WorldWideScience

Sample records for branching processes origins

  1. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu......Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning...... and computation and subsequently design and bespoke CNC fabrication. The question whether this allows for a new approach to the uniqueness that is offered to us by nature is discussed in a series of workshops and projects, which explore the performative potential of naturally grown materials....

  2. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  3. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  4. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  5. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  6. Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Velasco, Miguel; Martinez, Rodrigo; Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Contains papers presented at the Workshop on Branching Processes and Their Applications (WBPA09), held in Badajoz, Spain, April 20-23, 2009, which deal with theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory

  7. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  8. Origin of buds, branches, and sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that survivor trees in rural, managed forests rebuild broken crowns with new branches and foliage after ice storm injury (Shortle et al. 2014). Veteran trees in historic parks and landscapes show repeated cycles of crown loss and recovery (Fay 2002). Crown rebuilding or reiteration from sprouts is a physiological response with architectural...

  9. Portal venous branches to the caudate lobe: number and origin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty six livers from adult black Kenyans were obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi – Kenya. The porta hepatis was carefully dissected and the number and origin of the portal venous branches to the caudate lobe observed and recorded. The collected data was analyzed using ...

  10. Branched integumental structures in Sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Zhou, Z; Prum, R O

    2001-03-08

    The evolutionary origin of feathers has long been obscured because no morphological antecedents were known to the earliest, structurally modern feathers of Archaeopteryx. It has been proposed that the filamentous integumental appendages on several theropod dinosaurs are primitive feathers; but the homology between these filamentous structures and feathers has been disputed, and two taxa with true feathers (Caudipteryx and Protarchaeopteryx) have been proposed to be flightless birds. Confirmation of the theropod origin of feathers requires documentation of unambiguously feather-like structures in a clearly non-avian theropod. Here we describe our observations of the filamentous integumental appendages of the basal dromaeosaurid dinosaur Sinornithosaurus millenii, which indicate that they are compound structures composed of multiple filaments. Furthermore, these appendages exhibit two types of branching structure that are unique to avian feathers: filaments joined in a basal tuft, and filaments joined at their bases in series along a central filament. Combined with the independent phylogenetic evidence supporting the theropod ancestry of birds, these observations strongly corroborate the hypothesis that the integumental appendages of Sinornithosaurus are homologous with avian feathers. The plesiomorphic feathers of Sinornithosaurus also conform to the predictions of an independent, developmental model of the evolutionary origin of feathers.

  11. A note on random catalytic branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Mike; Kauffman, Stuart

    2018-01-21

    A variety of evolutionary processes in biology can be viewed as settings where organisms 'catalyse' the formation of new types of organisms. One example, relevant to the origin of life, is where transient biological colonies (e.g. prokaryotes or protocells) give rise to new colonies via lateral gene transfer. In this short note, we describe and analyse a simple random process which models such settings. By applying theory from general birth-death processes, we describe how the survival of a population under catalytic diversification depends on interplay of the catalysis rate and the initial population size. We also note how such process can also be viewed within the framework of 'self-sustaining autocatalytic networks'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On connection between the q-processes and the branching processes allowing immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Imomov, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we consider the Branching Processes with non-generating tra- jectories in remote future. Such processes are called as Q-processes. We discover a deeper connection between the Q-processes and the Galton-Watson Branching Processes allowing Immigration. The asymptotical properties of trajectories of Q-processes are investigated. The total progeny of Q-processes is studied.

  13. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  14. The anomalous origin of the branch pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Pankaj; Talwar, Sachin; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Saxena, Anita; Juneja, Rajnish; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery branch from the aorta (AOPA) is rare. We report our single-institution surgical experience with this condition. Between January 1994 and February 2011, 17 patients (age: 1 month–25 years) with AOPA underwent surgery at our institute. Thirteen patients had an anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) while four had an anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) from the aorta. In patients with anomalous RPA, 11 patients had the pr...

  15. An introduction to branching measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dynkin, Eugene B

    1994-01-01

    For about half a century, two classes of stochastic processes-Gaussian processes and processes with independent increments-have played an important role in the development of stochastic analysis and its applications. During the last decade, a third class-branching measure-valued (BMV) processes-has also been the subject of much research. A common feature of all three classes is that their finite-dimensional distributions are infinitely divisible, allowing the use of the powerful analytic tool of Laplace (or Fourier) transforms. All three classes, in an infinite-dimensional setting, provide means for study of physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. This is the first monograph devoted to the theory of BMV processes. Dynkin first constructs a large class of BMV processes, called superprocesses, by passing to the limit from branching particle systems. Then he proves that, under certain restrictions, a general BMV process is a superprocess. A special chapter is devoted to the connections between ...

  16. Uniqueness of Stationary Measures for Branching Processes and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Harris [3] using classical methods of functional iteration developed by Fatou [4]. It had already been pointed out by Fatou that if the coefficients are...E. HARRIS, 7’he Theory of Branching Processes, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1963. [4] P. FATOU , "Sur les 6quations fonctionelles," Bull. Soc. Math

  17. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  18. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  19. Do meteoritic silicon carbide grains originate from asymptotic giant branch stars of super-solar metallicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaro, Maria; Karakas, Amanda I.; Pető, Mária; Plachy, Emese

    2018-01-01

    We compare literature data for the isotopic ratios of Zr, Sr, and Ba from analysis of single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains to new predictions for the slow neutron-capture process (the s process) in metal-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The models have initial metallicities Z = 0.014 (solar) and Z = 0.03 (twice-solar) and initial masses 2-4.5 M⊙ , selected such as the condition C/O > 1 for the formation of SiC is achieved. Because of the higher Fe abundance, the twice-solar metallicity models result in a lower number of total free neutrons released by the 13C(α ,n)16O neutron source. Furthermore, the highest-mass (4-4.5 M⊙) AGB stars of twice-solar metallicity present a milder activation of the 22Ne(α ,n)25Mg neutron source than their solar metallicity counterparts, due to cooler temperatures resulting from the effect of higher opacities. They also have a lower amount of the 13C neutron source than the lower-mass models, following their smaller He-rich region. The combination of these different effects allows our AGB models of twice-solar metallicity to provide a match to the SiC data without the need to consider large variations in the features of the 13C neutron source nor neutron-capture processes different from the s process. This raises the question if the AGB parent stars of meteoritic SiC grains were in fact on average of twice-solar metallicity. The heavier-than-solar Si and Ti isotopic ratios in the same grains are in qualitative agreement with an origin in stars of super-solar metallicity because of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Further, the SiC dust mass ejected from C-rich AGB stars is predicted to significantly increase with increasing the metallicity.

  20. Origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region which innervates the thoracic limb and its surroundings. Its study in different species is important not only as a source of morphological knowledge, but also because it facilitates the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders resulting from various pathologies. This study aimed to describe the origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of Mazama gouazoubira. Three specimens were used, belonging to the scientific collection of the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU; they were fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde and dissected. In M. gouazoubira, the brachial plexus resulted from connections between the branches of the three last cervical spinal nerves, C6, C7, C8, and the first thoracic one, T1, and it had as derivations the nerves suprascapular, cranial and caudal subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, pectoral, thoracodorsal, long thoracic and lateral thoracic. The muscles innervated by the brachial plexus nerves were the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres major, teres minor, deltoid, cleidobrachial, coracobrachialis, biceps brachialis, brachial, triceps brachialis, anconeus, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, lateral ulnar, extensor carpi obliquus, extensor digitorum, superficial pectoral, deep pectoral, ventral serratus, and external oblique abdominal.

  1. Simple unified view of branching process statistics: Random walks in balanced logarithmic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Santo, Serena; Villegas, Pablo; Burioni, Raffaella; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the problem of deriving the mean-field values of avalanche exponents in systems with absorbing states. These are well known to coincide with those of unbiased branching processes. Here we show that for at least four different universality classes (directed percolation, dynamical percolation, the voter model or compact directed percolation class, and the Manna class of stochastic sandpiles) this common result can be obtained by mapping the corresponding Langevin equations describing each of them into a random walker confined to the origin by a logarithmic potential. We report on the emergence of nonuniversal continuously varying exponent values stemming from the presence of small external driving - that might induce avalanche merging - that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been noticed in the past. Many of the other results derived here appear in the literature as independently derived for individual universality classes or for the branching process itself. Still, we believe that a simple and unified perspective as the one presented here can help (1) clarify the overall picture, (2) underline the superuniversality of the behavior as well as the dependence on external driving, and (3) avoid the common existing confusion between unbiased branching processes (equivalent to a random walker in a balanced logarithmic potential) and standard (unconfined) random walkers.

  2. The anomalous origin of the branch pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Pankaj; Talwar, Sachin; Kothari, Shyam Sunder; Saxena, Anita; Juneja, Rajnish; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram

    2012-07-01

    The anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery branch from the aorta (AOPA) is rare. We report our single-institution surgical experience with this condition. Between January 1994 and February 2011, 17 patients (age: 1 month-25 years) with AOPA underwent surgery at our institute. Thirteen patients had an anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) while four had an anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) from the aorta. In patients with anomalous RPA, 11 patients had the proximal type and two patients had the distal type of AOPA. Four patients had associated Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In 14 patients, direct implantation into the main pulmonary artery was performed, while three patients required interpositon of a graft. There was one operative death due to persistent hypoxia in a 7-month old child with TOF and an anomalous LPA from the aorta. At a median follow-up of 36.5 months (range: 2-192 months), all 16 survivors were asymptomatic. On echocardiography, two patients showed a gradient of 25 and 30 mmHg across the anastomosis and are being followed up. In our experience, early repair of AOPA results in acceptable haemodynamic and anatomic results. Long-term survival can be expected with a low incidence of re-operation or re-intervention.

  3. Leading Process Branch Instability in Lis1+/− Nonradially Migrating Interneurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Pallavi P.; Simonet, Jacqueline C.; Shapiro, William

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian forebrain development requires extensive migration, yet the mechanisms through which migrating neurons sense and respond to guidance cues are not well understood. Similar to the axon growth cone, the leading process and branches of neurons may guide migration, but the cytoskeletal events that regulate branching are unknown. We have previously shown that loss of microtubule-associated protein Lis1 reduces branching during migration compared with wild-type neurons. Using time-lapse imaging of Lis1+/− and Lis1+/+ cells migrating from medial ganglionic eminence explant cultures, we show that the branching defect is not due to a failure to initiate branches but a defect in the stabilization of new branches. The leading processes of Lis1+/− neurons have reduced expression of stabilized, acetylated microtubules compared with Lis1+/+ neurons. To determine whether Lis1 modulates branch stability through its role as the noncatalytic β regulatory subunit of platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase 1b, exogenous PAF was applied to wild-type cells. Excess PAF added to wild-type neurons phenocopies the branch instability observed in Lis1+/− neurons, and a PAF antagonist rescues leading process branching in Lis1+/− neurons. These data highlight a role for Lis1, acting through the PAF pathway, in leading process branching and microtubule stabilization. PMID:19861636

  4. Ascending aortic origin of a branch pulmonary artery--surgical management and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Edward W K; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Macarthur, Kenneth J D; Pollock, James C S

    2004-10-01

    Ascending aortic origin of a branch pulmonary artery (AOPA, hemitruncus arteriosus) is a rare congenital malformation. While there have been isolated case reports, larger series, relating to long-term outcomes following surgery are few. This article analyses the surgical results of a series of nine patients, over a period of 29 years. Between 1974 and 2003, nine patients [neonates, 6; infants, 3; male, 5; female, 4] were operated on for AOPA. Median age at presentation was 14 days (range birth to 231 days). Six [corrected] patients (group 1) had associated simple lesions like patent ductus arteriosus or right aortic arch. Three patients (group 2) had complex lesions with right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. One patient (group 2) had DiGeorge syndrome. All patients except group 2 presented with congestive cardiac failure and, in addition one had pre-operative coronary ischemia. Diagnosis was established by angiocardiography in two patients and by echocardiography in seven [corrected] The median age at operation was 28 days (range 7-365). Follow-up period ranged from 7 months to 20.5 years (median 9 years). All nine patients had an anomalous right pulmonary artery (RPA) arising from the proximal ascending aorta, while the left branch was of right ventricular origin. All had evidence of pulmonary hypertension or elevated right ventricular pressure pre-operatively. There was no operative mortality. Of eight patients who had direct anastomosis of the RPA to the main pulmonary artery, one required patch enlargement and another required stenting of an anastomotic stenosis. One patient had a RV-RPA conduit, which required replacement 8, 13, and 14 years later. At follow-up, all patients were alive. All patients in group 1 had normal haemodynamic function and were in NYHA class I. In group 2, all were in NYHA class II with evidence of right ventricular hypertrophy. Four patients had post-operative ventilation-perfusion scans which showed satisfactory perfusion to

  5. A reconsideration of Lotka's extinction probability using a bisexual branching process

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, David M.

    2001-01-01

    It is generally recognized that Alfred Lotka made the first application of standard Galton-Watson branching process theory to calculate an extinction probability in a specific population (using asexual reproduction). This note applies bisexual Galton-Watson branching process theory to the calculation of an extinction probability from Lotka's data, yielding a somewhat higher value.

  6. Anomalous branching pattern of the portal vein: right posterior portal vein originating from the left portal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Kiryu, Shigeru

    2017-05-01

    To introduce a rare variant branching pattern of the portal vein with clinical relevance. A 55-year-old man was examined by contrast-enhanced computed tomography to investigate the cause of fever and mildly elevated hepatic enzyme levels. Based on computed tomography, liver abscesses were identified which may have caused the fever and elevated hepatic enzyme levels. And a variation in the branching pattern of the portal vein was also detected in this patient, which has not been reported previously; the right posterior portal vein originated from the end of the horizontal part of the left portal vein. Identification of this rare branching pattern of the portal vein prior to hepatectomy, liver transplantation, and portal vein embolization is considered important to prevent complications. A rare variant in which the right posterior portal vein originated from the left portal vein was identified. Recognition of this variant may be important prior to surgical or interventional radiological strategies.

  7. Variations of the origin of collateral branches emerging from the posterior aspect of the brachial plexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramirez Luis

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The frequency of variation found in the arrangement and distribution of the branches in the brachial plexus, make this anatomical region extremely complicated. The medical concerns involved with these variations include anesthetic blocks, surgical approaches, interpreting tumor or traumatic nervous compressions having unexplained clinical symptoms (sensory loss, pain, wakefulness and paresis, and the possibility of these structures becoming compromised. The clinical importance of these variations is discussed in the light of their differential origins. Methods The anatomy of brachial plexus structures from 46 male and 11 female cadaverous specimens were studied. The 40–80 year-old specimens were obtained from the Universidad Industrial de Santander's Medical Faculty's Anatomy Department (dissection laboratory. Parametric measures were used for calculating results. Results Almost half (47.1% of the evaluated plexuses had collateral variations. Subscapular nerves were the most varied structure, including the presence of a novel accessory nerve. Long thoracic nerve variations were present, as were the absence of C5 or C7 involvement, and late C7 union with C5–C6. Conclusion Further studies are needed to confirm the existence of these variations in a larger sample of cadaver specimens.

  8. Disentangling the origins of branched tetraether lipids and crenarchaeol in the lower Amazon River: Implications for GDGT-based proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.H.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Abril, G.; Hopmans, E.C.; Bonnet, M.-P.; Lima Sobrinho, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    To trace the origin of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), their distribution in soils and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of Amazonian rivers and floodplain lakes (varzeas) was studied. Differences in distribution between river SPM and surrounding (lowland) soils suggests

  9. Anomalous Origin of One Pulmonary Artery Branch From the Aorta: Role of MDCT Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Jimei; Xie, Zhaofeng; Wang, Qiushi; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Liang, Changhong; Huang, Hongfei; Kwong, Raymond Y; Saboo, Sachin S

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, MDCT angiography (MDCTA) appearance, associated congenital cardiovascular abnormalities, and prognosis of anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA) on the basis of MDCTA. We conducted a retrospective search of patients with AOPA from our database in a single center, consisting of 5729 patients referred for MDCTA with known or suspected congenital heart diseases from transthoracic echocardiography. The clinical information, subtypes of AOPA, associated cardiovascular anomalies, and surgical and clinical outcomes were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The MDCTA images were retrospectively processed for analysis, and the MDCTA and echocardiography images were interpreted by radiologist and cardiologist without knowledge of the actual diagnosis or surgical outcome. AOPA was seen in 19 patients (14 males and five females; median age, 3 months; range, 4 days-21 years) showing a prevalence of 0.33%. Anomalous origin of the right pulmonary artery (AORPA, 89%), proximal origin subtype of the AOPA (89%), and ipsilateral aortic wall origin of AOPA (58%) were more commonly seen. In addition to the benefit of preoperative planning, MDCTA also supplemented echocardiography by providing accurate diagnosis of AOPA and other associated cardiovascular anomalies compared with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We found a total of four patients (21%) with misdiagnosis by TTE, including three patients with underdiagnosis of AOPA and one patient with misdiagnosis as transposition of the great arteries. In addition, two other patients had AOPA diagnosed, but the associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was not detected. MDCTA revealed 95% association with other congenital cardiovascular anomalies, including PDA (71% of AORPA), and aortic arch anomalies (100% of anomalous origin of the left pulmonary artery, AOLPA). The types of surgery depended on the MDCTA findings, including the sub-type, origin

  10. Postoperative outcome in patients with anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery branch from the aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prifti, Edvin; Crucean, Adrian; Bonacchi, Massimo; Bernabei, Massimo; Leacche, Marzia; Murzi, Bruno; Bartolozzi, Fabio; Vanini, Vittorio

    2003-07-01

    The aim was to review our experience with the surgical repair of the anomalous origin of one pulmonary branch from the aorta (AOPA). Between January 1991 and March 2002, eight patients with AOPA underwent surgical correction. Three patients presented isolated AOPA. Five patients presented right AOPA and three, left AOPA. Implantation of the AOPA to the main pulmonary artery was performed by: (I) direct anastomosis in two patients with left AOPA; (II) interposition of a synthetic graft in one patient with left AOPA; (III) employing an autologous pericardial patch in two patients with right AOPA; (IV) using an aortic flap in three other patients with right AOPA. The mean follow-up time was 37.7 months. One patient died postoperatively due to progressive heart failure unresponsive to inotropic support. Early postoperative pulmonary hypertension crisis was identified in another patient. Within 1 year after surgery, the mean residual gradient across the anastomotic site at follow-up was 14+/-8 mmHg. The patient undergoing interposition of a synthetic graft presented a residual gradient of 29 mmHg and underwent reoperation at almost 2.5 years after the first correction. The residual gradient in patients undergoing correction according to technique I was 17+/-3 mmHg, and in patients undergoing implantation of the AOPA according to techniques III or IV was 9.5+/-4.6 mmHg (P=0.11). Similarly, the Tc-99m scintigraphy demonstrated that a lower lung perfusion (the lung perfused from the respective AOPA compared with the contralateral lung) in patients undergoing AOPA implantation according to technique I was 59+/-6(%) and in patients undergoing techniques III or IV was 72+/-4.5(%) (P=0.038). At follow-up, all patients were alive. The AOPA from the aorta is a rare but important entity, necessitating a scrupulous preoperative and intraoperative evaluation. Patients presenting this anomaly may undergo correction using various surgical techniques with acceptable results. The

  11. Synthesis of porous carbon nanofiber with bamboo-like carbon nanofiber branches by one-step carbonization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Hwa; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2017-04-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) with CNF branches (PCNF/bCNF) were synthesized by a simple heat treatment method. Conventional methods to synthesize this unique structure usually follow a typical route, which consists of CNF preparation, catalyst deposition, and secondary CNF growth. In contrast, our method utilized a one-step carbonization process of polymer nanofibers, which were electrospun from a one-pot solution consisted of polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene (PS), and iron acetylacetonate. Various structures of PCNF/CNF were synthesized by changing the solution composition and molecular weight of PS. It was verified that the content and molecular weight of PS were critical for the growth of catalyst particles and subsequent growth of CNF branches. The morphology, phase of catalyst, and carbon structure of PCNF/bCNF were analyzed at different temperature steps during carbonization. It was found that pores were generated by the evaporation of PS and the catalyst particles were formed on the surface of PCNF at 700 °C. The gases originated from the evaporation of PS acted as a carbon source for the growth of CNF branches that started at 900 °C. Finally, when the carbonization process was finished at 1200 °C, uniform and abundant CNF branches were formed on the surface of PCNF.

  12. Mathematical Modeling of the Process for Microbial Production of Branched Chained Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modelling of branched chained amino acids production. One of important branched chained amino acid is L-valine. The aim of the article is synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  13. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages with Multi-Type Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Junjian; Sun, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multi-type branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multi-type branching process can effectively predi...

  14. Probabilistic divergence time estimation without branch lengths: dating the origins of dinosaurs, avian flight and crown birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, G T; Bapst, D W; Friedman, M; Davis, K E

    2016-11-01

    Branch lengths-measured in character changes-are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two such approaches to estimate divergence times for: (i) Dinosauria, (ii) Avialae (the earliest birds) and (iii) Neornithes (crown birds). We find: (i) the plausibility of a Permian origin for dinosaurs to be dependent on whether Nyasasaurus is the oldest dinosaur, (ii) a Middle to Late Jurassic origin of avian flight regardless of whether Archaeopteryx or Aurornis is considered the first bird and (iii) a Late Cretaceous origin for Neornithes that is broadly congruent with other node- and tip-dating estimates. Demonstrating the feasibility of probabilistic time-scaling further opens up divergence estimation to the rich histories of extinct biodiversity in the fossil record, even in the absence of detailed character data. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Two-Type Reducible Age-Dependent Branching Processes With Non-Homogeneous Poisson Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrien, Ollivier; Yanev, Nikolay M

    2011-01-01

    Two type reducible age-dependent branching stochastic processes with non-homogeneous Poisson immigration are considered as models of renewal cell population dynamics. The asymptotic behaviour of the first moments of the process with or without immigration is investigated. Several classes of asymptotic behavior are identified for the population dynamics. Our results are also useful for developing associated methods of statistical inference.

  16. The Specific Features of design and process engineering in branch of industrial enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosedko, V. V.; Yanishevskaya, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    Production output of industrial enterprise is organized in debugged working mechanisms at each stage of product’s life cycle from initial design documentation to product and finishing it with utilization. The topic of article is mathematical model of the system design and process engineering in branch of the industrial enterprise, statistical processing of estimated implementation results of developed mathematical model in branch, and demonstration of advantages at application at this enterprise. During the creation of model a data flow about driving of information, orders, details and modules in branch of enterprise groups of divisions were classified. Proceeding from the analysis of divisions activity, a data flow, details and documents the state graph of design and process engineering was constructed, transitions were described and coefficients are appropriated. To each condition of system of the constructed state graph the corresponding limiting state probabilities were defined, and also Kolmogorov’s equations are worked out. When integration of sets of equations of Kolmogorov the state probability of system activity the specified divisions and production as function of time in each instant is defined. On the basis of developed mathematical model of uniform system of designing and process engineering and manufacture, and a state graph by authors statistical processing the application of mathematical model results was carried out, and also advantage at application at this enterprise is shown. Researches on studying of loading services probability of branch and third-party contractors (the orders received from branch within a month) were conducted. The developed mathematical model of system design and process engineering and manufacture can be applied to definition of activity state probability of divisions and manufacture as function of time in each instant that will allow to keep account of loading of performance of work in branches of the enterprise.

  17. The Effectiveness Analysis of Waiting Processes in the Different Branches of a Bank by Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ÖZÇİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the appreciable increase in the number of bank branches every year, nowadays queues for services don’t decrease and even become parts of our daily lives. By minimizing waiting processes the least, increasing customer satisfaction should be one of branch managers’ main goals. A quick and also customer oriented service with high quality is the most important factor for customer loyalty. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in six different branches of two banks operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by six branches of two banks called as A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. At the end of study it is presented to the company some advices that can bring benefits to the staff and customers. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in three different branches of a bank operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by three branches of the bank called A1, A2 and A3. At last it is presented to the company some advices that can bring more benefits to the staff and clients.

  18. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  19. Surgical Results of Anomalous Origin of One Pulmonary Artery Branch from the Ascending Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Woong-Han; Choi, Eun Seok; Lee, Jeong Ryul; Kim, Yong Jin

    2015-10-01

    We reviewed our surgical experience with anomalous origin of one pulmonary artery from the ascending aorta (AOPA). From 1989 to 2012, 12 children (five neonates) aged 3-734 days (mean 152 ± 222) with AOPA underwent operations. Eight patients had right AOPA, and four patients had left AOPA. The majority of the patients had elevated right ventricular pressure, with 58 % (7 of 12) demonstrating suprasystemic right ventricular pressure. Surgery was performed by direct anastomosis (group 1) in seven patients and by employing an autologous patch (group 2) in five patients. There were two postoperative mortalities caused by heart failure and pulmonary hypertensive crisis. The mean follow-up duration was 12.6 ± 8 years. Catheterization showed that the right ventricle-to-systemic pressure ratio decreased following operation (preoperative vs. postoperative; 1.13 ± 0.19 vs. 0.48 ± 0.03, p = 0.043). There was no difference in the perfusion of the affected lung as measured by the final lung perfusion scan, between the two groups (group 1 vs. group 2; 50.0 ± 10.3 vs. 42.7 ± 28.7 %, p = 0.158). Two patients required reoperations for pulmonary regurgitation and pulmonary artery stenosis. There were two catheter-based interventions. At 20 years, survival by the Kaplan-Meier was 91.7 ± 8.0 %, freedom from reoperation was 80.0 ± 17.9 %, and freedom from catheter intervention was 80.8 ± 12.2 %. Early repair of AOPA improves right ventricular pressure and overall hemodynamics with excellent survival and low risk of reintervention. The type of surgical repair did not significantly affect the long-term outcomes (measured via lung perfusion scan).

  20. Prospects for direct neutron capture measurements on s-process branching point isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Domingo-Pardo, C. [CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Kaeppeler, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Palomo, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dept. de Ingenieria Electronica, Sevilla (Spain); Reifarth, R. [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of several unstable key isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure directly due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, where high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. At present there are about 21 relevant s-process branching point isotopes whose cross section could not be measured yet over the neutron energy range of interest for astrophysics. However, the situation is changing with some very recent developments and upcoming technologies. This work introduces three techniques that will change the current paradigm in the field: the use of γ-ray imaging techniques in (n, γ) experiments, the production of moderated neutron beams using high-power lasers, and double capture experiments in Maxwellian neutron beams. (orig.)

  1. Sensitivity analysis of a branching process evolving on a network with application in epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Blondel, Vincent D

    2015-01-01

    We perform an analytical sensitivity analysis for a model of a continuous-time branching process evolving on a fixed network. This allows us to determine the relative importance of the model parameters to the growth of the population on the network. We then apply our results to the early stages of an influenza-like epidemic spreading among a set of cities connected by air routes in the United States. We also consider vaccination and analyze the sensitivity of the total size of the epidemic with respect to the fraction of vaccinated people. Our analysis shows that the epidemic growth is more sensitive with respect to transmission rates within cities than travel rates between cities. More generally, we highlight the fact that branching processes offer a powerful stochastic modeling tool with analytical formulas for sensitivity which are easy to use in practice.

  2. The McMillan Theorem for Colored Branching Processes and Dimensions of Random Fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bakhtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the simplest colored branching process, we prove an analog to the McMillan theorem and calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of random fractals defined in terms of the limit behavior of empirical measures generated by finite genetic lines. In this setting, the role of Shannon’s entropy is played by the Kullback–Leibler divergence, and the Hausdorff dimensions are computed by means of the so-called Billingsley–Kullback entropy, defined in the paper.

  3. Simulating the Emergence and Survival of Mutations Using a Self Regulating Multitype Branching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Mode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for an experimenter to study the emergence and survival of mutations, because mutations are rare events so that large experimental population must be maintained to ensure a reasonable chance that a mutation will be observed. In his famous book, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Sir R. A. Fisher introduced branching processes into evolutionary genetics as a framework for studying the emergence and survival of mutations in an evolving population. During the lifespan of Fisher, computer technology had not advanced to a point at which it became an effective tool for simulating the phenomenon of the emergence and survival of mutations, but given the wide availability of personal desktop and laptop computers, it is now possible and financially feasible for investigators to perform Monte Carlo Simulation experiments. In this paper all computer simulation experiments were carried out within a framework of self regulating multitype branching processes, which are part of a stochastic working paradigm. Emergence and survival of mutations could also be studied within a deterministic paradigm, which raises the issue as to what sense are predictions based on the stochastic and deterministic models are consistent. To come to grips with this issue, a technique was used such that a deterministic model could be embedded in a branching process so that the predictions of both the stochastic and deterministic compared based on the same assigned values of parameters.

  4. Measurement of the Branching Ratio for the Process $b \\to \\tau^{-}\\overline{\

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, R.J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Carnegie, R.K.; Caron, B.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Couchman, J.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hauschildt, J.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klein, K.; Klier, A.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kramer, T.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; Von Krogh, J.; Krop, D.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Moed, S.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Pooth, O.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Rick, H.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Stumpf, L.; Surrow, B.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vachon, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The inclusive branching ratio for the process b -> tau nu X has been measured using hadronic Z decays collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP in the years 1992-2000. The result is: BR(b -> tau nu X) = (2.78 +/- 0.18 +/- 0.51)% This measurement is consistent with the Standard Model expectation and puts a constraint of tan(beta) / M(H+/-) < 0.53 GeV-1 at the 95% confidence level on Type II Two Higgs Doublet Models.

  5. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  6. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  7. Neutron capture at the s-process branching points $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl

    CERN Multimedia

    Branching points in the s-process are very special isotopes for which there is a competition between the neutron capture and the subsequent b-decay chain producing the heavy elements beyond Fe. Typically, the knowledge on the associated capture cross sections is very poor due to the difficulty in obtaining enough material of these radioactive isotopes and to measure the cross section of a sample with an intrinsic activity; indeed only 2 out o the 21 ${s}$-process branching points have ever been measured by using the time-of-flight method. In this experiment we aim at measuring for the first time the capture cross sections of $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl, both of crucial importance for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in AGB stars. The combination of both (n,$\\gamma$) measurements on $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl will allow one to accurately constrain neutron density and the strength of the 13C(α,n) source in low mass AGB stars. Additionally, the cross section of $^{204}$Tl is also of cosmo-chrono...

  8. The neutron capture cross section of the ${s}$-process branch point isotope $^{63}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis in massive stars plays an important role in Galactic chemical evolution as well as for the analysis of abundance patterns in very old metal-poor halo stars. The so-called weak ${s}$-process component, which is responsible for most of the ${s}$ abundances between Fe and Sr, turned out to be very sensitive to the stellar neutron capture cross sections in this mass region and, in particular, of isotopes near the seed distribution around Fe. In this context, the unstable isotope $^{63}$Ni is of particular interest because it represents the first branching point in the reaction path of the ${s}$-process. We propose to measure this cross section at n_TOF from thermal energies up to 500 keV, covering the entire range of astrophysical interest. These data are needed to replace uncertain theoretical predicitons by first experimental information to understand the consequences of the $^{63}$Ni branching for the abundance pattern of the subsequent isotopes, especially for $^{63}$Cu and $^{...

  9. The (n, $\\gamma$) reaction in the s-process branching point $^{59}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the $^{59}$Ni(n,$\\gamma$)$^{56}$Fe cross section at the neutron time of flight (n TOF) facility with a dedicated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detector. The (n, ) reaction in the radioactive $^{59}$Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as it can be seen as a rst branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. There is a strong discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data les for this isotope. The aim of the measurement is to clarify this disagreement. The clear energy separation of the reaction products of neutron induced reactions in $^{59}$Ni makes it a very suitable candidate for a rst cross section measurement with the CVD diamond detector, which should serve in the future for similar measurements at n_TOF.

  10. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point 59Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Weiß, C; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Vlachoudis, V.; Altstadt, S.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L.S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Riego, A.; Robles, M.S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive 59Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as 59Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n_TOF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the 59Ni(n, α)56Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  11. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point 59Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, C.; Guerrero, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Vlachoudis, V.; Altstadt, S.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L. S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Riego, A.; Robles, M. S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2014-06-01

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive 59Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as 59Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n_TOF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the 59Ni(n, α)56Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  12. 12 CFR 545.95 - What processing procedures apply to my home or branch office application or notice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to my home or branch office application or notice? (a) Processing procedures. Applications and... approve an amendment to your charter in connection with a home office relocation under this section. (c... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What processing procedures apply to my home or...

  13. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  14. A branching process, its application in biology: influence of demographic parameters on the social structure in mammal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron-Lormier, G; Masson, J P; Ménard, N; Pierre, J S

    2006-02-07

    Branching processes are widely used in biology. This theoretical tool is used in cell dynamics, epidemics and population dynamics. In population dynamics, branching processes are mainly used to access extinction probabilities of populations, groups or families, with the Galton-Watson branching process. Many mammal species live in socially-structured groups, and the smallest units of these groups are lineages (or families) of kin-related individuals. In many primate species, these lineages are matrilines, as females remain in their natal groups most of the time, whereas males generally disperse. Lineage parameters, such as numbers of matrilines, size of each matriline and average degree of relatedness, could strongly influence the genetic composition of groups. Evidence indicates that division along matrilines could induce substantial differentiation among fission groups. Here, we develop a novel mathematical model based on the branching process theory describing demographic dynamics of groups. The main result of this model is an explicit analytical expression of the joint distribution of numbers of lineages and sizes of socially-structured groups. We investigated the influence of parameters such as natality and mortality on the outcome of the process, including extinction probability. Finally, we discuss this theoretical result with respect to biological significance.

  15. Evidences of early aqueous Mars: Implications on the origin of branched valleys in the Ius Chasma, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha, Tapas R.; Jain, Nirmala; Vamshi, Gasiganti T.; Vinod Kumar, K.

    2017-11-01

    This study shows results of morphological and spectroscopic analyses of Ius Chasma and its southern branched valleys using Orbiter datasets such as Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)-Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO-HiRISE) and digital terrain model (HRSC-DTM). Result of the spectral analysis reveals presence of hydrated minerals such as opal, nontronite and vermiculite in the floor and wall rock areas Ius Chasma indicating alteration of parent rock in an water rich environment of early Mars. Topographic gradient and morphological evidences such as V-shaped valleys with theatre shaped stubby channels, dendritic drainage and river piracy indicate that these valleys were initially developed by surface runoff due to episodic floods and further expanded due to groundwater sapping controlled by faults and fractures. Minerals formed by aqueous alteration during valley formation and their intricate association with different morphological domains suggest that surface runoff played a key role in the development of branched valleys south of Ius Chasma on Mars.

  16. Origin and evolutionary process of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji; Niihara, Yuka

    2007-01-01

    The genetic code plots the relationship between a triplet base sequence on RNA and an amino acid that corresponds to a protein associated with a required function in organisms. Accurate knowledge about the genetic code, including its origin and evolutionary process, would be helpful for determining the causes of genetic disorders and discovering new medical treatments, as well as for understanding the origin of life. This review begins with discussion of several well-known theories on the origin of the genetic code. Then, a GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis, which we originally proposed, is explained in relation to the weak points of other theories. S and N denote G or C and any of the four bases, respectively. We also introduce our hypothesis of the GADV-protein world hypothesis on the origin of life, where GADV stands for the four amino acids, Gly[G], Ala[A], Asp[D] and Val[V]. Next, we discuss the reason why genetic disorders, which should be triggered by base replacements, are repressed at a low level under the universal genetic code. Finally, we explain the current difficulties we faced in treating genetic disorders, suggesting a prospect for a new type of treatments of these disorders.

  17. 78 FR 53020 - Branch Technical Position on the Import of Non-U.S. Origin Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... embrace this policy was in large part informed by U.S. industry comments that there is a: ``widely..., which meet the performance requirement of 10 CFR 34.20(b)(2) and qualify as Type B transport containers... historically have not differentiated use or storage of radioactive sources based on origin. In terms of their...

  18. Chemical control of branched broomrape in processing tomato using sulfonylureas in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Conversa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the efficacy and the selectivity of three sulfonylureas (SUs rimsulfuron (RS, chlorsulfuron (CS and triasulfuron (TS for Phelipanche ramosa control in processing tomato. In 2014 a single dose (D (75, 15 and 22.5 g ha–1 active ingredient – a.i.– of RS, CS and TS, respectively, split into three applications at equal rate, was delivered into the soil layer interested by the roots using two herbigation methods i through the drip irrigation system (DH or ii by foliar spray followed by overhead irrigation (FH. In 2015 SUs were applied in pre-transplant at one third of D, and in post-transplant at the dose D, at onehalf and at one-fourth of D, delivered in 3 rates by drip herbigation. In both experiments RS gave the best broomrape control and the highest yield increase compared with the untreated crop and CS improved crop yield similarly to RS despite being less effective in contrasting branched broomrape, In 2014, the foliar application of TS and CS resulted in plant injuries which, more significantly with TS, caused lower numbers and fresh weight of fruits as well as a lower crop productivity increase. In the same year the drip herbigation with TS resulted in the lowest broomrape control and tomato yield increase. In 2015, the best parasite control and tomato yield performances were obtained with RS and CS when applied in pre-transplant at 25.0 and 5.0 g ha–1 a.i., respectively, and in post-transplant at 75.0 and 15.0 g ha–1 a.i., respectively. With TS, the pre-transplant application a.i. was the most effective among the TS treatments resulting in a yield improvement similar to RS and CS, while it was confirmed the low broomrape control when applied through drip irrigation due to its low mobility in the soil. More research is needed in order to better exploit the combination of pre- and post-transplant applications in the chemical control of P. ramosa of tomato under the conditions in southern Italy.

