes? Although evolutionary theories of ageing exist that suggest that senescence should be universal, empirical data increasingly suggest that senescence may not necessarily be a ubiquitous...

  10. Hierarchically porous Ni monolith@branch-structured NiCo2O4 for high energy density supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of NiCo2O4 nanostrucutures ranging from nanowire to nanoplate and branched structures were successfully prepared via a simple hydrothermal process. The experimental results show that NiCo2O4 with branched structures possesses the best overall electrochemical performance. The improvement of energy density was explored in terms of hierarchically three-dimensional (3D metal substrates and a high specific area capacitance, and area energy density is obtained with hierarchically porous Ni monolith synthesized through a controlled combustion procedure.

  11. Die Fachbibliothek Medizin (FBMed am Universitätsklinikum Essen / The Medical Branch Library at the University Hospital Essen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibker, Katrin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The branch library ‘Medizin’ provides the faculty of medicine and the university hospital (about 943 professors and scientific assistants; about 1665 medical students with literature and information and fulfils important tasks regarding research, teaching and patient care.Along with matters of use of the library (lending, advice, interlibrary loan, reserved semester collections, training courses, there is also certain work concerning the processing of literature (for example acquisition and binding of journals that is carried out on the spot. Furthermore the branch library ‘Medizin’ looks after and advises several libraries in various institutes of the university hospital.

  12. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  13. Fragrance Release from the Surface of Branched Poly (Amide S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Youngs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are powerful tools in organic synthesis that are able to catalyse a wide variety of selective chemical transformations under mild and environmentally friendly conditions. Enzymes such as the lipases have also found applications in the synthesis and degradation of polymeric materials. However, the use of these natural catalysts in the synthesis and the post-synthetic modification of dendrimers and hyperbranched molecules is an application of chemistry yet to be explored extensively. In this study the use of two hydrolytic enzymes, a lipase from Candida cylindracea and a cutinase from Fusarium solani pisii, were investigated in the selective cleavage of ester groups situated on the peripheral layer of two families of branched polyamides. These branched polyamides were conjugated to simple fragrances citronellol and L-menthol via ester linkages. Hydrolysis of the ester linkage between the fragrances and the branched polyamide support was carried out in aqueous buffered systems at slightly basic pH values under the optimum operative conditions for the enzymes used. These preliminary qualitative investigations revealed that partial cleavage of the ester functionalities from the branched polyamide support had occurred. However, the ability of the enzymes to interact with the substrates decreased considerably as the branching density, the rigidity of the structure and the bulkiness of the polyamide-fragrance conjugates increased.

  14. Injury to Perineal Branch of Pudendal Nerve in Women: Outcome from Resection of the Perineal Branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Eric L; Goldstein, Andrew T; Tolson, Hillary; Dellon, A Lee

    2017-07-01

    Background This study describes outcomes from a new surgical approach to treat "anterior" pudendal nerve symptoms in women by resecting the perineal branches of the pudendal nerve (PBPN). Methods Sixteen consecutive female patients with pain in the labia, vestibule, and perineum, who had positive diagnostic pudendal nerve blocks from 2012 through 2015, are included. The PBPN were resected and implanted into the obturator internus muscle through a paralabial incision. The mean age at surgery was 49.5 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.6 years) and the mean body mass index was 25.7 (SD = 5.8). Out of the 16 patients, mechanisms of injury were episiotomy in 5 (31%), athletic injury in 4 (25%), vulvar vestibulectomy in 5 (31%), and falls in 2 (13%). Of these 16 patients, 4 (25%) experienced urethral symptoms. Outcome measures included Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Vulvar Pain Functional Questionnaire (VQ), and Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS). Results Fourteen patients reported their condition pre- and postoperatively. Mean postoperative follow-up was 15 months. The overall FSFI, and arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain domains significantly improved (p obturator internus muscle significantly reduced pain and improved sexual function in women who sustained injury to the PBPN. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Model-Based Reactor Design in Free-Radical Polymerization with Simultaneous Long-Chain Branching and Scission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Tobita

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polymers are the products of processes and their microstructure can be changed significantly by the reactor systems employed, especially for nonlinear polymers. The Monte Carlo simulation technique, based on the random sampling technique, is used to explore the effect of reactor types on the branched polymer structure, formed through free-radical polymerization with simultaneous long-chain branching and scission, as in the case of low-density polyethylene synthesis. As a simplified model for a tower-type multi-zone reactor, a series of continuous stirred-tank reactors, consisting of one big tank and the same N-1 small tanks is considered theoretically. By simply changing the tank arrangement, various types of branched polymers, from star-like globular structure to a more randomly branched structure, can be obtained, while keeping the following properties of the final products, the monomer conversion to polymer, the average branching and scission densities, and the relationship between the mean-square radius of gyration and molecular weight.

  16. [Intraoperative transient incomplete left bundle branch block in a patient with left axis deviation in pre-anesthetic electrocardiogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunaguchi, M; Imai, H; Shigemi, K; Imai, R; Ozaki, Y; Nakamura, Y; Tanaka, Y

    1998-11-01

    We encountered a case of transient incomplete left bundle branch block (TILBBB) during standard mastectomy under general anesthesia. The patient was a 40 year-old female (70 kg, 164 cm) without any abnormalities on preanesthetic examinations except -61 degrees left axis deviation in exercise electrocardiogram. Adriamycin 20 mg was administered preoperatively. After the skin incision, heart rate increased from 104 min-1 to 130 min-1 and the cardiac axis gradually rotated leftward with increasing Q wave depth on leads I and aVL. We diagnosed this as blockade of the anterior branch in the left bundle branch. After the administration of fentanyl (0.2 mg) and sevoflurane (3%), the heart rate decreased to 105 min-1 and the electrocardiogram returned to the initial wave form. This anesthetic course indicated that adriamycin had slightly damaged the cardiac muscle and inadequate anesthesia had caused tachycardia and transient left bundle branch block. Left axis deviation on preoperative exercise electrocardiogram suggests that the left bundle branch can easily be blocked with an increasing heart rate. Adequate depth of anesthesia would have prevented the increase in heart rate and abnormality in the cardiac conduction process.

  17. The roots and branches of human altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F

    2009-08-01

    The authors' rigorous and ingenious programme of work documents young humans' capacity for prosocial action (Warneken & Tomasello, 2009). Their laboratory findings are corroborated by centuries of observational data, spanning cultures, and historical epochs. Two general questions are raised. Firstly, what are the rules of evidence needed in using comparative data to make claims about the evolution of human social behaviours? Secondly, what ontogenetic processes contribute to the transformation of toddlers' helpfulness into mature, cognitively informed and rule-governed altruism? These findings alone do not provide complete evidence for the phylogenetic roots of altruism. I argue that selective pressures in human evolution have favoured sociability, which could lead to aggression or altruism, depending on context and the nature of the rearing environment. Any social behaviour shown in infancy may have multiple functions, at phylogenetic, ontogenetic and episodic levels of analysis.

  18. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  19. Coulomb branch Hilbert series and Hall-Littlewood polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonesi, Stefano; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    There has been a recent progress in understanding the chiral ring of 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ superconformal gauge theories by explicitly constructing an exact generating function (Hilbert series) counting BPS operators on the Coulomb branch. In this paper we introduce Coulomb branch Hilbert series in the presence of background magnetic charges for flavor symmetries, which are useful for computing the Hilbert series of more general theories through gluing techniques. We find a simple formula of the Hilbert series with background magnetic charges for $T_\\rho(G)$ theories in terms of Hall-Littlewood polynomials. Here $G$ is a classical group and $\\rho$ is a certain partition related to the dual group of $G$. The Hilbert series for vanishing background magnetic charges show that Coulomb branches of $T_\\rho(G)$ theories are complete intersections. We also demonstrate that mirror symmetry maps background magnetic charges to baryonic charges.

  20. Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bey, A.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Dossat, C.; Giovinazzo, J.; Matea, I. [Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, Gradignan Cedex (France); Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Saastamoinen, A.; Sonoda, T.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Adimi, N. [Faculte de Physique, USTHB, El Alia, B.P. 32, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); France, G. de; Thomas, J.C.; Voltolini, G. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, B.P. 55027, Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-05-15

    Beta-decay branching ratios of {sup 62}Ga have been measured at the IGISOL facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 62}Ga is one of the heavier T{sub z}=0, 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V{sub ud} quark-mixing matrix element. For part of the experimental studies presented here, the JYFLTRAP facility has been employed to prepare isotopically pure beams of {sup 62}Ga. The branching ratio obtained, BR=99.893(24) %, for the super-allowed branch is in agreement with previous measurements and allows to determine the ft value and the universal Ft value for the super-allowed {beta} -decay of {sup 62}Ga. (orig.)

  1. Transient Left Bundle Branch Block due to Severe Hyperkalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kishore; Biyyam, Madhavi; Singh, Amandeep; Bajantri, Bharat; Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2017-04-01

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte imbalance that can lead to sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias and asystole. We present a case of transient left bundle branch block pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) secondary to hyperkalemia in a patient with history of end-stage renal disease. A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency room (ER) with chief complaints of weakness and lethargy after missing his regularly scheduled session of hemodialysis. A 12-lead ECG in the ER showed sinus tachycardia at 118 beats/min, wide QRS complexes, peaked T waves and left bundle branch block-like pattern. The initial basic metabolic panel revealed a serum potassium level of 8.8 mEq/L. Subsequently, the patient underwent emergent hemodialysis. Serum chemistry after hemodialysis showed improvement in serum potassium to 4.3 mEq/L. Repeat ECG performed after correcting potassium showed dissolution of left bundle branch block finding.

  2. Positive branch of asteroid polarization: Observational data and computer modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, D. V.; Kiselev, N. N.

    2017-07-01

    Observations of near-Earth asteroids at large phase angles made it possible to obtain a more complete (for ground-based observations) phase dependence of the polarization of the E-type asteroids' radiation including the maximum of the positive branch of the linear polarization degree. It is shown that the position of the polarization maximum of high-albedo asteroids is noticeably shifted to the decrease of phase angles compared with S-type asteroids. Model calculations of polarimetric properties of random Gaussian particles that simulate dust particles on the regolith surface are carried out. Model calculations show a qualitatively similar behavior pattern of parameters of the positive polarization branch. The influence of the refractive index of individual scattering particles on the size and position of the maximum of the positive branch of the linear polarization degree is investigated within the considered model.

  3. Controlling the morphology of multi-branched gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waqqar; Kooij, E. Stefan; van Silfhout, Arend; Poelsema, Bene

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile way to achieve high yield synthesis of shape- and size-controlled multi-branched gold nanoparticles (MBNPs). Control over the shape of the MBNPs was achieved by varying the ratio of gold to the mild reducing agent ascorbic acid, using a seed-mediated growth approach. Higher ascorbate concentrations resulted in the smoothing of branches, leading to the yield of relatively more isotropic particles. Furthermore, we found that using much higher silver concentrations in the growth solution resulted in the formation of rod-shaped micro-features together with MBNPs; we postulate them to be cetyltrimethyl ammonium silver bromide crystals. The as-prepared MBNPs show interesting tunable optical properties that are strongly influenced by the particle shape. The results are discussed in terms of plasmon coupling between the core and branches of the MBNPs.

  4. PENERAPAN BRANCH AND BOUND ALGORITHM DALAM OPTIMALISASI PRODUKSI ROTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEDE SURYAWAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies which engaged in production activities such as Ramadhan Bakery would want optimal profit in their every production. The aim of this study was to find optimal profit and optimal combination of bread production (original chocolate bread, extra chocolate bread, rounding chocolate bread and mattress chocolate bread that was produced by Ramadhan Bakery by applying Branch and Bound Algorithm method. Branch and Bound Algorithm is one method to solve Integer Programming’s problems other than Cutting Plane method. Compared with Cutting Plane method, Branch and Bound Algorithm method is more effective in determining the optimal value. As the result of this study showed that to get optimal profit, Ramadhan Bakery should produce 360 pcs of original chocolate bread, 300 pcs of extra chocolate bread, 306 pcs of rounding chocolate bread and 129 pcs of mattress chocolate bread with optimal profit amounts Rp. 1.195.624,00.. The profit will increase amounts 25,2 % than before.

