WorldWideScience

Sample records for branching processes origins

  1. Processing Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali;

    2014-01-01

    Angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, was swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. Contemporary information technology has the potential for the capturing and recognition of individual geometries through laser scanning and compu...

  2. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  3. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  4. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  5. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  6. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  7. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  8. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  9. The origin of extreme horizontal branch stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dorman, B; O'Connell, R W; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T; O'Connell, Robert W

    1995-01-01

    Strong mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) can result in the formation of extreme horizontal branch (EHB) stars. The EHB stars spend most of their He core and shell burning phase at high temperatures and produce copious ultraviolet flux. They have very small hydrogen envelopes and occupy a small range in mass. We have computed evolutionary RGB models with mass loss for stars with a range of metallicities at initial masses < 1.1 Msun corresponding to populations ages between 12.5 and 14.5 Gyr. We used the Reimers formula to characterize mass loss, but investigated a larger range of the mass loss efficiency parameter, eta, than is common. To understand how the number of EHB stars varies with metallicity in a stellar population we considered how the zero-age horizontal branch (ZAHB) is populated. The range in eta producing EHB stars is comparable to that producing `mid-HB' stars. Somewhat surprisingly, neither the range nor magnitude of eta producing EHB stars varies much metallicity. In contrast, the ran...

  10. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the s process and the origin of stardust

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria; Karakas, Amanda I; Milazzo, Paolo M; Kaeppeler, Franz; Davis, Andrew M; Savina, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25 to 4 Msun and metallicities Z=0.01 to 0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross section from Bao et al. (2000) and from n_TOF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope 95Zr, the branching point leading to the production of 96Zr. The new cross sections generally presents an improved match with the observational data, except for the 92Zr/94Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The 96Zr/94Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most 96Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8 - 3 Msun, and the others from either lowe...

  11. The impact of updated Zr neutron-capture cross sections and new asymptotic giant branch models on our understanding of the S process and the origin of stardust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (MoCA), Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Tagliente, Giuseppe [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Bari (Italy); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Milazzo, Paolo M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Trieste (Italy); Käppeler, Franz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Davis, Andrew M. [The Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savina, Michael R., E-mail: maria.lugaro@monash.edu, E-mail: giuseppe.tagliente@ba.infn.it, E-mail: amanda.karakas@anu.edu.au, E-mail: paolo.milazzo@ts.infn.it, E-mail: franz.kaeppeler@kit.edu, E-mail: a-davis@uchicago.edu, E-mail: msavina@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present model predictions for the Zr isotopic ratios produced by slow neutron captures in C-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of masses 1.25-4 M {sub ☉} and metallicities Z = 0.01-0.03, and compare them to data from single meteoritic stardust silicon carbide (SiC) and high-density graphite grains that condensed in the outflows of these stars. We compare predictions produced using the Zr neutron-capture cross sections from Bao et al. and from n{sub T}OF experiments at CERN, and present a new evaluation for the neutron-capture cross section of the unstable isotope {sup 95}Zr, the branching point leading to the production of {sup 96}Zr. The new cross sections generally present an improved match with the observational data, except for the {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios, which are on average still substantially higher than predicted. The {sup 96}Zr/{sup 94}Zr ratios can be explained using our range of initial stellar masses, with the most {sup 96}Zr-depleted grains originating from AGB stars of masses 1.8-3 M {sub ☉} and the others from either lower or higher masses. The {sup 90,} {sup 91}Zr/{sup 94}Zr variations measured in the grains are well reproduced by the range of stellar metallicities considered here, which is the same needed to cover the Si composition of the grains produced by the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr versus {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si positive correlation observed in the available data suggests that stellar metallicity rather than rotation plays the major role in covering the {sup 90,} {sup 91,} {sup 92}Zr/{sup 94}Zr spread.

  12. Puzzling Origin of CEMP-r/s Stars: An Interpretation of Abundance and Enrichment of s- and r-Process Elements from Asymptotic Giant Branch Supernovae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiang Zhang; Fang Zhao; Yanping Chen; Wenyuan Cui; Bo Zhang

    2013-12-01

    CEMP-r/s stars at low metallicity are known as double-enhanced stars that show enhancements of both r-process and s-process elements. The chemical abundances of these very metal-poor stars provide us a lot of information for putting new restraints on models of neutron-capture processes. In this article, we put forward an accreted scenario in which the double enrichment of r-process and s-process elements is caused by a former intermediate-mass Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) companion in a detached binary system. As the AGB superwind is only present at the ultimate phase of AGB stars, there is thus a lot of potential that the degenerate-core mass of an intermediate-mass AGB star reaches the Chandrasekhar limit before the AGB superwind. In these circumstances, both s-process elements produced in the AGB shell and r-process elements synthesized in the subsequent explosion would be sprayed contemporaneously and accreted by its companion. Despite similarity to physical conditions of a core-collapse supernova, a major focus in this scenario is the degenerate C–O core surrounded by an envelope of a former intermediate-mass AGB donor that may collapse and explode. Due to the existence of an outer envelope, r-process nucleosynthesis is expected to occur. Hypothesizing the material-rich europium (Eu) accreted by the secondary via the wind from the supernova to be in proportion to the geometric fraction of the companion with respect to the exploding donor star, we find that the estimated yield of Eu (as representative of r-process elements) per AGB supernova event is about 1 × 10-9⊙ ∼ 5 × 10-9⊙. Using the yields of Eu, the overabundance of r-process elements in CEMP-r/s stars can be accounted for. The calculated results show that the value of parameter , standing for efficiency of wind pollution from the AGB supernova, will reach about 104, which means that the enhanced factor is much larger than unity due to the impact of gravity of the donor and the result of the

  13. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  14. Branching Processes with Immigration and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeng-hu

    2006-01-01

    This is a survey on the recent progresses in the study of branching processes with immigration,generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes,and affine Markov processes.We mainly focus on the applications of skew convolution semigroups and the connections in those processes.

  15. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN AnYue; LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models, the general collision branching processes with two parameters, is considered in this paper. For such models, it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states. Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established. Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector, the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times. The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established. The mean global holding time is also obtained. It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  16. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models,the general collision branching processes with two parameters,is considered in this paper.For such models,it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states.Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established.Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector,the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times.The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established.The mean global holding time is also obtained.It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  17. Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.

  18. Asymptotic behaviour near extinction of continuous-state branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, Juan Carlos; Berzunza, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we study the asymptotic behaviour near extinction of (sub-) critical continuous state branching processes. In particular, we establish an analogue of Khintchin's law of the iterated logarithm near extinction time for a continuous state branching process whose branching mechanism satisfies a given condition and its reflected process at its infimum.

  19. Angiographic Findings of Extrahepatic Branches Originating from Hepatic Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-dong Wang; Ren-jie Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the presentation and variation of extrahepatic branches originating from hepatic artery by hepatic arteriography.Methods: Hepatic arteriogram of 200 cases with unresectable hepatic primary or metastatic tumors before interventional therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Two interventional radiologists independently reviewed the type, originating artery, distribution and variation of extrahepatic artery.Results: Five types of extrahepatic artery were found, with the most common type of the right gastric artery (n=156, 78%), followed by the cystic artery (n=126, 63%), accessory left gastric artery (n=19, 9.5%), hepatic falciform artery (n=5, 2.5%), and accessory left inferior phrenic artery (n=4, 2%). In 188 cases, there were extrahepatic arteries derived from hepatic proper artery or its branches, and the most frequent originating site was the right hepatic artery (130 extrahepatic branches), followed by the proper hepatic artery (103 branches), left hepatic artery (56 branches) and middle hepatic artery (3 branches). The left hepatic artery was the arising site with the multiple types of extrahepatic branches including all above branches except the cystic artery.Conclusion: Many types of extrahepatic branches usually derive from the hepatic artery or its distal branches, and its originating sites are not constant. It is important to avoid damage of extrahepatic tissue during interventional therapy for liver tumors.

  20. A Branching Process for Virus Survival

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, J Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Quasispecies theory predicts that there is a critical mutation probability above which a viral population will go extinct. Above this threshold the virus loses the ability to replicate the best adapted genotype, leading to a population composed of low replicating mutants that is eventually doomed. We propose a new branching model that shows that this is not necessarily so. That is, a population composed of ever changing mutants may survive.

  1. Continuous state branching processes in random environment: The Brownian case

    OpenAIRE

    Palau, Sandra; Pardo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We consider continuous state branching processes that are perturbed by a Brownian motion. These processes are constructed as the unique strong solution of a stochastic differential equation. The long-term extinction and explosion behaviours are studied. In the stable case, the extinction and explosion probabilities are given explicitly. We find three regimes for the asymptotic behaviour of the explosion probability and, as in the case of branching processes in random environment, we find five...

  2. Processability improvement of polyolefins through radiation-induced branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Phillips, Ed; Parks, Lewis

    2010-03-01

    Radiation-induced long-chain branching for the purpose of improving melt strength and hence the processability of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) is reviewed. Long-chain branching without significant gel content can be created by low dose irradiation of PP or PE under different atmospheres, with or without multifunctional branching promoters. The creation of long-chain branching generally leads to improvement of melt strength, which in turn may be translated into processability improvement for specific applications in which melt strength plays an important role. In this paper, the changes of the melt flow rate and the melt strength of the irradiated polymer and the relationship between long-chain branching and melt strength are reviewed. The effects of the atmosphere and the branching promoter on long-chain branching vs. degradation are discussed. The benefits of improved melt strength on the processability, e.g., sag resistance and strain hardening, are illustrated. The implications on practical polymer processing applications such as foams and films are also discussed.

  3. A computable branching process for the Wigner quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Sihong

    2016-01-01

    A branching process treatment for the nonlocal Wigner pseudo-differential operator and its numerical applications in quantum dynamics is proposed and analyzed. We start from the discussion on two typical truncations of the nonlocal term, i.e., the $k$-truncated and $y$-truncated models. After introducing an auxiliary function $\\gamma(\\bm{x})$, the (truncated) Wigner equation is reformulated into the integral formulation as well as its adjoint correspondence, both of which can be regarded as the renewal-type equations and have transparent stochastic interpretation. We prove that the moment of a branching process happens to be the solution for the adjoint equation, which connects rigorously the Wigner quantum dynamics to the stochastic branching process, and thus a sound mathematical framework for the Wigner Monte Carlo methods is established. Within the framework, the branching process for the $y$-truncated model recovers the popular signed particle Monte Carlo method which needs a discretization of the moment...

  4. Near Critical Catalyst Reactant Branching Processes with Controlled Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Budhiraja, Amarjit

    2012-01-01

    Near critical catalyst-reactant branching processes with controlled immigration are studied. The reactant population evolves according to a branching process whose branching rate is proportional to the total mass of the catalyst. The bulk catalyst evolution is that of a classical continuous time branching process; in addition there is a specific form of immigration. Immigration takes place exactly when the catalyst population falls below a certain threshold, in which case the population is instantaneously replenished to the threshold. Such models are motivated by problems in chemical kinetics where one wants to keep the level of a catalyst above a certain threshold in order to maintain a desired level of reaction activity. A diffusion limit theorem for the scaled processes is presented, in which the catalyst limit is described through a reflected diffusion, while the reactant limit is a diffusion with coefficients that are functions of both the reactant and the catalyst. Stochastic averaging principles under ...

  5. Backbone decomposition for continuous-state branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, A E Kyprianou Y-X

    2011-01-01

    In the spirit of Duqesne and Winkel (2007) and Berestycki et al. (2011) we show that supercritical continuous-state branching process with a general branching mechanism and general immigration mechanism is equal in law to a continuous-time Galton Watson process with immigration with Poissonian dressing. The result also characterises the limiting backbone decomposition which is predictable from the work on consistent growth of Galton-Watson trees with immigration in Cao and Winkel (2010).

  6. POISSON REPRESENTATIONS OF BRANCHING MARKOV AND MEASURE-VALUED BRANCHING PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtz, Thomas G.; Rodrigues, Eliane R.

    2011-01-01

    Representations of branching Markov processes and their measure-valued limits in terms of countable systems of particles are constructed for models with spatially varying birth and death rates. Each particle has a location and a "level," but unlike earlier constructions, the levels change with time.

  7. A Volcanic Origin for Sinuous and Branching Channels on Mars: Evidence from Hawaiian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; deWet, Andrew; Garry, W. Brent; Zimbelman, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of sinuous and branching channels on planets have long driven a debate about their origin, fluvial or volcanic processes. In some cases planetary conditions rule out fluvial activity (e.g. the Moon, Venus, Mercury). However, the geology of Mars leads to suggestions that liquid water existed on the surface in the past. As a result, some sinuous and branching channels on Mars are cited as evidence of fluvial erosion. Evidence for a fluvial history often focuses on channel morphologies that are unique from a typical lava channel, for instance, a lack of detectable flow margins and levees, islands and terraces. Although these features are typical, they are not necessarily diagnostic of a fluvial system. We conducted field studies in Hawaii to characterize similar features in lava flows to better define which characteristics might be diagnostic of fluvial or volcanic processes. Our martian example is a channel system that originates in the Ascraeus Mons SW rift zone from a fissure. The channel extends for approx.300 km to the SE/E. The proximal channel displays multiple branches, islands, terraces, and has no detectable levees or margins. We conducted field work on the 1859 and 1907 Mauna Loa flows, and the Pohue Bay flow. The 51-km-long 1859 Flow originates from a fissure and is an example of a paired a a and pahoehoe lava flow. We collected DGPS data across a 500 m long island. Here, the channel diverted around a pre-existing obstruction in the channel, building vertical walls up to 9 m in height above the current channel floor. The complicated emplacement history along this channel section, including an initial a a stage partially covered by pahoehoe overflows, resulted in an appearance of terraced channel walls, no levees and diffuse flow margins. The 1907 Mauna Loa flow extends > 20 km from the SW rift zone. The distal flow formed an a a channel. However the proximal flow field comprises a sheet that experienced drainage and sagging of the crust

  8. Large Deviation for Supercritical Branching Processes with Immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Ning LIU; Mei ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the large deviation for a supercritical branching process with immigration controlled by a sequence of non-negative integer-valued independently identical distributed random variables, improving the previous results for non immigration processes. We rely heavily on the detail description and limit property of the generating function of immigration processes.

  9. Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-xia Ma

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a bisexual Galton-Watson branching process whose offspring probability distribution is controlled by a random environment process. Some results for the probability generating functions associated with the process are obtained and sufficient conditions for certain extinction and for non-certain extinction are established.

  10. Anomalous Origin of the Left Atrial Branch from the Left Main Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Gholoobi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A 78-year-old woman was referred for coronary angiography with the chief complaint of exertional angina and dyspnea of a very long duration during routine daily physical activities. She had a history of poorly controlled hypertension and dyslipidemia. Coronary angiography revealed diffuse three-vessel disease. Interestingly, an unusual branch was noted originating from the mid shaft of the left main trunk with a funnel-shaped root and travelling the course of a left atrial (LA branch (Figures 1 and 2.The left main coronary artery (LMCA usually bifurcates into two major branches: the left anterior descending (LAD and left circumflex (LCx arteries. In some patients, the LMCA trifurcates into the LAD, LCx, and a branch artery named ramus intermedius. This third branch arises between the LAD and LCx arteries. The LCx artery gives rise to one or two left atrial circumflex branches which supply the lateral and posterior aspects of the left atrium. According to our extensive search of the literature, this is the first case to be reported with the LA branch originating from the LMCA.

  11. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis-tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2\\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  12. Decay parameter and related properties of 2-type branching processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We consider the decay parameter, invariant measures/vectors and quasi-stationary dis- tributions for 2-type Markov branching processes. Investigating such properties is crucial in realizing life period of branching models. In this paper, some important properties of the generating functions for 2-type Markov branching q-matrix are firstly investigated in detail. The exact value of the decay parameter λC of such model is given for the communicating class C = Z+2 \\ 0. It is shown that this λC can be directly obtained from the generating functions of the corresponding q-matrix. Moreover, the λC-invariant measures/vectors and quasi-distributions of such processes are deeply considered. A λC-invariant vector for the q-matrix (or for the process) on C is given and the generating functions of λC-invariant measures and quasi-stationary distributions for the process on C are presented.

  13. The sector constants of continuous state branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Handa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Continuous state branching processes with immigration are studied. We are particularly concerned with the associated (non-symmetric) Dirichlet form. After observing that gamma distributions are only reversible distributions for this class of models, we prove that every generalized gamma convolution is a stationary distribution of the process with suitably chosen branching mechanism and with continuous immigration. For such non-reversible processes, the strong sector condition is discussed in terms of a characteristic called the Thorin measure. In addition, some connections with notion from noncommutative probability theory will be pointed out through calculations involving the Stieltjes transform.

  14. An investigation of cognitive 'branching' processes in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Steven CR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with depression demonstrate cognitive impairment on a wide range of cognitive tasks, particularly putative tasks of frontal lobe function. Recent models of frontal lobe function have argued that the frontal pole region is involved in cognitive branching, a process requiring holding in mind one goal while performing sub-goal processes. Evidence for this model comes from functional neuroimaging and frontal-pole lesion patients. We have utilised these new concepts to investigate the possibility that patients with depression are impaired at cognitive 'branching'. Methods 11 non-medicated patients with major depression were compared to 11 matched controls in a behavioural study on a task of cognitive 'branching'. In the version employed here, we recorded participant's performance as they learnt to perform the task. This involved participants completing a control condition, followed by a working memory condition, a dual-task condition and finally the branching condition, which integrates processes in the working memory and dual-task conditions. We also measured participants on a number of other cognitive tasks as well as mood-state before and after the branching experiment. Results Patients took longer to learn the first condition, but performed comparably to controls after six runs of the task. Overall, reaction times decreased with repeated exposure on the task conditions in controls, with this effect attenuated in patients. Importantly, no differences were found between patients and controls on the branching condition. There was, however, a significant change in mood-state with patients increasing in positive affect and decreasing in negative affect after the experiment. Conclusion We found no clear evidence of a fundamental impairment in anterior prefrontal 'branching processes' in patients with depression. Rather our data argue for a contextual learning impairment underlying cognitive dysfunction in this disorder. Our

  15. Agriculture and Food Processes Branch program summary document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The work of the Agriculture and Food Processes Branch within the US DOE's Office of Industrial Programs is discussed and reviewed. The Branch is responsible for assisting the food and agricultural sectors of the economy in increasing their energy efficiency by cost sharing with industry the development and demonstration of technologies industry by itself would not develop because of a greater than normal risk factor, but have significant energy conservation benefits. This task is made more difficult by the diversity of agriculture and the food industry. The focus of the program is now on the development and demonstration of energy conservation technology in high energy use industry sectors and agricultural functions (e.g., sugar processing, meat processing, irrigation, and crop drying, high energy use functions common to many sectors of the food industry (e.g., refrigeration, drying, and evaporation), and innovative concepts (e.g., energy integrated farm systems. Specific projects within the program are summarized. (LCL)

  16. Some distance bounds of branching processes and their diffusion limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kammerer, Niels B

    2010-01-01

    We compute exact values respectively bounds of "distances" - in the sense of (transforms of) power divergences and relative entropy - between two discrete-time Galton-Watson branching processes with immigration GWI for which the offspring as well as the immigration is arbitrarily Poisson-distributed (leading to arbitrary type of criticality). Implications for asymptotic distinguishability behaviour in terms of contiguity and entire separation of the involved GWI are given, too. Furthermore, we determine the corresponding limit quantities for the context in which the two GWI converge to Feller-type branching diffusion processes, as the time-lags between observations tend to zero. Some applications to (static random environment like) Bayesian decision making and Neyman-Pearson testing are presented as well.

  17. Asymptotic behaviour of extinction probability of interacting branching collision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Anyue; Li, Junping; Chen, Yiqing; Zhou, Dingxuan

    2014-01-01

    Although the exact expressions for the extinction probabilities of the Interacting Branching Collision Processes (IBCP) were very recently given by Chen et al. [4], some of these expressions are very complicated; hence, useful information regarding asymptotic behaviour, for example, is harder to obtain. Also, these exact expressions take very different forms for different cases and thus seem lacking in homogeneity. In this paper, we show that the asymptotic behaviour of these extr...

  18. Global stabilities, selection of steady cellular growth, and origin of side branches in directional solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Jun; Chen, Yong-Qiang

    2011-06-01

    The present paper investigates the global instability mechanisms of arrayed-cellular growth with asymptotic approach. We find that the system of directional solidification involves two types of global instability mechanisms: the low-frequency instability and the global oscillatory instability, which are profoundly similar to that found in the system of viscous fingering and free dendritic growth. Based on these global instabilities, the neutral mode selection principle for the limiting state of growth is proposed; the origin and essence of side branching on the interface are elucidated with the so-called global trapped wave mechanism, which involves the interfacial wave reflection and amplification along the interface. It is demonstrated that side branching is self-sustaining and can persist without continuously applying the external noise; the effect of the anisotropy of interfacial energy is not essential for the selection of steady cellular growth and for the origin and formation of side branching at the interface. The comparisons of theoretical results are made with the most recent experimental works and the numerical simulations which show very good quantitative agreement.

  19. On SDE associated with continuous-state branching processes conditioned to never be extinct

    CERN Document Server

    Fittipaldi, M C

    2012-01-01

    We study the pathwise description of a (sub-)critical continuous-state branching process (CSBP) conditioned to be never extinct, as the solution to a stochastic differential equation driven by Brownian motion and Poisson point measures. The interest of our approach, which relies on applying Girsanov theorem on the SDE that describes the unconditioned CSBP, is that it points out an explicit mechanism to build the immigration term appearing in the conditioned process, by randomly selecting jumps of the original one. These techniques should also be useful to represent more general h-transforms of diffusion-jump processes.

  20. Limit Theorems for some Branching Measure-Valued Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Cloez, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We consider a particles system, where, the particles move independently according to a Markov process and branching event occurs at an inhomogeneous time. The offspring locations and their number may depend on the position of the mother. Our setting capture, for instance, the processes indexed by Galton-Watson tree. We first determine the asymptotic behaviour of the empirical measure. The proof is based on an expression of the empirical measure using an auxiliary process. This latter is not distributed as a one cell lineage, there is a biased phenomenon. Our model is a microscopic description of a random (discrete) population of individuals. We then obtain a large population approximation as weak solution of a growth- fragmentation equation. We illustrate our result with two examples. The first one is a size-structured population model which describes the mitosis and the second one can model a parasite infection.

  1. Origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region which innervates the thoracic limb and its surroundings. Its study in different species is important not only as a source of morphological knowledge, but also because it facilitates the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders resulting from various pathologies. This study aimed to describe the origins and branchings of the brachial plexus of Mazama gouazoubira. Three specimens were used, belonging to the scientific collection of the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU; they were fixed in 3.7% formaldehyde and dissected. In M. gouazoubira, the brachial plexus resulted from connections between the branches of the three last cervical spinal nerves, C6, C7, C8, and the first thoracic one, T1, and it had as derivations the nerves suprascapular, cranial and caudal subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, median, ulnar, radial, pectoral, thoracodorsal, long thoracic and lateral thoracic. The muscles innervated by the brachial plexus nerves were the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres major, teres minor, deltoid, cleidobrachial, coracobrachialis, biceps brachialis, brachial, triceps brachialis, anconeus, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, lateral ulnar, extensor carpi obliquus, extensor digitorum, superficial pectoral, deep pectoral, ventral serratus, and external oblique abdominal.

  2. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments. The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables. Given an environment ξ, the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process, whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+, and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N. Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t. We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation, and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process. We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t), and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  3. Random self-similar trees and a hierarchical branching process

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    We study self-similarity in random binary rooted trees. In a well-understood case of Galton-Watson trees, a distribution is called self-similar if it is invariant with respect to the operation of pruning, which cuts the tree leaves. This only happens in the critical case (a constant process progeny), which also exhibits other special symmetries. We extend the prune-invariance set-up to a non-Markov situation and trees with edge lengths. In this general case the class of self-similar processes becomes much richer and covers a variety of practically important situations. The main result is construction of the hierarchical branching processes that satisfy various self-similarity constraints (distributional, mean, in edge-lengths) depending on the process parameters. Taking the limit of averaged stochastic dynamics, as the number of trajectories increases, we obtain a deterministic system of differential equations that describes the process evolution. This system is used to establish a phase transition that separ...

  4. Age-dependent branching processes in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YingQiu; LIU QuanSheng

    2008-01-01

    We consider an age-dependent branching process in random environments.The environments are represented by a stationary and ergodic sequence ξ = (ξ0,ξ1,...) of random variables.Given an environment ξ,the process is a non-homogenous Galton-Watson process,whose particles in n-th generation have a life length distribution G(ξn) on R+,and reproduce independently new particles according to a probability law p(ξn) on N.Let Z(t) be the number of particles alive at time t.We first find a characterization of the conditional probability generating function of Z(t) (given the environment ξ) via a functional equation,and obtain a criterion for almost certain extinction of the process by comparing it with an embedded Galton-Watson process.We then get expressions of the conditional mean EξZ(t) and the global mean EZ(t),and show their exponential growth rates by studying a renewal equation in random environments.

  5. Stable continuous branching processes with immigration and Beta-Fleming-Viot processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Clément

    2012-01-01

    Branching processes and Fleming-Viot processes are two main models in stochastic population theory. Incorporating an immigration in both models, we generalize the results of Shiga (1990) and Birkner et al. (2005) which respectively connect the Feller diffusion with the classical Fleming-Viot process and the alpha-stable continuous state branching process with the Beta(2-alpha, alpha)-generalized Fleming-Viot process. In a recent work, a new class of probability-measure valued processes, called M-generalized Fleming-Viot processes with immigration, has been set up in duality with the so-called M-coalescents. The purpose of this article is to investigate the links between this new class of processes and the continuous-state branching processes with immigration. In the specific case of the $\\alpha$-stable branching process conditioned to be never extinct, we get that its genealogy is given, up to a random time change, by a Beta(2-alpha, alpha-1)-coalescent.

  6. Properties of Super-Poisson Processes and Super-Random Walks with Spatially Dependent Branching Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Xia REN

    2008-01-01

    The global supports of super-Poisson processes and super-random walks with a branching mechanism ψ(z)=z2 and constant branching rate are known to be noncompact. It turns out that, for any spatially dependent branching rate, this property remains true. However, the asymptotic extinction property for these two kinds of superprocesses depends on the decay rate of the branching-rate function at infinity.

  7. sl(2) Operators and Markov Processes on Branching Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    We present a unified approach to various examples of Markov dynamics on partitions studied by Borodin, Olshanski, Fulman, and the author. Our technique generalizes the Kerov's operators first appeared in [Okounkov, arXiv:math/0002135], and also stems from the study of duality of graded graphs in [Fomin, 1994]. Our main object is a countable branching graph carrying an sl(2,C)-module of a special kind. Using this structure, we introduce distinguished probability measures on the floors of the graph, and define two related types of Markov dynamics associated with these measures. We study spectral properties of the dynamics, and our main result is the explicit description of eigenfunctions of the Markov generator of one of the processes. For the Young graph our approach reconstructs the z-measures on partitions and the associated dynamics studied by Borodin and Olshanski [arXiv:math-ph/0409075, arXiv:0706.1034]. The generator of the dynamics of [arXiv:math-ph/0409075] is diagonal in the basis of the Meixner symme...

  8. Statistical inference for critical continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We study asymptotic behavior of conditional least squares estimators for critical continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration based on discrete time (low frequency) observations.

  9. Originator usage control with business process slicing

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Ziyi

    2012-01-01

    Originator Control allows information providers to define the information re-dissemination condition. Combined with usage control policy, fine-grained 'downstream usage control' can be achieved, which specifies what attributes the downstream consumers should have and how data is used. This paper discusses originator usage control, paying particular attention to enterprise-level dynamic business federations. Rather than 'pre-defining' the information re-dissemination paths, our business process slicing method 'capture' the asset derivation pattern, allowing to maintain originators' policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. First, we propose Service Call Graph (SCG), based on extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners. When SCG (and corresponding 'service call tuple' list) is built for a business process, it is analyzed to group partners into sub-contexts, according to their dependency relations. Originator usage control can be achieved focusing...

  10. Disentangling the origins of branched tetraether lipids and crenarchaeol in the lower Amazon River: Implications for GDGT-based proxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.H.; Moreira-Turcq, P.; Abril, G.; Hopmans, E.C.; Bonnet, M.-P.; Lima Sobrinho, R.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    To trace the origin of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), their distribution in soils and suspended particulate matter (SPM) of Amazonian rivers and floodplain lakes (varzeas) was studied. Differences in distribution between river SPM and surrounding (lowland) soils suggests a

  11. Critical Age-Dependent Branching Markov Processes and their Scaling Limits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Siva R Athreya; Srikanth K Iyer

    2010-06-01

    This paper studies: (i) the long-time behaviour of the empirical distribution of age and normalized position of an age-dependent critical branching Markov process conditioned on non-extinction; and (ii) the super-process limit of a sequence of age-dependent critical branching Brownian motions.

  12. Genetic drift in populations governed by a Galton-Watson branching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Conrad J; Simon, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    Most population genetics studies have their origins in a Wright-Fisher or some closely related fixed-population model in which each individual randomly chooses its ancestor. Populations which vary in size with time are typically modelled via a coalescent derived from Wright-Fisher, but use a nonlinear time-scaling driven by a deterministically imposed population growth. An alternate, arguably more realistic approach, and one which we take here, is to allow the population size to vary stochastically via a Galton-Watson branching process. We study genetic drift in a population consisting of a number of distinct allele types in which each allele type evolves as an independent Galton-Watson branching process. We find the dynamics of the population is determined by a single parameter κ0=(2m0/σ(2))logλ, where m0 is the initial population size, λ is the mean number of offspring per individual; and σ(2) is the variance of the number of offspring. For 0≲κ0≪1, the dynamics are close to those of Wright-Fisher, with the added property that the population is prone to extinction. For κ0≫1 allele frequencies and ancestral lineages are stable and individual alleles do not fix throughout the population. The existence of a rapid changeover regime at κ0≈1 enables estimates to be made, together with confidence intervals, of the time and population size of the era of mitochondrial Eve.

  13. Asymptotic behavior of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Ispány, Márton

    2012-01-01

    Under natural assumptions a Feller type diffusion approximation is derived for critical multi-type branching processes with immigration when the offspring mean matrix is primitive (in other words, positively regular). Namely, it is proved that a sequence of appropriately scaled random step functions formed from a sequence of critical primitive multi-type branching processes with immigration converges weakly towards a squared Bessel process supported by a ray determined by the Perron vector of the offspring mean matrix.

  14. Mathematical Modeling of the Process for Microbial Production of Branched Chained Amino Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Todorov K.; Georgiev T.; Ratkov A.

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with modelling of branched chained amino acids production. One of important branched chained amino acid is L-valine. The aim of the article is synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rat...

  15. On Branching Processes and the Early Stages of the Spread of an Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed E; Yassen M T

    1998-01-01

    Branching process (BP) is used to model the early stages of the spread of a sexually transmitted disease. The early stages of AIDS spread which is transmitted both homosexually and heterosexually are studied as a BP.

  16. Asymptotic behaviour of the S-stopped branching processes with countable state space

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrychynska, Iryna; Yeleyko, Yaroslav

    2011-01-01

    he starting process with countable number of types \\mu(t) generates a stopped branching process \\xi(t). The starting process stops, by falling into the nonempty set S. It is assumed, that the starting process is subcritical, indecomposable and noncyclic. It is proved, that the extinction probability converges to the cyclic function with period 1.

  17. Synthesis of porous carbon nanofiber with bamboo-like carbon nanofiber branches by one-step carbonization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Hwa; Joh, Han-Ik; Lee, Sungho

    2017-04-01

    Porous carbon nanofibers (PCNFs) with CNF branches (PCNF/bCNF) were synthesized by a simple heat treatment method. Conventional methods to synthesize this unique structure usually follow a typical route, which consists of CNF preparation, catalyst deposition, and secondary CNF growth. In contrast, our method utilized a one-step carbonization process of polymer nanofibers, which were electrospun from a one-pot solution consisted of polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene (PS), and iron acetylacetonate. Various structures of PCNF/CNF were synthesized by changing the solution composition and molecular weight of PS. It was verified that the content and molecular weight of PS were critical for the growth of catalyst particles and subsequent growth of CNF branches. The morphology, phase of catalyst, and carbon structure of PCNF/bCNF were analyzed at different temperature steps during carbonization. It was found that pores were generated by the evaporation of PS and the catalyst particles were formed on the surface of PCNF at 700 °C. The gases originated from the evaporation of PS acted as a carbon source for the growth of CNF branches that started at 900 °C. Finally, when the carbonization process was finished at 1200 °C, uniform and abundant CNF branches were formed on the surface of PCNF.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of the Process for Microbial Production of Branched Chained Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorov K.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with modelling of branched chained amino acids production. One of important branched chained amino acid is L-valine. The aim of the article is synthesis of dynamic unstructured model of fed-batch fermentation process with intensive droppings for L-valine production. The presented approach of the investigation includes the following main procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing and calculation of specific rates for main kinetic variables; identification of the specific rates takes into account the dissolved oxygen tension; establishment and optimisation of dynamic model of the process; simulation researches. MATLAB is used as a research environment.

  19. Probabilistic divergence time estimation without branch lengths: dating the origins of dinosaurs, avian flight and crown birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Branch lengths—measured in character changes—are an essential requirement of clock-based divergence estimation, regardless of whether the fossil calibrations used represent nodes or tips. However, a separate set of divergence time approaches are typically used to date palaeontological trees, which may lack such branch lengths. Among these methods, sophisticated probabilistic approaches have recently emerged, in contrast with simpler algorithms relying on minimum node ages. Here, using a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for Mesozoic dinosaurs, we apply two such approaches to estimate divergence times for: (i) Dinosauria, (ii) Avialae (the earliest birds) and (iii) Neornithes (crown birds). We find: (i) the plausibility of a Permian origin for dinosaurs to be dependent on whether Nyasasaurus is the oldest dinosaur, (ii) a Middle to Late Jurassic origin of avian flight regardless of whether Archaeopteryx or Aurornis is considered the first bird and (iii) a Late Cretaceous origin for Neornithes that is broadly congruent with other node- and tip-dating estimates. Demonstrating the feasibility of probabilistic time-scaling further opens up divergence estimation to the rich histories of extinct biodiversity in the fossil record, even in the absence of detailed character data. PMID:28336787

  20. Estimating the Propagation of Interdependent Cascading Outages with Multi-Type Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Junjian; Sun, Kai

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-type branching process is applied to describe the statistics of line outages, the load shed, and isolated buses. The offspring mean matrix of the multi-type branching process is estimated by the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm and can quantify the extent of outage propagation. The joint distribution of two types of outages is estimated by the multi-type branching process via the Lagrange-Good inversion. The proposed model is tested with data generated by the AC OPA cascading simulations on the IEEE 118-bus system. The largest eigenvalues of the offspring mean matrix indicate that the system is closer to criticality when considering the interdependence of different types of outages. Compared with empirically estimating the joint distribution of the total outages, good estimate is obtained by using the multi-type branching process with a much smaller number of cascades, thus greatly improving the efficiency. It is shown that the multi-type branching process can effectively predi...

  1. THE ASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF SUPERCRITICAL BISEXUAL GALTON-WATSON BRANCHING PROCESSES WITH IMMIGRATION OF MATING UNITS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this article the supercritical bisexual Galton-Watson branching processes with the immigration of mating units is considered. A necessary condition for the almost sure convergence, and a sufficient condition for the L1 convergence are given for the process with the suitably normed condition.

  2. The s-Process in Rotating Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Herwig, F; Lugaro, M

    2003-01-01

    (abridged) We model the nucleosynthesis during the thermal pulse phase of a rotating, solar metallicity AGB star of 3M_sun. Rotationally induced mixing during the thermal pulses produces a layer (~2E-5M_sun) on top of the CO-core where large amounts of protons and C12 co-exist. We follow the abundance evolution in this layer, in particular that of the neutron source C13 and of the neutron poison N14. In our AGB model mixing persists during the entire interpulse phase due to the steep angular velocity gradient at the core-envelope interface. We follow the neutron production during the interpulse phase, and find a resulting maximum neutron exposure of tau_max =0.04 mbarn^-1, which is too small to produce any significant s-process. In parametric models, we then investigate the combined effects of diffusive overshooting from the convective envelope and rotationally induced mixing. Models with overshoot and weaker interpulse mixing - as perhaps expected from more slowly rotating stars - yield larger neutron exposu...

  3. Experimental characterization of nonlinear processes of whistler branch waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, E. M.; Crabtree, C.; Blackwell, D. D.; Amatucci, W. E.; Ganguli, G.; Rudakov, L.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments in the Space Physics Simulation Chamber at the Naval Research Laboratory isolated and characterized important nonlinear wave-wave and wave-particle interactions that can occur in the Earth's Van Allen radiation belts by launching predominantly electrostatic waves in the intermediate frequency range with wave normal angle greater than 85 ° and measuring the nonlinearly generated electromagnetic scattered waves. The scattered waves have a perpendicular wavelength that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than that of the pump wave. Calculations of scattering efficiency from experimental measurements demonstrate that the scattering efficiency is inversely proportional to the damping rate and trends towards unity as the damping rate approaches zero. Signatures of both wave-wave and wave-particle scatterings are also observed in the triggered emission process in which a launched wave resonant with a counter-propagating electron beam generates a large amplitude chirped whistler wave. The possibility of nonlinear scattering or three wave decay as a saturation mechanism for the triggered emission is suggested. The laboratory experiment has inspired the search for scattering signatures in the in situ data of chorus emission in the radiation belts.

  4. Lyapunov Exponents for Branching Processes in a Random Environment: The Effect of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Latouche, Guy

    2016-04-01

    We consider multitype branching processes evolving in a Markovian random environment. To determine whether or not the branching process becomes extinct almost surely is akin to computing the maximal Lyapunov exponent of a sequence of random matrices, which is a notoriously difficult problem. We define Markov chains associated to the branching process, and we construct bounds for the Lyapunov exponent. The bounds are obtained by adding or by removing information: to add information results in a lower bound, to remove information results in an upper bound, and we show that adding less information improves the lower bound. We give a few illustrative examples and we observe that the upper bound is generally more accurate than the lower bounds.

  5. Dual Weighted Markov Branching Processes%对偶加权Markov分支过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雨; 李扬荣

    2008-01-01

    研究对偶加权Markov分支过程的正则性、唯一性、单调性和Feller性, 得到了判断这些性质的充要以及充分或必要条件.%This paper focuses on discussing some basic properties of the dual weighted Markov branching processes which are by definition of a Siegmund's pre-dual of some weighted Markov branching processes. The regularity and uniqueness criteria, which are very easy to verify, are established. And the Feller property and monotonicity are obtained.

  6. Age-dependent branching processes for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases with incubation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marusia N Bojkova

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review the recent results of the authors in the area of infectious disease modelling by means of branching stochastic processes. This is a new approach involving age-dependent branching models, which turned out to be more appropriate and flexible for describing the spread of an infection in a given population, than discrete time ones. Concretely, Bellman-Harris and Sevast’yanov’s branching processes are investigated. It is justified that the proposed models are proper candidates as models of infectious diseases with incubation period like measles, mumps, avian flu, etc. It is worth to notice that in general the developed methodology is applicable to the diseases that follow the so-called SIR (susceptible- infected-removed scheme in terms of epidemiological models. Two policies of extra-vaccination level are proposed and compared on the ground of simulation examples.