  19. Mechanisms of Side Branching and Tip Splitting in a Model of Branching Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yina; Sun, Mingzhu; Garfinkel, Alan; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE), due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth) direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1) a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2) the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1) side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2) tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3) when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs together with side

  20. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  1. THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: THE CASE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF MALAYA (1948–1960 – A SPECIAL BRANCH PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Comber

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the Malayan Emergency (1948–1960 have been debated over the years in both the academic world and in the intelligence community. This paper incorporates the contemporaneous views of the Malayan Special Branch that have not been recorded previously. It also examines the role of Lawrence (Lance Sharkey, the acting Secretary-General of the Australian Communist Party, who was in Singapore en route back to Australia after attending the February 1948 Conferences in Singapore, in allegedly passing instructions to the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM to revolt against the British colonial government in Malaya. The essay will conclude that there is little evidence of any direct Soviet intervention in the decision made by the CPM to revolt, and it will argue that the decision to resort to armed conflict was made after its failure to establish a Communist People’s Democratic Republic by “open front” activities.

  2. Dating the origin of hepatitis B virus reveals higher substitution rate and adaptation on the branch leading to F/H genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Angelis, Konstantinos; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Kostaki, Evangelia; Ho, Simon Y W; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV), particularly its origins and evolutionary timescale, has been the subject of debate. Three major scenarios have been proposed, variously placing the origin of HBV in humans and great apes from some million years to only a few thousand years ago (ka). To compare these scenarios, we analyzed 105 full-length HBV genome sequences from all major genotypes sampled globally. We found a high correlation between the demographic histories of HBV and humans, as well as coincidence in the times of origin of specific subgenotypes with human migrations giving rise to their host indigenous populations. Together with phylogenetic evidence, this suggests that HBV has co-expanded with modern humans. Based on the co-expansion, we conducted a Bayesian dating analysis to estimate a precise evolutionary timescale for HBV. Five calibrations were used at the origins of F/H genotypes, D4, C3 and B6 from respective indigenous populations in the Pacific and Arctic and A5 from Haiti. The estimated time for the origin of HBV was 34.1ka (95% highest posterior density interval 27.6-41.3ka), coinciding with the dispersal of modern non-African humans. Our study, the first to use full-length HBV sequences, places a precise timescale on the HBV epidemic and also shows that the "branching paradox" of the more divergent genotypes F/H from Amerindians is due to an accelerated substitution rate, probably driven by positive selection. This may explain previously observed differences in the natural history of HBV between genotypes F1 and A2, B1, and D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Origin Lycopene and Its "Green" Downstream Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is an abundant natural carotenoid pigment with several biological functions (well-known for its antioxidant properties) which is under intensive investigation in recent years. Lycopene chemistry, its natural distribution, bioavailability, biological significance, and toxicological effects are briefly outlined in the first part of this review. The second, major part, deals with various modern downstream processing techniques, which are assessed in order to identify promising approaches for the recovery of lycopene and of similar lipophilic compounds. Natural lycopene is synthesized in plants and by microorganisms, with main representatives of these two categories (for industrial production) tomato and its by-products and the fungus Blakeslea trispora, respectively. Currently, there is a great deal of effort to develop efficient downstream processing for large scale production of natural-origin lycopene, with trends strongly indicating the necessity for "green" and mild extraction conditions. In this review, emphasis is placed on final product safety and ecofriendly processing, which are expected to totally dominate in the field of natural-origin lycopene extraction and purification.

  4. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet-medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Wolfgang; Stelzer, Valentin; Stelzer, Dominik; Braune, Monika; Duller, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0-10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1-3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure. A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4) in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs sports" group versus the more active (1-3 times weekly sports) group showed a better pain decrease after 1 year in the active group. The data suggest RF treatment for chronic LBP that can lead to long-term improvement. Patients with a BMI >30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion.

  5. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cailloux

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same processing conditions, PD,L-LA with the lower D enantiomer molar content revealed a higher reactivity towards the reactive agent, induced by its higher thermal sensitivity. REXCalendering process seemed to minimize the degradations reactions during processing, although a competition between degradation and chain extension/branching reactions took place in both processes. Finally, the rheological characterization revealed a higher degree of modification in the melt rheological behaviour for REX-Calendered samples.

  6. A single carbon fiber microelectrode with branching carbon nanotubes for bioelectrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyan; Lu, Xin; Tze, William T Y; Wang, Ping

    2010-06-15

    Carbon fiber electrodes are greatly promising for microelectronic applications including high performance biosensors, miniaturized transmitters, and energy storage and generation devices. For biosensor applications, one drawback of using carbon fiber microelectrodes, especially single fiber electrodes, is the weak electronic signals, a consequence of low surface area of fibers, which ultimately limit the sensitivity of the sensors. In this paper, we report a novel single fiber microelectrode with branched carbon nanotubes for enhanced sensing performance. The fiber microelectrode was prepared from carbonization of cellulose fibers. Upon introduction of carbon nanotubes, the carbon fibers exhibited a significant increase in the specific surface area from fiber electrode with such a hierarchical structure was examined for redox reactions of coenzyme NAD(H) which is useful to mediate the assays and transformations of a broad range of biochemicals. Experimental results showed that carbon nanotubes enhanced the redox reactions on surfaces of the electrode by reducing the oxidation potential of NAD(H) from 0.8 to 0.55 V. The single carbon fiber with branched nanotubes was also examined for the detection of glycerol, and the results showed linear responding signals in a concentration range of 40-250 microM. These results are comparable to the properties of fossil-based carbon materials, and thus our cellulose-based carbon electrodes provide a potentially sustainable alternative in bioelectrochemical applications. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.

  8. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet–medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelzer W

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Stelzer,1 Valentin Stelzer,1 Dominik Stelzer,1 Monika Braune,1 Christine Duller2 1Medizinisches Zentrum SchmerzLOS Linz and Baden/Vienna, Vienna, 2Johannes Kepler University Linz, Linz, Austria Purpose: This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment.Methods: Visual Analog Scale (VAS 0–10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI, medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1–3×/week, more were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160, and again at 6 (n=73 and 12 months (n=89 post procedure.Results: A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4 in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs <30. No gender-specific differences occurred in the reported decrease in VAS. Analysis of the “no-sports” group versus the more active (1–3 times weekly sports group showed a better pain decrease after 1 year in the active group.Conclusion: The data suggest RF treatment for chronic LBP that can lead to long-term improvement. Patients with a BMI >30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion. Keywords: radiofrequency, low back pain, BMI, sacroiliac joint, gender, sports, cooled RF neurotomy

  9. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  10. On the Inclusion of Self Regulating Branching Processes in the Working Paradigm of Evolutionary and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Mode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal goal of this methodological paper is to suggest to a generalaudience in the genetics community that the consideration of recentdevelopments of self regulating branching processes may lead to thepossibility of including this class of stochastic processes as part ofworking paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics. This class ofbranching processes is self regulating in the sense that an evolvingpopulation will grow only to a total population size that can be sustainedby the environment. From the mathematical point of view the class processesunder consideration belongs to a subfield of probability and statisticssometimes referred to as computational applied probability and stochasticprocesses. Computer intensive methods based on Monte Carlo simulationprocedures have been used to empirically work out the predictions of aformulation by assigning numerical values to some point in the parameterspace and computing replications of realizations of the process overthousands of generations of evolution. Statistical methods are then used onsuch samples of simulated data to produce informative summarizations of thedata that provide insights into the evolutionary implications of computerexperiments. Briefly, it is also possible to embed deterministic non-lineardifference equations in the stochastic process by using a statisticalprocedure to estimate the sample functions of the process, which hasinteresting methodological implications as to whether stochastic ordeterministic formulations may be applied separately or in combination inthe study of evolution. It is recognized that the literature on populationgenetics contains a substantial number of papers in which Monte Carlosimulation methods have been used. But, this extensive literature is beyondthe scope of this paper, which is focused on potential applications of selfregulating branching processes in evolutionary and population genetics.

  11. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  12. Renewed limit theorems for the discrete-time Branching Process and its conditioned limiting law interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Imomov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our principal aim is to observe a Markov discrete-time process of population growth with long-living trajectory. First we study asymptotical decay of generating function of Galton-Watson process for all cases as the Basic Lemma. Afterwards we get a Differential analogue of the Basic Lemma. This Lemma plays main role in our discussions throughout the paper. Hereupon we improve and supplement classical results concerning Galton-Watson process. Further we investigate properties of the population process so called Q-process. In particular we obtain a joint limit law of Q-process and its total state. And also we state and prove the analogue of Law of large numbers and the Central limit theorem for total state of Q-process.

  13. Life's origin: the cosmic, planetary and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.

    1987-01-01

    From elements formed in interstellar furnaces to humans peering back at the stars, the evolution of life has been a long, intricate and perhaps inevitable process. Life as we know it requires a planet orbiting a star at just the right distance so that water can exist in liquid form. It needs a rich supply of chemicals and energy sources. On Earth, the combination of chemistry and energy generated molecules that evolved ways of replicating themselves and of passing information from one generation to the next. Thus, the thread of life began. This chart traces the thread, maintained by DNA molecules for much of its history, as it weaves its way through the primitive oceans, gaining strength and diversity along the way. Organisms eventually moved onto the land, where advanced forms, including humans, ultimately arose. Finally, assisted by a technology of its own making, life has reached back out into space to understand its own origins, to expand into new realms, and to seek other living threads in the cosmos.

  14. Moisture origin and transport processes in Colombia, northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, I.; Dominguez, F.; Cañón-Barriga, J.; Martínez, J. A.; Nieto, R.; Gimeno, L.; Dirmeyer, P. A.

    2017-04-01

    We assess the spatial structure of moisture flux divergence, regional moisture sources and transport processes over Colombia, in northern South America. Using three independent methods the dynamic recycling model (DRM), FLEXPART and the Quasi-isentropic back-trajectory (QIBT) models we quantify the moisture sources that contribute to precipitation over the region. We find that moisture from the Atlantic Ocean and terrestrial recycling are the most important sources of moisture for Colombia, highlighting the importance of the Orinoco and Amazon basins as regional providers of atmospheric moisture. The results show the influence of long-range cross-equatorial flow from the Atlantic Ocean into the target region and the role of the study area as a passage of moisture into South America. We also describe the seasonal moisture transport mechanisms of the well-known low-level westerly and Caribbean jets that originate in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, respectively. We find that these dynamical systems play an important role in the convergence of moisture over western Colombia.

  15. A framework for analysis of abortive colony size distributions using a model of branching processes in irradiated normal human fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Sakashita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonogenicity gives important information about the cellular reproductive potential following ionizing irradiation, but an abortive colony that fails to continue to grow remains poorly characterized. It was recently reported that the fraction of abortive colonies increases with increasing dose. Thus, we set out to investigate the production kinetics of abortive colonies using a model of branching processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We firstly plotted the experimentally determined colony size distribution of abortive colonies in irradiated normal human fibroblasts, and found the linear relationship on the log-linear or log-log plot. By applying the simple model of branching processes to the linear relationship, we found the persistent reproductive cell death (RCD over several generations following irradiation. To verify the estimated probability of RCD, abortive colony size distribution (≤ 15 cells and the surviving fraction were simulated by the Monte Carlo computational approach for colony expansion. Parameters estimated from the log-log fit demonstrated the good performance in both simulations than those from the log-linear fit. Radiation-induced RCD, i.e. excess probability, lasted over 16 generations and mainly consisted of two components in the early (<3 generations and late phases. Intriguingly, the survival curve was sensitive to the excess probability over 5 generations, whereas abortive colony size distribution was robust against it. These results suggest that, whereas short-term RCD is critical to the abortive colony size distribution, long-lasting RCD is important for the dose response of the surviving fraction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present model provides a single framework for understanding the behavior of primary cell colonies in culture following irradiation.

  16. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the s-Process Branching Points 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Lerendegui-Marco, Jorge; Casanovas, Adria; Cortes-Giraldo, Miguel A.; Dressler, Rugard; Halfon, Shlomi; Heinitz, Stephan; Kivel, Niko; Köster, Ulli; Paul, Michael; Quesada-Molina, Jose Manuel; Schumann, Dorothea; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Tessler, Moshe; Weissman, Leo

    The neutron capture cross section of several key unstable isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, for which high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. As part of a new program to measure some of these important branching points, radioactive targets of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl have been produced by irradiation of stable isotopes (146Nd, 170Er, and 203Tl) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) high flux reactor. After breeding in the reactor and a certain cooling period, the resulting mixed 204Tl/203Tl sample was used directly while 147Pm and 171Tm were radiochemically separated in non-carrier-added quality at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), then prepared as targets. A set of theses samples has been used for time-of-flight measurements at the CERN n_TOF facility using the 19 and 185 m beam lines, during 2014 and 2015. The capture cascades were detected with a set of four C6D6 scintillators, allowing to observe the associated neutron capture resonances. The results presented in this work are the first ever determination of the resonance capture cross sections of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl. Activation experiments on the same 147Pm and 171Tm targets with a high-intensity quasi-Maxwellian flux of neutrons have been performed using the SARAF accelerator and the Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) in order to extract the corresponding Maxwellian Average Cross Section (MACS). The experimental setups are here described together with the first, preliminary results of the n_TOF measurement.

  17. Accreditation Processes in Mexico: Origins and Relevant Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Morales Hernandez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the origins and relevant changes that have occurred in Mexican higher education, regarding institutional and academic programs assessment and evaluation. ------- Los Procesos de Acreditación en México: Origen y Cambios Relevantes Resumen El autor discute el origen y cambios relevantes que se han dado en la educación superior en México, en cuanto a evaluación y acreditación de programas e instituciones. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i3.73 PDF document contains both the original in Spanish and an English translation.

  18. The origins and processing of ultra fine anaphase DNA bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Yao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    and BLM. UFBs become visible in the anaphase of mitosis, and can persist into telophase in rare cases. There are at least three different types of UFBs that can be distinguished according to the chromosomal loci from which they originate. However, it remains largely unknown how these UFBs are generated...

  19. Stochastic modeling of stress erythropoiesis using a two-type age-dependent branching process with immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrien, O; Peslak, S A; Yanev, N M; Palis, J

    2015-06-01

    The erythroid lineage is a particularly sensitive target of radiation injury. We model the dynamics of immature (BFU-E) and mature (CFU-E) erythroid progenitors, which have markedly different kinetics of recovery, following sublethal total body irradiation using a two-type reducible age-dependent branching process with immigration. Properties of the expectation and variance of the frequencies of both types of progenitors are presented. Their explicit expressions are derived when the process is Markovian, and their asymptotic behavior is identified in the age-dependent (non-Markovian) case. Analysis of experimental data on the kinetics of BFU-E and CFU-E reveals that the probability of self-renewal increases transiently for both cell types following sublethal irradiation. In addition, the probability of self-renewal increased more for CFU-E than for BFU-E. The strategy adopted by the erythroid lineage ensures replenishment of the BFU-E compartment while optimizing the rate of CFU-E recovery. Finally, our analysis also indicates that radiation exposure causes a delay in BFU-E recovery consistent with injury to the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment that give rise to BFU-E. Erythroid progenitor self-renewal is thus an integral component of the recovery of the erythron in response to stress.

  20. The two-process model : Origin and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, S.; Hut, R. A.; Beersma, D.

    In the two-process model as developed in the early 1980's sleep is controlled by a process-S, representing the rise and fall of sleep demand resulting from prior sleep-wake history, interacting with a process-C representing circadian variation in sleep propensity. S and C together optimize sleep

  1. Space-time decoupling in the branching process in the mutant étoile of the filamentous brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehr, Zofia; Billoud, Bernard; Le Bail, Aude; Charrier, Bénédicte

    2011-12-01

    Ectocarpus siliculosus is being developed as a model organism for brown algal genetics and genomics. Brown algae are phylogenetically distant from the other multicellular phyla (green lineage, red algae, fungi and metazoan) and therefore might offer the opportunity to study novel and alternative developmental processes that lead to the establishment of multicellularity. E. siliculosus develops as uniseriate filaments, thereby displaying one of the simplest architectures among multicellular organisms. The young sporophyte grows as a primary filament and then branching occurs, preferentially at the center of the filament. We recently described the first morphogenetic mutant étoile (etl) in a brown alga, produced by UVB mutagenesis in E. siliculosus. We showed that a single recessive mutation was responsible for a defect in both cell differentiation and the very early branching pattern (first and second branch emergences). Here, we supplement this study by reporting the branching defects observed subsequently, i.e. for the later stages corresponding to the emergence of up to the first six secondary filaments, and we show that the branching process is composed of at least two distinct components: time and position. © 2011 Landes Bioscience

  2. Evolutionary origins and early development of number processing

    CERN Document Server

    Geary, David C; Mann Koepke, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition.The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant

  3. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  4. Grain size associations of branched tetraether lipids in soils and riverbank sediments: influence of hydrodynamic sorting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterse, Francien; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the abundance and distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in grain size fractions of 7 globally distributed river flank sediments and catchment soils in order to determine if and how the initial soil-brGDGT signature is influenced by hydrodynamic sorting upon entering a river and during subsequent transport from land to sea. BrGDGTs are hypothesized to form associations with high-surface-area fine-grained minerals in soils. Such associations, if maintained during transport, may impart resistance to degradation and promote downstream transport, reducing potential interferences by aquatic brGDGTs. We find that brGDGTs are indeed primarily associated with organic carbon (OC) bound to the clay-silt fraction (soils and river sediments, and that these associations appear to be maintained during river transport. However, the relative distribution of individual brGDGTs among size fractions is relatively uniform, suggesting that brGDGTs are well mixed in river sediments and that OC-mineral associations are continuously renewed. Consequently, the brGDGT signature finally stored in continental margin sediments appears insensitive to differential particle transport processes. Nevertheless, the lower (upstream) temperature signal generally reflected by brGDGTs in river sediments may also be explained by a contribution of in situ produced brGDGTs leading to an underestimation of reconstructed air temperatures.

  5. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  6. Growth patterns in mesophotic octocorals: Timing the branching process in the highly-valuable Mediterranean Corallium rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Maria Carla; Priori, Cristina; Erra, Fabrizio; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    This study examined colony growth in the long-lived red coral Corallium rubrum, a slow growing octocoral endemic to the Mediterranean Sea and neighboring Atlantic areas and one of the most valuable of all marine species. Age and growth rate were determined on 165 sections of colony bases and branches by means of a validated age dating method in populations living between 50 and 130 m in the NW Mediterranean. The ratio between minimum and maximum diameter remained constant, indicating proportional growth of colony bases. No significant difference was found between the growth rate of bases and branches. A significantly different branching pattern (colony height/number of branches) and average growth rate were found between the colonies of the different geographic areas. As growth rate decreases with age, this was due to the different age structure of the two samples. The maximum lifespan was found to be 106 years, a value not determined previously for C. rubrum colonies, and the average age of colonies at first branching was about 10 years. Linear growth varied widely between colonies as well as between branches in the same colony, confirming the lack of any strict relation between height and age. The study illustrates the growth of a mesophotic, heavily exploited Corallidae.

  7. Origin and diagenetic transformations of C25 and C30 highly branched isoprenoid sulphur compounds : further evidence for the formation of organic sulphur compounds during early diagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Rullkotter, J.; Haven, H.L. ten

    1990-01-01

    A number of C₂₅ and C₃₀ highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) sulphur compounds (e. g. , thiolanes, l-oxo-thiolanes, thiophenes, and benzo[b]thiophenes) with 2, 6, 10, 14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl) pentadecane and 2, 6, 10, 14, 18-pentamethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)nonadecane carbon skeletons

  8. Origins and Development of Initiation of Free Radical Polymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Braun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At present worldwide about 45% of the manufactured plastic materials and 40% of synthetic rubber are obtained by free radical polymerization processes. The first free radically synthesized polymers were produced between 1910 and 1930 by initiation with peroxy compounds. In the 1940s the polymerization by redox processes was found independently and simultaneously at IG Farben in Germany and ICI in Great Britain. In the 1950s the systematic investigation of azo compounds as free radical initiators followed. Compounds with labile C–C-bonds were investigated as initiators only in the period from the end of the 1960s until the early 1980s. At about the same time, iniferters with cleavable S–S-bonds were studied in detail. Both these initiator classes can be designated as predecessors for “living” or controlled free radical polymerizations with nitroxyl-mediated polymerizations, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer processes (RAFT, and atom transfer radical polymerizations (ATRP.

  9. Branched polymers on branched polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur; Jonsson, Thordur

    1996-01-01

    We study an ensemble of branched polymers which are embedded on other branched polymers. This is a toy model which allows us to study explicitly the reaction of a statistical system on an underlying geometrical structure, a problem of interest in the study of the interaction of matter and quantized gravity. We find a phase transition at which the embedded polymers begin to cover the basis polymers. At the phase transition point the susceptibility exponent $\\gamma$ takes the value 3/4 and the ...

  10. Characterization of byproducts originating from hemp oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojić, Milica; Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Hadnađev, Miroslav

    2014-12-24

    Valorization of hemp seed meal, a byproduct of hemp oil processing, was performed by measuring the distribution of nutritional and antinutritional compounds in different hemp seed meal fractions. According to chemical composition, two cotyledon-containing fractions (>180 and protein (p 350 and >250 μm), which were significantly richer in crude fiber content (29.5% ± 0.04% and 21.3% ± 0.03%, respectively). The free radical scavenging capacity (IC50) of fraction extracts increased (p hemp seed meal into different fractions could be used to concentrate valuable target compounds and consequently facilitate their recovery.

  11. The control of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iber, Dagmar; Menshykau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms are heavily branched structures and arise by an apparently similar process of branching morphogenesis. Yet the regulatory components and local interactions that have been identified differ greatly in these organs. It is an open question whether the regulatory processes work according to a common principle and how far physical and geometrical constraints determine the branching process. Here, we review the known regulatory factors and physical constraints in lung, kidney, pancreas, prostate, mammary gland and salivary gland branching morphogenesis, and describe the models that have been formulated to analyse their impacts. PMID:24004663

  12. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...... giant branch (AGB) population (21 stars) using AAOmega/2dF spectra with R ~ 3000. We discover that NGC 1851 hosts a quadrimodal distribution of CN band strengths in its RGB and AGB populations. This result supports the merger formation scenario proposed for this cluster, such that the CN quadrimodality...... found that the four CN peaks may be paired—the two CN-weaker populations being associated with low Ba and the two CN-stronger populations with high Ba. If true, then s-process abundances would be a good diagnostic for disentangling the two original clusters in the merger scenario. More observations...

  13. Origin and diagenetic transformations of C 25 and C 30 highly branched isoprenoid sulphur compounds: Further evidence for the formation of organically bound sulphur during early diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnen, M. E. L.; Damsté, J. S. Slnninghe; Kock-van Dalen, A. C.; Haven, H. L. Ten; Rullkötter, J.; De Leeuw, J. W.

    1990-11-01

    A number of C 25 and C 30 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) sulphur compounds (E.G., thiolanes, 1-oxo-thiolanes, thiophenes, and benzo[ b]thiophenes) with 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)pentadecane and 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)nonadecane carbon skeletons were identified in sediments, ranging from Holocene to Upper Cretaceous. These identifications are based on mass spectral characterisation, desulphurisation, and, in some cases, by comparison of mass spectral and relative retention time data with those of authentic standards. The presence of unsaturated C 25 and C 30 HBI thiolanes in a Recent sediment from the Black Sea (age 3-6 × 10 3 a) strongly supports their formation during early diagenesis. The co-occurrence of HBI polyenes (C 25 and C 30) and unsaturated HBI thiolanes (C 25 and C 30) possessing two double bonds less than the corresponding HBI polyenes, in this Recent sediment, testifies to the formation of unsaturated HBI thiolanes by a reaction of inorganic sulphur species with double bonds of the HBI polyenes. Furthermore, a diagenetic scheme for HBI sulphur compounds is proposed based on the identification of HBI sulphur compounds in sediment samples with different maturity levels.

  14. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  15. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one-step reactive extrusion-calendering process: physical aging and fracture behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, Jonathan; Santana Pérez, Orlando Onofre; FRANCO URQUIZA, EDGAR ADRIAN; Bou Serra, Jordi; Carrasco Alonso, Félix Ángel; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa

    2014-01-01

    The architectural modifications of a linear poly(D,L-Lactide) acid (PD,L-LA) commercial grade were induced by a one-step reactive extrusion-calendering process using a styrene-glycidyl acrylate copolymer as reactive agent. The melt degradation was counteracted by chain extension and branching reactions, leading to a stabilization of the melt properties and an increase in the molecular weight. For such modified samples [poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-reactive extrusion (REX)], the rate of physical ag...

  16. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  17. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Bellagamba; Fabio Caprino; Tiziana Mentasti; Mauro Vasconi; Vittorio Maria Moretti

    2015-01-01

    Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain proces...

  18. Mineral-organic interfacial processes: potential roles in the origins of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaves, H James; Michalkova Scott, Andrea; Hill, Frances C; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Sahai, Nita; Hazen, Robert

    2012-08-21

    Life is believed to have originated on Earth ∼4.4-3.5 Ga ago, via processes in which organic compounds supplied by the environment self-organized, in some geochemical environmental niches, into systems capable of replication with hereditary mutation. This process is generally supposed to have occurred in an aqueous environment and, likely, in the presence of minerals. Mineral surfaces present rich opportunities for heterogeneous catalysis and concentration which may have significantly altered and directed the process of prebiotic organic complexification leading to life. We review here general concepts in prebiotic mineral-organic interfacial processes, as well as recent advances in the study of mineral surface-organic interactions of potential relevance to understanding the origin of life.

  19. Serial Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Within a 8-day workshop 19 students of KADK explored the performative potential of naturally angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, but swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. The workshop questioned whether contemporary informa...... information technology with its potential for individual fabrication allows for a new approach to the uniqueness that is offered to us by nature....

  20. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cailloux, J; Santana, O. O; Franco-Urquiza, E; Bou, J. J; Carrasco, F; Gamez-Perez, J; Maspoch, M. L

    2013-01-01

    One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering) was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent...

  1. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, J.; O. O. Santana; E. Franco-Urquiza; J. J. Bou; F. Carrasco; J. Gamez-Perez; Maspoch, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering) was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same pro...

  2. Variants of the left aortic arch branches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Variants of the left aortic arch branches. N Z Makhanya. MB ChB. R T Mamogale. MB 0113. N Khan. FCRaD (0). Department of Diagnostic Radiology. Medical University of Southern Africa. Abstract. The normal aorta has three branches from its arch, but variations in this pattern are not uncommon. Our.

  3. The origins of the idea of pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonchar O.V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essence of specificity for pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process by means of research of its development origins. It is substantiated that the update process in the education system of high school can be analyzed through the study of genesis of pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process category, the nature of which depends on the effectiveness of the educational process in general. It is emphasized the urgent necessity for such scientific research, because without them it cannot be implemented pedagogical techniques in practice of the new modern high school that require from agents of the educational process mobility, flexibility, creative qualities and skills of professional learning.

  4. Epiphyseal Fracture of the Coracoid Process Occurring at the Conjoined Tendon Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Nakama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the coracoid process is uncommon, and most previous studies have reported this fracture occurring in association with direct trauma to the shoulder or transmission of force from the upper arm or elbow (Ada and Miller 1991, Benton and Nelson 1971, Eyres et al. 1995. We present a case in which epiphyseal fracture occurred at the origin of the conjoined tendon following excessive muscle contraction. We believe this represents the first description of such a method of injury.

  5. 36 CFR 1260.54 - What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for Executive Branch information is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DECLASSIFICATION OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Mandatory Review § 1260.54 What is the appeal process when a... Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel, Attn: Mandatory Review Appeals, c/o Information Security..., 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740-6001. ...

  6. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  7. Molecular Analysis of Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sakai, Takayoshi; Larsen, Melinda; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamada, Kenneth M

    2004-01-01

    .... This mini-review describes a recently developed and tested set of approaches for identifying and characterizing molecules essential for branching morphogenesis and other developmental processes...

  8. [Influence of different original processing methods on quality of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma from Shandong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Shu-Rui; Hou, Jun-Ling; Wang, Wen-Quan; Xu, Zhen-Guang; Song, Yan; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Li, Jun

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the contents of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, crytotanshinone, tanshinone II(A) in samples of different original processed Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were determined by HPLC. Different processing methods have varied influences on four active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. Sun-drying reduced the content of crytotanshinone, tanshi-none II(A) and rosmarinic acid, integralsamples were better than those cut into segments. Oven dry method had great influence on water--soluble ingredients, high temperature (80-100 degrees C) could easily cause big loss of rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B. The role of traditional processing method "fahan: was complicated, the content of rosmarinic acid decreased, crytotanshinone and tanshinone II(A) increased, and salvianolic acid B showed no difference after "fahan". Drying in the shade and oven dry under low temperatrure (40-60 degrees C) were all effective to keep active ingredients of Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and, there was no difference between integral samples and samples cut into segments. Therefore, considering comprehensively the content of active ingredients in Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and processing costing etc., shade-drying or oven dry underlow temperature (40-60 degrees C) should be the most suitable original processing method.

  9. A Dirichlet Process Mixture Based Name Origin Clustering and Alignment Model for Transliteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyue Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In machine transliteration, it is common that the transliterated names in the target language come from multiple language origins. A conventional maximum likelihood based single model can not deal with this issue very well and often suffers from overfitting. In this paper, we exploit a coupled Dirichlet process mixture model (cDPMM to address overfitting and names multiorigin cluster issues simultaneously in the transliteration sequence alignment step over the name pairs. After the alignment step, the cDPMM clusters name pairs into many groups according to their origin information automatically. In the decoding step, in order to use the learned origin information sufficiently, we use a cluster combination method (CCM to build clustering-specific transliteration models by combining small clusters into large ones based on the perplexities of name language and transliteration model, which makes sure each origin cluster has enough data for training a transliteration model. On the three different Western-Chinese multiorigin names corpora, the cDPMM outperforms two state-of-the-art baseline models in terms of both the top-1 accuracy and mean F-score, and furthermore the CCM significantly improves the cDPMM.

  10. Multidimensional treatment of stochastic solvent dynamics in photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer processes: sequential, concerted, and complex branching mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudackov, Alexander V; Hazra, Anirban; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-10-14

    A theoretical approach for the multidimensional treatment of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes in solution is presented. This methodology is based on the multistate continuum theory with an arbitrary number of diabatic electronic states representing the relevant charge distributions in a general PCET system. The active electrons and transferring proton(s) are treated quantum mechanically, and the electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces are represented as functions of multiple scalar solvent coordinates corresponding to the single electron and proton transfer reactions involved in the PCET process. A dynamical formulation of the dielectric continuum theory is used to derive a set of coupled generalized Langevin equations of motion describing the time evolution of these collective solvent coordinates. The parameters in the Langevin equations depend on the solvent properties, such as the dielectric constants, relaxation time, and molecular moment of inertia, as well as the solute properties. The dynamics of selected intramolecular nuclear coordinates, such as the proton donor-acceptor distance or a torsional angle within the PCET complex, may also be included in this formulation. A surface hopping method in conjunction with the Langevin equations of motion is used to simulate the nonadiabatic dynamics on the multidimensional electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces following photoexcitation. This theoretical treatment enables the description of both sequential and concerted mechanisms, as well as more complex processes involving a combination of these mechanisms. The application of this methodology to a series of model systems corresponding to collinear and orthogonal PCET illustrates fundamental aspects of these different mechanisms and elucidates the significance of proton vibrational relaxation and nonequilibrium solvent dynamics. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. The impact of processing on amino acid racemization and protein quality in processed animal proteins of poultry origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bellagamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Re-authorization of processed animal proteins (PAPs in EU, derived from by-products of human food production, could increase manufacturing of proteins for feed ingredients and reduce the need of imported proteins mainly of plant origin. The PAPs production is largely done by the rendering process during which authorized animal by-products are heat treated to extract valuable protein and animal fat, ensuring sterilizing conditions of raw incoming materials. Proteins exposure to certain processing conditions induces two important chemical changes, racemization of amino acids and formation of cross-linked amino acid. These changes are associated with appreciable reduction of protein digestibility and nutritional value. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of heat treatment on amino acid racemization in processed animal proteins of poultry origin and related nutritional implications by evaluation of their in vitro digestibility. The results reported confirm the detection of racemized amino acids in processed animal proteins, especially D-aspartic acid, as realistic indicators of thermal treatments during PAP manufacturing. In our results, the severe (115°C and prolonged heat treatment (180 minutes revealed a D-Asp content of 28.1%. Prolongation of temperature treatment (20, 30 and 180 min, at 115°C significantly (P<0.05 affects in vitro protein digestibility, which decrease from 86.0%, in no-treated sample, to 78.3% and 79.1% after 20 and 30 min, respectively, and to 76.3% after 180 min. The processing conditions applied during PAPs preparations and the racemization of proteins amino acids may reasonably be involved in the loss of protein quality.

  12. Long chain branching of PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liangliang; Xu, Yuewen; Fahnhorst, Grant; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2017-05-01

    A trifunctional aziridine linker, trimethylolpropane tris(2-methyl-1-aziridinepropionate) (TTMAP), was melt blended with linear polylactic acid (PLA) to make star branched PLA. Adding pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) led to long chain branched (LCB) PLA. Mixing torque evolution during melt processing revealed high reactivity of aziridine with the carboxyl end group on PLA and an incomplete reaction of PMDA with the hydroxyl end group. Star-shaped PLA exhibited higher viscosity but no strain hardening in extensional flow while LCB PLA showed significant extensional hardening. Excess TTMAP in the branching reaction resulted in gel formation, which led to failure at low strain in extension. PMDA conversion was estimated based on gelation theory. The strain rate dependence of extensional hardening indicated that the LCB PLA had a low concentration of long chain branched molecules with an H-shaped topology. Unlike current methods used to branch PLA, free radical chemistry or use of an epoxy functional oligomers, our branching strategy produced strain hardening with less increase in shear viscosity. This study provides guidelines for design of polymers with low shear viscosity, which reduces pressure drop in extrusion, combined with strong extensional hardening, which enhances performance in processes that involve melt stretching.

  13. Multifunctional Carbon Aerogels Derived by Sol–Gel Process of Natural Polysaccharides of Different Botanical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bakierska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we describe the results of our recent studies on carbon aerogels derived from natural starches. A facile method for the fabrication of carbon aerogels is presented. Moreover, the complete analysis of the carbonization process of different starch aerogels (potato, maize, and rice was performed using thermogravimetric studies combined with a detailed analysis of evolved decomposition products. The prepared carbon aerogels were studied in terms of their morphology and electrical properties to relate the origin of starch precursor with final properties of carbon materials. The obtained results confirmed the differences in carbon aerogels’ morphology, especially in materials’ specific surface areas, depending on the botanical origin of precursors. The electrical conductivity measurements suggest that carbon aerogels with the best electrical properties can be obtained from potato starch.

  14. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  15. On the origin of planets by means of natural simple processes

    CERN Document Server

    Woolfson, Michael M

    2011-01-01

    The book begins with a historical review of four major theories for the origin of the Solar System in particular, or of planets in general, which highlight the major problems that need to be solved by any plausible theory. In many theories, including that which form the major theme of this book, the formation of planets and stars is intimately linked, so four chapters are devoted to the processes that can be described as the birth, life and death of stars. Recent observations that have revealed the existence of planets around many Sun-like stars are described in detail, followed by a clear exp

  16. Dynamic processes in technological systems of machining and the nature of their origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, D. Y.; Zlotnikov, E. G.; Koboyankwe, L. E.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the main causes of dynamic processes in technological systems, the types of vibrations that occur in machines, external sources that cause fluctuations in the machine bases. The article discusses the occurrence of self-oscillations in the machines. The authors proposed a mathematical model of a multi-mass technological system based on the example of a vertical drilling machine. The original multi-mass oscillatory system is replaced by a simplified three-mass model, which allows considering the low-frequency range of workloads and disturbing external influences.

  17. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BTTC are experts in their respective fields. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... can increase survival rates. Learn more... The Neuro-Oncology Branch welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as new Branch ...

  18. Multiple-process origin of Valles Marineris basins and troughs, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.

    1998-06-01

    An improved sequence of formation for Valles Marineris depressions is proposed. It involves three key stages; (a) dike emplacement radial to Syria Planum during Late Noachian to Early Hesperian time; (b) localized subsidence of crustal rocks during post-Early Hesperian time, forming ancestral basins such as Hebes Chasma; and (c) regional normal faulting that overprints the ancestral basins and forms the structural troughs, such as Coprates Chasma, principally during Amazonian time. Attainment of high topography at Syria Planum, completed by the Early Hesperian, was accompanied and/or followed by extrusion of ridged plains lavas, emplacement of subsurface dikes, and wrinkle-ridge deformation. The high topography contributed to a substantial hydrostatic head, leading to subsurface volume reduction, vertical displacement of crustal strata to from chaotic terrain and ancestral basins, and localized outbreaks of fluid as outflow channels. The dikes contributed a pervasive structural influence on the orientations of later nearsurface processes. Sometime after infilling of ancestral basins with their interior layered deposits, normal faults related to Tharsis centered stresses were superimposed on the relict high topography, ancestral basins, and dike network, forming large grabens. Recognition of the polygenetic origin of troughs such as Melas Chasma, and the disparate origins of irregular and rectangular troughs, provides the key to unraveling the conflicting accounts of trough origin and timing.