  5. Horizontal Branch Stars in M3 and M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. O.; Corbally, C. J.; Hill, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    We found unexpected spectral characteristics in a set of field horizontal branch stars with spectral types near A0. They showed Balmer line wings that were broad and characteristic of high gravity stars, and further, one third of the FHB stars appeared to have normal metal line strengths despite low m_1 photometric indices. To find out whether the horizontal branch stars in actual clusters show the same characteristics, we have obtained spectra of stars in M3 and in M13. Initial results of classifying these stars support our earlier findings for the FHB stars. We present some atmospheric modelling as our first attempt to understand the parameters of this kind of near-A0, horizontal branch star.

  6. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The staff of the UBS CERN branch (apart from Nicole Savoini, not in the picture). The new branch manager Mr Denis Mellet (fourth from the right) is standing just in front of his predecessor Mr Pierre Guyenon. Mr Pierre Guyenon, who has managed the CERN branch of the UBS for the last seven years, retired on 31 May. Pierre Guyenon was always committed to establishing a harmonious and trusting relationship between CERN, its employees and the bank. He also maintained an excellent atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. Mr Denis Mellet, who has worked for the bank for many years in various capacities, has taken over from Mr Guyenon.

  7. RUSSIAN HOUSING AND COMMUNAL ECONOMY BRANCH REFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of socially oriented principles and market tools is main direction of Russian housing and communal economy branch reformation aimed at proving the population with decent housing conditions. At present, owners of dwelling facilities are bound to maintain and repair them at their own. If dwellings were privatized in houses that were to be overhauled, respective current and capital repairs work is to be carried out by the state in accordance with norms. Housing and communal economy branch reformation assistance Fund and Program are created in the country, the latter being organized on the co-financing principle (major part of means needed for the repairs is provided by Fund, lesser part – by regional and local governments, some 10% – by the owners. Coordinated activities of governmental, scientific and business organizations as well as dwelling owners are needed for further sustainable development of the branch.

  8. Measurement of Branching Fractions and Spectral Functions in tau Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Davier, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Full LEP-I data collected by the ALEPH detector during 1991-1995 running are analyzed in order to measure the tau decay branching fractions and the hadronic spectral functions. The analysis follows the global method used in the published study based on 1991-1993 data, with several improvements, especially concerning the treatment of photons and pi /sup 0/'s. Extensive systematic studies are performed, in order to match the large statistics of the data sample corresponding to 327148 measured and identified tau decays. Preliminary values for the branching fractions are obtained for the 2 leptonic channels and 11 hadronic channels defined by their respective numbers of charged particles and pi /sup 0/'s. Using previously published ALEPH results on final states with charged and neutral kaons, corrections are applied so that branching ratios for exclusive final states without kaons are derived. Some physics implications of the results are given, in particular concerning universality in the leptonic charged weak cu...

  9. Viscoelasticity of randomly branched polymers in the vulcanization class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusignan, C P; Mourey, T H; Wilson, J C; Colby, R H

    1999-11-01

    We report viscosity, recoverable compliance, and molar mass distribution for a series of randomly branched polyester samples with long linear chain sections between branch points. Molecular structure characterization determines tau=2.47+/-0.05 for the exponent controlling the molar mass distribution, so this system belongs to the vulcanization (mean-field) universality class. Consequently, branched polymers of similar size strongly overlap and form interchain entanglements. The viscosity diverges at the gel point with an exponent s=6.1+/-0.3, that is significantly larger than the value of 1.33 predicted by the branched polymer Rouse model (bead-spring model without entanglements). The recoverable compliance diverges at the percolation threshold with an exponent t=3.2+/-0.2. This effect is consistent with the idea that each branched polymer of size equal to the correlation length stores k(B)T of elastic energy. Near the gel point, the complex shear modulus is a power law in frequency with an exponent u=0.33+/-0.05. The measured rheological exponents confirm that the dynamic scaling law u=t/(s+t) holds for the vulcanization class. Since s is larger and u is smaller than the Rouse values observed in systems that belong to the critical percolation universality class, we conclude that entanglements profoundly increase the longest relaxation time. Examination of the literature data reveals clear trends for the exponents s and u as functions of the chain length between branch points. These dependencies, qualitatively explained by hierarchical relaxation models, imply that the dynamic scaling observed in systems that belong to the vulcanization class is nonuniversal.

  10. The horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaris, Maurizio; de Boer, Thomas; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-11-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch (HB) of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch spectroscopic observations. The only free parameter in the whole analysis is the integrated mass loss of red giant branch stars. This is the first time that synthetic HB models, consistent with the complex star formation history of a galaxy, are calculated and matched to the observed HB. We find that the metallicity range covered by the star formation history, as constrained by the red giant branch spectroscopy, plus a simple mass loss law, enable us to cover both the full magnitude and colour range of HB stars. In addition, the number count distribution along the observed HB can be also reproduced provided that the red giant branch mass loss is mildly metallicity dependent, with a very small dispersion at fixed metallicity. The magnitude, metallicity and period distribution of the RR Lyrae stars are also well reproduced. There is no excess of bright objects that require enhanced-He models. The lack of signatures of enhanced-He stars along the HB is consistent with the lack of the O-Na anticorrelation observed in Sculptor and other dwarf galaxies, and confirms the intrinsic difference between Local Group dwarf galaxies and globular cluster populations. We also compare the brightness of the observed red giant branch bump with the synthetic counterpart, and find a discrepancy. The theoretical bump is brighter than the observed one, which is similar to what is observed in Galactic globular clusters.

  11. 12 CFR 5.30 - Establishment, acquisition, and relocation of a branch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (ATM) or a remote service unit. (i) A branch established by a national bank includes a mobile facility...) Messenger service has the meaning set forth in 12 CFR 7.1012. (5) Mobile branch is a branch, other than a... to various public locations to enable customers to conduct their banking business. A mobile branch...

  12. Predicting the cover-up of dead branches using a simple single regressor equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; E.C. Burkhardt

    2007-01-01

    Information on the effects of branch diameter on branch occlusion is necessary for building models capable of forecasting the effect of management decisions on tree or log grade. We investigated the relationship between branch size and subsequent branch occlusion through diameter growth with special attention toward the development of a simple single regressor equation...

  13. Effects of surface charges of graphene oxide on neuronal outgrowth and branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qin; Pang, Long; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Yanrong; Zhang, Rui; Lu, Bingzhang; Wang, Jinyi

    2014-01-07

    Graphene oxides with different surface charges were fabricated from carboxylated graphene oxide by chemical modification with amino- (-NH2), poly-m-aminobenzene sulfonic acid- (-NH2/-SO3H), or methoxyl- (-OCH3) terminated functional groups. The chemically functionalized graphene oxides and the carboxylated graphene oxide were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrometry, ζ potential measurements, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, the resulting graphene oxides were used as substrates for culturing primary rat hippocampal neurons to investigate neurite outgrowth and branching. The morphological features of neurons that directly reflect their potential capability in synaptic transmission were characterized. The results demonstrate that the chemical properties of graphene oxide can be systematically modified by attaching different functional groups that confer known characteristics to the substrate. By manipulating the charge carried by the functionalized graphene oxides, the outgrowth and branching of neuronal processes can be controlled. Compared with neutral, zwitterionic, or negatively charged graphene oxides, positively charged graphene oxide was found to be more beneficial for neurite outgrowth and branching. The ability to chemically modify graphene oxide to control neurite outgrowth could be implemented clinically, especially in cases wherein long-term presence of outgrowth modulation is necessary.

  14. Recursion relations and branching rules for simple Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, V D

    1995-01-01

    The branching rules between simple Lie algebras and its regular (maximal) simple subalgebras are studied. Two types of recursion relations for anomalous relative multiplicities are obtained. One of them is proved to be the factorized version of the other. The factorization property is based on the existence of the set of weights \\Gamma specific for each injection. The structure of \\Gamma is easily deduced from the correspondence between the root systems of algebra and subalgebra. The recursion relations thus obtained give rise to simple and effective algorithm for branching rules. The details are exposed by performing the explicit decomposition procedure for A_{3} \\oplus u(1) \\rightarrow B_{4} injection.

  15. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  16. Institutional tensions between the Executive and Legislative branches in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita JIMÉNEZ BADILLO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to explain the mechanism through which the Brazilian president manages to govern in Brazil amidst a non majority parliamentary scenario with a highly fragmented party system, rising numbers of switchers, an ostensible lack of discipline of the political parties members, and a precarious party coalition. If the Brazilian political system has not yet fallen into an institutional paralysis of governability it is due to the ability of the Executive branch to obtain support from certain parliamentary coalitions and succeeding thereof to outdo actors with veto power, attempting to hinder relations between the Executive and the Legislative branches.

  17. Measurement of the Radiative Ke3 Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Anzivino, Giuseppina; Becker, H G; Bertanza, L; Bevan, A; Biino, C; Bocquet, G; Calvetti, M; Carosi, R; Cartiglia, N; Casali, R; Ceccucci, A; Cenci, P; Cerri, C; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; Chollet, J C; Cirilli, M; Cogan, J; Collazuol, G; Contalbrigo, M; Costantini, F; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Dalpiaz, Pietro; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Dibon, Heinz; Doble, Niels T; Dosanjh, R S; Duclos, J; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Falaleev, V; Fantechi, R; Fayard, L; Fischer, G; Formica, A; Fox, H; Frabetti, P L; Gatignon, L; Gershon, T J; Gianoli, A; Giudici, Sergio; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Graziani, G; Hay, B; Holder, M; Khristov, P Z; Iacopini, E; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Imbergamo, E; Jeitler, Manfred; Kalmus, George Ernest; Kalter, A; Kekelidze, Vladimir D; Kleinknecht, K; Knowles, I; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Kubischta, Werner; Lacourt, A; Lai, A; Lazzeroni, C; Lenti, M; Litov, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Lubrano, P; Madigozhin, D T; Maier, A; Mannelli, I; Marchetto, F; Markytan, Manfred; Marouelli, P; Marras, D; Martelli, F; Martin, V; Martini, M; Mazzucato, E; Menichetti, E; Mestvirishvili, A; Mikulec, I; Molokanova, N A; Munday, D J; Nappi, A; Nassalski, J P; Neuhofer, G; Norton, A; Ocariz, J; Olaiya, E; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Parker, M A; Pastrone, N; Pellmann, I A; Pepé, M; Pernicka, M; Peters, A; Petrucci, F; Peyaud, B; Piccini, M; Pierazzini, G M; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Renk, B; Rondio, Ewa; Sacco, R; Savrié, M; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Sozzi, M; Stoynev, S; Szleper, M; Taureg, H; Taurok, A; Turlay, René; Unal, G; Vallage, B; Velasco, M; Veltri, M; Wahl, H; Walker, A; Wanke, R; White, T O; Widhalm, L; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winhart, A; Wislicki, W; Wittgen, M; Wotton, S A; Wronka, S; Zinchenko, A I; Ziolkowski, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the decay KL -> pi e nu gamma (Ke3gamma) with respect to KL-> pi e nu (gamma) (Ke3+Ke3gamma) decay. The result is based on observation of 19 000 Ke3gamma and 5.6 x 10^6 Ke3 decays. The value of the branching ratio is Br(Ke3gamma, Egamma^*>30 MeV,theta(e,gamma)^*>20^o)/Br(Ke3)= (0.964+-0.008+0.011-0.009)%. This result agrees with theoretical predictions but is at variance with a recently published result.

  18. A new branch and bound algorithm for minimax ratios problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yingfeng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an efficient branch and bound algorithm for globally solving the minimax fractional programming problem (MFP. By introducing an auxiliary variable, an equivalent problem is firstly constructed and the convex relaxation programming problem is then established by utilizing convexity and concavity of functions in the problem. Other than usual branch and bound algorithm, an adapted partition skill and a practical reduction technique performed only in an unidimensional interval are incorporated into the algorithm scheme to significantly improve the computational performance. The global convergence is proved. Finally, some comparative experiments and a randomized numerical test are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Free compact boson on branched covering of the torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihu Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the partition function of a free compact boson on a n-sheeted covering of torus gluing along m branch cuts. It is interesting because when the branched cuts are chosen to be real, the partition function is related to the n-th Rényi entanglement entropy of m disjoint intervals in a finite system at finite temperature. After proposing a canonical homology basis and its dual basis of the covering surface, we find that the partition function can be written in terms of theta functions.