  7. Anomalous power law distribution of total lifetimes of branching processes: application to earthquake aftershock sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saichev, A; Sornette, D

    2004-10-01

    We consider a general stochastic branching process, which is relevant to earthquakes, and study the distributions of global lifetimes of the branching processes. In the earthquake context, this amounts to the distribution of the total durations of aftershock sequences including aftershocks of arbitrary generation number. Our results extend previous results on the distribution of the total number of offspring (direct and indirect aftershocks in seismicity) and of the total number of generations before extinction. We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model, which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes ("aftershocks"). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake ("productivity" or "fertility"), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities mu is characterized by a power law approximately 1/ mu(1+gamma) and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) , with 0aftershock lifetimes scales as approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) when the average branching ratio is critical (n=1) . The coefficient 1aftershocks with mainshock magnitude m (productivity), with 0.5branching cascade process. In the subcritical case n<1 , the crossover from approximately 1/ t(1+theta;/gamma) at early times to approximately 1/ t(1+theta;) at longer times is described. More generally, our results apply to any stochastic

  8. Stochastic Equations for Two-type Continuous-state Branching Processes with Immigration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru Gang MA

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional stochastic integral equation system with jumps is studied.We first prove its unique weak solution is a two-type continuous-state branching process with immigration.Then the comparison property of the solution is established.These results imply the existence and uniqueness of the strong solution of the stochastic equation system.

  9. Variance estimators in critical branching processes with non-homogeneous immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimov, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    The asymptotic normality of conditional least squares estimators for the offspring variance in critical branching processes with non-homogeneous immigration is established, under moment assumptions on both reproduction and immigration. The proofs use martingale techniques and weak convergence results in Skorokhod spaces.

  10. On Titanium Carbide Nanoparticles as the Origin of the 21 Micron Emission Feature in Post-Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Li, A

    2003-01-01

    Titanium carbide (TiC) nanocrystals were recently proposed as the carrier of the mysterious 21$\\mum$ emission feature observed in post-asymptotic giant branch stars, based on their close spectral match and the presolar nature of meteoritic TiC nanograins (which reveals their stellar ejecta origin). But we show in this {\\it Letter} that the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations, which relate the wavelength-integrated extinction cross section to the total dust mass, would impose a lower bound on the TiC mass. This Kramers-Kronig lower limit exceeds the maximum available TiC mass by a factor of at least $\\simali$50, independent of the absolute value of the ultraviolet/visible absorptivity of nano TiC. The TiC model is therefore readily ruled out by the Kramers-Kronig physical principle.

  11. A Lamperti type representation of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, Ma Emilia; Bravo, Gerónimo Uribe

    2010-01-01

    Guided by the relationship between the breadth-first walk of a rooted tree and its sequence of generation sizes, we extend the Lamperti representation of continuous-state branching processes to allow immigration. The representation is obtained by solving a random ordinary differential equation defined by a pair of independent L\\'evy processes. Stability of the solutions is studied and gives, in particular, limit theorems (of a type previously studied by Grimvall, Kawazu and Watanabe, and Li) and a simulation scheme for continuous-state branching processes with immigration. We further apply our stability analysis to extend Pitman's limit theorem concerning Galton-Watson processes conditioned on total population size to more general offspring laws.

  12. The Effectiveness Analysis of Waiting Processes in the Different Branches of a Bank by Queue Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah ÖZÇİL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the appreciable increase in the number of bank branches every year, nowadays queues for services don’t decrease and even become parts of our daily lives. By minimizing waiting processes the least, increasing customer satisfaction should be one of branch managers’ main goals. A quick and also customer oriented service with high quality is the most important factor for customer loyalty. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in six different branches of two banks operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by six branches of two banks called as A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. At the end of study it is presented to the company some advices that can bring benefits to the staff and customers. In this study, Queueing theory, one of Operation Research techniques, is handled and in application, the data are obtained related to waiting in queue of customer in three different branches of a bank operating in Denizli and then they are analyzed by Queueing theory and also calculated the average effectiveness of the system. The study’s data are obtained by three branches of the bank called A1, A2 and A3. At last it is presented to the company some advices that can bring more benefits to the staff and clients.

  13. Using multitype branching processes to quantify statistics of disease outbreaks in zoonotic epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Schneider, David J.; Myers, Christopher R.

    2014-03-01

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes, and contagion (of disease, information, or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this work we focus on coupled branching processes as a model of infectious diseases spreading from one population to another. An exceedingly important example of such coupled outbreaks are zoonotic infections that spill over from animal populations to humans. We derive several statistical quantities characterizing the first spillover event from animals to humans, including the probability of spillover, the first passage time distribution for human infection, and disease prevalence in the animal population at spillover. Large stochastic fluctuations in those quantities can make inference of the state of the system at the time of spillover difficult. Focusing on outbreaks in the human population, we then characterize the critical threshold for a large outbreak, the distribution of outbreak sizes, and associated scaling laws. These all show a strong dependence on the basic reproduction number in the animal population and indicate the existence of a novel multicritical point with altered scaling behavior. The coupling of animal and human infection dynamics has crucial implications, most importantly allowing for the possibility of large human outbreaks even when human-to-human transmission is subcritical.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of a branching process evolving on a network with application in epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Blondel, Vincent D

    2015-01-01

    We perform an analytical sensitivity analysis for a model of a continuous-time branching process evolving on a fixed network. This allows us to determine the relative importance of the model parameters to the growth of the population on the network. We then apply our results to the early stages of an influenza-like epidemic spreading among a set of cities connected by air routes in the United States. We also consider vaccination and analyze the sensitivity of the total size of the epidemic with respect to the fraction of vaccinated people. Our analysis shows that the epidemic growth is more sensitive with respect to transmission rates within cities than travel rates between cities. More generally, we highlight the fact that branching processes offer a powerful stochastic modeling tool with analytical formulas for sensitivity which are easy to use in practice.

  15. Make It Go Viral! Rate-optimal Control for Resource-Constrained Branching Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Kuang

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new class of controlled multi-type branching processes with a per-step linear resource constraint, motivated by applications in quantitative marketing, and study the associated growth-rate maximizing control strategies. We show that the optimal growth rate can be achieved by maintaining a single optimal ratio among different population types, for both deterministic and stochastic branching processes. In the special case of a two-type population and with a symmetric revenue structure, the optimal ratio is obtained in closed-form. As a proof of concept, the methodology is applied to the linkage structure of the 2004 US Presidential Election blogosphere, where the optimal growth rate achieves sizable gains over a uniform selection strategy.

  16. The McMillan Theorem for Colored Branching Processes and Dimensions of Random Fractals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bakhtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the simplest colored branching process, we prove an analog to the McMillan theorem and calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of random fractals defined in terms of the limit behavior of empirical measures generated by finite genetic lines. In this setting, the role of Shannon’s entropy is played by the Kullback–Leibler divergence, and the Hausdorff dimensions are computed by means of the so-called Billingsley–Kullback entropy, defined in the paper.

  17. Fringe trees, Crump-Mode-Jagers branching processes and $m$-ary search trees

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Cecilia; Janson, Svante

    2016-01-01

    This survey studies asymptotics of random fringe trees and extended fringe trees in random trees that can be constructed as family trees of a Crump-Mode-Jagers branching process, stopped at a suitable time. This includes random recursive trees, preferential attachment trees, fragmentation trees, binary search trees and (more generally) $m$-ary search trees, as well as some other classes of random trees. We begin with general results, mainly due to Aldous (1991) and Jagers and Nerman (1984). T...

  18. Simulating the Emergence and Survival of Mutations Using a Self Regulating Multitype Branching Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Mode

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult for an experimenter to study the emergence and survival of mutations, because mutations are rare events so that large experimental population must be maintained to ensure a reasonable chance that a mutation will be observed. In his famous book, The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Sir R. A. Fisher introduced branching processes into evolutionary genetics as a framework for studying the emergence and survival of mutations in an evolving population. During the lifespan of Fisher, computer technology had not advanced to a point at which it became an effective tool for simulating the phenomenon of the emergence and survival of mutations, but given the wide availability of personal desktop and laptop computers, it is now possible and financially feasible for investigators to perform Monte Carlo Simulation experiments. In this paper all computer simulation experiments were carried out within a framework of self regulating multitype branching processes, which are part of a stochastic working paradigm. Emergence and survival of mutations could also be studied within a deterministic paradigm, which raises the issue as to what sense are predictions based on the stochastic and deterministic models are consistent. To come to grips with this issue, a technique was used such that a deterministic model could be embedded in a branching process so that the predictions of both the stochastic and deterministic compared based on the same assigned values of parameters.

  19. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  20. Existence,uniqueness and ergodicity of Markov branching processes with immigration and instantaneous resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JunPing; CHEN AnYue

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified Markov branching process incorporating with both stateindependent immigration and instantaneous resurrection. The existence criterion of the process is firstly considered. We prove that if the sum of the resurrection rates is finite, then there does not exist any process. An existence criterion is then established when the sum of the resurrection rates is infinite.Some equivalent criteria, possessing the advantage of being easily checked, are obtained for the latter case. The uniqueness criterion for such process is also investigated. We prove that although there exist infinitely many of them, there always exists a unique honest process for a given q-matrix. This unique honest process is then constructed. The ergodicity property of this honest process is analysed in detail.We prove that this honest process is always ergodic and the explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is established.

  1. Existence,uniqueness and ergodicity of Markov branching processes with immigration and instantaneous resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified Markov branching process incorporating with both state-independent immigration and instantaneous resurrection.The existence criterion of the process is firstly considered.We prove that if the sum of the resurrection rates is finite,then there does not exist any process.An existence criterion is then established when the sum of the resurrection rates is infinite.Some equivalent criteria,possessing the advantage of being easily checked,are obtained for the latter case.The uniqueness criterion for such process is also investigated.We prove that although there exist infinitely many of them,there always exists a unique honest process for a given q-matrix.This unique honest process is then constructed.The ergodicity property of this honest process is analysed in detail.We prove that this honest process is always ergodic and the explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is established.

  2. Volcanic glasses, their origins and alteration processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Long, W.

    1984-01-01

    Natural glass can be formed by volcanic processes, lightning (fulgarites) burning coal, and by meteorite impact. By far the most common process is volcanic - basically the glass is rapidly chilled molten rock. All natural glasses are thermodynamically unstable and tend to alter chemically or to crystallize. The rate of these processes is determined by the chemical composition of the magma. The hot and fluid basaltic melts have a structure that allows for rapid crystal growth, and seldom forms glass selvages greater than a few centimeters thick, even when the melt is rapidly cooled by extrusion in the deep sea. In contrast the cooler and very viscous rhyolitic magmas can yield bodies of glass that are tens of meters thick. These highly polymerized magmas have a high silica content - often 71-77% SiO2. Their high viscosity inhibits diffusive crystal growth. Basalt glass in sea water forms an alteration zone called palagonite whose thickness increases linearly with time. The rate of diffusion of water into rhyolitic glass, which follows the relationship - thickness = k (time) 1 2, has been determined as a function of the glass composition and temperature. Increased SiO2 increases the rate, whereas increased CaO, MgO and H2O decrease the rate. The activation energy of water diffusion varies from about 19 to 22 kcal/mol. for the glasses studied. The diffusion of alkali out of rhyolite glass occurs simultaneously with water diffusion into the glass. The rate of devitrification of rhyolitic glass is a function of the glass viscosity, which in turn is a function of water content and temperature. Although all of the aforementioned processes tend to destroy natural glasses, the slow rates of these processes, particularly for rhyolitic glass, has allowed samples of glass to persist for 60 million years. ?? 1984.

  3. Technical and Clinical Success and Long-Term Durability of Endovascular Treatment for Atherosclerotic Aortic Arch Branch Origin Obstruction : Evaluation of 144 Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Weijer, M. A. J.; Vonken, E. J. P. A.; de Vries, J-P. P. M.; Moll, F. L.; Vos, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic obstruction of aortic arch branch origins (AABO) has largely replaced open surgery, but long-term outcome data are lacking. This study evaluated mid-term and long-term results of these procedures. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Materials and

  4. Bidirectional processing of pri-miRNAs with branched terminal loops by Arabidopsis Dicer-like1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongliang; Zhou, Yuyi; Castillo-González, Claudia; Lu, Amber; Ge, Chunxiao; Zhao, Ying-Tao; Duan, Liusheng; Li, Zhaohu; Axtell, Michael J; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Zhang, Xiuren

    2013-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) originate from primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) with characteristic stem-loop structures, and their accurate processing is required for the production of functional miRNAs. Here, using the pri-miR-166 family in Arabidopsis thaliana as a paradigm, we report the crucial role of pri-miRNA terminal loops in miRNA biogenesis. We found that multibranched terminal loops in pri-miR-166s substantially suppress miR-166 expression in vivo. Unlike canonical processing of pri-miRNAs, terminal loop-branched pri-miRNAs can be processed by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1) complexes bidirectionally from base to loop and from loop to base, resulting in productive and abortive processing of miRNAs, respectively. In both cases, DCL1 complexes canonically cut pri-miRNAs at a distance of 16-17 bp from a reference single-stranded loop region. DCL1 also adjusts processing sites toward an internal loop through its helicase domain. These results provide new insight into the poorly understood processing mechanism of pri-miRNAs with complex secondary structures.

  5. Lévy-driven polling systems and continuous-state branching processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mandjes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a ring of N ≥ 1 queues served by a single server in a cyclic order. After having served a queue (according to a service discipline that may vary from queue to queue, there is a switch-over period and then the server serves the next queue and so forth. This model is known in the literature as a polling model.Each of the queues is fed by a non-decreasing Lévy process, which can be different during each of the consecutive periods within the server's cycle. The N-dimensional Lévy processes obtained in this fashion are described by their (joint Laplace exponent, thus allowing for non-independent input streams. For such a system we derive the steady-state distribution of the joint workload at embedded epochs, i.e. polling and switching instants. Using the Kella-Whitt martingale, we also derive the steady-state distribution at an arbitrary epoch.Our analysis heavily relies on establishing a link between fluid (Lévy input polling systems and multi-type Jiřina processes (continuous-state discrete-time branching processes. This is done by properly defining the notion of the branching property for a discipline, which can be traced back to Fuhrmann and Resing. This definition is broad enough to contain the most important service disciplines, like exhaustive and gated.

  6. Asymptotic regimes for the partition into colonies of a branching process with emigration

    CERN Document Server

    Bertoin, Jean

    2009-01-01

    We consider a spatial branching process with emigration in which children either remain at the same site as their parents or migrate to new locations and then found their own colonies. We are interested in asymptotics of the partition of the total population into colonies for large populations with rare migrations. Under appropriate regimes, we establish weak convergence of the rescaled partition to some random measure that is constructed from the restriction of a Poisson point measure to a certain random region, and whose cumulant solves a simple integral equation.

  7. The Branch Process of Skyrmions in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi-Shi; ZHANG Xiu-Ming; TIAN Miao

    2005-01-01

    @@ The branch process of the skyrmions in the fractional quantum Hall effect is studied from the φ-mapping topo logical current. It is shown that there exists a field ζ whose Hopf indices and Brouwer degrees characterize thetopological structure of the skyrmions. Based on the bifurcation theory of the φ-mapping theory, it is found that the skyrmions can be generated or annihilated at the limit points and they encounter, split or merge at the bifurcation points of the new field ζ.

  8. A Note on Multitype Branching Process with Bounded Immigration in Random Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Ming WANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study the total number of progeny,W,before regenerating of multitype branching process with immigration in random environment.We show that the tail probability of |W| is of order t-κ as t → ∞,with κ some constant.As an application,we prove a stable law for (L-1) random walk in random environment,generalizing the stable law for the nearest random walk in random environment (see "Kesten,Kozlov,Spitzer:A limit law for random walk in a random environment.Compositio Math.,30,145-168 (1975)").

  9. Statistical inference for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We study asymptotic behavior of conditional least squares estimators for 2-type doubly symmetric critical irreducible continuous state and continuous time branching processes with immigration based on discrete time (low frequency) observations.

  10. Discriminating between Weibull distributions and log-normal distributions emerging in branching processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Kwon, H. W.; Choi, M. Y.

    2014-06-01

    We consider the Yule-type multiplicative growth and division process, and describe the ubiquitous emergence of Weibull and log-normal distributions in a single framework. With the help of the integral transform and series expansion, we show that both distributions serve as asymptotic solutions of the time evolution equation for the branching process. In particular, the maximum likelihood method is employed to discriminate between the emergence of the Weibull distribution and that of the log-normal distribution. Further, the detailed conditions for the distinguished emergence of the Weibull distribution are probed. It is observed that the emergence depends on the manner of the division process for the two different types of distribution. Numerical simulations are also carried out, confirming the results obtained analytically.

  11. Study on color identification for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Ning; Liu, Tiegen; Xu, Qingyang; Kong, Fanzhi

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, a new method for monitoring and controlling fermentation process of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) was proposed based on color identification. The color image of fermentation broth of BCAA was firstly taken by a CCD camera. Then, it was changed from RGB color model to HIS color model. Its histograms of hue H and saturation S were calculated, which were used as the input of a designed BP network. The output of the BP network was the description of the color of fermentation broth of BCAA. After training, the color of fermentation broth was identified by the BP network according to the histograms of H and S of a fermentation broth image. Along with other parameters, the fermentation process of BCAA was monitored and controlled to start the stationary phase of fermentation soon. Experiments were conducted with satisfied results to show the feasibility and usefulness of color identification of fermentation broth in fermentation process control of BCAA.

  12. Neutron capture at the s-process branching points $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl

    CERN Multimedia

    Branching points in the s-process are very special isotopes for which there is a competition between the neutron capture and the subsequent b-decay chain producing the heavy elements beyond Fe. Typically, the knowledge on the associated capture cross sections is very poor due to the difficulty in obtaining enough material of these radioactive isotopes and to measure the cross section of a sample with an intrinsic activity; indeed only 2 out o the 21 ${s}$-process branching points have ever been measured by using the time-of-flight method. In this experiment we aim at measuring for the first time the capture cross sections of $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl, both of crucial importance for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in AGB stars. The combination of both (n,$\\gamma$) measurements on $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl will allow one to accurately constrain neutron density and the strength of the 13C(α,n) source in low mass AGB stars. Additionally, the cross section of $^{204}$Tl is also of cosmo-chrono...

  13. The neutron capture cross section of the ${s}$-process branch point isotope $^{63}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis in massive stars plays an important role in Galactic chemical evolution as well as for the analysis of abundance patterns in very old metal-poor halo stars. The so-called weak ${s}$-process component, which is responsible for most of the ${s}$ abundances between Fe and Sr, turned out to be very sensitive to the stellar neutron capture cross sections in this mass region and, in particular, of isotopes near the seed distribution around Fe. In this context, the unstable isotope $^{63}$Ni is of particular interest because it represents the first branching point in the reaction path of the ${s}$-process. We propose to measure this cross section at n_TOF from thermal energies up to 500 keV, covering the entire range of astrophysical interest. These data are needed to replace uncertain theoretical predicitons by first experimental information to understand the consequences of the $^{63}$Ni branching for the abundance pattern of the subsequent isotopes, especially for $^{63}$Cu and $^{...

  14. On the Limit Distributions of Continuous-State Branching Processes with Immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Keller-Ressel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We consider the class of continuous-state branching processes with immigration (CBI-processes), introduced by Kawazu and Watanabe [1971], and give a deterministic characterisation for the convergence of a CBI-process to a limit distribution L, which also turns out to be the stationary distribution of the CBI-process, as time tends to infinity. We give an explicit description of the Levy-Khintchine triplet of L in terms of the characteristic triplets of the Levy subordinator and the spectrally positive Levy process, which arise in the definition of the CBI-process and determine it uniquely. We show that the Levy density of L is given by the generator of the Levy subordinator applied to the scale function of the spectrally positive Levy process. This formula allows us to describe the support of L and characterise the absolute continuity and the asymptotic behavior of the density of L at the boundary of the support. Finally we show that the class of limit distributions of CBI-processes is strictly larger (resp. ...

  15. Genealogy of flows of continuous-state branching processes via flows of partitions and the Eve property

    CERN Document Server

    Labbé, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    We encode the genealogy of a continuous-state branching process associated with a branching mechanism $\\Psi$ - or $\\Psi$-CSBP in short - using a stochastic flow of partitions. This encoding holds for all branching mechanisms and appears as a very tractable object to deal with asymptotic behaviours and convergences. In particular we study the so-called Eve property - the existence of an ancestor from which the entire population descends asymptotically - and give a necessary and sufficient condition on the $\\Psi$-CSBP for this property to hold. Finally, we show that the flow of partitions unifies the lookdown representation and the flow of subordinators when the Eve property holds.

  16. Smaller population size at the MRCA time for stationary branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu-Ting

    2010-01-01

    We present an elementary model of random size varying population given by a stationary continuous state branching process. For this model we compute the joint distribution of: the time to the most recent common ancestor, the size of the current population and the size of the population just before the most recent common ancestor (MRCA). In particular we show a natural mild bottleneck effect as the size of the population just before the MRCA is stochastically smaller than the size of the current population. We also compute the number of old families which corresponds to the number of individuals involved in the last coalescent event of the genealogical tree. By studying more precisely the genealogical structure of the population, we get asymptotics for the number of ancestors just before the current time. We give explicit computations in the case of the quadratic branching mechanism. In this case, the size of the population at the MRCA is, in mean, less by 1/3 than size of the current population size. We also ...

  17. Branching Markov processes on fragmentation trees generated from the paintbox process

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Harry

    2011-01-01

    A fragmentation of a set $A$ is a graph with vertices labeled by subsets of $A$ which obey a certain parent-child relationship. A random fragmentation tree is a probability distribution on the space of fragmentations of a set. It is often convenient to regard a fragmentation tree as a collection of subsets such that each subset is associated with a non-trivial partition of itself, called its children. In this paper, we study a Markov process on the space of fragmentation trees whose transition probabilities are a product of consistent transition probabilities on the space of partitions. The result is a consistent family of transition probabilities on fragmentation trees which characterizes an infinitely exchangeable process on trees labeled by subsets of the natural numbers. We show that this process possesses a unique stationary measure and can be extended to a process on weighted trees, or trees with edge lengths, as well as mass fragmentations.

  18. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point 59Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Weiß, C; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Vlachoudis, V.; Altstadt, S.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L.S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Riego, A.; Robles, M.S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive 59Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as 59Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n_TOF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the 59Ni(n, α)56Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  19. The (n, $\\gamma$) reaction in the s-process branching point $^{59}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the $^{59}$Ni(n,$\\gamma$)$^{56}$Fe cross section at the neutron time of flight (n TOF) facility with a dedicated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detector. The (n, ) reaction in the radioactive $^{59}$Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as it can be seen as a rst branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. There is a strong discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data les for this isotope. The aim of the measurement is to clarify this disagreement. The clear energy separation of the reaction products of neutron induced reactions in $^{59}$Ni makes it a very suitable candidate for a rst cross section measurement with the CVD diamond detector, which should serve in the future for similar measurements at n_TOF.

  20. Conditional limit theorems for intermediately subcritical branching processes in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Afanasyev, Valeriy; Kersting, Götz; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    For a branching process in random environment it is assumed that the offspring distribution of the individuals varies in a random fashion, independently from one generation to the other. For the subcritical regime a kind of phase transition appears. In this paper we study the intermediately subcritical case, which constitutes the borderline within this phase transition. We study the asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. Next the size of the population and the shape of the random environment conditioned on non-extinction is examined. Finally we show that conditioned on non-extinction periods of small and large population sizes alternate. This kind of 'bottleneck' behavior appears under the annealed approach only in the intermediately subcritical case.

  1. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Moreno, Míriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell Ibáñez, Elvira; Blanch i Colat, Consol

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. RESULTS: Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences ...

  2. The coalescent point process of branching trees and spine decompositions at the first survivor

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Amaury

    2011-01-01

    We define a quasistationary monotone labelling of Bienaym\\`E--Galton--Watson (BGW) genealogies. The genealogy of the current generation backwards in time is uniquely determined by the coalescent point process $(A_i;i\\ge 1)$, where $A_i$ is the coalescence time between individuals $i$ and $i+1$. There is a Markov process of point measures $(B_i;i\\ge 1)$ keeping track of more ancestral relationships, such that $A_i$ is also the first point mass of $B_i$. We further give an inhomogeneous spine decomposition ending at the first surviving particle of generation $h$ in a plane BGW tree conditioned to survive $h$ generations. The decomposition involves a point measure $\\rho$ storing the number of subtrees on the right-hand side of the spine. Under appropriate conditions, we prove convergence of this point measure to a point measure on $\\RR_+$ associated with the limiting continuous-state branching process. We prove the associated invariance principle for the coalescent point process, after we discretize the limiting...

  3. Galton-Watson分支过程的谱半径%SPECTRAL RADIUSES OF THE GALTON-WATSON BRANCHING PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群芳; 赵敏智; 应坚刚

    2006-01-01

    The spectral radiuses of Galton-Watson branching processes which describes the speed of the process escaping from any state are calculated.Under the condition of irreducibility,it is show that this is equal to the spectral radius of Jacobi matrix of its generating function.

  4. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  5. EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATIONS OF A NEW DEVELOPED FORMING TECHNOLOGY-SHEAR-EXTRUSION PROCESS OF COMPONENTS WITH BRANCHES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.L. Yang; D.C. Kang; Z.L. Zhang; X.H. Piao; Z.D. Shi

    2001-01-01

    Shear-extrusion process and its forming parameters are proposed, whilst its laborsae ing characteristic is utilized to forge large-size shutoff valve body on middle-due pre ss.This new process is intended for the manufacture of large-size forged tubular components with branches on middle-due press. Experiments are carried out and proeessing parameters are obtained regarding the shear-extrusion process of a large-size shutoff valve body. Deformation and metal flow in the shear-extrnsion process are investigated. In order to verify the laborsaving characteristic of this new procss some contrastive experiments of extrusion foree are performed between shear-extrusion and upsetting-extrusion for forming tubular components with branches. Based on rigidplastic FEM a plane-strain model is established to analyze shear-extrusion process of tubular components with branches. The analysis results by 2-dimensions FEM are comparatively quite well consistent with those of experiments. Both simulated anl etperimental results show that this new forming process is feasible for forging large-size tubular components with branches on middle-due press.

  6. [A case of multiple aneurysms originated from the superior mesenteric artery branch, and a review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, T; Shirakura, T; Usui, M; Kashii, A; Kanazawa, K; Shimizu, H

    1988-11-01

    A case of multiple aneurysm of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) branch is presented. A 54-year-old man with sudden onset of back pain was admitted to our hospital. Severe abdominal pain was developed and he fell into shock. Selective angiography of the SMA demonstrated aneurysm of the accessory middle colic artery to splenic flexure. Laparotomy disclosed much intraperitoneal blood and a large clot under the pancreatic body with a gushing hemorrhage. The bleeding vessel was ligated and sutured. The postoperative course was uneventful, but the subsequent angiography revealed another aneurysm of SMA branch, which was not able to be seen in the previous angiography because of overlapping with main SMA trunk. Resection of the aneurysm was done. The etiology of the latter aneurysm was suggested to be medial degeneration histologically. Fourty-nine cases of SMA aneurysm from the Japanese literature were reviewed and discussed. Emphasis is placed on early diagnostic laparotomy for appropriate management and the role of angiography in confirmation of bleeding site in case of spontaneous intraabdominal hemorrhage.

  7. Measurements of conversion electrons in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, A.; Tan, W.; Avetisyan, R.; Casarella, C.; Gyurijinyan, A.; Manukyan, K.V.; Marley, S.T.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Smith, K.; Smith, M.K.; Strauss, S.Y.; Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Conversion coefficients, gamma-gamma and gamma-electron coincidences were measured in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu. Our goal was to determine the multipolarities of the γ-ray transitions that connect the high and low K states of {sup 176}Lu. This {sup 176}Lu nucleus has a long-lived ground state (K=7{sup -}) of 37.6 Gy, a short-lived isomeric state (K=0{sup -}) at 122.8 keV with half-life of 3.6 h, as well as a 58 μs isomer at 1588 keV (K=14{sup +}). The excitation structure of this nucleus contains bands of intermediate spins of both positive and negative parities. The intermediate states can under certain stellar temperatures completely change the equilibrium between the isomer and ground state of {sup 176}Lu and change the abundance of this nucleus. We populated 37 previously known levels in this nucleus via the {sup 176}Yb(p,n) reaction and measured 42 conversion coefficients for γ-ray transitions including 17 of them for the first time. (orig.)

  8. Growth of Preferential Attachment Random Graphs Via Continuous-Time Branching Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna B Athreya; Arka P Ghosh; Sunder Sethuraman

    2008-08-01

    Some growth asymptotics of a version of `preferential attachment’ random graphs are studied through an embedding into a continuous-time branching scheme. These results complement and extend previous work in the literature.

  9. Origin and evolutionary process of the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji; Niihara, Yuka

    2007-01-01

    The genetic code plots the relationship between a triplet base sequence on RNA and an amino acid that corresponds to a protein associated with a required function in organisms. Accurate knowledge about the genetic code, including its origin and evolutionary process, would be helpful for determining the causes of genetic disorders and discovering new medical treatments, as well as for understanding the origin of life. This review begins with discussion of several well-known theories on the origin of the genetic code. Then, a GNC-SNS primitive genetic code hypothesis, which we originally proposed, is explained in relation to the weak points of other theories. S and N denote G or C and any of the four bases, respectively. We also introduce our hypothesis of the GADV-protein world hypothesis on the origin of life, where GADV stands for the four amino acids, Gly[G], Ala[A], Asp[D] and Val[V]. Next, we discuss the reason why genetic disorders, which should be triggered by base replacements, are repressed at a low level under the universal genetic code. Finally, we explain the current difficulties we faced in treating genetic disorders, suggesting a prospect for a new type of treatments of these disorders.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF ROTATION ON s-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piersanti, L.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O., E-mail: piersanti@oa-teramo.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Maggini snc, I-64100 Teramo (Italy)

    2013-09-10

    In this paper, we analyze the effects induced by rotation on low-mass asymptotic giant branch stars. We compute two sets of models, M = 2.0 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = 0 and M = 1.5 M{sub Sun} at [Fe/H] = -1.7, by adopting main-sequence rotation velocities in the range 0-120 km s{sup -1}. At high metallicity, we find that the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability, active at the interface between the convective envelope and the rapid rotating core, contaminates the {sup 13}C-pocket (the major neutron source) with {sup 14}N (the major neutron poison), thus reducing the neutron flux available for the synthesis of heavy elements. As a consequence, the yields of heavy-s elements (Ba, La, Nd, Sm) and, to a lesser extent, those of light-s elements (Sr, Y, Zr) decrease with increasing rotation velocities up to 60 km s{sup -1}. However, for larger initial rotation velocities, the production of light-s and, to a lesser extent, that of heavy-s, begins again to increase, due to mixing induced by meridional circulations. At low metallicity, the effects of meridional circulations are important even at rather low rotation velocity. The combined effect of the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke instability and meridional circulations determines an increase of light-s and, to a lesser extent, heavy-s elements, while lead is strongly reduced. For both metallicities, the rotation-induced instabilities active during the interpulse phase reduce the neutron-to-seed ratio, so that the spectroscopic indexes [hs/ls] and [Pb/hs] decrease by increasing the initial rotation velocity. Our analysis suggests that rotation could explain the spread in the s-process indexes, as observed in s-process enriched stars at different metallicities.

  11. 78 FR 53020 - Branch Technical Position on the Import of Non-U.S. Origin Radioactive Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... place regarding the first and sixth exclusions of the definition of ``radioactive waste'' in 10 CFR 110... U.S. origin'' to the first exclusion to the definition of ``radioactive waste'' to confirm that the... exclusion to the definition of ``radioactive waste'' as used in 10 CFR 110.2. The NRC staff response to...

  12. Super Helium-Rich Population and the Origin of Extreme Horizontal-Branch Stars in Globular Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y W; Han, S I; Chung, C; Ree, C H; Sohn, Y J; Kim, Y C; Yoon, S J; Yi, S K; Demarque, P; Lee, Young-Wook; Joo, Seok-Joo; Han, Sang-Il; Chung, Chul; Ree, Chang H.; Sohn, Young-Jong; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Demarque, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Recent observations for the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of the massive globular cluster Omega Centauri have shown that it has a striking double main sequence (MS), with a minority population of bluer and fainter MS well separated from a majority population of MS stars. Here we confirm, with the most up-to-date Y2 isochrones, that this special feature can only be reproduced by assuming a large variation (Delta Y = 0.15) of primordial helium abundance among several distinct populations in this cluster. We further show that the same helium enhancement required for this special feature on the MS can by itself reproduce the extreme horizontal-branch (HB) stars observed in Omega Cen, which are hotter than normal HB stars. Similarly, the complex features on the HBs of other globular clusters, such as NGC 2808, are explained by large internal variations of helium abundance. Supporting evidence for the helium-rich population is also provided by the far-UV (FUV) observations of extreme HB stars in these clusters, w...

  13. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  14. Natural Origin Lycopene and Its "Green" Downstream Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria; Karabelas, Anastasios J

    2016-01-01

    Lycopene is an abundant natural carotenoid pigment with several biological functions (well-known for its antioxidant properties) which is under intensive investigation in recent years. Lycopene chemistry, its natural distribution, bioavailability, biological significance, and toxicological effects are briefly outlined in the first part of this review. The second, major part, deals with various modern downstream processing techniques, which are assessed in order to identify promising approaches for the recovery of lycopene and of similar lipophilic compounds. Natural lycopene is synthesized in plants and by microorganisms, with main representatives of these two categories (for industrial production) tomato and its by-products and the fungus Blakeslea trispora, respectively. Currently, there is a great deal of effort to develop efficient downstream processing for large scale production of natural-origin lycopene, with trends strongly indicating the necessity for "green" and mild extraction conditions. In this review, emphasis is placed on final product safety and ecofriendly processing, which are expected to totally dominate in the field of natural-origin lycopene extraction and purification.

  15. Dating the origin of hepatitis B virus reveals higher substitution rate and adaptation on the branch leading to F/H genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Angelis, Konstantinos; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Kostaki, Evangelia; Ho, Simon Y W; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV), particularly its origins and evolutionary timescale, has been the subject of debate. Three major scenarios have been proposed, variously placing the origin of HBV in humans and great apes from some million years to only a few thousand years ago (ka). To compare these scenarios, we analyzed 105 full-length HBV genome sequences from all major genotypes sampled globally. We found a high correlation between the demographic histories of HBV and humans, as well as coincidence in the times of origin of specific subgenotypes with human migrations giving rise to their host indigenous populations. Together with phylogenetic evidence, this suggests that HBV has co-expanded with modern humans. Based on the co-expansion, we conducted a Bayesian dating analysis to estimate a precise evolutionary timescale for HBV. Five calibrations were used at the origins of F/H genotypes, D4, C3 and B6 from respective indigenous populations in the Pacific and Arctic and A5 from Haiti. The estimated time for the origin of HBV was 34.1ka (95% highest posterior density interval 27.6-41.3ka), coinciding with the dispersal of modern non-African humans. Our study, the first to use full-length HBV sequences, places a precise timescale on the HBV epidemic and also shows that the "branching paradox" of the more divergent genotypes F/H from Amerindians is due to an accelerated substitution rate, probably driven by positive selection. This may explain previously observed differences in the natural history of HBV between genotypes F1 and A2, B1, and D.

  16. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  17. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet–medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Wolfgang; Stelzer, Valentin; Stelzer, Dominik; Braune, Monika; Duller, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Methods Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0–10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1–3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure. Results A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4) in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs 30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion. PMID:28144161

  18. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cailloux

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same processing conditions, PD,L-LA with the lower D enantiomer molar content revealed a higher reactivity towards the reactive agent, induced by its higher thermal sensitivity. REXCalendering process seemed to minimize the degradations reactions during processing, although a competition between degradation and chain extension/branching reactions took place in both processes. Finally, the rheological characterization revealed a higher degree of modification in the melt rheological behaviour for REX-Calendered samples.

  19. Revisiting the upper bounding process in a safe Branch and Bound algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsztejn, Alexandre; Michel, Claude; Rueher, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Finding feasible points for which the proof succeeds is a critical issue in safe Branch and Bound algorithms which handle continuous problems. In this paper, we introduce a new strategy to compute very accurate approximations of feasible points. This strategy takes advantage of the Newton method for under-constrained systems of equations and inequalities. More precisely, it exploits the optimal solution of a linear relaxation of the problem to compute efficiently a promising upper bound. First experiments on the Coconuts benchmarks demonstrate that this approach is very effective.

  20. A single carbon fiber microelectrode with branching carbon nanotubes for bioelectrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyan; Lu, Xin; Tze, William T Y; Wang, Ping

    2010-06-15

    Carbon fiber electrodes are greatly promising for microelectronic applications including high performance biosensors, miniaturized transmitters, and energy storage and generation devices. For biosensor applications, one drawback of using carbon fiber microelectrodes, especially single fiber electrodes, is the weak electronic signals, a consequence of low surface area of fibers, which ultimately limit the sensitivity of the sensors. In this paper, we report a novel single fiber microelectrode with branched carbon nanotubes for enhanced sensing performance. The fiber microelectrode was prepared from carbonization of cellulose fibers. Upon introduction of carbon nanotubes, the carbon fibers exhibited a significant increase in the specific surface area from carbon nanotubes enhanced the redox reactions on surfaces of the electrode by reducing the oxidation potential of NAD(H) from 0.8 to 0.55 V. The single carbon fiber with branched nanotubes was also examined for the detection of glycerol, and the results showed linear responding signals in a concentration range of 40-250 microM. These results are comparable to the properties of fossil-based carbon materials, and thus our cellulose-based carbon electrodes provide a potentially sustainable alternative in bioelectrochemical applications.

  1. A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tamai, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Since the complexity of software systems continues to grow, most engineers face two serious problems: the state space explosion problem and the problem of how to debug systems. In this paper, we propose a game-theoretic approach to full branching time model checking on three-valued semantics. The three-valued models and logics provide successful abstraction that overcomes the state space explosion problem. The game style model checking that generates counter-examples can guide refinement or identify validated formulas, which solves the system debugging problem. Furthermore, output of our game style method will give significant information to engineers in detecting where errors have occurred and what the causes of the errors are.

  2. Anomalous Power Law Distribution of Total Lifetimes of Branching Processes Relevant to Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    Saichev, A

    2004-01-01

    We consider a branching model of triggered seismicity, the ETAS (epidemic-type aftershock sequence) model which assumes that each earthquake can trigger other earthquakes (``aftershocks''). An aftershock sequence results in this model from the cascade of aftershocks of each past earthquake. Due to the large fluctuations of the number of aftershocks triggered directly by any earthquake (``productivity'' or ``fertility''), there is a large variability of the total number of aftershocks from one sequence to another, for the same mainshock magnitude. We study the regime where the distribution of fertilities $\\mu$ is characterized by a power law $\\sim 1/\\mu^{1+\\gamma}$ and the bare Omori law for the memory of previous triggering mothers decays slowly as $\\sim 1/t^{1+\\theta}$, with $0 < \\theta <1$ relevant for earthquakes. Using the tool of generating probability functions and a quasistatic approximation which is shown to be exact asymptotically for large durations, we show that the density distribution of to...

  3. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  4. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Physical Aging and Fracture Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, Jonathan; Santana Pérez, Orlando Onofre; FRANCO URQUIZA, EDGAR ADRIAN; Bou Serra, Jordi; Carrasco Alonso, Félix Ángel; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa

    2014-01-01

    The architectural modifications of a linear poly(D,L-Lactide) acid (PD,L-LA) commercial grade were induced by a one-step reactive extrusion-calendering process using a styrene-glycidyl acrylate copolymer as reactive agent. The melt degradation was counteracted by chain extension and branching reactions, leading to a stabilization of the melt properties and an increase in the molecular weight. For such modified samples [poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-reactive extrusion (REX)], the rate of physical ag...

  5. Life's origin: the cosmic, planetary and biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T.; Des Marais, D.; Jahnke, L.

    1987-01-01

    From elements formed in interstellar furnaces to humans peering back at the stars, the evolution of life has been a long, intricate and perhaps inevitable process. Life as we know it requires a planet orbiting a star at just the right distance so that water can exist in liquid form. It needs a rich supply of chemicals and energy sources. On Earth, the combination of chemistry and energy generated molecules that evolved ways of replicating themselves and of passing information from one generation to the next. Thus, the thread of life began. This chart traces the thread, maintained by DNA molecules for much of its history, as it weaves its way through the primitive oceans, gaining strength and diversity along the way. Organisms eventually moved onto the land, where advanced forms, including humans, ultimately arose. Finally, assisted by a technology of its own making, life has reached back out into space to understand its own origins, to expand into new realms, and to seek other living threads in the cosmos.