  19. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  20. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  1. From chemical metabolism to life: the origin of the genetic coding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Danchin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Looking for origins is so much rooted in ideology that most studies reflect opinions that fail to explore the first realistic scenarios. To be sure, trying to understand the origins of life should be based on what we know of current chemistry in the solar system and beyond. There, amino acids and very small compounds such as carbon dioxide, dihydrogen or dinitrogen and their immediate derivatives are ubiquitous. Surface-based chemical metabolism using these basic chemicals is the most likely beginning in which amino acids, coenzymes and phosphate-based small carbon molecules were built up. Nucleotides, and of course RNAs, must have come to being much later. As a consequence, the key question to account for life is to understand how chemical metabolism that began with amino acids progressively shaped into a coding process involving RNAs. Here I explore the role of building up complementarity rules as the first information-based process that allowed for the genetic code to emerge, after RNAs were substituted to surfaces to carry over the basic metabolic pathways that drive the pursuit of life.

  2. From chemical metabolism to life: the origin of the genetic coding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Looking for origins is so much rooted in ideology that most studies reflect opinions that fail to explore the first realistic scenarios. To be sure, trying to understand the origins of life should be based on what we know of current chemistry in the solar system and beyond. There, amino acids and very small compounds such as carbon dioxide, dihydrogen or dinitrogen and their immediate derivatives are ubiquitous. Surface-based chemical metabolism using these basic chemicals is the most likely beginning in which amino acids, coenzymes and phosphate-based small carbon molecules were built up. Nucleotides, and of course RNAs, must have come to being much later. As a consequence, the key question to account for life is to understand how chemical metabolism that began with amino acids progressively shaped into a coding process involving RNAs. Here I explore the role of building up complementarity rules as the first information-based process that allowed for the genetic code to emerge, after RNAs were substituted to surfaces to carry over the basic metabolic pathways that drive the pursuit of life.

  3. Reservoir processes and fluid origins in the Baca Geothermal System, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, Alfred H.; Janik, Cathy J.

    1986-02-01

    At the Baca geothermal field in the Valles caldera, New Mexico, 19 deep wells were drilled in an attempt to develop a 50-MWe (megawatts electric) power plant. The chemical and isotopic compositions of steam and water samples have been used to indicate uniquely the origin of reservoir fluids and natural reservoir processes. Two distinct reservoir fluids exist at Baca. These fluids originate from the same deep, high-temperature (335°C), saline (2500 mg/kg Cl) parent water but have had different histories during upflow. One fluid (from wells 4 and 13) is isotopically light, high in radiogenic noble gases, CO2 and HCO3, and low in Ca. It has a temperature of 290°-295°C and a reservoir chloride near 1900 mg/kg. This fluid resulted from rapid upward flow through 1.1- to 1.4-m.y.-old Bandelier Tuff reservoir rocks after long residence in pre-Bandelier (>7 m.y.) sediments and Precambrian basement rocks and 25% dilution with high-altitude cold groundwater from Redondo Peak. The other water (from wells 15, 19, and 24) moved slowly through the Bandelier Tuff and cooled conductively (with minor steam loss for well 19) from 335°C to 280°-260°C. Apparently, short residence in old basement rocks has left this water with low radiogenic gases. Conductive cooling without mixing has kept the original chloride and relatively heavy isotope composition of the deep water. The recharge to the deep parent water is not well understood but may be from lower elevation precipitation outside the Valles caldera area. Gases are in equilibrium in all-liquid reservoir fluids at near reservoir temperatures, and the concentrations of atmospheric gases are similar to those of air-saturated water, indicating little boiling and steam loss. All water, solutes, and gases in the reservoir fluids originate from air-saturated meteoric recharge water, watermineral reactions, and rock leaching, with the possible exception of excess 3He that must have an ultimate mantle source. This gas could originate

  4. Text processing for technical reports (direct computer-assisted origination, editing, and output of text)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Volpi, A.; Fenrick, M. R.; Stanford, G. S.; Fink, C. L.; Rhodes, E. A.

    1980-10-01

    Documentation often is a primary residual of research and development. Because of this important role and because of the large amount of time consumed in generating technical reports, particularly those containing formulas and graphics, an existing data-processing computer system has been adapted so as to provide text-processing of technical documents. Emphasis has been on accuracy, turnaround time, and time savings for staff and secretaries, for the types of reports normally produced in the reactor development program. The computer-assisted text-processing system, called TXT, has been implemented to benefit primarily the originator of technical reports. The system is of particular value to professional staff, such as scientists and engineers, who have responsibility for generating much correspondence or lengthy, complex reports or manuscripts - especially if prompt turnaround and high accuracy are required. It can produce text that contains special Greek or mathematical symbols. Written in FORTRAN and MACRO, the program TXT operates on a PDP-11 minicomputer under the RSX-11M multitask multiuser monitor. Peripheral hardware includes videoterminals, electrostatic printers, and magnetic disks. Either data- or word-processing tasks may be performed at the terminals. The repertoire of operations has been restricted so as to minimize user training and memory burden. Spectarial staff may be readily trained to make corrections from annotated copy. Some examples of camera-ready copy are provided.

  5. Mercury distribution in tropical soil profiles related to origin of mercury and soil processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Catherine; Grimaldi, Michel; Guedron, Stephane

    2008-08-15

    The aim of the study is to improve our understanding of the vertical and lateral variations in the mercury content [Hg] of tropical soils. In addition to the distance to anthropogenic sources of Hg, the most frequently evoked determining factor is the abundance of Hg-bearing phases. Soil processes (weathering, mass or water transfer) determine the abundance of carrier phases. We assume that soil processes also have a direct impact on the distribution of Hg and that the impact is different according to the lithogenic or atmospheric origin of this element. We compare two types of soil (oxisol and ultisol) in the French Guiana forest, at localities a few tens of metres apart and exhibiting very different Hg contents. We show that vertical profiles of [Hg] are strongly related to the variations of [Hg(atmospheric)], whereas [Hg(lithogenic)] varies little. The penetration of Hg(atmospheric) from the surface deposits is favoured down to a depth of 3 m in the oxisol and limited to the upper horizons of the ultisol because of contrasted hydraulic conductivity between the two soils. Hg is primarily of lithogenic origin in the alteritic horizons of the ultisol. The relative accumulation of Hg(lithogenic) during the progressive weathering of parental material is limited near the soil surface by the disequilibrium of secondary minerals. Remobilization of Hg(atmospheric) or Hg(lithogenic) stored in the soil is a function of the chemical or particulate erosion of Hg-bearing phases, particularly active in the upper horizons of the ultisol, where lateral flow occurs during rain events. The correlations observed between the iron or clay contents and [Hg] can be caused by the affinity of Hg for these carrier phases, but may also reflect the weathering and the transfer processes which affect together the fate of Hg and the mineralogical and chemical composition of the soil.

  6. Use of Proteomic Methodology in Optimization of Processing and Quality Control of Food of Animal Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Gašo-Sokač

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food of animal origin, namely meat, seafood, milk and milk products, is the main protein source in human nutrition. These types of food are very complex mixtures that contain proteins and other components, and proteomic techniques enable simultaneous study of several hundred up to several thousand proteins. The use of proteomic methodology for quality control and quality assessment in production as well as for the optimization and development of new manufacturing processes is presented. Newly developed, faster and more selective methods for sample preparation followed by more sensitive mass spectrometry for identification of less abundant proteins are discussed. These techniques will help to understand variations in production, and to find markers for food quality criteria. Furthermore, biologically active peptides in food of animal origin have recently been the focus of proteomic and peptidomic investigations. Isolation and production of biologically active proteins and peptides, including the low abundance ones, will also be a focus of future research. The use of proteomics, peptidomics and metabonomics for the determination of product quality and the detection of adulterations in meat production, seafood identification and in the production of milk and milk products is also discussed.

  7. EUROPIUM s-PROCESS SIGNATURE AT CLOSE-TO-SOLAR METALLICITY IN STARDUST SiC GRAINS FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Janaina N.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Holden, Peter [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Gyngard, Frank; Zinner, Ernst [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Cristallo, Sergio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, INAF, via Maggini snc, Teramo I-64100 (Italy); Rauscher, Thomas, E-mail: janaina.avila@anu.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    Individual mainstream stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains and a SiC-enriched bulk sample from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite have been analyzed by the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe-Reverse Geometry for Eu isotopes. The mainstream grains are believed to have condensed in the outflows of {approx}1.5-3 M{sub Sun} carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The {sup 151}Eu fractions [fr({sup 151}Eu) = {sup 151}Eu/({sup 151}Eu+{sup 153}Eu)] derived from our measurements are compared with previous astronomical observations of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars enriched in elements made by slow neutron captures (the s-process). Despite the difference in metallicity between the parent stars of the grains and the metal-poor stars, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements agree well with fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from astronomical observations. We have also compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of Eu isotopic ratios in the envelope of AGB stars. Because of the low Eu abundances in the SiC grains, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements show large uncertainties, in most cases being larger than the difference between solar and predicted fr({sup 151}Eu) values. The SiC aggregate yields a fr({sup 151}Eu) value within the range observed in the single grains and provides a more precise result (fr({sup 151}Eu) = 0.54 {+-} 0.03, 95% conf.), but is approximately 12% higher than current s-process predictions. The AGB models can match the SiC data if we use an improved formalism to evaluate the contribution of excited nuclear states in the calculation of the {sup 151}Sm(n, {gamma}) stellar reaction rate.

  8. How Banks Go Abroad : Branches or Subsidiaries?

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti, Eugenio; Dell'Ariccia, Giovanni; Martínez Pería, Maria Soledad

    2005-01-01

    The authors examine the factors that influence banks' type of organizational form when operating in foreign markets using an original database of the branches and subsidiaries in Latin America and Eastern Europe of the top 100 international banks. They find that regulation, taxation, the degree of desired penetration in the local market, and host-country economic and political risks matter. Banks are more likely to operate as branches in countries that have higher corporate taxes and when the...

  9. Properties, Origins, and Preservation of Ancient Olivine-Bearing Bedrock: Implications for Noachian Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Cowart, J. C.; Head, J. W.; Warner, N. H.; Palumbo, A.; Golombek, M. P.

    2017-10-01

    Olivine-bearing bedrock units are common and therefore significant surface units found in Noachian highlands, yet their origins are uncertain. We present new observations suggesting that some may have non-volcanic or non-effusive volcanic origins.

  10. The origins of age of acquisition and typicality effects: Semantic processing in aphasia and the ageing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räling, Romy; Schröder, Astrid; Wartenburger, Isabell

    2016-06-01

    Age of acquisition (AOA) has frequently been shown to influence response times and accuracy rates in word processing and constitutes a meaningful variable in aphasic language processing, while its origin in the language processing system is still under debate. To find out where AOA originates and whether and how it is related to another important psycholinguistic variable, namely semantic typicality (TYP), we studied healthy, elderly controls and semantically impaired individuals using semantic priming. For this purpose, we collected reaction times and accuracy rates as well as event-related potential data in an auditory category-member-verification task. The present results confirm a semantic origin of TYP, but question the same for AOA while favouring its origin at the phonology-semantics interface. The data are further interpreted in consideration of recent theories of ageing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microscopic origin of the fragile to strong crossover in supercooled water: The role of activated processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marzio, M.; Camisasca, G.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2017-02-01

    We perform an accurate analysis of the density self-correlation functions of TIP4P/2005 supercooled water on approaching the region of the liquid-liquid critical point. In a previous work on this model, we provided evidence of a fragile to strong crossover of the dynamical behavior in the deep supercooled region. The structural relaxation follows the Mode Coupling theory in the fragile region and then deviates from Mode Coupling regime to a strong Arrhenius behavior. This crossover is particularly important in water because it is connected to the thermodynamics of the supercooled region. To better understand the origin of this crossover, we compute now the Van Hove self-correlation functions. In particular we aim at investigating the presence and the role of the hopping phenomena that are the cause of the fragile to strong crossover in simple liquids. In TIP4P/2005 water, we find hopping processes too and we analyze how they depend on temperature and density upon approaching the fragile to strong crossover and the Mode Coupling ideal crossover temperature. Our results show that water behaves like a simple glass former. After an initial ballistic regime, the cage effect dominates the mild supercooled region, with diffusion taking place at long time. At the fragile to strong crossover, we find that hopping (activated) processes start to play a role. This is evidenced by the appearance of peaks in the Van Hove correlation functions. In the deep supercooled regime, our analysis clearly indicates that activated processes dominate the dynamics. The comparison between the Van Hove functions and the radial distribution functions allows to better understand the mechanism of hopping phenomena in supercooled water and to connect their onset directly with the crossing of the Widom Line.

  12. Critical role of alkyl chain branching of organic semiconductors in enabling solution-processed N-channel organic thin-film transistors with mobility of up to 3.50 cm² V(-1) s(-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjiao; Hu, Yunbin; Schuettfort, Torben; Di, Chong-an; Gao, Xike; McNeill, Christopher R; Thomsen, Lars; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Yuan, Wei; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhu, Daoben

    2013-02-13

    Substituted side chains are fundamental units in solution processable organic semiconductors in order to achieve a balance of close intermolecular stacking, high crystallinity, and good compatibility with different wet techniques. Based on four air-stable solution-processed naphthalene diimides fused with 2-(1,3-dithiol-2-ylidene)malononitrile groups (NDI-DTYM2) that bear branched alkyl chains with varied side-chain length and different branching position, we have carried out systematic studies on the relationship between film microstructure and charge transport in their organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). In particular synchrotron measurements (grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure) are combined with device optimization studies to probe the interplay between molecular structure, molecular packing, and OTFT mobility. It is found that the side-chain length has a moderate influence on thin-film microstructure but leads to only limited changes in OTFT performance. In contrast, the position of branching point results in subtle, yet critical changes in molecular packing and leads to dramatic differences in electron mobility ranging from ~0.001 to >3.0 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Incorporating a NDI-DTYM2 core with three-branched N-alkyl substituents of C(11,6) results in a dense in-plane molecular packing with an unit cell area of 127 Å(2), larger domain sizes of up to 1000 × 3000 nm(2), and an electron mobility of up to 3.50 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), which is an unprecedented value for ambient stable n-channel solution-processed OTFTs reported to date. These results demonstrate that variation of the alkyl chain branching point is a powerful strategy for tuning of molecular packing to enable high charge transport mobilities.

  13. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  14. Auditory processing disorder and speech perception problems in noise: finding the underlying origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé, Josée; Jutras, Benoît; Gagné, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    A hallmark listening problem of individuals presenting with auditory processing disorder (APD) is their poor recognition of speech in noise. The underlying perceptual problem of the listening difficulties in unfavorable listening conditions is unknown. The objective of this article was to demonstrate theoretically how to determine whether the speech recognition problems are related to an auditory dysfunction, a language-based dysfunction, or a combination of both. Tests such as the Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) test allow the exploration of the auditory and language-based functions involved in speech perception in noise, which is not possible with most other speech-in-noise tests. Psychometric functions illustrating results from hypothetical groups of individuals with APD on the SPIN test are presented. This approach makes it possible to postulate about the origin of the speech perception problems in noise. APD is a complex and heterogeneous disorder for which the underlying deficit is currently unclear. Because of their design, SPIN-like tests can potentially be used to identify the nature of the deficits underlying problems with speech perception in noise for this population. A better understanding of the difficulties with speech perception in noise experienced by many listeners with APD should lead to more efficient intervention programs.

  15. Comparison of Leaf Traits and Branching Patterns between Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne subsp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan, Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seedlings Originated from the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngaryo, Fidèle; Badiatte, Ampa Kande; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Akpo, L.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the leaf traits and branching patterns between Acacia tortilis, Balanites aegyptiaca and Ziziphus mauritiana seedlings, three species occurring in the same range in the Sahel, a semi-arid tropical area of Africa.
    Study Design: Seeds used in this

  16. Country-of-origin effects in consumer processing of advertising claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Steenkamp, J.B.E.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2005-01-01

    We propose that country of origin has a dual impact on product evaluations, acting as informational cue, but also as source variable, moderating the impact of ads on product evaluations. In support, we find a direct effect of country of origin on product evaluations, and a three-way interaction

  17. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  18. Mapping of branch sites in trans-spliced pre-mRNAs of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, E; Perry, K L; Agabian, N

    1989-01-01

    The process of trans splicing is essential to the maturation of all mRNAs in the Trypanosomatidae, a family of protozoan parasites, and to specific mRNAs in several species of nematode. In Trypanosoma brucei, a 39-nucleotide (nt) leader sequence originating from a small, 139-nt donor RNA (the spliced leader [SL] RNA) is spliced to the 5' end of mRNAs. An intermediate in this trans-splicing process is a Y structure which contains the 3' 100 nt of the SL RNA covalently linked to the pre-mRNA via a 2'-5' phosphodiester bond at the branch point residue. We mapped the branch points in T. brucei alpha- and beta-tubulin pre-mRNAs. The primary branch acceptors for the alpha- and beta-tubulins are 44 and 56 nt upstream of the 3' splice sites, respectively, and are A residues. Minor branch acceptors were detected 42 and 49 nt upstream of the alpha-tubulin splice site and 58 nt upstream of the splice site in beta-tubulin. The regions surrounding these branch points lack homology to the consensus sequences determined for mammalian cells and yeasts; there is also no conservation among the sequences themselves. Thus, the identified sequences suggest that the mechanism of branch point recognition in T. brucei differs from the mechanism of recognition by U2 RNA that has been proposed for other eucaryotes. Images PMID:2479824

  19. Monitoring Of Volcanic Processes Through Analysis Of Hydroacoustic Signals Originating From Monowai Seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. E.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Dziak, R. P.; Matsumoto, H.; Fowler, M. J.; Conder, J. A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    Monowai seamount, located at 25.9S, 177.2E, is an extremely active subduction zone submarine volcanic center located on the southern end of the Kermadec arc. Between January 2009 and April 2010, underwater acoustic signals generated at Monowai were recorded by an array of autonomous moored hydrophones deployed within the Lau Basin, approximately 650 km to the north. The instruments sampled continuously at a rate of 250 Hz and were located at a depth of 1000 m below the sea surface, near the axis of the SOund Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) channel. Nine distinct episodes of volcanic swarm activity were detected with up to hundreds of events per day during the periods between February 28-March 23, May 2-May 6, July 5-July 10, September 13-September 18, October 15-October 31, November 10-November 13, November 27-December 3, December 14-December 17, and April 10-April 15. To locate the source of the signals, hydroacoustic arrivals were combined with T-wave detections on seismic stations RAR (Rarotonga, Cook Islands) and PPTF (Papeete, Tahiti Island). The peak energy of the signals at each station was used as the arrival time to iterate a source location based on average acoustic velocities in the area. More than three stations were used to locate all selected signals within the periods of high activity. Signals originating from Monowai exhibit spectral energy of up to 60 Hz, with the dominant energy in the 1-10 Hz band. Signal durations extend for several minutes and commonly exhibit multiple peaks in the signal record, with the largest amplitudes often observed within the first 30%-40% of the signal. Waveform envelopes show a coherent pattern of arrivals across the array, which is used to further refine the source location coordinates. High correlation coefficients also are observed between events and provide evidence of repeatable eruptive processes occurring at Monowai.

  20. Understanding processes at the origin of species flocks with a focus on the marine Antarctic fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenuil, Anne; Saucède, Thomas; Hemery, Lenaïg G; Eléaume, Marc; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Améziane, Nadia; David, Bruno; Lecointre, Guillaume; Havermans, Charlotte

    2017-08-10

    Species flocks (SFs) fascinate evolutionary biologists who wonder whether such striking diversification can be driven by normal evolutionary processes. Multiple definitions of SFs have hindered the study of their origins. Previous studies identified a monophyletic taxon as a SF if it displays high speciosity in an area in which it is endemic (criterion 1), high ecological diversity among species (criterion 2), and if it dominates the habitat in terms of biomass (criterion 3); we used these criteria in our analyses. Our starting hypothesis is that normal evolutionary processes may provide a sufficient explanation for most SFs. We thus clearly separate each criterion and identify which biological (intrinsic) and environmental (extrinsic) traits are most favourable to their realization. The first part focuses on evolutionary processes. We highlight that some popular putative causes of SFs, such as key innovations or ecological speciation, are neither necessary nor sufficient to fulfill some or all of the three criteria. Initial differentiation mechanisms are diverse and difficult to identify a posteriori because a primary differentiation of one type (genetic, ecological or geographical) often promotes other types of differentiation. Furthermore, the criteria are not independent: positive feedbacks between speciosity and ecological diversity among species are expected whatever the initial cause of differentiation, and ecological diversity should enhance habitat dominance at the clade level. We then identify intrinsic and extrinsic factors that favour each criterion. Low dispersal emerges as a convincing driver of speciosity. Except for a genomic architecture favouring ecological speciation, for which assessment is difficult, high effective population sizes are the single intrinsic factor that directly enhances speciosity, ecological diversity and habitat dominance. No extrinsic factor appeared to enhance all criteria simultaneously but a combination of factors

  1. Epiphyseal Fracture of the Coracoid Process Occurring at the Conjoined Tendon Origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakama, Kenjiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Nagata, Kensei

    2011-01-01

    ... (Ada and Miller 1991, Benton and Nelson 1971, Eyres et al. 1995). We present a case in which epiphyseal fracture occurred at the origin of the conjoined tendon following excessive muscle contraction...

  2. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. CLASSIC MEDIA TRANSFORMATION PROCESSES AND ORIGIN OF NEW MEDIA SYSTEM SEGMENT IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Moskvina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile revolution took place at the beginning of XXI century resulting from which the mass media (MM as mass communication means has first acquired an addition in the form of mobile Internet and then transformed into a new branch – mobile media. All that has changed the whole face of journalism. Classic forms of the profession have also actively transformed. A mobile journalism got born that made it possible for any person to participate on-line in creation of socially relevant information. Using the mobile technology, ordinary citizens have created an alternative to usual MM sample of the XX century, some new media empire. Usual MM (press, radio, television where active interaction between information manufacturers and the audience is excluded were forced to change under pressure of new technologies and demands of the audience. Following the demand trends, Internet, initially stationary and then mobile, has emerged as global infrastructure of interactive communication.

  4. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is

  5. To create or to recall original ideas: Brain processes associated with the imagination of novel object uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, Mathias; Schües, Till; Beaty, Roger E; Jauk, Emanuel; Koschutnig, Karl; Fink, Andreas; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2018-02-01

    This fMRI study investigated what brain processes contribute to the generation of new ideas. Brain activation was measured while participants generated new original object uses, recalled original object uses, or recalled common object uses. Post-scan evaluations were used to confirm what ideas were newly generated on the spot or actually retrieved from memory. When compared to the recall of common ideas, the generation of new and old original ideas showed a similar activation pattern including activation of bilateral parahippocampal and mPFC regions, suggesting that the construction of new ideas builds on similar processes like the reconstruction of original ideas from episodic memory. As a difference, the generation of new object uses involved higher activation of a focused cluster in the left supramarginal gyrus compared to the recall of original ideas. This finding adds to the converging evidence that the left supramarginal gyrus is crucially involved in the construction of novel representations, potentially by integrating memory content in new ways and supporting executively demanding mental simulations. This study deepens our understanding of how creative thought builds on and goes beyond memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incorporating Origin and Process in Migration-Fertility Frameworks: The Case of Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singley, Susan G.; Landale, Nancy S.

    1998-01-01

    Life history data from both origin and destination areas were used to examine the relationship between migration and fertility among Puerto Rican women. Migration to the U.S. mainland had opposite effects on childbearing for single versus married or cohabiting women. For all migrants, migration played an integral part in the family formation…

  7. Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  9. Geodynamics branch data base for main magnetic field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Robert A.; Baldwin, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The data sets used in geomagnetic field modeling at GSFC are described. Data are measured and obtained from a variety of information and sources. For clarity, data sets from different sources are categorized and processed separately. The data base is composed of magnetic observatory data, surface data, high quality aeromagnetic, high quality total intensity marine data, satellite data, and repeat data. These individual data categories are described in detail in a series of notebooks in the Geodynamics Branch, GSFC. This catalog reviews the original data sets, the processing history, and the final data sets available for each individual category of the data base and is to be used as a reference manual for the notebooks. Each data type used in geomagnetic field modeling has varying levels of complexity requiring specialized processing routines for satellite and observatory data and two general routines for processing aeromagnetic, marine, land survey, and repeat data.

  10. The Origins of Light and Heavy R-process Elements Identified by Chemical Tagging of Metal-poor Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] gsim +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  11. Universal poroelastic mechanism for hydraulic signals in biomimetic and natural branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louf, J-F; Guéna, G; Badel, E; Forterre, Y

    2017-10-17

    Plants constantly undergo external mechanical loads such as wind or touch and respond to these stimuli by acclimating their growth processes. A fascinating feature of this mechanical-induced growth response is that it can occur rapidly and at long distance from the initial site of stimulation, suggesting the existence of a fast signal that propagates across the whole plant. The nature and origin of the signal is still not understood, but it has been recently suggested that it could be purely mechanical and originate from the coupling between the local deformation of the tissues (bending) and the water pressure in the plant vascular system. Here, we address the physical origin of this hydromechanical coupling using a biomimetic strategy. We designed soft artificial branches perforated with longitudinal liquid-filled channels that mimic the basic features of natural stems and branches. In response to bending, a strong overpressure is generated in the channels that varies quadratically with the bending curvature. A model based on a mechanism analogous to the ovalization of hollow tubes enables us to predict quantitatively this nonlinear poroelastic response and identify the key physical parameters that control the generation of the pressure pulse. Further experiments conducted on natural tree branches reveal the same phenomenology. Once rescaled by the model prediction, both the biomimetic and natural branches fall on the same master curve, enlightening the universality of our poroelastic mechanism for the generation of hydraulic signals in plants.

  12. Walker Branch Watershed Vegetation Inventory, 1967-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The original objectives of the long-term vegetation survey of Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee (WBW; Curlin and Nelson 1968) was to quantify...

  13. State-set branching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rune Møller; Veloso, Manuela M.; Bryant, Randal E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we present a framework called state-set branching that combines symbolic search based on reduced ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (BDDs) with best-first search, such as A* and greedy best-first search. The framework relies on an extension of these algorithms from expanding a sing...

  14. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  15. Vegetable-origin foam employed in dye extraction in tanning and leather processing facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cangemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the use of conventional and vegetable origin polyurethane foams to extract C. I. Acid Orange 61 dye. The quantitative determination of the residual dye was carried out with an UV/Vis absorption spectrophotometer. The extraction of the dye was found to depend on various factors such as pH of the solution, foam cell structure, contact time and dye and foam interactions. After 45 days, better results were obtained for conventional foam when compared to vegetable foam. Despite presenting a lower percentage of extraction, vegetable foam is advantageous as it is considered a polymer with biodegradable characteristics.

  16. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  17. PROCESSES, CONVERGENCES AND VARIATIONS IN BUSINESSWOMEN OF ASIAN ORIGIN IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the different models of businesswomen of Asian origin in Spain. To that end, the author considers both the family variable in the migration project and the individual’s own personal project. These variables, in turn, combine with others, such as the businesswomen’s position in the family and the stage of the migration project in which they find themselves. As a result, the author defines four profiles: 1 family businesswomen; 2 women who market their own work; 3 daughters of business families; 4 daughters of the diaspora. Furthermore, a transversal element also exists among all the female entrepreneurs: the use of the “ethnic” as a business asset.

  18. Traceability of honey origin based on volatiles pattern processing by artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajka, Tomas; Hajslova, Jana; Pudil, Frantisek; Riddellova, Katerina

    2009-02-27

    Head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-based procedure, coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF-MS), was employed for fast characterisation of honey volatiles. In total, 374 samples were collected over two production seasons in Corsica (n=219) and other European countries (n=155) with the emphasis to confirm the authenticity of the honeys labelled as "Corsica" (protected denomination of origin region). For the chemometric analysis, artificial neural networks with multilayer perceptrons (ANN-MLP) were tested. The best prediction (94.5%) and classification (96.5%) abilities of the ANN-MLP model were obtained when the data from two honey harvests were aggregated in order to improve the model performance compared to separate year harvests.

  19. Major influences on buying decision processes by international university students. Differences by continent of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirelli, Christian; Pilar Martínez-Ruiz, María; Gómez-Ladrón-De-Guevara, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    To analyze how food values and other variables related to dietary acculturation affect international university students' food buying decisions, this article provides an in-depth review of relevant literature related to the food buying decisions of groups of sojourners, which suggest several research hypotheses. The data collection targeted international university students in Spain and used factorial analysis of the main components together with linear parametric regressions. The resulting findings offer distinct insights, according to sojourners' continent of origin. Specifically, whereas European students exhibit a higher propensity to value sustainable production practices in the food choices, American students emphasize flavor and exhibit a greater degree of adaptation. These findings in turn suggest some key managerial recommendations and research guidelines for both private and public operators in related fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rooting adolescence: self-definition processes between original cultures and places of immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Leonori

    2011-01-01

    At the beginning of the self-definition process, immigrants’ children of the second generation have to meet with other cultures, that are quite different from their parents’. During pre- adolescence the experience of body transformations changes the psychological balances of the past and submits new questions about individual identity. The clinical case of Giada shows how much complex the integration process could be: the anxiety that pre-teenagers feel before the growth transformations stand...

  1. Residual Gases in Crystal Growth Systems: Their Origin, Magnitude, and Dependence on the Processing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Residual gases present in closed ampoules may affect different crystal growth processes. Their presence may affect techniques requiring low pressures and affect the crystal quality in different ways. For that reason a good understanding and control of formation of residual gases may be important for an optimum design and meaningful interpretation of crystal growth experiments. Our extensive experimental and theoretical study includes degassing of silica glass and generation of gases from various source materials. Different materials processing conditions, like outgassing under vacuum, annealing in hydrogen, resublimation, different material preparation procedures, multiple annealings, different processing times, and others were applied and their effect on the amount and composition of gas were analyzed. The experimental results were interpreted based on theoretical calculations on diffusion in silica glass and source materials and thermochemistry of the system. Procedures for a reduction of the amount of gas are also discussed.

  2. Process organization-concept and origins with reference to the restructuring of Croatian manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kaštelan Mrak

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the evolution of the term Process organization in order to point the possibilities of implementing the concept in the restructuring of the Croatian manufacturing industry. For that purpose, the paper starts by indicating the circumstances that led to the popularization of the concept among managers, especially due to the pressures that arise out of intensifying competition and global trends in enterprise restructuring. Here,we point to the fact, that even though the term has been known for quite some time, its meaning is changing: what makes it important these days is exactly the fact that process based restructuring makes easier the identification of critical business activities. The paper also stresses that there are other concepts related to organizational restructuring that are evolving along side, and, that are important for the understanding of the underlying logic and consequences of process oriented structures. Those are especially project organization, business networks, BPR and BPO.

  3. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rooting adolescence: self-definition processes between original cultures and places of immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leonori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the self-definition process, immigrants’ children of the second generation have to meet with other cultures, that are quite different from their parents’. During pre- adolescence the experience of body transformations changes the psychological balances of the past and submits new questions about individual identity. The clinical case of Giada shows how much complex the integration process could be: the anxiety that pre-teenagers feel before the growth transformations stands alongside of the similar anxiety that their parents receive from the uprooting due to emigration.

  5. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  6. Merlot grape processing technology for making wines of controlled origin at shabo terroir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Элдар Жораевич Иукуридзе

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available presents the research on the influence of technological features of processing of grapes Merlot, resulting in founding that the pre-sorting of grapes, separation of ridges, maceration, malolactic fermentation at installed in the enterprise mode allows to receive high quality wine. In view of the data it has been developed technological instruction for production of wine "Merlot Shabo"

  7. Processes of Origin and Duration of Growth of Blueberries at Meridiani Planum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M.

    2007-07-01

    The process behind blueberries needs to be understood. The questions why did they form, and why are they round, can be answered by: chemical energy and radial diffusion. Blueberry growth energy is olivine serpentinization for two possible precursors, FeS or FeO.OH with modeled 830 yrs to grow.

  8. Origin of marine debris is related to disposable packs of ultra-processed food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades, Ryan; Martins, Agnaldo S; Fardim, Lorena M; Ferreira, Juliana S; Santos, Robson G

    2016-08-15

    Marine debris is currently distributed worldwide, and the discard and contamination pose hazards to human and wildlife health. One of the gaps in debris science is tracking the source of debris to better evaluate and avoid the pathway of debris from the source to marine environment. For this, we evaluated three beaches of different urbanization levels and environmental influences; a low urbanized beach, a highly urbanized beach and a non-urbanized estuary-associated beach, in order to determine the sources and original use of debris. Plastic was the major material found on beaches, and the urbanized beach recorded the highest debris densities. Marine debris was primarily from land-based sources, and the debris recorded in all beaches was mainly assigned as food-related items. Our results highlight the major presence of disposable and short-lived products comprising the majority of debris that enters the ocean and draw attention to the unsustainable lifestyle of current society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Febrile syndrome of unknown origin: Indications for 18F-FDG PET/CT in inflammatory and infectious processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J R

    Fever of unknown origin is defined as a body temperature greater than 38.3°C lasting more than three weeks for which the cause could not be found within one week of hospital admission. More than 200 causes have been reported, and these can be classified into four categories: infections, inflammatory diseases, oncologic processes, and miscellaneous conditions. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are used in 69.2% of cases and invasive techniques in 30.8%. Structural imaging techniques show the morphological changes from infectious, inflammatory, and tumor-related processes, but they do not allow the detection of the early changes brought about by these processes. The metabolic information provided by 18F-FDG PET/CT has a promising role in these patients. 18F-FDG uptake is based on the cells' use of glucose as a source of energy, so it can be observed in infectious, inflammatory, and tumor-related processes. The established non-oncologic indications for 18F-FDG PET/CT are sarcoidosis, osteomyelitis, spondylodiscitis, fever of unknown origin, and vasculitis, which together account for more than 85% of studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization and planning of operating theatre activities: an original definition of pathways and process modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, Simone; Corradi, Luca; de Ville de Goyet, Jean; Iannucci, Marina; Porro, Ivan; Rosso, Nicola; Tanfani, Elena; Testi, Angela

    2015-05-17

    The Operating Room (OR) is a key resource of all major hospitals, but it also accounts for up 40% of resource costs. Improving cost effectiveness, while maintaining a quality of care, is a universal objective. These goals imply an optimization of planning and a scheduling of the activities involved. This is highly challenging due to the inherent variable and unpredictable nature of surgery. A Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN 2.0) was used for the representation of the "OR Process" (being defined as the sequence of all of the elementary steps between "patient ready for surgery" to "patient operated upon") as a general pathway ("path"). The path was then both further standardized as much as possible and, at the same time, keeping all of the key-elements that would allow one to address or define the other steps of planning, and the inherent and wide variability in terms of patient specificity. The path was used to schedule OR activity, room-by-room, and day-by-day, feeding the process from a "waiting list database" and using a mathematical optimization model with the objective of ending up in an optimized planning. The OR process was defined with special attention paid to flows, timing and resource involvement. Standardization involved a dynamics operation and defined an expected operating time for each operation. The optimization model has been implemented and tested on real clinical data. The comparison of the results reported with the real data, shows that by using the optimization model, allows for the scheduling of about 30% more patients than in actual practice, as well as to better exploit the OR efficiency, increasing the average operating room utilization rate up to 20%. The optimization of OR activity planning is essential in order to manage the hospital's waiting list. Optimal planning is facilitated by defining the operation as a standard pathway where all variables are taken into account. By allowing a precise scheduling, it feeds the process of

  11. Uncovering the evolutionary origin of plant molecular processes: comparison of Coleochaete (Coleochaetales and Spirogyra (Zygnematales transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwiche Charles F

    2010-05-01

    for transcriptome studies: larger scale data collection at a lower cost enabled us to cover a considerable portion of the transcriptome for both species. And, two, that the charophyte green algal transcriptoms are remarkably plant-like, which gives them the unique capacity to be major players for future evolutionary genomic studies addressing origin of land plant questions.

  12. The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Heyndrickx

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific endospore formers have become important contaminants in industrial food processing. The direct or indirect soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of events or processes in the agrofood chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety and/or quality. Three important food sectors are discussed in this paper. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus, the most important pathogen or spoilage organism in this sector, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the most important spoiler in certain cheeses, both contaminate pasteurized milk through the faecal and/or (at least for B. cereus the direct soil route. In the fruit juice industry, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, present on raw fruits, has become a major quality-target organism. In the ready-to-eat food sector, B. cereus and other aerobic endospore formers are introduced via vegetables, fruits, or herbs and spices, while anaerobic spore formers like nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium estertheticum pose safety and spoilage risks in chilled packaged foods, respectively.

  13. Original article Functioning of memory and attention processes in children with intelligence below average

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the research was to assess memorization and recall of logically connected and unconnected material, coded graphically and linguistically, and the ability to focus attention, in a group of children with intelligence below average, compared to children with average intelligence. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The study group included 27 children with intelligence below average. The control group consisted of 29 individuals. All of them were examined using the authors’ experimental trials and the TUS test (Attention and Perceptiveness Test. RESULTS Children with intelligence below average memorized significantly less information contained in the logical material, demonstrated lower ability to memorize the visual material, memorized significantly fewer words in the verbal material learning task, achieved lower results in such indicators of the visual attention process pace as the number of omissions and mistakes, and had a lower pace of perceptual work, compared to children with average intelligence. CONCLUSIONS The results confirm that children with intelligence below average have difficulties with memorizing new material, both logically connected and unconnected. The significantly lower capacity of direct memory is independent of modality. The results of the study on the memory process confirm the hypothesis about lower abilities of children with intelligence below average, in terms of concentration, work pace, efficiency and perception.