  20. Improved measurement of the K+-->pi+nunu; branching ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimovsky, V V; Artamonov, A V; Bassalleck, B; Bhuyan, B; Blackmore, E W; Bryman, D A; Chen, S; Chiang, I-H; Christidi, I-A; Cooper, P S; Diwan, M V; Frank, J S; Fujiwara, T; Hu, J; Ivashkin, A P; Jaffe, D E; Kabe, S; Kettell, S H; Khabibullin, M M; Khotjantsev, A N; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, M; Komatsubara, T K; Konaka, A; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kudenko, Yu G; Kushnirenko, A; Landsberg, L G; Lewis, B; Li, K K; Littenberg, L S; Macdonald, J A; Mildenberger, J; Mineev, O V; Miyajima, M; Mizouchi, K; Mukhin, V A; Muramatsu, N; Nakano, T; Nomachi, M; Nomura, T; Numao, T; Obraztsov, V F; Omata, K; Patalakha, D I; Petrenko, S V; Poutissou, R; Ramberg, E J; Redlinger, G; Sato, T; Sekiguchi, T; Shinkawa, T; Strand, R C; Sugimoto, S; Tamagawa, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tsunemi, T; Vavilov, D V; Viren, B; Yershov, N V; Yoshimura, Y; Yoshioka, T

    2004-07-16

    An additional event near the upper kinematic limit for K+-->pi(+)nunu; has been observed by experiment E949 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Combining previously reported and new data, the branching ratio is B(K+-->pi(+)nunu;)=(1.47(+1.30)(-0.89))x10(-10) based on three events observed in the pion momentum region 211branching ratio, the additional event had a signal-to-background ratio of 0.9.

  1. Measurement of Tau Branching Ratios to Five Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerstaff, K.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bird, S.D.; Blobel, V.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bobinski, M.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Burgard, C.; Burgin, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; del Pozo, L.A.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Doucet, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Eatough, D.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.G.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fischer, H.M.; Fleck, I.; Folman, R.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon, J.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Geralis, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Hargrove, C.K.; Hartmann, C.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hillier, S.J.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Joly, A.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koetke, D.S.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lautenschlager, S.R.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lazic, D.; Lee, A.M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Markopoulos, C.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menke, S.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, J.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mir, R.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nellen, B.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Palinkas, J.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharf, F.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Tafirout, R.; Talbot, S.D.; Tanaka, S.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomson, M.A.; von Torne, E.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turcot, A.S.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Vikas, P.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Yekutieli, G.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    The branching ratios of the decay of the tau lepton to five charged hadrons have been measured with the OPAL detector at LEP using data collected between 1991 and 1995 at e+e- centre-of-mass energies close to the Z resonance. The branching ratios are measured to be BR(tau- to 3h-2h+nutau) = 0.091+-0.014+-0.005% BR(tau- to 3h-2h+pi0nutau) = 0.027+-0.018+-0.007% where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  2. The Coin Problem  and Pseudorandomness for Branching Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua; Verbin, Elad

    2010-01-01

    be distinguished by small-width read-once branching programs. We suggest one application for this kind of theorems: we prove that Nisan's Generator fools width-$w$ read-once emph{regular} branching programs, using seed length $O(w^4 log n log log n + log n log (1/eps))$. For $w=eps=Theta(1)$, this seed length...... is $O(log n log log n)$. The coin theorem and its relatives might have other connections to PRGs. This application is related to the independent, but chronologically-earlier, work of Braver man, Rao, Raz and Yehudayoff~cite{BRRY}....

  3. The CERN branch of the UBS has a new manager

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    After seven years at the helm of the CERN branch of the UBS, Mr. Denis Mellet retired on 1 October.   Denis Mellet has always striven to develop harmonious relations, in a climate of trust, between CERN and the staff of the bank. He has succeeded in maintaining a pleasant atmosphere within his team. We would like to thank him for his work and wish him a happy retirement. He is succeeded by M. Ezio Mangia, who has worked for many years in the bank’s branches department.

  4. Branched nanotrees with immobilized acetylcholine esterase for nanobiosensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risveden, Klas; Dick, Kimberly A; Bhand, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on SiN(x)-covered w......A novel lab-on-a-chip nanotree enzyme reactor is demonstrated for the detection of acetylcholine. The reactors are intended for use in the RISFET (regional ion sensitive field effect transistor) nanosensor, and are constructed from gold-tipped branched nanorod structures grown on Si...

  5. Efficient Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis of Dynamic Branch Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic branch prediction is commonly found in modern processors, but notoriously difficult to model for worst-case execution time analysis. This is particularly true for global dynamic branch predictors, where predictions are influenced by the global branch history. Prior research in this area has...... concluded that modeling of global branch prediction is too costly for practical use. This paper presents an approach to model global branch prediction while keeping the analysis effort reasonably low. The approach separates the branch history analysis from the integer linear programming formulation...... of the worst-case execution time problem. Consequently, the proposed approach scales to longer branch history lengths than previous approaches....

  6. Leaf-to-branch scaling of C-gain in field-grown almond trees under different soil moisture regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Gregorio; González-Real, María M; Martin-Gorriz, Bernardo; Baille, Alain

    2014-06-01

    Branch/tree-level measurements of carbon (C)-acquisition provide an integration of the physical and biological processes driving the C gain of all individual leaves. Most research dealing with the interacting effects of high-irradiance environments and soil-induced water stress on the C-gain of fruit tree species has focused on leaf-level measurements. The C-gain of both sun-exposed leaves and branches of adult almond trees growing in a semi-arid climate was investigated to determine the respective costs of structural and biochemical/physiological protective mechanisms involved in the behaviour at branch scale. Measurements were performed on well-watered (fully irrigated, FI) and drought-stressed (deficit irrigated, DI) trees. Leaf-to-branch scaling for net CO2 assimilation was quantified by a global scaling factor (fg), defined as the product of two specific scaling factors: (i) a structural scaling factor (fs), determined under well-watered conditions, mainly involving leaf mutual shading; and (ii) a water stress scaling factor (fws,b) involving the limitations in C-acquisition due to soil water deficit. The contribution of structural mechanisms to limiting branch net C-gain was high (mean fs ∼0.33) and close to the projected-to-total leaf area ratio of almond branches (ε = 0.31), while the contribution of water stress mechanisms was moderate (mean fws,b ∼0.85), thus supplying an fg ranging between 0.25 and 0.33 with slightly higher values for FI trees with respect to DI trees. These results suggest that the almond tree (a drought-tolerant species) has acquired mechanisms of defensive strategy (survival) mainly based on a specific branch architectural design. This strategy allows the potential for C-gain to be preserved at branch scale under a large range of soil water deficits. In other words, almond tree branches exhibit an architecture that is suboptimal for C-acquisition under well-watered conditions, but remarkably efficient to counteract the impact

  7. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  8. Glial remodeling during metamorphosis influences the stabilization of motor neuron branches in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Sarita; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2010-04-15

    Motor neurons that innervate the dorsal longitudinal (flight) muscles, DLMs, make multiple points of contact along the length of fibers. The stereotypy of the innervation lies in the number of contact points (CPs) made by each motor neuron and is established as a consequence of pruning that occurs during metamorphosis. Coincident with the onset of pruning is the arrival of glial processes that eventually ensheath persistent branches. To test a possible role for glia during pruning, the development of adult-specific glial ensheathment was disrupted using a targeted expression of dominant negative shibire. Such a manipulation resulted in fewer contact points at the DLM fibers. The development of innervation was examined during metamorphosis, specifically to test if the reduction was a consequence of increased pruning. We quantified the number of branches displaying discontinuities in their membrane, an indicator of the level of pruning. Disrupting the formation of glial ensheathment resulted in a two-fold increase in the discontinuities, indicating that pruning is enhanced. Thus glial-neuronal interactions, specifically during pruning are important for the patterning of adult innervation. Our studies also suggest that FasII plays a role in mediating this communication. At the end of the pruning phase, FasII localizes to glia, which envelops each of the stabilized contact points. When glial FasII levels are increased using the Gal4/UAS system of targeted expression, pruning of secondary branches is enhanced. Our results indicate that glia regulate pruning of secondary branches by influencing the balance between stabilization and pruning. This was confirmed by an observed rescue of the innervation phenotype of FasII hypomorphs by over expressing FasII in glia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of platinum and platinum-copper branched nanoparticles for electrooxidation of methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric

    Platinum and Pt alloys are among the most important heterogeneous catalysts for many organic reactions and electrochemical reactions associated with the fuel cell technologies. How to reduce Pt usage while maintaining the performance of the catalysts becomes a subject for intensive research in materials chemistry. For heterogeneous catalysis, the catalytic reactivity and selectivity are strongly correlated with different crystallographic facets exposed on the surface. The facets with high-index planes whose Miller indices with at one is larger than unity are generally more active than those with low-index planes (e.g., {100}, {111}, and {110}). Tuning the morphology of the nanoparticles to expose more high-index planes on the surface can improve the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles. As compared to isotropic nanoparticles, the branched nanostructures are the promising morphology that can improve both the activity and stability of the catalysts. In this work, a two-step polyol synthesis has been developed to synthesize the branched nanostructures of Pt at high-yield. This two-step process involves a slow reduction using ethylene glycol in the presence of oxidative etchants, following by a fast reduction using ascorbic acid. The slow reduction kinetics facilitates the formation of cubooctahedral single-crystal seeds while the fast reduction kinetics allows for the overgrowth of nanocrystals along the {111} facets in a short period of time, resulting in the branched nanostructures. By co-reducing Pt and Cu precursors, this approach has been demonstrated to synthesize the Pt-Cu dendritic nanostructures for the first time. The catalytic activity of these Pt and Pt-Cu nanostructures has been studied for MOR. It was found that Pt branched nanostructures reduced the CO-poisoning as compared to the Pt/C and the dendritic Pt-Cu nanostructures showed both enhanced resistance of CO-poisoning and improved efficiency of ethanol oxidation.

  10. Formation of Barents Sea Branch Water in the north-eastern Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar S. Lien

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barents Sea throughflow accounts for approximately half of the Atlantic Water advection to the Arctic Ocean, while the other half flows through Fram Strait. Within the Barents Sea, the Atlantic Water undergoes considerable modifications before entering the Arctic Ocean through the St. Anna Trough. While the inflow area in the south-western Barents Sea is regularly monitored, oceanographic data from the outflow area to the north-east are very scarce. Here, we use conductivity, temperature and depth data from August/September 2008 to describe in detail the water masses present in the downstream area of the Barents Sea, their spatial distribution and transformations. Both Cold Deep Water, formed locally through winter convection and ice-freezing processes, and Atlantic Water, modified mainly through atmospheric cooling, contribute directly to the Barents Sea Branch Water. As a consequence, it consists of a dense core characterized by a temperature and salinity maximum associated with the Atlantic Water, in addition to the colder, less saline and less dense core commonly referred to as the Barents Sea Branch Water core. The denser core likely constitutes a substantial part of the total flow, and it is more saline and considerably denser than the Fram Strait branch as observed within the St. Anna Trough. Despite the recent warming of the Barents Sea, the Barents Sea Branch Water is denser than observed in the 1990s, and the bottom water observed in the St. Anna Trough matches the potential density at 2000 m depth in the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of an exact comb polyisoprene with three branches having the middle branch twice the molecular weight of the other two identical external branches

    KAUST Repository

    Ratkanthwar, Kedar

    2013-01-01

    An exact comb polyisoprene (PI) with three branches, with the middle branch having twice the molecular weight of the two other identical external branches, was synthesized by using anionic polymerization high vacuum techniques and appropriate chlorosilane chemistry. The synthetic approach involves (a) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of 4-(dichloromethylsilyl) diphenylethylene (DCMSDPE, key molecule) with identical PI chains by titration with PILi, (b) the addition of sec-BuLi to the double bond of DPE followed by the polymerization of isoprene from the newly created anionic site to form a 3-arm living star PI, (c) the selective replacement of the two chlorines of trichloromethylsilane with 3-arm star PI to form an H-shape intermediate, and (d) the replacement of the remaining chlorine of trichloromethylsilane by linear PI chains with double the molecular weight. All intermediate and final products were characterized via size exclusion chromatography, temperature gradient interaction chromatography and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As expected, due to the inability to control the exact stoichiometry of the linking reactants, the main product (exact comb PI) is contaminated by a few by-products, despite the fact that anionic polymerization is the most efficient way to produce well-defined polymers. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  12. Small Angle Neutron Scattering for the Detection of Branching in Worm-Like Micellar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogtt, Karsten; Rai, Durgesh; Beaucage, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    Micellar solutions can exhibit a broad variety of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. Using small angle neutron scattering these parameters are determined for model emulsions with varying surfactant and salt concentrations.