  6. On the Inclusion of Self Regulating Branching Processes in the Working Paradigm of Evolutionary and Population Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Mode

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The principal goal of this methodological paper is to suggest to a generalaudience in the genetics community that the consideration of recentdevelopments of self regulating branching processes may lead to thepossibility of including this class of stochastic processes as part ofworking paradigm of evolutionary and population genetics. This class ofbranching processes is self regulating in the sense that an evolvingpopulation will grow only to a total population size that can be sustainedby the environment. From the mathematical point of view the class processesunder consideration belongs to a subfield of probability and statisticssometimes referred to as computational applied probability and stochasticprocesses. Computer intensive methods based on Monte Carlo simulationprocedures have been used to empirically work out the predictions of aformulation by assigning numerical values to some point in the parameterspace and computing replications of realizations of the process overthousands of generations of evolution. Statistical methods are then used onsuch samples of simulated data to produce informative summarizations of thedata that provide insights into the evolutionary implications of computerexperiments. Briefly, it is also possible to embed deterministic non-lineardifference equations in the stochastic process by using a statisticalprocedure to estimate the sample functions of the process, which hasinteresting methodological implications as to whether stochastic ordeterministic formulations may be applied separately or in combination inthe study of evolution. It is recognized that the literature on populationgenetics contains a substantial number of papers in which Monte Carlosimulation methods have been used. But, this extensive literature is beyondthe scope of this paper, which is focused on potential applications of selfregulating branching processes in evolutionary and population genetics.

  7. Color identification and fuzzy reasoning based monitoring and controlling of fermentation process of branched chain amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Wang, Yizhong; Xu, Qingyang; Huang, Huafang; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2009-11-01

    The main production method of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) is microbial fermentation. In this paper, to monitor and to control the fermentation process of BCAA, especially its logarithmic phase, parameters such as the color of fermentation broth, culture temperature, pH, revolution, dissolved oxygen, airflow rate, pressure, optical density, and residual glucose, are measured and/or controlled and/or adjusted. The color of fermentation broth is measured using the HIS color model and a BP neural network. The network's input is the histograms of hue H and saturation S, and output is the color description. Fermentation process parameters are adjusted using fuzzy reasoning, which is performed by inference rules. According to the practical situation of BCAA fermentation process, all parameters are divided into four grades, and different fuzzy rules are established.

  8. First measurements of the total and partial stellar cross section to the $s$-process branching-point $^{79}$Se

    CERN Document Server

    Dillmann, I; Käppeler, F; Fästermann, T; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Poutivtsev, M; Rugel, G; Wallner, A; Rauscher, T

    2008-01-01

    Although $^{79}$Se represents an important branching in the weak s process, the stellar neutron capture cross sections to this isotope have not yet been measured experimentally. In this case, experimental data is essential for evaluating the important branching in the s-process reaction path at $^{79}$Se. The total cross section of $^{78}$Se at a stellar energy of kT = 25 keV has been investigated with a combination of the activation technique and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), since offline decay counting is prohibitive due to the long terrestrial half life of $^{79}$Se (2.80$\\pm$0.36 $\\times10^5$ y) as well as the absence of suitable $\\gamma$-ray transitions. The preliminary result for the total Maxwellian averaged cross section is $_{30 keV}$= 60.1$\\pm$9.6 mbarn, significantly lower than the previous recommended value. In a second measurement, also the partial cross section to the 3.92 min-isomer was determined via $\\gamma$-spectroscopy and yielded $_{30 keV}$(part.)= 42.0$\\pm$2.0 mbarn.

  9. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  10. Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  11. The origins and processing of ultra fine anaphase DNA bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Nielsen, Christian Thomas Friberg; Yao, Qi

    2014-01-01

    and BLM. UFBs become visible in the anaphase of mitosis, and can persist into telophase in rare cases. There are at least three different types of UFBs that can be distinguished according to the chromosomal loci from which they originate. However, it remains largely unknown how these UFBs are generated...

  12. Development of Processable PMR-Type Polymides with Star-Branched Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Eby, R. K.; Meador, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    In the last two decades, high temperature polyimide matrix composites have found broad applications in aerospace structural components, due to their high specific modulus and high specific strength. As matrix resins, aromatic polyimides exhibit exceptional thermal stability and mechanical properties. However, their rodlike structures often result in poor solubility in most common organic solvents, as well as high melt temperature and melt viscosity, making them difficult to process. To overcome this difficulty, flexible linkages including O, SO2 or CH2 non coplanar biphenyl moieties, bulky lateral substituents, and crankshaft structures are often incorporated into the polymer backbones. Addition-curing of low molecular weight polyimides (resins) is another approach to improve processability. One of the most successfully developed materials has been PMR-15 (Polymerization of Monomer Reactants, molecular weight of 1500 g/mol), because of its good combination of thermal and mechanical properties and ease of processability. However, due to the high melt viscosity of PMR-type resins, use of more economical processing methods, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), is not possible. Recent research has focused on the incorporation of trifunctional monomers into addition-curing polyimides in an attempt to improve the processability of these polymers. The objective of this research is to use an aromatic triamine, 1,3,5 tris (4-aminophenoxy) benzene, to prepare new resin systems with starbranched structures. The glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and thermal oxidative stability TOS) of these polymers are compared to their linear counterparts and PMR-15.

  13. High host density favors greater virulence: a model of parasite-host dynamics based on multi-type branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Borovkov, Konstantin; Rice, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    We use a multitype continuous time Markov branching process model to describe the dynamics of the spread of parasites of two types that can mutate into each other in a common host population. Instead of using a single virulence characteristic which is typical of most mathematical models for infectious diseases, our model uses a combination of two characteristics: lethality and transmissibility. This makes the model capable of reproducing the empirically observed fact that the increase in the host density can lead to the prevalence of the more virulent pathogen type. We provide some numerical illustrations and discuss the effects of the size of the enclosure containing the host population on the encounter rate in our model that plays the key role in determining what pathogen type will eventually prevail. We also present a multistage extension of the model to situations where there are several populations and parasites can be transmitted from one of them to another.

  14. PROCESS PERFORMANCE LASER CUTTING THROUGH PRACTICE DRY BRANCH IN METAL-MECHANIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivis Zismann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quest for optimization and quality of products has caused many organizations to eliminate the inefficiencies of their production processes, to reduce costs and increase profitability so that they can ensure their survival in the current economic scenario. Thus, it is necessary to use methods and techniques that help in getting better results. Minimize waste and promote overall product quality has become one of the main goals of the organizations. This study is Bibliographically the concept of Lean Manufacturing (Lean Manufacturing, which focused on eliminating waste, served as the basis for this study, which through an action - research aimed to applying lean practices for performance improvement the laser cutting process for an industry of the metalmechanic sector. The results show that the identification of the main sources of waste and the constant search for its elimination brought productivity advantages for the company, by reducing the processes of machines and minimize production costs time. With this, the company started to produce more, and improve their processes in the proper use of available resources.

  15. A branching process model for the analysis of abortive colony size distributions in carbon ion-irradiated normal human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tetsuya; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Kawaguchi, Isao; Hara, Takamitsu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2014-05-01

    A single cell can form a colony, and ionizing irradiation has long been known to reduce such a cellular clonogenic potential. Analysis of abortive colonies unable to continue to grow should provide important information on the reproductive cell death (RCD) following irradiation. Our previous analysis with a branching process model showed that the RCD in normal human fibroblasts can persist over 16 generations following irradiation with low linear energy transfer (LET) γ-rays. Here we further set out to evaluate the RCD persistency in abortive colonies arising from normal human fibroblasts exposed to high-LET carbon ions (18.3 MeV/u, 108 keV/µm). We found that the abortive colony size distribution determined by biological experiments follows a linear relationship on the log-log plot, and that the Monte Carlo simulation using the RCD probability estimated from such a linear relationship well simulates the experimentally determined surviving fraction and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). We identified the short-term phase and long-term phase for the persistent RCD following carbon-ion irradiation, which were similar to those previously identified following γ-irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that subsequent secondary or tertiary colony formation would be invaluable for understanding the long-lasting RCD. All together, our framework for analysis with a branching process model and a colony formation assay is applicable to determination of cellular responses to low- and high-LET radiation, and suggests that the long-lasting RCD is a pivotal determinant of the surviving fraction and the RBE.

  16. The two-process model : Origin and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, S.; Hut, R. A.; Beersma, D.

    2014-01-01

    In the two-process model as developed in the early 1980's sleep is controlled by a process-S, representing the rise and fall of sleep demand resulting from prior sleep-wake history, interacting with a process-C representing circadian variation in sleep propensity. S and C together optimize sleep tim

  17. The origins of fatherhood: an ancient family process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S

    1991-12-01

    Despite appearances to the contrary (fostered by anthropocentric nursery stories), a distinct role for male parents does not exist in nature. Fatherhood was invented by humans during the agricultural revolution about six thousand years ago. Symbolized by the new god-king, it incorporated the mother's originally superior role in primate families--the control or ownership of children. The male deity could even make his own offspring without female help. This inflated political figure was designed to compensate for the male's modest role in procreation, once the facts of life were known. Patriarchy was born out of an envious attack on mothers.

  18. Evolutionary origins and early development of number processing

    CERN Document Server

    Geary, David C; Mann Koepke, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The first volume in this ground-breaking series focuses on the origins and early development of numerical cognition in non-human primates, lower vertebrates, human infants, and preschool children. The text will help readers understand the nature and complexity of these foundational quantitative concepts and skills along with evolutionary precursors and early developmental trajectories. Brings together and focuses the efforts and research of multiple disciplines working in math cognition.The contributors bring vast knowledge and experience to bear on resolving extant

  19. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of the s-Process Branching Points 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Lerendegui-Marco, Jorge; Casanovas, Adria; Cortes-Giraldo, Miguel A.; Dressler, Rugard; Halfon, Shlomi; Heinitz, Stephan; Kivel, Niko; Köster, Ulli; Paul, Michael; Quesada-Molina, Jose Manuel; Schumann, Dorothea; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Tessler, Moshe; Weissman, Leo

    The neutron capture cross section of several key unstable isotopes acting as branching points in the s-process are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis studies, but they are very challenging to measure due to the difficult production of sufficient sample material, the high activity of the resulting samples, and the actual (n, γ) measurement, for which high neutron fluxes and effective background rejection capabilities are required. As part of a new program to measure some of these important branching points, radioactive targets of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl have been produced by irradiation of stable isotopes (146Nd, 170Er, and 203Tl) at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) high flux reactor. After breeding in the reactor and a certain cooling period, the resulting mixed 204Tl/203Tl sample was used directly while 147Pm and 171Tm were radiochemically separated in non-carrier-added quality at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), then prepared as targets. A set of theses samples has been used for time-of-flight measurements at the CERN n_TOF facility using the 19 and 185 m beam lines, during 2014 and 2015. The capture cascades were detected with a set of four C6D6 scintillators, allowing to observe the associated neutron capture resonances. The results presented in this work are the first ever determination of the resonance capture cross sections of 147Pm, 171Tm, and 204Tl. Activation experiments on the same 147Pm and 171Tm targets with a high-intensity quasi-Maxwellian flux of neutrons have been performed using the SARAF accelerator and the Liquid-Lithium Target (LiLiT) in order to extract the corresponding Maxwellian Average Cross Section (MACS). The experimental setups are here described together with the first, preliminary results of the n_TOF measurement.

  20. Polynomial Time Algorithms for Branching Markov Decision Processes and Probabilistic Min(Max) Polynomial Bellman Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Etessami, Kousha; Yannakakis, Mihalis

    2012-01-01

    We show that one can approximate the least fixed point solution for a multivariate system of monotone probabilistic max(min) polynomial equations, referred to as maxPPSs (and minPPSs, respectively), in time polynomial in both the encoding size of the system of equations and in log(1/epsilon), where epsilon > 0 is the desired additive error bound of the solution. (The model of computation is the standard Turing machine model.) We establish this result using a generalization of Newton's method which applies to maxPPSs and minPPSs, even though the underlying functions are only piecewise-differentiable. This generalizes our recent work which provided a P-time algorithm for purely probabilistic PPSs. These equations form the Bellman optimality equations for several important classes of infinite-state Markov Decision Processes (MDPs). Thus, as a corollary, we obtain the first polynomial time algorithms for computing to within arbitrary desired precision the optimal value vector for several classes of infinite-state...

  1. Origins and Development of Initiation of Free Radical Polymerization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Braun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available At present worldwide about 45% of the manufactured plastic materials and 40% of synthetic rubber are obtained by free radical polymerization processes. The first free radically synthesized polymers were produced between 1910 and 1930 by initiation with peroxy compounds. In the 1940s the polymerization by redox processes was found independently and simultaneously at IG Farben in Germany and ICI in Great Britain. In the 1950s the systematic investigation of azo compounds as free radical initiators followed. Compounds with labile C–C-bonds were investigated as initiators only in the period from the end of the 1960s until the early 1980s. At about the same time, iniferters with cleavable S–S-bonds were studied in detail. Both these initiator classes can be designated as predecessors for “living” or controlled free radical polymerizations with nitroxyl-mediated polymerizations, reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer processes (RAFT, and atom transfer radical polymerizations (ATRP.

  2. On the Historical Origins of Nominalized Process in Scientific Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, D.

    2005-01-01

    Grammatical metaphor in the form of nominalized processes is widely recognized as an important feature of scientific writing. It is also believed that this development began with Newton in the late 17th century. Linguistic development must however be seen against the background of the context in which it is produced. One of the elements which must…

  3. Origin and diagenetic transformations of C25 and C30 highly branched isoprenoid sulphur compounds : further evidence for the formation of organic sulphur compounds during early diagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Rullkotter, J.; Haven, H.L. ten

    1990-01-01

    A number of C₂₅ and C₃₀ highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) sulphur compounds (e. g. , thiolanes, l-oxo-thiolanes, thiophenes, and benzo[b]thiophenes) with 2, 6, 10, 14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl) pentadecane and 2, 6, 10, 14, 18-pentamethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)nonadecane carbon skeletons were identif

  4. Characterization of byproducts originating from hemp oil processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojić, Milica; Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Hadnađev, Miroslav

    2014-12-24

    Valorization of hemp seed meal, a byproduct of hemp oil processing, was performed by measuring the distribution of nutritional and antinutritional compounds in different hemp seed meal fractions. According to chemical composition, two cotyledon-containing fractions (>180 and 350 and >250 μm), which were significantly richer in crude fiber content (29.5% ± 0.04% and 21.3% ± 0.03%, respectively). The free radical scavenging capacity (IC50) of fraction extracts increased (p hemp seed meal into different fractions could be used to concentrate valuable target compounds and consequently facilitate their recovery.

  5. Expectation-maximization algorithm for determining natural selection of Y-linked genes through two-sex branching processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Gutiérrez, C; Martínez, R

    2012-09-01

    A two-dimensional bisexual branching process has recently been presented for the analysis of the generation-to-generation evolution of the number of carriers of a Y-linked gene. In this model, preference of females for males with a specific genetic characteristic is assumed to be determined by an allele of the gene. It has been shown that the behavior of this kind of Y-linked gene is strongly related to the reproduction law of each genotype. In practice, the corresponding offspring distributions are usually unknown, and it is necessary to develop their estimation theory in order to determine the natural selection of the gene. Here we deal with the estimation problem for the offspring distribution of each genotype of a Y-linked gene when the only observable data are each generation's total numbers of males of each genotype and of females. We set out the problem in a non parametric framework and obtain the maximum likelihood estimators of the offspring distributions using an expectation-maximization algorithm. From these estimators, we also derive the estimators for the reproduction mean of each genotype and forecast the distribution of the future population sizes. Finally, we check the accuracy of the algorithm by means of a simulation study.

  6. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  7. Barium isotopic composition of mainstream silicon carbides from Murchison: Constraints for s-process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Nan; Davis, Andrew M.; Pellin, Michael J.; Dauphas, Nicolas [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Savina, Michael R. [Chicago Center for Cosmochemistry, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Gallino, Roberto; Bisterzo, Sara [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Straniero, Oscar; Cristallo, Sergio [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, via Maggini snc, I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Gyngard, Frank [Laboratory for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Willingham, David G. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Pignatari, Marco [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Basel CH-4056 (Switzerland); Herwig, Falk, E-mail: lnsmile@uchicago.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P5C2 (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    We present barium, carbon, and silicon isotopic compositions of 38 acid-cleaned presolar SiC grains from Murchison. Comparison with previous data shows that acid washing is highly effective in removing barium contamination. Strong depletions in δ({sup 138}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) values are found, down to –400‰, which can only be modeled with a flatter {sup 13}C profile within the {sup 13}C pocket than is normally used. The dependence of δ({sup 138}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) predictions on the distribution of {sup 13}C within the pocket in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models allows us to probe the {sup 13}C profile within the {sup 13}C pocket and the pocket mass in AGB stars. In addition, we provide constraints on the {sup 22}Ne(α, n){sup 25}Mg rate in the stellar temperature regime relevant to AGB stars, based on δ({sup 134}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) values of mainstream grains. We found two nominally mainstream grains with strongly negative δ({sup 134}Ba/{sup 136}Ba) values that cannot be explained by any of the current AGB model calculations. Instead, such negative values are consistent with the intermediate neutron capture process (i process), which is activated by the very late thermal pulse during the post-AGB phase and characterized by a neutron density much higher than the s process. These two grains may have condensed around post-AGB stars. Finally, we report abundances of two p-process isotopes, {sup 130}Ba and {sup 132}Ba, in single SiC grains. These isotopes are destroyed in the s process in AGB stars. By comparing their abundances with respect to that of {sup 135}Ba, we conclude that there is no measurable decay of {sup 135}Cs (t {sub 1/2} = 2.3 Ma) to {sup 135}Ba in individual SiC grains, indicating condensation of barium, but not cesium into SiC grains before {sup 135}Cs decayed.

  8. Ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection for an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis: a case report of successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Kobayashi, Akitoshi; Shimizu, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Akinari; Ohta, Takumi; Sato, Yayoi; Yamamoto, Yuji; Aikawa, Mizuho; Otsuka, Ryota; Yanagihara, Akitoshi

    2013-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis reportedly occurs in about 15 % of cases of branch duct (BD)-intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), with two-thirds of BD-IPMNs being located in the head or uncinate process of the pancreas. However, the surgical indications and optimal treatment methods for BD-IPMNs have not been established. A 59-year-old Japanese male with epigastralgia was admitted to our hospital. A multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scan disclosed grade I acute pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography disclosed a 1.5-cm BD-IPMN in the uncinate process. Two months after discharge, the epigastralgia recurred, and MDCT again revealed grade I pancreatitis. Due to the repeated episodes of pancreatitis, we performed ductal branch-oriented pancreatic resection. To detect the inferior branch of the Wirsung duct and avoid the development of a pancreatic fistula, we injected indigo carmine into the tumor which confirmed ligation of the inferior branch. Histopathologically, the tumor proved to be an adenoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in both the short- and long-term follow-up and, to date, there has been no recurrence of pancreatitis, or diabetes mellitus during the 6 years since pancreatectomy. This procedure is one of the methods that can be used for the successful resection of a BD-IPMN in the uncinate process that caused recurrent acute pancreatitis.

  9. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  10. Sustainable Engineering and Improved Recycling of PET for High-Value Applications: Transforming Linear PET to Lightly Branched PET with a Novel, Scalable Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Cynthia; Torkelson, John

    2009-03-01

    A major challenge for the most effective recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) concerns the fact that initial melt processing of PET into a product leads to substantial degradation of molecular weight. Thus, recycled PET has insufficient melt viscosity for reuse in high-value applications such as melt-blowing of PET bottles. Academic and industrial research has tried to remedy this situation by synthesis and use of ``chain extenders'' that can lead to branched PET (with higher melt viscosity than the linear recycled PET) via condensation reactions with functional groups on the PET. Here we show that simple processing of PET via solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) leads to enhanced PET melt viscosity without need for chemical additives. We hypothesize that this branching results from low levels of chain scission accompanying SSSP, leading to formation of polymeric radicals that participate in chain transfer and combination reactions with other PET chains and thereby to in situ branch formation. The pulverized PET exhibits vastly enhanced crystallization kinetics, eliminating the need to employ cold crystallization to achieve maximum PET crystallinity. Results of SSSP processing of PET will be compared to results obtained with poly(butylene terephthalate).

  11. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  12. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Rakocevic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position (in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed. Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory. This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips (younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment (forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.Mediu-se a intensidade de amargor da bebida preparada a partir de folhas da erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis de diversas idades, situadas em duas posições na copa (interior e ponteiras, produzidas por plantas masculinas e femininas cultivadas na floresta antropizada e em monocultura. As trocas gasosas foliares, a temperatura de folhas e a densidade de fluxo de fótons fotossinteticamente ativos também foram medidas. Com isso verificou-se que a idéia corrente de que o sombreamento está diretamente relacionado ao sabor suave do chimarrão é completamente equivocada, já que as competições inter- e intra

  13. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  14. The Feller Property for Generalized Branching Processes with Resurrection%有恢复的生成分支过程的Feller性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀珍; 李扬荣

    2011-01-01

    首先,当Q是一个拟单调的q矩阵的时候,我们找出最小的Q函数是一个Feller的转移函数的准则.然后我们把这个结论应用于生成分支q矩阵并得到相应的生成分支过程的Feller准则.特别地,设θ是分支q矩阵中的非线性数,总是存在一个分点θ0满足1≤θ0≤2或θ0θ0.%We first establish a criterion for the minimal Q-function to be a Feller transition function when Q is a quasi-monotone q-matrix. We then apply this result to generalized branching q-matrices and obtain the corresponding Feller criteria for generalized branching processes.In particular,it is shown that there always exists a separating point θ0 with 1 ≤θ0≤ 2 or θ0θ0,where θ is the nonlinear number given in the branching q-matrix.

  15. Unravelling the enigmatic origin of calcitic nanofibres in soils and caves: purely physicochemical or biogenic processes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bindschedler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcitic nanofibres are ubiquitous habits of secondary calcium carbonate (CaCO3 accumulations observed in calcareous vadose environments. Despite their widespread occurrence, the origin of these nanofeatures remains enigmatic. Three possible mechanisms fuel the debate: (i purely physicochemical processes, (ii mineralization of rod-shaped bacteria, and (iii crystal precipitation on organic templates. Nanofibres can be either mineral (calcitic or organic in nature. They are very often observed in association with Needle Fibre Calcite (NFC, another typical secondary CaCO3 habit in terrestrial environments. This association has contributed to some confusion between both habits, however they are truly two distinct calcitic features and their recurrent association is likely to be an important fact to help understanding the origin of nanofibres. In this manuscript the different hypotheses that currently exist to explain the origin of calcitic nanofibres are critically reviewed. In addition to this, a new hypothesis for the origin of nanofibres is proposed based on the fact that current knowledge attributes a fungal origin to NFC. As this feature and nanofibres are recurrently observed together, a possible fungal origin for nanofibres which are associated with NFC is investigated. Sequential enzymatic digestion of the fungal cell wall of selected fungal species demonstrates that the fungal cell wall can be a source of organic nanofibres. The obtained organic nanofibres show a striking morphological resemblance when compared to their natural counterparts, emphasizing a fungal origin for part of the organic nanofibres observed in association with NFC. It is further hypothesized that these organic nanofibres may act as templates for calcite nucleation in a biologically-influenced mineralization process, generating calcitic nanofibres. This highlights the possible involvement of Fungi in CaCO3 biomineralization processes, a role still poorly documented at

  16. Reservoir processes and fluid origins in the Baca geothermal system, Valles Caldera, New Mexico ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    At the Baca geothermal field in the Valles caldera, New Mexico, 19 deep wells were drilled in an attempt to develop a 50-MW (megawatts electric) power plant. The chemical and isotopic compositions of steam and water samples have been used to indicate uniquely the origin of reservoir fluids and natural reservoir processes. Two distinct reservoir fluids exist at Baca. These fluids originate from the same deep, high-temperature (335oC), saline (2500 mg/kg Cl) parent water but have had different histories during upflow which are described.-after Authors

  17. Cross-Section Measurements of the 86Kr(g,n) Reaction to Probe the s-Process Branching at 85Kr

    CERN Document Server

    Raut, R; Rusev, G; Tornow, W; Iliadis, C; Lugaro, M; Buntain, J; Goriely, S; Kelley, J H; Schwengner, R; Banu, A; Tsoneva, N

    2013-01-01

    We have carried out photodisintegration cross-section measurements on 86Kr using monoenergetic photon beams ranging from the neutron separation energy, S_n = 9.86 MeV, to 13 MeV. We combine our experimental 86Kr(g,n)85Kr cross section with results from our recent 86Kr(g,g') measurement below the neutron separation energy to obtain the complete nuclear dipole response of 86Kr. The new experimental information is used to predict the neutron capture cross section of 85Kr, an important branching point nucleus on the abundance flow path during s-process nucleosynthesis. Our new and more precise 85Kr(n,g)86Kr cross section allows to produce more precise predictions of the 86Kr abundance from s-process models. In particular, we find that the models of the s-process in asymptotic giant branch stars of mass < 1.5 Msun, where the 13C neutron source burns convectively rather than radiatively, represent a possible solution for the highest 86Kr/82Kr ratios observed in meteoritic stardust SiC grains.

  18. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  19. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  20. The origins of the idea of pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonchar O.V.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The essence of specificity for pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process by means of research of its development origins. It is substantiated that the update process in the education system of high school can be analyzed through the study of genesis of pedagogical mutual relations of participants of the educational process category, the nature of which depends on the effectiveness of the educational process in general. It is emphasized the urgent necessity for such scientific research, because without them it cannot be implemented pedagogical techniques in practice of the new modern high school that require from agents of the educational process mobility, flexibility, creative qualities and skills of professional learning.

  1. Serial Branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Christoph; Tamke, Martin; Tabatabai, Ali;

    2013-01-01

    Within a 8-day workshop 19 students of KADK explored the performative potential of naturally angled and forked wood – a desired material until 19th century, but swept away by industrialization and its standardization of processes and materials. The workshop questioned whether contemporary...

  2. A Dirichlet Process Mixture Based Name Origin Clustering and Alignment Model for Transliteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyue Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In machine transliteration, it is common that the transliterated names in the target language come from multiple language origins. A conventional maximum likelihood based single model can not deal with this issue very well and often suffers from overfitting. In this paper, we exploit a coupled Dirichlet process mixture model (cDPMM to address overfitting and names multiorigin cluster issues simultaneously in the transliteration sequence alignment step over the name pairs. After the alignment step, the cDPMM clusters name pairs into many groups according to their origin information automatically. In the decoding step, in order to use the learned origin information sufficiently, we use a cluster combination method (CCM to build clustering-specific transliteration models by combining small clusters into large ones based on the perplexities of name language and transliteration model, which makes sure each origin cluster has enough data for training a transliteration model. On the three different Western-Chinese multiorigin names corpora, the cDPMM outperforms two state-of-the-art baseline models in terms of both the top-1 accuracy and mean F-score, and furthermore the CCM significantly improves the cDPMM.

  3. Sheets of branched poly(lactic acid) obtained by one step reactive extrusion calendering process: Melt rheology analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cailloux, J.; Santana, O.O.; E. Franco-Urquiza; Bou, J. J.; F. Carrasco; J. Gamez-Perez; M. L. Maspoch

    2013-01-01

    One-step reactive extrusion-calendering process (REX-Calendering) was used in order to obtain sheets of 1mm from two PD,L-LA extrusion grades modified with a styrene-acrylic multifunctional oligomeric agent. In a preliminary internal mixer study, torque versus time was monitored in order to determine chain extender ratios and reaction time. Once all parameters were optimized, reactive extrusion experiments were performed. Independently of the processing method employed, under the same pro...

  4. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  5. PCR-SSCP-based reconstruction of the original fungal flora of heat-processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn-In, Samart; Hölzel, Christina S; Janke, Tobias; Schwaiger, Karin; Balsliemke, Joachim; Bauer, Johann

    2013-03-01

    Food processing of spoiled meat is prohibited by law, since it is a deception and does not comply with food safety aspects. In general, spoilage of meat is mostly caused by bacteria. However, a high contamination level of fungi could be also found in some meat or meat products with certain preserving conditions. In case that unhygienic meat is used to produce heat processed products, the microorganisms will be deactivated by heat, so that they cannot be detected by a standard cultivation method. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and apply a molecular biological method--polymerase chain reaction and single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP)--to reconstruct the original fungal flora of heat processed meat. Twenty primer pairs were tested for their specificity for fungal DNA. Since none of them fully complied with all study criteria (such as high specificity and sensitivity for fungal DNA; suitability of the products for PCR-SSCP) in the matrix "meat", we designed a new reverse primer, ITS5.8R. The primer pair ITS1/ITS5.8R amplified DNA from all tested fungal species, but not DNA from meat-producing animals or from ingredients of plant origin (spices). For the final test, 32 DNA bands in acrylamide gel from 15 meat products and 1 soy sauce were sequenced-all originating from fungal species, which were, in other studies, reported to contaminate meat e.g. Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida rugosa, C. tropicalis, C. zeylanoides, Eurotium amstelodami and Pichia membranifaciens, and/or spices such as Botrytis aclada, Guignardia mangiferae, Itersonilia perplexans, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lewia infectoria, Neofusicoccum parvum and Pleospora herbarum. This confirms the suitability of PCR-SSCP to specifically detect fungal DNA in heat processed meat products, and thus provides an overview of fungal species contaminating raw material such as meat and spices.

  6. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  7. Integrated Semigroups Generated by Generalized Branching Processes%广义分支过程矩阵生成的积分半群及其性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常小新; 李杨荣

    2008-01-01

    This paper concentrates on investigating the condition on which q-matrix Q for generalized branching processes generates a positive once integrated semigroup of contractions on L∞, and a necessary and sufficient condi-tion is obtained. Some basic properties of the integrated semigroups generated by them, i.e. stochastic sub-monoto-ny and Feller property, are discussed.%探讨了广义分支过程矩阵在向量空间L∞生成正压缩积分半群的充分必要条件.并且进一步讨论了该积分半群的次随机单调性和Feller性质.

  8. Statistical γ -decay properties of 64Ni and deduced (n ,γ ) cross section of the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Campo, L.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Eriksen, T. K.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Renstrøm, T.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Springer, A.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.

    2016-10-01

    Particle-γ coincidence data have been analyzed to obtain the nuclear level density and the γ -strength function of 64Ni by means of the Oslo method. The level density found in this work is in very good agreement with known energy levels at low excitation energies as well as with data deduced from particle-evaporation measurements at excitation energies above Ex≈5.5 MeV. The experimental γ -strength function presents an enhancement at γ energies below Eγ≈3 MeV and possibly a resonancelike structure centered at Eγ≈9.2 MeV. The obtained nuclear level density and γ -strength function have been used to estimate the (n ,γ ) cross section for the s -process branch-point nucleus 63Ni, of particular interest for astrophysical calculations of elemental abundances.

  9. Critical evaluation of branch polarity and apical dominance as dictators of colony astogeny in a branching coral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available The high morphological resemblance between branching corals and trees, can lead to comparative studies on pattern formation traits, best exemplified in plants and in some cnidarians. Here, 81 branches of similar size of the hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata were lopped of three different genets, their skeletons marked with alizarin red-S, and divided haphazardly into three morphometric treatment groups: (I upright position; (II horizontal position, intact tip; and (III horizontal position, cut tip. After 1 y of in-situ growth, the 45 surviving ramets were brought to the laboratory, their tissues removed and their architectures analyzed by 22 morphological parameters (MPs. We found that within 1 y, isolated branches developed into small coral colonies by growing new branches from all branch termini, in all directions. No architectural dissimilarity was assigned among the three studied genets of treatment I colonies. However, a major architectural disparity between treatment I colonies and colonies of treatments II and III was documented as the development of mirror structures from both sides of treatments II and III settings as compared to tip-borne architectures in treatment I colonies. We did not observe apical dominance since fragments grew equally from all branch sides without documented dominant polarity along branch axis. In treatment II colonies, no MP for new branches originating either from tips or from branch bases differed significantly. In treatment III colonies, growth from the cut tip areas was significantly lower compared to the base, again, suggesting lack of apical dominance in this species. Changes in branch polarity revealed genet associated plasticity, which in one of the studied genets, led to enhanced growth. Different genets exhibited canalization flexibility of growth patterns towards either lateral growth, or branch axis extension (skeletal weight and not porosity was measured. This study revealed that colony

  10. On the origin of planets by means of natural simple processes

    CERN Document Server

    Woolfson, Michael M

    2011-01-01

    The book begins with a historical review of four major theories for the origin of the Solar System in particular, or of planets in general, which highlight the major problems that need to be solved by any plausible theory. In many theories, including that which form the major theme of this book, the formation of planets and stars is intimately linked, so four chapters are devoted to the processes that can be described as the birth, life and death of stars. Recent observations that have revealed the existence of planets around many Sun-like stars are described in detail, followed by a clear exp

  11. A note on asymptotic behavior of Galton-Watson branching processes in random environments%关于随机环境中的Galton-Watson分枝过程渐近性质的一个注记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉兴; 赵飞; 卢金余

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate Galton-Watson branching processes in random environments. In the case where the environmental process is a Markov chain which is positive recurrent or has a transition matrix Q (θ,α) such that supθ Q (θ,α)> 0 for some α, we prove that the model has the asymptotic behavior being similar to that of Galton-Watson branching processes. In other case where the environments are non-stationary independent, the sufficient conditions are obtained for certain extinction and uncertain extinction for the model.

  12. Charged Lepton Flavor Violating Processes and Scalar Leptoquark Decay Branching Ratios in the Colored Zee-Babu Model

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, We-Fu; Wong, Chi-Fong; Xu, Fanrong

    2016-01-01

    We considered a neutrino mass generating model which employs a scalar leptoquark, $\\Delta$, and a scalar diquark, $S$. The new scalars $\\Delta$ and $S$ carry the standard model $SU(3)_c\\times SU(2)_L\\times U(1)_Y$ quantum numbers $(3,1,-1/3)$ and $(6,1,-2/3)$ respectively. The neutrino masses are generated at the two-loop level similar to that in the Zee-Babu model\\cite{Zee-Babu}. And $\\Delta/S$ plays the role of the doubly/singly charged scalar in the Zee-Babu model. With a moderate working assumption that the magnitudes of the six Yukawa couplings between $S$ and the down-type quarks are of the same order, strong connections were found between the neutrino masses and the charged lepton flavor violating(cLFV) processes. In particular, $Z\\rightarrow \\overline{l} l'$, and $l\\rightarrow l' \\gamma$ were studied and it was found that some portions of the parameter space of this model are within the reach of the planned cLFV experiments. Interesting lower bounds on the cLFV processes were predicted that $B(Z\\right...

  13. Source, settling and degradation of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in the marine water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shimamoto, Akifumi; Fukuhara, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-10-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (branched GDGTs) are commonly found in distal marine sediments. However, their presence in the water column, source and delivery process are not fully understood. In this study, we examined seasonal and depth variation in the flux of branched GDGTs in sinking particles and underlying sediment at 39°N, 147°E in the mid-latitude NW Pacific from November 1997 to August 1999. Branched GDGTs showed synchronous variation in their sinking flux at different depths, and the variation was similar to that of lithogenic material of eolian dust origin. Their degrees of cyclization and methylation were nearly constant and bear some resemblance to those of alkaline soils. This suggests that westerly winds transport branched GDGTs to the study site via the atmosphere from continental Asia. The sinking flux of branched GDGTs was higher in 1999 than in 1998, presumably reflecting changes in the migration path of Asian dust in response to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Synchronous variation in branched GDGT concentrations at different depths implies rapid vertical transport of branched GDGTs to deep water with a sinking velocity exceeding 260 m d-1. The sinking flux of the branched GDGTs decreased with increasing depth, but the rate of decrease was much smaller than those of other compounds. The preservation efficiency of branched GDGTs was 3.5-6.4% of surface inputs at the water-sediment interface, which is much higher than those of isoprenoid GDGTs (1.0-1.3%) and other compounds. The branched and isoprenoid tetraether (BIT) index values were extremely low (i.e. <0.0015) in comparison with any other studies so far. The BIT values in the surface sediment were five times higher than those in sinking particles, which is attributed to the preferential preservation of branched GDGTs in oxic environments.

  14. Half-lives and branchings for {\\beta}-delayed neutron emission for neutron-rich Co-Cu isotopes in the r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Hosmer, P; Aprahamian, A; Arndt, O; Clement, R R C; Estrade, A; Farouqi, K; Kratz, K -L; Liddick, S N; Lisetskiy, A F; Mantica, P F; Möller, P; Mueller, W F; Montes, F; Morton, A C; Ouellette, M; Pellegrini, E; Pereira, J; Pfeiffer, B; Reeder, P; Santi, P; Steiner, M; Stolz, A; Tomlin, B E; Walters, W B; Wöhr, A; 10.1103/PhysRevC.82.025806

    2010-01-01

    The {\\beta} decays of very neutron-rich nuclides in the Co-Zn region were studied experimentally at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory using the NSCL {\\beta}-counting station in conjunction with the neutron detector NERO. We measured the branchings for {\\beta}-delayed neutron emission (Pn values) for 74Co (18 +/- 15%) and 75-77Ni (10 +/- 2.8%, 14 +/- 3.6%, and 30 +/- 24%, respectively) for the first time, and remeasured the Pn values of 77-79Cu, 79,81Zn, and 82Ga. For 77-79Cu and for 81Zn we obtain significantly larger Pn values compared to previous work. While the new half-lives for the Ni isotopes from this experiment had been reported before, we present here in addition the first half-life measurements of 75Co (30 +/- 11 ms) and 80Cu (170+110 -50 ms). Our results are compared with theoretical predictions, and their impact on various types of models for the astrophysical rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) is explored. We find that with our new data, the classical r-process model is bet...

  15. Supercritical branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hutzenthaler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical branching processes in constant environment conditioned on eventual extinction are known to be subcritical branching processes. The case of random environment is more subtle. A supercritical branching diffusion in random environment (BDRE) conditioned on eventual extinction of the population is not a BDRE. However the quenched law of the population size of a supercritical BDRE conditioned on eventual extinction is equal to the quenched law of the population size of a subcritical BDRE. As a consequence, supercritical BDREs have a phase transition which is similar to a well-known phase transition of subcritical branching processes in random environment.

  16. 36 CFR 1260.62 - What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for White House originated information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the appeal process when a mandatory review request for White House originated information is denied? 1260.62 Section 1260... mandatory review request for White House originated information is denied? (a) When the Deputy Archivist...

  17. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors of the brain and spinal cord. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... NCINeuroOncology@mail.nih.gov . Our News The Neuro-Oncology Branch Welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as New Branch ...

  18. Origin of localized states in graphite: Indirect photoemission processes or impurities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, M.E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: mdavila@icmm.csic.es; Valbuena, M.A.; Pantin, V. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Avila, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Esquinazi, P. [Department of Superconductivity and Magnetism, Leipzig University (Germany); Asensio, M.C. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2007-10-31

    The electronic band structure of different types of graphite samples have been investigated in order to identify the origin of non-dispersive density of states recently reported in the literature. A systematic series of synchrotron radiation angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements on graphite single crystal, highly oriented graphite (HOPG) and epitaxial grown graphite single crystal on 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) samples, have been carried out as well as compared with theoretical tight binding calculations. Our results indicate that these localized states are present in all the graphite-investigated samples showing the same non-dispersive character and at the same binding energies. The photoemission data taken at several photon energies demonstrate that these states are not surface states nor due to indirect photoemission processes. It seems that they are closely related to the level of impurities present in the studied samples.