  14. Origins of spectral broadening of incoherent waves: Catastrophic process of coherence degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Garnier, J.; Rumpf, B.; Fusaro, A.; Suret, P.; Randoux, S.; Kudlinski, A.; Millot, G.; Picozzi, A.

    2017-08-01

    We revisit the mechanisms underlying the process of spectral broadening of incoherent optical waves propagating in nonlinear media on the basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamic considerations. A simple analysis reveals that a prerequisite for the existence of a significant spectral broadening of the waves is that the linear part of the energy (Hamiltonian) has different contributions of opposite signs. It turns out that, at variance with the expected soliton turbulence scenario, an increase of the amount of disorder (incoherence) in the system does not require the generation of a coherent soliton structure. We illustrate the idea by considering the propagation of two wave components in an optical fiber with opposite dispersion coefficients. A wave turbulence approach to the problem reveals that the increase of kinetic energy in one component is offset by the negative reduction in the other component, so that the waves exhibit, as a general rule, virtually unlimited spectral broadening. More precisely, a self-similar solution of the kinetic equations reveals that the spectra of the incoherent waves tend to relax toward a homogeneous distribution in the wake of a front that propagates in frequency space with a decelerating velocity. We discuss this catastrophic process of spectral broadening in the light of different important phenomena, in particular supercontinuum generation, soliton turbulence, wave condensation, and the runaway motion of mechanical systems composed of positive and negative masses.

  15. DNA remodelling by Strict Partial Endoreplication in orchids, an original process in the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Spencer C; Bourge, Mickaël; Maunoury, Nicolas; Wong, Maurice; Bianchi, Michele Wolfe; Lepers-Andrzejewski, Sandra; Besse, Pascale; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Dron, Michel; Satiat-Jeunemaître, Béatrice

    2017-04-13

    DNA remodelling during endoreplication appears to be a strong developmental characteristic in orchids. In this study, we analysed DNA content and nuclei in 41 species of orchids to further map the genome evolution in this plant family. We demonstrate that the DNA remodelling observed in 36 out of 41 orchids studied corresponds to strict partial endoreplication. Such process is developmentally regulated in each wild species studied. Cytometry data analyses allowed us to propose a model where nuclear states 2C, 4E, 8E, etc. form a series comprising a fixed proportion, the euploid genome 2C, plus 2 to 32 additional copies of a complementary part of the genome. The fixed proportion ranged from 89% of the genome in Vanilla mexicana down to 19% in V. pompona, the lowest value for all 148 orchids reported. Insterspecific hybridisation did not suppress this phenomenon. Interestingly, this process was not observed in mass-produced epiphytes. Nucleolar volumes grow with the number of endocopies present, coherent with high transcription activity in endoreplicated nuclei. Our analyses suggest species-specific chromatin rearrangement. Towards understanding endoreplication, V. planifolia constitutes a tractable system for isolating the genomic sequences that confer an advantage via endoreplication from those that apparently suffice at diploid level. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  16. The communicative process of weather forecasts issued in the probabilistic form (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Raimondi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of weather forecasting is that of protecting weather-sensitive human activities. Forecasts issued in the probabilistic form have a higher informative content, as opposed to deterministic one, since they bear information that give also a measure of their own uncertainty. However, in order to make an appropriate and effective use of this kind of forecasts in an operational setting, communication becomes significatively relevant.The present paper, after having briefly examined the weather forecasts concerning Hurricane Charley (August 2004, tackles the issue of the communicative process in detail.The bottom line of this study is that for the weather forecast to achieve its best predictive potential, an in-depth analysis of communication issues is necessary.

  17. An estimation of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone's center and associated dynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Toshinari; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Kawano, Tetsuya; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the time evolution of water origins in the vicinity of a tropical cyclone (TC)'s center, we have simulated Typhoon Man-yi (July 2007) in our case study, using an isotopic regional spectral model. The model results confirm that the replacement of water origins occurs successively as the TC develops and migrates northward over the western North Pacific. It is confirmed that, in this case, a significant proportion of total precipitable water around the cyclone center comes from external regions rather than the underlying ocean during the mature stage of a TC. Similar features can also be seen in the proportion of each oceanic origin to total condensation. Indian Ocean, South China Sea, and Maritime Continent water vapors begin to increase gradually at the developing stage and reach their peak at the decay stage when the TC approaches southwestern Japan. These remote ocean vapors are transported to the east of the cyclone via the moisture conveyor belt, a zone characterized by distinct low-level moisture flux that stretches from the Indian Ocean to the TC, and are further supplied into the inner region of the TC by inflow within the boundary layer associated with its secondary circulation. Since it takes time to undergo these two dynamic processes, the delayed influence of remote ocean vapors on the TC appears to become evident during the mature stage.

  18. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  19. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanwoua, Julienne; Bairam, Emna; Delaire, Mickael; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modeling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  20. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  1. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  2. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  3. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  4. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    Full Text Available We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli.

  5. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli. PMID:25955719

  6. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  7. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößeler, Anne; Vagt, Sandra; Beyerbach, Martin; Kamphues, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n = 3) or without (n = 3) pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  8. Origin of Emotion Effects on ERP Correlates of Emotional Word Processing: The Emotion Duality Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil Konrad; Jarymowicz, Maria Teresa; Spustek, Tomasz; Kuś, Rafał; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    We distinguish two evaluative systems which evoke automatic and reflective emotions. Automatic emotions are direct reactions to stimuli whereas reflective emotions are always based on verbalized (and often abstract) criteria of evaluation. We conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in which 25 women were required to read and respond to emotional words which engaged either the automatic or reflective system. Stimulus words were emotional (positive or negative) and neutral. We found an effect of valence on an early response with dipolar fronto-occipital topography; positive words evoked a higher amplitude response than negative words. We also found that topographically specific differences in the amplitude of the late positive complex were related to the system involved in processing. Emotional stimuli engaging the automatic system were associated with significantly higher amplitudes in the left-parietal region; the response to neutral words was similar regardless of the system engaged. A different pattern of effects was observed in the central region, neutral stimuli engaging the reflective system evoked a higher amplitudes response whereas there was no system effect for emotional stimuli. These differences could not be reduced to effects of differences between the arousing properties and concreteness of the words used as stimuli.

  9. DHX9 suppresses RNA processing defects originating from the Alu invasion of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Tuğçe; Avşar Ilık, İbrahim; Maticzka, Daniel; Bhardwaj, Vivek; Pessoa Rodrigues, Cecilia; Mittler, Gerhard; Manke, Thomas; Backofen, Rolf; Akhtar, Asifa

    2017-04-06

    Transposable elements are viewed as 'selfish genetic elements', yet they contribute to gene regulation and genome evolution in diverse ways. More than half of the human genome consists of transposable elements. Alu elements belong to the short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) family of repetitive elements, and with over 1 million insertions they make up more than 10% of the human genome. Despite their abundance and the potential evolutionary advantages they confer, Alu elements can be mutagenic to the host as they can act as splice acceptors, inhibit translation of mRNAs and cause genomic instability. Alu elements are the main targets of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR and the formation of Alu exons is suppressed by the nuclear ribonucleoprotein HNRNPC, but the broad effect of massive secondary structures formed by inverted-repeat Alu elements on RNA processing in the nucleus remains unknown. Here we show that DHX9, an abundant nuclear RNA helicase, binds specifically to inverted-repeat Alu elements that are transcribed as parts of genes. Loss of DHX9 leads to an increase in the number of circular-RNA-producing genes and amount of circular RNAs, translational repression of reporters containing inverted-repeat Alu elements, and transcriptional rewiring (the creation of mostly nonsensical novel connections between exons) of susceptible loci. Biochemical purifications of DHX9 identify the interferon-inducible isoform of ADAR (p150), but not the constitutively expressed ADAR isoform (p110), as an RNA-independent interaction partner. Co-depletion of ADAR and DHX9 augments the double-stranded RNA accumulation defects, leading to increased circular RNA production, revealing a functional link between these two enzymes. Our work uncovers an evolutionarily conserved function of DHX9. We propose that it acts as a nuclear RNA resolvase that neutralizes the immediate threat posed by transposon insertions and allows these elements to evolve as tools for the post

  10. Resistance to change in the Management Information System: an analysis of the institutionalization of IT structures and processes in an organization of the Brazilian Judicial Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Junqueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the resistance factors to change the Management Information System - MIS, in an organization of the Brazilian judiciary, describing how the actions of the actors can inhibit the institutionalization of management control practices. We use the case study method, with the framework of Burns and Scapens (2000 to understand the process in which the rules become habits and routines and are institutionalized. Huy’s framework (2001 were used to explain how the ideal types of planned change to analyzing can explain resistance factors. The cut chosen for analysis was the IT structures and processes recommended by law and supported by the literature in the field. We conducted interviews, document analysis and field notes for the collection and discourse analysis elements - DA for data analysis. The results indicate that the structures and processes IT should form the MIS of organization are not fully institutionalized, although the coercive pressure to change. Thus, we observe a purely ceremonial use of various processes of MIS and concluded that if senior management does not exercise its coordinating role and support the process of change and if there is no proper training of servers, hardly the rules become will habits and patterns, or they will be institutionalized. The study contributes to the field to describe how failures in planning the change and / or the lack of interest of senior management, coupled with the lack of training of staff inhibits the institutionalization of new rules, even when these are established coercively.

  11. COELIAC TRUNK BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Jose Thomson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anatomical variations involving the visceral arteries are common. However, variations in coeliac trunk are usually asymptomatic, they may become important in patients undergoing diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or prior to an operative procedure. This study was useful for knowing the possible morphological variations before an upper abdominal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a descriptive study done by cadaveric dissection, conducted on thirty cadavers. The coeliac trunk being examined for its origin, branching pattern, distribution, and variations. Results were statistically analysed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS In our study, 60% of the coeliac trunk shows variations and 40% have normal branching pattern. A complete absence of coeliac trunk was observed in one case. In the present study the Right inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6% and left inferior phrenic artery arising from coeliac trunk in 3 cases (9.9%. Both inferior phrenic arteries are arising from coeliac trunk in 2 cases (6.6%. The common hepatomesenteric trunk and gastro splenic trunk was found in 1 case (3.3%. Hepatosplenic trunk was found in 2 cases (6.6%. In another 2 cases (6.6% gastric and hepatic artery originate from coeliac trunk but splenic artery has a separate origin from abdominal aorta. An absent trunk was also found in 1 case (3.3%. In 5 cases (16.7% showed trifurcation with variation in the branching pattern. CONCLUSION The branching pattern and extreme degree variability in coeliac trunk as brought out in the observations of the present study make it obvious that the present study almost falls in description with previous studies.

  12. A Unifying Theory of Branching Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Scheele, Colinda L G J; Moad, Mohammad; Drogo, Nicholas; Heer, Rakesh; Sampogna, Rosemary V; van Rheenen, Jacco; Simons, Benjamin D

    2017-09-21

    The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that, in mouse mammary gland, kidney, and human prostate, these features can be explained quantitatively within a single unifying framework of branching and annihilating random walks. Based on quantitative analyses of large-scale organ reconstructions and proliferation kinetics measurements, we propose that morphogenesis follows from the proliferative activity of equipotent tips that stochastically branch and randomly explore their environment but compete neutrally for space, becoming proliferatively inactive when in proximity with neighboring ducts. These results show that complex branched epithelial structures develop as a self-organized process, reliant upon a strikingly simple but generic rule, without recourse to a rigid and deterministic sequence of genetically programmed events. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  14. Wind-Induced Reconfigurations in Flexible Branched Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oluwafemi; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Wind induced stresses are the major mechanical cause of failure in trees. We know that the branching mechanism has an important effect on the stress distribution and stability of a tree in the wind. Eloy in PRL 2011, showed that Leonardo da Vinci's original observation which states the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes is the best configuration for resisting wind-induced fracture in rigid trees. However, prediction of the fracture risk and pattern of a tree is also a function of their reconfiguration capabilities and how they mitigate large wind-induced stresses. In this studies through developing an efficient numerical simulation of flexible branched trees, we explore the role of the tree flexibility on the optimal branching. Our results show that the probability of a tree breaking at any point depends on both the cross-section changes in the branching nodes and the level of tree flexibility. It is found that the branching mechanism based on Leonardo da Vinci's original observation leads to a uniform stress distribution over a wide range of flexibilities but the pattern changes for more flexible systems.

  15. Durability of branches in branched and fenestrated endografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Tara M; Greenberg, Roy K; Eagleton, Matthew J; Hernandez, Adrian V

    2013-04-01

    Branched and fenestrated repair has been shown to be effective for treatment of complex aortic aneurysms. However, the long-term durability of branches is not well reported. Prospective data collected for all patients enrolled in a physician-sponsored investigational device exemption trial for branched and fenestrated endografts were analyzed. Retrospective review of imaging studies and electronic records was used to supplement the dataset. Incidences of branch stent secondary intervention, stent fracture, migration, branch-related rupture, and death were calculated. A time-to-event analysis was performed for secondary intervention for any branch. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify related variables. Branch instability, a composite outcome of any branch event, was reported as a function of exponential decay to capture the loss of freedom from complications over time. Between the years 2001 and 2010, 650 patients underwent endovascular aortic repair with branched or fenestrated devices. Over 9 years of follow-up (mean [standard deviation], 3 [2.3] years), secondary procedures were performed for 0.6% of celiac, 4% of superior mesenteric artery (SMA), 6% of right renal artery, and 5% of left renal artery stents. Mean time to reintervention was 237 (354) days. The 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year freedom from branch intervention was 98% (95% confidence interval [CI], 96%-99%), 94% (95% CI, 92%-96%), and 84% (95% CI, 78%-90%), respectively. Death from branch stent complications occurred in three patients, two related to SMA thrombosis and one due to an unstented SMA scallop. Multivariable analysis revealed no factors as independent predictors of need for branch reintervention. Branches, after branched or fenestrated aortic repair, appear to be durable and are rarely the cause of patient death. The absence of long-term data on branch patency in open repair precludes comparison, yet the lower morbidity and mortality risk coupled with longer

  16. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  17. Exposure to rubber process dust and fume since 1970s in the United Kingdom; influence of origin of measurement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Michela; de Vocht, Frank; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W; Galea, Karen S; Kromhout, Hans

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare measured concentrations of rubber process dust and rubber fume originating from different sources in the British rubber manufacturing industry. Almost 8000 exposure measurements were obtained from industry-based survey results collected by the British Rubber Manufacturers' Association (BRMA), and covering the years 1977 to 2002, and from a series of small surveys contained in the Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) National Exposure Database (HSE-NEDB) from 1980 to 2002. The analysis investigated temporal trends in the exposure concentrations and the underlying main factors responsible for these changes. Analyses were carried out using hierarchical linear mixed effects models. Average personal exposures to rubber process dust and rubber fumes were respectively a factor 2 and 4 higher for the HSE-NEDB data when compared to data originating from the industry (BRMA data). Personal exposure to rubber process dust decreased on average by 4.1% (95% CI 4.7-3.6) annually for the BRMA data and slightly less at 2.3% (95% CI 5.2-0.7%) per annum for the HSE-NEDB data. Personal exposure to rubber fume also showed a downward temporal trend of 2.9% (95% CI 3.6-2.3%) and 4.8% (95% CI 7.4-2.1%) annually for the BRMA and HSE-NEDB data, respectively. These trends differed considerably between departments. No major changes in the estimated temporal trends in exposure concentrations were observed after including the presence of local exhaust ventilation in the models for any department in the BRMA and HSE-NEDB datasets. Lack of information on the quality and status of the local exhaust ventilation is the most likely explanation for this. In conclusion, even though there were relatively similar downward time trends in both rubber process dust and fume concentrations in both datasets, the source of exposure data was an important determinant of average exposure concentrations present in the British rubber manufacturing industry. Lack of detailed

  18. Origin of groundwater salinity and hydrogeochemical processes in a confined coastal aquifer: Case of the Rhone delta (Southern France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montety, Veronique de [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon (France)], E-mail: veronique.de-montety@univ-avignon.fr; Radakovitch, Olivier; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS-CDF-IRD, Europole Mediterraneen de L' Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Blavoux, Bernard [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon (France); Hermitte, Daniel [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS-CDF-IRD, Europole Mediterraneen de L' Arbois, BP 80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Valles, Vincent [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse - INRA, UMR 1114 EMMAH, F-84000 Avignon (France)

    2008-08-15

    The Rhone delta, South of France (Camargue, 750 km{sup 2}) is a coastal saline wetland located along the Mediterranean Sea. The confined aquifer of this delta shows high values of electrical conductivity rising from the north (4 mS/cm) to the shoreline (58 mS/cm). This work aims to identify the origin of groundwater salinity and the geochemical processes occurring in this coastal confined aquifer according to the degree of salinity. A natural tracing approach is considered using monthly sampling in 8 piezometers for chemical and isotopic analyses ({sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C{sub TDIC}). Ionic and isotopic ratios demonstrate that strong salinities are due to a simple mixing between Mediterranean seawater and freshwater; seawater contribution reaches up to 98% at 8 km from the shoreline. Seawater intrusion induces a particular groundwater chemistry which varies with the degree of seawater contribution: (1) In the less saline part of the aquifer (seawater contribution <20%), the intrusion induces an increase of Na{sup +} in groundwater leading to Ca{sup 2+}/Na{sup +} exchange processes. The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub TDIC} analyses show that matrix exchange processes most likely occur for the less saline samples. (2) In the saline part of the aquifer (seawater contribution >20%), the intrusion induces SO{sub 4} reduction which is confirmed by highly depleted {delta}{sup 13}C{sub TDIC} values (up to -19 per mille ). The {delta}{sup 13}C{sub TDIC} also reveals that methanogenesis processes may occur in the most reductive part of the aquifer. Due to SO{sub 4} reduction, the intrusion induces a shift in carbonate equilibrium leading to supersaturation with respect to dolomite and/or magnesian calcite. Thus carbonate precipitation may occur in the area strongly influenced by seawater.

  19. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  20. Ab initio study of the HO2+NO reaction: Prediction of the total rate constant and product branching ratios for the forward and reverse processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, R. S.; Lin, M. C.

    2003-11-01

    The mechanisms for HO2+NO and its reverse reactions have been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital and transition-state theory calculations. The species involved have been optimized at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) level and their energies refined by single-point calculations with the highest scheme of the modified Gaussian-2 method. Ab initio results show that formation of HO+NO2 from HO2+NO by the direct fragmentation of the peroxynitrous acid, HOONO intermediate, is predominant; the alternative path occurring by the isomerization of HOONO to HONO2 is 5.2 kcal/mol less favorable. The stepwise formation of HNO+O2 from HOONO is energetically unfavorable; the barriers for the direct H abstract reactions via singlet and triplet paths are found to be rather high also. Rate constant calculations show that the forward reaction is pressure independent below 10 atm; the reverse OH+NO2 reactions producing HONO2 and HOONO appear to be strongly pressure dependent; below 1 atm, the yield of HOONO from HO+NO2 is <2.5% at 300-400 K, it reaches 12.2% and 9.1%, respectively, at 300 and 400 K at 3.8×104 Torr pressure. The low- and high-pressure rate constants with He as a third-body for the formation of HOONO and HONO2 from the HO+NO2 reaction can be expressed by k0 (HOONO)=3.15×102 T-12.3 exp(-585/T), k0 (HONO2)=3.32×10-6 T-8.8 exp(-1569/T)cm6 molecule-2 s-1 and k∞ (HOONO)=1.71×10-10 T-0.24 exp(100/T) and k∞ (HONO2)=4.74×10-9T-0.82 exp(21/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, in the temperature range of 200-2000 K. The unimolecular decomposition rate constant (in Ar) of HNO3 can be expressed as kd∞ (HNO3)=2.30×1023T-2.27 exp(-26317/T) s-1 and kd0 (HNO3)=1.27×1015 T-6.55exp(-26038/T) cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively. The predicted values are all in close agreement with experimental data for both forward and reverse processes.

  1. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    Authorizations Since 1999, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 10 The FY2012 level of...Congresses, by Matthew E. Glassman . Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations Congressional Research Service 11 Members’ Representational...vehicles; communications equipment; security equipment and its installation; dignitary protection; intelligence analysis; hazardous material response

  2. The TOPOMOD-ITN project: unravel the origin of Earth's topography from modelling deep-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.

    2012-04-01

    EC-Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) projects aim to improve the career perspectives of young generations of researchers. Institutions from both academic and industry sectors form a collaborative network to recruit research fellows and provide them with opportunities to undertake research in the context of a joint research training program. In this frame, TOPOMOD - one of the training activities of EPOS, the new-born European Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - is a funded ITN project designed to investigate and model how surface processes interact with crustal tectonics and mantle convection to originate and develop topography of the continents over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The multi-disciplinary approach combines geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics and structural geology with advanced geodynamic numerical/analog modelling. TOPOMOD involves 8 European research teams internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary fields of Earth Sciences (Roma TRE, Utrecht, GFZ, ETH, Cambridge, Durham, Rennes, Barcelona), to which are associated 5 research institutions (CNR-Italy, Univ. Parma, Univ. Lausanne, Univ. Montpellier, Univ. Mainz) , 3 high-technology enterprises (Malvern Instruments, TNO, G.O. Logical Consulting) and 1 large multinational oil and gas company (ENI). This unique network places emphasis in experience-based training increasing the impact and international visibility of European research in modeling. Long-term collaboration and synergy are established among the overmentioned research teams through 15 cross-disciplinary research projects that combine case studies in well-chosen target areas from the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East, west Africa, and South America, with new developments in structural geology, geomorphology, seismology, geochemistry, InSAR, laboratory and numerical modelling of geological processes from the deep mantle to the surface. These multidisciplinary projects altogether aim to

  3. Computing the origin and evolution of the ribosome from its structure — Uncovering processes of macromolecular accretion benefiting synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Caetano-Anollés, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Accretion occurs pervasively in nature at widely different timeframes. The process also manifests in the evolution of macromolecules. Here we review recent computational and structural biology studies of evolutionary accretion that make use of the ideographic (historical, retrodictive) and nomothetic (universal, predictive) scientific frameworks. Computational studies uncover explicit timelines of accretion of structural parts in molecular repertoires and molecules. Phylogenetic trees of protein structural domains and proteomes and their molecular functions were built from a genomic census of millions of encoded proteins and associated terminal Gene Ontology terms. Trees reveal a ‘metabolic-first’ origin of proteins, the late development of translation, and a patchwork distribution of proteins in biological networks mediated by molecular recruitment. Similarly, the natural history of ancient RNA molecules inferred from trees of molecular substructures built from a census of molecular features shows patchwork-like accretion patterns. Ideographic analyses of ribosomal history uncover the early appearance of structures supporting mRNA decoding and tRNA translocation, the coevolution of ribosomal proteins and RNA, and a first evolutionary transition that brings ribosomal subunits together into a processive protein biosynthetic complex. Nomothetic structural biology studies of tertiary interactions and ancient insertions in rRNA complement these findings, once concentric layering assumptions are removed. Patterns of coaxial helical stacking reveal a frustrated dynamics of outward and inward ribosomal growth possibly mediated by structural grafting. The early rise of the ribosomal ‘turnstile’ suggests an evolutionary transition in natural biological computation. Results make explicit the need to understand processes of molecular growth and information transfer of macromolecules. PMID:27096056

  4. Origin of the groundwater salinity and geochemical processes in detrital and carbonate aquifers: Case of Chougafiya basin (Central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Intissar; Zouari, Kamel; Rigane, Adel; Beji, Ridha

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive investigations of groundwaters were performed in the detrital and carbonate aquifers of the Chougafiya basin, central Tunisia. In the present review, hydrochemistry and isotopic tools were combined to get an insight into the processes controlling mineralization, recharge conditions, flow pattern of groundwater and C chemistry in the investigated hydrological system. Analysis of the dissolved constituents revealed that several processes controlled the observed chemical composition: (i) the dissolution of evaporitic minerals, (ii) cation exchange reactions, (iii) sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions, (iv) incongruent dissolution of carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite) coupled with gypsum dissolution and calcite precipitation, and (v) silicates weathering. Data inferred from 18O and deuterium isotopes in groundwater samples indicated recharge with modern rainfall. Water characterized by lower δ18O and δ2H values is interpreted as recharged by non-evaporated rainfall originating from Mediterranean and Atlantic air masses. However, water with relatively enriched δ18O and δ2H contents is thought to reflect the occurrence of an evaporation process related to the long term practice of flood irrigation. The radiogenic (3H) isotope data provided insight into the presence of two recharge periods in the investigated groundwaters. Waters with 3H contents of 1 TU clearly suggested the occurrence of a contemporaneous recharge probably during the last two decades. Carbon isotopes provided some insights into the timescales of groundwater flow, but mainly revealed that main sources of C are active in the system. These are likely: dissolved biogenic CO2, carbonate dissolution and incongruent reaction of the carbonate matrix. Mean residence times were determined after correction of the initial activities for dead C from the rock matrix and suggest ages ranging from the present day to the Holocene in both Upper Cretaceous and Mio-pliocene groundwaters.

  5. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Technol. Arts Res. J., April-June 2015, 4(2): 164-180. 168. Table 2: Actinomycetes with potent antimicrobial activity and their origin (soil). Isolates. Origin (soil). PO-01, PO-02. Mandagadde. PO-03, PO-04. Mahishi. PO-05. Bejjavalli. PO-06. Kudumallige. PO-07, PO-08. Maaluru. PO-09, PO-10 Thirthahalli. PO-11. Kaimara.

  6. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    reflect different features of the global structure, and it is categorically shown that this dimensional analysis results in effective structure characterization of these materials. Small-angle scattering of x-rays and neutrons can be used to quantify branch content and characterize the structure, through application of concepts native to fractal geometry. The application of the scaling model to nano-particulate aggregates yields quantitative information regarding the structure of these materials. In-situ small and ultra small angle x-ray scattering data collected on fumed silica and soot particles is presented in Chapter II. These measurements were performed at Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, UNICAT beam-line and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, ID2 beam-line. The dimensional analysis is successful in not only giving an average snap-shot of the nano-particulate aggregates, but also yields information regarding the growth processes involved in the complex pyrolysis technique of synthesizing these materials. In case of macromolecular systems, the minimum path dimension, dmin, is shown to reflect the thermodynamics of the system. This is categorically established in Chapter III on hyperbranched polymers, where the scaling model accurately predicts the good-solvent to theta-condition transition in these highly branched polymers with increasing molar mass. The scaling model is applied to the long standing problem of quantifying long chain branching in polyethylene in Chapter IV. Small angle neutron scattering data on dilute solutions of polyethylene were obtained at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (SAND beam-line); NIST center for Neutron Scattering (NG3 beam-line); and Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LQD beam-line). This work, for the first time in literature, reports the length of a long chain branch in polyethylene in terms of the average molar mass of the branches, and the average number of carbon atoms in the long

  7. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiber, Laura, E-mail: scheiber.ls@gmail.com [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cendón, Dioni I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences (BEES), University of New South Wales (UNSW), NSW 2052 (Australia); Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí Franquès, sn., Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Juan Carlos [Cobre Las Cruces S.A., Carretera SE-3410 km 4, 41860 Gerena, Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH{sub 4}), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH{sub 4}, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH{sub 4}, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ{sup 15}N{sub NH4} values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water

  8. The origin and differentiation process of X and Y chromosomes of the black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis, Geoemydidae, Testudines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagoshi, Taiki; Nishida, Chizuko; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2012-01-01

    The black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis) has morphologically differentiated X and Y sex chromosomes. To elucidate the origin and evolutionary process of S. crassicollis X and Y chromosomes, we performed cross-species chromosome painting with chromosome-specific DNA from Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and chromosome mapping of the sex-linked genes of S. crassicollis using FISH. The X and Y chromosomes of S. crassicollis were hybridized with DNA probe of P. sinensis chromosome 5, which is homologous to chicken chromosome 5. S. crassicollis homologues of 14 chicken chromosome 5-linked genes were all localized to the X long arm, whereas two genes were mapped to the Y short arm and the other 12 genes were localized to the Y long arm in the same order as the X chromosome. This result suggests that extensive linkage homology has been retained between chicken chromosome 5 and S. crassicollis X and Y chromosomes and that S. crassicollis X and Y chromosomes are at an early stage of sex chromosome differentiation. Comparison of the locations of two site-specific repetitive DNA sequences on the X and Y chromosomes demonstrated that the centromere shift was the result of centromere repositioning, not of pericentric inversion.

  9. Effect of origin, breeding and processing conditions on the isotope ratios of bioelements in dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Camin, Federica; Sánchez del Pulgar, José; Piasentier, Edi

    2013-02-15

    The stable isotope ratios (SIR) of the bioelements ((2)H/(1)H, (13)C/(12)C, (15)N/(14)N, (18)O/(16)O, (34)S/(32)S) of the defatted dry matter and marbling and subcutaneous fat fractions, were assessed on 86 ham samples belonging to six different types, with the aim of ascertaining the effect of origin and production system on 11 isotopic ratios. The ham types were obtained from pigs reared in three regions, examining in every location one different production factor at two levels of expression: pig genotype (local breed vs. industrial hybrid) in Friuli (Italy), pig feeding regime (Bellota vs. Campo) in Extremadura (Spain) and ham seasoning time (mid vs. end) in Emilia (Italy). The isotopic composition of meteoric water and the dietary abundance of C(4) plants allowed to distinguish Italian PDO from Spanish hams. The contrasting treatments within the regional batches generated promising differences in SIR, potentially useful for tracing the whole ham production system, including the processing procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SEM imaging of gas hydrate formation processes and growth textures and comparison to natural hydrates of marine and permafrost origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Laura; Circone, Susan; Kirby, Stephen; Durham, William

    2005-07-01

    Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy provides an excellent means for examining grain morphologies, grain contacts, phase distributions, and pore characteristics within gas-hydratebearing samples of both natural and laboratory origin. Here, we use SEM to observe a variety of laboratory-synthesized sI and sII gas hydrates of known composition and pressure-temperature histories. We show images that convey the diversity of textures observed at various extents of hydrate growth in single-phase gas hydrate systems and hydrate/sediment assemblages, including transient morphologies that are limited primarily to early-to-mid stages of reaction. The resulting textures of fully reacted and/or annealed samples are then followed through increasingly complex laboratory or ocean-floor processes, including compaction, compression, partial dissociation, or partial dissolution. Lastly, we compare the observed features to those developed within natural gashydrate-bearing samples recovered from both marine and permafrost settings. We find that labsynthesized samples can be produced to yield remarkably similar textures, phase distributions, and grain contacts to those found in some hydrate-bearing materials recovered from natural settings. (Author)

  11. Deconvolving the process-origin of sediments on volcanic mountains and implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction: Mt Ruapehu area, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Glaciation on the central North Island of New Zealand is limited to the volcanoes of Tongariro National Park, including Mt Ruapehu, the largest and most active andesitic stratovolcano on the North Island. At 2797 m asl, Mt Ruapehu represents the only peak in the North Island to currently intercept the permanent snowline, with small cirque glaciers descending to an altitude of ~2300 m. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), small ice-caps existed on Mt Ruapehu and the Tongariro Massif (15 km to the NNE of Ruapehu), with a series of small (clast roundness, clast shape and textural characteristics associated with active and former glaciers on Mt Ruaephu and the Tongariro Massif, in order to assist in classifying the process-origin of sediments on glaciated volcanic mountains. Supraglacial inputs include rockfall, tephra, and avalanche material delivered to the surface of glaciers. Basal debris, where observed at the terminus of active cirque glaciers, consists mainly of incorporated fluvial material. Following deposition, reworking is mainly by proglacial streams, debris flows and lahars. Within the vicinity of glaciers, the dominant facies appear to be: (i) bouldery gravel with angular clasts on steep slopes surrounding glaciers, (ii) silty-sandy boulder gravel, with mainly subangular clasts, forming lateral moraines, (iii) boulder/cobble gravel with mainly subrounded clasts and associated laminated sediments representing fluvially-reworked material; and (iv) debris-avalanche deposits including fragmental rock clasts with an unsorted inter-clast matrix. As some of these deposits appear to include unambiguous indicators of glacial transport, interpretation of unconsolidated debris ridges on volcanic mountains should not necessarily exclude the contribution of glacial processes.

  12. Extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal dynamics during branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2012-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental developmental process which results in amplification of epithelial surface area for exchanging molecules in organs including the lung, kidney, mammary gland and salivary gland. These complex tree-like structures are built by iterative rounds of simple routines of epithelial morphogenesis, including bud formation, extension, and bifurcation, that require constant remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cytoskeleton. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the role of the ECM and cytoskeletal dynamics in branching morphogenesis across these different organs. The cellular and molecular mechanisms shared during this morphogenetic process provide insight into the development of other branching organs. PMID:22609561

  13. AXILLARY ARTERY- A STUDY ON BRANCHING PATTERN AND VARIATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswary Thampi S

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Study of variations in the branching pattern of axillary artery is of considerable importance. There may be variations in the origin of branches, additional branches or 2 or more from common trunk or the artery may arise separately. The anomalous branching pattern can be correlated to the developmental defects of vasculature during embryonic life. The axillary artery is a part of axis artery of upper limb. Morphological variations of axillary artery of upper limb is very important for vascular surgeons, cardiologists, anaesthetists, radiologists and orthopaedic surgeons. Present study is aimed at finding out the branching pattern of axillary artery, clinical significance and to correlate its embryological basis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted on 20 formalin fixed cadavers (40 limbs, which were allotted to the undergraduate, postgraduate students and BDS students of Government Medical College, Kottayam. Cadavers were numbered 1-20 and the axillary artery and its branches were dissected on both sides following the classical incision and dissection procedure taking care to preserve all branches. The artery was studied under the following headings- 1. Origin of all branches; 2. Course and variation. RESULTS In the present study, it was observed that the branching pattern of axillary artery showed variations in 80% of cases. 8 upper limbs showed normal pattern of distribution (20%. The branches revealed different levels of origin and distribution from the normal pattern. The most common variations observed in the origin of subscapular artery and anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries together constitute 40%. The remaining 40% of variations were observed in superior thoracic (17.5%, thoracoacromial (12.5% and lateral thoracic (10%. These observations in the arterial variations highlights the awareness during regional surgeries and other interventional procedures. CONCLUSION Variations observed in this

  14. [Occlusion of secondary branches after angioplasty of the left descending coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, E C; Sousa, A G; Nicolela Júnior, E L; Cano, M N; Maldonado, G; Feres, F; Mattos, L A; Pinto, I M; Tanajura, L F; Fontes, V F

    1990-05-01

    To evaluate the incidence and clinical presentation of the occlusion of such secondary branches in patients with single vessel coronary artery disease in the left anterior descending artery, who underwent a first elective and successful PTCA. Two hundred and thirteen side branches of 121 patients considered to be at risk. They were divided into group I (GI-85 side branches, 39.9%), if they originated from the atherosclerotic site; and group II (GII-120 side branches, 61.5%), if their origin would be involved during the balloon inflation. In the GI there were 54 septal branches and 31 diagonal branches, and 36& had angiographic evidence of ostium disease. GII was constituted by 77 septal and 51 diagonal branches, and 7.8% of them had evidence of ostium disease. Seven side branches (3.3%) at risk occluded, 4 from GI (4.7%) and 3 (2.3%) from GII. As for the clinical presentation, 57% of them had angina, where as 28.6% showed minor abnormalities in the ECG. No patient elevated its serum CK-MB, and silent occlusion occurred in 43% of them. Occlusion of side branches is a low incidence phenomenon, which happens more often in septal branches with ostium disease that originates from the atherosclerotic site; that about half of the patient had silent occlusion (43%) or mild ischemic manifestations.

  15. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  16. Models of lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Vertebrate airway has a tree-like-branched structure. This structure is generated by repeated tip splitting, which is called branching morphogenesis. Although this phenomenon is extensively studied in developmental biology, the mechanism of the pattern formation is not well understood. Conversely, there are many tree-like structures in purely physical or chemical systems, and their pattern formation mechanisms are well-understood using mathematical models. Recent studies correlate these biological observations and mathematical models to understand lung branching morphogenesis. These models use slightly different mechanisms. In this article, we will review recent progress in modelling lung branching morphogenesis, and future directions to experimentally verify the models. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  18. PENERAPAN BRANCH AND BOUND ALGORITHM DALAM OPTIMALISASI PRODUKSI ROTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEDE SURYAWAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Companies which engaged in production activities such as Ramadhan Bakery would want optimal profit in their every production. The aim of this study was to find optimal profit and optimal combination of bread production (original chocolate bread, extra chocolate bread, rounding chocolate bread and mattress chocolate bread that was produced by Ramadhan Bakery by applying Branch and Bound Algorithm method. Branch and Bound Algorithm is one method to solve Integer Programming’s problems other than Cutting Plane method. Compared with Cutting Plane method, Branch and Bound Algorithm method is more effective in determining the optimal value. As the result of this study showed that to get optimal profit, Ramadhan Bakery should produce 360 pcs of original chocolate bread, 300 pcs of extra chocolate bread, 306 pcs of rounding chocolate bread and 129 pcs of mattress chocolate bread with optimal profit amounts Rp. 1.195.624,00.. The profit will increase amounts 25,2 % than before.

  19. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  20. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    The process approach is based on the principle that learning is a process of discovery. As many research findings confirm, writing as a process is also process of discovering meaning. The process approach to writing has two major categories: the cognitive or classical approach and expressive or romantic approach (Yonas ...