  13. A quantitative histopathological study of right bundle branch block complicating acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Okabe, M; Fukuda, K; Nakashima, Y; Hiroki, T; Arakawa, K; Kikuchi, M

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether necrosis of the right bundle branch is responsible for development of right bundle branch block in acute myocardial infarction. Twenty patients with acute anteroseptal myocardial infarction were studied--10 with right bundle branch block (group A) and 10 without (group B)--to evaluate by serial sectioning the pathological extent of myocardial infarction surrounding the right bundle branch and also that of right bundle branch necrosis. Myoca...

  14. Triazole linkages and backbone branches in nucleic acids for biological and extra-biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Eduardo

    well-defined architectures based solely on DNA. While backbone branched DNAs are useful for nanotechnological applications, backbone branches in RNA occur in nature and are involved in the distinct but related processes of splicing, debranching and RNAi. Therefore we have developed protocols for the synthesis of backbone branched nucleic acids in the solid-phase using photoprotecting groups. Using the synthesized backbone branched RNAs we have uncovered a specific substrate requirement of debranching enzyme which distinguishes it from other homologous proteins with alternative functions. Finally, through the marriage of click chemistry and backbone branches, we have produced useful progeny in the synthesis of lariat RNAs. We investigated the potential of these lariats as therapeutic agents by synthesizing siRNA sequences as lariats. We showed that these lariats are efficiently debranched by debranching enzyme and are able to induce an RNAi response in vivo. Altogether, the development of click chemistry and backbone branched nucleic acids represents a significant advantage in the ability to modify nucleic acid structure and affect its function. I envision that these methods can become generally useful to probe nucleic acid systems, useful nanomaterials and functional effectors in nucleic acid based therapies.

  15. Clipboard: A branched chain fatty acid promotes cold adaptation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 4. Clipboard: A branched chain fatty acid promotes cold adaptation in bacteria. M K Chattopadhyay M V Jagannadham. Volume 28 Issue 4 June 2003 pp 363-364. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. The annealing helicase and branch migration activities of Drosophila HARP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A Kassavetis

    Full Text Available HARP (SMARCAL1, MARCAL1 is an annealing helicase that functions in the repair and restart of damaged DNA replication forks through its DNA branch migration and replication fork regression activities. HARP is conserved among metazoans. HARP from invertebrates differs by the absence of one of the two HARP-specific domain repeats found in vertebrates. The annealing helicase and branch migration activity of invertebrate HARP has not been documented. We found that HARP from Drosophila melanogaster retains the annealing helicase activity of human HARP, the ability to disrupt D-loops and to branch migrate Holliday junctions, but fails to regress model DNA replication fork structures. A comparison of human and Drosophila HARP on additional substrates revealed that both HARPs are competent in branch migrating a bidirectional replication bubble composed of either DNA:DNA or RNA:DNA hybrid. Human, but not Drosophila, HARP is also capable of regressing a replication fork structure containing a highly stable poly rG:dC hybrid. Persistent RNA:DNA hybrids in vivo can lead to replication fork arrest and genome instability. The ability of HARP to strand transfer hybrids may signify a hybrid removal function for this enzyme, in vivo.

  17. Linear, branched and network polysilanes with thienyl/furyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Linear, branched and network polysilanes with thienyl/furyl substituted sila-alkyl side chains and their applications for the synthesis of fluorescent silver ... By virtue of -delocalized silicon backbone and variable HOMO-LUMO band gap energies, these polymers are found to be promising candidates as reducing agents for ...

  18. A new prenylated xanthone from the branches of Calophyllum inophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dai-Jing; Mei, Wen-Li; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Wu, Xu-Dong; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2011-03-01

    The investigation of chemical constituents from the branches of Calophyllum inophyllum Linn led to the isolation of a new prenylated xanthone, named caloxanthone Q (1), together with three known compounds, 2-deprenylrheediaxanthone B (2), jacareubin (3), and 6-deoxyjacareubin (4). Their structures were completely elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR).

  19. Lipase-mediated resolution of branched chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, A. van der; Boom, R.M.; Riet, K. van 't; Groot, A.E. de

    2002-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. Many of them are chiral and therefore occur in two enantiomeric forms. This review describes their occurrence in Nature, their biosynthesis, their properties as flavours, and their enzymatic kinetic resolution. Many

  20. The connectivity of the basis graph of a branching greedoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Li, Xueliang; Li, Xueliang

    1992-01-01

    A result of Korte and Lovász states that the basis graph of every 2- connected greedoid is connected. We prove that the basis graph of every 3-connected branching greedoid is ( -- 1)-connected, where is the minimum in-degree (disregarding the root) of the underlying rooted directed (multi) graph. We

  1. Linear and Branching Formats in Culture Assimilator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Roy S.; Salancik, Gerald R.

    1977-01-01

    Defines the "branching format" of training materials as materials not requiring an absolute judgement of appropriateness of alternatives and the "linear format" as materials requiring an independent evaluation of each alternative. Tests these contrasting formats for effectiveness in cross cultural training programs. Available from: International…

  2. Highly Branched Bio-Based Unsaturated Polyesters by Enzymatic Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh; Löf, David; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    . This allows simple variations in the molar mass and structure of the polyester without premature gelation, thus enabling easy tailoring of the branched polyester structure. The postpolymerization crosslinking of the polyesters illustrates their potential as binders in alkyds. The formed films had good UV...

  3. Synthesis and application of branched type II arabinogalactans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Christian Franch; Boos, Irene; Ruprecht, Colin

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of linear- and (1→6)-branched β-(1→3)-D-galactans, structures found in plant arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) is described. The synthetic strategy relies on iterative couplings of mono- and disaccharide thioglycoside donors, followed by a late stage glycosylation of heptagalactan...

  4. Symmetry Reduction in Infinite Games with Finite Branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Nicolas; Vester, Steen

    2014-01-01

    infinite-state games on graphs with finite branching where the objectives of the players can be very general. As particular applications, it is shown that the technique can be applied to reduce the state space in parity games as well as when doing modelchecking of the Alternating-time temporal logic ATL....

  5. Strigolactone regulation of shoot branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianli; Zhao, Liangjun; Challis, Richard; Leyser, Ottoline

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of highly branched mutants in pea (rms1–rms5), Arabidopsis thaliana (max1–max4), petunia (dad1–dad3), and rice (d3, d10, htd1/d17, d14, d27) identified strigolactones or their derivates (SLs), as shoot branching inhibitors. This recent discovery offers the possibility of using SLs to regulate branching commercially, for example, in chrysanthemum, an important cut flower crop. To investigate this option, SL physiology and molecular biology were studied in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum), focusing on the CCD8/MAX4/DAD1/RMS1/D10 gene. Our results suggest that, as has been proposed for Arabidopsis, the ability of SLs to inhibit bud activity depends on the presence of a competing auxin source. The chrysanthemum SL biosynthesis gene, CCD8 was cloned, and found to be regulated in a similar, but not identical way to known CCD8s. Expression analyses revealed that DgCCD8 is predominantly expressed in roots and stems, and is up-regulated by exogenous auxin. Exogenous SL can down-regulate DgCCD8 expression, but this effect can be overridden by apical auxin application. This study provides evidence that SLs are promising candidates to alter the shoot branching habit of chrysanthemum. PMID:20478970

  6. Highly Branched Polyethylenes as Lubricant Viscosity and Friction Modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Joshua W.; Zhou, Yan; Qu, Jun; Bays, John T.; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-10-08

    A series of highly branched polyethylenes (BPE) were prepared and used in a Group I base oil as potential viscosity and friction modifiers. The lubricating performance of these BPEs supports the expected dual functionality. Changes in polarity, topology, and molecular weight of the BPEs showed significant effects on the lubricants’ performance, which provide scientific insights for polymer design in future lubricant development.

  7. The binary branching nature of syllable constituents: the English onset

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivating evidence is drawn from other languages, specifically Italian, Spanish and Portuguese, because it is believed that, except for the coda, the binary branching nature of syllable constituents is universally imposed in the world\\'s languages. Also, no one language or dialect can exhaustively account for all linguistic ...

  8. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Support Services | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.

  9. New Mathematical Strategy Using Branch and Bound Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarray, Tanveer Ahmad; Bhat, Muzafar Rasool

    In this paper, the problem of optimal allocation in stratified random sampling is used in the presence of nonresponse. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming problem (NLPP) and is solved using Branch and Bound method. Also the results are formulated through LINGO.

  10. Mortality in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Nynne; Gade, Else; Knudsen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the impact of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), a condition related to arteriolar wall thickening, as a prognostic marker of mortality. DESIGN: Long-term follow-up study comparing cases with background population. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with BRVO. METHODS: Diagnos...

  11. 34 CFR 600.8 - Treatment of a branch campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment of a branch campus. 600.8 Section 600.8 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INSTITUTIONAL ELIGIBILITY UNDER THE HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965, AS...

  12. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  13. A Measurement of the Tau Topological Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anashkin, E.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Anjos, N.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Ballestrero, A.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, Dmitri Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Bellunato, T.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Belous, K.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Berntzon, L.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Besson, N.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bol, J.; Bonesini, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Bracko, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenner, R.A.; Brodet, E.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buschmann, P.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chapkin, M.; Charpentier, P.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chliapnikov, P.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Chung, S.H.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Costa, M.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Croix, J.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Dalmau, J.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Geralis, T.; Ghodbane, N.; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gouz, Yu.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Guy, J.; Haag, C.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Haug, S.; Hauler, F.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hertz, O.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jeans, D.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Jungermann, L.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kernel, G.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovanski, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Kostioukhine, V.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumstein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kurowska, J.; Lamsa, J.W.; Laugier, J.P.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liebig, W.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; Merle, E.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miagkov, A.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Montenegro, J.; Moraes, D.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Mueller, U.; Muenich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mundim, L.M.; Murray, W.J.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Nygren, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevski, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Oyanguren, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Peralta, L.; Perepelitsa, V.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Poireau, V.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdniakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Rehn, J.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salmi, L.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schwanda, C.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Y.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.; Sette, G.; Shellard, R.C.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sokolov, A.; Solovianov, O.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassov, T.; Spiriti, E.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanitzki, M.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Szumlak, T.; Tabarelli, T.; Taffard, A.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Tobin, M.; Todorova, S.; Tome, B.; Tortora, L.; Tortosa, P.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tyapkin, P.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Uvarov, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Dam, Piet; Van den Boeck, W.; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verdier, P.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vlasov, E.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Washbrook, A.J.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Yushchenko, O.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zintchenko, A.; Zoller, P.; Zumerle, G.; Zupan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP-1, measurements of the inclusive tau branching ratios for decay modes containing one, three, or five charged particles have been performed, giving the following results: B_1 = B(\\tau^- -> (particle)^- \\geq 0pi^0 \\geq 0K^0 \

  14. Scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarov S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on the correlation of scaling properties of crack branching and brittle fragmentation with damage accumulation and a change in the fracture mechanism. The experimental results obtained from the glass fragmentation tests indicate that the size distribution of fragments has a fractal character and is described by a power law.

  15. Controlling the branching ratio of photodissociation using aligned molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J.J.; Wendt-Larsen, I.; Stapelfeldt, H.

    1999-01-01

    Using a sample of iodine molecules, aligned by a strong, linearly polarized laser pulse, we control the branching ratio of the I+I and I+I* photodissociation channels by a factor of 26. The control relies on selective photoexcitation of two potential curves that each correlate adiabatically...

  16. 10 CFR 110.41 - Executive Branch review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... source material or low-enriched uranium to EURATOM and Japan for enrichment up to 5 percent in the isotope uranium-235, and those categories of exports approved in advance by the Executive Branch as... facility. (2) More than one effective kilogram of high-enriched uranium or 10 grams of plutonium or U-233...

  17. Modelling primary branch growth based on a multilevel nonlinear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Model validation results using an independent data set confirmed that multilevel mixed models with an appropriate correlation structure produced more accurate and precise branch-specified diameter and length predictions. Overall, the models were suitable in describing the trends and inherent variability of crown profile ...