  19. Intratidal and neap-spring variations of suspended sediment concentrations and sediment transport processes in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhanhai; LI Michael Z; DAI Zhijun; ZHAO Fangfang; LI Jiufa

    2015-01-01

    Profiles of tidal current and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) were measured in the North Branch of the Changjiang Estuary from neap tide to spring tide in April 2010. The measurement data were analyzed to determine the characteristics of intratidal and neap-spring variations of SSC and suspended sediment transport. Modulated by tidal range and current speed, the tidal mean SSC increased from 0.5 kg/m3in neap tide to 3.5 kg/m3 in spring tide. The intratidal variation of the depth-mean SSC can be summarized into three types: V-shape variation in neap tide, M-shape and mixed M-V shape variation in medium and spring tides. The occurrence of these variation types is controlled by the relative intensity and interaction of resuspension, settling and impact of water exchange from the rise and fall of tide. In neap tide the V-shape variation is mainly due to the dominant effect of the water exchange from the rise and fall of tide. During medium and spring tides, resuspension and settling processes become dominant. The interactions of these processes, together with the sustained high ebb current and shorter duration of low-tide slack, are respon-sible for the M-shape and M-V shape SSC variation. Weakly consolidated mud and high current speed cause significant resuspension and remarkable flood and ebb SSC peaks. Settling occurs at the slack water periods to cause SSC troughs and formation of a thin fluff layer on the bed. Fluxes of water and suspended sediment averaged over the neap-spring cycle are all seawards, but the magnitude and direction of tidal net sediment flux is highly variable.

  20. EUROPIUM s-PROCESS SIGNATURE AT CLOSE-TO-SOLAR METALLICITY IN STARDUST SiC GRAINS FROM ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Janaina N.; Ireland, Trevor R.; Holden, Peter [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Lugaro, Maria [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Gyngard, Frank; Zinner, Ernst [Laboratory for Space Sciences and the Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Cristallo, Sergio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, INAF, via Maggini snc, Teramo I-64100 (Italy); Rauscher, Thomas, E-mail: janaina.avila@anu.edu.au [Centre for Astrophysics Research, School of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    Individual mainstream stardust silicon carbide (SiC) grains and a SiC-enriched bulk sample from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite have been analyzed by the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe-Reverse Geometry for Eu isotopes. The mainstream grains are believed to have condensed in the outflows of {approx}1.5-3 M{sub Sun} carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with close-to-solar metallicity. The {sup 151}Eu fractions [fr({sup 151}Eu) = {sup 151}Eu/({sup 151}Eu+{sup 153}Eu)] derived from our measurements are compared with previous astronomical observations of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars enriched in elements made by slow neutron captures (the s-process). Despite the difference in metallicity between the parent stars of the grains and the metal-poor stars, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements agree well with fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from astronomical observations. We have also compared the SiC data with theoretical predictions of the evolution of Eu isotopic ratios in the envelope of AGB stars. Because of the low Eu abundances in the SiC grains, the fr({sup 151}Eu) values derived from our measurements show large uncertainties, in most cases being larger than the difference between solar and predicted fr({sup 151}Eu) values. The SiC aggregate yields a fr({sup 151}Eu) value within the range observed in the single grains and provides a more precise result (fr({sup 151}Eu) = 0.54 {+-} 0.03, 95% conf.), but is approximately 12% higher than current s-process predictions. The AGB models can match the SiC data if we use an improved formalism to evaluate the contribution of excited nuclear states in the calculation of the {sup 151}Sm(n, {gamma}) stellar reaction rate.

  1. Country-of-origin effects in consumer processing of advertising claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.; Steenkamp, J.B.E.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2005-01-01

    We propose that country of origin has a dual impact on product evaluations, acting as informational cue, but also as source variable, moderating the impact of ads on product evaluations. In support, we find a direct effect of country of origin on product evaluations, and a three-way interaction betw

  2. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  3. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  4. Applying comparative fractal analysis to infer origin and process in channels on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Rice-Snow, S.; Hampton, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    been observed on Earth, we hypothesize that the differences in the dynamics of lava and water flow will cause significant differences in the degrees of irregularity of their respective channels. Thus fractal analysis has the potential to be a simple, straight forward and easily available tool to provide first-order constraint on the origin and processes active in Martian channels.

  5. Exposure to rubber process dust and fume since 1970s in the United Kingdom; influence of origin of measurement data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agostini, M.; de Vocht, F.; van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Galea, K.S.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare measured concentrations of rubber process dust and rubber fume originating from different sources in the British rubber manufacturing industry. Almost 8000 exposure measurements were obtained from industry-based survey results collected by the British Rubbe

  6. Origins and Expertise in the Musical Improvisations of Adults and Children: A Phenomenological Study of Content and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodero, Lori A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the musical content and human processes of improvisations of children and adults using the phenomenological lenses of time, space and responsivity. Paired improvisational performances of two late-career adult composers and two 7-year-old children were analysed considering a lifespan-related perspective involving the origins of…

  7. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees

    CERN Document Server

    Theckes, Benoit; Boutillon, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration, due to their flexibility, which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is here identified and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shape branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being...

  8. 随机环境中的两性Galton-Watson分枝过程的极限行为%The Limit Behavior for the Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世霞; 李晋枝

    2011-01-01

    考虑了后代概率分布受一个独立同分布环境过程所控制的两性Galton-Watson分枝过程,得到了有关过程渐进增长的若干结果.%A bisexual Galton-Watson branching process is considered,where the offspring probability distribution is controlled by an independent and identically environment process.Some results for the asymptotic growth associated with the process are obtained.

  9. Nutritional composition and fatty acids profile in cocoa beans and chocolates with different geographical origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Torrescasana, E; Salas-Salvadó, J; Blanch, C

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional composition and fatty acids (FA) profile were determined in cocoa and chocolates of different geographical origin and subject to different processing conditions. Cocoa butter was the major nutrient in cocoa beans and carbohydrates were the most important in chocolates. Cocoa composition and FA profile varied depending on geographical origin whilst in chocolates only carbohydrates and fat content varied significantly due to the effect of origin and no significant effect was observed for processing conditions. Both for cocoa and chocolates differences in FA profile were mainly explained as an effect of the geographical origin, and were not due to processing conditions in chocolate. For cocoa, differences in FA profile were found in C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C17:0, C17:1 and C18:0 whilst for chocolates only differences were found in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2. For all samples, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2 were quantitatively the most important FA. Ecuadorian chocolate showed a healthier FA profile having higher amounts of unsaturated FA and lower amounts of saturated FA than Ghanaian chocolate.

  10. A Novel Pre-Processing Technique for Original Feature Matrix of Electronic Nose Based on Supervised Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Jia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An electronic nose (E-nose consisting of 14 metal oxide gas sensors and one electronic chemical gas sensor has been constructed to identify four different classes of wound infection. However, the classification results of the E-nose are not ideal if the original feature matrix containing the maximum steady-state response value of sensors is processed by the classifier directly, so a novel pre-processing technique based on supervised locality preserving projections (SLPP is proposed in this paper to process the original feature matrix before it is put into the classifier to improve the performance of the E-nose. SLPP is good at finding and keeping the nonlinear structure of data; furthermore, it can provide an explicit mapping expression which is unreachable by the traditional manifold learning methods. Additionally, some effective optimization methods are found by us to optimize the parameters of SLPP and the classifier. Experimental results prove that the classification accuracy of support vector machine (SVM combined with the data pre-processed by SLPP outperforms other considered methods. All results make it clear that SLPP has a better performance in processing the original feature matrix of the E-nose.

  11. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  12. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  13. Processing and surface modification of novel natural-origin architectures aimed for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Ciências e Tecnologia de Materiais - Área de Conhecimento em Biomateriais In the last decades, tissue engineering has emerged as a potential therapeutical tool aimed at developing substitutes that are able to restore proper function of the damaged organs/tissues. Nature‐inspired routes involving natural origin polymer‐based systems represent an attractive alternative to produce novel materials by mimicking the tissue environment required for tissue regen...

  14. Effect of Country-of-Origin and Ethnocentrism on Consumer Cognitive Processing in India

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Arora; Jyoti Kainth; Lubna Nafees

    2014-01-01

    The authors in this study have measured and compared the extent of consumer ethnocentrism across different socio-demographic groups; the relationship of consumer ethnocentrism with different demographic variables; and the effect of country of origin on the perceptions, evaluations and likeliness of purchase of foreign products by Indian university students. The findings show that the Indian university students have CETSCORES lower than college/university students in most parts of the world, v...

  15. 加权分支过程的单调性、对偶性和Feller性质%The Monotonicity, Duality and Feller Property of Weighted Markov Branching Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁水琴; 李扬荣

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the monotonicity, duality and Feller property of weighted Markov branching processes are studied and some necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal Q-function being an monotone or dual transition function are obtained, where Q is a weighted Markov branching q-matrix. Especially, Feller criteria are obtained when Q is neither dual nor monotone.%研究加权分支过程的单调性, 对偶性以及Feller性质, 并得到了加权分支q矩阵的最小Q函数成为单调或对偶时的充要条件, 特别是得到了当Q既不对偶也不单调时的Feller准则.

  16. Impact of nuclear fission on r-process nucleosynthesis and origin of solar r-process elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibagaki, Shota, E-mail: shota.shibagaki@nao.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Kajino, Toshitaka [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mathews, Grant J. [Center for Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Chiba, Satoshi [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8850 (Japan)

    2015-02-24

    Binary neutron star mergers (NSMs) are expected to be main production sites of r-process elements. Their ejecta are extremely neutron-rich (Y{sub e}<0.1), and the r-process path proceeds along the neutron drip line and enters the region of fissile nuclei. In this situation, although superheavy nuclei may be synthesized and the r-process path may reach the island of stability, those are sensitive to theoretical models of nuclear masses and nuclear fission. In this study, we carry out r-process nucleosynthesis simulations in the NSMs. Our new nuclear reaction network code include new theoretical models of nuclear masses and nuclear fission. Our r-process simulation of a binary NSM shows that the final r-process elemental abundances exhibit flat pattern for A∼110-160, and several fission cycling operate in extremely neutron-rich conditions of the NSM. We find that the combination of the NSMs and the magnetorotational supernovae can reproduce the solar r-process elements. We discuss the validity of this interpretation.

  17. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  18. [The new migration of the Pontic Greeks toward Salonika: geographical origin and settlement process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darques, R

    1997-01-01

    "From 1988 to 1994, 20,000 to 25,000 Pontic Greeks coming from the ex-USSR went to settle in Salonika. Although this exodus presents all the characteristics of an economic migratory movement, the conflicts and tensions which affect the Russian peripheral territories, and an undoubted cultural connivance, make the ¿Rossopondi' the direct heirs of the Asia Minor refugees. The files compiled by a Pontic association of the Macedonian metropolis allow us to analyse the geographical origin and the settlement conditions of the migrants." (EXCERPT)

  19. Vegetable-origin foam employed in dye extraction in tanning and leather processing facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cangemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the use of conventional and vegetable origin polyurethane foams to extract C. I. Acid Orange 61 dye. The quantitative determination of the residual dye was carried out with an UV/Vis absorption spectrophotometer. The extraction of the dye was found to depend on various factors such as pH of the solution, foam cell structure, contact time and dye and foam interactions. After 45 days, better results were obtained for conventional foam when compared to vegetable foam. Despite presenting a lower percentage of extraction, vegetable foam is advantageous as it is considered a polymer with biodegradable characteristics.

  20. Long chain branching on linear polypropylene by solid state reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsig, E.; Gotsis, A. D.; Picchioni, F.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for the long chain branching (LCB) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) via modification in the solid state. PP long chains have been linked as branches to the original linear iPP chains using solid state reactions in the presence of a free radical initiator and a multifunctional

  1. Geodynamics branch data base for main magnetic field analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Robert A.; Baldwin, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The data sets used in geomagnetic field modeling at GSFC are described. Data are measured and obtained from a variety of information and sources. For clarity, data sets from different sources are categorized and processed separately. The data base is composed of magnetic observatory data, surface data, high quality aeromagnetic, high quality total intensity marine data, satellite data, and repeat data. These individual data categories are described in detail in a series of notebooks in the Geodynamics Branch, GSFC. This catalog reviews the original data sets, the processing history, and the final data sets available for each individual category of the data base and is to be used as a reference manual for the notebooks. Each data type used in geomagnetic field modeling has varying levels of complexity requiring specialized processing routines for satellite and observatory data and two general routines for processing aeromagnetic, marine, land survey, and repeat data.

  2. Parton Branching in Color Mutation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C

    1999-01-01

    The soft production problem in hadronic collisions as described in the eikonal color mutation branching model is improved in the way that the initial parton distribution is treated. Furry branching of the partons is considered as a means of describing the nonperturbative process of parton reproduction in soft interaction. The values of all the moments, and $C_q$, for q=2,...,5, as well as their energy dependences can be correctly determined by the use of only two parameters.

  3. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  4. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  5. Process organization-concept and origins with reference to the restructuring of Croatian manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kaštelan Mrak

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on the evolution of the term Process organization in order to point the possibilities of implementing the concept in the restructuring of the Croatian manufacturing industry. For that purpose, the paper starts by indicating the circumstances that led to the popularization of the concept among managers, especially due to the pressures that arise out of intensifying competition and global trends in enterprise restructuring. Here,we point to the fact, that even though the term has been known for quite some time, its meaning is changing: what makes it important these days is exactly the fact that process based restructuring makes easier the identification of critical business activities. The paper also stresses that there are other concepts related to organizational restructuring that are evolving along side, and, that are important for the understanding of the underlying logic and consequences of process oriented structures. Those are especially project organization, business networks, BPR and BPO.

  6. Dismantling processes of basaltic shield volcanoes - origin of the Piton des Neiges breccias - Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, A.; Bachèlery, B.; Cruchet, C.

    2003-04-01

    Reunion Island is mainly composed by two volcanic massifs: the active Piton de la Fournaise to the southeast and the Piton des Neiges to the northwest that has been inactive for about 12000 years. The latter corresponds to a dismantled volcanic massif, deeply cut by valleys and by three vast depressions, called “cirques” around the centre of the volcano. They offer the opportunity to observe the inside of a basaltic shield volcano. The first work dealing with the origin of the “cirques” very quickly showed the existence of a significant cover of breccia deposits. These breccias were often interpreted as the result of a major stage of erosion considered as partly at the origin of the “cirques” formation. Geological campaigns mainly achieved in the “cirque de Salazie” (eastern of the Piton des Neiges), allow to establish a first typology based on morphological, phenomenological and sedimentary features of the deposits. Two main complexes of breccias have been distinguished. An old complex outcropping in the internal parts of the cirque and an upper complex generally overlaying the lower complex. The old complex comprises two main units of breccias. These units show a strong alteration marked by the presence of clays, chlorites, serpentines and zeolites. In the inner part of the cirque, these breccias are closely related to the old lava formations from which they come. These units show frequent jigsaw-cracks, a chaotic stratigraphy, as well as large amounts of chlorite. The upper complex is constituted by four main units which are more or less geographically separated in the cirque of Salazie. Their limits are not yet well identified because of the significant relief and a strong vegetable cover. Several units display a very strong fracturation, jigsaw-cracks and a chaotic stratigraphy whereas many lava flows are pulverised and locally injected in scoria levels. Recent work on Saint-Gilles breccias (Fèvre et al., this meeting) allowed to identify

  7. Turn-taking in Human Communication--Origins and Implications for Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C

    2016-01-01

    Most language usage is interactive, involving rapid turn-taking. The turn-taking system has a number of striking properties: turns are short and responses are remarkably rapid, but turns are of varying length and often of very complex construction such that the underlying cognitive processing is highly compressed. Although neglected in cognitive science, the system has deep implications for language processing and acquisition that are only now becoming clear. Appearing earlier in ontogeny than linguistic competence, it is also found across all the major primate clades. This suggests a possible phylogenetic continuity, which may provide key insights into language evolution.

  8. Experimental studies related to the origin of the genetic code and the process of protein synthesis - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature on the experimental evidence for the genetic code assignments and the chemical reactions involved in the process of protein synthesis. In view of the enormous number of theoretical models that have been advanced to explain the origin of the genetic code, attention is confined to experimental studies. Since genetic coding has significance only within the context of protein synthesis, it is believed that the problem of the origin of the code must be dealt with in terms of the origin of the process of protein synthesis. It is contended that the answers must lie in the nature of the molecules, amino acids and nucleotides, the affinities they might have for one another, and the effect that those affinities must have on the chemical reactions that are related to primitive protein synthesis. The survey establishes that for the bulk of amino acids, there is a direct and significant correlation between the hydrophobicity rank of the amino acids and the hydrophobicity rank of their anticodonic dinucleotides.

  9. Block Based Bivariate Blending Rational Interpolation via Symmetric Branched Continued Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianjin Zhao; Jieqing Tan

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a new kind of block based bivariate blending rational interpolation via symmetric branched continued fractions. The construction process may be outlined as follows. The first step is to divide the original set of support points into some subsets (blocks). Then construct each block by using symmetric branched continued fraction.Finally assemble these blocks by Newton's method to shape the whole interpolation scheme.Our new method offers many flexible bivariate blending rational interpolation schemes which include the classical bivariate Newton's polynomial interpolation and symmetric branched continued fraction interpolation as its special cases. The block based bivariate blending rational interpolation is in fact a kind of tradeoff between the purely linear interpolation and the purely nonlinear interpolation. Finally,numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Getting emotional with evolutionary simulations: the origin of affective processing in artificial neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.T. Heerebout

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to investigate the evolutionary roots of basic affective processes and their underlying neural mechanisms. To this end, simulations were performed with agents that evolved artificial neural networks. Our general working hypothesis was that positive and nega

  11. Suppression and origin of soft ESD failures in a submicron CMOS process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Fred; Luchies, Jan Marc; Bruines, Joop

    1994-01-01

    Soft failures occurring after low-level ESD stress of thick and thin oxide NMOSTs in a submicron CMOS process have been studied. Simple drain engineering appears to have a dramatic improving effect. Simulation is used to study the cause for the soft failures.

  12. New fission fragment distributions and r-process origin of the rare-earth elements

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, S; Lemaitre, J -F; Panebianco, S; Dubray, N; Hilaire, S; Bauswein, A; Janka, H -Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Neutron star (NS) merger ejecta offer a viable site for the production of heavy r-process elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140. The crucial role of fission recycling is responsible for the robustness of this site against many astrophysical uncertainties, but calculations sensitively depend on nuclear physics. In particular the fission fragment yields determine the creation of 110 140.

  13. The specific carbon isotopic compositions of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons from Fushun oil shale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Yi; WU Baoxiang; ZHENG Guodong; ZHANG Hui; ZHENG Chaoyang

    2004-01-01

    Various branched and cyclic hydrocarbons are isolated from the Fushun oil shale and their carbon isotopes are determined. The analytical results show that the branched and cyclic hydrocarbons are fully separated from n-alkanes by 5 A Molecular-sieve adduction using long time and cold solvent. The branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction obtained by this method is able to satisfy the analytic requests of GC-IRMS. The carbon isotopic compositions of these branched and cyclic hydrocarbons obtained from the sample indicate that they are derived from photoautotrophic algae, chemoautotrophic bacteria (-3.4‰ --39.0‰) and methanotrophic bacteria (-38.4‰--46.3‰). However the long-chain 2-methyl-branched alkanes indicate that their carbon isotopic compositions reflect biological origin from higher plants. The carbon isotopic composition of C30 4-methyl sterane (-22.1‰) is the heaviest in all studied ste- ranes, showing that the carbon source or growth condition for its precursor, dinoflagellate, may be different from that of regular steranes. The variation trend of δ13C values between isomers of hopanes shows that 13C-enriched precursors take precedence in process of their epimerization. Methanotrophic hopanes presented reveal the processes of strong transformation of organic matter and cycling of organic carbon in the water column and early diagenesis of oil shale.

  14. 随机环境中分枝过程的暂留性与灭绝概率的性质%Some Properties of Branching Processes in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡杨利; 杨向群

    2012-01-01

    从随机环境中分枝过程是随机环境中马氏链入手,讨论了随机环境中分枝过程状态的暂留性、常返性以及灭绝概率的性质.%Based on the fact that branching processes in random environments are Markovian chains in random environments, transience and recurrence of the states are discussed and some properties of the extinction probability are obtained.

  15. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  16. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  17. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  18. The Chemical Basis for the Origin of the Genetic Code and the Process of Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, James C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A model for the origin of protein synthesis. The essential features of the model are that 5'-AMP and perhaps other monoribonucleotides can serve as catalysts for the selective synthesis of L-based peptides. A unique set of characteristics of 5'-AMP is responsible for the selective catalysts and these characteristics are described in detail. The model involves the formation of diesters as intermediates and selectivity for use of the L-isomer occurs principally at the step of forming the diester. However, in the formation of acetyl phenylalanine-AMP monoester there is a selectivity for esterification by the D-isomer. Data showing this selectivity is presented. This selectivity for D-isomer disappears after the first step. The identity was confirmed of all four of possible diesters of acetyl-D- and -L phenylaline with 5'-AMP by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The data using flourescence and NMR show the Trp ring can associate with the adenine ring more strongly when the D-isomer is in the 2' position than it can when in the 3' position. These same data also suggest a molecular mechanisim for the faster esterificaton of 5'-AMP by acetyl-D-phenylaline. Some new data is also presented on the possible structure of the 2' isomer of acetyl-D-tryptophan-AMP monoester. The HPLC elution times of all four possible acetyl diphenylalanine esters of 5'-AMP were studied, these peptidyl esters will be products in the studies of peptide formation on the ribose of 5'-AMP. Other studies were on the rate of synthesis and the identity of the product when producing 3'Ac-Phe-2'tBOC-Phe-AMP diester. HPLC purification and identification of this product were accomplished.

  19. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  20. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterized collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast) that can be isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit) will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and will guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage, and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008, also through organoleptic evaluation (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives). This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives, which can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the system for commercial classification, through assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived.

  1. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara eLanza

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions of the indigenous microflora of the olives together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources (fiber-glass fermenters, PVC tanks, pipelines, pumps and water) with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the ...

  2. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLanza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of transformation of table olives is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions of the indigenous microflora of the olives together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources (fiber-glass fermenters, PVC tanks, pipelines, pumps and water with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterised collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts that is possibly isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008 (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives, also through organoleptic evaluation. This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives that can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the systematics for commercial classification, through the assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived.

  3. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is ...

  4. Some Aspects of the Origin and Early Evolution of Bioenergetic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masinovský, Z.

    1984-12-01

    Model experiments demonstrating some possibilities of the primitive bioenergetics were performed. Comparing the catalytic properties of heme and hemoproteinoid in electron transfer reactions, it was shown that hemin acts as an active dark catalyst, whereas hemoproteinoid is a photosensitizer of these processes. The heme-containing enzyme, peroxidase/or even the hemoproteinoid/is also able to provide the phosphorylation of different substrates. It is proposed, that the phosphorylation is initiated by a hydroxyl radical occuring in the peroxidase reaction. We believe that those reactions could play a role in prebiotic energetics by coupling the electron transfer with the phosphorylation of suitable substrates.

  5. Ultrafast Optical Response from a Novel Tri-Branched Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李波; 米君; 孟凡顺; 田禾; 钱士雄

    2004-01-01

    A novel tri-branched copolymer is synthesized to show strong two-photon absorption and intense two-photon absorption induced fluorescence emission under the excitation of the femtosecond laser pulses at wavelength of 800 nm. The dynamics of the excited state was measured by the pump-probe technique. In a one-colour pump-probe experiment at 800 nm, there was an ultrafast transient absorption, followed by other two relaxation processes. The two-photon absorption process could be one origin for this ultrafast photoabsorption signal, which was further proven by two-colour pump-probe experiments. The other two decaying processes in the transient absorption dynamics have lifetime of about 15 ps and 129ps, which reflect the intraband vibrational relaxation and the decay of two-photon excited state, respectively.

  6. The Importance of Endospore-Forming Bacteria Originating from Soil for Contamination of Industrial Food Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Heyndrickx

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific endospore formers have become important contaminants in industrial food processing. The direct or indirect soil route of contamination or dispersal is the start of events or processes in the agrofood chain that eventually leads to important problems or concerns for food safety and/or quality. Three important food sectors are discussed in this paper. In the dairy sector, Bacillus cereus, the most important pathogen or spoilage organism in this sector, and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the most important spoiler in certain cheeses, both contaminate pasteurized milk through the faecal and/or (at least for B. cereus the direct soil route. In the fruit juice industry, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, present on raw fruits, has become a major quality-target organism. In the ready-to-eat food sector, B. cereus and other aerobic endospore formers are introduced via vegetables, fruits, or herbs and spices, while anaerobic spore formers like nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium estertheticum pose safety and spoilage risks in chilled packaged foods, respectively.

  7. Origin and diagenetic transformations of C sub 25 and C sub 30 highly branched isoprenoid sulfur compounds: Further evidence for the formation of organically bound sulfur during early diagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohnen, M.E.L.; Damste, J.S.S.; Kock-Van Dalen, A.C.; de Leeuw, J.W. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)); Ten Haven, H.L.; Rullkoetter, J. (Institute of Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry, Juelich (West Germany))

    1990-11-01

    A number of C{sub 25} and C{sub 30} highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) sulfur compounds (e.g., thiolanes, 1-oxo-thiolanes, thiophenes, and benzo(b)thiophenes) with 2,6,10,14-tetramethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)pentadecane and 2,6,10,14,18-pentamethyl-7-(3-methylpentyl)nonadecane carbon skeletons were identified in sediments, ranging from Holocene to Upper Cretaceous. These identifications are based on mass spectral characterization, desulfurization, and, in some cases, by comparison of mass spectral and relative retention time data with those of authentic standards. The presence of unsaturated C{sub 25} and C{sub 30} HBI thiolanes in a Recent sediment from the Black Sea (age 3-6 {times} 10{sup 3} a) strongly supports their formation during early diagenesis. The co-occurrence of HBI polyenes (C{sub 25} and C{sub 30}) and unsaturated HBI thiolanes (C{sub 25} and C{sub 30}) possessing two double bonds less than the corresponding HBI polyenes, in this Recent sediment, testifies to the formation of unsaturated HBI thiolanes by a reaction of inorganic sulfur species with double bonds of the HBI polyenes. Furthermore, a diagenetic scheme for HBI sulfur compounds is proposed based on the identification of HBI sulfur compounds in sediment samples with different maturity levels.

  8. Chemo-dynamical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies: The origin of r-process elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Y.; Ishimaru, Y.; Saitoh, T. R.; Fujii, M. S.; Hidaka, J.; Kajino, T.

    2016-06-01

    The r-process elements such as Au, Eu, and U are observed in the extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way halo and the Local Group dwarf galaxies. However, the origin of r-process elements has not yet been identified. The abundance of r-process elements of stars in the Local Group galaxies provides clues to clarify early evolutionary history of galaxies. It is important to understand the chemical evolution of the Local Group dwarf galaxies which would be building blocks of the Milky Way. In this study, we perform a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of dwarf galaxies. We show that neutron star mergers can reproduce the observation of r-process elements. We find that the effects of gas mixing processes including metals in the star-forming region of a typical scale of giant molecular clouds ¥sim 10-100 pc play significant roles in the early chemical enrichment of dwarf galaxies. We also find that the star formation rate of ˜ 10^{-3} M_{⊙}yr^{-1} in early epoch (<1 Gyr) of galactic halo evolution is necessary for these results. Our results suggest that neutron star mergers are a major site of r-process.

  9. Possible Processes for Origin of First Chemoheterotrophic Microorganisms with Modeling of Physiological Processes of Bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a Model System in 2H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignat Ignatov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied possible processes for origin of first chemoheterotrophic microorganisms with modeling of physiological processes of a Gram-positive chemoheterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis, producer of purine ribonucleoside inosine as a model system in heavy water. The physiological influence of deuterium on the chemoheterotrophic bacterium B. subtilis was studied on a heavy water (HW medium with a maximal concentration of 2H2O (89–90 atom% 2H. Also various suitable samples of hot mineral water and sea water derived from different sources of Bulgaria were investigated using IR- and DNES-spectroscopy. It was shown that hot alkaline mineral water with temperature from +65 0C to +95 0C and pH value from 9 to 11 is more suitable for the origination of first organic forms than other analyzed water samples. There were discussed the reactions of condensation and dehydration occurring in alkaline aqueous solutions at t = +65–95 0C and рН = 9–10, resulting in synthesis from separate molecules the larger organic molecules as short polipeptides and pyrines, as well as the possible mechanisms of the deuterium accumulation in form of H2HO in hot water. The metabolism of the bacterium B. subtilis and the resistance to deuterium was also analyzed on an evolutionary level taking into account the hydrological conditions of primodial hydrosphere and the presence of H2HO, as well as the qualitative and quantitative composition of the cellular protein, amino acids and carbohydrates on media with maximum deuterium content. It was demonstrated on the example of chemoheterotrophic bacteria that first microorganisms might have been originated in hot mineral water with Ca2+ (0.5-1.0 g/l at t = + 65-95 0C and pH = 9–11, that is more suitable for maintenance and origin of life than other analyzed water samples.

  10. The Branchings of the Main s-process: Their Sensitivity to alpha-induced Reactions on 13C and 22Ne and to the Uncertainties of the Nuclear Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bisterzo, Sara; Kaeppeler, Franz; Wiescher, Michael; Imbriani, Gianluca; Straniero, Oscar; Cristallo, Sergio; Goerres, Joachim; deBoer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the main component of the slow neutron capture process (the s-process), which accounts for the solar abundances of half of the nuclei with 90 <~ A <~ 208. We examine the impact of the uncertainties of the two neutron sources operating in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars: the 13C(alpha, n)16O reaction, which releases neutrons radiatively during interpulse periods (kT ~ 8 keV), and the 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg reaction, partially activated during the convective thermal pulses (TPs). We focus our attention on the branching points that mainly influence the abundance of s-only isotopes. In our AGB models, the 13C is fully consumed radiatively during interpulse. In this case, we find that the present uncertainty associated to the 13C(alpha, n)16O reaction has marginal effects on s-only nuclei. On the other hand, a reduction of this rate may increase the amount of residual (or unburned) 13C at the end of the interpulse: in this condition, the residual 13C is bur...

  11. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  12. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  13. Selective Absorption Processes as the Origin of Puzzling Spectral Line Polarization from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo-Bueno, J; Collados, M; Merenda, L; Sainz, R M

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a key role in most astrophysical systems, from the Sun to active galactic nuclei. They can be studied through their effects on atomic energy levels, which produce polarized spectral lines. In particular, anisotropic radiation pumping processes (which send electrons to higher atomic levels) induce population imbalances that are modified by weak magnetic fields. Here we report peculiarly polarized light in the He I 10830-\\AA multiplet observed in a coronal filament located at the centre of the solar disk. We show that the polarized light arises from selective absorption from the ground level of the triplet system of helium, and that it implies the presence of magnetic fields of the order of a few gauss that are highly inclined with respect to the solar radius vector. This disproves the common belief that population imbalances in long-lived atomic levels are insignificant in the presence of inclined fields with strengths in the gauss range, and demonstrates the operation of the ground-level ...

  14. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI, enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with (n=3 or without (n=3 pancreatic duct ligation (PL were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C, there was an almost complete pcD (>92% except for potato starch (61.5% which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%. Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions.

  15. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  16. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  17. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  18. Composition, origin and weathering process of surface sediment in Kumtagh Desert, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhiwei; LU Huayu; ZHAO Cunfa; WANG Xianyan; SU Zhizhua; WANG Zhenting; LIU Hongyi; WANG Lixin; LU Qi

    2011-01-01

    Kumtagh Desert is one of the eight biggest deserts in China,but poorly investigated before our interdisciplinary study because of the difficulty of access.In this paper,33 representative surface sediment samples were collected from the Kumtagh Desert and analyzed in the laboratory to obtain heavy mineral components and geochemical element contents.Results show that various kinds of heavy minerals are present in these samples,with high levels of epidote and hornblende.Si and AI take up a large part of chemical composition.Compared with the average composition of geochemical elements of the upper continental crust (UCC),except Si and Ca,all elements are depleted to a certain degree; Fe,Mg,Ca,P,Ti and Mn have high correlation coefficients in their contents.The mineral and geochemical composition of the Kumtagh Desert sediments have a similarity with that of rocks of Altyn Tagh Mountains,and the surface sediments of the alluvial/diluvial fans around the Altyn Tagh Mountains and that of the Taklamakan Desert,indicating that one major source of the Kumtagh Desert sediments is located in the Altyn Tagh Mountains.Alluvial deposits and lake sediments in Aqik valley and lower reaches of Shule River are prone to be eroded and transported by the strong northeasterly wind into the Kumtagh Desert,forming another source of the desert deposits.An A-CN-K ternary diagram shows that a weak degree chemical weathering by the loss of Na and K occurred in these sediments,whereas A-CNK-FM temary diagram suggests that Fe and Mg have undergone a significant chemical differentiation.Physical weathering processes cause easy erosion and enrichment in fine particles for mafic minerals,thus coarse desert sand particles can be relatively depleted in Fe and Mg.The mineral and geochemical composition of sediments in arid regions experiencing less chemical weathering are mostly affected by physical weathering.

  19. DHX9 suppresses RNA processing defects originating from the Alu invasion of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Tuğçe; Avşar Ilık, İbrahim; Maticzka, Daniel; Bhardwaj, Vivek; Pessoa Rodrigues, Cecilia; Mittler, Gerhard; Manke, Thomas; Backofen, Rolf; Akhtar, Asifa

    2017-04-06

    Transposable elements are viewed as 'selfish genetic elements', yet they contribute to gene regulation and genome evolution in diverse ways. More than half of the human genome consists of transposable elements. Alu elements belong to the short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) family of repetitive elements, and with over 1 million insertions they make up more than 10% of the human genome. Despite their abundance and the potential evolutionary advantages they confer, Alu elements can be mutagenic to the host as they can act as splice acceptors, inhibit translation of mRNAs and cause genomic instability. Alu elements are the main targets of the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR and the formation of Alu exons is suppressed by the nuclear ribonucleoprotein HNRNPC, but the broad effect of massive secondary structures formed by inverted-repeat Alu elements on RNA processing in the nucleus remains unknown. Here we show that DHX9, an abundant nuclear RNA helicase, binds specifically to inverted-repeat Alu elements that are transcribed as parts of genes. Loss of DHX9 leads to an increase in the number of circular-RNA-producing genes and amount of circular RNAs, translational repression of reporters containing inverted-repeat Alu elements, and transcriptional rewiring (the creation of mostly nonsensical novel connections between exons) of susceptible loci. Biochemical purifications of DHX9 identify the interferon-inducible isoform of ADAR (p150), but not the constitutively expressed ADAR isoform (p110), as an RNA-independent interaction partner. Co-depletion of ADAR and DHX9 augments the double-stranded RNA accumulation defects, leading to increased circular RNA production, revealing a functional link between these two enzymes. Our work uncovers an evolutionarily conserved function of DHX9. We propose that it acts as a nuclear RNA resolvase that neutralizes the immediate threat posed by transposon insertions and allows these elements to evolve as tools for the post

  20. Using Multi-Isotopic Analysis To Track The Origin Of NO3 In Groundwater And To Trace Natural Attenuation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, N.; Soler, A.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrate pollution has become a major threat to groundwater quality as the maximum nitrate concentration allowed by the European Directive 98/83/CE in waters for human consumption, 50 mg/L, is reached in most of the regional aquifers in Europe. In Catalonia, according to the nitrate directive, nine areas have been declared as vulnerable to nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. Five of these areas have been studied coupling hydro chemical data with a multi-isotopic approach, in an ongoing research project looking for an integrated application of classical hydrochemistry data, with a comprehensive isotopic characterisation (δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ D and δ18O of water) in order to assess groundwater management in this area. The nitrogen isotopes have allowed to determine the origin of nitrate pollution for the different areas: fertilisers in the Maresme area, animal manure in the Osona and Empordà areas, and a mixed origin in Selva and Garrotxa areas. The coupled use of δ15N and δ18O permitted to determine the existence of denitrification processes (natural attenuation of pollution), and showed that this process is effective in the Osona, Selva and the Empordà areas, but not significant in the Maresme and Garrotxa areas. The multi-isotopic approach, coupling δ15N and δ18O of nitrate, with the isotopic composition of the ions involved in denitrification reactions (δ34S, δ18O, and δ13C ), showed the relationship between sulphide oxidation and nitrate attenuation in the Osona area. In the Empordà and Selva areas, the denitrification is not linked to sulphide oxidation, and organic matter must be the electron donor for denitrification, though further research is needed to confirm the role of organic matter. The observed denitrification processes reveal optional strategies for nitrogen attenuation.

  1. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  2. Residence time, mineralization processes and groundwater origin within a carbonate coastal aquifer with a thick unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, S.; Huneau, F.; Garel, E.; Vergnaud-Ayraud, V.; Labasque, T.; Aquilina, L.; Jaunat, J.; Celle-Jeanton, H.

    2016-09-01

    This study aims at establishing groundwater residence times, identifying mineralization processes and determining groundwater origins within a carbonate coastal aquifer with thick unsaturated zone and lying on a granitic depression. A multi-tracer approach (major ions, SiO2, Br-, Ba+, Sr2+, 18O, 2H, 13C, 3H, Ne, Ar) combined with a groundwater residence time determination using CFCs and SF6 allows defining the global setting of the study site. A typical mineralization conditioned by the sea sprays and the carbonate matrix helped to validate the groundwater weighted residence times from using a binary mixing model. Terrigenic SF6 excesses have been detected and quantified, which permits to identify a groundwater flow from the surrounding fractured granites towards the lower aquifer principally. The use of CFCs and SF6 as a first hydrogeological investigation tool is possible and very relevant despite the thick unsaturated zone and the hydraulic connexion with a granitic environment.

  3. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris.

  4. Age-Dependent Branching Processes with Static Immigration in Random Environments%静态迁徙下依赖于年龄的随机环境中分枝过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕平; 杨广宇; 胡迪鹤

    2011-01-01

    引进了静态迁徙下依赖于年龄的随机环境中分枝过程的模型,给出了该模型的条件母函教的更新方程并考虑了特殊情形下的随机Kolmogorov方程.与此同时,通过研究更新芳程得到了分枝过程的各阶矩,考虑了简单情形下的灭绝概率.最后给出了一个开问题.%The model of age-independent branching processes with static immigration in random environments is introduced. Giving the renewal equation of conditional generation function and considering the Kolmogorov equation for the special case.Moreover, we obtain the moments through studying the renewal equation and consider the extinction probability simply. Finally, we give an open problem.

  5. Delayed evolutionary branching in small populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; Andersson, J.; Persson, L.; de Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Question: How is the process of evolutionary branching influenced by demographic stochasticity? Mathematical methods: Adaptive dynamics of (i) a simple consumer-resource model and (ii) an analogous but individual-based model with finite population size. Key assumptions: Consumers have acce

  6. Bounds of Deviation for Branching Chains in Random Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gang WANG

    2011-01-01

    We consider non-extinct branching processes in general random environments. Under the condition of means and second moments of each generation being bounded, we give the upper bounds and lower bounds for some form deviations of the process.

  7. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  8. Uridine branch acceptor is a cis-acting element involved in regulation of the alternative processing of calcitonin/CGRP-l pre-mRNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Adema, G. J.; van Hulst, K L; Baas, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The human calcitonin/CGRP-I (CALC-I) gene contains 6 exons and encodes two polypeptide precursors. In thyroid C-cells, calcitonin (CT) mRNA is produced by splicing of exons 1-2-3 to exon 4 (CT-encoding) and polyadenylation at exon 4. CGRP-I mRNA is produced in particular neural cells by splicing of exons 1-2-3 to exon 5 (CGRP-I-encoding) and the polyadenylated exon 6. We previously reported that model precursor RNAs containing the exon 3 to exon 5 region of the CALC-I gene are processed predo...