  1. Channel branching and zigzagging in negative cloud-to-ground lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Mingyuan; Sun, Zhuling; Lu, Gaopeng; Wang, Zhichao; Wang, Yu

    2017-06-14

    A fundamental question in lightning flash concerns why the discharge channel propagates in a zig-zag manner and produces extensive branches. Here we report the optical observation of two negative cloud-to-ground lightning discharges with very high temporal resolution of 180,000 frames per second, which shows in detail the dependence of channel branching and tortuous behavior on the stepping process of the leader development. It is found that the clustered space leaders formed in parallel ahead of the channel tip during an individual step process. The leader branching is due to the multiple connection of the clustered space leaders with the same root channel tip, which occur almost simultaneously, or successively as some space leaders/stems resurrect after interruption. Meanwhile, the irregularity of angles between the clustered space leaders and the advancing direction of leader tip is the origin of channel tortuosity. The statistical analysis on 96 steps shows a geometric-mean value of 4.4 m for the step length, ranging between 1.3 and 8.6 m, while the distance from the center of space leader to the channel is 3.6 m, ranging between 2.1 and 6.9 m. More than 50% steps occurred within an angle range of ±30° from the advancing direction of the leader.

  2. Effect of mountain climatic elevation gradient and litter origin on decomposition processes: long-term experiment with litter-bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Beata; Niklińska, Maria; Chodak, Marcin

    2013-04-01

    Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting soil organic matter decomposition. Mountain areas with vertical gradients of temperature and precipitation provide an opportunity to observe climate changes similar to those observed at various latitudes and may serve as an approximation for climatic changes. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of climatic conditions and initial properties of litter on decomposition processes and thermal sensitivity of forest litter. The litter was collected at three altitudes (600, 900, 1200 m a.s.l.) in the Beskidy Mts (southern Poland), put into litter-bags and exposed in the field since autumn 2011. The litter collected at single altitude was exposed at the altitude it was taken and also at the two other altitudes. The litter-bags were laid out on five mountains, treated as replicates. Starting on April 2012, single sets of litter-bags were collected every five weeks. The laboratory measurements included determination of dry mass loss and chemical composition (Corg, Nt, St, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Cu, Zn) of the litter. In the additional litter-bag sets, taken in spring and autumn 2012, microbial properties were measured. To determine the effect of litter properties and climatic conditions of elevation sites on decomposing litter thermal sensitivity the respiration rate of litter was measured at 5°C, 15°C and 25°C and calculated as Q10 L and Q10 H (ratios of respiration rate between 5° and 15°C and between 15°C and 25°C, respectively). The functional diversity of soil microbes was measured with Biolog® ECO plates, structural diversity with phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA). Litter mass lost during first year of incubation was characterized by high variability and mean mass lost ranged up to a 30% of initial mass. After autumn sampling we showed, that mean respiration rate of litter (dry mass) from the 600m a.s.l site exposed on 600m a.s.l. was the highest at each tested temperature. In turn, the lowest mean

  3. Asymmetric Branching in Biological Resource Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummer, Alexander Byers

    There is a remarkable relationship between an organism's metabolic rate (resting power consumption) and the organism's mass. It may be a universal law of nature that an organism's resting metabolic rate is proportional to its mass to the power of 3/4. This relationship, known as Kleiber's Law, appears to be valid for both plants and animals. This law is important because it implies that larger organisms are more efficient than smaller organisms, and knowledge regarding metabolic rates are essential to a multitude of other fields in ecology and biology. This includes modeling the interactions of many species across multiple trophic levels, distributions of species abundances across large spatial landscapes, and even medical diagnostics for respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies. Previous models of vascular networks that seek to identify the origin of metabolic scaling have all been based on the unrealistic assumption of perfectly symmetric branching. In this dissertation I will present a theory of asymmetric branching in self-similar vascular networks (published by Brummer et al. in [9]). The theory shows that there can exist a suite of vascular forms that result in the often observed 3/4 metabolic scaling exponent of Kleiber's Law. Furthermore, the theory makes predictions regarding major morphological features related to vascular branching patterns and their relationships to metabolic scaling. These predictions are suggestive of evolutionary convergence in vascular branching. To test these predictions, I will present an analysis of real mammalian and plant vascular data that shows: (i) broad patterns in vascular networks across entire animal kingdoms and (ii) within these patterns, plant and mammalian vascular networks can be uniquely distinguished from one another (publication in preparation by Brummer et al.). I will also present results from a computational study in support of point (i). Namely, that asymmetric branching may be the optimal strategy to

  4. Identification and carbon isotope composition of a novel branched GDGT isomer in lake sediments: Evidence for lacustrine branched GDGT production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Y.; De Jonge, C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Schubert, C.J.; Lehmann, M.F.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niemann, H.

    2015-01-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) are bacterial membrane lipids that occur ubiquitously in soils and lacustrine sediments and have great potential as proxy indicators for paleotemperature and pH reconstructions. Initially, brGDGTs in lakes were thought to originate from soils

  5. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    in a sustainable way. Therefore, the objective of th was to assess poultry production practice productivity of indigenous and exotic chicken in th area. Original ... systems. Method of Data Collection. The data was collected from the four RKs purposively selected from each agro-ecology, 15 households who owned flock of ...

  6. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  7. Branch prediction in the pentium family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog, Agner

    1998-01-01

    How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions.......How the branch prediction mechanism in the Pentium has been uncovered with all its quirks, and the incredibly more effective branch prediction in the later versions....

  8. Effects of valence and origin of emotions in word processing evidenced by event related potential correlates in a lexical decision task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents behavioral and event-related potential (ERP correlates of emotional word processing during a lexical decision task (LDT. We showed that valence and origin (two distinct affective properties of stimuli help to account for the ERP correlates of LDT. The origin of emotion is a factor derived from the emotion duality model. This model distinguishes between the automatic and controlled elicitation of emotional states. The subjects’ task was to discriminate words from pseudo-words. The stimulus words were carefully selected to differ with respect to valence and origin whilst being matched with respect to arousal, concreteness, length and frequency in natural language. Pseudo-words were matched to words with respect to length. The subjects were 32 individuals aged from 19 to 26 years who were invited to participate in an EEG study of lexical decision making. They evaluated a list of words and pseudo-words. We found that valence modulated the amplitude of the FN400 component (290-375ms at centro-frontal (Fz, Cz region, whereas origin modulated the amplitude of the component in the LPC latency range (375-670ms. The results indicate that the origin of stimuli should be taken into consideration while deliberating on the processing of emotional words.

  9. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  10. STUDYING OF POSSIBILITY A WILLOW WHITE (SALIX ALBA L.) BRANCHES STERILIZATION BY IONIZING RADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ольга Олеговна Фролова; Анна Степановна Саушкина; Майя Викторовна Мазурина; Ася Юрьевна Айрапетова; Евгения Геннадьевна Компанцева; Евгения Владимировна Компанцева

    2014-01-01

    There was determined a quantity of microorganisms in Salix alba L. branches specimens after processing by ionizing radiation (0,25–5 kGy). The powder of S. alba branches conform to recommended requirements for a standard "Microbiological purity" after processing by the minimal radiation dose, that’s why offered method of sterilization is effective. Ionizing radiation is acceptable for S. alba branches processing, because it doesn't influence significantly on the structure and the quantity of ...

  11. National Zoological Park Branch Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Kay A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the functions of the National Zoological Park Branch of the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, which is dedicated to supporting the special information needs of the zoo. Topics covered include the library's history, collection, programs, services, future plans, and relations with other zoo libraries. (two references) (Author/CLB)

  12. Branching diffusion with particle interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Engländer, János; Zhang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    A $d$-dimensional branching diffusion, $Z$, is investigated, where the linear attraction or repulsion between particles is competing with an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck drift, with parameter $b$ (we take $b>0$ for inward O-U and $b0$) or repulsion ($\\gamma 0$, while escapes to infinity exponentially fast (rate $|b|$) when $b

  13. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  14. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 72, Revision 1 (FGE.72Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic, branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of these and straight-chain aliphatic saturated alcohols evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to consider evaluations of flavouring substances assessed since 2000 by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (the JECFA), and to decide whether further...... evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 23 aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA at their 61st meeting. This revision is made due...... threshold of concern, and available data on metabolism and toxicity. The Panel agrees with the application of the Procedure as performed by the JECFA for all 23 substances considered in this FGE and agrees with the JECFA conclusion, “No safety concern at estimated levels of intake as flavouring substances...

  15. Fetal Isolated Anomalous Origin of Right Pulmonary Artery from Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Zeng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA is characterized by the anomalous origin of one of the branch pulmonary arteries (PA from the ascending aorta and a normal origin of the other PA from main PA. AOPA is an extremely rare cardiac malformation. Few studies have reported fetal anomalous origin of PA from aorta with other malformation. We report a case of isolated distal anomalous origin of the right PA from the aorta that was diagnosed by fetal echocardiography at 25 weeks' of gestation. Tracing the course of PA branches is important to make diagnosis.

  16. Fetal Isolated Anomalous Origin of Right Pulmonary Artery from Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shi; Zhou, Qichang; Zhou, Jiawei; Peng, Qinghai

    2015-04-01

    The anomalous origin of a branch pulmonary artery from the aorta (AOPA) is characterized by the anomalous origin of one of the branch pulmonary arteries (PA) from the ascending aorta and a normal origin of the other PA from main PA. AOPA is an extremely rare cardiac malformation. Few studies have reported fetal anomalous origin of PA from aorta with other malformation. We report a case of isolated distal anomalous origin of the right PA from the aorta that was diagnosed by fetal echocardiography at 25 weeks' of gestation. Tracing the course of PA branches is important to make diagnosis.

  17. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  19. Unusually Looped and Muzzled Branches of Right Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Guru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the major cause of death in developed countries as it accounts on an average for 1 of every 5 deaths. Morphological variations of coronary arterial system is one of the causative factor for CAD. Anatomical knowledge of all possible variant patterns of coronary arterial system is imperative in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of CAD. We report here a rare branching pattern of right coronary artery (RCA. The origin of RCA was normal but the course and branching pattern of it were atypical. RCA was not occupying its usual position in atrioventricular (coronary sulcus and its course was incomplete. It gave a ventricular branch to right ventricle, which presented an unusual looping pattern. It terminated as right marginal artery following its muzzled appearance within the musculature of the ventricle.

  20. [Biomass dynamics of tree branches of higher order. A model analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskiĭ, V V

    2012-01-01

    The sectional model of biomass dynamics of freely growing tree brahcnes of all orders is presented. The model is an extension of the sectional tree biomass model proposed earlier. The branches model showed bell-shaped dynamics of a branches biomass and, accordingly, boundedness of branch orders number. The important element of the model of branches system is the inter-verticil green biomass. The model is parameterized on the basis of published data on lifespan of branches of different orders and age in which the biomass of skeletal branches of spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst, reaches the maximum. When adding known peculiarities of spruce growth (such as the initial growth inhibiton and presence of the inter-verticil branches) to the model of biomass dynamics of regular branches system, good appproximation of all natural data by model values is obtained. The possible mechanism of inter-verticil branches appearance in response to improvement of a tree growth conditions, and also their function in a tree growth process, namely replacement of regular branches incapable of appropriate response, is described. Initiation of appearing and/or waking of the sleeping (adventive) buds which give rise to inter-verticil branches is probably caused by rise of pressure of photosynthates in a tree phloem what the published results of experiments on a decapitaion of branches of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) also testify.

  1. Comportamento dos nervos glossofaríngeo e vago, na região retrofaríngea de ovinos: origem aparente no crânio, trajeto, ramificação e distribuição Behavior of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in the retropharyngeal region of sheep: apparent origin in cranium, course, branching and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria M.D. Farias

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 60 hemicabeças de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram estudadas a origem aparente no crânio, trajeto, ramificação e distribuição do nervo glossofaríngeo (Gf e do nervo vago (Vg, na região retrofaríngea (Rr. Mediante fixação e dissecação das peças, foi observado que os nervos glossofaríngeos e vagos originam-se no forame jugular em 100% dos casos. Os nervos glossofaríngeos direito e esquerdo (Gfde são localizados, com maior freqüência (86,6%, medialmente à bula timpânica, passam caudalmente ao osso estiloióide, contornam a margem caudal do músculo estilofaríngeo caudal, tonsilar, da mucosa faríngea e lingual. Estes ramos distribuemse, respectivamente, no seio carotídeo, musculatura faríngea, palato mole, músculo estilofaríngeo caudal, tonsila palatina, mucosa faríngea e terço caudal da língua (100%. Os nervos vagos direito e esquerdo (Vgde correm caudalmente em associação com os nervos acessórios (Ac até o atlas (70%, após o que passam medialmente à artéria occipital, dorsalmente à carótida comum e ao tronco simpático, na região cervical (80%. Os ramos dos nervos vagos são os faríngeos (86,66% e os laríngeos craniais (100%.In 60 hemiheads of sheep of the Santa Ines breed the apparent origin in the skull of itinerary, ramification and distribution of the glossopharingeal nerve (Gf and the vagus nerve (Vg in the retropharyngeal region (Rr were studied. By fixation and dissection of the specimens it was seen that the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve arise from the jugular foramen in 100% of the cases. The right and the left glossopharingeal nerve (Glde are frequently (86.6% located more medially to the tympanic bulla, pass caudally to the stylohyoid bone, bypass the margin of the caudal stylopharyngeal muscle, the tonsilla, of the pharyngeal and the lingual mucous membrane. These branches are distributed, respectively, in the carotid sinus, pharyngeal musculature, soft palate, stylopharyngeal

  2. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  3. Branched endografts for thoracoabdominal aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Roy; Eagleton, Matthew; Mastracci, Tara

    2010-12-01

    Endovascular management of thoracoabdominal aneurysms has been studied since 2001, with marked advances allowing for the treatment of complex anatomic situations including chronic aortic dissections, tortuous anatomy, and extensive aneurysms that involve the visceral segment, aortic arch, and iliacs as well. However, the technology is not widely disseminated, and a thorough understanding of the engineering principles, imaging techniques, and devices available is required. Reinforced fenestrated branches coupled with balloon expandable stent grafts, and side-arm branch designs mated with self-expanding stent grafts have been used. Pure fenestrated designs were used for juxtarenal aneurysms, whereas thoracoabdominal aneurysms were treated with reinforced fenestrated branches or hybrid devices including side-arm branches and reinforced fenestrated branches. Intraoperative fusion techniques have been used since 2009, whereby preoperative computed tomographic data are fused with intraoperative fluoroscopy. Long-term survival in accordance with extent of disease was assessed with life table analysis techniques, and differences were analyzed using the log rank test. Intermediate-term data pertaining to patency related to both types of branches and paraplegia have been evaluated and previously published. A total of 406 patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysms and 227 patients with juxtarenal aneurysms have been enrolled in a prospective study. Perioperative and 2-year survival were most closely related to extent of initial disease and were estimated to be 1.8% and 82% for juxtarenal aneurysms, 2.3% and 82% for type IV, and 5.2% and 74% for type II and III thoracoabdominal aneurysms at 24 months, respectively. When patients undergoing endovascular repair (ER group) were matched with those having contemporary surgical repair (SR group) for anatomic disease extent, mortality was similar at 30 days (5.7% ER vs 8.3% SR; P = .2) and at 12 months (15.6% ER vs 15.9% SR; P = .9

  4. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-06

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions.

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    work and classes with pleasure, creativity, challenge and joy (p 835). .... effective teacher behaviors that could influence classroom processes (Figure 1). .... the classroom. Subsequently, English language achievement test was administered to the participants. Additionally, it was assumed that the students responded.

  7. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-26

    Jun 26, 2013 ... simultaneously locates multi plant and warehouses that results in optimization of current network, design ... decision making process. At strategic lev companies have to decide where to ... rial and Mechanical Engineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology,. Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  8. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    in dark color in processing and also prevents excessive loss of moisture, development of rots and excessive sprout growth. Therefore storage in mud blocket, above ground storage (circular form of mat) and simple silo of land constructed above the ground (investigated by. Holeta Research Center) can be used to prevent ...

  9. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  10. Vere-Jones' self-similar branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichev, A; Sornette, D

    2005-11-01

    Motivated by its potential application to earthquake statistics as well as for its intrinsic interest in the theory of branching processes, we study the exactly self-similar branching process introduced recently by Vere-Jones. This model extends the ETAS class of conditional self-excited branching point-processes of triggered seismicity by removing the problematic need for a minimum (as well as maximum) earthquake size. To make the theory convergent without the need for the usual ultraviolet and infrared cutoffs, the distribution of magnitudes m' of daughters of first-generation of a mother of magnitude m has two branches m m with exponent beta + d, where beta and d are two positive parameters. We investigate the condition and nature of the subcritical, critical, and supercritical regime in this and in an extended version interpolating smoothly between several models. We predict that the distribution of magnitudes of events triggered by a mother of magnitude m over all generations has also two branches m' sequences, we conclude that the two branches of the distribution of aftershocks are not directly observable and the model is compatible with real seismic catalogs. In summary, the exactly self-similar Vere-Jones model provides an attractive new approach to model triggered seismicity, which alleviates delicate questions on the role of magnitude cutoffs in other non-self-similar models. The new prediction concerning two branches in the distribution of magnitudes of aftershocks could be tested with recently introduced stochastic reconstruction methods, tailored to disentangle the different triggered sequences.

  11. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  12. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blanc

    Full Text Available Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme

  13. Coulomb branch localization in quiver quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kazutoshi; Sasai, Yuya [Institute of Physics, Meiji Gakuin University,1518 Kamikurata-cho, Yokohama, 244-8539 (Japan)

    2016-02-16

    We show how to exactly calculate the refined indices of N=4U(1)×U(N) supersymmetric quiver quantum mechanics in the Coulomb branch by using the localization technique. The Coulomb branch localization is discussed from the viewpoint of both non-linear and gauged linear sigma models. A classification of fixed points in the Coulomb branch differs from one in the Higgs branch, but the derived indices completely agree with the results which were obtained by the localization in the Higgs branch. In the Coulomb branch localization, the refined indices can be written as a summation over different sets of the Coulomb branch fixed points. We also discuss a space-time picture of the fixed points in the Coulomb branch.

  14. Do tree split probabilities determine the branch lengths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Benny; Steel, Mike

    2015-06-07

    The evolution of aligned DNA sequence sites is generally modeled by a Markov process operating along the edges of a phylogenetic tree. It is well known that the probability distribution on the site patterns at the tips of the tree determines the tree topology, and its branch lengths. However, the number of patterns is typically much larger than the number of edges, suggesting considerable redundancy in the branch length estimation. In this paper we ask whether the probabilities of just the 'edge-specific' patterns (the ones that correspond to a change of state on a single edge) suffice to recover the branch lengths of the tree, under a symmetric 2-state Markov process. We first show that this holds provided the branch lengths are sufficiently short, by applying the inverse function theorem. We then consider whether this restriction to short branch lengths is necessary. We show that for trees with up to four leaves it can be lifted. This leaves open the interesting question of whether this holds in general. Our results also extend to certain Markov processes on more than 2-states, such as the Jukes-Cantor model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Third annual Walker Branch Watershed research symposium. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    The methods and concepts of watershed research, originally applied in an experimental or monitoring mode to relatively small catchments, are increasingly being used at larger scales and for specific applied problems. Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the US Forest Service, and other agencies and institutions participating in this symposium reflects research over a broad range of spatial scales that is being integrated through large-scale experiments along with computer modeling and graphical interfaces. These research projects address the basic atmospheric, geophysical, biogeochemical, and biological processes that regulate the responses of forested ecosystems to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stresses. Regional and global issues addressed by presentations include emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons; deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and mercury; land-use changes; biological diversity; droughts; and water quality. The reports presented in this symposium illustrate a wide range of methods and approaches and focus more on concepts and techniques than on a specific physical site. Sites and projects that have contributed research results to this symposium include Walker Branch Watershed (DOE), the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory and LTER site (USFS and NSF), Great Smoky Mountains National Park (research funded by NPS, TVA, and EPRI), Imnavait Creek, Alaska (DOE), the TVA-Norris Whole-tree Facility (TVA and EPRI), and DOE`s Biomass Program.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-11-15

    Nov 15, 1996 ... Public health surveillanre: Historical origins, methods and evaluation. Bull World .... collected by the National Intelligence Service from the truck ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table I. Origin of respondents. Place of origin. Number. Percentage. Durban. 75. 20.8. East Rand. 49. 13.6. Johannesburg. 50. 13.9.

  17. Strigolactones are a new-defined class of plant hormones which inhibit shoot branching and mediate the interaction of plant-AM fungi and plant-parasitic weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Caiyan; Zou, Junhuang; Zhang, Shuying; Zaitlin, David; Zhu, Lihuang

    2009-08-01

    Because plants are sessile organisms, the ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is critical for their survival. As a consequence, plants use hormones to regulate growth, mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses, and to communicate with other organisms. Many plant hormones function pleiotropically in vivo, and often work in tandem with other hormones that are chemically distinct. A newly-defined class of plant hormones, the strigolactones, cooperate with auxins and cytokinins to control shoot branching and the outgrowth of lateral buds. Strigolactones were originally identified as compounds that stimulated the germination of parasitic plant seeds, and were also demonstrated to induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM fungi form symbioses with higher plant roots and mainly facilitate the absorption of phosphate from the soil. Conforming to the classical definition of a plant hormone, strigolactones are produced in the roots and translocated to the shoots where they inhibit shoot outgrowth and branching. The biosynthesis of this class of compounds is regulated by soil nutrient availability, i.e. the plant will increase its production of strigolactones when the soil phosphate concentration is limited, and decrease production when phosphates are in ample supply. Strigolactones that affect plant shoot branching, AM fungal hyphal branching, and seed germination in parasitic plants facilitate chemical synthesis of similar compounds to control these and other biological processes by exogenous application.

  18. Development of an Image Processing System for Automatic Melanoma Diagnosis from Dermoscopic Images: Preliminary Sudy - Original Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin Yüksel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Design and implementation of a medical image processing system that will provide decision support to the clinician in the diagnosis of melanoma type skin cancers by performing the analysis of dermoscopic images.Methods: Visual features of pigmented lesions are converted into measurable numerical quantities by employing digital image processing methods and a classification regarding melanoma diagnosis is performed based on these quantitative data.Results: We achieved numerical results showing asymmetry, border and color features of the pigmentary lesions by using segmentation, image histogram, thresholding, convex hull, color clustering, color quantization and distribution methods. Conclusion: The system under development speeds up the decision process of the clinician. In addition, it allows the diagnosis to be based on more objective data.

  19. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  20. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well.

  1. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  2. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of Apple (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne eFanwoua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modelling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  3. Biogenic nanomagnetite in the Lebedinskii deposit: Evidence of biochemical processes in the origin of banded iron formation of KMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Novikov, V. M.; Boeva, N. M.; Zhukhlistov, A. P.; Zhegallo, E. A.; Soboleva, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    For the first time, biogenic nanomagnetite has been detected in banded iron formation of the Lebedinskii deposit of the KMA and has been demonstrated to be a primary mineral. This finding may imply a key role of metabolic processes in primary deposition of divalent iron with formation of trivalent iron minerals, the precursors of banded iron formation of the KMA.

  4. Modified parton branching model for multi-particle production in hadronic collisions: Application to SUSY particle branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanyuan, Zhang

    The stochastic branching model of multi-particle productions in high energy collision has theoretical basis in perturbative QCD, and also successfully describes the experimental data for a wide energy range. However, over the years, little attention has been put on the branching model for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. In this thesis, a stochastic branching model has been built to describe the pure supersymmetric particle jets evolution. This model is a modified two-phase stochastic branching process, or more precisely a two phase Simple Birth Process plus Poisson Process. The general case that the jets contain both ordinary particle jets and supersymmetric particle jets has also been investigated. We get the multiplicity distribution of the general case, which contains a Hypergeometric function in its expression. We apply this new multiplicity distribution to the current experimental data of pp collision at center of mass energy √s = 0.9, 2.36, 7 TeV. The fitting shows the supersymmetric particles haven't participate branching at current collision energy.

  5. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    finding reveals that there is a deep rooted and wider range of socio-cultural and historical interpretation to Odaa (the sycamore ..... first ancestor and the branches are our clans and sub clans, and linages and families, and our ..... Historical records indicate that the foundation of traditional Oromo law was laid down at Madda.

  6. . ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pathology, extent of disease on chest radiograph and/or CT of the lungs, HIV status, surgical procedures, and outcome. Outcome ~as considered successful if the .... hypervascular collaterals from the internal mammary arteries, subclavian artery branches, intercostal arteries and even aneurysms from the pulmonary arteries.

  7. Origins and processes of groundwater salinization in the urban coastal aquifers of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil): A multi-isotope approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Lise, E-mail: l.cary@brgm.fr [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Bertrand, Guillaume [Institute of Geosciences, University of São Paulo, Rua do Lago, 562 Butantã, 05508-080 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kloppmann, Wolfram [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Aquilina, Luc [OSUR-Géosciences Rennes, Université Rennes 1 — CNRS, 35000 Rennes (France); Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo [Institute of Geosciences, University of São Paulo, Rua do Lago, 562 Butantã, 05508-080 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Montenegro, Suzana [Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50740 Recife, PE Brazil (Brazil); Pauwels, Hélène [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Chatton, Eliot [OSUR-Géosciences Rennes, Université Rennes 1 — CNRS, 35000 Rennes (France); Franzen, Melissa [CPRM, Brazilian Geologic Survey, Avenida Sul 2291, Recife PE (Brazil); Aurouet, Axel [Géo-Hyd, 101 rue Jacques Charles, 45160 Olivet (France); Lasseur, Eric; Picot, Géraldine; Guerrot, Catherine; Fléhoc, Christine [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    In the coastal multilayer aquifer system of a highly urbanized southern city (Recife, Brazil), where groundwaters are affected by salinization, a multi-isotope approach (Sr, B, O, H) was used to investigate the sources and processes of salinization. The high diversity of the geological bodies, built since the Atlantic opening during the Cretaceous, highly constrains the heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, e.g. Sr isotope ratios, and needs to be integrated to explain the salinization processes and groundwater pathways. A paleoseawater intrusion, most probably the 120 ky B.P. Pleistocene marine transgression, and cationic exchange are clearly evidenced in the most salinized parts of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. All {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values are above the past and present-day seawater signatures, meaning that the Sr isotopic signature is altered due to additional Sr inputs from dilution with different freshwaters, and water–rock interactions. Only the Cabo aquifer presents a well-delimitated area of Na-HCO{sub 3} water typical of a freshening process. The two deep aquifers also display a broad range of B concentrations and B isotope ratios with values among the highest known to date (63–68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays and mixing with wastewater. The highly fractionated B isotopic values were explained by infiltration of relatively salty water with B interacting with clays, pointing out the major role played by (palaeo)-channels for the deep Beberibe aquifer recharge. Based on an increase of salinity at the end of the dry season, a present-day seawater intrusion is identified in the surficial Boa Viagem aquifer. Our conceptual model presents a comprehensive understanding of the major groundwater salinization pathways and processes, and should be of benefit for other southern Atlantic coastal aquifers to better address groundwater management issues

  8. The origin of aging: imperfectness-driven non-random damage defines the aging process and control of lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2013-09-01

    Physicochemical properties preclude ideal biomolecules and perfect biological functions. This inherent imperfectness leads to the generation of damage by every biological process, at all levels, from small molecules to cells. The damage is too numerous to be repaired, is partially invisible to natural selection, and manifests as aging. I propose that the inherent imperfectness of biological systems is the true root of the aging process. Because each biomolecule generates specific forms of damage, the cumulative damage is largely non-random and is indirectly encoded in the genome. I consider this concept in light of other proposed theories of aging and integrate these disparate ideas into a single model. I also discuss the evolutionary significance of damage accumulation and strategies for reducing damage. Finally, I suggest ways to test this integrated model of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term ecology resolves the timing, region of origin and process of establishment for a disputed alien tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Janet M; McGlone, Matt S; Turney, Chris S M

    2015-08-26

    Alien plants are a pervasive environmental problem, particularly on islands where they can rapidly transform unique indigenous ecosystems. However, often it is difficult to confidently determine whether a species is native or alien, especially if establishment occurred before historical records. This can present a management challenge: for example, should such taxa be eradicated or left alone until their region of origin and status are clarified? Here we show how combining palaeoecological and historical records can help resolve such dilemmas, using the tree daisy Olearia lyallii on the remote New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands as a case study. The status of this tree as native or introduced has remained uncertain for the 175 years since it was first discovered on the Auckland Islands, and its appropriate management is debated. Elsewhere, O. lyallii has a highly restricted distribution on small sea bird-rich islands within a 2° latitudinal band south of mainland New Zealand. Analysis of palaeoecological and historical records from the Auckland Islands suggest that O. lyallii established there c. 1807 when these islands were first exploited by European sealers. Establishment was facilitated by anthropogenic burning and clearing and its subsequent spread has been slow, limited in distribution and probably human-assisted. Olearia lyallii has succeeded mostly in highly disturbed sites which are also nutrient enriched from nesting sea birds, seals and sea spray. This marine subsidy has fuelled the rapid growth of O. lyallii and allowed this tree to be competitive against the maritime communities it has replaced. Although endemic to the New Zealand region, our evidence suggests that O. lyallii is alien to the Auckland Islands. Although such 'native' aliens can pose unique management challenges on islands, in this instance we suggest that ongoing monitoring with no control is an appropriate management action, as O. lyallii appears to pose minimal risk to

  10. Recent patents for detecting the species of origin in animal feedstuff, and raw and processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogberg-Muñoz, Andrés; Posik, Diego M; Rípoli, María V; Falomir Lockhart, Agustín H; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    The value of the traceability and labeling of food is attributable to two main aspects: health safety and/or product or process certification. The identification of the species related to meat production is still a major concern for economic, religious and health reasons. Many approaches and technologies have been used for species identification in animal feedstuff and food. The early methods for meat products identification include physical, anatomical, histological and chemical. Since 1970, a variety of methods were developed, these include electrophoresis (i.e. isoelectrofocusing), chromatography (i.e. HPLC), immunological techniques (i.e. ELISA), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Mass Spectrometry and PCR (DNA and RNA based methods). The recent patents on species detection in animal feedstuffs, raw meat and meat processed products, listed in this work, are mainly based on monoclonal antibodies and PCR, especially RT-PCR. The new developments under research are looking for more sensible, specific, less time consuming and quantitatively detection methods, which can be used in highly processed or heated treated meat food.

  11. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  12. The controversial origin of the abdominal appendage-like processes in immature insects: are they true segmental appendages or secondary outgrowths? (Arthropoda Hexapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Jacques

    2012-08-01

    In this article, I review the major characteristics of different types of appendage-like processes that develop at the abdominal segments of many immature insects, and I discuss their controversial morphological value. The main question is whether the abdominal processes are derived from segmental appendages serially homologous to thoracic legs, or whether they are "secondary" outgrowths not homologous with true appendages. Morphological and embryological data, in particular, a comparison with the structure and development of the abdominal appendages in primitive apterygote hexapods, and data from developmental genetics, support the hypothesis of appendicular origin of many of the abdominal processes present in the juvenile stages of various pterygote orders. For example, the lateral processes, such as the tracheal gills in aquatic nymphs of exopterygote insects, are regarded as derived from lateral portions of appendage primordia, homologous with the abdominal styli of apterygotan insects; these processes correspond either to rudimentary telopodites or to coxal exites. The ventrolateral processes, such as the prolegs of different endopterygote insect larvae, appear to be derived from medial portions of the appendicular primordia; they correspond to coxal endites. These views lead to the rejection of Hinton's hypothesis (Hinton [1955] Trans R Entomol Soc Lond 106:455-545) according to which all the abdominal processes of insect larvae are secondary outgrowths not derived from true appendage anlagen. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Branching Pattern of the Brachiocephalic Trunk in the Donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, G; Asadiahranjani, B; Goodarzi, N; Shokrollahi, S

    2017-08-01

    Donkeys are a member of the horse family (Equidae) and share a common ancestor. However, in morphological terms, donkeys and horses are regarded as two separate subgenus. Given variations in the branching pattern of the brachiocephalic trunk (BCT) in different species of animals and the use of donkeys in anatomy courses at colleges of veterinary medicine, we conducted this study in order to investigate the branching patterns of BCT and to describe detailed morphological information regarding donkeys. Seventeen mature donkeys were examined following euthanasia by exsanguination from the common carotid artery under general anaesthesia. Thirteen donkeys were embalmed and injected with coloured latex from BCT origin for better visualization of vessels. Four other donkeys were freshly studied without the embalming procedure. In all cases, the BCT was the only branch of the aortic arch and branched into the left subclavian (LSb) artery, the right costocervical trunk, the right subclavian (RSb) artery and the bicarotid trunk. The main branching pattern of the RSb was the costocervical trunk, the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery and the superficial cervical artery. The deep cervical artery branched from the costocervical trunk. The major branching pattern of the LSb was the vertebral artery, the internal thoracic artery and the superficial cervical artery. In donkeys, the external thoracic artery branches from the internal thoracic artery. Results obtained from this study indicate that BCT branching in donkeys has some similarities and differences as compared to that in horses and in the Caspian miniature horse. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Variant Anatomy of the Nasal and Labial Branches of the Infraorbital Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nderitu, Joseph Munyiri; Butt, Fawzia; Saidi, Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the variations in the branches of the infraorbital nerve (ION) is vital to the prevention of iatrogenic nerve injury and successful ION blockade during orbitozygomatic facial procedures. Only a few studies exist on the variant anatomy of the branching patterns of this nerve. This article provides a detailed description of the variations of the nasal and superior labial branches of the ION. This study was performed on 84 IONs by dissecting 42 formalin-fixed cadavers from the Laboratory of Topographic Anatomy, Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi. The branches were exposed at their origin and followed to their termination. The findings included variant emergence patterns, anomalous course, and absence as well as extra branches. It was noted that the external nasal nerve was absent in 34.53% cases. There were common trunks between the internal and external nasal nerves and cases of communication between branches of these nerves were also noted. Accessory superior labial nerves were present in 9.52% of the nerves. This detailed study reveals additional variations in the emergence and branching pattern of the ION. Caution is imperative during orbitozygomatic facial surgery to prevent injury to these branches. These variations also underlie the lack of response to surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia and also the need for a filtration to achieve full anesthesia after ION block. In addition, the extra branches identified raise the prospects of using these nerves for grafting purposes if their precise patterns are determined.

  15. Studies on the origin and transformation of selenium and its chemical species along the process of petroleum refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivanin de Almeida, Cibele M.; Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.; Miekeley, Norbert

    2009-06-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICPMS), the latter hyphenated to flow injection hydride generation, electrothermal vaporization or ion chromatography, have been applied to the chemical characterization of crude oil, aqueous process stream samples and wastewaters from a petroleum refinery, in order to get information on the behavior of selenium and its chemical species along effluent generation and treatment. Multielemental characterization of these effluents by ICPMS revealed a complex composition of most of them, with high salinity and potential spectral and non-spectral interferents present. For this reason, a critical re-assessment of the analytical techniques for the determination of total selenium and its species was performed. Methane was employed as gas in dynamic reaction cell ICPMS and cell parameters were optimized for a simulated brine matrix and for diluted aqueous solutions to match the expected process and treated wastewaters samples. The signal-to-background ratios for 78Se and 80Se were used as criteria in optimization, the first isotope resulting in better detection limits for the simulated brine matrix ( 78Se: 0.07 μg L - 1 , 80Se: 0.31 μg L - 1 ). A large variability in the concentration of selenium (from < 10 μg kg - 1 up to 960 μg kg - 1 ) was observed in 16 of the most frequently processed crude oil samples in the refinery here investigated, which may explain the pronounced concentrations changes of this element measured in aqueous process stream and wastewater samples. Highest concentrations of total selenium were analyzed in samples from the hydrotreater (up to about 1800 μg L - 1 ). The predominance of selenocyanate (SeCN -) was observed in most of the wastewaters so far investigated, but also other species were detected with retention times different from Se(IV), Se(VI) and SeCN -. Colloidal selenium (Se 0) was the only Se-species observed in samples from the atmospheric distillation

  16. Studies on the origin and transformation of selenium and its chemical species along the process of petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stivanin de Almeida, Cibele M.; Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana D. [Department of Chemistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225 - Gavea, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miekeley, Norbert [Department of Chemistry, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente, 225 - Gavea, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: miekeley@puc-rio.br

    2009-06-15

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry (ICPMS), the latter hyphenated to flow injection hydride generation, electrothermal vaporization or ion chromatography, have been applied to the chemical characterization of crude oil, aqueous process stream samples and wastewaters from a petroleum refinery, in order to get information on the behavior of selenium and its chemical species along effluent generation and treatment. Multielemental characterization of these effluents by ICPMS revealed a complex composition of most of them, with high salinity and potential spectral and non-spectral interferents present. For this reason, a critical re-assessment of the analytical techniques for the determination of total selenium and its species was performed. Methane was employed as gas in dynamic reaction cell ICPMS and cell parameters were optimized for a simulated brine matrix and for diluted aqueous solutions to match the expected process and treated wastewaters samples. The signal-to-background ratios for {sup 78}Se and {sup 80}Se were used as criteria in optimization, the first isotope resulting in better detection limits for the simulated brine matrix ({sup 78}Se: 0.07 {mu}g L{sup - 1}, {sup 80}Se: 0.31 {mu}g L{sup - 1}). A large variability in the concentration of selenium (from < 10 {mu}g kg{sup - 1} up to 960 {mu}g kg{sup - 1}) was observed in 16 of the most frequently processed crude oil samples in the refinery here investigated, which may explain the pronounced concentrations changes of this element measured in aqueous process stream and wastewater samples. Highest concentrations of total selenium were analyzed in samples from the hydrotreater (up to about 1800 {mu}g L{sup - 1}). The predominance of selenocyanate (SeCN{sup -}) was observed in most of the wastewaters so far investigated, but also other species were detected with retention times different from Se(IV), Se(VI) and SeCN{sup -}. Colloidal selenium (Se{sup 0}) was the only

  17. Plastid origin: who, when and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin of plastids is best explained by endosymbiotic theory, which dates back to the early 1900s. Three lines of evidence based on protein import machineries and molecular phylogenies of eukaryote (host and cyanobacterial (endosymbiont genes point to a single origin of primary plastids, a unique and important event that successfully transferred two photosystems and oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The nature of the cyanobacterial lineage from which plastids originated has been a topic of investigation. Recent studies have focused on the branching position of the plastid lineage in the phylogeny based on cyanobacterial core genes, that is, genes shared by all cyanobacteria and plastids. These studies have delivered conflicting results, however. In addition, the core genes represent only a very small portion of cyanobacterial genomes and may not be a good proxy for the rest of the ancestral plastid genome. Information in plant nuclear genomes, where most genes that entered the eukaryotic lineage through acquisition from the plastid ancestor reside, suggests that heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria in Stanier’s sections IV and V are most similar to the plastid ancestor in terms of gene complement and sequence conservation, which is in agreement with models suggesting an important role of nitrogen fixation in symbioses involving cyanobacteria. Plastid origin is an ancient event that involved a prokaryotic symbiont and a eukaryotic host, organisms with different histories and genome evolutionary processes. The different modes of genome evolution in prokaryotes and eukaryotes bear upon our interpretations of plastid phylogeny.