  18. PICO: An Object-Oriented Framework for Branch and Bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ECKSTEIN,JONATHAN; HART,WILLIAM E.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA A.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the design of PICO, a C++ framework for implementing general parallel branch-and-bound algorithms. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a wide range of branch-and-bound methods on an equally wide range of parallel computing platforms. We first discuss the basic architecture of PICO, including the application class hierarchy and the package's serial and parallel layers. We next describe the design of the serial layer, and its central notion of manipulating subproblem states. Then, we discuss the design of the parallel layer, which includes flexible processor clustering and communication rates, various load balancing mechanisms, and a non-preemptive task scheduler running on each processor. We describe the application of the package to a branch-and-bound method for mixed integer programming, along with computational results on the ASCI Red massively parallel computer. Finally we describe the application of the branch-and-bound mixed-integer programming code to a resource constrained project scheduling problem for Pantex.

  19. Branching patterns of wave trains in the FPU lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, S.J.; Lamb, J.S.W.; Rink, B.W.

    2009-01-01

    We study the existence and branching patterns of wave trains in the one-dimensional infinite Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) lattice. A wave train Ansatz in this Hamiltonian lattice leads to an advance-delay differential equation on a space of periodic functions, which carries a natural Hamiltonian

  20. On the contraction factors of long-chain branched macromolecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Pavel; Netopilík, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, February (2014), s. 177-181 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP205/11/J043 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : long-chain branching * contraction factor * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  1. Portal venous branches to the caudate lobe: number and origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six livers from adult black Kenyans were obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi – Kenya. The porta hepatis was carefully dissected and the number and origin of the portal venous branches to the caudate lobe observed and recorded. The collected data was analyzed using ...

  2. Branching Fractions of $\\tau$ Leptons Decays to Three Charged Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G T; Vogel, H; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Berkelman, K; Boisvert, V; Cassel, D G; Drell, P S; Duboscq, J E; Ecklund, K M; Ehrlich, R; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gittelman, B; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hsu, L; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Magerkurth, A; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Meyer, T O; Mistry, N B; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Pivarski, J; Richichi, S J; Riley, D; Sadoff, A J; Schwarthoff, H; Shepherd, M R; Thayer, J G; Urner, D; Wilksen, T; Warburton, A; Weinberger, M; Athar, S B; Avery, P; Breva-Newell, L; Potlia, V; Stöck, H; Yelton, J; Benslama, K; Eisenstein, B I; Gollin, G D; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Plager, C; Sedlack, C; Selen, M; Thaler, J J; Williams, J; Edwards, K W; Besson, D; Zhao, X; Anderson, S; Frolov, V V; Gong, D T; Kubota, Y; Li, S Z; Poling, R A; Smith, A; Stepaniak, C J; Urheim, J; Metreveli, Z V; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Zweber, P; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J; Jian, L; Saleem, M; Wappler, F; Arms, K; Eckhart, E; Gan, K K; Gwon, C; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pedlar, T K; Von Törne, E; Zoeller, M M; Severini, H; Skubic, P L; Dytman, S A; Müller, J A; Nam, S; Savinov, V; Hinson, J W; Lee, J; Miller, D H; Pavlunin, V; Sanghi, B; Shibata, E I; Shipsey, I P J; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Lyon, A L; Park, C S; Park, W; Thayer, J B; Thorndike, E H; Coan, T E; Gao, Y S; Liu, F; Maravin, Y; Stroynowski, R; Artuso, M; Boulahouache, C; Blusk, S R; Bukin, K; Dambasuren, E; Mountain, R; Muramatsu, H; Nandakumar, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Mahmood, A H; Csorna, S E; Danko, I; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; McGee, S; Bornheim, A; Lipeles, E; Pappas, S P; Shapiro, A; Sun, W M; Weinstein, A J

    2003-01-01

    From electron-positron collision data collected with the CLEO detector operating at CESR near \\sqrt{s}=10.6 GeV, improved measurements of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into three explicitly identified hadrons and a neutrino are presented as {\\cal B}(\\tau^-\\to \\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-\

  3. Controlling the morphology of multi-branched gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, Waqqar; Kooij, Ernst S.; van Silfhout, Arend; Poelsema, Bene

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple and versatile way to achieve high yield synthesis of shape- and size-controlled multi-branched gold nanoparticles (MBNPs). Control over the shape of the MBNPs was achieved by varying the ratio of gold to the mild reducing agent ascorbic acid, using a seed-mediated growth

  4. Measurement of the pi-->eν branching ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, D. A.; Dubois, R.; MacDonald, J. A.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Dixit, M. S.

    1986-03-01

    A measurement of the π-->eν branching ratio using a NaI(Tl) spectrometer yields a value Γ((π-->eν)+(π-->eνγ))/Γ((π-->μν)+(π-->μνγ))=(1. 218+/-0.014)×10-4. The result is consistent with expectations of the standard electroweak theory incorporating electron-muon universality.

  5. New measurement of the. pi -->. e. nu. branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.A.; Dubois, R.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Dixit, M.S.; Berghofer, D.; Poutissou, J.; Macdonald, J.A.; Robertson, B.C.

    1983-01-03

    A new measurement of the ..pi -->..e..nu.. branching ratio yields GAMMA(..pi -->..e..nu..+..pi -->..e..nu gamma..)/GAMMA(..pi --> mu nu..+..pi --> mu nu.. ..gamma..) = (1.218 +- 0.014) x 10/sup -4./ The measured value is in good agreement with the standard-model prediction incorporating electron-muon universality.

  6. New Measurement of the π-->eν Branching Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryman, D. A.; Dubois, R.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Dixit, M. S.; Berghofer, D.; Poutissou, J.-M.; MacDonald, J. A.; Robertson, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    A new measurement of the π-->eν branching ratio yields Γ(π-->eν+π-->eνγ)Γ(π-->μν+π-->μνγ)=(1.218+/-0.014)×10-4. The measured value is in good agreement with the standard-model prediction incorporating electron-muon universality.

  7. They claim that the executive branch has become too authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, according to the. Heritage Foundation!The World Street. Journal 2006 Index of Economic. Freedom's report, Nigeria's "per capita income remains low, and. They claim that the executive branch has become too authoritarian and dictatorial and that. President Obasanjo has not exercised any of the political will to.

  8. External branch spinal nerve paralysis on keloid scar | Frioui | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paralysis of the external branch of spinal nerve is very rare. It manifests clinically by a weakness and abnormal morphology of the shoulder. We must think about it in front of any simple surgery of the cervical region. We report the case of a 20 year old patient, who consulted several doctors for pain and progressive ...

  9. Anatomic Variations in the Palmar Cutaneous Branch of the Median ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The operative decompression of the carpal tunnel is one of the commonest elective surgical procedures carried out on the hand. One of most troublesome sequela is the painful neuroma which follows the damage to the palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve (PCBMN).[1-3] Attention has been called to the injury to ...

  10. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan René; Rosenberg, Niels Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  11. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  12. From chromosome crumpling to the interacting randomly branched polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaers, Ralf

    The conformational statistics of ring polymers in melts or dense solutions is strongly affected by their quenched microscopic topological state. The effect is particularly strong for non-concatenated unknotted rings, which are known to crumple and segregate and which have been implicated as models for the generic behavior of interphase chromosomes. In we have used a computationally efficient multi-scale approach to identify the subtle physics underlying their behavior, where we combine massive Molecular Dynamics simulations on the fiber level with Monte Carlo simulations of a wide range of lattice models for the large scale structure. This allowed us to show that ring melts can be quantitatively mapped to coarse-grained melts of interacting randomly branched primitive paths. To elucidate the behavior of interacting branched polymers, we use a combination of scaling arguments and computer simulations. The simulations are carried out for different statistical ensembles: ideal randomly branching polymers, melts of interacting randomly branching polymers, and self-avoiding trees with annealed and quenched connectivities. In all cases, we perform a detailed analysis of the tree connectivities and conformations. We find that the scaling behaviour of average properties is very well described by the Flory theory of Gutin et al. [Macromolecules 26, 1293 (1993)]. A detailed study of the corresponding distribution functions allows us to propose a coherent framework of the behavior of interacting trees, including generalised Fisher-Pincus relationships and the detailed analysis of contacts statistics.

  13. Inverse parameter identification for a branching 1D arterial network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bogaers, Alfred EJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the invertability of a branching 1D arterial blood flow network. We limit our investigation to a single bifurcating vessel, where the material properties, unloaded areas and variables characterizing the input and output...

  14. 12 CFR 208.6 - Establishment and maintenance of branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... management. The financial history and condition of the applying bank and the general character of its management; (2) Capital. The adequacy of the bank's capital in accordance with § 208.4, and its future... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and maintenance of branches. 208...

  15. Universal nanodroplet branches from confining the Ouzo effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Ziyang; Schaarsberg, Martin H. Klein; Zhu, Xiaojue; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Lohse, Detlef; Zhang, Xuehua

    2017-01-01

    We report the self-organization of universal branching patterns of oil nanodroplets under the Ouzo effect [Vitale S, Katz J (2003) Langmuir 19:4105–4110]—a phenomenon in which spontaneous droplet formation occurs upon dilution of an organic solution of oil with water. The mixing of the organic and

  16. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-06-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 10(6) computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity [Formula: see text], streamwise vorticity [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We

  17. Left bundle branch block and suspected myocardial infarction: does chronicity of the branch block matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakopoulos, Vasileios; Kellerth, Thomas; Christensen, Kjeld

    2013-06-01

    Our aim was to investigate if patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) and a new or presumed new left bundle branch block (nLBBB) were treated according to the ESC reperfusion guidelines and to compare them with patients having a previously known LBBB (oLBBB). Furthermore, we investigated the prevalence of ST-segment concordance in this population. Retrospective data was collected from the Swedeheart registry for patients admitted to the cardiac care unit at Örebro University Hospital with LBBB and suspected MI during 2009 and 2010. The patients were divided in two age groups; <80 or ≥80 years and analysed for LBBB chronicity (nLBBB or oLBBB), MI, and reperfusion treatment. We also compared our data with the national Swedeheart database for 2009. A total of 99 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis of MI was significantly more common in the group ≥80 years compared to the group <80 years (53.8 vs. 25%, p=0.007). The rate of MI was similar in the groups with nLBBB and oLBBB (33 and 37% respectively, p=0.912). Of the 36 patients with a final diagnosis of MI, only eight (22%) had nLBBB. Reperfusion treatment, defined as an acute coronary angiography with or without intervention, was significantly more often performed in patients with nLBBB compared to patients with oLBBB (42 vs. 8%, p<0.001). The rate of MI and reperfusion treatment did not differ between our institution and the Swedish national data. ST-concordance was present in only two cases, one of which did not suffer an MI. The proportion of patients receiving reperfusion treatment was low, but higher in nLBBB, reflecting a partial adherence to the guidelines. We found no correlation between LBBB chronicity and MI. Furthermore, only a minority of the MIs occurred in patients with nLBBB. ST-concordance was found in only one of 36 MI cases, indicating lack of sensitivity for this test.

  18. Release of lysozyme from the branched polyelectrolyte-lysozyme complexation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ran; Cao, Dapeng; Wang, Wenchuan

    2008-04-10

    On the basis of the discretely charged sphere model of lysozyme, the release behavior of lysozyme from the branched polyelectrolyte-lysozyme complexation is investigated by adding salt and changing the pH values of the solution. It is found that, with the increase of the salt ionic strength of the solution, the lysozymes are gradually released from the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte as a result of the screening of electrostatic attraction between the two ionic species by adding the salt. Interestingly, there exists a critical salt ionic strength at which all proteins are released from the branched polyelectrolyte, and the polyelectrolyte-protein complexation is broken completely. Beyond the critical value, the increase of the salt ionic strength causes self-association of the proteins released from the branched polyelectrolyte-protein complexation. The self-association of the protein is detrimental in biological systems. By calculating the second virial coefficient, we found that the optimal salt content for the dispersion of proteins coincides with the critical ionic strength, because the second virial coefficient reaches its maximum at the critical ionic strength. Similarly, increasing the pH value of the solution can also release the lysozymes from the polyelectrolyte, because the increase of pH value of the solution changes the charge distribution and net charge of the lysozyme, weakens the attraction between lysozymes mediated by polyelectrolyte, and finally leads to the dissolution of the complexation of branched polyelectrolyte with lysozymes in strong alkaline solution. In addition, by exploring the effect of architecture of the polyelectrolyte on the release behavior of proteins, we found that it is more difficult to release proteins from the branched polyelectrolyte than from the linear polyelectrolyte.