  9. Computing the origin and evolution of the ribosome from its structure — Uncovering processes of macromolecular accretion benefiting synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Caetano-Anollés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accretion occurs pervasively in nature at widely different timeframes. The process also manifests in the evolution of macromolecules. Here we review recent computational and structural biology studies of evolutionary accretion that make use of the ideographic (historical, retrodictive and nomothetic (universal, predictive scientific frameworks. Computational studies uncover explicit timelines of accretion of structural parts in molecular repertoires and molecules. Phylogenetic trees of protein structural domains and proteomes and their molecular functions were built from a genomic census of millions of encoded proteins and associated terminal Gene Ontology terms. Trees reveal a ‘metabolic-first’ origin of proteins, the late development of translation, and a patchwork distribution of proteins in biological networks mediated by molecular recruitment. Similarly, the natural history of ancient RNA molecules inferred from trees of molecular substructures built from a census of molecular features shows patchwork-like accretion patterns. Ideographic analyses of ribosomal history uncover the early appearance of structures supporting mRNA decoding and tRNA translocation, the coevolution of ribosomal proteins and RNA, and a first evolutionary transition that brings ribosomal subunits together into a processive protein biosynthetic complex. Nomothetic structural biology studies of tertiary interactions and ancient insertions in rRNA complement these findings, once concentric layering assumptions are removed. Patterns of coaxial helical stacking reveal a frustrated dynamics of outward and inward ribosomal growth possibly mediated by structural grafting. The early rise of the ribosomal ‘turnstile’ suggests an evolutionary transition in natural biological computation. Results make explicit the need to understand processes of molecular growth and information transfer of macromolecules.

  10. The TOPOMOD-ITN project: unravel the origin of Earth's topography from modelling deep-surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, C.; Funiciello, F.

    2012-04-01

    EC-Marie Curie Initial Training Networks (ITN) projects aim to improve the career perspectives of young generations of researchers. Institutions from both academic and industry sectors form a collaborative network to recruit research fellows and provide them with opportunities to undertake research in the context of a joint research training program. In this frame, TOPOMOD - one of the training activities of EPOS, the new-born European Research Infrastructure for Geosciences - is a funded ITN project designed to investigate and model how surface processes interact with crustal tectonics and mantle convection to originate and develop topography of the continents over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The multi-disciplinary approach combines geophysics, geochemistry, tectonics and structural geology with advanced geodynamic numerical/analog modelling. TOPOMOD involves 8 European research teams internationally recognized for their excellence in complementary fields of Earth Sciences (Roma TRE, Utrecht, GFZ, ETH, Cambridge, Durham, Rennes, Barcelona), to which are associated 5 research institutions (CNR-Italy, Univ. Parma, Univ. Lausanne, Univ. Montpellier, Univ. Mainz) , 3 high-technology enterprises (Malvern Instruments, TNO, G.O. Logical Consulting) and 1 large multinational oil and gas company (ENI). This unique network places emphasis in experience-based training increasing the impact and international visibility of European research in modeling. Long-term collaboration and synergy are established among the overmentioned research teams through 15 cross-disciplinary research projects that combine case studies in well-chosen target areas from the Mediterranean, the Middle and Far East, west Africa, and South America, with new developments in structural geology, geomorphology, seismology, geochemistry, InSAR, laboratory and numerical modelling of geological processes from the deep mantle to the surface. These multidisciplinary projects altogether aim to

  11. Why a Particle Physicist is Interested in DNA Branch Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Myers, E; Myers, Eric; Bruist, Michael F.

    1996-01-01

    We describe an explicitly discrete model of the process of DNA branch migration. The model matches the existing data well, but we find that branch migration along long strands of DNA ($N \\simge 40$~bp) is also well modeled by continuum diffusion. The discrete model is still useful for guiding future experiments.

  12. A random walk with a branching system in random environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-qiu LI; Xu LI; Quan-sheng LIU

    2007-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk in random environments, where the particles are reproduced as a branching process with a random environment (in time), and move independently as a random walk on Z with a random environment (in locations). We obtain the asymptotic properties on the position of the rightmost particle at time n, revealing a phase transition phenomenon of the system.

  13. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  14. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheiber, Laura, E-mail: scheiber.ls@gmail.com [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18. E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Cendón, Dioni I. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences (BEES), University of New South Wales (UNSW), NSW 2052 (Australia); Soler, Albert [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Dipòsits Minerals, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí Franquès, sn., Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Juan Carlos [Cobre Las Cruces S.A., Carretera SE-3410 km 4, 41860 Gerena, Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH{sub 4}), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH{sub 4}, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH{sub 4}, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ{sup 15}N{sub NH4} values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water

  15. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  16. Origin of high ammonium, arsenic and boron concentrations in the proximity of a mine: Natural vs. anthropogenic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I; Soler, Albert; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-15

    High ammonium (NH4), arsenic (As) and boron (B) concentrations are found in aquifers worldwide and are often related to human activities. However, natural processes can also lead to groundwater quality problems. High NH4, As and B concentrations have been identified in the confined, deep portion of the Niebla-Posadas aquifer, which is near the Cobre Las Cruces (CLC) mining complex. The mine has implemented a Drainage and Reinjection System comprising two rings of wells around the open pit mine, were the internal ring drains and the external ring is used for water reinjection into the aquifer. Differentiating geogenic and anthropogenic sources and processes is therefore crucial to ensuring good management of groundwater in this sensitive area where groundwater is extensively used for agriculture, industry, mining and human supply. No NH4, As and B are found in the recharge area, but their concentrations increase with depth, salinity and residence time of water in the aquifer. The increased salinity down-flow is interpreted as the result of natural mixing between infiltrated meteoric water and the remains of connate waters (up to 8%) trapped within the pores. Ammonium and boron are interpreted as the result of marine solid organic matter degradation by the sulfate dissolved in the recharge water. The light δ(15)NNH4 values confirm that its origin is linked to marine organic matter. High arsenic concentrations in groundwater are interpreted as being derived from reductive dissolution of As-bearing goethite by dissolved organic matter. The lack of correlation between dissolved Fe and As is explained by the massive precipitation of siderite, which is abundantly found in the mineralization. Therefore, the presence of high arsenic, ammonium and boron concentrations is attributed to natural processes. Ammonium, arsenic, boron and salinity define three zones of groundwater quality: the first zone is close to the recharge area and contains water of sufficient quality for

  17. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  18. Aplikasi Galton Watson Branching Process dalam Parasitologi

    OpenAIRE

    Sunusi, Nurtiti

    2005-01-01

    Penyakit malaria merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang masih perlu diperhitungkan dalam pengelolaan kesehatan di Negara-negara tropik termasuk Indonesia. Di Indonesia, ditemukan 4 spesies parasit pada manusia, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, dan Plasmodium ovale. Di antara ke empat plasmodium tersebut, Plasmodium falciparum mempunyai siklus hidup terpendek di dalam sel hati dan menyerang semua bentuk eritrosit, sehingga perkembangbiakan di dalam darah cepat...

  19. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    reflect different features of the global structure, and it is categorically shown that this dimensional analysis results in effective structure characterization of these materials. Small-angle scattering of x-rays and neutrons can be used to quantify branch content and characterize the structure, through application of concepts native to fractal geometry. The application of the scaling model to nano-particulate aggregates yields quantitative information regarding the structure of these materials. In-situ small and ultra small angle x-ray scattering data collected on fumed silica and soot particles is presented in Chapter II. These measurements were performed at Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, UNICAT beam-line and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, France, ID2 beam-line. The dimensional analysis is successful in not only giving an average snap-shot of the nano-particulate aggregates, but also yields information regarding the growth processes involved in the complex pyrolysis technique of synthesizing these materials. In case of macromolecular systems, the minimum path dimension, dmin, is shown to reflect the thermodynamics of the system. This is categorically established in Chapter III on hyperbranched polymers, where the scaling model accurately predicts the good-solvent to theta-condition transition in these highly branched polymers with increasing molar mass. The scaling model is applied to the long standing problem of quantifying long chain branching in polyethylene in Chapter IV. Small angle neutron scattering data on dilute solutions of polyethylene were obtained at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (SAND beam-line); NIST center for Neutron Scattering (NG3 beam-line); and Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center (LQD beam-line). This work, for the first time in literature, reports the length of a long chain branch in polyethylene in terms of the average molar mass of the branches, and the average number of carbon atoms in the long

  20. Interactions of neurons with topographic nano cues affect branching morphology mimicking neuron-neuron interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranes, Koby; Kollmar, Davida; Chejanovsky, Nathan; Sharoni, Amos; Shefi, Orit

    2012-08-01

    We study the effect of topographic nano-cues on neuronal growth-morphology using invertebrate neurons in culture. We use photolithography to fabricate substrates with repeatable line-pattern ridges of nano-scale heights of 10-150 nm. We plate leech neurons atop the patterned-substrates and compare their growth pattern to neurons plated atop non-patterned substrates. The model system allows us the analysis of single neurite-single ridge interactions. The use of high resolution electron microscopy reveals small filopodia processes that attach to the line-pattern ridges. These fine processes, that cannot be detected in light microscopy, add anchoring sites onto the side of the ridges, thus additional physical support. These interactions of the neuronal process dominantly affect the neuronal growth direction. We analyze the response of the entire neuronal branching tree to the patterned substrates and find significant effect on the growth patterns compared to non-patterned substrates. Moreover, interactions with the nano-cues trigger a growth strategy similarly to interactions with other neuronal cells, as reflected in their morphometric parameters. The number of branches and the number of neurites originating from the soma decrease following the interaction demonstrating a tendency to a more simplified neuronal branching tree. The effect of the nano-cues on the neuronal function deserves further investigation and will strengthen our understanding of the interplay between function and form.

  1. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  2. The origin of islands in the Kandalaksha Gulf of the White Sea: joint work of internal and external geodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosevich, Natalia; Romanovskaya, Maria

    2016-04-01

    The modern White Sea basin is a part of the encounter zone between the East European Platform and of the Fennoscandian Shield. The Kandalaksha Gulf in its northwest lies on the Mesoarchean-Paleoproterozoic structure known as the White Sea Shift Belt. In the Oligocene, it entered its neotectonic stage. Geologically, there are two structural storeys beneath the seafloor of the Kandalaksha Gulf: 1) crystalline bedrock of the Archean White Sea complex; 2) a cover of sediment consisting of three layers: Riphean sandstones, terrigenous Vendian deposits; a cloak of Pleistocene and Holocene deposits and sediments - glacial drifts, transitional glaciomarine sediments and purely marine sediments. The modern White Sea is a young basin formed just 10 to 12 ka. The geological and geomorphic history of the White Sea region was very complicated, with various and often conflicting tectonic movements. Besides the postglacial isostatic rise of Scandinavia amounted to some 100 meters in the White Sea area. The White Sea has numerous islands that are very different in the geological-geomorphological and genetic senses because their origin is the result of interactions between various endogenous and exogenous processes. Large and detailed scale geological and morphological researches of the islands at the southern and northern coast of the Kandalaksha Gulf have been carried out. Landforms of the islands were produced by the joint effects of such processes as (1) glacial-tectonic effects and marine wave action, (2) tidal and surge effects; (3) glacial-tectonic, marine, and gravity effects, and (4) glacial-tectonic, marine, lake, and biogenic effects (Kosevich, 2015). The relief structure of the islands has the following regularities: 1) structures of the northern coast islands are more often landforms that are composed of loose deposits with small sites of structural denudation residual outcrops; 2) the structures of the southern coast islands are typically combinations of loose

  3. Origin在大学物理实验数据处理中的应用%Application of Origin in the Experimental Data Processing of College Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍连利

    2015-01-01

    首先介绍了Origin软件的特点及功能优势,其次给出了利用Origin处理夫兰克-赫兹实验数据的实例,最后指出了应用Origin对物理实验数据进行处理,具有方法简便、快捷、准确、高效的特点。%Firstly the characteristics and function of Origin software was introduced. Secondly, the Franck-Hertz experiment data processing by using Origin was given. Finally the application of Origin in physics experiment data processing has characteristics of simple method, quick, accurate and efficient.

  4. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  5. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  6. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  7. Shear Modification of long-chain branched polymers : a theoretical approach using POM-POM model

    OpenAIRE

    Bourrigault, S.; Marin, Gérard; Poitou, Arnaud

    2003-01-01

    International audience; “Shear modification” is a strong modification of rheological properties which affects mainly long-chain branched polymers like LDPE. The aim of this work is to explain this effect using recent advances in molecular dynamics and especially the pom-pom model which was designed for branched polymers. The original model was slightly modified in order to take into account the change in molecular topology related to the branch point withdrawal mechanism without introducing a...

  8. Application of Origin Software in Photoelectric Effect Experiment Data Processing%Origin软件在光电效应实验数据处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍连利

    2015-01-01

    Firstly the characteristic, function and use of the Origin software was briefly introduced; secondly, the concrete method of data processing by Origin software and its effectiveness were pointed out, with its application in the determination of the photoelectric effect and Planck's constant, for example.%首先简要介绍了Origin软件的特点、功能和使用方法,其次以"光电效应"实验为例,给出Origin软件进行实验数据处理的具体方法并说明该方法的有效性.

  9. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  10. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  11. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  12. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  13. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  14. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  15. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  16. EEG differences as a function of creativity, stage of the creative process, and effort to be original.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, C; Hasenfus, N

    1978-04-01

    Results of two experiments examining the relationship between creativity and EEG alpha wave presence are reported. In Experiment 1, it was found that more creative subjects exhibited higher alpha indices during an analogue of creative inspiration than during an analogue of creative elaboration. This pattern was not found in less creative subjects. In Experiment 2 a similar effect was found in a more controlled setting and shown to be specific to creative subjects when they are instructed to be original but not when they are given no such instructions. No consistent relationship between creativity and basal EEG alpha activity was found.

  17. Endogenous patterns of mechanical stress are required for branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial patterning of cell behaviors establishes the regional differences within tissues that collectively develop branched organs into their characteristic treelike shapes. Here we show that the pattern of branching morphogenesis of three-dimensional (3D) engineered epithelial tissues is controlled in part by gradients of endogenous mechanical stress. We used microfabrication to build model mammary epithelial tissues of defined geometry that branched in a stereotyped pattern when induced with growth factors. Branches initiated from sites of high mechanical stress within the tissues, as predicted numerically and measured directly using 3D traction force microscopy. Branch sites were defined by activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), inhibition of which disrupted morphogenesis. Stress, FAK activation, and branching were all altered by manipulating cellular contractility, matrix stiffness, intercellular cohesion and tissue geometry. These data suggest that the pattern and magnitude of mechanical stress across epithelial tissues cooperate with biochemical signals to specify branching pattern. Insight, innovation, integration Morphogenesis is ultimately a physical process wherein tissues are sculpted into their final three-dimensional (3D) patterns. Mechanical stresses from the microenvironment can also play regulatory roles, but their influence on pattern is difficult to ascertain in 3D systems in vivo. Here we integrate 3D microscale engineered tissues with insight from biological mechanics to understand the role of endogenous mechanical stresses in patterning tissue development. The innovation lies in the use of numerical modeling to design experiments that can predict the stress distribution and resulting morphogenesis of model tissues. PMID:20717570

  18. Hd3a promotes lateral branching in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Chika; Tamaki, Shojiro; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Kyozuka, Junko; Shimamoto, Ko

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is the mobile floral signal known as florigen. A rice FT homolog, Heading date 3a (Hd3a), is transported from the phloem to shoot apical cells, where it interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and transcription factor OsFD1 to form a florigen activation complex (FAC) that activates a rice homolog of the floral identity gene APETALA1. Recent studies showed that florigen has roles in plant development beyond flowering; however, the exact nature of these roles is not well understood. It is not clear whether FT is transported to organs outside the shoot apex, and whether FAC formation is required for processes other than flowering. We show here that the Hd3a protein accumulates in axillary meristems to promote branching, and that FAC formation is required. Analysis of transgenic plants revealed that Hd3a promotes branching through lateral bud outgrowth. Hd3a protein produced in the phloem reached the axillary meristem in the lateral bud, and its transport was required for promotion of branching. Moreover, mutant Hd3a proteins defective in FAC formation but competent with respect to transport did not promote branching. Finally, we show that Hd3a promotes branching independently from strigolactone and FC1, a transcription factor that inhibits branching in rice. Together, these results suggest that Hd3a functions as a mobile signal for branching in rice.

  19. Plexin A3 and turnout regulate motor axonal branch morphogenesis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sainath

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis motor axons navigate to their target muscles, where individual motor axons develop complex branch morphologies. The mechanisms that control axonal branching morphogenesis have been studied intensively, yet it still remains unclear when branches begin to form or how branch locations are determined. Live cell imaging of individual zebrafish motor axons reveals that the first axonal branches are generated at the ventral extent of the myotome via bifurcation of the growth cone. Subsequent branches are generated by collateral branching restricted to their synaptic target field along the distal portion of the axon. This precisely timed and spatially restricted branching process is disrupted in turnout mutants we identified in a forward genetic screen. Molecular genetic mapping positioned the turnout mutation within a 300 kb region encompassing eight annotated genes, however sequence analysis of all eight open reading frames failed to unambiguously identify the turnout mutation. Chimeric analysis and single cell labeling reveal that turnout function is required cell non-autonomously for intraspinal motor axon guidance and peripheral branch formation. turnout mutant motor axons form the first branch on time via growth cone bifurcation, but unlike wild-type they form collateral branches precociously, when the growth cone is still navigating towards the ventral myotome. These precocious collateral branches emerge along the proximal region of the axon shaft typically devoid of branches, and they develop into stable, permanent branches. Furthermore, we find that null mutants of the guidance receptor plexin A3 display identical motor axon branching defects, and time lapse analysis reveals that precocious branch formation in turnout and plexin A3 mutants is due to increased stability of otherwise short-lived axonal protrusions. Thus, plexin A3 dependent intrinsic and turnout dependent extrinsic mechanisms suppress collateral branch

  20. Popliteal artery branching patterns-an angiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, C.P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chris.laura2001@ntlworld.com; Orme, R. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    AIM: To analyse the variations in branching patterns of the popliteal artery and infrapopliteal vessels using angiography. MATERIALS And METHODS: Femoral angiograms of 1037 lower limbs in 568 patients were examined to assess the popliteal artery branching pattern. Variations of the infrapopliteal vessels supplying the foot were assessed in 662 limbs from the same cohort of patients. RESULTS: Nine hundred and forty-one (90.7%) limbs had the usual branching pattern with anterior tibial artery (AT) arising first followed by the tibial-peroneal trunk (TPT), which then gives rise to the posterior tibial (PT) and peroneal (PR) arteries. Variations in popliteal branching pattern were seen in 96 (9.3%) limbs. The commonest variation is high origin of the AT in 47 (4.5%) limbs or trifurcation of the popliteal artery in 33 (3.2%) limbs with AT, PT and PR arising together with no true TPT. The course of AT with high origin either anterior or posterior to popliteus was almost equal [25 (2.4%) or 22 (2.1%) limbs, respectively]. Eleven limbs (1.1%) had high origin of PT and two (0.2%) had a high origin of the PR. Six hundred and fifty-five (99%) limbs had normal infrapopliteal vessels. Seven (1%) had hypoplasia-aplasia of the infrapopliteal vessels. Five (0.8%) limbs had a hypoplastic PT with the remaining 2 (0.2%) having either a hypoplastic-aplastic AT or hypoplasia-aplasia of both AT and PT. CONCLUSION: Variations in the branching of the popliteal artery occur in about 10% of patients. Knowledge of these variations is important because of the potential consequences for the management of peripheral vascular disease.

  1. 双向自动分支界限特征选择算法%Bidirectional Automated Branch and Bound Algorithm for Feature Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨胜; 施鹏飞

    2005-01-01

    Feature selection is a process where a minimal feature subset is selected from an original feature set according to a certain measure. In this paper, feature relevancy is defined by an Inconsistency rate. A bidirectional automated branch and bound algorithm is presented. It is a new complete search algorithm for feature selection, which performs feature deletion and feature addition in parallel.it is fit for feature selection.

  2. Comportamento dos nervos glossofaríngeo e vago, na região retrofaríngea de ovinos: origem aparente no crânio, trajeto, ramificação e distribuição Behavior of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in the retropharyngeal region of sheep: apparent origin in cranium, course, branching and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria M.D. Farias

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 60 hemicabeças de ovinos da raça Santa Inês foram estudadas a origem aparente no crânio, trajeto, ramificação e distribuição do nervo glossofaríngeo (Gf e do nervo vago (Vg, na região retrofaríngea (Rr. Mediante fixação e dissecação das peças, foi observado que os nervos glossofaríngeos e vagos originam-se no forame jugular em 100% dos casos. Os nervos glossofaríngeos direito e esquerdo (Gfde são localizados, com maior freqüência (86,6%, medialmente à bula timpânica, passam caudalmente ao osso estiloióide, contornam a margem caudal do músculo estilofaríngeo caudal, tonsilar, da mucosa faríngea e lingual. Estes ramos distribuemse, respectivamente, no seio carotídeo, musculatura faríngea, palato mole, músculo estilofaríngeo caudal, tonsila palatina, mucosa faríngea e terço caudal da língua (100%. Os nervos vagos direito e esquerdo (Vgde correm caudalmente em associação com os nervos acessórios (Ac até o atlas (70%, após o que passam medialmente à artéria occipital, dorsalmente à carótida comum e ao tronco simpático, na região cervical (80%. Os ramos dos nervos vagos são os faríngeos (86,66% e os laríngeos craniais (100%.In 60 hemiheads of sheep of the Santa Ines breed the apparent origin in the skull of itinerary, ramification and distribution of the glossopharingeal nerve (Gf and the vagus nerve (Vg in the retropharyngeal region (Rr were studied. By fixation and dissection of the specimens it was seen that the glossopharyngeal nerve and the vagus nerve arise from the jugular foramen in 100% of the cases. The right and the left glossopharingeal nerve (Glde are frequently (86.6% located more medially to the tympanic bulla, pass caudally to the stylohyoid bone, bypass the margin of the caudal stylopharyngeal muscle, the tonsilla, of the pharyngeal and the lingual mucous membrane. These branches are distributed, respectively, in the carotid sinus, pharyngeal musculature, soft palate, stylopharyngeal

  3. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  4. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  5. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  6. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  7. 长江河口南支河道近期演变与自动调整过程研究%Recent evolution and self-adjustment processes of south branch of Yangtze River estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓鹤; 李九发; 姚弘毅; 朱文武

    2015-01-01

    基于长江河口1997年以来大量的数字地形图和水文泥沙实测资料,分析研究了工程影响下南支河段河床自动调整过程. 结果表明:三峡水库蓄水以来,在来水量未变、来沙锐减背景下,南支河道水流流态较平稳,而河床持续冲刷,但2006年以后河床冲刷强度减小,现逐渐向冲淤平衡发展;河槽断面趋于窄深,白茆沙和新浏河沙沙体的变化对南支河段的稳定性影响较大,南北港分流口冲淤变化频繁,新浏河沙护滩工程起到了一定的"固滩、限流"作用,但并不能阻止新浏河沙和南沙头护堤前沿河床冲刷的势态. 建议对扁担沙沙尾采取适当的工程整治措施.%Based on the digital topographic map and hydrological sediment data since 1997 and the recent hydrologic field ob-servations, the self-adjustment process of south branch in Yangtze estuary under the influence of Xinliuhe shoal protection works and Three Gorges Project are analyzed. The results indicate that the water fluvial regime is stable and the riverbed is in continu-ous erosion state under the condition of sharp sediment decrease and unchanged discharge since the completion of Three Gorge Project;the river bed is continuously scoured but the intensity has become smaller and has a new balance tendency since 2006;in the same period, the cross sections are narrower and deeper, the changes of Baimao and Xinliuhe shoals exert significant influ-ence on the stability of the channel; the erosion and deposition of south and north passage bifurcations changes frequently; the constructed Xinliuhe shoal protection works and Nanshatou channel submerged dike projects play a great role in shoal fixing and flow limiting, but can not prevent the trend of intense erosion at the front areas of Xinliuhe shoal and Nanshatou channel. Some effective measures should be taken to the tail of Biandan shoal.

  8. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  9. Development of an Image Processing System for Automatic Melanoma Diagnosis from Dermoscopic Images: Preliminary Sudy - Original Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emin Yüksel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Design and implementation of a medical image processing system that will provide decision support to the clinician in the diagnosis of melanoma type skin cancers by performing the analysis of dermoscopic images.Methods: Visual features of pigmented lesions are converted into measurable numerical quantities by employing digital image processing methods and a classification regarding melanoma diagnosis is performed based on these quantitative data.Results: We achieved numerical results showing asymmetry, border and color features of the pigmentary lesions by using segmentation, image histogram, thresholding, convex hull, color clustering, color quantization and distribution methods. Conclusion: The system under development speeds up the decision process of the clinician. In addition, it allows the diagnosis to be based on more objective data.

  10. Neuropathy of motor branch of median or ulnar nerve induced by midpalm ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, N; Koshino, T; Nakazawa, A; Saito, T

    2001-05-01

    Two cases of neuropathy of a motor branch caused by a midpalmal ganglion are presented. In the first case the ganglion originated from the midcarpal joint, protruded into the thenar muscle, and compressed the motor branch of the median nerve. In the second case the ganglion, distal to the fibrous arch of the hypothenar muscles, originated from the third carpometacarpal joint and compressed the motor branch of the ulnar nerve. In both cases muscle weakness and finger deformity recovered well after resection of the ganglion. This clinical condition is rare compared with carpal tunnel syndrome and Guyon's tunnel syndrome, which are caused by a ganglion in the wrist.

  11. The Asymptotic Behaviour of the Extinction Probabibity in Bisexual Galton-Watson Branching Processes with Independent and Identically Distributed Random Environments%独立同分布随机环境中两性Galton-Watson分支过程灭绝概率的渐近行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽华; 雷思林; 卢准炜; 刘桂芬

    2011-01-01

    本文研究了独立同分布随机环境中的两性Galton-Watson分支过程,在上临界情形下,当k充分大时,qk≤ck.%In bisexual Galton-Watson branching process with independent and identically distributed random environments, it is shown that under certain conditions there exists 0 for sufficiently large k.

  12. Impact regimes and post-formation sequestration processes: implications for the origin of heavy noble gases in terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Picaud, Sylvain; Schmitt, Bernard; Marquer, Didier; Horner, Jonathan; Thomas, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The difference between the measured atmospheric abundances of neon, argon, krypton and xenon for Venus, the Earth and Mars is striking. Because these abundances drop by at least two orders of magnitude as one moves outward from Venus to Mars, the study of the origin of this discrepancy is a key issue that must be explained if we are to fully understand the different delivery mechanisms of the volatiles accreted by the terrestrial planets. In this work, we aim to investigate whether it is possible to quantitatively explain the variation of the heavy noble gas abundances measured on Venus, the Earth and Mars, assuming that cometary bombardment was the main delivery mechanism of these noble gases to the terrestrial planets. To do so, we use recent dynamical simulations that allow the study of the impact fluxes of comets upon the terrestrial planets during the course of their formation and evolution. Assuming that the mass of noble gases delivered by comets is proportional to rate at which they collide with the t...

  13. Origins and processes of groundwater salinization in the urban coastal aquifers of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil): A multi-isotope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Hélène; Chatton, Eliot; Franzen, Melissa; Aurouet, Axel

    2015-10-15

    In the coastal multilayer aquifer system of a highly urbanized southern city (Recife, Brazil), where groundwaters are affected by salinization, a multi-isotope approach (Sr, B, O, H) was used to investigate the sources and processes of salinization. The high diversity of the geological bodies, built since the Atlantic opening during the Cretaceous, highly constrains the heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, e.g. Sr isotope ratios, and needs to be integrated to explain the salinization processes and groundwater pathways. A paleoseawater intrusion, most probably the 120 kyB.P. Pleistocene marine transgression, and cationic exchange are clearly evidenced in the most salinized parts of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. All (87)Sr/(86)Sr values are above the past and present-day seawater signatures, meaning that the Sr isotopic signature is altered due to additional Sr inputs from dilution with different freshwaters, and water-rock interactions. Only the Cabo aquifer presents a well-delimitated area of Na-HCO3 water typical of a freshening process. The two deep aquifers also display a broad range of B concentrations and B isotope ratios with values among the highest known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays and mixing with wastewater. The highly fractionated B isotopic values were explained by infiltration of relatively salty water with B interacting with clays, pointing out the major role played by (palaeo)-channels for the deep Beberibe aquifer recharge. Based on an increase of salinity at the end of the dry season, a present-day seawater intrusion is identified in the surficial Boa Viagem aquifer. Our conceptual model presents a comprehensive understanding of the major groundwater salinization pathways and processes, and should be of benefit for other southern Atlantic coastal aquifers to better address groundwater management issues.

  14. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. [eds.

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy`s Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  15. FY 1991 Measurements and Characterization Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterwald, C.R.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1992-11-01

    The Measurements and Characterization Branch of the National Renewable Laboratory (NREL) provides comprehensive photovoltaic (PV) materials, devices, characterization, measurement, fabrication, modeling research, and support for the international PV research community, in the context of the US Department of Energy's Photovoltaic Research Program goals. This report summarizes the progress of the Branch from 31 January 1991 through 31 January 1992. The eight technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups: Surface and interface Analysis; Materials Characterization; Device Development; Electro-optical Characterization; Advanced PV module Performance and Reliability Research; Cell Performance Characterization; Surface Interactions, Modification, and Stability; and FTIR Spectroscopic Research. The including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules, and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of 77 branch originated journal and conference publications, which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 135 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  16. Origins and processes of groundwater salinization in the urban coastal aquifers of Recife (Pernambuco, Brazil): A multi-isotope approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cary, Lise, E-mail: l.cary@brgm.fr [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Bertrand, Guillaume [Institute of Geosciences, University of São Paulo, Rua do Lago, 562 Butantã, 05508-080 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kloppmann, Wolfram [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Aquilina, Luc [OSUR-Géosciences Rennes, Université Rennes 1 — CNRS, 35000 Rennes (France); Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo [Institute of Geosciences, University of São Paulo, Rua do Lago, 562 Butantã, 05508-080 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Montenegro, Suzana [Civil Engineering Department, Federal University of Pernambuco, 50740 Recife, PE Brazil (Brazil); Pauwels, Hélène [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Chatton, Eliot [OSUR-Géosciences Rennes, Université Rennes 1 — CNRS, 35000 Rennes (France); Franzen, Melissa [CPRM, Brazilian Geologic Survey, Avenida Sul 2291, Recife PE (Brazil); Aurouet, Axel [Géo-Hyd, 101 rue Jacques Charles, 45160 Olivet (France); Lasseur, Eric; Picot, Géraldine; Guerrot, Catherine; Fléhoc, Christine [BRGM French Geological Survey, 3 Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); and others

    2015-10-15

    In the coastal multilayer aquifer system of a highly urbanized southern city (Recife, Brazil), where groundwaters are affected by salinization, a multi-isotope approach (Sr, B, O, H) was used to investigate the sources and processes of salinization. The high diversity of the geological bodies, built since the Atlantic opening during the Cretaceous, highly constrains the heterogeneity of the groundwater chemistry, e.g. Sr isotope ratios, and needs to be integrated to explain the salinization processes and groundwater pathways. A paleoseawater intrusion, most probably the 120 ky B.P. Pleistocene marine transgression, and cationic exchange are clearly evidenced in the most salinized parts of the Cabo and Beberibe aquifers. All {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr values are above the past and present-day seawater signatures, meaning that the Sr isotopic signature is altered due to additional Sr inputs from dilution with different freshwaters, and water–rock interactions. Only the Cabo aquifer presents a well-delimitated area of Na-HCO{sub 3} water typical of a freshening process. The two deep aquifers also display a broad range of B concentrations and B isotope ratios with values among the highest known to date (63–68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays and mixing with wastewater. The highly fractionated B isotopic values were explained by infiltration of relatively salty water with B interacting with clays, pointing out the major role played by (palaeo)-channels for the deep Beberibe aquifer recharge. Based on an increase of salinity at the end of the dry season, a present-day seawater intrusion is identified in the surficial Boa Viagem aquifer. Our conceptual model presents a comprehensive understanding of the major groundwater salinization pathways and processes, and should be of benefit for other southern Atlantic coastal aquifers to better address groundwater management issues

  17. Introduction to Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Eid, Mounib F.

    2016-04-01

    A brief introduction on the main characteristics of the asymptotic giant branch stars (briefly: AGB) is presented. We describe a link to observations and outline basic features of theoretical modeling of these important evolutionary phases of stars. The most important aspects of the AGB stars is not only because they are the progenitors of white dwarfs, but also they represent the site of almost half of the heavy element formation beyond iron in the galaxy. These elements and their isotopes are produced by the s-process nucleosynthesis, which is a neutron capture process competing with the β- radioactive decay. The neutron source is mainly due to the reaction 13C(α,n)16O reaction. It is still a challenging problem to obtain the right amount of 13 C that can lead to s-process abundances compatible with observation. Some ideas are presented in this context.

  18. Long-term ecology resolves the timing, region of origin and process of establishment for a disputed alien tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmshurst, Janet M.; McGlone, Matt S.; Turney, Chris S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Alien plants are a pervasive environmental problem, particularly on islands where they can rapidly transform unique indigenous ecosystems. However, often it is difficult to confidently determine whether a species is native or alien, especially if establishment occurred before historical records. This can present a management challenge: for example, should such taxa be eradicated or left alone until their region of origin and status are clarified? Here we show how combining palaeoecological and historical records can help resolve such dilemmas, using the tree daisy Olearia lyallii on the remote New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands as a case study. The status of this tree as native or introduced has remained uncertain for the 175 years since it was first discovered on the Auckland Islands, and its appropriate management is debated. Elsewhere, O. lyallii has a highly restricted distribution on small sea bird-rich islands within a 2° latitudinal band south of mainland New Zealand. Analysis of palaeoecological and historical records from the Auckland Islands suggest that O. lyallii established there c. 1807 when these islands were first exploited by European sealers. Establishment was facilitated by anthropogenic burning and clearing and its subsequent spread has been slow, limited in distribution and probably human-assisted. Olearia lyallii has succeeded mostly in highly disturbed sites which are also nutrient enriched from nesting sea birds, seals and sea spray. This marine subsidy has fuelled the rapid growth of O. lyallii and allowed this tree to be competitive against the maritime communities it has replaced. Although endemic to the New Zealand region, our evidence suggests that O. lyallii is alien to the Auckland Islands. Although such ‘native’ aliens can pose unique management challenges on islands, in this instance we suggest that ongoing monitoring with no control is an appropriate management action, as O. lyallii appears to pose minimal risk to

  19. Hydrogeochemical processes governing the origin, transport and fate of major and trace elements from mine wastes and mineralized rock to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    The formation of acid mine drainage from metals extraction or natural acid rock drainage and its mixing with surface waters is a complex process that depends on petrology and mineralogy, structural geology, geomorphology, surface-water hydrology, hydrogeology, climatology, microbiology, chemistry, and mining and mineral processing history. The concentrations of metals, metalloids, acidity, alkalinity, Cl-, F- and SO42- found in receiving streams, rivers, and lakes are affected by all of these factors and their interactions. Remediation of mine sites is an engineering concern but to design a remediation plan without understanding the hydrogeochemical processes of contaminant mobilization can lead to ineffective and excessively costly remediation. Furthermore, remediation needs a goal commensurate with natural background conditions rather than water-quality standards that might bear little relation to conditions of a highly mineralized terrain. This paper reviews hydrogeochemical generalizations, primarily from US Geological Survey research, that enhance our understanding of the origin, transport, and fate of contaminants released from mined and mineralized areas.

  20. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Plastid origin: who, when and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin of plastids is best explained by endosymbiotic theory, which dates back to the early 1900s. Three lines of evidence based on protein import machineries and molecular phylogenies of eukaryote (host and cyanobacterial (endosymbiont genes point to a single origin of primary plastids, a unique and important event that successfully transferred two photosystems and oxygenic photosynthesis from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The nature of the cyanobacterial lineage from which plastids originated has been a topic of investigation. Recent studies have focused on the branching position of the plastid lineage in the phylogeny based on cyanobacterial core genes, that is, genes shared by all cyanobacteria and plastids. These studies have delivered conflicting results, however. In addition, the core genes represent only a very small portion of cyanobacterial genomes and may not be a good proxy for the rest of the ancestral plastid genome. Information in plant nuclear genomes, where most genes that entered the eukaryotic lineage through acquisition from the plastid ancestor reside, suggests that heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria in Stanier’s sections IV and V are most similar to the plastid ancestor in terms of gene complement and sequence conservation, which is in agreement with models suggesting an important role of nitrogen fixation in symbioses involving cyanobacteria. Plastid origin is an ancient event that involved a prokaryotic symbiont and a eukaryotic host, organisms with different histories and genome evolutionary processes. The different modes of genome evolution in prokaryotes and eukaryotes bear upon our interpretations of plastid phylogeny.

  2. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  3. The origin of polarity dependent switching type in solution processed Pt/TiO2/Pt memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biju, K. P.

    2015-06-01

    Resistive switching characteristics of sol-gel processed TiO2 thin films are investigated. The influence of polarity of the forming voltage on switching type in Pt/TiO2/Pt stack is investigated. Reliability and stability of the device is significantly improved by choosing a proper voltage polarity on electroforming. The device shows excellent switching properties such as high on/off ratio (> 20), good cycling endurance and long retention (> 104 s) and possible to use multi bit storage has been demonstrated. The switching mechanism is explained by a physical model based on localized generation/recovery of oxygen vacancy defects.

  4. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  5. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  6. The Origins of Individual Differences in How Learning Is Expressed in Rats: A General-Process Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory rats can exhibit marked, qualitative individual differences in the form of acquired behaviors. For example, when exposed to a signal-reinforcer relationship some rats show marked and consistent changes in sign-tracking (interacting with the signal; e.g., a lever) and others show marked and consistent changes in goal-tracking (interacting with the location of the predicted reinforcer; e.g., the food well). Here, stable individual differences in rats’ sign-tracking and goal-tracking emerged over the course of training, but these differences did not generalize across different signal-reinforcer relationships (Experiment 1). This selectivity suggests that individual differences in sign- and goal-tracking reflect differences in the value placed on individual reinforcers. Two findings provide direct support for this interpretation: the palatability of a reinforcer (as measured by an analysis of lick-cluster size) was positively correlated with goal-tracking (and negatively correlated with sign-tracking); and sating rats with a reinforcer affected goal-tracking but not sign-tracking (Experiment 2). These results indicate that the observed individual differences in sign- and goal-tracking behavior arise from the interaction between the palatability or value of the reinforcer and processes of association as opposed to dispositional differences (e.g., in sensory processes, “temperament,” or response repertoire). PMID:27732045

  7. A role for mesenchyme dynamics in mouse lung branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Blanc

    Full Text Available Mammalian airways are highly ramified tree-like structures that develop by the repetitive branching of the lung epithelium into the surrounding mesenchyme through reciprocal interactions. Based on a morphometric analysis of the epithelial tree, it has been recently proposed that the complete branching scheme is specified early in each lineage by a programme using elementary patterning routines at specific sites and times in the developing lung. However, the coupled dynamics of both the epithelium and mesenchyme have been overlooked in this process. Using a qualitative and quantitative in vivo morphometric analysis of the E11.25 to E13.5 mouse whole right cranial lobe structure, we show that beyond the first generations, the branching stereotypy relaxes and both spatial and temporal variations are common. The branching pattern and branching rate are sensitive to the dynamic changes of the mesoderm shape that is in turn mainly dependent upon the volume and shape of the surrounding intrathoracic organs. Spatial and temporal variations of the tree architecture are related to local and subtle modifications of the mesoderm growth. Remarkably, buds never meet after suffering branching variations and continue to homogenously fill the opening spaces in the mesenchyme. Moreover despite inter-specimen variations, the growth of the epithelial tree and the mesenchyme remains highly correlated over time at the whole lobe level, implying a long-range regulation of the lung lobe morphogenesis. Together, these findings indicate that the lung epithelial tree is likely to adapt in real time to fill the available space in the mesenchyme, rather than being rigidly specified and predefined by a global programme. Our results strongly support the idea that a comprehensive understanding of lung branching mechanisms cannot be inferred from the branching pattern or behavior alone. Rather it needs to be elaborated upon with the reconsideration of mesenchyme

  8. Plant for the production of activated carbon and electric power from the gases originated in gasification processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganan, J.; Turegano, J.P.; Calama, G. [Area de Engenharia. Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao. Instituto Politecnico de Portalegre, Lugar da Abadesa, Apartado 148, 7301 Portalegre Codex (Portugal); Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz, 06071 (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The development of the countries involves a high energy demand; however, the energetic resources used by the moment are not renewable. Events like the energetic crisis of 1973, the continuous geopolitic clashes in energetic resource-rich areas, and the global environmental deterioration as a consequence of the industrial activity taking place in last century, make obvious the need of searching new sources of energy [1]. One of these sources is the obtainment of energy from biomass exploitation. The use of this raw material involves advantages in the emission of low quantities of contaminants to the atmosphere and its renewable character. Until now, the main drawback of this source is its lack of viability when trying to obtain electric power from biomass, due to the use of systems composed of a boiler and a steam turbine (which offer low operative flexibility), which are not rentable in such a competitive market as it is, currently, the energetic one. Nowadays, the use of internal combustion engines, combined with biomass gasifiers, allows rapid connection-disconnection of the plant (aproximately of five minutes), which confers a big flexibility to the system and, as a consequence, a better exploitation of the plant in maximum energetic consumption hours. It also has the advantage of establishing a co-generation system since the gases are generated at a high temperature, 800 {sup o}C [2]. With this view, the aim of this work has focused in the re-design of a gasification plant for the production of activated carbons, from biomassic residues, for the energetic exploitation of the combustible gases produced during the pyrolytic process (H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), since these gases are currently burnt in a torch in the plant. The idea of designing the activated carbon production plant arose from the need of managing the biomass residues (olive wastes) generated by the firm Euroliva-Azeites e Oleos Alimentares SA

  9. Retorno de un cruzado, by José Jiménez Lozano. Creation, Intertextuality and Originality of a Writing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Arbona Abascal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the writing process of José Jiménez Lozano’s Retorno de un cruzado (2013, his 24th novel. First, taking into account the author’s comments about the creation of the text, it presents the different versions and the literary reasons for his final choice. Second, literary intertextualities found in the novel are examined. Finally, the condition of the main character as storyteller is identified as the novel’s major source of originality.