  18. The origins of individual differences in how learning is expressed in rats: A general-process perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patitucci, E; Nelson, A J D; Dwyer, Dominic M; Honey, R C

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats' sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1). This selectivity suggests that individual differences in sign- and goal-tracking reflect differences in the value placed on individual reinforcers. Two findings provide direct support for this interpretation: the palatability of a reinforcer (as measured by an analysis of lick-cluster size) was positively correlated with goal-tracking (and negatively correlated with sign-tracking); and sating rats with a reinforcer affected goal-tracking but not sign-tracking (Experiment 2). These results indicate that the observed individual differences in sign- and goal-tracking behavior arise from the interaction between the palatability or value of the reinforcer and processes of association as opposed to dispositional differences (e.g., in sensory processes, "temperament," or response repertoire). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  20. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  1. Branched-Chain Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Yukawa, Hideaki

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), viz., L-isoleucine, L-leucine, and L-valine, are essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in higher organisms and are important nutrition for humans as well as livestock. They are also valued as synthetic intermediates for pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the demand for BCAAs in the feed and pharmaceutical industries is increasing continuously. Traditional industrial fermentative production of BCAAs was performed using microorganisms isolated by random mutagenesis. A collection of these classical strains was also scientifically useful to clarify the details of the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are tightly regulated by feedback inhibition and transcriptional attenuation. Based on this understanding of the metabolism of BCAAs, it is now possible for us to pursue strains with higher BCAA productivity using rational design and advanced molecular biology techniques. Additionally, systems biology approaches using augmented omics information help us to optimize carbon flux toward BCAA production. Here, we describe the biosynthetic pathways of BCAAs and their regulation and then overview the microorganisms developed for BCAA production. Other chemicals, including isobutanol, i.e., a second-generation biofuel, can be synthesized by branching the BCAA biosynthetic pathways, which are also outlined.

  2. Retorno de un cruzado, by José Jiménez Lozano. Creation, Intertextuality and Originality of a Writing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Arbona Abascal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the writing process of José Jiménez Lozano’s Retorno de un cruzado (2013, his 24th novel. First, taking into account the author’s comments about the creation of the text, it presents the different versions and the literary reasons for his final choice. Second, literary intertextualities found in the novel are examined. Finally, the condition of the main character as storyteller is identified as the novel’s major source of originality.

  3. Enduring originalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pojanowski, Jeffrey A; Walsh, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    ... originalist. This insight animates what many have begun to call the "positive turn" in originalism. Defenses of originalism in this vein are "positive" in that they are based on the status of the Constitution, and constitutional law, as positive law...

  4. Chemical roots of biological evolution: the origins of life as a process of development of autonomous functional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Briones, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, an extension of the Darwinian framework is being considered for the study of prebiotic chemical evolution, shifting the attention from homogeneous populations of naked molecular species to populations of heterogeneous, compartmentalized and functionally integrated assemblies of molecules. Several implications of this shift of perspective are analysed in this critical review, both in terms of the individual units, which require an adequate characterization as self-maintaining systems with an internal organization, and also in relation to their collective and long-term evolutionary dynamics, based on competition, collaboration and selection processes among those complex individuals. On these lines, a concrete proposal for the set of molecular control mechanisms that must be coupled to bring about autonomous functional systems, at the interface between chemistry and biology, is provided. PMID:28446711

  5. Chemical roots of biological evolution: the origins of life as a process of development of autonomous functional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Briones, Carlos; de la Escosura, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, an extension of the Darwinian framework is being considered for the study of prebiotic chemical evolution, shifting the attention from homogeneous populations of naked molecular species to populations of heterogeneous, compartmentalized and functionally integrated assemblies of molecules. Several implications of this shift of perspective are analysed in this critical review, both in terms of the individual units, which require an adequate characterization as self-maintaining systems with an internal organization, and also in relation to their collective and long-term evolutionary dynamics, based on competition, collaboration and selection processes among those complex individuals. On these lines, a concrete proposal for the set of molecular control mechanisms that must be coupled to bring about autonomous functional systems, at the interface between chemistry and biology, is provided. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  7. A digital signal processing-based bioinformatics approach to identifying the origins of HIV-1 non B subtypes infecting US Army personnel serving abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, Norbert

    2013-06-01

    Two HIV-1 non B isolates, 98US_MSC5007 and 98US_MSC5016, which have been identified amongst the US Army personnel serving abroad, are known to have originated from other nations. Notwithstanding, they are categorized as American strains. This is because their countries of origin are unknown. American isolates are basically B subtype. 98US_MSC5007 belongs to Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF02_AG) while 98US_MSC5016 is of the C clade. Both sub-groups are recognized to have originated from African and Asian continents. It has become necessary to properly determine the countries of origin of microbes and viruses. This is because diversity and cross-subtyping have been found to mitigate the designing and development of vaccine and therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study therefore is to identify the countries of origin of the two American isolates found amongst US Army personnel serving abroad. A Digital Signal Processing-based Bioinformatics technique called Informational Spectrum Method (ISM) has been engaged. ISM entails translating the amino acids sequences of the protein into numerical sequences (signals) by means of one biological parameter (Amino Acids Scale). The signals are then processed using Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) in order to uncover and present the embedded biological information as Informational Spectra (IS). Spectral Position of Maximum Binding Interaction (SPMBI) is used. Several approaches including Phylogeny have preliminarily been employed in the determination of evolutionary trends of organisms and viruses. SPMBI has preliminarily been used to re-establish the semblance and common originality that exist between human and Chimpanzee, evolutionary roadmaps in the Influenza and HIV viruses. The results disclosed that 98US_MSC5007 shared same semblance and originality with a Nigeria isolate (92NG083) while 98US_MSC5016 with the Zairian isolates (ELI, MAL, and Z2/CDC-34). These results appear to demonstrate that the American soldiers

  8. The Branching Point in Erythro-Myeloid Differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perié, Leïla; Duffy, Ken R; Kok, Lianne; de Boer, Rob J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074214152; Schumacher, Ton N

    2015-01-01

    Development of mature blood cell progenies from hematopoietic stem cells involves the transition through lineage-restricted progenitors. The first branching point along this developmental process is thought to separate the erythro-myeloid and lymphoid lineage fate by yielding two intermediate

  9. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  10. Modern prospects of development of branch of solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchkina, Veronika

    2017-10-01

    Advantages of solar energy for modern companies are evident already. Article describes mechanism of the solar electricity generation. Process of production of solar modules with appliance of the modern technologies of sun energy production. The branch of solar energy “green energy” become advanced in Russia and has a stable demand. Classification of investments on the different stages of construction projects of solar power plants and calculation of their economic efficiency. Studying of introduction of these technologies allows to estimate the modern prospects of development of branch of solar power.

  11. Different origin of auditory and phonological processing problems in children with language impairment: evidence from a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V; Bishop, S J; Bright, P; James, C; Delaney, T; Tallal, P

    1999-02-01

    This study investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment, as assessed by Tallal's Auditory Repetition Test (ART). The sample consisted of 37 same-sex twin pairs who had previously been selected because one or both twins met criteria for language impairment (LI) and 104 same-sex twin pairs in the same age range (7 to 13 years) from the general population. These samples yielded 55 children who met criteria for LI, who were compared with 76 children whose language was normal for their age (LN group). We replicated earlier work showing that group LI is impaired relative to group LN on ART. However, there was no evidence of a heritable influence on ART scores: Correlations between twins and their co-twins were reasonably high for both MZ and DZ twins, suggesting that performance is more influenced by shared environment than genetic factors. Analyses of extreme scores gave a similar picture of nonsignificant group heritability. In contrast, a test of phonological short-term memory, the Children's Nonword Repetition Test (CNRep), gave high estimates of group heritability. In general, CNRep was a better predictor of low language test scores than ART, but ART did make a significant independent contribution in accounting for variance in a test of grammatical understanding.

  12. SPATIAL INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS OF SLOPE PROCESSES EXPERIMENTAL STUDY USING INDICATIVE POTENTIAL OF CHERNOBYL ORIGIN CESIUM-137

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Trofimets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the authors's experimental data made it possible to discover that the Cesium-137 variability on the arable slope caused by geting sampling points in the area of block or interblock depressions that compose paleocryogenic polygonal-block microrelief. The surveys accomplished on experimental area were intended to clarify the Cesium-137 indicative potential for study of topsoil loss due to flushing. Estimation of the flushed topsoil thickness has been performed basing on comparison between the thickness of plow horizon in 1986 and current depth of Cesium-137 distribution. Two main problems were solved during research. First is the identification of erosion processes features within the elementary catchment areas with varying ruggedness degree. And the second is the detection of flush and accumulation features on the slopes of northern and southern exposure. Calculation of the Cesium-137 reserve in the modern plow horizon (0 - 20 cm with the catchment area and profile curvature modeling made it possible to derive the preliminary relationship formula between soil loss in the elementary catchment area thalwegs and profile curvature.

  13. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-07-30

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.  Created: 7/30/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2007.

  14. MobA, the DNA strand transferase of plasmid R1162: the minimal domain required for DNA processing at the origin of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Eric C; Meyer, Richard J

    2002-04-26

    MobA is a DNA strand transferase encoded by the plasmid R1162 and required for plasmid DNA processing during conjugal transfer. The smallest active fragment was identified using phage display and partial enzymatic digestion of the purified protein. This fragment, consisting of approximately the first 184 amino acids, is able to bind and cleave its normal DNA substrate, the origin of transfer (oriT). Smaller fragments having one of these activities were not obtained. An active intermediate consisting of MobA linked to DNA was isolated and used to show that a single molecule of MobA is sufficient to carry out all of the DNA processing steps during transfer. These results, along with those obtained earlier, point to a single large, active site in MobA that makes several different contacts along the oriT DNA strand.

  15. Measurement of the pion branching ratio at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrunot, C.; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Aoki, M.; Blecher, M.; Britton, D. I.; Bryman, D. A.; Chen, S.; Comfort, J.; Ding, M.; Doria, L.; Gumplinger, P.; Hussein, A.; Igarashi, Y.; Ito, S.; Kettell, S. H.; Kuno, Y.; Kurchaninov, L.; Littenberg, L.; Numao, T.; Sher, A.; Sullivan, T.; Vavilov, D.; Yoshida, M.

    2012-09-01

    The branching ratio of pion decays, R = Γ(π+→e+νe+π+→e+νeγ)/Γ(π+→μ+νμ+π+→μ+νμγ is one of the most accurately calculated decay processes involving hadrons and has provided one of the most stringent tests of the hypothesis of electron-muon universality in weak interactions. The current experimental branching ratio Rexp = (1.230±0.004)×10-4 is 40 times less precise than the theoretical prediction RSM = 1.2352(1)10-4. The TRIUMF PIENU experiment aims at measuring the pion branching ratio with a precision improved by at least a factor five.

  16. Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Schefuß, Enno; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Zabel, Matthias; Baker, Paul A.; Hefter, Jens; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2017-05-01

    The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive correlations with Al / Si ratios (indicative of the sediment grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9 ‰) in the main tributaries consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S / V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C / V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100 mg OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore transport does not change the encoded source information. Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in the Amazon

  17. Branched morphology of Nb powder particles fabricated by calciothermic reduction in CaCl2 melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.; Natsui, Shungo; Kikuchi, Tatsuya

    2017-11-01

    A new branched morphology of metallic niobium powder particles was produced by calciothermic reduction of niobium oxides in molten CaCl2. The influence of some reaction parameters on the powder particle morphology was studied, and the formation mechanism was investigated. It was found that the formation of intermediate complex niobium oxides (CaxNb2Oy) was crucial in the formation of niobium powder particles with the branched morphology. Based on this finding, the formation mechanism of the branched morphology in four stages was proposed. These Nb powder particles with microscopic branches can prevent particle sintering during the fabrication process of electric capacitors, allowing the latter to exhibit a higher capacitance.

  18. [Intermittent bundle branch block: a clinical model for the study of electrophysiological phenomena].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    uncommon to observe long periods of sinus rhythm with regular PP interval, conducted with alternating (2:1) bundle branch block. Intermittent left bundle branch block is a clinical model of cardiac memory: in these cases, negative T waves in the antero-septal leads during normal conduction are often evident. This negativity is an expression of cardiac memory, and not of ischemia as initially interpreted. Intermittent bundle branch block is an excellent model to study in vivo the effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on the pathological bundle branches. Narrowing of the QRS complex in the presence of bundle branch block is not always an expression of intermittent aberrancy: beware of late ectopic beats originating from the ipsilateral ventricle to the blocked branch, that merging with the antegrade beat conducted with bundle branch block, restrict the QRS, simulating intermittent aberrancy.

  19. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Chalmers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ethan K.; Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally. PMID:26998842

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kelsey; Kita, Elizabeth M; Scott, Ethan K; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-03-01

    Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally.

  3. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia

    2010-04-15

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  5. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric (University of Texas at Austin)

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  6. Quantification of Structural Topology in Branched Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ramnath

    Complex molecular structures occur in various natural and synthetic materials. From common plastics like polyethylene to proteins like hemoglobin, the significant effect of the molecular structure of these materials on their properties cannot be understated. Hence, it is fundamental to comprehensively characterize these complex structures. In the case of polyethylene, branching plays a significant role in determining its structure-property relationships. Various characterization techniques are available to measure the branch content in polyethylene. Qualitative techniques based on gel permeation chromatography and rheology; and absolute measurements from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are commonly used to estimate branch content. Drawbacks posed by these common techniques have been well documented in literature. Further, these techniques are unable to provide a comprehensive picture of the structural topology of polyethylene which is crucial to understanding the structure-property relationships of these systems. In this dissertation, a novel scaling approach is described to quantify branching in polyethylene. The approach is useful in quantifying both short-chain and long-chain branch contents in polyethylene. Additionally, unique measurements such as average long-chain branch length and hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content are available through this approach. Such enhanced topological information can help us better understand the effect of catalyst systems on the structure of polyethylene as well as the effect of branching on the polymer's physical properties. The scaling approach was successful in quantifying the structure of variety of model and commercial branched polyethylene systems. Specific examples of high-density and linear low-density polyethylene as well as hydrogenated polybutadienes are discussed here. The dissertation is intended to standardize and corroborate the scaling approach in quantifying the structure of branched polymers. The

  7. Investigating the timing of origin and evolutionary processes shaping regional species diversity: Insights from simulated data and neotropical butterfly diversification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Maraví, Pável

    2016-07-01

    Different diversification scenarios have been proposed to explain the origin of extant biodiversity. However, most existing meta-analyses of time-calibrated phylogenies rely on approaches that do not quantitatively test alternative diversification processes. Here, I highlight the shortcomings of using species divergence ranks, which is a method widely used in meta-analyses. Divergence ranks consist of categorizing cladogenetic events to certain periods of time, typically to either Pleistocene or to pre-Pleistocene ages. This approach has been claimed to shed light on the origin of most extant species and the timing and dynamics of diversification in any biogeographical region. However, interpretations drawn from such method often confound two fundamental questions in macroevolutionary studies, tempo (timing of evolutionary rate shifts) and mode ("how" and "why" of speciation). By using simulated phylogenies under four diversification scenarios, constant-rate, diversity-dependence, high extinction, and high speciation rates in the Pleistocene, I showed that interpretations based on species divergence ranks might have been seriously misleading. Future meta-analyses of dated phylogenies need to be aware of the impacts of incomplete taxonomic sampling, tree topology, and divergence time uncertainties, as well as they might be benefited by including quantitative tests of alternative diversification models that acknowledge extinction and diversity dependence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    origin of the double-snake emblem is shrouded in the mists ... Serpents are mythologically associated with the origin of the world and creation .... philosophy, became influential in suggesting that the planet. Mercury (Hermes) was vitally important to earth. The name mercurius philosophorum was subsequently given by the.

  10. Branched-Chain Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ghiringhelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study is focused on evaluation and use of the most effective and correct nutrients. In particular, our attention is directed to the role of certain amino acids in cachectic patients. During parenteral nutrition in humans, physician already associates in the PN-bags different formulations including amino acids, lipids and glucose solutions or essential amino acids solution alone or exclusively branched-chain amino acids (BCAA. Studies investigated the effects of dietary BCAA ingestion on different diseases and conditions such as obesity and metabolic disorders, liver disease, muscle atrophy, cancer, impaired immunity or injuries (surgery, trauma, burns, and sepsis. BCAAs have been shown to affect gene expression, protein metabolism, apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes, and insulin resistance. They have also been shown to inhibit the proliferation of liver cancer cells in vitro, and are essential for lymphocyte proliferation and dendritic cell maturation. Oral or parenteral administration of these three amino acids will allow us to evaluate the real efficacy of these compounds during a therapy to treat malnutrition in subjects unable to feed themselves.

  11. Original observations-based control charts for monitoring the mean of auto-correlated processes: A comparison among modified Shewhart, modified EWMA, and ARMAST charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulkhaq, M. Mujiya; Dewanta, Favian

    2017-11-01

    Conventional control charts are considered satisfied enough to monitor the observations that are assumed to be independent and identically distributed (IID). Nevertheless, in real industry environment, the process data exhibits some serial dependence or autocorrelation in which the IID assumption is violated. With the presence of autocorrelation, the control limits of the control charts should be loosened since the tight control limits can decrease the in-control average run length (ARL); thus, lead to a higher false alarm rate. This paper aims to compare the performance and investigate the relative effectiveness of three control charts: modified Shewhart (mShewhart), modified EWMA (mEWMA), and ARMAST charts, based on the original observations when the process data follows ARMA(1,1) model. The parameters of those charts are manipulated to give the in-control ARL of 370. The simulation results shows that the mShewhart chart is not completely robust to the deviation from IID assumption for small mean shifts. Although the mEWMA chart is very good at detecting small mean shift, the optimal ARMAST chart outperforms the mEWMA chart when there is autocorrelation in the process. In addition, the ARMAST chart also surpasses the mShewart in monitoring large mean shift.

  12. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants.

  13. A Unifying Theory of Branching Morphogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Scheele, Colinda L G J; Moad, Mohammad; Drogo, Nicholas; Heer, Rakesh; Sampogna, Rosemary V; van Rheenen, Jacco; Simons, Benjamin D

    2017-01-01

    The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that,

  14. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  15. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Daqiu; Gong, Saijie; Hao, Zhaojun; Meng, Jiasong; Tao, Jun

    2015-10-14

    Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the "wedding flower". However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ) application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  16. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  17. A rare arterial branch distributing to the thymus, ectopic intrathymic parathyroid, and thyroid glands which passed ventral to the right common carotid artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuko; Terashima, Toshio; Arakawa, Takamitsu

    2017-06-01

    The intrathymic parathyroid has been reported that this variation might be related with the hyperthyroidism. In this study, the arterial pattern supplying the intrathymic parathyroid was examined in detail in the human cadaver (67-year-old, female, right side). The ectopic parathyroid was only detected on the right side, but not on the left side. This ectopic intrathymic parathyroid was supplied by the supernumerary arterial branch that originated from the inferior thyroid artery and passed ventral to the common carotid artery. This supernumerary branch further divided into two thin branches: (1) the one distributing the intrathymic parathyroid and the right lobe of the thyroid gland and (2) the other descending toward the thoracic cavity to supply the mediastinum organs. Other arteries supplying the thyroid gland and thymus of both sides were normal. In the surgical resection of the ectopic intrathymic parathyroid, physicians should pay attention to arteries ventral to the common carotid artery. This supernumerary branch distributing to the intrathymic parathyroid may be caused by incomplete division into the primordium for the inferior parathyroid and the primordium for the thymus on the developmental process.

  18. Improved β Decay Branching Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Golovko, V.

    2008-04-01

    The work we report here aims at increasing the precision possible in the measurement of branching ratios for superallowed β^+decays. Such highly accurate values are essential in generating precise ft-values for 0^+->0^+decays, which can then be used to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix [1]. The required precision is ˜0.1% or better. While this limit was already achieved in the case of ^34Ar [2], it would have been very difficult, if not impossible, to achieve it for other β^+-decays without an upgrade to our acquisition and data-reduction systems. We have thus improved the controls over all the key elements in our experimental set-up: we now have direct control over the dead-time for the singles and coincidence channels and <0.1 mm control over the source-detector distance. In addition, we have extensively studied the efficiency of the β-detector with source-measurements tested against various Monte Carlo programs [3]. We have tested our new acquisition set-up on ^60Co and ^22Na (β^- and β^+ emitters respectively) to validate our new methods. Preliminary results on the two sources are statistically consistent with the expected values. An ^34Ar decay experiment using the new experimental configuration has already been performed and is currently analyzed. [1] J.C. Hardy and I.S. Towner, PRC 71, 055501 (2005) [2] V. Iacob et al., BAPS 52(3)B16; BAPS 52(9)HF3 [3] V. Golovko et al., BAPS 52(9)DH4; this BAPS

  19. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES . -. RISK FACTORS FOR TEENAGE. PREGNANCY AMONG SEXUALLY. ACTIVE BLACK ADOLESCENTS IN. CAPETOWN. A case control study. Caesar Vundule, Fidelia Maforah, Rachel Jewkes, Esme. Jordaan. Motivation. Teenage pregnancy is an important health and social problem in South ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. REVIEW ARTICLE. THE INDIVIDUALISED NEEDS FOR. SERVICE ASSESSMENT (INSA). FOR CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS WITH SERIOUS. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE. Alan JFlisher, Rent? C Grosser, Christina W Haven. The Individualised Needs for Service Assessment (INSA) for.

  2. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  3. Exploring the microbial origins of p-cresol and its co-occurrence pattern in the Chinese liquor-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Liu, Bo; Wang, Xueshan; Xu, Yan

    2017-11-02

    The compound p-cresol is the major off-odor and toxic component of strong aroma-type Chinese liquor. To trace its origin, the p-cresol contents in the liquor-making process were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The prokaryotic communities involved in the process were revealed by 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. The results showed that the microbial diversity and concentration of p-cresol in pit mud significantly increased with increased pit depth. Canonical correspondence analysis further revealed that p-cresol was positively correlated with the genera Aminobacterium, Clostridium, Sedimentibacter and Syntrophomonas. On investigating potential p-cresol producers, we obtained 11 species from pit mud samples using selective culture media. Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Clostridium aminovalericum and Eubacterium contortum were confirmed to possess the capacity for p-cresol production. Moreover, based on volatile compounds data, these strains were assigned to the same clusters characterized by the high abundance of butanoic acid and p-cresol. Furthermore, 24 pairs of significant correlations were identified from 14 genera using co-occurrence network analysis. Clostridium was the hub in pit mud and could be inhibited by increasing levels of Lactobacillus. These findings represented a step forward for controlling p-cresol in a complex microbial community of Chinese liquor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of the varietal origin of processed loose-leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanping Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an important cash crop, representing a $40 billion-a-year global market. Differentiation of the tea market has resulted in increasing demand for tea products that are sustainably and responsibly produced. Tea authentication is important because of growing concerns about fraud involving premium tea products. Analytical technologies are needed for protection and value enhancement of high-quality brands. For loose-leaf teas, the challenge is that the authentication needs to be established on the basis of a single leaf, so that the products can be traced back to the original varieties. A new generation of molecular markers offers an ideal solution for authentication of processed agricultural products. Using a nanofluidic array to identify variant SNP sequences, we tested genetic identities using DNA extracted from single leaves of 14 processed commercial tea products. Based on the profiles of 60 SNP markers, the genetic identity of each tea sample was unambiguously identified by multilocus matching and ordination analysis. Results for repeated samples of multiple tea leaves from the same products (using three independent DNA extractions showed 100% concordance, showing that the nanofluidic system is a reliable platform for generating tea DNA fingerprints with high accuracy. The method worked well on green, oolong, and black teas, and can handle a large number of samples in a short period of time. It is robust and cost-effective, thus showing high potential for practical application in the value chain of the tea industry.

  5. Renal Artery Variations, Hilar Arrangement and Its Distances to Ventral Branches of Abdominal Aorta: A Morphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Souza A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the distance of origin of renal artery in relation to the ventral branches of abdominal aorta and also to study the variations in the number and the hilar branching pattern of renal arteries. Materials and methods: The present study was carried out using ten embalmed adult cadavers. The distances were measured bilaterally from the origin of renal artery to the origin of superior and inferior mesenteric artery and the bifurcation of abdominal aorta. Results: Out of ten cadavers studied, bilateral accessory renal artery was observed in two cases. The hilar branching pattern varied from a single artery to maximum of six branches. The mean and standard deviations of the measured parameters were calculated. Conclusion: Knowledge of variations of renal artery is important for surgeons in performing many procedures and may help to avoid clinical complications in the abdominal region.

  6. Fluorine in the Solar Neighborhood: Is It All Produced in Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Harper, G. M.; Richter, M. J.; Hinkle, K. H.

    2014-07-01

    The origin of "cosmic" fluorine is uncertain, but there are three proposed production sites/mechanisms for the origin: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, ν nucleosynthesis in Type II supernovae, and/or the winds of Wolf-Rayet stars. The relative importance of these production sites has not been established even for the solar neighborhood, leading to uncertainties in stellar evolution models of these stars as well as uncertainties in the chemical evolution models of stellar populations. We determine the fluorine and oxygen abundances in seven bright, nearby giants with well determined stellar parameters. We use the 2.3 μm vibrational-rotational HF line and explore a pure rotational HF line at 12.2 μm. The latter has never been used before for an abundance analysis. To be able to do this, we have calculated a line list for pure rotational HF lines. We find that the abundances derived from the two diagnostics agree. Our derived abundances are well reproduced by chemical evolution models including only fluorine production in AGB stars and, therefore, we draw the conclusion that this might be the main production site of fluorine in the solar neighborhood. Furthermore, we highlight the advantages of using the 12 μm HF lines to determine the possible contribution of the ν process to the fluorine budget at low metallicities where the difference between models including and excluding this process is dramatic.

  7. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer’s interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  8. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  9. PRACTICAL PROPOSALS AS A RESULT OF THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Theoretical and experimental researches of extraction processes from plant origin raw materials: barley, acorns and chicory with liquid carbon dioxide, as well as lupin with cheese whey were carried out. Quality indicators of extracts and secondary raw materials are defined. It is established that they are perspective raw sources for the enriched and functional products as they contain amino acids, vitamins and microelements. The dairy-vegetative lupine extract, for example, contains 17 amino acids, including the essential as well as vitamins and minerals. The studies of secondary raw materials, barley, acorns, chicory and lupine quality showed the expediency of their use for foods enrichment. Quality indicators of secondary raw materials are presented in the tables form in the given work. It formed the basis for the development of hardware-technological schemes of obtaining СО2-extracts and their use. The hardware-technological scheme of obtaining СО2-extracts from barley, acorns and chicory includes a number of equipment units: motor transport for raw materials delivery to the enterprise, the scraper hydroconveyor, the jet washer, a photoseparator for of poor-quality raw materials and impurities removal, a blowing machine for removing surface moisture from the raw materials, a jet washer for peeling, a cutter, drying and frying device, a crusher, a roller machine tool and an extracting unit. Hardware providing for yoghurt technology enriched with amino acids, microelements and vitamins which are present in a dairy-plant extract differs from the mentioned above one in the following. The extract used is a cheese whey, and the extraction of a target component is carried out in a vibrating extractor. The hardwaretechnological scheme is made according to Russian technology of yoghurt and furnished with the equipment for dairy-vegetative extract feeding into a product. It includes the following: a vibrating extractor (not shown in fig

  10. Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis — Recent Progress and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jeff Chi-feng; Yamada, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Salivary glands provide saliva to maintain oral health, and a loss of salivary gland function substantially decreases quality-of-life. Understanding the biological mechanisms that generate salivary glands during embryonic development may identify novel ways to regenerate function or design artificial salivary glands. This review article summarizes current research on the process of branching morphogenesis of salivary glands, which creates gland structure during development. We highlight excit...

  11. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... of pedagogues and in everyday life in daycare facilities. The competence term includes at least two discourses of interest; a pedagogical competence discourse and a political jurisdiction discourse which forms a distention between authenticity and competence. In order that pedagogues may regain their autonomy I...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...

  12. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  13. 77 FR 39143 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... executive branch qualified trust, an entity must meet the strict requirements for independence set forth in... this subpart. A parent or guardian may execute the umbrella trust agreement on behalf of a required...

  14. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  15. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  16. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  17. [Regeneration processes in bone defects after implantation of composite material of different density of polylactide origin filled with HAP (experimental-morphological study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, A A; Grigor'ian, A S; Krotova, L I; Popov, V K; Volozhin, A I; Losev, V F

    2009-01-01

    In experimental-morphological study on 6 dogs the dynamics of regenerate formation in ulna and mandible defects after implantation in them composite material of different density (0.46-0.50 and 0.38-0.42 g/cm(3)) of polylactide (PL) origin filled with HAP was followed at the terms of 6 and 9 months. Histologic study and structural determinant distribution analysis in the content of regenerate showed that optimal results according to the bone defect substitution by bone regenerate criterion at 9th month of the experiment were received after composite material from PL and HAP with the density of 0.38-0.42 g/cm(3) implantation. Newly formed trabecular bone tissue was seen in the regenerate and as well as strong tendency for bone matrix maturation. It was confirmed by the appearance of lamellar structures in newly formed bone trabecules situated in peripheral zones of bone defect. In bone mandible defects the substitution process of the implants from PL with HAP by the bone tissue was much slower than in ulna defects.

  18. Origin of the p-process radionuclides 92Nb and 146Sm in the early solar system and inferences on the birth of the Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaro, Maria; Pignatari, Marco; Ott, Ulrich; Zuber, Kai; Travaglio, Claudia; Gyürky, György; Fülöp, Zsolt

    2016-01-26

    The abundances of (92)Nb and (146)Sm in the early solar system are determined from meteoritic analysis, and their stellar production is attributed to the p process. We investigate if their origin from thermonuclear supernovae deriving from the explosion of white dwarfs with mass above the Chandrasekhar limit is in agreement with the abundance of (53)Mn, another radionuclide present in the early solar system and produced in the same events. A consistent solution for (92)Nb and (53)Mn cannot be found within the current uncertainties and requires the (92)Nb/(92)Mo ratio in the early solar system to be at least 50% lower than the current nominal value, which is outside its present error bars. A different solution is to invoke another production site for (92)Nb, which we find in the α-rich freezeout during core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Whichever scenario we consider, we find that a relatively long time interval of at least ∼ 10 My must have elapsed from when the star-forming region where the Sun was born was isolated from the interstellar medium and the birth of the Sun. This is in agreement with results obtained from radionuclides heavier than iron produced by neutron captures and lends further support to the idea that the Sun was born in a massive star-forming region together with many thousands of stellar siblings.

  19. Accessory branch of median nerve supplying the brachialis muscle: a case report and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George; Anastasopoulos, Nikolaos; Nitsa, Zoi; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2014-12-01

    A very rare case of an accessory branch of the median nerve taking its origin in the region of the right arm was observed to supply the infero-medial portion of the brachialis muscle in a male cadaver. Simultaneously, the ipsilateral musculocutaneous nerve was innervating the muscles of the anterior compartment of the arm. Such an aberrant muscular branch of the median nerve for the brachialis muscle is very rarely reported in the literature. Lesion of the median nerve proximal to the branch's origin site could induce weak flexion of the elbow, whereas injury of the musculocutaneous nerve could lead to misinterpretation of symptoms. We discuss the patterns of brachialis muscle innervation as well as the clinical applications of such a variant.

  20. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  1. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Omran

    Original Article. Laparoscopic repair of penetrating injury of the diaphragm: an experience from a district hospital ... of eight patients with diaphragmatic injury, and thereby laparotomy was avoided. The procedure converted to open surgery in one .... The splenic laceration was minor and superficial and did not require any.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the nectar(s) from which it originates. December 2004, Vol. 94, No. 12 SAMJ. The Nigerian citrus honey sample used in this study contains about 40% fructose and 31% glucose. These figures compare well with those for honey produced in Spain and the USA (Table 1). The honey sample promoted the clearance of alcohol ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin. The gestational age was recorded if it was regarded as accurate, namely early ultrasound measurements were available or. ~ the estimation of uterine size coincided with the estimated gestational age according ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table IlL Type of sharp object, procedure, and mechanism of percutaneous injury among interns. Sharp object (N = 168)*. Hollow needle. Suturing needle. Other. Procedure (N = 177). Phlebotomy. Suturing. Intravenous catheterisation. Arterial puncture. Capillary puncture. Other. Could not recall.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. SOUTH AFRICAN CAUSE-OF-. DEATH PROFILE IN TRANSITION -. 1996 AND FUTURE TRENDS. Debbie Bradshaw, Michelle Schneider, Rob Darrington,. David E Bourne, Ria Laubscher. This paper describes the South African cause-of-death profile in 1996, the latest year for which routine data ...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. M. Adjei-Frempong1, B. Minkah2, L. Quaye3, S.E.K. Acquah4, A. Opoku2 and M. Imrana2. Correspondence: M. Adjei-Frempong, Department of Mo- lecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah. University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. E-mail: drfrempong@yahoo.com.

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A. Boakye-Yiadom1, S. O. Shittu2, J. B. Dutt2, P. P. M. Dapare3 and A. Alhassan4. Correspondence: A. Boakye-Yiadom, Department of. Community Health, School of Allied Health Sciences, Uni- versity for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jmbs.v4i2.5. INTRODUCTION.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. V. Mogre1, J. A. Atibilla2 and B. N-A. Kandoh2. Correspondence: Mr. Victor Mogre, Department of Human Biology, School of Medicine and Health. Science, University for Development Studies, Tama- le, Ghana E-mail: mogrevictor@yahoo.com. INTRODUCTION. Breakfast is crucial to all humans since ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    equivalence of an innovator versus a generic formulation of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in adults with moderate asthm.a. Few studies comparing generic inhaled formulations and the original products have been reported.15. P ATIENTS AND METH ODS. Patients. Thirty-six non-smoking moderate-to-severe ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vague knowledge of why they are given, and for what illnesses. The most common knowledge was of measles and polio, but there was only limited knowledge of BCG, DPT and other immunisations. Childhood illnesses were seen as multi-causal in origin, but there was a marked absence of germ theory in explaining them.

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES m:R. ~. UNDERRECOGNITION AND. UNDERTREATMENT OF ASTHMA. IN CAPE TOWN PRIMARY SCHOOL. CHILDREN. R I Ehrlich, E Jordaan, D du Toit, J A Volmink,. E Weinberg, M Zwarenstein. Background. In view of the high local prevalence of asthma, the extent of recognition and appropriate ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES. The NMSS rationale is similar to that for public health surveillance generally, and the procedure consists of four activities.• These are: (I) the ongoing and systematic collection of data; (il) the consolidation and analysis of collected data;. (iiz) the dissemination of ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. FIREARM-RELATED INJURIES AND. DEATHS AMONG CHILDREN AND. ADOLESCENTS IN CAPE TOWN -. 1992 -1996. Alyssa Wigton. Objective. To determ.i.lle the epidemiological profile of fireann- related injuries among children and adolescents in Cape. Town during recent years in order to ...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. MOLECULAR GENETICS. IMPROVES THE MANAGEMENT OF. HEREDITARY NON-POLYPOSIS. COLORECTALCANCER. R S Ramesar, M V Madden, R Felix, C J Harocopos,. C A Westbrook, G Jones, J P Cruse, P A Goldberg. Background. The syndrome of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. SPECIAL ARTICLE. SOCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE AND. TAX-BASED FUNDING OF HEALTH. Olive Shisana. The changes likely to occur in South Africa's health care funding have been outlined elsewhere.' Indeed, South Africa is going through major transformation of the health care system.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. BARRIERS TO ACCESSING FREE. CONDOMS AT PUBLIC HEALTH. FACILITIES ACROSS SOUTH. AFRICA. Francesca Little, Landon Myer, Catherine Mathews. Objectives. Lack of access to public sector condoms still presents a fundamentalbarrier to condom use in most of. South Africa. This study ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. CRITICAL CARE FOCUS. AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME OF. SEVERE COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED. PNEUMONIA IN CHILDREN. ADMITTED TO A PAEDIATRIC. INTENSIVE CARE UNIT. S D Delport, T Brisley. Objective. To determine the aetiological agents and outcome of severe community-acquired ...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES detectable cause of curable 'essential' hypertension. JAMA 1965; 193: 100-106. 7. Hiramatsu K~ Yamada T, Yukimura Y, et al. A screening test to identify aldosterone-producing adenoma by measuring plasma renin activity. Results in hypertensive patients. Arch Intern. Med 1981; 141' 1589-1593. 8.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Death and injury on duty- a study of South African police officers. Frank Plani, Douglas M Bowley, Jacques Goosen. Objectives. Sections of contemporary South African society are characterised by high levels of crime and interpersonal conflict. The South African Police Service (SAPS) is in the.