  19. One-Pot and Facile Fabrication of Hierarchical Branched Pt-Cu Nanoparticles as Excellent Electrocatalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanqin; Yang, Yong; Shan, Yufeng; Huang, Zhengren

    2016-03-09

    Hierarchical branched nanoparticles are one promising nanostructure with three-dimensional open porous structure composed of integrated branches for superior catalysis. We have successfully synthesized Pt-Cu hierarchical branched nanoparticles (HBNDs) with small size of about 30 nm and composed of integrated ultrathin branches by using a modified polyol process with introduction of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and HCl. This strategy is expected to be a general strategy to prepare various metallic nanostructures for catalysis. Because of the special open porous structure, the as-prepared Pt-Cu HBNDs exhibit greatly enhanced specific activity toward the methanol oxidation reaction as much as 2.5 and 1.7 times compared with that of the commercial Pt-Ru and Pt-Ru/C catalysts, respectively. Therefore, they are potentially applicable as electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

  20. New colleges of osteopathic medicine, branch campuses, and additional locations--what is the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrea; Miskowicz-Retz, Konrad C

    2015-04-01

    The American Osteopathic Association Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (AOA COCA) is recognized by the US Secretary of Education as the only accrediting agency for predoctoral osteopathic medical education. To maintain its recognition with the US Secretary of Education, the AOA COCA is required to adhere to all federal laws and regulations associated with recognition of accrediting agencies. In this article, the authors discuss the development of new colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs). They also discuss the development of additional locations and branch campuses of existing COMs and compare the 2 processes. Also included is a review of the AOA COCA- approved class sizes of the accredited COMs.

  1. Cellulosic carbon fibers with branching carbon nanotubes for enhanced electrochemical activities for bioprocessing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyan; Lu, Xin; Tze, William Tai Yin; Kim, Jungbae; Wang, Ping

    2013-09-25

    Renewable biobased carbon fibers are promising materials for large-scale electrochemical applications including chemical processing, energy storage, and biofuel cells. Their performance is, however, often limited by low activity. Herein we report that branching carbon nanotubes can enhance the activity of carbonized cellulosic fibers, such that the oxidation potential of NAD(H) was reduced to 0.55 V from 0.9 V when applied for bioprocessing. Coordinating with enzyme catalysts, such hierarchical carbon materials effectively facilitated the biotransformation of glycerol, with the total turnover number of NAD(H) over 3500 within 5 h of reaction.

  2. A GPU-accelerated Branch-and-Bound Algorithm for the Flow-Shop Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Melab, Nouredine; Chakroun, Imen; Mezmaz, Mohand; Tuyttens, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Branch-and-Bound (B&B) algorithms are time intensive tree-based exploration methods for solving to optimality combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper, we investigate the use of GPU computing as a major complementary way to speed up those methods. The focus is put on the bounding mechanism of B&B algorithms, which is the most time consuming part of their exploration process. We propose a parallel B&B algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated bounding model. The pr...

  3. Identification and carbon isotope composition of a novel branched GDGT isomer in lake sediments: Evidence for lacustrine branched GDGT production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Y.; De Jonge, C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Schubert, C.J.; Lehmann, M.F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niemann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that occur ubiquitously in soils and lacustrine sediments and have great potential as proxy indicators for paleotemperature and pH reconstructions. Initially, brGDGTs in lakes were thought to originate from soils

  4. Interplay between π-Bridges and Positions of Branched Alkyl Groups of Unsymmetrical D-A-D-π-A Squaraines in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Mode of Dye Anchoring and the Charge Transfer Process at the TiO2/Dye/Electrolyte Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitharasu, Vellimalai; Kavungathodi, Munavvar Fairoos Mele; Nithyanandhan, Jayaraj

    2017-09-27

    Far-red-absorbing squaraines possessing high molar absorptivity (>10(5) M(-1) cm(-1)) are being attracted as high-efficiency chromophores in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A series of donor-acceptor-donor-π spacer-acceptor (D-A-D-π-A) unsymmetrical squaraines, PSQ1-5, with indoline donor and squaric/cyanoacetic acid acceptor units, were designed for sensitized solar cells. For extending the absorption toward the near-infrared region (NIR) and controlling the orientation on the TiO2 surface, benzene (PSQ1 and PSQ2) and thiophene (PSQ3-5) π-spacers and out-of-plane branched alkyl groups at the indoline that are away (PSQ1, PSQ3, and PSQ5) or near (PSQ2 and PSQ4) the anchoring group, respectively, were introduced. Dynamic aggregation tendency of PSQ1 and PSQ3 than that of their isomers systematically modulates the orientation on the TiO2 surface, which in turn enhances photovoltaic performance. Absorptance on a thin transparent TiO2 film shows a visible-to-NIR response with an onset around 800 nm for PSQ3-5. Although there is close resemblance in electrochemical redox levels, their high injection efficiency and recombination resistance differentiated their impact on the way of anchoring and the dihedral angle between D-A-D units and π-spacers. DSSCs sensitized with PSQ5 achieved a PCE of 8.15% under simulated AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)), with the current density (Jsc) and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 19.73 mA cm(-2) and 630 mV, respectively. A clear comparison of the incident-photon-to-current conversion efficiency versus the light-harvesting efficiency correlates the structure-property relationship with Jsc obtained for PSQ dyes. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out to examine the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interface for further confirmation of the enhanced PCE of top-sp(3)-alkylated PSQ5 over that of other dyes.

  5. Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature extraction is a key process in detecting heart ailments. Our present study comes up with a hybrid method combining two heuristic optimization methods: Bacterial Forging Optimization (BFO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the feature selection of ECG signals. One of the major controlling forces of BFO algorithm is the chemotactic movement of a bacterium that models a test solution. The chemotaxis process of the BFO depends on random search directions which may lead to a delay in achieving the global optimum solution. The hybrid technique: Bacterial Forging-Particle Swarm Optimization (BFPSO) incorporates the concepts from BFO and PSO and it creates individuals in a new generation. This BFPSO method performs local search through the chemotactic movement of BFO and the global search over the entire search domain is accomplished by a PSO operator. The BFPSO feature values are given as the input for the Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network classifier.

  6. Influence of the Molar Mass on Long-Chain Branching of Polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kamleitner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain branching (LCB with peroxydicarbonates (PODIC is known as a suitable post-reactor process to introduce strain-hardening behaviour and an increase of melt strength to a linear polypropylene (PP. This opens up new possibilities for processing and therefore application. Especially in the case of adding value to PP post-consumer waste, LCB is a promising approach. LCB takes place by a combination of chain scission and recombination after radical activation of the PP macromolecule. However, chemical modification of post-consumer waste is challenging because of the inhomogeneous composition and the manifold number of PP grades. The influence of the molar mass of the linear PP precursor on this reaction was studied with different PP grades ranging from extrusion grade to injection moulding grade. To exclude side effects, all PP grades had similar polydispersity indices. A PP with higher molar mass undergoes significant chain scission during the LCB process compared to a PP with low molar mass for injection moulding. Therefore, the two grades differ significantly in their branching number, which influences their behaviour in elongational flow.

  7. Electrophoretic dynamics of self-assembling branched DNA structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Daniel Milton

    This study advances our understanding of the electrophoretic dynamics of branched biopolymers and explores technologies designed to exploit their unique properties. New self-assembly techniques were developed to create branched DNA for visualization via fluorescence microscopy. Experiments in fixed gel networks reveal a distinct trapping behavior, in contrast with linear topologies. The finding that detection can be achieved by introducing a branch point contributes significantly to the field of separation science and can be exploited to develop new applications. Results obtained in polymer solutions point to identical mobilities for branched and linear topologies, despite large differences in their dynamics. This finding led to a new description of electrophoresis based on non-Newtonian viscoelastic effects in the electric double layer surrounding a charged object. This new theoretical framework presents a new outlook important not only to the electrophoretic physics of nucleic acids, but all charged objects including proteins, colloids, and nanoparticles. To study the behavior of smaller biopolymers, such as restriction fragments and recombination intermediates, a library of symmetrically branched DNA was synthesized followed by characterization in gels. The experimental results contribute a large body of information relating molecular architecture and the dynamics of rigid structures in an electric field. The findings allow us to create new separation technologies based on topology. These contributions can also be utilized in a number of different applications including the study of recombination intermediates and the separation of proteins according to structure. To demonstrate the importance of these findings, a sequence and mutation detection technique was envisioned and applied for genetic analysis. Restriction fragments from mutation "hotspots" in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, known to play a role in cancer development, were analyzed with this technique

  8. Cell-Based Multi-Parametric Model of Cleft Progression during Submandibular Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shayoni; Yuan, Daniel; Dhulekar, Nimit; Oztan, Basak; Yener, Bülent; Larsen, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. Previous experimental studies indicated requirements for several epithelial cellular processes, such as proliferation, migration, cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix (matrix) adhesion, and cellular contraction in cleft formation; however, the relative contribution of each of these processes is not fully understood since it is not possible to experimentally manipulate each factor independently. We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and spatially relevant cell-based 2D model. Our model simulates the effect of cellular proliferation, actomyosin contractility, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions on cleft progression, and it was used to test specific hypotheses regarding the function of these parameters in branching morphogenesis. We use innovative features capturing several aspects of cleft morphology and quantitatively analyze clefts formed during functional modification of the cellular parameters. Our simulations predict that a low epithelial mitosis rate and moderate level of actomyosin contractility in the cleft cells promote cleft progression. Raising or lowering levels of contractility and mitosis rate resulted in non-progressive clefts. We also show that lowered cell-cell adhesion in the cleft region and increased cleft cell-matrix adhesions are required for cleft progression. Using a classifier-based analysis, the relative importance of these four contributing cellular factors for effective cleft progression was determined

  9. Measurement of the Radiative $K_{e3}$ Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, A; Bevan, A; Dosanjh, R S; Gershon, T J; Hay, B; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Olaiya, E; Parker, M A; White, T O; Wotton, S A; Barr, G; Bocquet,; Ceccucci, A; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Cundy, Donald C; D'Agostini, G; Doble, Niels T; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Gorini, B; Govi, G; Grafström, P; Kubischta, Werner; Mikulec, I; Lacourt, A; Norton, A; Palestini, S; Panzer-Steindel, B; Taureg, H; Velasco, M; Wahl, H; Cheshkov, C; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, Vladimir D; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Knowles, I; Martin, V; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Contalbrigo, M; Dalpiaz, Pietro; Duclos, J; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Graziani, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Veltri, M; Becker, H G; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Fox, H; Kalter, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Köpke, L; Lopes da Silva, P; Marouelli, P; Pellmann, I A; Peters, A; Renk, B; Schmidt, S A; Schönharting, V; Schué, Yu; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Wittgen, M; Chollet, J C; Fayard, L; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ocariz, J; Unal, G; Wingerter-Seez, I; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lubrano, P; Mestvirishvili, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Piccini, M; Bertanza, L; Carosi, R; Casali, R; Cerri, C; Cirilli, M; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Giudici, Sergio; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Chèze, J B; Cogan, J; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Formica, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Turlay, René; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Arcidiacono, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Rondio, Ewa; Szleper, M; Wislicki, W; Wronka, S; Dibon, Heinz; Fischer, G; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Neuhofer, G; Pernicka, M; Taurok, A; Widhalm, L

    2005-01-01

    We present a measurement of the relative branching ratio of the decay {K}^0 -> pi+-e-+ nu gamma ({K}_e3 gamma) with respect to {K}^0 -> pi+- e-+ nu (gamma) ({k}_e3 + k}_e3 gamma) decay. The result is based on observation of 19 000 {K}_e3 gamma and 5.6 . {10}^6 {K}_e3 decays. The value of branching ratio is Br({K}^0 _e3 gamma{E}^*_gamma > 30 MeV, {theta}^*_e gamma > 20 deg) / Br({K}^0_e3 = (0.964 +- {0.008}^+0.011_0.009)%. This result agrees with the theoretical predictions but is at variance with a recently published result.