  10. Strigolactones are a new-defined class of plant hormones which inhibit shoot branching and mediate the interaction of plant-AM fungi and plant-parasitic weeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZAITLIN; David

    2009-01-01

    Because plants are sessile organisms,the ability to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions is critical for their survival.As a consequence,plants use hormones to regulate growth,mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses,and to communicate with other organisms.Many plant hormones function plei-otropically in vivo,and often work in tandem with other hormones that are chemically distinct.A newly-defined class of plant hormones,the strigolactones,cooperate with auxins and cytokinins to control shoot branching and the outgrowth of lateral buds.Strigolactones were originally identified as compounds that stimulated the germination of parasitic plant seeds,and were also demonstrated to induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal(AM) fungi.AM fungi form symbioses with higher plant roots and mainly facilitate the absorption of phosphate from the soil.Conforming to the classical definition of a plant hormone,strigolactones are produced in the roots and translocated to the shoots where they inhibit shoot outgrowth and branching.The biosynthesis of this class of compounds is regulated by soil nutrient availability,i.e.the plant will increase its production of strigolactones when the soil phosphate concentration is limited,and decrease production when phosphates are in ample supply.Strigolactones that affect plant shoot branching,AM fungal hyphal branching,and seed germination in parasitic plants facilitate chemical synthesis of similar compounds to control these and other biological processes by exogenous application.

  11. Detection of low Eu abundances in extremely metal-poor stars and the origin of r-process elements

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Y; Aoki, W; Ryan, S G; Aoki, Wako; Ishimaru, Yuhri; Ryan, Sean G.; Wanajo, Shinya

    2003-01-01

    We report detailed abundance analyses for three extremely metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] lesssim -3 in the Galactic halo, using the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS). All these stars are found to have sub-solar relative abundances of [Eu/Fe], and exhibit the lowest [Eu/H] values at their metallicities. Comparison of these low Eu abundances with our chemical evolution model of the Galactic halo implies the dominant source of Eu to be the low-mass end of the Type II supernova mass range. This suggests that collapsing O-Ne-Mg cores resulting from 8-10 Msun stars are the major r-process site.

  12. Graduate programs in Public Health in Argentina and Brazil: historical origins and recent trends in quality assessment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Alonso Hortale

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the uniqueness of methodologies used in the quality assessment of graduate studies programs in Public Health in two Latin American countries: Argentina and Brazil. The authors conducted a search in websites that addressed themes such as "public health training and education" and "quality assessment methodologies", besides reexamining documents and bibliography on the theme. The analysis took the following dimensions into account: the Latin American political and economic context during the previous ten years (1994-2004, reforms in the educational systems (emphasizing graduate studies, and the quality assessment methodologies implemented. The authors found similarities in the evaluation systems in effect in both countries, as well as shortcomings in these processes, namely, evaluation driven by supervision and control rather than redirection and reorientation of teaching, and the mandatory adjustment of courses to a standard model defined by experts.

  13. The Diverse Origins of Neutron-Capture Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 94028: Possible Detection of Products of i-process Nucleosynthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Ian U; Pignatari, Marco; Herwig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H]=-1.62+/-0.09) star HD94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process; e.g., [Pb/Fe]=+0.79+/-0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r-process; e.g., [Eu/Fe]=+0.22+/-0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe]=+0.97+/-0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe]=+0.69+/-0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe]=-0.06+/-0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process pa...

  14. Deconvolving the process-origin of sediments on volcanic mountains and implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction: Mt Ruapehu area, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Glaciation on the central North Island of New Zealand is limited to the volcanoes of Tongariro National Park, including Mt Ruapehu, the largest and most active andesitic stratovolcano on the North Island. At 2797 m asl, Mt Ruapehu represents the only peak in the North Island to currently intercept the permanent snowline, with small cirque glaciers descending to an altitude of ~2300 m. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), small ice-caps existed on Mt Ruapehu and the Tongariro Massif (15 km to the NNE of Ruapehu), with a series of small (cirque glaciers, consists mainly of incorporated fluvial material. Following deposition, reworking is mainly by proglacial streams, debris flows and lahars. Within the vicinity of glaciers, the dominant facies appear to be: (i) bouldery gravel with angular clasts on steep slopes surrounding glaciers, (ii) silty-sandy boulder gravel, with mainly subangular clasts, forming lateral moraines, (iii) boulder/cobble gravel with mainly subrounded clasts and associated laminated sediments representing fluvially-reworked material; and (iv) debris-avalanche deposits including fragmental rock clasts with an unsorted inter-clast matrix. As some of these deposits appear to include unambiguous indicators of glacial transport, interpretation of unconsolidated debris ridges on volcanic mountains should not necessarily exclude the contribution of glacial processes.

  15. Stability of earthquake clustering models: criticality and branching ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J; Harte, David S

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  16. Stability of earthquake clustering models: Criticality and branching ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Werner, Maximilian J.; Harte, David S.

    2013-12-01

    We study the stability conditions of a class of branching processes prominent in the analysis and modeling of seismicity. This class includes the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model as a special case, but more generally comprises models in which the magnitude distribution of direct offspring depends on the magnitude of the progenitor, such as the branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model and another recently proposed branching model based on a dynamic scaling hypothesis. These stability conditions are closely related to the concepts of the criticality parameter and the branching ratio. The criticality parameter summarizes the asymptotic behavior of the population after sufficiently many generations, determined by the maximum eigenvalue of the transition equations. The branching ratio is defined by the proportion of triggered events in all the events. Based on the results for the generalized case, we show that the branching ratio of the ETAS model is identical to its criticality parameter because its magnitude density is separable from the full intensity. More generally, however, these two values differ and thus place separate conditions on model stability. As an illustration of the difference and of the importance of the stability conditions, we employ a version of the BASS model, reformulated to ensure the possibility of stationarity. In addition, we analyze the magnitude distributions of successive generations of the BASS model via analytical and numerical methods, and find that the compound density differs substantially from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution, unless the process is essentially subcritical (branching ratio less than 1) or the magnitude dependence between the parent event and the direct offspring is weak.

  17. Brazilian Vaccinia Viruses and Their Origins

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-07-30

    Smallpox was eradicated more than 25 years ago, but live viruses used in vaccines may have survived to cause animal and human illness today. Dr. Inger Damon, Acting Branch Chief of the Poxvirus and Rabies Branch at CDC, discusses efforts to determine origins and spread of vaccinia viruses in Brazil.  Created: 7/30/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 7/30/2007.

  18. Abnormal connection between lateral and posterior semicircular canal revealed by a new modeling process: origin and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousie, Dominique Louise; Deroubaix, Jean Paul; Joly, Olivier; Baudrillard, Jean Claude; Berthoz, Alain

    2009-05-01

    We developed a modeling procedure using CT scans or MRI data for exploring the bony and lymphatic canals of vestibular patients. We submitted 445 patients with instability and spatial de-orientation to this procedure. Out of the 445 patients, 95 had scoliosis, some of them, because malformations were suspected also had CT-scan modeling and functional tests. We focused on a never described, abnormal connection between the lymphatic lateral and posterior canal (LPCC) with a frequency of 67/445 (15%). In the scoliosis subgroup, the frequency was 52/95 (55%). Three scoliotic patients had CT scans. For each of them, the modeling revealed that LPCC was present on the bony canals. LPCC has pathognomic signs: no rotatory vertigo but frequent instability, transport sickness head tilt on the side of the anomaly, and spatial disorientation in new environment. We evaluated the functional impact of LPCC by testing the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) in horizontal and vertical planes and found reproducible abnormal responses: in the case of left LPCC, during a counterclockwise horizontal rotation or a post clockwise horizontal rotation, added to the expected horizontal nystagmus, we found an unexpected upbeat nystagmus induced by the ampullofugal displacement of the fluid in the posterior canal. As LPCC was found in CT scans and MRI modeling for a same subject, we suggest that it could be a congenital abnormal process of ossification of the canals. The responses to the vestibular tests highlighting constant unexpected nystagmus underline the potential functional consequences of LPCC on vestibular perception and scoliosis.

  19. THE CONSTRUCTION OF MULTITYPE CANONICAL MARKOV BRANCHING CHAINS IN RANDOM ENVIRONMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The investigation for branching processes has a long history by their strong physics background, but only a few authors have investigated the branching processes in random environments. First of all, the author introduces the concepts of the multitype canonical Markov branching chain in random environment (CMBCRE) and multitype Markov branching chain in random environment (MBCRE) and proved that CMBCRE must be MBCRE, and any MBCRE must be equivalent to another CMBCRE in distribution. The main results of this article are the construction of CMBCRE and some of its probability properties.

  20. Constrained branch-and-bound algorithm for image registration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian-qiu; WANG Zhang-ye; PENG Qun-sheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a refined Branch-and-Bound algorithm for affine-transformation based image registration. Given two feature point-sets in two images respectively, the authors first extract a sequence of high-probability matched point-pairs by considering well-defined features. Each resultant point-pair can be regarded as a constraint in the search space of Branch-and-Bound algorithm guiding the search process. The authors carry out Branch-and-Bound search with the constraint of a pair-point selected by using Monte Carlo sampling according to the match measures of point-pairs. If such one cannot lead to correct result, additional candidate is chosen to start another search. High-probability matched point-pairs usually results in fewer loops and the search process is accelerated greatly. Experimental results verify the high efficiency and robustness of the author's approach.

  1. The Origin of Voluminous Dacite (vs. Andesite) at Mature, Thick Continental Arcs: A Reflection of Processes in the Deep Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    An outstanding question is why some continental arc segments are characterized by voluminous eruptions of dacite (65-70 wt% SiO2), whereas others erupt more andesite (58-64 wt% SiO2) than any other magma type. An example of the former is the Altiplano-Puna region of the central Andean arc, which has erupted a predominance of dacite over all magma types 10-1 Ma (de Silva, 1989). In contrast, a 200-km arc segment of the Mexican volcanic arc (Michoacán-Guanajuato arc segment) has erupted ~75% andesite, ~26% basaltic andesite and 20%) of hornblende-rich (~40%) gabbronorite in the deep crust, driven by mantle-derived basalt intrusions at depths of 30-40 km. The absence of any dacite or rhyolite along this arc segment indicates that interstitial liquid from crystal-rich andesites never segregated to form eruptible magma. Thus, little upper-crust differentiation occurred along this arc segment. On the basis of phase-equilibrium experiments in the literature (e.g., Sisson et al., 2005), it is proposed that rhyolite and dacite did form during partial melting of the lower arc crust, but at melt fractions too low (≤15%) to permit efficient transport to the upper crust (Vigneresse and Tikoff, 1999). It is further proposed that the reason why dacite is so abundant at mature thick continental arcs (e.g., Altiplano-Puno complex) may be because mantle-derived basalts are primarily emplaced at similar depths (~30-40 km) in continental arc crustal columns. If so, in the central Andean arc, a depth of 30-40 km is within the middle dioritic crust (Graeber and Asch, 1999). Partial melts of hornblende diorite (vs. hornblende gabbro) are predicted to be dacitic (vs. andesitic) at melt fractions of 20-25%, which permits transport to the upper crust. It is therefore proposed that it is deep crustal processes that determine whether andesite or dacite is the most voluminous magma type emplaced into the upper crust and erupted at arcs.

  2. Critical Multitype Branching Systems: Extinction Results

    CERN Document Server

    Kevei, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We consider a critical branching particle system in $\\R^d$, composed of individuals of a finite number of types $i\\in\\{1,...,K\\}$. Each individual of type $i$ moves independently according to a symmetric $\\alpha_i$-stable motion. We assume that the particle lifetimes and offspring distributions are type-dependent. Under the usual independence assumptions in branching systems, we prove extinction theorems in the following cases: (1) all the particle lifetimes have finite mean, or (2) there is a type whose lifetime distribution has heavy tail, and the other lifetimes have finite mean. We get a more complex dynamics by assuming in case (2) that the most mobile particle type corresponds to a finite-mean lifetime: in this case, local extinction of the population is determined by an interaction of the parameters (offspring variability, mobility, longevity) of the long-living type and those of the most mobile type. The proofs are based on a precise analysis of the occupation times of a related Markov renewal process...

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Branched Poly(ester urea)s with Different Branch Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiayi; Becker, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    A new class of L-phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s (PEU) was developed that possess tunable mechanical properties, water uptake ability and degradation rates. Our preliminary data has shown that 1,6-hexanediol L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possesses an elastic modulus nearly double that of poly(lactic acid). My work details the synthesis of a series of L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s possessing a variation in diol chain length and in branch density and shows how these subtle structural differences influence the mechanical properties and in vitro biodegradation rates. The elastic moduli span a range of values that overlap with several currently clinically available degradable polymers. Increasingly the diol chain lengths increases the amount of flexible segment in the chemical structure, which results in reduced elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. Increasing the amount of branch monomer incorporated into the system reduces the molecular entanglement, which also results in decreased elastic modulus values and increased values of elongation at break. The L - phenylalanine-based poly(ester urea)s also exhibited a diol length dependent degradation process that varied between 1-5 % over 16 weeks. Compared with PLLA, PEUs degrade more quickly and the rate can be tuned by changing the diol chain length. PEUs absorb more water and the water uptake ability can be tuned by changing the branch density. This work was supported by Akron Functional Materials Center.

  4. A Virtual Branch Method for Branch Power Flow Off-limit Analysis%支路潮流越限控制的虚拟支路法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗峰显; 白雪峰; 郭志忠

    2009-01-01

    为解决支路潮流越限问题,提出了支路潮流越限控制的虚拟支路法.通过对潮流越限支路并联虚拟支路法,使原潮流越限支路的电流降低到目标电流水平.虚拟支路导纳参数由目标分流系数、潮流越限支路导纳及戴维南等效阻抗共同确定.基于置换定理,将虚拟支路用含参数的虚拟功率源置换,将虚拟支路的切除问题转化为虚拟支路两端点注入功率的增长问题.根据支路视在功率对节点功率的灵敏度,逐步计算最小代价的控制方案.IEEE算例仿真显示该方法可将越限支路电流降低到目标电流水平,验证了其可行性和有效性.%A virtual branch control method is proposed to solve the branch power flow off-limit problem. By adding a shunt virtual branch to the branch experiencing branch power flow off-limit, the original off-limit current of the branch can be reduced to a target level of branch current. The admittance of the virtual branch can be obtained by target shunting coefficient,Thevenin's equivalent impedance and admittance of the branch of power flow off-limit. Based on substitution theorem, the virtual branch is replaced by a parameterized virtual power source. Thus, the remove problem of virtual branch is turned to injection power increase problem on the two buses connected by the virtual branch. Based on sensitivity of the apparent power of the branch with respect to bus injection power, the minimum cost control scheme for branch of power flow off-limit can be obtained. The simulation results of the New England 39-bus test system show that the current of the branch of power flow off-limit descends to target level of current. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed algorithm are validated.

  5. Origin of microbial biomineralization and magnetotaxis during the Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Greig A.; Wang, Yinzhao; Kopylova, Evguenia; Li, Ying; Knight, Rob; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Zhu, Rixiang; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-01-01

    Microbes that synthesize minerals, a process known as microbial biomineralization, contributed substantially to the evolution of current planetary environments through numerous important geochemical processes. Despite its geological significance, the origin and evolution of microbial biomineralization remain poorly understood. Through combined metagenomic and phylogenetic analyses of deep-branching magnetotactic bacteria from the Nitrospirae phylum, and using a Bayesian molecular clock-dating method, we show here that the gene cluster responsible for biomineralization of magnetosomes, and the arrangement of magnetosome chain(s) within cells, both originated before or near the Archean divergence between the Nitrospirae and Proteobacteria. This phylogenetic divergence occurred well before the Great Oxygenation Event. Magnetotaxis likely evolved due to environmental pressures conferring an evolutionary advantage to navigation via the geomagnetic field. Earth’s dynamo must therefore have been sufficiently strong to sustain microbial magnetotaxis in the Archean, suggesting that magnetotaxis coevolved with the geodynamo over geological time. PMID:28193877

  6. Origin of microbial biomineralization and magnetotaxis during the Archean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Paterson, Greig A; Zhu, Qiyun; Wang, Yinzhao; Kopylova, Evguenia; Li, Ying; Knight, Rob; Bazylinski, Dennis A; Zhu, Rixiang; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Pan, Yongxin

    2017-02-28

    Microbes that synthesize minerals, a process known as microbial biomineralization, contributed substantially to the evolution of current planetary environments through numerous important geochemical processes. Despite its geological significance, the origin and evolution of microbial biomineralization remain poorly understood. Through combined metagenomic and phylogenetic analyses of deep-branching magnetotactic bacteria from the Nitrospirae phylum, and using a Bayesian molecular clock-dating method, we show here that the gene cluster responsible for biomineralization of magnetosomes, and the arrangement of magnetosome chain(s) within cells, both originated before or near the Archean divergence between the Nitrospirae and Proteobacteria This phylogenetic divergence occurred well before the Great Oxygenation Event. Magnetotaxis likely evolved due to environmental pressures conferring an evolutionary advantage to navigation via the geomagnetic field. Earth's dynamo must therefore have been sufficiently strong to sustain microbial magnetotaxis in the Archean, suggesting that magnetotaxis coevolved with the geodynamo over geological time.

  7. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  8. Tracing the Origins and Processes of Groundwater Salinization in Coastal Aquifers with a Multi-isotopes Approach. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Bertrand, G.; Kloppmann, W.; Aquilina, L.; Pauwels, H.; Martins, V.; Hirata, R.; Montenegro, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. By focusing on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer, this work aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. Two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area constitute the site basement. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that were distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high 87Sr/86Sr with a large range of values (0.7102-0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower values (0.7097-0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation. Although sulfate isotopes, Electrical Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. δ18O-δ2H clearly evidence the local present day recharge in the surficial aquifer, some samples being affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water from dams used for water supply. The deep aquifers display a high range of B (20-600µg/L) and δ11B (6.7-68.5‰) with some of the highest values known to date. Multiple sources and processes affect the B behavior, among which mixing with saline water, B sorption on clays/organic matter and mixing with wastewater. The surficial aquifers are locally salinized possibly due to present seawater intrusion, and highly contaminated with

  9. A spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney branching morphogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V.S.

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Kidney development is initiated by the outgrowth of an epithelial ureteric bud into a population of mesenchymal cells. Reciprocal morphogenetic responses between these two populations generate a highly branched epithelial ureteric tree with the mesenchyme differentiating into nephrons, the functional units of the kidney. While we understand some of the mechanisms involved, current knowledge fails to explain the variability of organ sizes and nephron endowment in mice and humans. Here we present a spatially-averaged mathematical model of kidney morphogenesis in which the growth of the two key populations is described by a system of time-dependant ordinary differential equations. We assume that branching is symmetric and is invoked when the number of epithelial cells per tip reaches a threshold value. This process continues until the number of mesenchymal cells falls below a critical value that triggers cessation of branching. The mathematical model and its predictions are validated against experimentally quantified C57Bl6 mouse embryonic kidneys. Numerical simulations are performed to determine how the final number of branches changes as key system parameters are varied (such as the growth rate of tip cells, mesenchyme cells, or component cell population exit rate). Our results predict that the developing kidney responds differently to loss of cap and tip cells. They also indicate that the final number of kidney branches is less sensitive to changes in the growth rate of the ureteric tip cells than to changes in the growth rate of the mesenchymal cells. By inference, increasing the growth rate of mesenchymal cells should maximise branch number. Our model also provides a framework for predicting the branching outcome when ureteric tip or mesenchyme cells change behaviour in response to different genetic or environmental developmental stresses.

  10. Multi-isotopes constraints on the origins and processes of groundwater salinization in coastal aquifers. Example of Recife, Northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Lise; Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Bertrand, Guillaume; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc; Pauwels, Helène; Martins, Veridiana; Hirata, Ricardo; Montenegro, Suzana

    2015-04-01

    The Recife Metropolitan Region (PE, Brazil) is a typical "hot spot" illustrating the problems of southern countries on water issues inducing high pressures on water resources both on quantity and quality in the context of global social and environmental changes. This study focuses on the groundwater geochemistry in a costal multilayer aquifer and aims at investigating the sources and processes of salinization. The RMR basement is constituted by two different Precambrian blocks separated by a large lineament area. The sedimentary fillings of the two basins present different origins that can be distinguished by the Sr isotope composition. The northern deep Beberibe aquifer displays very high strontium isotope ratios with a large range of values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7102 to 0.7233) illustrating the main continental origin of sediments whereas the southern deep Cabo aquifer showed lower 87Sr/86Sr values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097 to 0.7141) indicating the contribution of the marine sedimentation dating from the Atlantic opening. Although sulfate isotopes, Electric Conductivity and Cl contents indicate a clear mixing with seawater for some samples of the deep Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, all 87Sr/86Sr values are above the present-day seawater composition. This can be related to the complex local history of transgression/regression phases that induced alternatively salinisation and freshening with gains and losses of cations and Sr, together with water-rock interactions. Stable isotopes of the water molecule clearly evidence the local present day recharge especially within the surficial aquifer, whereas some samples are affected by in situ evaporation processes and/or recharge with evaporated water originating from dam used for water supply. The two deep aquifers display a high range of B concentrations (~20 to 600 µg.L-1) and B isotope composition (δ11B = 6.7 to 68.5 ‰), with the highest values known to date (63-68.5‰). This suggests multiple sources and processes affecting B

  11. Evolution of Hard X-Ray Spectra Along the Branches in Cir X-1

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, G Q; Li, T P

    2003-01-01

    Using the data from the PCA and HEXTE on board the RXTE satellite, we investigate the evolution of the 3-200 keV spectra of the peculiar low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cir X-1 along the branches on its hardness-intensity diagram (HID) from the vertical horizontal branch (VHB), through the horizontal horizontal branch (HHB) and normal branch (NB), to the flaring branch (FB). We detect a power-law hard component in the spectra. It is found that the derived photon indices ($\\Gamma$) of the power-law hard component are correlated with the position on the HID. The power-law component dominates the X-ray emission of Cir X-1 in the energy band higher than $\\sim 20$ keV. The fluxes of the power-law component are compared with those of the bremsstrahlung component in the spectra. A possible origin of the power-law hard component is discussed.

  12. On longest edge division in simplicial branch and bound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrera, J.F.R.; Casado, L.G.; Hendrix, E.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Simplicial partitions are suitable to divide a bounded area in branch and bound. In the iterative refinement process, a popular strategy is to divide simplices by their longest edge, thus avoiding needle-shaped simplices. A range of possibilities arises when the number of longest edges in a simplex

  13. THE DIVERSE ORIGINS OF NEUTRON-CAPTURE ELEMENTS IN THE METAL-POOR STAR HD 94028: POSSIBLE DETECTION OF PRODUCTS OF i-PROCESS NUCLEOSYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roederer, Ian U. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Karakas, Amanda I. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia); Pignatari, Marco [E.A. Milne Centre for Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Mathematics, University of Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Herwig, Falk, E-mail: iur@umich.edu, E-mail: amanda.karakas@monash.edu, E-mail: mpignatari@gmail.com, E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics and Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE) (United States)

    2016-04-10

    We present a detailed analysis of the composition and nucleosynthetic origins of the heavy elements in the metal-poor ([Fe/H] = −1.62 ± 0.09) star HD 94028. Previous studies revealed that this star is mildly enhanced in elements produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s process; e.g., [Pb/Fe] = +0.79 ± 0.32) and rapid neutron-capture process (r process; e.g., [Eu/Fe] = +0.22 ± 0.12), including unusually large molybdenum ([Mo/Fe] = +0.97 ± 0.16) and ruthenium ([Ru/Fe] = +0.69 ± 0.17) enhancements. However, this star is not enhanced in carbon ([C/Fe] = −0.06 ± 0.19). We analyze an archival near-ultraviolet spectrum of HD 94028, collected using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, and other archival optical spectra collected from ground-based telescopes. We report abundances or upper limits derived from 64 species of 56 elements. We compare these observations with s-process yields from low-metallicity AGB evolution and nucleosynthesis models. No combination of s- and r-process patterns can adequately reproduce the observed abundances, including the super-solar [As/Ge] ratio (+0.99 ± 0.23) and the enhanced [Mo/Fe] and [Ru/Fe] ratios. We can fit these features when including an additional contribution from the intermediate neutron-capture process (i process), which perhaps operated through the ingestion of H in He-burning convective regions in massive stars, super-AGB stars, or low-mass AGB stars. Currently, only the i process appears capable of consistently producing the super-solar [As/Ge] ratios and ratios among neighboring heavy elements found in HD 94028. Other metal-poor stars also show enhanced [As/Ge] ratios, hinting that operation of the i process may have been common in the early Galaxy.

  14. 以问题为导向的培训方案设计流程%Design Process of Training Program of Problem Originated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁文俊

    2011-01-01

    Training is to resolve pertinently problems faced with organization and employee, therefore, design of training program must be problem originated. Design of training program must start with demand investigation, we have to get clear problems and training target, effectively turn training target into training content, and organically combine training target with training content and method. A clear design process of training program must be problem originated from beginning to the end.%培训是为了针对性地解决组织或员工面临的问题,因而,培训方案的设计必须以问题为导向。将需求调研作为培训方案设计的开始,厘清问题,明确培训目标,有效地将培训目标转化为培训内容,并将培训目标与培训的内容和方法有机结合。一个清晰的培训方案设计流程,必须始终以问题为导向。

  15. Investigating the timing of origin and evolutionary processes shaping regional species diversity: Insights from simulated data and neotropical butterfly diversification rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Maraví, Pável

    2016-07-01

    Different diversification scenarios have been proposed to explain the origin of extant biodiversity. However, most existing meta-analyses of time-calibrated phylogenies rely on approaches that do not quantitatively test alternative diversification processes. Here, I highlight the shortcomings of using species divergence ranks, which is a method widely used in meta-analyses. Divergence ranks consist of categorizing cladogenetic events to certain periods of time, typically to either Pleistocene or to pre-Pleistocene ages. This approach has been claimed to shed light on the origin of most extant species and the timing and dynamics of diversification in any biogeographical region. However, interpretations drawn from such method often confound two fundamental questions in macroevolutionary studies, tempo (timing of evolutionary rate shifts) and mode ("how" and "why" of speciation). By using simulated phylogenies under four diversification scenarios, constant-rate, diversity-dependence, high extinction, and high speciation rates in the Pleistocene, I showed that interpretations based on species divergence ranks might have been seriously misleading. Future meta-analyses of dated phylogenies need to be aware of the impacts of incomplete taxonomic sampling, tree topology, and divergence time uncertainties, as well as they might be benefited by including quantitative tests of alternative diversification models that acknowledge extinction and diversity dependence.

  16. The origins of phagocytosis and eukaryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phagocytosis, that is, engulfment of large particles by eukaryotic cells, is found in diverse organisms and is often thought to be central to the very origin of the eukaryotic cell, in particular, for the acquisition of bacterial endosymbionts including the ancestor of the mitochondrion. Results Comparisons of the sets of proteins implicated in phagocytosis in different eukaryotes reveal extreme diversity, with very few highly conserved components that typically do not possess readily identifiable prokaryotic homologs. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analysis of those proteins for which such homologs do exist yields clues to the possible origin of phagocytosis. The central finding is that a subset of archaea encode actins that are not only monophyletic with eukaryotic actins but also share unique structural features with actin-related proteins (Arp 2 and 3. All phagocytic processes are strictly dependent on remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of branched filaments for which Arp2/3 are responsible. The presence of common structural features in Arp2/3 and the archaeal actins suggests that the common ancestors of the archaeal and eukaryotic actins were capable of forming branched filaments, like modern Arp2/3. The Rho family GTPases that are ubiquitous regulators of phagocytosis in eukaryotes appear to be of bacterial origin, so assuming that the host of the mitochondrial endosymbiont was an archaeon, the genes for these GTPases come via horizontal gene transfer from the endosymbiont or in an earlier event. Conclusion The present findings suggest a hypothetical scenario of eukaryogenesis under which the archaeal ancestor of eukaryotes had no cell wall (like modern Thermoplasma but had an actin-based cytoskeleton including branched actin filaments that allowed this organism to produce actin-supported membrane protrusions. These protrusions would facilitate accidental, occasional engulfment of bacteria, one of which

  17. Multimodal Distributions along the Horizontal Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    We report on HST/WFPC2 U,V and far-ultraviolet observations of two Galactic Globular Clusters (GGCs), NGC 6205 = M13 and NGC 6093 = M80. Both of these clusters have horizontal-branch (HB) tails that extend to the helium-burning main sequence, with the hottest stars reaching theoretical effective temperatures above 35,000 K. In both clusters, groups of stars are found to be separated by narrow gaps along the blue HB sequence. These gaps appear at similar locations in the color-magnitude diagrams of the two clusters. While stochastic effects may give rise to variations in the color distribution along the HB, the coincidence of gaps in different clusters effectively rules this out as the primary cause. The comparison among the clusters strongly suggests that there are separate physical processes operating during the earlier red-giant phase of evolution to produce mass loss.

  18. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatami Firooz Abadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  19. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Mohammad Ali Khatami Firouzabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  20. Flow-induced pruning of branched systems and brittle reconfiguration

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Whereas most plants are flexible structures that undergo large deformations under flow, another process can occur when the plant is broken by heavy fluid-loading. We investigate here the mechanism of such possible breakage, focusing on the flow-induced pruning that can be observed in plants or aquatic vegetation when parts of the structure break under flow. By computation on an actual tree geometry, a 20-yr-old walnut tree (Juglans Regia L.) and comparison with simple models, we analyze the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the occurrence of branch breakage and on the successive breaking events occurring in a tree-like structure when the flow velocity is increased. We show that both the branching pattern and the slenderness exponent, defining the branch taper, play a major role in the breakage scenario. We identify a criterion for branch breakage to occur before breakage of the trunk. In that case, we show that the successive breakage of peripheral branches allows the plant to sustain higher...

  1. A New Classification Method to Overcome Over-Branching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Aoying(周傲英); QIAN Weining(钱卫宁); QIAN Hailei(钱海蕾); JIN Wen(金文)

    2002-01-01

    Classification is an important technique in data mining. The decision trees built by most of the existing classification algorithms commonly feature over-branching, which will lead to poor efficiency in the subsequent classification period. In this paper, we present a new value-oriented classification method, which aims at building accurately proper-sized decision trees while reducing over-branching as much as possible, based on the concepts of frequentpattern-node and exceptive-child-node. The experiments show that while using relevant analysis as pre-processing, our classification method, without loss of accuracy, can eliminate the over-branching greatly in decision trees more effectively and efficiently than other algorithms do.

  2. Probing the hardest branching of jets in heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Yang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present the first calculation of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions between the leading subjets inside a reconstructed jet in heavy ion collisions. These observables are directly sensitive to the hardest branching in the process of jet formation and are, therefore, ideal for studying the early stage of the in-medium parton shower evolution. The modification of the momentum sharing and angular separation distributions in lead-lead relative to proton-proton collisions is evaluated using the leading-order medium-induced splitting functions obtained in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory with Glauber gluon interactions. Qualitative and in most cases quantitative agreement between theory and preliminary CMS measurements suggests that the parton shower in heavy ion collisions can be dramatically modified early in the branching history. We propose a new measurement which will illuminate the angular distribution of the hardest branching within jets in heavy ion collisions.

  3. Hadronic processes as origin of TeV emission in Fanaroff-Riley Class I: Cen A, M87 and NGC1275

    CERN Document Server

    Fraija, N; Perez, M

    2012-01-01

    Recent detections of Fanaroff-Riley Class I AGNs by HESS, MAGIC, and VERITAS suggest that very-high-energy gamma-rays (VHE, E > 100 GeV) may not have a leptonic origin. We present a hadronic model to describe the TeV photons as the neutral pion decay resulting from pgamma and pp interactions. For the pgamma interaction, we assume that the target photons are produced by leptonic processes and apparent at the second spectral peak. For the pp interaction we consider as targets the thermal particle densities in the lobes. We show that this model can describe the TeV spectra of the radio galaxies NCG 1275, M87 and Cen A

  4. Stabilization of Branching Queueing Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brázdil, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Queueing networks are gaining attraction for the performance analysis of parallel computer systems. A Jackson network is a set of interconnected servers, where the completion of a job at server i may result in the creation of a new job for server j. We propose to extend Jackson networks by "branching" and by "control" features. Both extensions are new and substantially expand the modelling power of Jackson networks. On the other hand, the extensions raise computational questions, particularly concerning the stability of the networks, i.e, the ergodicity of the underlying Markov chain. We show for our extended model that it is decidable in polynomial time if there exists a controller that achieves stability. Moreover, if such a controller exists, one can efficiently compute a static randomized controller which stabilizes the network in a very strong sense; in particular, all moments of the queue sizes are finite.

  5. Coherent field emission from a multi-walled carbon nanotube with two open-ended branches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Xin; Zhang Geng-Min; Wang Ming-Sheng; Zhang Zhao-Xiang; Yu Jie; Zhao Xing-Yu; Guo Deng-Zhu; Xue Zeng-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Interference fringes are obtained in a field-emission microscopy (FEM) study of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with two open-ended branches.The FEM pattern,which is composed of three parallel streaks,can be interpreted by using classical Young's double-slit interference with the ends of the two MWCNT branches treated as two secondary sources of the electron wave.The origin of the coherency of the electron beams from the two branches is discussed on the basis of the quantitative analysis of the FEM pattern.The result suggests a new approach to obtaining a coherent electron source.

  6. Absolute Measurement of Hadronic Branching Fractions of the D_s^+ Meson

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, J; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Libby, J; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M; Love, W; Savinov, V; López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L

    2008-01-01

    The branching fractions of D_s meson decays serve to normalize many measurements of processes involving charm quarks. Using 298 /pb of e+ e- collisions recorded at a center of mass energy of 4.17 GeV, we determine absolute branching fractions for eight D_s decays with a double tag technique. In particular we determine the branching fraction B(D_s -> K- K+ pi+) = (5.50 +- 0.23 +- 0.16)%, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic respectively. We also provide partial branching fractions for kinematic subsets of the K- K+ pi+ decay mode.

  7. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  8. Controlled Electronic Transport through Branched Molecular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The conductance through a branched conductor placed between two electrodes is analyzed using the Landauer transport formulation within the framework of the single electron, and the tight binding approximations. Terminal side chains are expressed as self energy terms which map the branched conductor onto an effective linear chain Hamiltonian. The effect of uniform side branches on resonant zero-bias conductance is shown to be analytically solvable and particularly simple, w...

  9. Co-variation of crenarchaeol and branched GDGTs in globally-distributed marine and freshwater sedimentary archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fietz, S.; Huguet, C.; Bendle, J.; Escala, M.; Gallacher, C.; Herfort, L.; Jamieson, R.; Martínez-Garcia, A.; McClymont, E.L.; Peck, V.L.; Prahl, F.G.; Rossi, S.; Rueda, G.; Sanson-Barrera, A.; Rosell-Melé, A.

    2012-01-01

    Two major types of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are commonly used in paleoecological and paleoclimatological reconstructions: isoprenoidal and branched GDGTs. In aquatic environments, it was originally assumed that isoprenoidal GDGTs, especially crenarchaeol, derive mainly from aqua

  10. Understanding and managing the morphology of Rhine Delta branches incising into sand-clay deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; Van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  11. Markov branching diffusions: martingales, Girsanov type theorems and applications to the long term behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engländer, J.; Kyprianou, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Consider a spatial branching particle process where the underlying motion is a conservative diffusion on D C Rd corresponding to the elliptic op- erator L on D, and the branching is strictly binary (dyadic), with spatially varying rate ß(x) => 0 (and ß <> 0) which is assumed to be bounded from above

  12. Geography and Dynamics of the Industries Processing Raw Materials of Animal Origin in the Villages of Kharkiv Region during the NEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lapchenko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background research related to the lack of researches in the given topic historiography. Territorial boundaries cover a large region — Kharkiv region, which until 1925 largely coincide with the boundaries of Kharkov province. And in 1925, it was divided into several provinces — Kharkov, Sumy, Kupiansk, Izyumskogo, Romney. The chronological boundaries article dated from 1921–1929’s, during which was implemented new economic polityka.Osnovnu attention paid to the article features geographically-sectoral design small-scale production of animal products in the region in 20 years of the twentieth century. On the basis of the detected and studied complex of sources the author analyzes the source base peasant industries in Kharkiv in this period. Found total number of farmers who were engaged in crafts processing animal products. Also revealed the specific industry Kharkov peasantry during nepu. Isnuvav number of factors that pushed the peasant engage in crafts: surplus agricultural products and raw materials; meet a wide range of numerous industrial, domestic and cultural needs; urgent need to replenish the family budget; surplus labor; free time from agricultural work (especially in winter and others. The development of rural industries processing animal products in the years 1921–1929 in the Kharkiv region characterized by strength and diversity. Village artisans representing an original way of small private commodity production. Basically crafts processing animal products involved in two socio-professional groups: lone artisan and peasant host of crafts. The social basis of industrial employment accounted malozemelni without sowing without Traction economy, which crafts were an important source of household income. The attention is focused on characteristic features of the state policy on «small business » peasants. Attention is paid to co-operation and effects of these industries on the further development rozvytok. Kooperatyvna form

  13. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  14. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  15. Networks of companies and branches in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, A M; Sienkiewicz, J; Suchecki, K; Chmiel, Anna M.; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    In this study we consider relations between companies in Poland taking into account common branches they belong to. It is clear that companies belonging to the same branch compete for similar customers, so the market induces correlations between them. On the other hand two branches can be related by companies acting in both of them. To remove weak, accidental links we shall use a concept of threshold filtering for weighted networks where a link weight corresponds to a number of existing connections (common companies or branches) between a pair of nodes.

  16. Open triple-branched stent graft applied to patient of acute type a aortic dissection with Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Changfa; Zhu, Kai; Xu, Demin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old Chinese male patient presented with Standford type A aortic dissection with an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA). At operation, the ascending aorta was replaced by a mono–branch vascular prosthesis with the branch bypassing to the ARSA; the triple-branched stent graft was inserted into the true lumen of the arch and proximal descending aorta (covering the origin of the ARSA) with each sidearm graft being positioned into the aortic branches; and then its proximal end was su...