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. WHAT IS THE INFANT MORTALITY. RATE IN SOUTH AFRICA? THE NEED FOR IMPROVED DATA. Nadine Nannan, Debbie Bradshaw, Robert Mazur, Sim.phiwe. Maphumulo. Objectives. To review recent infant mortality and birth registration data in South Africa and to investigate geographical ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. NON-FATAL SUICIDAL BEHAVIOUR. IN WOMEN - THE ROLE OF. SPOUSAL SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND. MARITAL VIOLENCE. A L Pillay, M B W van der Veen, D R Wassenaar. Objective. To investigate the precipitants of non-fatal suicidal behaviour in women using a gender-based comparison.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Health financing reform in Kenya- assessing the social health insurance proposal. Guy Carrin, Chris James, Michael Adelhardt, Ole Doetinchem, Peter Eriki, Mohammed Hassan, Henri van den Hombergh,. Joses Kirigia, Burkard Koemm, Rolf Korte, Rudiger Krech, Cristopher Lankers, Jan van Lente, ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Q. MEASLES ELIMINATION - IS IT. ACHIEVABLE? LESSONS FROM AN. IMMUNISATION COVERAGE. SURVEY. D N Durrheim, G A Ogunbanjo. Objectives. To detennine routine measles coverage at district level and to explore reasons for immunisation failure in. Mpumalanga Province, South Africa ...

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-08-06

    Aug 6, 2000 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. Nath H. When does bronchial arterial embolisation fail to control haemoptysis? .... has already recommended the development of DTP-hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) combinations ... clear, particularly in developing countries where the disease occurs in young children, with.

  6. Cultural Originality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropology: The Study of Social and. Cultural Originality. Prologue. I was invited to reflect on the theoretical foundations of anthropology, as prac- ticed in Africa 'over the last century', but found intellectual artisanship to be a more compelling topic. As Gupta and Ferguson (1997) point out, adherence to a particular logic of ...

  7. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. A mass campaign too often? Results of a vaccination coverage survey in the Dikgale-Soekmekaar district. Carla van Turennout, ]oris Vandelanotte, Marjan van den Akker, AnneMarie Depoorter. Objectives. To determine the routine and mass immunisation coverage in children aged between 12 and ...

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cochrane systematic review in order to ascertain its efficacy and safety and to ... eclampsia, prelabour rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and antepartum haemorrhage of unknown origin. The gestational age was recorded if it was regarded as accurate, namely early ultrasound measurements were available or. ~.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Dual protection in sexually active women. Immo Kleinschmidt, Baker Ndugga Maggwa, Jennifer Smit,Mags E Beksinska, Helen Rees. Objective. To determine the prevalence and co-factors associated with the practice of dual protection against sexually transmitted infections (STis) and unwanted.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES failure, breath-holding spells and even strokeY The decreased attention span and learning associated with iron deficiency may have adverse effects on cognitive and psychomotor development.'-' Furthermore, appropriate treatment of iron deficiency is effective and safe, It would therefore seem worth.

  11. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013 Sep;6(3):169-72. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Affective disorders, particularly depression, are the commonest and probably the most important psychopathological complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Depression has the potential to alter adversely the medical outcome of ESRD patients.

  12. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the teaching of this new knowledge to health workers, and finally making the ... use in developing countries and again in 19952 to include the concept of ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Table I. Basic data and perinatal care indices for the PPIP sentinel sites, 2000 - 2002. Metropolitan. Cities and towns. Rural areas areas (N). (N).

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES c(~rvical spine injury outcome- a review of 101 cases treated in a tertiary referral unit. K Friielingsdorf, R N Dunn. Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event for the patient and family. It has a huge impact on society because of the intensive resources required to manage the patient in both.

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Key issues in clinic functioning - a case study of two ... Department of Behavioural Medicine, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Univer- sity of KwaZulu-Natal. B M Harvey, BA Hons, MA ... Conclusions. This research provides lessons regarding key issues in clinic functioning which can make a ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Sexual behaviour of Cape Town high-school students. Alan J Flisher, Priscilla Reddy, Martie Muller, Carl Lombard. Objectives. To document prevalence rates for selected aspects of sexual behaviour among Cape Town high-school students and to conduct a survival analysis of age at first intercourse.

  17. -( ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-12-12

    Dec 12, 1997 ... ORIGINAL ARTICLES. «. SPECIAL ARTICLE which are situated in rural areas, has aimed to build the ... a Significant rise in public sector salaries for doctors in 1995, the deployment of 300 Cuban doctors in ..... The transport of patients and referral system need particular attention. Retention of CS doctors in ...

  18. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-12-23

    Dec 23, 2014 ... 2School of Animal and Range Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia ... beings also consume. However, the nutritional merit of the fruits as livestock feed, particularly for pigs' was not studied yet. There was. Original Research .... The pork sample for sensory test was taken from.

  19. original articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    woman from Abdera who had a breast tumour and a bloody ... our modem concepts, which originated as late as the 19th .... Phumata empua were suppurating lesions (possibly even tuberculous lymph nodes). Phumata sklera were hard tumours in the breast which did not suppurate, but became increasingly harder and ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of microbial origin are a major health problem associated ... mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food .... liquid food or per g for solid food sample analyzed. Bacterial identification. The MacConkey and Blood agar plates were examined for bacterial growth. Growth ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. UNPAID COMMUNITY. VOLUNTEERS - EFFECTIVE. PROVIDERS OF DIRECTLY. OBSERVED THERAPY (DOT) IN. RURAL SOUTH AFRICA. R D Barker, F J C Millard, M E Nthangeni. Objective. To il).ustrate successes and difficulties for the South. African National Tuberculosis Progranune in a ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaccination against hepatitis B virus is an important means of controlling the infection, but its role ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious complication for the haemodialysis patient and the unit in which he or .... black patients, 35% in those of mixed racial origin, and 0% in white patients. There was no difference in the ...

  3. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    www.ljm.org.ly. Libyan J Med, AOP: 081122. Page 23. Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic. Patients in Benghazi Libya: A Case-control Study. Elmehdawi RR1, Elmajberi SJ2, Behieh A(3), Elramli A3. 1Department of internal medicine, Al-Arab medical University. 2Benghazi diabetes ...

  4. Better branch prediction through prophet/critic hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Falcón Samper, Ayose Jesús; Stark, Jared; Ramírez Bellido, Alejandro; Lai, Konrad; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2005-01-01

    The prophet/critic hybrid conditional branch predictor has two component predictors. The prophet uses a branch's history to predict its direction. We call this prediction and the ones for branches following it the branch future. The critic uses the branch's history and future to critique the prophet's prediction. The hybrid combines the prophet's prediction with the critique, either agrees or disagree, forming the branch's overall prediction. Results shows these hybrids can reduce mispredicts...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Schemes for Correlated Branch Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Cliff; Gloy, Nicolas; Smith, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Modern high-performance architectures require extremely accurate branch prediction to overcome the performance limitations of conditional branches. We present a framework that categorizes branch prediction schemes by the way in which they partition dynamic branches and by the kind of predictor that they use. The framework allows us to compare and contrast branch prediction schemes, and to analyze why they work. We use the framework to show how a static correlated branch prediction scheme incr...

  6. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers. Copyright © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Characterization, treatment and utilization of rice husk ash in production processes of the industrial branch; Caracterizacao, tratamento e aproveitamento das cinzas da casca do arroz em processos produtivos do ramo industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stracke, Marcelo Paulo; Schmidt, Julia Isabel; Steffen, Ana Cristina; Sokolovicz, Boris; Kieckow, Flavio, E-mail: stracke@santoangelo.uri.br [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Santo Angelo, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The rice husk ash (CCA) is a black powder rich in silica (contents above 90%) with many industrial applications. The ash was obtained from a rice processing industry in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. In this work the purpose is to characterize the rice husk ash and eliminate the residual carbon by methods such as acid leaching. The white ash is obtained by a chemical process followed by heating between 600 and 800 °C. The results were analyzed in DR-X, TGA and DSC. The DR-X analysis showed that the samples present high levels of silica in the crystalline form of quartz, cristobalite and tridymite. The white ash was obtained with high purity and presented a good result in the manufacture of paints. (author)

  8. Behavior of Steel Branch Connections during Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sládek A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue behavior of the branch connection made of low-alloyed steel with yield stress of 355 MPa during low-cycle bending test is investigated in the article. Numerical prediction of the stress and strain distribution are described and experimentally verified by fatigue test of the branch connection sample. Experimental verification is based on low-cycle bending testing of the steel pipes welded by manual metal arc process and loaded by external force in the appropriate distance. Stresses and displacement of the samples induced by bending moment were measured by unidirectional strain gauges and displacement transducers. Samples were loaded in different testing levels according to required stress for 2.106 cycles. Increase of the stress value was applied until the crack formation and growth was observed. Results showed a high agreement of numerical and experimental results of stress and displacement.

  9. MEDIAMUSIC ORIGINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the origins of music in electronic regular broadcasting, which conditions have appeared in the XIX century. They stand out in the "telephone concerts", "phonograph concerts" and the proto-sound films (T.Edison, W.Dickson, Ch.Pathé, O.Messter. In the early twentieth century, a clear prototype of mediamusic playing by the music of "silent" films, which has been divided on the on-screen and offscreen sound layers, the method of compilation, the basics of synchronization between musical sound and off-music montage-structures. In addition, the origins of music of electronic mass media can be regarded as attempts to understand the "musical" noise features, which subsequently materialize in the phenomenon of "noisemusic" of media audio-score (L.Russolo, Ars.Avraamov, D.Vertov, W.Ruttmann, N.Voinov, P.Schaeffer. Are considered Russian, European and North American experiences.

  10. Automated Detection of Branch Shaking Locations for Robotic Cherry Harvesting Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Amatya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Automation in cherry harvesting is essential to reduce the demand for seasonal labor for cherry picking and reduce the cost of production. The mechanical shaking of tree branches is one of the widely studied and used techniques for harvesting small tree fruit crops like cherries. To automate the branch shaking operation, different methods of detecting branches and cherries in full foliage canopies of the cherry tree have been developed previously. The next step in this process is the localization of shaking positions in the detected tree branches for mechanical shaking. In this study, a method of locating shaking positions for automated cherry harvesting was developed based on branch and cherry pixel locations determined using RGB images and 3D camera images. First, branch and cherry regions were located in 2D RGB images. Depth information provided by a 3D camera was then mapped on to the RGB images using a standard stereo calibration method. The overall root mean square error in estimating the distance to desired shaking points was 0.064 m. Cherry trees trained in two different canopy architectures, Y-trellis and vertical trellis systems, were used in this study. Harvesting testing was carried out by shaking tree branches at the locations selected by the algorithm. For the Y-trellis system, the maximum fruit removal efficiency of 92.9% was achieved using up to five shaking events per branch. However, maximum fruit removal efficiency for the vertical trellis system was 86.6% with up to four shakings per branch. However, it was found that only three shakings per branch would achieve a fruit removal percentage of 92.3% and 86.4% in Y and vertical trellis systems respectively.

  11. Improved Li(+) Storage through Homogeneous N-Doping within Highly Branched Tubular Graphitic Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jinyang; Xue, Yanming; Zhang, Chao; Weng, Qunhong; Dai, Pengcheng; Yang, Yijun; Zhou, Min; Li, Cuiling; Cui, Qiuhong; Kang, Xiaohong; Tang, Chengchun; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Wang, Xi

    2017-02-01

    A novel carbon structure, highly branched homogeneous-N-doped graphitic (BNG) tubular foam, is designed via a novel N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)-mediated chemical vapor deposition method. More structural defects are found at the branched portions as compared with the flat tube domains providing abundant active sites and spacious reservoirs for Li(+) storage. An individual BNG branch nanobattery is constructed and tested using in situ transmission electron microscopy and the lithiation process is directly visualized in real time. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. [Results of randomized studies on cardiac resynchronization therapy and the reevaluation of cardiac ventricular activation in left bundle branch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préda, István

    2013-05-05

    If New York Heart Association Class II-IV heart failure is present, and ejection fraction ≤35%, electrocardiographic QRS width ≥ 120 ms in the presence of left bundle branch block, cardiac resynchronization therapy is indicated. Reevaluation of the data of cardiac resynchronization trials and electrophysiologic findings in left bundle branch block provided evidence that "true" left bundle branch block requires a QRS width of ≥130 ms (in woman) and ≥140 ms (in man). In "true" left bundle branch block, after the 40th ms of the QRS notched/slurred R waves are characteristic in minimum two of I, aVL, V1, V2, V5 and V6 leads, in addition to a ≥40 ms increase of the QRS complex, as compared to the original QRS complex. In contrast, slowly and continuously widened "left bundle branch block like" QRS patterns are mostly occur in left ventricular hypertrophy or in a metabolic/infiltrative disease.

  13. Characterization of carbonaceous matter in xenolithic clasts from the Sharps (H3.4) meteorite: Constraints on the origin and thermal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebukawa, Yoko [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Zolensky, Michael E. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Chan, Queenie H. S. [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Nagao, Keisuke [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Kilcoyne, A. L. David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bodnar, Robert J. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Farley, Charles [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rahman, Zia [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Le, Loan [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States); Cody, George D. [Carnegie Inst. of Washington, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-25

    Primitive xenolithic clasts, often referred to as “dark clasts”, are well known in many regolith breccias. The Sharps H3.4 ordinary chondrite contains unusually large dark clasts up to ~1 cm across. Poorly-graphitized carbon (PGC), with Fe, Ni metal and described as “carbon-rich aggregates”, has been found in these clasts (Brearley, 1990). We report detailed analyses of carbonaceous matter in several identical Sharps clasts using FTIR, Raman, C-XANES, and TEM that provide insight on the extent of thermal processing and possible origin of such clasts. We also prepared acid residues of the clasts using the HCl/HF method and conducted mass spectrometric analysis of the entrained noble gases. Carbonaceous matter is often used to infer thermal history due to its sensitivity to thermal processes. The FTIR spectra of the acid residue from the Sharps clast suggest that carbonaceous matter in the clast contains less hydrogen and oxygen compared to acid residues from typical type 3.4 ordinary chondrites. The metamorphic temperatures obtained by Raman spectroscopy ranges between ~380 °C and ~490 °C. TEM observations indicate that the clasts experienced a peak temperature of 300 °C to 400 °C, based on the carbon d 002 layer lattice spacing of C-rich aggregates. These estimates are consistent with an earlier estimate of 330 ± 50 °C, that is also estimated by the d 002 layer lattice spacing (Brearley, 1990). It should be noted that the lattice spacing thermometer is based on terrestrial metamorphose rocks, and thus temperature was probably underestimated. Meanwhile, the C-XANES spectra of the C-rich aggregates show high exciton intensities, indicative of graphene structures that developed at around 700–800 °C following an extensive period of time (millions of years), however, the surrounding matrix areas experienced lower temperatures of less than 300–500 °C. Noble gas analysis of the acid residue from the Sharps clasts shows that the residue is

  14. Research on pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches via the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bingliang; Zhou, Jianbin; Zhang, Qisheng

    2017-10-01

    This study aims at investigating the pyrolysis behavior of Camellia sinensis branches by the Discrete Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM) and thermogravimetric experiments. Then the Discrete DAEM method is used to describe pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches dominated by 12 characterized reactions. The decomposition mechanism of Camellia sinensis branches and interaction with components are observed. And the reaction at 350.77°C is a significant boundary of the first and second reaction range. The pyrolysis process of Camellia sinensis branches at the heating rate of 10,000°C/min is predicted and provides valuable references for gasification or combustion. The relationship and function between four typical indexes and heating rates from 10 to 10,000°C/min are revealed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. How plastic can phenotypic plasticity be? The branching coral Stylophora pistillata as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity enables multicellular organisms to adjust morphologies and various life history traits to variable environmental challenges. Here, we elucidate fixed and plastic architectural rules for colony astogeny in multiple types of colonial ramets, propagated by cutting from genets of the branching coral Stylophora pistillata from Eilat, the Red Sea. We examined 16 morphometric parameters on 136 one-year old S. pistillata colonies (of seven genotypes, originating from small fragments belonging, each, to one of three single-branch types (single tips, start-up, and advanced bifurcating tips or to structural preparative manipulations (representing a single or two growth axes. Experiments were guided by the rationale that in colonial forms, complexity of evolving phenotypic plasticity can be associated with a degree of structural modularity, where shapes are approached by erecting iterative growth patterns at different levels of coral-colony organization. Analyses revealed plastic morphometric characters at branch level, and predetermined morphometric traits at colony level (only single trait exhibited plasticity under extreme manipulation state. Therefore, under the experimental manipulations of this study, phenotypic plasticity in S. pistillata appears to be related to branch level of organization, whereas colony traits are controlled by predetermined genetic architectural rules. Each level of organization undergoes its own mode of astogeny. However, depending on the original ramet structure, the spherical 3-D colonial architecture in this species is orchestrated and assembled by both developmental trajectories at the branch level, and traits at the colony level of organization. In nature, branching colonial forms are often subjected to harsh environmental conditions that cause fragmentation of colony into ramets of different sizes and structures. Developmental traits that are plastic, responding to fragment structure and are not

  16. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  17. Measurement of Tau Lepton Branching Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, N.

    2003-12-19

    We present {tau}{sup -} lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample of {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} events, we examine the resonance structure of the K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1270) and {tau}{sup -} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sub 1}{sup -}(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the {tau}{sup -} lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, {mu}, {pi}, and K.

  18. Selection of Microbes and Conditions that Induced Bio-Cracking of Branched Hydrocarbon Squalane

    OpenAIRE

    Gailiūtė, I.; Grigiškis, S.; Žėkaitė, G.; Čipinytė, V.

    2015-01-01

    Biological oil hydrocarbons degradation is a complicated process, influenced by hydrocarbons properties, microorganisms and environmental conditions. The aim of this work was to select microbial strain, capable of degrading heavy branched hydrocarbons for further application in environment remediation and bio-cracking. Also, it was necessary to select optimal conditions (temperature, pH, concentration and etc.) for selected microbial strain degrading heavy branched hydrocarbons. Since crude o...

  19. Research of the temperature field of welding of saddle branch to polyethylene pipe at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, Nikolai P.; Vasileva, Maria A.; Andreev, Boris I.

    2017-11-01

    The thermal process of welding a saddle branch to a polyethylene pipe is considered with the heat of the phase transition taken into account. The corresponding three-dimensional nonlinear equation of thermal conductivity is solved by the finite element method in a complex domain. The technological operations necessary for welding the saddle branch to the polyethylene pipe at air temperatures below standard are defined based on the study of the dynamics of the temperature field during welding at various ambient temperatures.

  20. Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matakwa Ludia C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce. Objective To describe the branching pattern of the posterior cord in a Kenyan population. Materials and methods Seventy-five brachial plexuses from 68 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection. Origin and order of branching of the posterior cord was recorded. Representative photographs were then taken using a digital camera (Sony Cybershot R, W200, 7.2 Megapixels. Results Only 8 out of 75 (10.7% posterior cords showed the classical branching pattern. Forty three (57.3% lower subscapular, 8(10.3% thoracodorsal and 8(10.3% upper subscapular nerves came from the axillary nerve instead of directly from posterior cord. A new finding was that in 4(5.3% and in 3(4% the medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm respectively originated from the posterior cord in contrast to their usual origin from the medial cord. Conclusions Majority of posterior cords in studied population display a wide range of variations. Anesthesiologists administering local anesthetic blocks, clinicians interpreting effects of nerve injuries of the upper limb and surgeons operating in the axilla should be aware of these patterns to avoid inadvertent injury. A wider study of the branching pattern of infraclavicular brachial plexus is recommended.

  1. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... coordinating our day-to-day life with others (Allen, 1996). Currently, many applications in NLP area require linguistic knowledge to be readily available to successfully implement many NLP systems at various levels of processing. There are, for instance, systems developed for processing natural language ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chicken farming and processing, turkey and duck production being of minor importance. Nevertheless, the industry is significant with 4 large, 6 medium and about 300 small to very small commercial producers. In 1997, approximately 50 000 people worked directly or indirectly in poultry production, processing and meat ...

  3. Crack branching in cross-ply composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Saponara, Valeria

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this research work is to examine the behavior of an interface crack in a cross-ply laminate which is subject to static and fatigue loading. The failure mechanism analyzed here is crack branching (or crack kinking or intra-layer crack): the delamination located between two different plies starts growing as an interface crack and then may branch into the less tough ply. The specimens were manufactured from different types of Glass/Epoxy and Graphite/Epoxy, by hand lay-up, vacuum bagging and cure in autoclave. Each specimen had a delamination starter. Static mixed mode tests and compressive fatigue tests were performed. Experiments showed the scale of the problem, one ply thickness, and some significant features, like contact in the branched crack. The amount of scatter in the experiments required use of statistics. Exploratory Data Analysis and a factorial design of experiments based on a 8 x 8 Hadamard matrix were used. Experiments and statistics show that there is a critical branching angle above which crack growth is greatly accelerated. This angle seems: (1) not to be affected by the specimens' life; (2) not to depend on the specimen geometry and loading conditions; (3) to strongly depend on the amount of contact in the branched crack. Numerical analysis was conducted to predict crack propagation based on the actual displacement/load curves for static tests. This method allows us to predict the total crack propagation in 2D conditions, while neglecting branching. Finally, the existence of a solution based on analytic continuation is discussed.

  4. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.

    2012-01-01

    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Etiolated Juvenile Tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia Branches during Different Cutting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of hard-branch cuttings of tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust is restricted by the low rooting rate; however, etiolated juvenile tetraploid black locust branches result in a significantly higher rooting rate of cuttings compared with non-etiolated juvenile tetraploid branches. To identify proteins that influence the juvenile tetraploid branch rooting process, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to analyze proteomic differences in the phloem of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated and non-etiolated juvenile branches during different cutting periods. A total of 58 protein spots differed in expression level, and 16 protein spots were only expressed in etiolated branches or non-etiolated ones. A total of 40 highly expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, 14 of which were accurately retrieved. They include nucleoglucoprotein metabolic proteins, signaling proteins, lignin synthesis proteins and phyllochlorin. These results help to reveal the mechanism of juvenile tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated branch rooting and provide a valuable reference for the improvement of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia cutting techniques.

  6. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Following guidelines under RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation (RI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their filled coal ash pond (FCAP) and associated areas on McCoy Branch. The RI process was initiated and assessments were presented. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented between 1986 and 1994 for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The required ecological risk assessments of McCoy Branch watershed included provisions for biological monitoring of the watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline bypassing upper McCoy Branch and further, after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program may also determine whether the goals of protection of human health and the environment of McCoy Branch are being accomplished.

  7. Origin of thyroid arteries in a Kenyan population | Magoma | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The thyroid gland receives blood supply predominantly from paired superior and inferior thyroid arteries. The superior thyroid artery originates from external carotid while the inferior thyroid artery is a branch of thyrocervical trunk. Unusual origins of superior thyroid artery include common carotid and cervical part ...

  8. The behavior of carbonaceous matter in Tagish Lake Meteorite at high P-T: implications for the survivability of organics during petrological processes and origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagno, V.; DU, W.

    2015-12-01

    Recent models of planets formation have faced the possibility that (volatile-rich) carbonaceous chondrites are the possible carrier of water and complex carbon molecules. The Tagish Lake (TL) meteorite is a classified C2 ungroup chondrite whose bulk and organic chemistry compositions have received a considerable attention owing to the short-time exposure before being collected. TL is likely representative of D-type asteroids known to contain complex organic compounds, and was described including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons considered to be building blocks of life (Gilmour 2001; Pizzarello et al. 2001). Recent studies on the spatial distribution and mineralogical association of organics in TL meteorites show a certain affinity of organic compounds for S-bearing phases such as Fe-Ni sulfide coexisting with abundant carbonate (Ca-Mg-Fe-Mn solid solution), magnetite and serpentine (Zega et al. 2010). In particular, carbonate is believed to form from the organic matter during hydrothermal alteration with implications for the carbon (C) isotopic signature. Therefore, the knowledge of how carbonaceous matter survived during the history of a meteorite at extreme pressures-temperatures is of fundamental importance to solve the mystery of the origin of life. In order to investigate the behavior of carbonaceous matter and to constrain the stability and structural evolution of organics and in Tagish Lake meteorite during petrological processes (melting, solid state reaction etc.), we carried heating experiments at 5 GPa and temperature between 800-1400 °C using multi anvil apparatus at GRC, Ehime University. The recovered samples were polished for textural and chemical characterization of the mineral phases using FE-SEM and electron microprobe, respectively. Ultra-thin sections, 80-100 nm thick, were prepared from the recovered samples using focused ion beam. These sections were then transferred to TEM grids for in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES

  9. Superior rectal artery origin from the median sacral artery--angiographic appearance, developmental anatomy, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Monica S; Gest, Thomas R; Gailloud, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Two angiographic observations of significant rectal vascularization by branches originating from the median sacral artery (MSA) are reported. In the first case, the MSA provided a complete superior rectal trunk, with left and right branches, while in the second, the MSA only contributed superior rectal branches to the right side of the rectum, the left side being supplied by left internal iliac branches. The angiographic appearance, developmental anatomy, and clinical significance of these variants are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The unique branching patterns of Deinococcus glycogen branching enzymes are determined by their N-terminal domains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo, M.; Kralj, S.; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) or 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzymes (EC 2.4.1.18) introduce alpha-1,6 branching points in alpha-glucans, e.g., glycogen. To identify structural features in GBEs that determine their branching pattern specificity, the Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus

  11. Soil-derived branched tetraether membrane lipids in marine sediments : reconstruction of past continental climate and soil organic matter fluxes to the ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, J.W.H.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the structure and occurrence of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids, their potential biological origin and shows their application in reconstructions of past environmental conditions. Based on the stereo-configuration of the glycerol backbone,

  12. Soil-derived branched tetraether membrane lipids in marine sediments: reconstruction of past continental climate and soil organic matter fluxes to the ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, J.W.H.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the structure and occurrence of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) membrane lipids, their potential biological origin and shows their application in reconstructions of past environmental conditions. Based on the stereo-configuration of the glycerol backbone,

  13. Response of sorption processes of MCPA to the amount and origin of organic matter in a long-term field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Haberhauer, G.; Pfeiffer, L.; Gerzabek, M. H.; Kirchmann, H.; Aquino, A. J. A.; Tunega, D.; Lischka, H.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in farming practices over long times can affect the sorption behaviour of MCPA ((4-chloro-2- methylphenoxy)acetic acid). We studied the adsorption±desorption mechanisms of MCPA on soil with varied amounts and origins of soil organic matter obtained from a long-term field experiment with various organic amendments. The origin of the soil organic matter seems to be crucial for the sorption behaviour of MCPA. Samples of soil amended with sewage sludge sorbed MCPA more strongly than the s...

  14. Partial Order Reduction for Probabilistic Branching Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baier, Christel; d' Argenio, P.R.; Größer, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    In the past, partial order reduction has been used successfully to combat the state explosion problem in the context of model checking for non-probabilistic systems. For both linear time and branching time specifications, methods have been developed to apply partial order reduction in the context of

  15. Simple statistical model for branched aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemarchand, Claire; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    We propose a statistical model that can reproduce the size distribution of any branched aggregate, including amylopectin, dendrimers, molecular clusters of monoalcohols, and asphaltene nanoaggregates. It is based on the conditional probability for one molecule to form a new bond with a molecule...

  16. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  17. Academic Branch Libraries: Assessment and Collection Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julie

    2009-01-01

    An ongoing project at Mercer University's Regional Academic Center Libraries illustrates how utilizing established assessment guidelines, stakeholder input, and a clear understanding of audience and curriculum needs may all be used to optimize a collection. Academic branch libraries often have clear collection development limitations in terms of…

  18. Headward growth and branching in subterranean channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad; Ionkin, Nikolay; Panaitescu, Andreea

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the erosive growth of channels in a thin subsurface sedimentary layer driven by hydrodynamic drag toward understanding subterranean networks and their relation to river networks charged by ground water. Building on a model based on experimental observations of fluid-driven evolution of bed porosity, we focus on the characteristics of the channel growth and their bifurcations in a horizontal rectangular domain subject to various fluid source and sink distributions. We find that the erosion front between low- and high-porosity regions becomes unstable, giving rise to branched channel networks, depending on the spatial fluctuations of the fluid flow near the front and the degree to which the flow is above the erodibility threshold of the medium. Focusing on the growth of a network starting from a single channel, and by identifying the channel heads and their branch points, we find that the number of branches increases sublinearly and is affected by the source distribution. The mean angles between branches are found to be systematically lower than river networks in humid climates and depend on the domain geometry.

  19. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  20. Back to the Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertts, Adam G.

    2012-01-01

    In bacteria, replication is a carefully orchestrated event that unfolds the same way for each bacterium and each cell division. The process of DNA replication in bacteria optimizes cell growth and coordinates high levels of simultaneous replication and transcription. In metazoans, the organization of replication is more enigmatic. The lack of a specific sequence that defines origins of replication has, until recently, severely limited our ability to define the organizing principles of DNA replication. This question is of particular importance as emerging data suggest that replication stress is an important contributor to inherited genetic damage and the genomic instability in tumors. We consider here the replication program in several different organisms including recent genome-wide analyses of replication origins in humans. We review recent studies on the role of cytosine methylation in replication origins, the role of transcriptional looping and gene gating in DNA replication, and the role of chromatin’s 3-dimensional structure in DNA replication. We use these new findings to consider several questions surrounding DNA replication in metazoans: How are origins selected? What is the relationship between replication and transcription? How do checkpoints inhibit origin firing? Why are there early and late firing origins? We then discuss whether oncogenes promote cancer through a role in DNA replication and whether errors in DNA replication are important contributors to the genomic alterations and gene fusion events observed in cancer. We conclude with some important areas for future experimentation. PMID:23634256

  1. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  2. Self-catalytic branch growth of SnO 2 nanowire junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Campbell, L. J.; Zhou, W. L.

    2004-10-01

    Multiple branched SnO2 nanowire junctions have been synthesized by thermal evaporation of SnO powder. Their nanostructures were studied by transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microcopy. It was observed that Sn nanoparticles generated from decomposition of the SnO powder acted as self-catalysts to control the SnO2 nanojunction growth. Orthorhombic SnO2 was found as a dominate phase in nanojunction growth instead of rutile structure. The branches and stems of nanojunctions were found to be an epitaxial growth by electron diffraction analysis and high-resolution electron microscopy observation. The growth directions of the branched SnO2 nanojunctions were along the orthorhombic [1 1 0] and [ 1 1 bar 0 ] . A self-catalytic vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism is proposed to describe the growth process of the branched SnO2 nanowire junctions.

  3. The contribution of specific cell subpopulations to submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae Ryong; Larsen, Melinda

    2015-06-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program responsible for generating a large surface to volume ratio in many secretory and absorptive organs. To accomplish branching morphogenesis, spatiotemporal regulation of specific cell subpopulations is required. Here, we review recent studies that define the contributions of distinct cell subpopulations to specific cellular processes during branching morphogenesis in the mammalian submandibular salivary gland, including the initiation of the gland, the coordination of cleft formation, and the contribution of stem/progenitor cells to morphogenesis. In conclusion, we provide an overview of technological advances that have opened opportunities to further probe the contributions of specific cell subpopulations and to define the integration of events required for branching morphogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CFD Modelling of Local Hemodynamics in Intracranial Aneurysms Harboring Arterial Branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Vladimir; Grigoryeva, Elena; Dolotova, Daria; Blagosklonova, Evgenia; Gavrilov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    The main cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage is an intracranial aneurysm's rupture. The choice of treatment approach is exceptionally difficult in cases of aneurysms with additional branches on the aneurysm's dome or neck. The impact of the arterial branches on local hemodynamics is still unclear and controversial question. At the same time, up-to-date methods of image processing and mathematical modeling provide a way to investigate the hemodynamic environment of aneurysms. The paper discusses hemodynamic aspects of aneurysms harboring arterial branch through the use of patient-specific 3D models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The analysis showed that the presence of the arterial branches has a great influence on flow streamlines and wall shear stress, particularly for side wall aneurysm.

  5. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies in the Creative Process, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University,. USA. Albert Rothenberg, MD. May 2002, Vol. 92, No. 5 SAMJ provides ways of developing new and effective ways of studying, scrutinising and exploring subject matter, and facing the demands of the laboratory and classroom. With respect to.

  6. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-contacting biometrics is the inevitable trend for the research and the development of status identification. The error rate of iris recognition is the lowest in all the biometrics according to the statistics. Daugman presented an algorithm that needs to process the two dimensional information of the texture, and increases ...

  7. original articles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West. ded under disparity ducted as llow-back ty cases. large-scale ystem; (ii) ital in TB tefactual; t increase eir his paper. emiek van tem. ments 1997; n Africa. ... Impact evaluation. PHASE 3. Behavioural and environmental diagnosis . PHASE 7. Process evaluation. PHASE 4. Educational and organisational diagnosis.

  8. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-15

    Sep 15, 2012 ... in basic map reading skills based on these objectives. But, nowadays, the teaching and learning process of map reading skills and the academic performance and achievement of secondary school students are affected by various factors. This paper is the outcome of an attempt made to explore the factors ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy is common and carries the possibility of transfusion, patients with this pathology were considered a meaningful group on which to commence this audit process. In attempting to measure the appropriateness of blood transfusion practices, we hoped to establish the extent and cause(s) of the problem, to.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sabbaticals, are probably the most important instruments. Ensuring that doctors are competent and confident about working without supervision is also critical, and will be substantially addressed through the 2-year internship. There are two key questions. Firstly, what difference does the selection process (at entry to medical ...

  11. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-25

    Mar 25, 2014 ... Effect of Variety and Storage on the Tuber Quality of Potatoes Cultivated in the Eastern .... end use such as for processing into chips and French fries. ... taking 3 kg of potato tubers randomly as the ratio of tuber weight in air to the weight of water displaced by the tuber. (Gould, 1995). water in. Weight airin.

  12. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-15

    Sep 15, 2012 ... learning process of map reading skills and the academic performance and achievement of secondary ... performance and achievement test score in map ..... Performance of senior secondary students in basic map work skills. Un Published MA. Thesis School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa. University.

  13. Cultural Originality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    argue that it can constitute a major resource for research on the present — by. African scholars as well as ..... I look at each strategy in turn, as it is applied in practice to particular empirical sources from his book. .... go part way towards a practical research agenda on the puzzling processes that political science rushed to ...

  14. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Article Information. A study on the diversity of woody plant species of Boke salt valley landscape in a semi-arid ecosystem of Borana was conducted. The area is a volcanic crater lake with the lake at the bottom base. Vegetation of such volcanic areas is expected to develop through the process of succession over ...

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Trypanosomosis is an infectious disease of humans and animals characterized by sleep/wake disturbances and disruptions in other circadian rhythm .... processing centre, the lateral geniculate nucleus also participates in the regulation of .... the circumventricular organs and sensory ganglia. J. Neurosci Res1988;21:51-61.

  16. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be a passive process aggravated by hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia that ... dialysis patients [13]. However, there are only scarce and contradictory data on fetuin-A levels in moderate CKD and their effect on vessel health. Also, it is still unsolved whether in ... years. Exclusion criteria included dialysis dependency,.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    clinical management in paediatric wards is necessary to highlight areas for improvement. Objective. ... process has led to their active involvement in improving the management of malnourished children in their ... associated with high mortality include overuse of intravenous. (IV) fluids for rehydration, inadequate feeding ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These cereals constitute the principal component of the traditional diet sourdough bread Injera. Earlier studies have shown that aflatoxins persist throughout the traditional fermentation processes of Injera preparation as practiced in Ethiopia (10-11). Aflatoxin is a natural contaminant on legumes and retains remarkably high.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress (Waddell et al., 2004; Machado et al., 2012;. Gupta et al., 2013; Li et al., 2015b). P55 is functional- ly connected to processes that involve preservation of the cell wall and transport of toxic compounds away from the cells (Bianco et al., 2011). MmpL7 mediate transport of important cell wall li- pids across the ...

  20. Original Contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    disparate and changing levels of population density through urbanisation and other related processes of suburbanisation .... crashes were provided by the eThekwini Transport Authority (ETA) for 2005-2009. Data from the ETA were based on ...... The detection of clusters in rare diseases. Journal of the Royal Statistical.

  1. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    codes. Finally, it sorts the different iris patterns by auto accommodated pattern matching method and gives the recognition results. Image Pre-processing. Usually an iris image impossibly contains the iris merely; there are also other parts of the eye such as the eyelid, the eyelash. This point may be seen clearly from Figure 1.

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    teaching to get in-service education, to get resources support, create smooth relationship among staff members, and to participate in decision making process related to curriculum. Except secondary school principals, supervisors, students parents, and community members did not contribute for the implementation effort of ...