  10. Measurement of the B -> D(*)D(*)K Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, P.del Amo

    2010-12-16

    The authors present a measurement of the branching fractions of the 22 decay channels of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} mesons to {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K, where the D{sup (*)} and {bar D}{sup (*)} mesons are fully reconstructed. Summing the 10 neutral modes and the 12 charged modes, the branching fractions are found to be {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (3.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.24)% and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (4.05 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.28)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The results are based on 429 fb{sup -1} of data containing 471 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  11. Twigs into branches: how a filopodium becomes a dendrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Maxwell G; Shaham, Shai

    2010-02-01

    A dendrite grows by sprouting filopodia, some of which mature into stable dendrite branches that bear synapses and sprout filopodia of their own. Recent work has shown that a filopodium begins deciding to become a stable branch within 1min of contacting a presynaptic partner, but what triggers this decision remains unknown. We consider the evidence for three possible triggers: activity of neurotransmitter receptors, signaling through adhesion proteins, and heightened membrane tension as the filopodium attempts to retract but is held in place by adhesive contacts with the target. Of these, membrane tension-induced signaling is especially appealing, as it would serve as a general reporter of attachment, independent of which specific adhesion molecules are used. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. First measurement of the Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Bourquin, M; Chatelus, Y; Chollet, J C; Degré, A; Froidevaux, D; Fyfe, A R; Gaillard, J M; Gee, C N P; Gibson, W M; Igo-Kemenes, P; Jeffreys, P W; Merkel, B; Morand, R; Plothow, H; Repellin, J P; Saunders, B J; Sauvage, G; Schiby, B; Siebert, H W; Smith, V J; Streit, K P; Strub, R; Thresher, J J; Tovey, Stuart N

    1979-01-01

    In an experiment in the CERN-SPS charged-hyperon beam, the main Omega /sup -/ decay branching ratios have been measured to be Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Lambda K/sup -/)/ Gamma (all)=0.686+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/ pi /sup -/)/ Gamma (all) =0.234+or-0.013, Gamma ( Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/)/ Gamma (all)=0.080+or-0.008. The relative branching ratio of the two Xi pi modes provides a test of the Delta I=1/2 rule in decuplet-octet transitions. A search has also been made for the rare decay modes Omega /sup -/ to Lambda pi /sup -/, Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ gamma , Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup -/ pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ and Omega /sup -/ to Xi /sup 0/e/sup -/ nu . (6 refs).

  13. Radiative decays of PSI(3684). [Branching fraction, upper limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, J.S.

    1976-09-01

    Results of studies of radiative decays of psi(3684) are presented. The data for this work were obtained with the Magnetic Detector at the electron-positron storage ring SPEAR. These results indicate the existence of three states chi, with masses 3415, 3500, and 3550 MeV, produced in radiative decays of psi'. There is evidence for a fourth state with mass either 3340 or 3455 MeV. From study of the psi(3684) inclusive photon spectrum, the branching fraction for psi(3684) ..-->.. ..gamma.. chi(3415) was determined to be 7.5 +- 2.6%. Branching fraction upper limits of 1 to 4% at the 90% confidence level were obtained for monochromatic photon production above 250 MeV by psi or psi'.

  14. Flood Plain Information, East Branch Perkiomen Creek, Bucks County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    developed for municipal park pur- poses. The remaining areas are utilized for residential, commer- cial and industrial purposes. Many of these...southeastern West Rock Hill Township, was incorporated in 1874. Wambolds Mill and Tannery was located on Branch Creek (the name still given by many to the...town’s name was changed to Sellersville on October 17, 1886. The town has long been noted for its industries . It was a cigar-making center before 1860

  15. Hierarchical Ring Network Design Using Branch-and-Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Stidsen, Thomas K.

    2005-01-01

    link establishment costs and the link capacity costs into account. Hierarchical ring network design problems combines the following optimization problems: Clustering, hub selection, metro ring design, federal ring design and routing problems. In this paper a branch-and-price algorithm is presented...... for jointly solving the clustering problem, the metro ring design problem and the routing problem. Computational results are given for networks with up to 36 nodes....

  16. Precision measurement of the D*(0) decay branching fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, Y.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, T.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Using 482 pb(-1) of data taken at root s = 4.009 GeV, we measure the branching fractions of the decays of D*(0) into D-0 pi(0) and D-0 gamma to be B(D*(0) -> D-0 pi(0)) = (65.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)% and B(D*(0) -> D0 gamma) = (34.5 +/- 0.8 +/- 0.5)%, respectively, by assuming that the D*(0) decays only

  17. Numerical solution of incompressible flow through branched channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Louda, Petr; Kozel, K.; Příhoda, Jaromír; Beneš, L.; Kopáček, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2011), s. 318-324 ISSN 0045-7930 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/0977; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : channel flow * branched channel * EARSM turbulence model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.810, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045793010003506

  18. Phylogenies without Branch Bounds: Contracting the Short, Pruning the Deep

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Roch, Sebastien

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new phylogenetic reconstruction algorithm which, unlike most previous rigorous inference techniques, does not rely on assumptions regarding the branch lengths or the depth of the tree. The algorithm returns a forest which is guaranteed to contain all edges that are: 1) sufficiently long and 2) sufficiently close to the leaves. How much of the true tree is recovered depends on the sequence length provided. The algorithm is distance-based and runs in polynomial time.

  19. FDTD modeling of solar energy absorption in silicon branched nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Christin; Lopez, Rene; Redwing, Joan; Melde, Kathleen

    2013-05-06

    Thin film nanostructured photovoltaic cells are increasing in efficiency and decreasing the cost of solar energy. FDTD modeling of branched nanowire 'forests' are shown to have improved optical absorption in the visible and near-IR spectra over nanowire arrays alone, with a factor of 5 enhancement available at 1000 nm. Alternate BNW tree configurations are presented, achieving a maximum absorption of over 95% at 500 nm.

  20. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m−3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m−3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  1. From Subsidiary to Branch Organization of International Banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Lawrence; Sweeney, Richard J.; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    Nordea is the first major international bank planning to operate important host country activities in branches as the Second European banking directive envisions rather than as subsidiaries. Nordea is the result of mergers of roughly equal-size universal banks in four Nordic countries with the in...... institutional foundations for substantial market discipline in banking. In particular, distress resolution and insolvency procedures for banks must be made rule based and credible for host country authorities to accept home country control....

  2. [Stent implantation for relief of pulmonary artery branch stenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Yu, Zhiqing; Liu, Tingliang; Gao, Wei; Huang, Meirong; Li, Fen; Fu, Lijun; Zhao, Pengjun

    2014-05-01

    Branch pulmonary artery stenosis is one of the common congenital heart disease. Stent implantation to relieve branch pulmonary artery stenosis (BPAS) is an alternative to failed surgical or balloon angioplasty. The aim of this study was to explore the indication, methods and complications of using balloon expandable stent placement to treat branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and evaluate the results of stent implantation in the treatment of branch pulmonary artery stenosis. From August 2005 to December 2012, 19 patients underwent an attempt at stent implantation. The median age of those patients was 9.1 years (range 4.0-15.0 years). The median weight was 31.7 kg (range 17.0-60.5 kg); 14/19 patients underwent post surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot, one patient received post surgical repair of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, one patient underwent post surgical repair of pulmonary atresia with intact septum, one with native left BPAS, and one was after surgical repair of aortopulmonary window and the other truncus arteriosus. CP stent and NuMED Balloon-in-Balloon catheter were selected according to digital subtracted angiography measurements. After checking for correct position by angiography, the inner balloon and outer balloon was inflated successively to expand the stent to desired diameter. Statistical analysis was performed with the unpaired Student t test. A total of 26 stents were implanted successfully in 19 patients. The systolic gradient across the stenosis fell from a median of (36.0 ± 18.3) to (3.8 ± 3.4) mmHg (P aortic pressure ratio fell from 0.68 to 0.49 (P children will require further dilation to keep up with normal somatic growth. Intermediate and long-term follow up studies have shown excellent results after further dilation over time.

  3. Branch xylem density variations across the Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Lloyd, J.; Paiva, R.; Baker, T. R.; Quesada, C. A.; Mercado, L. M.; Schmerler, J.; Schwarz, M.; Santos, A. J. B.; Aguilar, A.; Czimczik, C. I.; Gallo, J.; Horna, V.; Hoyos, E. J.; Jimenez, E. M.; Palomino, W.; Peacock, J.; Peña-Cruz, A.; Sarmiento, C.; Sota, A.; Turriago, J. D.; Villanueva, B.; Vitzthum, P.; Alvarez, E.; Arroyo, L.; Baraloto, C.; Bonal, D.; Chave, J.; Costa, A. C. L.; Herrera, R.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T.; Leal, E.; Luizão, F.; Meir, P.; Monteagudo, A.; Neil, D.; Núñez-Vargas, P.; Peñuela, M. C.; Pitman, N.; Priante Filho, N.; Prieto, A.; Panfil, S. N.; Rudas, A.; Salomão, R.; Silva, N.; Silveira, M.; Soares Dealmeida, S.; Torres-Lezama, A.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Vieira, I.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.

    2009-04-01

    Xylem density is a physical property of wood that varies between individuals, species and environments. It reflects the physiological strategies of trees that lead to growth, survival and reproduction. Measurements of branch xylem density, ρx, were made for 1653 trees representing 598 species, sampled from 87 sites across the Amazon basin. Measured values ranged from 218 kg m-3 for a Cordia sagotii (Boraginaceae) from Mountagne de Tortue, French Guiana to 1130 kg m-3 for an Aiouea sp. (Lauraceae) from Caxiuana, Central Pará, Brazil. Analysis of variance showed significant differences in average ρx across regions and sampled plots as well as significant differences between families, genera and species. A partitioning of the total variance in the dataset showed that species identity (family, genera and species) accounted for 33% with environment (geographic location and plot) accounting for an additional 26%; the remaining "residual" variance accounted for 41% of the total variance. Variations in plot means, were, however, not only accountable by differences in species composition because xylem density of the most widely distributed species in our dataset varied systematically from plot to plot. Thus, as well as having a genetic component, branch xylem density is a plastic trait that, for any given species, varies according to where the tree is growing in a predictable manner. Within the analysed taxa, exceptions to this general rule seem to be pioneer species belonging for example to the Urticaceae whose branch xylem density is more constrained than most species sampled in this study. These patterns of variation of branch xylem density across Amazonia suggest a large functional diversity amongst Amazonian trees which is not well understood.

  4. Measurement of the π+-->e+ν branching ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, D. I.; Ahmad, S.; Bryman, D. A.; Burnham, R. A.; Clifford, E. T. H.; Kitching, P.; Kuno, Y.; MacDonald, J. A.; Numao, T.; Olin, A.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Dixit, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    A measurement of the π+-->e+ν branching ratio gives Rπeν=Γ(π-->eν+π-->eνγ)/Γ(π-->μν +π-->μνγ)=1.2265+/-0.0034(stat)+/-0.0044(sys)×10-4. This result is in agreement with standard model calculations and confirms the hypothesis of electron-muon universality at the 0.2% level.

  5. Measurement of the pi. -->. e. nu. branching ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryman, D.A.; Dubois, R.; Macdonald, J.A.; Numao, T.; Olaniyi, B.; Olin, A.; Poutissou, J.; Dixit, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    A measurement of the ..pi -->..e..nu.. branching ratio using a NaI(Tl) spectrometer yields a value GAMMA((..pi -->..e..nu..)+(..pi -->..e..nu gamma..))/ GAMMA((..pi --> mu nu..)+(..pi --> mu nu gamma..)) = (1. 218 +- 0.014) x 10/sup -4/. The result is consistent with expectations of the standard electroweak theory incorporating electron-muon universality.

  6. Single dendrite-targeting interneurons generate branch-specific inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb eStokes

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Microcircuits composed of dendrite-targeting inhibitory interneurons and pyramidal cells are fundamental elements of cortical networks, however, the impact of individual interneurons on pyramidal dendrites is unclear. Here, we combine paired recordings and calcium imaging to determine the spatial domain over which single dendrite-targeting interneurons influence pyramidal cells in olfactory cortex. We show that a major action of individual interneurons is to inhibit dendrites in a branch-specific fashion.