  17. Identification of the varietal origin of processed loose-leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanping Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tea is an important cash crop, representing a $40 billion-a-year global market. Differentiation of the tea market has resulted in increasing demand for tea products that are sustainably and responsibly produced. Tea authentication is important because of growing concerns about fraud involving premium tea products. Analytical technologies are needed for protection and value enhancement of high-quality brands. For loose-leaf teas, the challenge is that the authentication needs to be established on the basis of a single leaf, so that the products can be traced back to the original varieties. A new generation of molecular markers offers an ideal solution for authentication of processed agricultural products. Using a nanofluidic array to identify variant SNP sequences, we tested genetic identities using DNA extracted from single leaves of 14 processed commercial tea products. Based on the profiles of 60 SNP markers, the genetic identity of each tea sample was unambiguously identified by multilocus matching and ordination analysis. Results for repeated samples of multiple tea leaves from the same products (using three independent DNA extractions showed 100% concordance, showing that the nanofluidic system is a reliable platform for generating tea DNA fingerprints with high accuracy. The method worked well on green, oolong, and black teas, and can handle a large number of samples in a short period of time. It is robust and cost-effective, thus showing high potential for practical application in the value chain of the tea industry.

  18. EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF); Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 3, Revision 2 (FGE.03Rev2): Acetals of branched- and straight-chain aliphatic saturated primary alcohols and branched- and straight-chain saturated or unsaturated, aldehydes, an ester of a hemiacetal and an orthoester of formic acid, from chemical groups 1, 2 and 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Beltoft, Vibe Meister;

    The Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids of the European Food Safety Authority was requested to evaluate one flavouring substance, acetaldehyde ethyl isopropyl acetal [FL-no: 06.137], structurally related to the 58 flavouring substances in the Flavouring Group...

  19. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... of pedagogues and in everyday life in daycare facilities. The competence term includes at least two discourses of interest; a pedagogical competence discourse and a political jurisdiction discourse which forms a distention between authenticity and competence. In order that pedagogues may regain their autonomy I...

  20. Stochastic transition between turbulent branch and thermodynamic branch of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point and linear stability boundary. (author)

  1. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATION IN BRANCHING PATTERN OF COELIAC TRUNK IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayamma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: purpose of present study was to describe the variations in the branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Caeliac trunk is one of the ventral branch of abdominal aorta.it arises from the abdominal aorta opposite to intervertebral disc of T12 & L1 vertebrae.it has short course of 1.5 cm after which it terminates by dividing in to three branches splenic artery , left ga stric artery and common hepatic artery. Here we report unusual branching pattern of caeliac trunk. Knowledge of such variations in branching pattern of caeliac trunk is very important for surgeons , anatomists and anaesthetists. METHODS : The present study is done on 30 cadavers irrespective of sex in department of Anatomy in KURNOOL MEDICAL COLLEGE , Kurnool. According to dissection guidelines of cunnighams practical manual of Anatomy. RESULTS: The present study was an attempt to study the occurrence of the branching pattern of the coeliac trunk. The available literature was reviewed. The coeliac trunk took origin from the ventral surface of the aorta in all the 30 specimens. The various patterns were normal hepatolienogastric trunk in 92% , lienogastric trunk in. In one Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern o f specimen , coeliac trunk divided into common hepati c & splenic arteries , the left gastric artery took origin from the splenic artery. CONCLUSION : In my study out of 30 specimens 92% belonged to Type I , 2% to Type II , 2% to Type III , 2% to Type IV. This classification is according to LIPSCHUTZ (1917. The most common pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk was the Hepatogastrolienal type , which has been accepted as the normal pattern of branching of the Coeliac trunk.

  2. Branching and growth of plantings in fifth year of a seedling seed orchard of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The features of branching and growth studied included height, diameter at breast height (DBH), total number of branches, annual height growth, annual branch elongation in the year of elongating, annual branch number for four consecutive years, diameter of branches of different ages, and diameter of stem where branch-whorl originates. For features of total growth and overall branching, no significant differences were found between families, except for DBH. For annual features, no significant differences were found in annual stem height growth, annual branch elongation in the year of elongation and diameter of branches. In the last four years, differences in number of branches were not significant in the first two years but were significant in the last two year; differences in stem diameter where branch-whorls grow were significant for the four consecutive years. Trend of annual growth and branching features of families can be divided into three types as increasing type, stable type and fluctuating type. Most of families have an increasing type with respect of annual height growth and annual branch elongation, while most families belong to a fluctuating type with annual branch number. The results indicated that in the fifth year after planted in seedling seed orchard, differences between families were mostly insignificant. This result may have two main explanations: one is the growth rhyme in early ages of Masson pine, the other one is the complex paternal components to form the open-pollinated families. Family selection seemed to be not useful based on the result. It is suggested to select some of families in the nursery instead of to use all the families when establishing seedling seed orchards with open-pollinated families from plus-trees.

  3. PRACTICAL PROPOSALS AS A RESULT OF THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Theoretical and experimental researches of extraction processes from plant origin raw materials: barley, acorns and chicory with liquid carbon dioxide, as well as lupin with cheese whey were carried out. Quality indicators of extracts and secondary raw materials are defined. It is established that they are perspective raw sources for the enriched and functional products as they contain amino acids, vitamins and microelements. The dairy-vegetative lupine extract, for example, contains 17 amino acids, including the essential as well as vitamins and minerals. The studies of secondary raw materials, barley, acorns, chicory and lupine quality showed the expediency of their use for foods enrichment. Quality indicators of secondary raw materials are presented in the tables form in the given work. It formed the basis for the development of hardware-technological schemes of obtaining СО2-extracts and their use. The hardware-technological scheme of obtaining СО2-extracts from barley, acorns and chicory includes a number of equipment units: motor transport for raw materials delivery to the enterprise, the scraper hydroconveyor, the jet washer, a photoseparator for of poor-quality raw materials and impurities removal, a blowing machine for removing surface moisture from the raw materials, a jet washer for peeling, a cutter, drying and frying device, a crusher, a roller machine tool and an extracting unit. Hardware providing for yoghurt technology enriched with amino acids, microelements and vitamins which are present in a dairy-plant extract differs from the mentioned above one in the following. The extract used is a cheese whey, and the extraction of a target component is carried out in a vibrating extractor. The hardwaretechnological scheme is made according to Russian technology of yoghurt and furnished with the equipment for dairy-vegetative extract feeding into a product. It includes the following: a vibrating extractor (not shown in fig

  4. Command and Data Handling Branch Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Rachel Mae

    2016-01-01

    Modular Integrated Stackable Layers (MISL) is a computer system designed for simple, fast, and cost effective flexible reconfiguration in space environments such as the ISS and Orion projects for various uses. Existing applications include wireless and wired communications, data acquisition and instrumentation, and camera systems, and potential applications include bus protocol converters and subsystem control. MISL is based on Texas Instruments (TI)' MSP430 16-bit ultra-low-power microcontroller device. The purpose of my project was to integrate the MISL system with a liquid crystal display (LCD) touchscreen. The LCD, manufactured by Crystalfontz and part number CFAF320240F-035T-TS, is a 320 by 240 RGB resistive color screen including an optional carrier board. The vast majority of the project was done with Altium Designer, a tool for printed circuit board (PCB) schematic capture, 3D design, and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) development. The new PCB was to allow the LCD to directly stack to the rest of MISL. Research was done with datasheets for the TI microcontroller and touchscreen display in order to meet desired hardware specifications. Documentation on prior MISL projects was also utilized. The initial step was to create a schematic for the LCD, power bus, and data bus connections between components. A layout was then designed with the required physical dimensions, routed traces and vias, power and ground planes, layer stacks, and other specified design rules such as plane clearance and hole size. Multiple consultation sessions were held with Hester Yim, the technical discipline lead for the Command and Data Handling Branch, and Christy Herring, the lead PCB layout designer in the Electronic Design and Manufacturing Branch in order to ensure proper configuration. At the moment, the PCB is awaiting revision by the latter-mentioned branch. Afterwards, the board will begin to undergo the manufacturing and testing process. Throughout the internship at

  5. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Herbaceous Peony in Response to Paclobutrazol Inhibition of Lateral Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqiu Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall. is an emerging high-grade cut flower worldwide, which is usually used in wedding bouquets and known as the “wedding flower”. However, abundant lateral branches appear frequently in some excellent cultivars, and a lack of a method to remove Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches other than inefficient artificial methods is an obstacle for improving the quality of its cut flowers. In this study, paclobutrazol (PBZ application was found to inhibit the growth of lateral branches in Paeonia lactiflora for the first time, including 96.82% decreased lateral bud number per branch, 77.79% and 42.31% decreased length and diameter of lateral branches, respectively, declined cell wall materials and changed microstructures. Subsequently, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technology was used for quantitative proteomics analysis of lateral branches under PBZ application and control. The results indicated that 178 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs successfully obtained, 98 DEPs were up-regulated and 80 DEPs were down-regulated. Thereafter, 34 candidate DEPs associated with the inhibited growth of lateral branches were screened according to their function and classification. These PBZ-stress responsive candidate DEPs were involved in eight biological processes, which played a very important role in the growth and development of lateral branches together with the response to PBZ stress. These results provide a better understanding of the molecular theoretical basis for removing Paeonia lactiflora lateral branches using PBZ application.

  7. Floral bud damage compensation by branching and biomass allocation in genotypes of Brassica napus with different architecture and branching potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie ePinet

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant branching is a key process in the yield elaboration of winter oilseed rape (WOSR. It is also involved in plant tolerance to flower damage because it allows the setting of new fertile inflorescences. Here we characterize the changes in the branching and distribution of the number of pods between primary and secondary inflorescences in response to floral bud clippings. Then we investigate the impacts of the modifications in branching on the biomass allocation and its consequence on the crop productivity (harvest index. These issues were addressed on plants with contrasted architecture and branching potential, using three genotypes (Exocet, Pollen, and Gamin grown under two levels of nitrogen fertilization. Clipping treatments of increasing intensities were applied to either inflorescences or flower buds.We were able to show that restoration of the number of pods after clipping is the main lever for the compensation. Genotypes presented different behaviors in branching and biomass allocation as a function of clipping treatments. The number of fertile ramifications increased for the high intensities of clipping. In particular, the growth of secondary ramifications carried by branches developed before clipping has been observed. The proportions of yield and of number of pods carried by these secondary axes increased and became almost equivalent to the proportion carried by primary inflorescences. In terms of biomass allocation, variations have also been evidenced in the relationship between pod dry mass on a given axis and the number of pods set, while the shoot/root ratio was not modified. The harvest index presented different responses: it decreased after flower buds clipping, while it was maintained after the clipping of the whole inflorescences. The results are discussed relative to their implications regarding the identification of interesting traits to be target in breeding programs in order to improve WOSR tolerance.

  8. Analysis of Capillary Rise in Asymmetric Branch-Like Capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caoxiong; Shen, Yinghao; Ge, Hongkui; Yang, Zhihui; Su, Shuai; Ren, Kai; Huang, Heyu

    2016-05-01

    Transport in porous media is common in nature, attracting many attentions for a long time. Tree-like network model is often used as a simplification for porous space, expressing the complexity of pore spaces instead of capillary bundle. To investigate spontaneous imbibition characteristics in this network, a dynamic asymmetric branch-like capillary model is used to represent basic network structure, using fractal method to represent tortuosity. This work investigates the influence of parameters on imbibition process in the branch-like capillary model. An analytical equation for the imbibition mass versus time is derived. Parameters from capillary structures to liquid properties are taken into account and analyzed based on the numerical solution of the equation. It is found that the imbibition process in asymmetric branch-like capillary model can be recognized by four sections and brunching tubes are positive for imbibition process. Concomitantly, meniscus arrest event is simulated and discussed. Moreover, the influence of parameters on imbibition process is discussed. These parameters can be classified as static and dynamic. Static parameters mainly change the capillary force, which are related to the ultimate imbibition mass or imbibition ability, while dynamic parameters mainly have influence on resistance of flowing fluid, which are related to the imbibition speed in the imbibition process.

  9. The bioinvasion of Guam: inferring geographic origin, pace, pattern and process of an invasive lizard (Carlia) in the Pacific using multi-locus genomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, C.C.; Rittmeyer, E.N.; Oliver, L.A.; Andermann, J.O.; Zug, G.R.; Rodda, G.H.; Jackson, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species often have dramatic negative effects that lead to the deterioration and loss of biodiversity frequently coupled with the burden of expensive biocontrol programs and subversion of socioeconomic stability. The fauna and flora of oceanic islands are particularly susceptible to invasive species and the increase of global movements of humans and their products since WW II has caused numerous anthropogenic translocations and increased the ills of human-mediated invasions. We use a multi-locus genomic dataset to identify geographic origin, pace, pattern and historical process of an invasive scincid lizard (Carlia) that has been inadvertently introduced to Guam, the Northern Marianas, and Palau. This lizard is of major importance as its introduction is thought to have assisted in the establishment of the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam by providing a food resource. Our findings demonstrate multiple waves of introductions that appear to be concordant with movements of Allied and Imperial Japanese forces in the Pacific during World War II.

  10. Origin of the p-process radionuclides 92Nb and 146Sm in the early Solar System and inferences on the birth of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Lugaro, Maria; Ott, Ulrich; Zuber, Kai; Travaglio, Claudia; Gyurky, Gyorgy; Fulop, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    The abundances of 92Nb and 146Sm in the early Solar System are determined from meteoritic analysis and their stellar production is attributed to the p process. We investigate if their origin from thermonuclear supernovae deriving from the explosion of white dwarfs with mass above the Chandrasekhar limit is in agreement with the abundance of 53Mn, another radionuclide present in the early Solar System and produced in the same events. A consistent solution for 92Nb and 53Mn cannot be found within the current uncertainties and requires that the 92Nb/92Mo ratio in the early Solar System is at least 50% lower than the current nominal value, which is outside its present error bars. A different solution is to invoke another production site for 92Nb, which we find in the alpha-rich freezeout during core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Whichever scenario we consider, we find that a relatively long time interval of at least ~10 Myr must have elapsed from when the star-forming region where the Sun was born was i...

  11. [Regeneration processes in bone defects after implantation of composite material of different density of polylactide origin filled with HAP (experimental-morphological study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, A A; Grigor'ian, A S; Krotova, L I; Popov, V K; Volozhin, A I; Losev, V F

    2009-01-01

    In experimental-morphological study on 6 dogs the dynamics of regenerate formation in ulna and mandible defects after implantation in them composite material of different density (0.46-0.50 and 0.38-0.42 g/cm(3)) of polylactide (PL) origin filled with HAP was followed at the terms of 6 and 9 months. Histologic study and structural determinant distribution analysis in the content of regenerate showed that optimal results according to the bone defect substitution by bone regenerate criterion at 9th month of the experiment were received after composite material from PL and HAP with the density of 0.38-0.42 g/cm(3) implantation. Newly formed trabecular bone tissue was seen in the regenerate and as well as strong tendency for bone matrix maturation. It was confirmed by the appearance of lamellar structures in newly formed bone trabecules situated in peripheral zones of bone defect. In bone mandible defects the substitution process of the implants from PL with HAP by the bone tissue was much slower than in ulna defects.

  12. Origin of the p-process radionuclides 92Nb and 146Sm in the early solar system and inferences on the birth of the Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugaro, Maria; Pignatari, Marco; Ott, Ulrich; Zuber, Kai; Travaglio, Claudia; Gyürky, György; Fülöp, Zsolt

    2016-01-26

    The abundances of (92)Nb and (146)Sm in the early solar system are determined from meteoritic analysis, and their stellar production is attributed to the p process. We investigate if their origin from thermonuclear supernovae deriving from the explosion of white dwarfs with mass above the Chandrasekhar limit is in agreement with the abundance of (53)Mn, another radionuclide present in the early solar system and produced in the same events. A consistent solution for (92)Nb and (53)Mn cannot be found within the current uncertainties and requires the (92)Nb/(92)Mo ratio in the early solar system to be at least 50% lower than the current nominal value, which is outside its present error bars. A different solution is to invoke another production site for (92)Nb, which we find in the α-rich freezeout during core-collapse supernovae from massive stars. Whichever scenario we consider, we find that a relatively long time interval of at least ∼ 10 My must have elapsed from when the star-forming region where the Sun was born was isolated from the interstellar medium and the birth of the Sun. This is in agreement with results obtained from radionuclides heavier than iron produced by neutron captures and lends further support to the idea that the Sun was born in a massive star-forming region together with many thousands of stellar siblings.

  13. The Application of Origin 8.0 to Experimental Data Processing of the Acetic Ether Saponification%Origin8.0在乙酸乙酯皂化反应实验数据处理的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    库尔班江·肉孜; 加米拉·扎衣顿; 刘瑞泉

    2013-01-01

    Origin8.0是一个多文档界面的应用程序,功能强大,普遍用于数据分析和科研绘图.运用该软件对“乙酸乙酯皂化反应”的数据进行处理,数据处理误差小,图形美观,方便、快捷,也更科学、合理.结合计算机的应用,对提高学生的综合处理能力和综合素质有很好的效果.另外,Origin8.0软件的使用可客观的评价学生的实验结果.

  14. MEDIAMUSIC ORIGINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the origins of music in electronic regular broadcasting, which conditions have appeared in the XIX century. They stand out in the "telephone concerts", "phonograph concerts" and the proto-sound films (T.Edison, W.Dickson, Ch.Pathé, O.Messter. In the early twentieth century, a clear prototype of mediamusic playing by the music of "silent" films, which has been divided on the on-screen and offscreen sound layers, the method of compilation, the basics of synchronization between musical sound and off-music montage-structures. In addition, the origins of music of electronic mass media can be regarded as attempts to understand the "musical" noise features, which subsequently materialize in the phenomenon of "noisemusic" of media audio-score (L.Russolo, Ars.Avraamov, D.Vertov, W.Ruttmann, N.Voinov, P.Schaeffer. Are considered Russian, European and North American experiences.

  15. EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 72, Revision 1 (FGE.72Rev1): Consideration of aliphatic, branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids, and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA (61st meeting) structurally related to branched- and straight-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of these and straight-chain aliphatic saturated alcohols evaluated by EFSA in FGE.05Rev2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Vibe Meister; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz;

    evaluation is necessary, as laid down in Commission Regulation (EC) No 1565/2000. The present consideration concerns a group of 23 aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters, evaluated by the JECFA at their 61st meeting. This revision is made due...

  16. Mitochondrial origins.

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, D.; Oyaizu, Y; Oyaizu, H; Olsen, G J; Woese, C R

    1985-01-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNA sequences from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas testosteroni have been determined to further delimit the origin of the endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion. These two prokaryotes represent the alpha and beta subdivisions, respectively, of the so-called purple bacteria. The endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion belonged to the alpha subdivision, a group that also contains the rhizobacteria, the agrobacteria, and the rickettsias--all prokary...

  17. A modeling study on tidal and salinity process at Chongqi Bridge cross section located in North Branch of Yangtze Estuary%长江口北支崇启大桥处潮位和盐度过程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童朝锋; 刘丰阳; 邵宇阳; 孙运佳; 吕立锐

    2012-01-01

    For the Chongqi Bridge located in the mixing zone of fresh-salt water in the North Branch of Yangtze Estuary,the concrete of piers can be eroded easily in the salt water. In order to provide the tidal fluctuation zone in vertical direction and the salinity values required in the anti-erosion tests of concrete,a hydrodynamic and saltwater intrusion model of Yangtze Estuary was developed and calibrated by the TELEMAC model. The tidal level and the salinity at the cross section of the bridge were simulated under conditions of the different characteristic discharges corresponding to the different cumulative frequencies. The results show that tide is the key factor resulting in the water level fluctuation, and the salinity at the cross section is decided by the runoff from Yangtze River watershed. The more flow rate is, the lower salinity is. The salinity also ranges within 10‰~26‰ in the same period with the tide under the action of tide. The fluctuation extent in spring season is larger than that in dry season although the salinity is smaller.%位于长江口北支的崇启大桥处于盐淡水交替区,其混凝土桥墩易受海水腐蚀.为给桥墩抗腐试验提供必要的潮位变动区范围和盐度试验参数,建立了基于无结构网格的长江口盐水数值模型,计算分析了在不同径流量和外海潮汐边界条件下,崇启大桥断面潮位变幅及盐度变动过程.研究表明崇启大桥处潮位变幅大,潮汐是控制崇启大桥处水位变动范围的关键因素;桥墩处盐度整体取决于入海径流量,流量增加促使盐度降低,反之亦然;潮汐作用促使桥墩处呈现短周期性振荡盐度,盐度范围为10‰~26‰,其中枯季盐度平稳,洪季变幅大.

  18. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-05-13

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions.

  19. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Yana; Orlov, Yury; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer's interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  20. The genealogy of branching Brownian motion with absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Berestycki, Julien; Schweinsberg, Jason

    2010-01-01

    We consider a system of particles which perform branching Brownian motion with negative drift and are killed upon reaching zero, in the near-critical regime where the total population stays roughly constant with approximately N particles. We show that the characteristic time scale for the evolution of this population is of order (log N)^3, in the sense that when time is measured in these units, the scaled number of particles converges to a variant of Neveu's continuous-state branching process. Furthermore, the genealogy of the particles is then governed by a coalescent process known as the Bolthausen-Sznitman coalescent. This validates the non-rigorous predictions by Brunet, Derrida, Muller, and Munier for a closely related model.

  1. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer’s interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  2. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  3. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  4. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  5. Agents in branching space-times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuel; Belnap

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this essay Is to make some brief suggestions on the beginnings of a theory of agentsand agency In branching spacetlmes.foe thought Is to combine the ideas of agency as developed agalnst the relatively simple background of branching time with the richer notions of Indetermlnlsm asstructured In the theory of branching space-times.My plan Is to say a little about agency In branchingtime and a little about branchlg spacetlmes,and then ask how the two can be brought together.Atthe end there Is an ...

  6. The return branch of viscous fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, F

    2005-01-01

    We report a simple experiment of two-dimensional pattern formation in a circular Hele-Shaw cell, showing the appearance of a return branch that is equivalent to the upward-connecting leader of lightning. Injecting water from the center into a foam filled cell, we obtained patterns similar to dendrites of two-dimensional dielectric breakdown experiments. When we repeat this experiment allowing the presence of water in the outer (low pressure) region, dendrites grow initially as in a normal experiment, but when a branch is near the outer boundary, the low pressure water begins to penetrate the foam against the pressure field, forming several return branches.

  7. Branched Polymers for Enhancing Polymer Gel Strength and Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    of the gel through different toughening mechanisms, each required complicated processing not amenable to scale up limiting their broad utility...100 Pa – 10 kPa) to structural resins (G’ ~ >10 MPa). In particular, this approach will address the prohibitively low fracture toughness of soft...Mrozek, R. A.; Lenhart, J. L.; Lambeth, R. H.; Andzelm, J. W. Novel branched additives for polymer toughening , Patent Disclosure [S/N 61/645,286

  8. A critical role for NF2 and the Hippo pathway in branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginensi, Antoine; Enderle, Leonie; Gregorieff, Alex; Johnson, Randy L; Wrana, Jeffrey L; McNeill, Helen

    2016-08-02

    Branching morphogenesis is a complex biological process common to the development of most epithelial organs. Here we demonstrate that NF2, LATS1/2 and YAP play a critical role in branching morphogenesis in the mouse kidney. Removal of Nf2 or Lats1/2 from the ureteric bud (UB) lineage causes loss of branching morphogenesis that is rescued by loss of one copy of Yap and Taz, and phenocopied by YAP overexpression. Mosaic analysis demonstrates that cells with high YAP expression have reduced contribution to UB tips, similar to Ret(-/-) cells, and that YAP suppresses RET signalling and tip identity. Conversely, Yap/Taz UB-deletion leads to cyst-like branching and expansion of UB tip markers, suggesting a shift towards tip cell identity. Based on these data we propose that NF2 and the Hippo pathway locally repress YAP/TAZ activity in the UB to promote subsequent splitting of the tip to allow branching morphogenesis.

  9. Retrogradation of starches and maltodextrins of various origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sobolewska-Zielińska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The retrogradation which occurs during the processes food storage is an essential problem in food industry. In this study, the ability to retrogradate of native starches and maltodextrins of different botanical origin was analysed. Material and methods. The materials were starches of various botanical origin, including commercial samples: potato, tapioca, wheat, corn, waxy corn starches, and laboratory isolated samples: triticale and rice starches. The above starches were used as material for laboratory production of maltodextrins of medium dextrose equivalents (DE in the range from 8.27 to 12.75. Starches were analysed for amylose content, while the ratio of non-branched/long-chain-branched to short-chain-branched fractions of maltodextrins was calculated from gel permeation chromatography data. The susceptibility to retrogradation of 2% starch pastes and 2% maltodextrin solutions was evaluated according to turbidimetric method of Jacobson. Results. The greatest starch in turbidance of starch gels was observed within initial of the test. days. Initial retrogradation degree of cereal starches was higher than that of tuber and root starches. The waxy corn starch was the least prone to retrogradate. The increase in turbidance of maltodextrin solutions were minimal. Waxy corn maltodextrin was not susceptible to retrogradation. Among other samples, the lowest susceptibility to retrogradation after 14 days was found for rice maltodextrin, while the highest for wheat and triticale maltodextrin. Conclusions. On the basis of this study, the retrogradation dependence on the kind of starches and the maltodextrins was established and the author stated that all the maltodextrins have a much less ability to retrogradation than the native starches.

  10. Characterization of carbonaceous matter in xenolithic clasts from the Sharps (H3.4) meteorite: Constraints on the origin and thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Zolensky, Michael E.; Chan, Queenie H. S.; Nagao, Keisuke; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Bodnar, Robert J.; Farley, Charles; Rahman, Zia; Le, Loan; Cody, George D.

    2017-01-01

    Primitive xenolithic clasts, often referred to as ;dark clasts;, are well known in many regolith breccias. The Sharps H3.4 ordinary chondrite contains unusually large dark clasts up to ∼1 cm across. Poorly-graphitized carbon (PGC), with Fe, Ni metal and described as ;carbon-rich aggregates;, has been reported in these clasts (Brearley, 1990). We report detailed analyses of carbonaceous matter in several identical Sharps clasts using FTIR, Raman, C-XANES, and TEM that provide insight on the extent of thermal processing and possible origin of such clasts. We also prepared acid residues of the clasts using the HCl/HF method and conducted mass spectrometric analysis of the entrained noble gases. Carbonaceous matter is often used to infer thermal history due to its sensitivity to thermal processes. The FTIR spectra of the acid residue from the Sharps clast suggest that carbonaceous matter in the clast contains less hydrogen and oxygen compared to acid residues from typical type 3.4 ordinary chondrites. The metamorphic temperatures obtained by Raman spectroscopy ranges between ∼380 °C and ∼490 °C. TEM observations indicate that the clasts experienced a peak temperature of 300 °C to 400 °C, based on the carbon d002 layer lattice spacing of C-rich aggregates. These estimates are consistent with an earlier estimate of 330 ± 50 °C, that is also estimated by the d002 layer lattice spacing (Brearley, 1990). It should be noted that the lattice spacing thermometer is based on terrestrial metamorphose rocks, and thus temperature was probably underestimated. Meanwhile, the C-XANES spectra of the C-rich aggregates show high exciton intensities, indicative of graphene structures that developed at around 700-800 °C following an extensive period of time (millions of years), however, the surrounding matrix areas experienced lower temperatures of less than 300-500 °C. Noble gas analysis of the acid residue from the Sharps clasts shows that the residue is almost identical

  11. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  12. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  13. Surgical repair of pulmonary artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghez, Olivier; Saeed, Imran; Serrato, Maria; Quintero, Diana Bernal; Kreitmann, Bernard; Fraisse, Alain; Uemura, Hideki; Seale, Anna; Daubeney, Piers; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, S Yen

    2013-01-01

    Surgical repair of pulmonary artery (PA) branches encompasses many different clinical scenarios and technical challenges. The most common, such as bifurcation and central PA reconstruction, are described, as well as the challenges of complex and peripheral reconstruction.

  14. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  15. $\\tau$ hadronic branching ratios at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Humble, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP1, we have measured the exclusive branching ratios in modes with several hadrons. Both classical cuts and neural network methods have been performed to make the best use of the DELPHI neutral particle identification capability. In addition, a measurement of inclusive branching ratios for tau decays containing one or three charged particles has been performed. (4 refs).

  16. CAST Xi'an Branch Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) Xi'an Branch was established on April 8,2008.The new branch consists of the headquarters of the former Xi'an Institute of Space Radio Technology (XISRT) of CAST and five former subsidiaries of the XISRT,i.e.the Institute of Space Electronic Technology,the Institute of Microwave Technology,the Institute of Space Antenna Technology,the Manufacturing Center for Space Electronics and Civilian High-tech Company.

  17. The Novel Y-Branch With Two Reflectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruei-Chang Lu; Yu-Pin Liao

    2003-01-01

    A novel Y-branch waveguide with two reflectors is proposed. The normalized transmitted power for the branching angle of 50°is greater than 70%, which is higher than conventional Y-branch with such wide angle.

  18. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  19. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  20. Higher order branching of periodic orbits from polynomial isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the higher order local bifurcations of limit cycles from polynomial isochrones (linearizable centers when the linearizing transformation is explicitly known and yields a polynomial perturbation one-form. Using a method based on the relative cohomology decomposition of polynomial one-forms complemented with a step reduction process, we give an explicit formula for the overall upper bound of branch points of limit cycles in an arbitrary $n$ degree polynomial perturbation of the linear isochrone, and provide an algorithmic procedure to compute the upper bound at successive orders. We derive a complete analysis of the nonlinear cubic Hamiltonian isochrone and show that at most nine branch points of limit cycles can bifurcate in a cubic polynomial perturbation. Moreover, perturbations with exactly two, three, four, six, and nine local families of limit cycles may be constructed.

  1. The genealogy of extremal particles of Branching Brownian Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Arguin, Louis-Pierre; Kistler, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Branching Brownian Motion describes a system of particles which diffuse in space and split into offsprings according to a certain random mechanism. In virtue of the groundbreaking work by M. Bramson on the convergence of solutions of the Fisher-KPP equation to traveling waves, the law of the rightmost particle in the limit of large times is rather well understood. In this work, we address the full statistics of the extremal particles (first-, second-, third- etc. largest). In particular, we prove that in the large $t-$limit, such particles descend with overwhelming probability from ancestors having split either within a distance of order one from time $0$, or within a distance of order one from time $t$. The approach relies on characterizing, up to a certain level of precision, the paths of the extremal particles. As a byproduct, a heuristic picture of Branching Brownian Motion ``at the edge'' emerges, which sheds light on the still unknown limiting extremal process.

  2. Towards a consistent description of in-medium parton branching

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions are a window of opportunity to study QCD matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density, such as the quark-gluon plasma. Among the several possibilities, the study of jet quenching - generic name given to in-medium energy loss modifications of the parton branching - is a powerful tool to assess the properties of this new state of matter. The description of the parton shower is very well understood in vacuum (controlled reference) and medium-induced modifications of this process can be experimentally accessed through jet measurements. Current experimental data, however, cannot be entirely described only with energy loss phenomena. Transverse momentum broadening and decoherence effects, both theoretically established by now, and their interplay are essential to build a consistent picture of the medium-modifications of the parton branching and to achieve a correct description of the current experimental data. In this write-up, we will present the latest develop...

  3. Longtime Behavior for Mutually Catalytic Branching with Negative Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Doering, Leif

    2011-01-01

    In several examples, dualities for interacting diffusion and particle systems permit the study of the longtime behavior of solutions. A particularly difficult model in which many techniques collapse is a two-type model with mutually catalytic interaction introduced by Dawson/Perkins for which they proved under some assumptions a dichotomy between extinction and coexistence directly from the defining equations. In the present article we show how to prove a precise dichotomy for a related model with negatively correlated noises. The proof combines a self-duality to ensure uniform integrability via moment bounds on exit-times of correlated Brownian motions from the first quadrant and explicit second moment calculations. Since the uniform integrability bound is independent of the branching rate our proof can be extended to infinite branching rate processes.

  4. Effects of Slice Processing on Hot Air Drying Characteristics of Semi-dry Original Red Jujube%切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志慧; 郭婷; 何新益; 程莉莉

    2013-01-01

      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slice processing on hot air drying characteristics of semi-dry red jujube. Drying characteristics of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube under different hot air drying temperature were compared. The drying kinetics model of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube were founded. Results showed that slice processing could decrease the drying time of semi-dry original red jujube. Page model provided better simulation of drying curves for red jujube slice at different hot drying temperature. While Henderson and Pabis model provided better simulation of drying curves for origine semi-dry original red jujube at different hot air drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity of red jujube was 10 times that of origine semi-dry original red jujube, among 1.77×10-5 m2/s-2.99×10-5 m2/s and 4.56×10-6 m2/s-7.20×10-6 m2/s, respectively. Slice processing has the significant effects on drying characteristics of semi-dry original red jujube dried by hot air drying.%  为探索切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响,以半干原枣果作参照,比较了不同热风干燥温度下枣片和枣果的干燥特性,分别建立了干燥动力学模型。研究结果表明,切片处理可以缩短红枣的干燥时间;枣片的热风干燥过程符合Page方程,而枣果的热风干燥过程符合Henderson and Pabis方程。枣片的有效扩散系数是枣果有效扩散系数的的10倍左右,分别为1.77×10-5 m2/s~2.99×10-5 m2/s、4.56×10-6 m2/s~7.20×10-6 m2/s。结果表明切片处理对红枣的干燥特性有明显的影响。

  5. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  6. Four-State Model for Three-Branch Molecule's Two-Photon Absorption Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yan; WANG Pei-Ji; ZHAO Peng; RONG Zhen-Yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a four-state model for calculating the two-photon absorption of multi-branched molecules by using the time-depended function method. The numerical results indicate that the two-photon absorption cross section has a strong enhancement for three-branch molecules compared to two-branch structures. The maximal two-photon-absorption cross section is 2.358 × 10-47 cm 4 s/photon. At the same time, the charge-transfer process for the charge-transfer states is visualized in order to explain mechanism about the maximal TPA cross section.

  7. Short Lives with Long-Lasting Effects: Filopodia Protrusions in Neuronal Branching Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Leondaritis

    Full Text Available The branching behaviors of both dendrites and axons are part of a neuronal maturation process initiated by the generation of small and transient membrane protrusions. These are highly dynamic, actin-enriched structures, collectively called filopodia, which can mature in neurons to form stable branches. Consequently, the generation of filopodia protrusions is crucial during the formation of neuronal circuits and involves the precise control of an interplay between the plasma membrane and actin dynamics. In this issue of PLOS Biology, Hou and colleagues identify a Ca2+/CaM-dependent molecular machinery in dendrites that ensures proper targeting of branch formation by activation of the actin nucleator Cobl.

  8. Fractal Study of Multi-branched Domains in Garnet Bubble Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 郑德娟; 周雁; 韩宝善

    2002-01-01

    The line-measuring dimension Dlinc has been developed and selected to describe the curved and branched patterns of multi-branched domains (MBDs) formed by using the "low-bias-field method" in magnetic garnet bubble films.The definition of Dline is given. The domain pattern processing and the "double boundary description" of MBDs are introduced. It has been verified that the MBD patterns truly possess the characteristic of fractal structure over a certain range. The meaningful Dline seems to be a better parameter to quantitatively describe the curved and branched structure of MBDs, and can be related to the nucleation of vertical Bloch lines in their walls.

  9. Expression of Escherichia coli glycogen branching enzyme in an Arabidopsis mutant devoid of endogenous starch branching enzymes induces the synthesis of starch-like polyglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laura; Roussel, Xavier; Courseaux, Adeline; Ndjindji, Ofilia M; Lancelon-Pin, Christine; Putaux, Jean-Luc; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J; Pontoire, Bruno; D' Hulst, Christophe; Wattebled, Fabrice

    2016-07-01

    Starch synthesis requires several enzymatic activities including branching enzymes (BEs) responsible for the formation of α(1 → 6) linkages. Distribution and number of these linkages are further controlled by debranching enzymes that cleave some of them, rendering the polyglucan water-insoluble and semi-crystalline. Although the activity of BEs and debranching enzymes is mandatory to sustain normal starch synthesis, the relative importance of each in the establishment of the plant storage polyglucan (i.e. water insolubility, crystallinity and presence of amylose) is still debated. Here, we have substituted the activity of BEs in Arabidopsis with that of the Escherichia coli glycogen BE (GlgB). The latter is the BE counterpart in the metabolism of glycogen, a highly branched water-soluble and amorphous storage polyglucan. GlgB was expressed in the be2 be3 double mutant of Arabidopsis, which is devoid of BE activity and consequently free of starch. The synthesis of a water-insoluble, partly crystalline, amylose-containing starch-like polyglucan was restored in GlgB-expressing plants, suggesting that BEs' origin only has a limited impact on establishing essential characteristics of starch. Moreover, the balance between branching and debranching is crucial for the synthesis of starch, as an excess of branching activity results in the formation of highly branched, water-soluble, poorly crystalline polyglucan.

  10. How plastic can phenotypic plasticity be? The branching coral Stylophora pistillata as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Shaish

    Full Text Available Phenotypic plasticity enables multicellular organisms to adjust morphologies and various life history traits to variable environmental challenges. Here, we elucidate fixed and plastic architectural rules for colony astogeny in multiple types of colonial ramets, propagated by cutting from genets of the branching coral Stylophora pistillata from Eilat, the Red Sea. We examined 16 morphometric parameters on 136 one-year old S. pistillata colonies (of seven genotypes, originating from small fragments belonging, each, to one of three single-branch types (single tips, start-up, and advanced bifurcating tips or to structural preparative manipulations (representing a single or two growth axes. Experiments were guided by the rationale that in colonial forms, complexity of evolving phenotypic plasticity can be associated with a degree of structural modularity, where shapes are approached by erecting iterative growth patterns at different levels of coral-colony organization. Analyses revealed plastic morphometric characters at branch level, and predetermined morphometric traits at colony level (only single trait exhibited plasticity under extreme manipulation state. Therefore, under the experimental manipulations of this study, phenotypic plasticity in S. pistillata appears to be related to branch level of organization, whereas colony traits are controlled by predetermined genetic architectural rules. Each level of organization undergoes its own mode of astogeny. However, depending on the original ramet structure, the spherical 3-D colonial architecture in this species is orchestrated and assembled by both developmental trajectories at the branch level, and traits at the colony level of organization. In nature, branching colonial forms are often subjected to harsh environmental conditions that cause fragmentation of colony into ramets of different sizes and structures. Developmental traits that are plastic, responding to fragment structure and are not

  11. Branching structure of uniform recursive trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Qunqiang; SU; Chun; HU; Zhishui

    2005-01-01

    The branching structure of uniform recursive trees is investigated in this paper.Using the method of sums for a sequence of independent random variables, the distribution law of ηn, the number of branches of the uniform recursive tree of size n are given first. It is shown that the strong law of large numbers, the central limit theorem and the law of iterated logarithm for ηn follow easily from this method. Next it is shown that ηn and ξn, the depth of vertex n, have the same distribution, and the distribution law of ζn,m, the number of branches of size m, is also given, whose asymptotic distribution is the Poisson distribution with parameter λ = 1/m. In addition, the joint distribution and the asymptotic joint distribution of the numbers of various branches are given. Finally, it is proved that the size of the biggest branch tends to infinity almost sure as n -→∞.

  12. Survival, extinction and approximation of discrete-time branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Zucca, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We consider a general discrete-time branching random walk on a countable set X. We relate local and global survival with suitable inequalities involving the first-moment matrix M of the process. In particular we prove that, while the local behavior is characterized by M, the global behavior cannot be completely described in terms of properties involving M alone. Moreover we show that locally surviving branching random walks can be approximated by sequences of spatially confined branching random walks which eventually survive locally if the (possibly finite) state space is large enough. An analogous result can be achieved by approximating a branching random walk by a sequence of multitype contact processes and allowing a sufficiently large number of particles per site. We compare these results with the ones obtained in the continuous-time case and we give some examples and counterexamples.