  3. Melatonin Inhibits Embryonic Salivary Gland Branching Morphogenesis by Regulating Both Epithelial Cell Adhesion and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or “brake” of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development. PMID:25876057

  4. Melatonin inhibits embryonic salivary gland branching morphogenesis by regulating both epithelial cell adhesion and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana-Koshino, Aya; Ono, Hitomi; Miura, Jiro; Sakai, Manabu; Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Wataru; Nohara, Kanji; Maruyama, Yusuke; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Sakai, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many organs, including salivary glands, lung, and kidney, are formed by epithelial branching during embryonic development. Branching morphogenesis occurs via either local outgrowths or the formation of clefts that subdivide epithelia into buds. This process is promoted by various factors, but the mechanism of branching morphogenesis is not fully understood. Here we have defined melatonin as a potential negative regulator or "brake" of branching morphogenesis, shown that the levels of it and its receptors decline when branching morphogenesis begins, and identified the process that it regulates. Melatonin has various physiological functions, including circadian rhythm regulation, free-radical scavenging, and gonadal development. Furthermore, melatonin is present in saliva and may have an important physiological role in the oral cavity. In this study, we found that the melatonin receptor is highly expressed on the acinar epithelium of the embryonic submandibular gland. We also found that exogenous melatonin reduces salivary gland size and inhibits branching morphogenesis. We suggest that this inhibition does not depend on changes in either proliferation or apoptosis, but rather relates to changes in epithelial cell adhesion and morphology. In summary, we have demonstrated a novel function of melatonin in organ formation during embryonic development.

  5. The Considere condition and rapid stretching of linear and branched polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, Gareth H; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    and the Considere criterion originally developed in solid mechanics can be used to quantitatively predict the critical Hencky strain to failure. By comparing the predictions of the Doi-Edwards model for linear homopolymer melts with those of the "Pom-Pom" model recently proposed by McLeish and Larson [J. Rheol. 42......, 81-110 (1998)] for prototypical branched melts we show that the critical strain to failure in rapid elongation of a rubbery material is intimately linked to the molecular topology of the chain, especially the degree of chain branching. The onset of necking instability is monotonically shifted...... to larger Hencky strains as the number of branches is increased. Numerical computations at finite Deborah numbers also show that there is an optimal range of deformation rates over which homogeneous extensions can be maintained to large strain. We also consider other rapid homogeneous stretching...

  6. Calculating hazard rates of introgression with branching processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Atiyo

    2012-01-01

    Introgression is the permanent incorporation of genes from the genome of one population into that of another through hybridisation and backcrossing. With the advent of genetically modified crops, the potential that transgenes might introgress from cultivated to wild plants has become a point of

  7. Critical age-dependent branching Markov processes and their ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sample, i, and trace the genealogical tree T ∈ Ti(k),(Ti(k) is the collection of all possible labelled trees with k leaves given by i), until their most recent common ancestor. For any leaf ij in T , let 1 = n(ij , 1) < n(ij , 2) < ··· < n(ij ,Nij ) be the labels of the internal nodes on the path from leaf ij to the root. We list the ancestoral death ...

  8. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation a multitype branching process model

    CERN Document Server

    Macken, Catherine A

    1988-01-01

    The body contains many cellular systems that require the continuous production of new, fully functional, differentiated cells to replace cells lacking or having limited self-renewal capabilities that die or are damaged during the lifetime of an individual. Such systems include the epidermis, the epithelial lining of the gut, and the blood. For example, erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack nuclei and thus are incapable of self-replication. They have a life span in the circulation of about 120 days. Mature granulocytes, which also lack proliferative capacity, have a much shorter life span - typically 12 hours, though this may be reduced to only two or three hours in times of serious tissue infection. Perhaps a more familiar example is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer is composed of fully mature, dead epidermal cells that must be replaced by the descendants of stem cells lodged in lower layers of the epidermis (cf. Alberts et al. , 1983). In total, to supply the normal steady-state demands of cells, an...

  9. Vascular branches from cutaneous nerve of the forearm and hand: application to better understanding raynaud's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, K; Ohmichi, M; Ohmichi, Y; Yakura, T; Hammer, N; Mizuno, D; Naito, M; Nakano, T

    2017-09-29

    Cutaneous nerves have branches called vascular branches (VBs) that reach arteries. VBs are thought to be involved in arterial constriction, and this is the rationale for periarterial sympathectomy as a treatment option for Raynaud's disease. However, the branching patterns and distribution areas of the VBs remain largely unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anatomical structures of the VBs of the cutaneous nerves. Forty hands and forearms were examined to assess the branching patterns and distribution areas of the VBs of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN), the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN), the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN), and the palmar cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve (PCUN). VBs reaching the radial and ulnar arteries were observed in all specimens. The branching patterns were classified into six types. The mean distance between the radial styloid process and the point where the VBs reached the radial artery was 34.3 ± 4.8 mm in the SBRN and 38.5 ± 15.8 mm in the LACN. The mean distance between the ulnar styloid process and the point where the VBs reached the ulnar artery was 60.3 ± 25.9 mm in the MACN and 43.8 ± 26.0 mm in the PCUN. This study showed that the VBs of the cutaneous nerves have diverse branching patterns. The VBs of the SBRN had a more limited distribution areas than those of the other nerves. Clin. Anat., 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 2. Melt vs sulphide percolation process and modeling sulphide saturation in the parental magmas and original cumulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid

    2013-04-01

    An important feature of the Dovyren intrusive complex [1] is its fertility due to the presence of massive sulphide ores near the bottom of the Ioko-Dovyren massif (YDM, SW and NE margins), as well as PGE-reefs in anorthosites from the Ol-gabbronorite zone in the centre [2]. These observations argue for the importance of downward percolation of sulphides through the porous space of cumulates and probable link of this process with upward migration of intercumulus melts at a post-cumulus stage. Indirectly, this is supported by the basic conclusion on the open-system behavior of the magma chamber [1]. A key aspect of these speculations is the onset of sulphide immiscibility in YDM parental magmas and the original cumulates. To reconstruct the sulphide saturation history, we applied a newly developed sulphide version of COMAGMAT (ver. 5.2 [3]) to the rocks from the chilled zone of YDM and underlying ultramafic sills, by simulating the course of their crystallization coupled with the SCSS calculations. Modeled crystallization trajectories evidence for under-saturated nature of the most primitive parental magmas (1310oC, Fo88) from which the chilled rocks were crystallized, whereas more evolved rocks from the sills demonstrate sulphide saturation starting from their initial temperature (1190oC, Fo85), see [1]. This correlates with the absence of sulphide ores in the central parts of the pluton and their occurrence in underlying ultramafics and YDM border series containing olivine Fo~85. Another set of calculations was carried out to demonstrate the effect of bulk Ni contents in Ol cumulate piles on the evolution of SCSS during their post-cumulus crystallization [3]. To achieve the goal, two calculations by the COMAGMAT-5.2 model were carried out. The first one involved modelling equilibrium crystallization for an initial mixture of Ol (Fo88) and intercumulus melt (~1320oC), with the starting composition corresponding to that of a bottom Pl-dunite (2315 ppm NiO, 0.030 wt

  12. [Anatomic study on perforating branch flap of medial vastus muscle and its clinical application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Liang, Xiaoqin; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Chenqi; Guo, Deliang; Wang, Changde; Cui, Lei

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the anatomic features of the perforating branch flap of the medial vastus muscle, so as to provide a new perforating branch flap for repairing the soft tissue defect. Six fresh donated lower limb specimens underwent an intra-arterial injection of a lead oxide and lactoprene preparation. The integument of the thigh was dissected to observe the origin, course, size, and location of the perforating branch of the medial vastus muscle by angiography and photography. Based on the anatomic study, the free perforating branch flaps of the medial vastus muscle (14 cm x 6 cm to 20 cm x 5 cm) were used to repair skin and soft tissue defects (8 cm x 6 cm to 12 cm x 8 cm) of the feet in 4 patients between June 2009 and August 2011. The artery of the medial vastus was sent out constantly from the femoral artery, and then descended in the vastus muscle to lateral patella where it anastomosed with the terminal branches of lateral femoral circumflex artery to form prepatellar vascular network. The artery of the medial vastus sent out 3-5 musculocutaneous perforating branches into the deep fascia and then extended superficially to the overlying skin. Four flaps survived after surgery; wounds at the donor site and recipient site healed by first intention. After follow-up of 6-12 months, the flaps had good appearance and texture. All ankles had normal movement range of plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. The free perforating branch flaps of the medial vastus muscle can be harvested easily, and have the advantage of good texture and abundant donor site.

  13. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  14. The DIEA branching pattern and its relationship to perforators: the importance of preoperative computed tomographic angiography for DIEA perforator flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Warren M; Palmer, Kate P; Suami, Hiroo; Pan, Wei R; Ashton, Mark W; Corlett, Russell J; Taylor, G Ian

    2008-02-01

    Abdominal donor-site flaps based on the deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA) are the most common flaps used in autologous breast reconstruction. With significant variation in the vascular anatomy of the DIEA, preoperative imaging is desirable. Computed tomographic angiography, recently described for this purpose, uniquely demonstrates the branching pattern of the DIEA. The authors sought to correlate the DIEA branching pattern to the location and course of perforators as a preoperative planning tool for perforator flaps. Forty-five cadaveric hemi-abdominal walls were used for contrast injection of the DIEA with subsequent radiographic imaging. The branching pattern on radiography was thus correlated to the location and intramuscular course of perforators, from the main DIEA trunk to the point of the penetrating rectus sheath. The DIEA branching pattern correlated closely with the course of perforators. A bifurcating (type II) branching pattern demonstrated a reduced transverse distance traversed by each perforator, whereas a trifurcating (type III) branching pattern demonstrated significantly greater transverse distances (p = 0.0002). Type I vessels were intermediate. Vessel branching type, however, displayed no significant correlation with the number of perforators (p = 0.56). The distances traversed by perforators were significantly reduced with a bifurcating branching pattern of the DIEA, particularly those originating from the lateral branch, and were greatest with a trifurcating branching pattern. Increased transverse distances correlate with greater rectus muscle sacrificed during perforator flap surgery. As computed tomographic angiography is the optimal modality for demonstrating this pattern preoperatively, the authors suggest its use for preoperative assessment in transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous and DIEA perforator flaps.

  15. Universal scaling in the branching of the tree of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Alejandro Herrada

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns and processes of diversification of life in the planet is a key challenge of science. The Tree of Life represents such diversification processes through the evolutionary relationships among the different taxa, and can be extended down to intra-specific relationships. Here we examine the topological properties of a large set of interspecific and intraspecific phylogenies and show that the branching patterns follow allometric rules conserved across the different levels in the Tree of Life, all significantly departing from those expected from the standard null models. The finding of non-random universal patterns of phylogenetic differentiation suggests that similar evolutionary forces drive diversification across the broad range of scales, from macro-evolutionary to micro-evolutionary processes, shaping the diversity of life on the planet.

  16. Electron Waveguide Y-branch Switches Controlled by Pt/GaAs Schottky Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, E.; Hieke, K.

    Electron waveguide Y-branch switches have been fabricated in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. These are controlled by Pt/GaAs Schottky contacts, which were realized by an in-situ electrochemical process. In this paper we describe the fabrication process as well as present results from conductance measurements in the fabricated devices.

  17. Dielectric response of branched copper phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamam, Khalil J.; Al-Amar, Mohammad M.; Mezei, Gellert; Guda, Ramakrishna; Burns, Clement A.

    2017-09-01

    The dielectric constant of pressed pellets and thin films of branched copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) was investigated as a function of frequency from 0.1 kHz to 1 MHz and temperature from 20 °C to 100 °C. Surface morphology was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The high-frequency values of the dielectric constant of pellets and thin films are ~3.5 and ~5.8, respectively. The response was only weakly dependent on frequency and temperature. The branched structure of the CuPc molecules helped to cancel out the effects of low-frequency polarization mechanisms. A planar delocalized charge system with two-dimensional localization was found using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements.

  18. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the historical and philosophical background of the introduction of the notion of branching time in philosophical logic as it is revealed in the hitherto unpublished mail-correspondence between Saul Kripke and A.N. Prior in the late 1950s. The paper reveals that the idea...... was first suggested by Saul Kripke in a letter to A.N. Prior, dated September 3, 1958, and it is shown how the elaboration of the idea in the course of the correspondence was intimately intervowen with considerations of how to represent indeterminism and of the adequacy of tensed logic in light of special...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  19. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  20. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  1. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  2. Multiple-Block Ahead Branch Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec, André; Jourdan, Stéphan; Sainrat, Pascal; Michaud, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    A basic rule in computer architecture is that a processor cannot execute an application faster than it fetches its instructions. To overcome the instruction fetch bottleneck shown in wide-dispatch «brainiac» processors, this paper presents a novel cost-effective mechanism called the multiple-block ahead branch predictor that predicts in an efficient way addresses of multiple basic blocks in a single cycle. Moreover and unlike the previous multiple predictor schemes, the multiple-block ahead b...

  3. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  4. Preserving the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J.; Ruurda, Jelle P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/257561021; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van der Horst, Sylvia; Bleys, Ronald L A W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/134440455; van Hillegersberg, Richard|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110706242

    Background: Pulmonary vagus branches are transected as part of a transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy for cancer. This may contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Studies in which sparing of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic

  5. Differential branching fraction and angular analysis of the decay $B_s^0 \\to \\phi \\mu^+\\mu^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-07-11

    The determination of the differential branching fraction and the first angular analysis of the decay $B_s^0\\to\\phi\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ are presented using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1.0\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,{\\rm TeV}$. The differential branching fraction is determined in bins of $q^{2}$, the invariant dimuon mass squared. Integration over the full $q^{2}$ range yields a total branching fraction of ${\\cal B}(B_s^0\\to\\phi\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}) = (7.07\\,^{+0.64}_{-0.59}\\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.71)\\times 10^{-7}$, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic, and the third originates from the branching fraction of the normalisation channel. An angular analysis is performed to determine the angular observables $F_{\\rm L}$, $S_3$, $A_6$, and $A_9$. The observables are consistent with Standard Model expectations.

  6. A case of 'Masquerading' bundle branch block: a forgotten concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dinesh; Namboodiri, Narayanan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A

    2014-01-01

    'Masquerading' bundle branch block (right bundle branch block in the precordial leads with left bundle branch block in frontal leads and left axis deviation) is seen most commonly with coronary artery disease and hypertension. No definite explanation is available so far for these changes. We are presenting a case of rare congenital intranuclear inclusion myopathy with congestive heart failure and 'Masquerading' bundle branch block in ECG. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Endosymbionts and mitochondrial origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility is put forth that the mitochondrion did not originate from an endosymbiosis 1-2 billion years ago involving an aerobic bacterium. Rather, it arose by endosymbiosis in a much earlier anaerobic period and was initially a photosynthetic organelle analogous to the modern chloroplast. This suggestion arises from a reconsideration of the nature of endosymbiosis. It explains the remarkable diversity in mitochondrial information storage and processing systems.

  8. Age and origin of fluorapatite-rich dyke from Baranec Mt. (Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians: a key to understanding of the post-orogenic processes and element mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawęda Aleksandra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the southeastern slope of the Baranec Mount in the Western Tatra Mountains (Slovakia an apatite-rich pegmatite-like segregation was found in the subvertical fault zone cutting metapelitic rocks. Two zones: felsic (F and mafic (M were found, differing in mineral assemblages and consequently in chemistry. Fluorapatite crystals yield a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 328.6 ± 2.4 Ma. A temperature decrease from 634 °C to 454 °C at a pressure around 500 to 400 MPa with oxygen fugacity increasing during crystallization are the possible conditions for formation of the pegmatite-like segregation, while secondary alterations took place in the temperature range of 340 – 320 °C. The Sr-Nd isotope composition of both apatite and whole rock point toward a crustal origin of the dike in question, suggesting partial melting of (P, F, H2O-rich metasedimentary rocks during prolonged decompression of the Tatra Massif. The original partial melt (felsic component was mixed with an external (F, H2O-rich fluid, carrying Fe and Mg fluxed from more mafic metapelites and crystallizing as biotite and epidote in the mafic component of the dyke.

  9. Editor's Choice - Effect of Branch Stent Choice on Branch-related Outcomes in Complex Aortic Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, T M; Carrell, T; Constantinou, J; Dias, N; Martin-Gonzalez, T; Katsargyris, A; Modarai, B; Resch, T; Verhoeven, E L G; Burnell, M; Haulon, S

    2016-04-01

    The use of branched stent grafts for the treatment of thoracoabdominal aneurysms [TAAA] is increasing, but mating stent graft choice has not been studied. This study combined experience of five high volume centres to assess a preferred mating stent. Data from five centres were retrospectively combined. Patients were included if they underwent stent graft for treatment of TAAA that used only branches to mate with visceral and renal vessels. All patients with fenestrations in their device were excluded. Perioperative details, reintervention, occlusion, and death were recorded. Outcome of occlusion or reintervention, as well as a composite outcome of any death, occlusion, or reintervention was planned using a per-patient, and per-branch analysis. In 235 included patients, there were 940 vessels available for placement of mating stent. The average age of included patients was 70 years (SD 7.9), and 179 of the 235 were male. Medical comorbidities included diabetes in 29/234 (12.4%), current smoker in 81/233 (34.8%), and COPD in 77/234 (32.9%). The primary stent deployed was self-expanding in 556 branches, balloon expandable in 231 branches, and was unknown in 92 branches. After a mean of 20.7 months (SD 25) follow-up, there have been 44 incidents of occlusion or reintervention, of which 40 culprit stents are known. Where the stent placed is known, the event rate in renal branches (35/437, 8%) is higher than that of visceral branches (8/443, 1.8%). There is no difference in occlusion or reintervention between self-expanding and balloon expandable stents (HR 0.95, p = .91) but there is a statistically significant difference between renal and visceral artery occlusions (HR 3.51, p = 0.001). There appears to be no difference in occlusion or reintervention rate for branch vessels mated with balloon expandable compared with self-expanding stents. Renal events appear to outnumber visceral events in this population. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery

  10. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected Load...

  11. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... Machinery and Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this chapter...

  12. Dendrimers and methods of preparing same through proportionate branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yihua (Bruce); Yue, Xuyi

    2015-09-15

    The present invention provides for monodispersed dendrimers having a core, branches and periphery ends, wherein the number of branches increases exponentially from the core to the periphery end and the length of the branches increases exponentially from the periphery end to the core, thereby providing for attachment of chemical species at the periphery ends without exhibiting steric hindrance.

  13. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notion...

  14. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  15. 4D Biofabrication of Branching Multicellular Structures: A Morphogenesis Simulation Based on Turing’s Reaction-Diffusion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolu; Yang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    The recently emerged four-dimensional (4D) biofabrication technique aims to create dynamic three-dimensional (3D) biological structures that can transform their shapes or functionalities with time when an external stimulus is imposed or when cell postprinting self-assembly occurs. The evolution of 3D pattern of branching geometry via self-assembly of cells is critical for 4D biofabrication of artificial organs or tissues with branched geometry. However, it is still unclear that how the formation and evolution of these branching pattern are biologically encoded. We study the 4D fabrication of lung branching structures utilizing a simulation model on the reaction-diffusion mechanism, which is established using partial differential equations of four variables, describing the reaction and diffusion process of morphogens with time during the development process of lung branching. The simulation results present the forming process of 3D branching pattern, and also interpret the behaviors of side branching and tip splitting as the stalk growing, through 3D visualization of numerical simulation.

  16. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy and related methods. 2. Original paint layer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Van der Snickt, Geert; Janssens, Koen; De Nolf, Wout; Miliani, Costanza; Dik, Joris; Radepont, Marie; Hendriks, Ella; Geldof, Muriel; Cotte, Marine

    2011-02-15

    The darkening of the original yellow areas painted with the chrome yellow pigment (PbCrO(4), PbCrO(4)·xPbSO(4), or PbCrO(4)·xPbO) is a phenomenon widely observed on several paintings by Vincent van Gogh, such as the famous different versions of Sunflowers. During our previous investigations on artificially aged model samples of lead chromate, we established for the first time that darkening of chrome yellow is caused by reduction of PbCrO(4) to Cr(2)O(3)·2H(2)O (viridian green), likely accompanied by the presence of another Cr(III) compound, such as either Cr(2)(SO(4))(3)·H(2)O or (CH(3)CO(2))(7)Cr(3)(OH)(2) [chromium(III) acetate hydroxide]. In the second part of this work, in order to demonstrate that this reduction phenomenon effectively takes place in real paintings, we study original paint samples from two paintings of V. van Gogh. As with the model samples, in view of the thin superficial alteration layers that are present, high lateral resolution spectroscopic methods that make use of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as microscopic X-ray absorption near edge (μ-XANES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF) were employed. Additionally, μ-Raman and mid-FTIR analyses were carried out to completely characterize the samples. On both paint microsamples, the local presence of reduced Cr was demonstrated by means of μ-XANES point measurements. The presence of Cr(III) was revealed in specific areas, in some cases correlated to the presence of Ba(sulfate) and/or to that of aluminum silicate compounds.

  17. Baseline left bundle branch block with right bundle branch escape complexes in a patient with coronary artery disease, presents like an alternating bundle branch block: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimaraj, Arvind; Abusin, Salaheldin; Margeta, Bosko

    2008-01-01

    Alternating bundle branch block (ABBB) is a less commonly encountered phenomenon with the advent of re-perfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction. ECGs simulating the appearance of an ABBB need to be carefully analysed. We present an ECG showing a baseline Left Bundle Branch Block(LBBB) progressing to a high grade AV block with escape complexes having a Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) morphology. Such an ECG can be mistaken for an ABBB if not analysed carefully. PMID:19116014

  18. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from th...

  19. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  20. Organization and targets of the European Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R.

    1997-12-01

    After a short historical review of the formation, objectives and organization of the International Geothermal Association (IGA), this paper describes the functions, goals and activities of the IGA European Branch. In particular, the paper illustrates the plan of action established for the periods 1993-`95 and 1996-`98, and the issues dealt with by the European Forum as of August 1996. The last section of the paper outlines the main problems to be faced in the near future in order to facilitate the aggregation of efforts, the amalgamation of promotional initiatives and the coordination of the basic activities needed for the consolidation and growth of the geothermal community in Europe. (orig.)

  1. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL`s in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy`s National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  2. Anomaly matching on the Higgs branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji; Zafrir, Gabi

    2017-12-01

    We point out that we can almost always determine by the anomaly matching the full anomaly polynomial of a supersymmetric theory in 2d, 4d or 6d if we assume that its Higgs branch is the one-instanton moduli space of some group G. This method not only provides by far the simplest method to compute the central charges of known theories of this class, e.g. 4d E 6,7,8 theories of Minahan and Nemeschansky or the 6d E-string theory, but also gives us new pieces of information about unknown theories of this class.

  3. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Dental Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Tevfik Oğurel; Zafer Onaran; Reyhan Oğurel; Nurgül Örnek; Nesrin Büyüktortop Gökçınar; Kemal Örnek

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To describe a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following dental extraction and to point out the ophthalmic complications of dental procedures to ophthalmologists and dentists. Case. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with painless sudden visual loss in her left eye after tooth extraction two days ago. In her left eye the best corrected visual acuity was 6/30 and fundus examination revealed peripapillary flame-shaped hemorrhages and pale retina in the upper temporal arc...

  4. Visualizing and Analyzing Branching Microtubule Nucleation Using Meiotic Xenopus Egg Extracts and TIRF Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew; Petry, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic and meiotic spindles consist primarily of microtubules, which originate from centrosomes and within the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence suggested that microtubules also originate throughout the spindle, but the high microtubule density within the spindle precludes the direct observation of this phenomenon. By using meiotic Xenopus laevis egg extract and employing total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, microtubule nucleation from preexisting microtubules could be demonstrated and analyzed. Branching microtubule nucleation is an ideal mechanism to assemble and maintain a mitotic spindle, because microtubule numbers are amplified while preserving their polarity. Here, we describe the assays that made these findings possible and the experiments that helped identify the key molecular players involved.

  5. The function of heparan sulfate during branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali N.; Pineda, Dallas L.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental process in the development of diverse epithelial organs such as the lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, prostate, salivary, lacrimal and mammary glands. A unifying theme during organogenesis is the importance of epithelial cell interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and growth factors (GFs). The diverse developmental mechanisms giving rise to these epithelial organs involve many organ-specific GFs, but a unifying paradigm during organogenesis is the regulation of GF activity by heparan sulfates (HS) on the cell surface and in the ECM. This primarily involves the interactions of GFs with the sulfated side-chains of HS proteoglycans. HS is one of the most diverse biopolymers and modulates GF binding and signaling at the cell surface and in the ECM of all tissues. Here, we review what is known about how HS regulates branching morphogenesis of epithelial organs with emphasis on the developing salivary gland, which is a classic model to investigate epithelial-ECM interactions. We also address the structure, biosynthesis, turnover and function of HS during organogenesis. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms that control HS dynamics may aid in the development of therapeutic interventions for diseases and novel strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:27609403

  6. Multi-Branch Fully Convolutional Network for Face Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yancheng

    2017-07-20

    Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully convolutional network (MB-FCN) for face detection, which considers both efficiency and effectiveness in the design process. Our MB-FCN detector can deal with faces at all scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. As such, our MB-FCN model saves computation and thus is more efficient, compared to previous methods that make multiple passes. For each branch, the specific skip connections of the convolutional feature maps at different layers are exploited to represent faces in specific scale ranges. Specifically, small faces can be represented with both shallow fine-grained and deep powerful coarse features. With this representation, superior improvement in performance is registered for the task of detecting small faces. We test our MB-FCN detector on two public face detection benchmarks, including FDDB and WIDER FACE. Extensive experiments show that our detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on all these datasets in general and by a substantial margin on the most challenging among them (e.g. WIDER FACE Hard subset). Also, MB-FCN runs at 15 FPS on a GPU for images of size 640 x 480 with no assumption on the minimum detectable face size.

  7. Power system transient stability analysis based on branch potential characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huan; Wang, Zengping

    2017-09-01

    Branch potential function is proposed based on the power system network preserving model. The concept of thermodynamics-entropy, is introduced to describe spatial distribution characteristics of the branch potential energy. Branch potential energy was analysed in time and space domain., with transient stability index proposed accordingly. The larger disturbance energy line fault injected to grid is, the larger branch energy entropy will be, and the more energy accumulated on key branches is, the more prone to lose stability the system will be. Simulation results on IEEE system proved its feasibility.

  8. The marginal branch triangle: Anatomic reference for its location and preservation during cosmetic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell-Perry, Percy

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have been dedicated toward bettering the understanding of the anatomy of this branch and the relative danger zone. However, most of these articles have focused on identifying the location of this branch based on its trajectory and associations with deep structures, causing some difficulties for aesthetic surgeons to identify its location during facial aesthetic surgery. Here, we present the concept of the marginal nerve triangle; its contents, relations and clinical applications in cosmetic surgery are discussed. This is an anatomical study performed using 64 hemifaces from 32 Peruvian fresh cadavers (25 men and 7 women). They were dissected manually and observed macroscopically by the authors. The marginal nerve and the related structures were dissected from its origin to the terminal branches and associated with the described triangular area. The marginal branch of the facial nerve was found to lie in the described triangle in all cases. This is a triangular area formed by the intersection of three points located at the lateral commissure of the mouth, the mastoid apophysis and a point located over the anterior border of the extracellular matrix (ECM) muscle with a line which intersects the lateral commissure of the mouth and the mandibular groove. The trajectory of the marginal and cervical branches of the facial nerve can be reliably and easily found at the described triangle following the reference points. This study will help guide surgeons to these branches of the facial nerve as it applies to aesthetic surgery. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vertical profile of branch CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce tree: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Pavelka, M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite woody-tissue CO2 effluxes having been recognized as an important component of forest carbon budget due to the fraction of assimilates used and the dramatic increase in woody with stand development, there is limited research to determine the CO2 efflux vertical variability of woody-tissue components. For a better understanding and quantification of branch woody-tissue CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to identify the environmental factors influencing it and the role of the branch distribution within the canopy. The proper assessment of this forest component will improve the knowledge of the ratio between ecosystem respiration and gross primary production at forest ecosystem. In order to achieve this goal, branch CO2 efflux of Norway spruce tree was measured in ten branches at five different whorls during the growing season 2004 (from June till October) in campaigns of 3-4 times per month at the Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic, using a portable infrared gas analyzer operating as a closed system. Branch woody tissue temperature was measured continuously in ten minutes intervals for each sample position during the whole experiment period. On the basis of relation between CO2 efflux rate and woody tissue temperature a value of Q10 and normalized CO2 efflux rate (E10 - CO2 efflux rate at 10° C) were calculated for each sampled position. Estimated Q10 values ranged from 2.12 to 2.89 and E10 ranged from 0.41 to 1.19 ?molCO2m-2 s-1. Differences in branch CO2 efflux were found between orientations; East side branches presented higher efflux rate than west side branches. The highest branch CO2 efflux rate values were measured in August and the lowest in October, which were connected with woody tissue temperature and ontogenetic processes during these periods. Branch CO2 efflux was significantly and positively correlated with branch position within canopy and woody tissue temperature. Branches from the upper whorls showed higher respiration activity

  10. Persistence-Based Branch Misprediction Bounds for WCET Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Branch prediction is an important feature of pipelined processors to achieve high performance. However, it can lead to overly pessimistic worst-case execution time (WCET) bounds when being modeled too conservatively. This paper presents bounds on the number of branch mispredictions for local...... linear programming formulations of the WCET problem. An evaluation on a number of benchmarks shows that with these bounds, dynamic branch prediction does not necessarily lead to higher WCET bounds than static prediction schemes....... dynamic branch predictors. To handle interferences between branch instructions we use the notion of persistence, a concept that is also found in cache analyses. The bounds apply to branches in general, not only to branches that close a loop. Furthermore, the bounds can be easily integrated into integer...

  11. Oil Origin and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Barenbaum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of oil age is discussed on the basis of the biosphere concept of oil and gas formation. It considers oil and gas deposits as underground carbon traps circulating through the Earth’s surface in the three main cycles of the circulation. A theoretical model has been developed that makes it possible to explain from these positions the phenomenon of replenishment of oil and gas deposits in the process of field development. The model provides a balance between carbon flows on the ascending and descending branches of its circulation through the Earth’s surface. In this model, the ascending flow of carbon is represented by the products of subsoil degassing (СН4, СО2 and extracted by the person from the depths of oil, gas and coal. A descending flow is an organic matter and carbonates that are submerged in the subsoil in the processes of sedimentation and subduction of lithospheric plates, as well as atmospheric COsub>2, entering the Earth’s surface with meteoric waters in the process of their climatic circulation. Since the fields are filled with hydrocarbons formed in cycles of carbon with widely differing circulation times, instead of the term ‘age of oil’, it is suggested to use the terms ‘trap formation time’ and ‘hydrocarbon life time in the trap’. This approach to the question of oil age in the biosphere concept leads to a number of conclusions, from which it follows that: 1 the ‘old’ petroleum of biogenic genesis is extracted at the initial stage of the development of deposits, whereas in the depletion stage the ‘young’ hydrocarbons of abiogenic synthesis prevail; 2 the age of industrial accumulations of oil on our planet is hardly older than the Pleistocene, while gaseous, liquid and bituminous fractions of oil have different lifetimes in traps.

  12. Current Harmonics Cancellation in Three-Phase Four-Wire Systems by Using a Four-Branch Star Filtering Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Pedro; Candela, J. I.; Luna, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new solution for filtering current harmonics in three-phase four-wire networks. The original four-branch star (FBS) filter topology presented in this paper is characterized by a particular layout of single-phase inductances and capacitors, without using any transformer...

  13. Original research paper. A superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with improved solubility and dissolution: Supercritical fluid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hao; Wang, Han-Bing; Yu, Yi-Bin; Cheng, Bing-Chao; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF) process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM) in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

  14. The evolutionary origin of feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, P J

    1975-03-01

    Previous theories relating the origin of feathers to flight or to heat conservation are considered to be inadequate. There is need for a model of feather evolution that gives attention to the function and adaptive advantage of intermediate structures. The present model attempts to reveal and to deal with, the spectrum of complex questions that must be considered. In several genera of modern lizards, scales are elongated in warm climates. It is argued that these scales act as small shields to solar radiation. Experiments are reported that tend to confirm this. Using lizards as a conceptual model, it is argued that feathers likewise arose as adaptations to intense solar radiation. Elongated scales are assumed to have subdivided into finely branched structures that produced a heat-shield, flexible as well as long and broad. Associated muscles had the function of allowing the organism fine control over rates of heat gain and loss: the specialized scales or early feathers could be moved to allow basking in cool weather or protection in hot weather. Subdivision of the scales also allowed a close fit between the elements of the insulative integument. There would have been mechanical and thermal advantages to having branches that interlocked into a pennaceous structure early in evolution, so the first feathers may have been pennaceous. A versatile insulation of movable, branched scales would have been a preadaptation for endothermy. As birds took to the air they faced cooling problems despite their insulative covering because of high convective heat loss. Short glides may have initially been advantageous in cooling an animal under heat stress, but at some point the problem may have shifted from one of heat exclusion to one of heat retention. Endothermy probably evolved in conjunction with flight. If so, it is an unnecessary assumption to postulate that the climate cooled and made endothermy advantageous. The development of feathers is complex and a model is proposed that

  15. Synthesis of branched naphthoquinones from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olímpio da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The naphthoquinones are cyclic aromatic α,β-dienonas with a basic framework derived from naphthalene. They are also found in many higher plants, algae, fungi and as the product of the  metabolism  of some  bacteria  having large biologica activity described in the literature such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer and trypanocidal [1-3]. Castor oil is an abundant raw material in Brazil of great versatility and, it is present in biodiesel production, surfactants, cosmetics and others. Considering the importance of naphthoquinones and, the availability of the ricinoleic acid from castor oil, the aim of this study was the preparation of new branched naphthoquinones in order to test their trypanocidal activity. Castor oil was submitted to saponification with sodium hydroxide, ethanol and water under reflux for 6 h. We then carried out an acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid and the formed ricinoleic acid was extracted with ethyl acetate. Following, through Kochi-Anderson addition reaction it was performed the alkylation of a naphthoquinone 1 and 2, using ammonium persulfate, silver nitrate, acetonitrile and water, under heating at 70-80 ° C during 3 h, to give the branched naphthoquinones 4 and 5 (scheme 1. The naphthoquinone 3 will be similarly submitted to this procedure. The naphthoquinones 4 and 5 were purified by column chromatography on sílica gel using hexane as the eluent. The compounds were characterized by mass spectrometry and 1H and 13CNMR spectroscopy.

  16. Fixman compensating potential for general branched molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Abhinandan, E-mail: Abhi.Jain@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Kandel, Saugat; Wagner, Jeffrey; Larsen, Adrien; Vaidehi, Nagarajan, E-mail: nvaidehi@coh.org [Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2013-12-28

    The technique of constraining high frequency modes of molecular motion is an effective way to increase simulation time scale and improve conformational sampling in molecular dynamics simulations. However, it has been shown that constraints on higher frequency modes such as bond lengths and bond angles stiffen the molecular model, thereby introducing systematic biases in the statistical behavior of the simulations. Fixman proposed a compensating potential to remove such biases in the thermodynamic and kinetic properties calculated from dynamics simulations. Previous implementations of the Fixman potential have been limited to only short serial chain systems. In this paper, we present a spatial operator algebra based algorithm to calculate the Fixman potential and its gradient within constrained dynamics simulations for branched topology molecules of any size. Our numerical studies on molecules of increasing complexity validate our algorithm by demonstrating recovery of the dihedral angle probability distribution function for systems that range in complexity from serial chains to protein molecules. We observe that the Fixman compensating potential recovers the free energy surface of a serial chain polymer, thus annulling the biases caused by constraining the bond lengths and bond angles. The inclusion of Fixman potential entails only a modest increase in the computational cost in these simulations. We believe that this work represents the first instance where the Fixman potential has been used for general branched systems, and establishes the viability for its use in constrained dynamics simulations of proteins and other macromolecules.

  17. Eutrophication-induced acidification of coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Insights into origin and processes from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Arnaud; Fennel, Katja; Cai, Wei-Jun; Huang, Wei-Jen; Barbero, Leticia; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system into the northern Gulf of Mexico promote high phytoplankton production and lead to high respiration rates. Respiration coupled with water column stratification results in seasonal summer hypoxia in bottom waters on the shelf. In addition to consuming oxygen, respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2), thus lowering the pH and acidifying bottom waters. Here we present a high-resolution biogeochemical model simulating this eutrophication-driven acidification and investigate the dominant underlying processes. The model shows the recurring development of an extended area of acidified bottom waters in summer on the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf that coincides with hypoxic waters. Not reported before, acidified waters are confined to a thin bottom boundary layer where the production of CO2 by benthic metabolic processes is dominant. Despite a reduced saturation state, acidified waters remain supersaturated with respect to aragonite.

  18. Discontinuous conduction in mouse bundle branches is caused by bundle-branch architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, Toon A. B.; van Rijen, Harold V. M.; van Kempen, Marjan J. A.; Miquerol, Lucile; Opthof, Tobias; Gros, Daniel; Vos, Marc A.; Jongsma, Habo J.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Background - Recordings of the electrical activity of mouse bundle branches ( BBs) suggest reduced conduction velocity ( CV) in the midseptal compared with the proximal part of the BB. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this slowing of conduction. Methods and

  19. Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties

  20. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the