  7. Branch Point Mitigation of Thermal Blooming Phase Compensation Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Furthermore, I would like to thank Lt Col Hawks and Dr. Marciniak , as I have had them as professors vii for a combined total of eight different optics...point and the black circle surrounds the negatively charged branch point. A 3-D view is given in b .) which clearly shows the 2π discontinuity of the...phase screen convergence study using a.) peak Strehl ratio versus number of screens and b .) normalized power in the bucket versus number of screens

  8. Precise Measurement of pi+ -> e+ nu Branching Ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Frlež, E; Baranov, V A; Bertl, W; Bychkov, M; Bystritsky, Yu M; Khomutov, N V; Korenchenko, A S; Korenchenko, S M; Korolija, M; Kozlovskii, T; Kravchuk, N P; Kuchinskii, N A; Mekterović, D; Mzhavia, D; Palladino, A; Počanić, D; Robmann, P; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sidorkin, V V; Straumann, U; Supek, I; Truöl, P; Van der Schaaf, A; Velicheva, E P; Volnykh, V P

    2008-01-01

    The PEN Collaboration is conducting a new measurement of the pi+ -> e+ nu branching ratio at the Paul Scherrer Institute, with the goal uncertainty of delta B/B(pie2)=5E-4 or lower. At present, the combined accuracy of all published pie2 decay measurements lags behind the theoretical calculation by a factor of 40. In this contribution we report on the PEN detector configuration and its performance during two development runs done in 2007 and 2008.

  9. Dynamic wavefront creation for processing units using a hybrid compactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puthoor, Sooraj; Beckmann, Bradford M.; Yudanov, Dmitri

    2018-02-20

    A method, a non-transitory computer readable medium, and a processor for repacking dynamic wavefronts during program code execution on a processing unit, each dynamic wavefront including multiple threads are presented. If a branch instruction is detected, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following a same control path in the program code have reached a compaction point, which is the branch instruction. If no branch instruction is detected in executing the program code, a determination is made whether all wavefronts following the same control path have reached a reconvergence point, which is a beginning of a program code segment to be executed by both a taken branch and a not taken branch from a previous branch instruction. The dynamic wavefronts are repacked with all threads that follow the same control path, if all wavefronts following the same control path have reached the branch instruction or the reconvergence point.

  10. Antibiotics and renal branching morphogenesis: comparison of toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Kusters, Lisanne J A; Klaasen, Annelies; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2014-12-01

    Many premature born neonates receive antibiotic drugs to treat infections, which are applied during active nephrogenesis. We studied the impact of clinical concentrations of gentamicin and alternatives, ceftazidime and meropenem, on ureteric branching. Mice metanephroi were dissected at embryonic day 13 and cultured in media with or without various concentrations of gentamicin, ceftazidime, or meropenem. Zero and 24 h kidney size were assessed by surface area measurements, and the ureteric tree was visualized by whole mount staining and confocal microscopy. Branching was evaluated by counting and gene expression levels of Wt1, Sox9, Bmp7, Fgf8, and Gdnf were investigated. A concentration of 2,000 μmol/l ceftazidime impaired ureteric development. In addition, a 4.5-fold and a 2.5-fold downregulation was noted in Fgf8 and Gdnf, respectively. No adverse effects were noted after gentamicin or meropenem treatment. No relationship was noted between surface area expansion and ureteric bud formation, but surface area at explantation related to bud count after 24 h of culture. Ceftazidime, but not gentamicin or meropenem reduced ureteric branching in mice and suggest a role for Fgf8 and Gdnf in its mechanism. Metanephros surface area measurements can be used to reduce intra- and inter-litter variation.

  11. Heterotypic control of basement membrane dynamics during branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deirdre A; Larsen, Melinda

    2015-05-01

    Many mammalian organs undergo branching morphogenesis to create highly arborized structures with maximized surface area for specialized organ function. Cooperative cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions that sculpt the emerging tissue architecture are guided by dynamic basement membranes. Properties of the basement membrane are reciprocally controlled by the interacting epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations. Here we discuss how basement membrane remodeling is required for branching morphogenesis to regulate cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions that are required for cell patterning during morphogenesis and how basement membrane impacts morphogenesis by stimulation of cell patterning, force generation, and mechanotransduction. We suggest that in addition to creating mature epithelial architecture, remodeling of the epithelial basement membrane during branching morphogenesis is also essential to promote maturation of the stromal mesenchyme to create mature organ structure. Recapitulation of developmental cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions are of critical importance in tissue engineering and regeneration strategies that seek to restore organ function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical Composition of Sea Buckthorn Leaves, Branches and Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradt Ina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn leaves and branches presently create waste-/by-products of harvesting after pruning the plants. It is already known that sea buckthorn berries are important for their chemical composition and based on this occupy a wide field in nutrition. We raised the idea that sea buckthorn leaves, branches, and especially the bark, have also an extraordinary chemical composition like the berries. The aim of this study was to describe these by-products. For this purpose, detailed full analyses of corresponding samples from Russia (seven varieties and Germany (four varieties were performed. Especially the dry mass, fat content, proteins, carbohydrates, starch content, and crude fiber were investigated to obtain an overview. Minor components like total phenol content, metals, and water- and fat-soluble vitamins were also studied. All analytical parameters were based on an official collection of analysis methods (German ASU - amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren. The results of the full analysis of leaves and branches show some interesting aspects about the differences between male and female plants. Furthermore, we observed differences between Russian and German sea buckthorn varieties. Investigation of minor components showed that vitamins were present in very low amount (< 0.1 %.

  13. Auxin, cytokinin and the control of shoot branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dörte; Leyser, Ottoline

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been known for many decades that auxin inhibits the activation of axillary buds, and hence shoot branching, while cytokinin has the opposite effect. However, the modes of action of these two hormones in branching control is still a matter of debate, and their mechanisms of interaction are equally unresolved. Scope Here we review the evidence for various hypotheses that have been put forward to explain how auxin and cytokinin influence axillary bud activity. In particular we discuss the roles of auxin and cytokinin in regulating each other's synthesis, the cell cycle, meristem function and auxin transport, each of which could affect branching. These different mechanisms have implications for the main site of hormone action, ranging from systemic action throughout the plant, to local action at the node or in the bud meristem or leaves. The alternative models have specific predictions, and our increasing understanding of the molecular basis for hormone transport and signalling, cell cycle control and meristem biology is providing new tools to enable these predictions to be tested. PMID:21504914

  14. Increasingly branched rolling circle amplification for the cancer gene detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongling; Xu, Jianguo; Wang, Zhenmeng; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Jia, Lee

    2016-12-15

    An increasingly branched rolling circle amplification (IB-RCA) which contains a padlock probe (PP) and a structurally tailored molecular beacon (MB) was innovatively developed for highly sensitive detection of cancer gene, Kras gene codon 12. In this system, the PP can be circularized after hybridization with the precisely-matched target DNA, while the stem of MB can be also opened by target DNA, resulting in hybridization with the circularized PP to generate a long tandem single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) product. Since the MB is also designed to hybridize with ssDNA product, the newly-opened MBs are able to trigger the next RCA reactions, therapy producing branched rolling circle amplification (RCA) products and in turn leading to the increasingly branched RCA (IB-RCA). This alternately and continuously operates hybridization-based MB opening and opened MBs-triggered RCA. As a result, a great number of MBs are opened that is associated with a dramatically amplified fluorescent signal, enabling to quantify target DNA down to 100 fM. This sensing method demonstrates a new concept of IB-RCA amplification even in a simple way to efficiently transduce the fluorescence signal, accomplishing the highly sensitive and selective detection of cancer gene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Education in surveying branch under new conditions of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Sedlák

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The state, development and especially the labour market data of surveying branch profession in a continue moving conditions of the European Union (EU and all the world are presented in the paper. According to the rule of CLGE (Comité de Liaison des Géomètres Européens – The Council of European Geodetic Surveyors and FIG (Fédération Internationale des Géomètres – International Federation of Surveyors, which present the highest European and world-surveying forum, the professions mainly in a field of surveying (land surveying, mine surveying, cartography, geographical information systems and real estate register are included into the surveying (geodetic branch. The labour market statistical data of the surveying branch profession and the education and other economic activities of the surveying sector in the particular membership countries of EU and the countries connected to EU since 1972 until 2000 are listed in the paper. Almost 25 million Euros were invested into the project of EU under the name: Gross National (European Product (GNP for a purpose to support and to make effective of the surveying sector in EU. This surveying sector has a downward trend in some economically most powerful countries of EU in last years.

  16. TRF2 binds branched DNA to safeguard telomere integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Isabelle; Timashev, Leonid; Xie, Wei; Patel, Dinshaw J; de Lange, Titia

    2017-09-01

    Although t-loops protect telomeres, they are at risk of cleavage by Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases if branch migration converts the three-way t-loop junction into four-way HJs. T-loop cleavage is repressed by the TRF2 basic domain, which binds three- and four-way junctions and protects HJs in vitro. By replacing the basic domain with bacterial-protein domains binding three- and four-way junctions, we demonstrated the in vivo relevance of branched-DNA binding. Branched-DNA binding also repressed PARP1, presumably by masking the PARP1 site in the t-loop junction. Although PARP1 recruits HJ resolvases and promotes t-loop cleavage, PARP1 activation alone did not result in t-loop cleavage, thus suggesting that the basic domain also prevents formation of HJs. Concordantly, removal of HJs by BLM helicase mitigated t-loop cleavage in response to loss of the basic domain. We propose that TRF2 masks and stabilizes the t-loop three-way junction, thereby protecting telomeres from detrimental deletions and PARP1 activation.

  17. Optimal Branching Structure of Fluidic Networks with Permeable Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius R. Pepe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological and engineering studies of Hess-Murray’s law are focused on assemblies of tubes with impermeable walls. Blood vessels and airways have permeable walls to allow the exchange of fluid and other dissolved substances with tissues. Should Hess-Murray’s law hold for bifurcating systems in which the walls of the vessels are permeable to fluid? This paper investigates the fluid flow in a porous-walled T-shaped assembly of vessels. Fluid flow in this branching flow structure is studied numerically to predict the configuration that provides greater access to the flow. Our findings indicate, among other results, that an asymmetric flow (i.e., breaking the symmetry of the flow distribution may occur in this symmetrical dichotomous system. To derive expressions for the optimum branching sizes, the hydraulic resistance of the branched system is computed. Here we show the T-shaped assembly of vessels is only conforming to Hess-Murray’s law optimum as long as they have impervious walls. Findings also indicate that the optimum relationship between the sizes of parent and daughter tubes depends on the wall permeability of the assembled tubes. Our results agree with analytical results obtained from a variety of sources and provide new insights into the dynamics within the assembly of vessels.

  18. Branch-based centralized data collection for smart grids using wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Seong-il

    2015-05-21

    A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method.

  19. Branch-Based Centralized Data Collection for Smart Grids Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsoo Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid is one of the most important applications in smart cities. In a smart grid, a smart meter acts as a sensor node in a sensor network, and a central device collects power usage from every smart meter. This paper focuses on a centralized data collection problem of how to collect every power usage from every meter without collisions in an environment in which the time synchronization among smart meters is not guaranteed. To solve the problem, we divide a tree that a sensor network constructs into several branches. A conflict-free query schedule is generated based on the branches. Each power usage is collected according to the schedule. The proposed method has important features: shortening query processing time and avoiding collisions between a query and query responses. We evaluate this method using the ns-2 simulator. The experimental results show that this method can achieve both collision avoidance and fast query processing at the same time. The success rate of data collection at a sink node executing this method is 100%. Its running time is about 35 percent faster than that of the round-robin method, and its memory size is reduced to about 10% of that of the depth-first search method.

  20. Control of branch formation in ethylene polymerization by a [Ni(h3-2-MeC3H4(diimine] PF6 / DEAC catalyst system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escher Fernanda F. N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of ethylene mediated by [Ni(eta³-2-MeC3H4{ArN=C(HC(H=NAr}] PF6, Ar = 2,6-C6H3iPr2 /DEAC catalyst precursor under mild reaction conditions (reaction temperature between -10 ºC and 25 ºC and ethylene pressure between 109 and 1520 kPa yields high molecular weight branched polyethylene. The degree of branching was modulated by a careful choice of reaction conditions. Thus, at 0 ºC and 109 kPa, the branching degree was 17 branches/1000 backbone carbon atoms and at 25 ºC, it went up to 90 branches/1000 backbone carbon atoms. The nature of the observed branches (methyl, ethyl and longer, their quantity and distribution along the polymer backbone chain can be rationalized in terms of a chain walking process and control of the extend of isomerization by the steric hindrance of the growing chain.