  13. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  14. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  15. Variations in branching of the posterior cord of brachial plexus in a Kenyan population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matakwa Ludia C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in the branching of posterior cord are important during surgical approaches to the axilla and upper arm, administration of anesthetic blocks, interpreting effects of nervous compressions and in repair of plexus injuries. The patterns of branching show population differences. Data from the African population is scarce. Objective To describe the branching pattern of the posterior cord in a Kenyan population. Materials and methods Seventy-five brachial plexuses from 68 formalin fixed cadavers were explored by gross dissection. Origin and order of branching of the posterior cord was recorded. Representative photographs were then taken using a digital camera (Sony Cybershot R, W200, 7.2 Megapixels. Results Only 8 out of 75 (10.7% posterior cords showed the classical branching pattern. Forty three (57.3% lower subscapular, 8(10.3% thoracodorsal and 8(10.3% upper subscapular nerves came from the axillary nerve instead of directly from posterior cord. A new finding was that in 4(5.3% and in 3(4% the medial cutaneous nerves of the arm and forearm respectively originated from the posterior cord in contrast to their usual origin from the medial cord. Conclusions Majority of posterior cords in studied population display a wide range of variations. Anesthesiologists administering local anesthetic blocks, clinicians interpreting effects of nerve injuries of the upper limb and surgeons operating in the axilla should be aware of these patterns to avoid inadvertent injury. A wider study of the branching pattern of infraclavicular brachial plexus is recommended.

  16. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.;

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...

  17. Clinical Anatomy and Measurement of the Medial Branch of the Spinal Dorsal Ramus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuang, Feng; Hou, Shu-Xun; Zhu, Jia-Liang; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Chun-Li; Tang, Jia-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous block and neurotomy of the medial branch of the spinal dorsal ramus has shown excellent results in treating facet joint-mediated low back pain. This study aimed to describe the clinical anatomy of the medial branch and its measurements. We dissected the lumbar spine of 12 adult cadavers (24 sides) and measured the distances between the medial branch and various anatomical landmarks. The distances were compared between L1 and L5 vertebrae. The distance between the dorsal ramus bifurcation and the superior border of the root of the transverse process was 3.52 ± 1.15 mm, 3.63 ± 1.36 mm, 3.46 ± 1.31 mm, 3.38 ± 1.24 mm, and 1.87 ± 0.88 for L1 to L5, respectively. The medial branch of the dorsal ramus is enclosed in a fibro-osseous canal bounded by the accessory process, the mammillary process, and the mammilloaccessory ligament. For the percutaneous treatment of block and neurotomy, the first choice of target is the medial branch fibro-osseous canal near to the accessory process. The accessory process is not displayed in x-ray films; therefore, the junction of the superior articular process and the root of the transverse process can be targeted. PMID:26717379

  18. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this chapter... to a lighting distribution panelboard; and (b) Branch circuits in excess of 30 amperes may...

  19. Effects of Early Fruiting Branch Removal on Growth, Development and Senescence Processes in Transgenic Bt Cotton(Gossypium hirsutum L.)%去早果枝对转基因抗虫棉生长发育与衰老进程的调控效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟立超; 张永江; 刘连涛; 孙红春; 朱秀金; 李存东

    2012-01-01

    Bt-transgenic cotton plants with two different sowing dates were treated normally (CK), or by removing one(Rl), two (R2) or three basal fruiting branches(R3) to study the effects of early fruiting branch removal on growth, development and senescence processes in a two-year experiment. The results showed that the removal of early fruiting branches delayed the process of growth and development there was no difference between R1 and CK in the total number of fruiting branches, but R2 and R3 were significantly lower than CK), but had no obvious effects on the total fruiting nodes. Early fruiting branch removal significantly increased the LAI and dry matter accumulation in plants of the first sowing date over two years(R1, R2 and R3 increased the dry matter weight on average by 13.5%, 17.5% and 19.0%, respectively, compared with CK), but there was no significant difference in plants of the second sowing date. For plants of the first sowing date, early fruiting branch removal significantly decreased the abscission and rotten boll rates and promoted seed yield over the two year period. Rl, R2 and R3 decreased the abscission rate by 5.9%, 6.4% and 9.5%, respectively, and rotten boll rate by 3.8%, 3.1% and 4.3%, and the Rl and R2 treatments enhanced the seed cotton yield by 9.6% and 8.1%, respectively. There was no significant yield increase in plants of the second sowing date; there was even a decrease for some treatments.%以转基因抗虫棉品种为材料,设置了2个播期和4种去早果枝方式(去基部1个、2个、3个果枝及不去果枝的对照)处理,研究去除早期果枝对棉花生长发育及衰老进程的影响.2年结果表明,去早果枝推迟了棉花的生育进程;去掉1个早果枝处理总果枝数与对照无差异,但去掉2个、3个果枝后明显低于对照,总果节数差异不显著;去早果枝显著提高了第1播期棉花叶面积指数和干物质积累量,去1个、2个和3个果枝处理的干物质积累量在2

  20. Microtubular metazoan fossils with multi-branches in Weng'an Biota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Microtubular metazoan fossils with multi- branches are found at least 4 times from the Sinian (Ediacarian) Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an, Guizhou, China. Their living mode should be the benthonic colony with higher ability of asexual reproduction. The inner of the tube with cross-walls and chamber shows that these fossils are basal or stem- group cnidarians, similar to extinct tabulates. The multi-branching microtubular fossils are real metazoan found from Weng'an biota, which is very important for studying the origin and evolvement of metazoan.

  1. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  2. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  3. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Etiolated Juvenile Tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia Branches during Different Cutting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of hard-branch cuttings of tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust is restricted by the low rooting rate; however, etiolated juvenile tetraploid black locust branches result in a significantly higher rooting rate of cuttings compared with non-etiolated juvenile tetraploid branches. To identify proteins that influence the juvenile tetraploid branch rooting process, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS were used to analyze proteomic differences in the phloem of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated and non-etiolated juvenile branches during different cutting periods. A total of 58 protein spots differed in expression level, and 16 protein spots were only expressed in etiolated branches or non-etiolated ones. A total of 40 highly expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, 14 of which were accurately retrieved. They include nucleoglucoprotein metabolic proteins, signaling proteins, lignin synthesis proteins and phyllochlorin. These results help to reveal the mechanism of juvenile tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated branch rooting and provide a valuable reference for the improvement of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia cutting techniques.

  5. Proteomic analysis of etiolated juvenile tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia branches during different cutting periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Xu, Zhaohe; Meng, Bingnan; Sun, Yuhan; Zhang, Jiangtao; Wang, Shaoming; Li, Yun

    2014-04-21

    The propagation of hard-branch cuttings of tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) is restricted by the low rooting rate; however, etiolated juvenile tetraploid black locust branches result in a significantly higher rooting rate of cuttings compared with non-etiolated juvenile tetraploid branches. To identify proteins that influence the juvenile tetraploid branch rooting process, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectra (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) were used to analyze proteomic differences in the phloem of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated and non-etiolated juvenile branches during different cutting periods. A total of 58 protein spots differed in expression level, and 16 protein spots were only expressed in etiolated branches or non-etiolated ones. A total of 40 highly expressed protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, 14 of which were accurately retrieved. They include nucleoglucoprotein metabolic proteins, signaling proteins, lignin synthesis proteins and phyllochlorin. These results help to reveal the mechanism of juvenile tetraploid R. pseudoacacia etiolated branch rooting and provide a valuable reference for the improvement of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia cutting techniques.

  6. Sox9 plays multiple roles in the lung epithelium during branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockich, Briana E; Hrycaj, Steven M; Shih, Hung Ping; Nagy, Melinda S; Ferguson, Michael A H; Kopp, Janel L; Sander, Maike; Wellik, Deneen M; Spence, Jason R

    2013-11-19

    Lung branching morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process that gives rise to the complex network of gas-exchanging units in the adult lung. Intricate regulation of signaling pathways, transcription factors, and epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk are critical to ensuring branching morphogenesis occurs properly. Here, we describe a role for the transcription factor Sox9 during lung branching morphogenesis. Sox9 is expressed at the distal tips of the branching epithelium in a highly dynamic manner as branching occurs and is down-regulated starting at embryonic day 16.5, concurrent with the onset of terminal differentiation of type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells. Using epithelial-specific genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches, our results demonstrate that Sox9 controls multiple aspects of lung branching. Fine regulation of Sox9 levels is required to balance proliferation and differentiation of epithelial tip progenitor cells, and loss of Sox9 leads to direct and indirect cellular defects including extracellular matrix defects, cytoskeletal disorganization, and aberrant epithelial movement. Our evidence shows that unlike other endoderm-derived epithelial tissues, such as the intestine, Wnt/β-catenin signaling does not regulate Sox9 expression in the lung. We conclude that Sox9 collectively promotes proper branching morphogenesis by controlling the balance between proliferation and differentiation and regulating the extracellular matrix.

  7. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Following guidelines under RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation (RI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their filled coal ash pond (FCAP) and associated areas on McCoy Branch. The RI process was initiated and assessments were presented. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented between 1986 and 1994 for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The required ecological risk assessments of McCoy Branch watershed included provisions for biological monitoring of the watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline bypassing upper McCoy Branch and further, after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program may also determine whether the goals of protection of human health and the environment of McCoy Branch are being accomplished.

  8. Understanding and managing the morphology of branches incising into sand-clay deposits in the Dutch Rhine Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.; van Spijk, A.; Stouthamer, E.; Sieben, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the Rhine-Meuse delta in the south-western part of the Netherlands, the morphology of the river branches is highly dependent on the erodibility of the subsoil. Erosion processes that were initiated after closure of the Haringvliet estuary branch by a dam (in 1970), caused a strong incision of sev

  9. Branches of the abdominal aorta in Aotus azarae infulatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mendonça Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The genus Aotus is found in South America and is known for its nocturnal habit. The morphology of the genus is poorly understood even though it is used in biomedical research. The objective of this study was to identify the collateral branches of the abdominal aorta of two females and one male Aotus azarae infulatus (commonly known as the night monkey. The vessels were observed and stained with Neoprene latex and radiopaque contrast. The animals were fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde via intramuscular and intracavitary routes, dissected and radiographed. It was observed that the celiac artery was divided into three subjacent branches, the gastric, hepatic and splenic arteries. The left and right renal arteries originated from a common trunk in two animals (animals 1 and 2, while the adrenal artery in one of the animals was derived from the celiac trunk and renal artery (animal 2. In one animal the mesenteric artery flow gave rise to individual cranial rectal, sigmoid and left colic arteries (animal 3. In the three animals the abdominal aorta bifurcated in the final portion of the abdomen, with the external and internal iliac artery on each side, and then the median sacral artery. These anatomical variations need to be identified and reported because these animals are frequently used in clinical and surgical, veterinary practices.

  10. Sedimentary and diagenetic processes at the origin of chlorites formation inside silico-clastic reservoirs; Processus sedimentaires et diagenetiques a l'origine de la formation des chlorites dans les reservoirs silicoclastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinseau, E.

    2002-06-01

    Diagenetic chlorite in deeply buried petroleum reservoirs give to the formations relatively good reservoir properties. The purpose of this study is, by a multidisciplinary approach, to better understand how chlorites form and to put into evidence the factors which influence their formation. Four case studies have been chosen: the silici-clastic Mulichinco (Valanginian) and Tordillo (Kimmeridgian) formations of the Neuquen basin, Argentina, the Springhill Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Austral basin, Argentina, and the Mashirah Bay formation (Precambrian) from the Huqf-Haushi area, Oman. Sedimentological analyses have been combined to petrographical observations (optical microscope, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, Cathodoluminescence), to chemical analyses, to chlorite polytypicism study, and by fluid inclusions micro-thermometry in silicifications. These studies have allowed to precise the diagenetic sequence for each of these formations and to approach the conditions for the formation of diagenetic chlorites for each case, and to conclude the following points: (1) ferro-magnesian chlorites require precursor material such as volcano-clasts. Their presence is associated with continental environments. Their destabilization into chlorite, via smectite, is favoured at the water/sediment interface during marine transgression. (2) ferriferous chlorites formation can happen from glauconitic minerals which contain a 7 angstroms phase like berthierite, and 10-12 angstroms phase as smectite phase, under anoxic conditions. (3) polytypicism variations traduce two different mechanisms for the chlorite formation: ferro-magnesian chlorites form by dissolution-recrystallization process and re-equilibrate with burial, whereas ferriferous chlorite form from berthierite. (author)

  11. Evolution of Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars II. Dust production at varying metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Ambra; Marigo, Paola; Girardi, Léo

    2013-01-01

    We present the dust ejecta of the new stellar models for the Thermally Pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch (TP-AGB) phase computed with the COLIBRI code. We use a formalism of dust growth coupled with a stationary wind for both M and C-stars. In the original version of this formalism, the most efficient destruction process of silicate dust in M-giants is chemisputtering by H2 molecules. For these stars we find that dust grains can only form at relatively large radial distances (r~5 R*), where they cannot be efficiently accelerated, in agreement with other investigations. In the light of recent laboratory results, we also consider the alternative case that the condensation temperature of silicates is determined only by the competition between growth and free evaporation processes (i.e. no chemisputtering). With this latter approach we obtain dust condensation temperatures that are significantly higher (up to Tcond~1400 K) than those found when chemisputtering is included (Tcond~900 K), and in better agreement with...

  12. On the red giant branch mass loss in 47 Tucanae: Constraints from the horizontal branch morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We obtain stringent constraints on the actual efficiency of mass loss for red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc, by comparing synthetic modeling based on stellar evolution tracks with the observed distribution of stars along the horizontal branch in the colour-magnitude-diagram. We confirm that the observed, wedge-shaped distribution of the horizontal branch can be reproduced only by accounting for a range of initial He abundances --in agreement with inferences from the analysis of the main sequence-- and a red giant branch mass loss with a small dispersion. We have carefully investigated several possible sources of uncertainty that could affect the results of the horizontal branch modeling, stemming from uncertainties in both stellar model computations and the cluster properties such as heavy element abundances, reddening and age. We determine a firm lower limit of ~0.17$Mo for the mass lost by red giant branch stars, corresponding to horizontal branch stellar masses between ~0.65Mo ...

  13. The Origins of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandre P. Lobodanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of artistic activities or rather art, and in recent decades the processing and consolidation of a new field in art history, art semiotics, are grouped together in the semiotic systems of applied and non-applied arts.In this paper, in particular, an analysis is made of the non-applied arts, in which non-verbal signs are used to express the form of human thought.The discussion focuses on the origins of non-applied arts, the image-forming process, the psychology of perception, the perception of sound and reproduction of sounds, the development of music and the development of dance in their entirety, as an expression of the inner condition that influences the body through movement: it thus provides a valuable contribution to the study of the non-applied arts.

  14. Detonation Structure Under Chain Branching Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Bauwens, L.

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen chemistry is characterized by a chain branching mechanism that yields three explosion limits. While a detailed kinetic scheme appropriate for hydrogen-oxygen should produce correct results, in many circumstances, a simpler yet reasonably realistic model will be warranted. In particular, it is easier to develop a clear understanding of the reaction zone structure using a simpler model, that includes only the key mechanisms. To that effect, we consider a four-step chain branching scheme that exhibits an explosion behavior with three limits, which behaves at least qualitatively like hydrogen chemistry. We focus in particular on the structure of the initiation and chain branching zones, using a combination between numerical simulation and analysis. Numerical simulations using this chemical model show distinctive keystone figures in the flow field, close to observations in hydrogen-oxygen detonation experiments. The structure of the chain branching zone is resolved using a perturbation analysis, which clarifies the differences between explosion and no-explosion regions and allows for an evaluation of the induction length in the steady wave. The analysis assumes both high activation energy and a slow initiation. Three cases are identified, respectively, with pressure and temperature located within the explosion region, close to the explosion limit and within the no-explosion region. The induction length is shorter and the reaction rate is faster by several orders of magnitude in the explosion region.

  15. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  16. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  17. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  18. Higgs Branching Ratio Study in CEPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Shou-yang; LIANG; Hao; ZHOU; Jing; LI; Xiao-mei; LI; Xing-long; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2015-01-01

    Higgs branching ratio(BR)measurement is one of the important issue of the Circular Electron Positron Collider(CEPC)project,which is strongly related to the coupling strength with particles and reveal their mass generation mechanism.The Large Hadron Collider(LHC)has discovered the Higgs boson in 2012,CEPC can confirm whether that is the standard model(SM)

  19. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... portfolio must meet the diversification requirements of Sec. 2634.406(b)(2) of this subpart. (2) In the case... of the trust's portfolio would be materially enhanced. Additionally, as with the blind trust, the... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR...

  20. Branch II : Neutrino Oscillations at Low Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, A., E-mail: anatael@in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3. Laboratoire d' Astro-Particule et Cosmologie. 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet. Paris. 75205. Cedex 13 (France); Volpe, C., E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Orsay and University of Paris XI,CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    We summarize here briefly the experimental and theoretical results presented at the NOW2010 workshop during the parallel session Branch II 'Oscillations at low energies'. The topics have covered open problems and recent advances in solar neutrinos, reactor and geo-neutrinos, as well as neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae.

  1. Kinematic Decoupling of Globular Clusters with Extended Horizontal-Branch

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Wook; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I

    2007-01-01

    About 25% of the Milky Way globular clusters (GCs) exhibit unusually extended color distribution of stars in the horizontal-branch (HB) phase. This phenomenon is now best understood as due to the presence of helium enhanced second generation subpopulations, which has raised a possibility that these peculiar GCs might have a unique origin. Here we show that these GCs with extended HB are clearly distinct from other normal GCs in kinematics and mass. The GCs with extended HB are more massive than normal GCs, and are dominated by random motion with no correlation between kinematics and metallicity. Surprisingly, however, when they are excluded, most normal GCs in the inner halo show clear signs of dissipational collapse that apparently led to the formation of the disk. Normal GCs in the outer halo share their kinematic properties with the extended HB GCs, which is consistent with the accretion origin. Our result further suggests heterogeneous origins of GCs, and we anticipate this to be a starting point for more...

  2. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  3. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  4. One algorithm for branch and bound method for solving concave optimization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, A. A.; Korepanova, A. A.; Halilova, I. F.

    2016-11-01

    The article describes the algorithm for branch and bound method for solving the concave programming problem, which is based on the idea of similarity the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimum for the original problem and for a convex programming problem with another feasible set and reverse the sign of the objective function. To find the feasible set of the equivalent convex programming problem we construct an algorithm using the idea of the branch and bound method. We formulate various branching techniques and discusses the construction of the lower objective function evaluations for the node of the decision tree. The article discusses the results of experiments of this algorithm for some famous test problems of a particular form.

  5. Structured Dendritic Inhibition Supports Branch-Selective Integration in CA1 Pyramidal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Erik B; Cembrowski, Mark S; Karsh, Bill; Colonell, Jennifer; Fetter, Richard D; Spruston, Nelson

    2016-03-02

    Neuronal circuit function is governed by precise patterns of connectivity between specialized groups of neurons. The diversity of GABAergic interneurons is a hallmark of cortical circuits, yet little is known about their targeting to individual postsynaptic dendrites. We examined synaptic connectivity between molecularly defined inhibitory interneurons and CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites using correlative light-electron microscopy and large-volume array tomography. We show that interneurons can be highly selective in their connectivity to specific dendritic branch types and, furthermore, exhibit precisely targeted connectivity to the origin or end of individual branches. Computational simulations indicate that the observed subcellular targeting enables control over the nonlinear integration of synaptic input or the initiation and backpropagation of action potentials in a branch-selective manner. Our results demonstrate that connectivity between interneurons and pyramidal cell dendrites is more precise and spatially segregated than previously appreciated, which may be a critical determinant of how inhibition shapes dendritic computation.

  6. Polarization properties of porous anodic alumina with Y-branched Cu nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejun Su; Lichun Zhang; Qingshan Li; Dechun Liang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Porous anodic alumina (PAA) templates with branch structure are fabricated by the two-step anodic oxidation processes, and then the Y-branched Cu nanowires are synthesized in the templates using an alternating current (AC) deposition method. We observe the morphology image of the samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and measure the transmission spectrum and the polarization spectrum of the samples by the spectrophotometer. The results show that PAA films with Y-branched Cu nanowires have better transmittance in the near infrared region. An extinction ratio of 15-18 dB and an insertion loss of 0.1-0.4 dB are obtained in this region. Therefore PAA with Y-branched Cu nanowires can be used as a near-infrared micropolarizer, and this kind of micropolarizer would have a promising future in the field of photoelectricity integration.

  7. Optimized Ultrawideband and Uniplanar Minkowski Fractal Branch Line Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jahanbakht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Euclidean Minkowski fractal geometry is used in design, optimization, and fabrication of an ultrawideband (UWB branch line coupler. Self-similarities of the fractal geometries make them act like an infinite length in a finite area. This property creates a smaller design with broader bandwidth. The designed 3 dB microstrip coupler has a single layer and uniplanar platform with quite easy fabrication process. This optimized 180° coupler also shows a perfect isolation and insertion loss over the UWB frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz.

  8. Reaction-diffusion-branching models of stock price fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lei-Han; Tian, Guang-Shan

    Several models of stock trading (Bak et al., Physica A 246 (1997) 430.) are analyzed in analogy with one-dimensional, two-species reaction-diffusion-branching processes. Using heuristic and scaling arguments, we show that the short-time market price variation is subdiffusive with a Hurst exponent H=1/4. Biased diffusion towards the market price and blind-eyed copying lead to crossovers to the empirically observed random-walk behavior ( H=1/2) at long times. The calculated crossover forms and diffusion constants are shown to agree well with simulation data.

  9. Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-07-27

    Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.

  10. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation a multitype branching process model

    CERN Document Server

    Macken, Catherine A

    1988-01-01

    The body contains many cellular systems that require the continuous production of new, fully functional, differentiated cells to replace cells lacking or having limited self-renewal capabilities that die or are damaged during the lifetime of an individual. Such systems include the epidermis, the epithelial lining of the gut, and the blood. For example, erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack nuclei and thus are incapable of self-replication. They have a life span in the circulation of about 120 days. Mature granulocytes, which also lack proliferative capacity, have a much shorter life span - typically 12 hours, though this may be reduced to only two or three hours in times of serious tissue infection. Perhaps a more familiar example is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer is composed of fully mature, dead epidermal cells that must be replaced by the descendants of stem cells lodged in lower layers of the epidermis (cf. Alberts et al. , 1983). In total, to supply the normal steady-state demands of cells, an...

  11. Age and origin of fluorapatite-rich dyke from Baranec Mt. (Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians: a key to understanding of the post-orogenic processes and element mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawęda Aleksandra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the southeastern slope of the Baranec Mount in the Western Tatra Mountains (Slovakia an apatite-rich pegmatite-like segregation was found in the subvertical fault zone cutting metapelitic rocks. Two zones: felsic (F and mafic (M were found, differing in mineral assemblages and consequently in chemistry. Fluorapatite crystals yield a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 328.6 ± 2.4 Ma. A temperature decrease from 634 °C to 454 °C at a pressure around 500 to 400 MPa with oxygen fugacity increasing during crystallization are the possible conditions for formation of the pegmatite-like segregation, while secondary alterations took place in the temperature range of 340 – 320 °C. The Sr-Nd isotope composition of both apatite and whole rock point toward a crustal origin of the dike in question, suggesting partial melting of (P, F, H2O-rich metasedimentary rocks during prolonged decompression of the Tatra Massif. The original partial melt (felsic component was mixed with an external (F, H2O-rich fluid, carrying Fe and Mg fluxed from more mafic metapelites and crystallizing as biotite and epidote in the mafic component of the dyke.

  12. Functional morphology, biomechanics and biomimetic potential of stem-branch connections in Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselter, Tom; Eckert, Sandra; Speck, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Branching in plants is one of the most important assets for developing large arborescent growth forms with complex crowns. While the form and development of branching in gymnosperms and dicotyledonous trees is widely understood, very little is known about branching patterns and the structure of branch-stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons. For a better and quantitative understanding of the functional morphology of branch-stem-junctions in arborescent monocotyledons, we investigated the two species Dracaena reflexa and Freycinetia insignis. While D. reflexa is able to develop large arborescent forms with conspicuous crowns by anomalous secondary growth, F. insignis remains relatively small and is only capable of primary growth. Biomechanical investigations were performed by applying vertical loads up to rupture to lateral branches of both species. This allows the analysis of the fracture mechanics and the determination of the maximal force, stress and strain at rupture as well as the fracture toughness. Functional morphology was correlated with the mechanical behaviour of these plants and compared to data of other dicotyledonous trees. The high energy absorption found in the rupture process of lateral branches of D. reflexa and F. insignis makes them promising biological concept generators with a high potential for biomimetic implementation, i.e., for the development of branched fibre-reinforced technical composites. A wide range of constructional elements with branched (sub-)structures can be optimised by using solutions inspired by plant ramifications, e.g., in automotive and aerospace engineering, architecture, sports equipment and prosthetic manufacturing.

  13. A CADAVERIC STUDY OF VARIATIONS IN THE ORIGIN OF LATERAL CIRCUMFLEX FEMORAL ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Pradipkumar Darji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lateral circumflex femoral artery is a branch of the profunda femoris artery, which is the largest branch of femoral artery. The knowledge of origin and branching patterns of the lateral circumflex femoral artery is valuable for various surgeries and clinical procedures. Objectives: To determine mode of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery and to determine the distance of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from the origin of profunda femoris artery and from mid-inguinal point. Materials and Method: 130 femoral triangles were studied and various measurements were noted and analysed from the department of anatomy of various Medical colleges of Gujarat. Result and conclusion: The lateral circumflex femoral artery originated from profunda femoris artery in 119 cases and from femoral artery in 11 cases. In most of the cases, the distance of origin of lateral circumflex femoral artery from the origin of profunda femoris artery was ranging from 11 to 40 mm on both the sides.

  14. Degradation process of lead chromate in paintings by Vincent van Gogh studied by means of synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy and related methods. 2. Original paint layer samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monico, Letizia; Van der Snickt, Geert; Janssens, Koen; De Nolf, Wout; Miliani, Costanza; Dik, Joris; Radepont, Marie; Hendriks, Ella; Geldof, Muriel; Cotte, Marine

    2011-02-15

    The darkening of the original yellow areas painted with the chrome yellow pigment (PbCrO(4), PbCrO(4)·xPbSO(4), or PbCrO(4)·xPbO) is a phenomenon widely observed on several paintings by Vincent van Gogh, such as the famous different versions of Sunflowers. During our previous investigations on artificially aged model samples of lead chromate, we established for the first time that darkening of chrome yellow is caused by reduction of PbCrO(4) to Cr(2)O(3)·2H(2)O (viridian green), likely accompanied by the presence of another Cr(III) compound, such as either Cr(2)(SO(4))(3)·H(2)O or (CH(3)CO(2))(7)Cr(3)(OH)(2) [chromium(III) acetate hydroxide]. In the second part of this work, in order to demonstrate that this reduction phenomenon effectively takes place in real paintings, we study original paint samples from two paintings of V. van Gogh. As with the model samples, in view of the thin superficial alteration layers that are present, high lateral resolution spectroscopic methods that make use of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as microscopic X-ray absorption near edge (μ-XANES) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μ-XRF) were employed. Additionally, μ-Raman and mid-FTIR analyses were carried out to completely characterize the samples. On both paint microsamples, the local presence of reduced Cr was demonstrated by means of μ-XANES point measurements. The presence of Cr(III) was revealed in specific areas, in some cases correlated to the presence of Ba(sulfate) and/or to that of aluminum silicate compounds.

  15. Fibers Caught in the Knuckles of the Forming Wires: Experimental Measurements and Physical Origins of the Force of Peeling in the Hydroentanglement Process

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Xiang; Andrey V. Kuznetsov, Ph.D.; Abdelfattah Mohamed Seyam, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    In hydroentanglement process, very fine water jets with high pressure impinge on the fiberweb, which is supported by forming wires. The impact of the jets causes fiber entanglement in the fiberweb and produces an integrated fabric with desired performance, texture, and appearance similar to the forming wires. It is important that at the end of the process, the fiberweb can be easily separated from the forming wires. In this paper, the force of peeling required for the separation of the wet, h...

  16. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  17. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  18. The interplay of matrix metalloproteinases, morphogens and growth factors is necessary for branching of mammary epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, M.; Harail, Y.; Navre, M.; Werb, Z.; Lochter, A.; Bissell, M.J.

    2002-03-06

    The mammary gland develops its adult form by a process referred to as branching morphogenesis. Many factors have been reported to affect this process. We have used cultured primary mammary epithelial organoids and mammary epithelial cell lines in three-dimensional collagen gels to elucidate which growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and mammary morphogens interact in branching morphogenesis. Branching stimulated by stromal fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 7, fibroblast growth factor 2 and hepatocyte growth factor was strongly reduced by inhibitors of MMPs, indicating the requirement of MMPs for three-dimensional growth involved in morphogenesis. Recombinant stromelysin 1/MMP-3 alone was sufficient to drive branching in the absence of growth factors in the organoids. Plasmin also stimulated branching; however, plasmin-dependent branching was abolished by both inhibitors of plasmin and MMPs, suggesting that plasmin activates MMPs. To differentiate between signals for proliferation and morphogenesis, we used a cloned mammary epithelial cell line that lacks epimorphin, an essential mammary morphogen. Both epimorphin and MMPs were required for morphogenesis, but neither was required for epithelial cell proliferation. These results provide direct evidence for a critical role of MMPs in branching in mammary epithelium and suggest that, in addition to epimorphin, MMP activity is a minimum requirement for branching morphogenesis in the mammary gland.

  19. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  20. Branched Nanowire Architectures for Compact Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-13

    implementation of more complicated and integrated nanodevice systems, could be more easily and reproducibly achieved in branched structures versus bottom up...which is analogous to the polymer melt used in industry, expansion of a bubble from the nanomaterial solution at a controlled direction and speed...approaches reported previously. Our BBF approach also has the potential to be scaled to very large area structures, in analogy to large plastic

  1. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  2. Fabrication and characterization of branched carbon nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharali Malik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have atomically smooth surfaces and tend not to form covalent bonds with composite matrix materials. Thus, it is the magnitude of the CNT/fiber interfacial strength that limits the amount of nanomechanical interlocking when using conventional CNTs to improve the structural behavior of composite materials through reinforcement. This arises from two well-known, long standing problems in this research field: (a inhomogeneous dispersion of the filler, which can lead to aggregation and (b insufficient reinforcement arising from bonding interactions between the filler and the matrix. These dispersion and reinforcement issues could be addressed by using branched multiwalled carbon nanotubes (b-MWCNTs as it is known that branched fibers can greatly enhance interfacial bonding and dispersability. Therefore, the use of b-MWCNTs would lead to improved mechanical performance and, in the case of conductive composites, improved electrical performance if the CNT filler was better dispersed and connected. This will provide major benefits to the existing commercial application of CNT-reinforced composites in electrostatic discharge materials (ESD: There would be also potential usage for energy conversion, e.g., in supercapacitors, solar cells and Li-ion batteries. However, the limited availability of b-MWCNTs has, to date, restricted their use in such technological applications. Herein, we report an inexpensive and simple method to fabricate large amounts of branched-MWCNTs, which opens the door to a multitude of possible applications.

  3. Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, astrophysics and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA(ribonucleic acid) world, iron-sulphur world, panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kickstarting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  4. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Out of equilibrium structuring in space and time is contingent on continuous entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the natural tendency of Nature to explore all available microstates. The process producing the greatest amount of entropy in the biosphere is the absorption and transformation of sunlight, leading to the transpiration of water by plants and cyanobacteria. Here we hypothesize that life began, and exists today, as a dynamic catalyst for the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat, which could then be efficiently harvested by the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are extremely rapid in transforming this light into heat that can be readily absorbed by liquid water. The origin and evolution of life was thus driven...

  5. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  6. Implications of an inverse branching aftershock sequence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, D L; Abaimov, S G; Dobson, I; Rundle, J B

    2009-01-01

    The branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model is a self-similar statistical model for earthquake aftershock sequences. A prescribed parent earthquake generates a first generation of daughter aftershocks. The magnitudes and times of occurrence of the daughters are obtained from statistical distributions. The first generation daughter aftershocks then become parent earthquakes that generate second generation aftershocks. The process is then extended to higher generations. The key parameter in the BASS model is the magnitude difference Deltam* between the parent earthquake and the largest expected daughter earthquake. In the application of the BASS model to aftershocks Deltam* is positive, the largest expected daughter event is smaller than the parent, and the sequence of events (aftershocks) usually dies out, but an exponential growth in the number of events with time is also possible. In this paper we explore this behavior of the BASS model as Deltam* varies, including when Deltam* is negative and the largest expected daughter event is larger than the parent. The applications of this self-similar branching process to biology and other fields are discussed.

  7. Automated test data generation for branch testing using incremental genetic algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T MANIKUMAR; A JOHN SANJEEV KUMAR; R MARUTHAMUTHU

    2016-09-01

    Cost of software testing can be reduced by automated test data generation to find a minimal set of data that has maximum coverage. Search-based software testing (SBST) is one of the techniques recently used for automated testing task. SBST makes use of control flow graph (CFG) and meta-heuristic search algorithms to accomplish the process. This paper focuses on test data generation for branch coverage. A major drawback in using meta-heuristic techniques is that the CFG paths have to be traversed from the starting node to end node for each automated test data. This kind of traversal could be improved by branch ordering, together with elitism. But still the population size and the number of iterations are maintained as the same to keep all the branches alive. In this paper, we present an incremental genetic algorithm (IGA) for branch coverage testing. Initially, a classical genetic algorithm (GA) is used to construct the population with the best parents for each branch node, and the IGA is started with these parents as the initial population. Hence, it is not necessary to maintain a huge population size and large number of iterations to cover all the branches. The performance is analyzed with five benchmark programs studied from the literature. The experimental results indicate that the proposed IGA search technique outperforms the other meta-heuristic search techniques in terms of memory usage and scalability.

  8. Evidence that dendritic mitochondria negatively regulate dendritic branching in pyramidal neurons in the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toshiya; Murakami, Fujio

    2014-05-14

    The precise branching patterns of dendritic arbors have a profound impact on information processing in individual neurons and the brain. These patterns are established by positive and negative regulation of the dendritic branching. Although the mechanisms for positive regulation have been extensively investigated, little is known about those for negative regulation. Here, we present evidence that mitochondria located in developing dendrites are involved in the negative regulation of dendritic branching. We visualized mitochondria in pyramidal neurons of the mouse neocortex during dendritic morphogenesis using in utero electroporation of a mitochondria-targeted fluorescent construct. We altered the mitochondrial distribution in vivo by overexpressing Mfn1, a mitochondrial shaping protein, or the Miro-binding domain of TRAK2 (TRAK2-MBD), a truncated form of a motor-adaptor protein. We found that dendritic mitochondria were preferentially targeted to the proximal portion of dendrites only during dendritic morphogenesis. Overexpression of Mfn1 or TRAK2-MBD depleted mitochondria from the dendrites, an effect that was accompanied by increased branching of the proximal portion of the dendrites. This dendritic abnormality cannot be accounted for by changes in the distribution of membrane trafficking organelles since the overexpression of Mfn1 did not alter the distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, or endosomes. Additionally, neither did these constructs impair neuronal viability or mitochondrial function. Therefore, our results suggest that dendritic mitochondria play a critical role in the establishment of the precise branching pattern of dendritic arbors by negatively affecting dendritic branching.

  9. A computational model of dendrite elongation and branching based on MAP2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hely, T A; Graham, B; Ooyen, A V

    2001-06-07

    We introduce a new computational model of dendritic development in neurons. In contrast to previous models, our model explicitly includes cellular mechanisms involved in dendritic development. It is based on recent experimental data which indicates that the phosphorylation state of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) may play a key role in controlling dendritic elongation and branching (Audesirk et al., 1997). Dephosphorylated MAP2 favours elongation by promoting microtubule polymerization and bundling, whilst branching is more likely to occur when MAP2 is phosphorylated and microtubules are spaced apart. In the model, the rate of elongation and branching is directly determined by the ratio of phosphorylated to dephosphorylated MAP2. This is regulated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin, which are both dependent on the intracellular calcium concentration. Results from computer simulations of the model suggest that the wide variety of branching patterns observed among different cell types may be generated by the same underlying mechanisms and that elongation and branching are not necessarily independent processes. The model predicts how the branching pattern will change following manipulations with calcium, CaMKII and MAP2 phosphorylation.

  10. Differential branching fraction and angular analysis of the decay $B_s^0 \\to \\phi \\mu^+\\mu^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the differential branching fraction and the first angular analysis of the decay $B_s^0\\to\\phi\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$ are presented using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $1.0\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment at $\\sqrt{s}=7\\,{\\rm TeV}$. The differential branching fraction is determined in bins of $q^{2}$, the invariant dimuon mass squared. Integration over the full $q^{2}$ range yields a total branching fraction of ${\\cal B}(B_s^0\\to\\phi\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}) = (7.07\\,^{+0.64}_{-0.59}\\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.71)\\times 10^{-7}$, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second systematic, and the third originates from the branching fraction of the normalisation channel. An angular analysis is performed to determine the angular observables $F_{\\rm L}$, $S_3$, $A_6$, and $A_9$. The observables are consistent with Standard Model expectations.

  11. Preserving the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Teus J.; Ruurda, Jelle P.; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van der Horst, Sylvia; Bleys, Ronald L A W; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary vagus branches are transected as part of a transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy for cancer. This may contribute to the development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Studies in which sparing of the pulmonary vagus nerve branches during thoracoscopic esophagect

  12. Auxin transport in the evolution of branching forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill

    2016-11-24

    I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: Branching is one of the most striking aspects of land plant architecture, affecting resource acquisition and yield. Polar auxin transport by PIN proteins is a primary determinant of flowering plant branching patterns regulating both branch initiation and branch outgrowth. Several lines of experimental evidence suggest that PIN-mediated polar auxin transport is a conserved regulator of branching in vascular plant sporophytes. However, the mechanisms of branching and auxin transport and relationships between the two are not well known outside the flowering plants, and the paradigm for PIN-regulated branching in flowering plants does not fit bryophyte gametophytes. The evidence reviewed here suggests that divergent auxin transport routes contributed to the diversification of branching forms in distinct land plant lineages.

  13. Original research paper. A superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes with improved solubility and dissolution: Supercritical fluid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of the supercritical fluid (SCF process compared to the conventional solution stirring method (CSSM in the preparation of daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD complexes were investigated. Formation of daidzein/ HPβCD inclusion complexes was confirmed by Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Particle size, inclusion yield, drug solubility and dissolution of daidzein/HPβCD complexes were evaluated. Compared to CSSM, the SCF process resulted in higher inclusion yield and higher solubility. Also, extended dissolution of daidzein from the SCF processed HPβCD inclusion complexes was observed, with only 22.94 % released in 45 min, compared to its rapid release from those prepared by CSSM, with 98.25 % drug release in 15 min. This extended release of daidzein from SCF prepared inclusion complexes was necessary to avoid drug precipitation and improve drug solubilisation in the gastrointestinal tract. The results showed that the SCF process is a superior preparation method for daidzein-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complexes.

  14. Distribution of p-process 174Hf in early solar system materials and the origin of nucleosynthetic Hf and W isotope anomalies in Ca-Al rich inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stefan T. M.; Münker, Carsten; Pfeifer, Markus; Elfers, Bo-Magnus; Sprung, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Some nuclides that were produced in supernovae are heterogeneously distributed between different meteoritic materials. In some cases these heterogeneities have been interpreted as the result of interaction between ejecta from a nearby supernova and the nascent solar system. Particularly in the case of the oldest objects that formed in the solar system - Ca-Al rich inclusions (CAIs) - this view is confirm the hypothesis that a nearby supernova event facilitated or even triggered solar system formation. We present Hf isotope data for bulk meteorites, terrestrial materials and CAIs, for the first time including the low-abundance isotope 174Hf (∼0.16%). This rare isotope was likely produced during explosive O/Ne shell burning in massive stars (i.e., the classical "p-process"), and therefore its abundance potentially provides a sensitive tracer for putative heterogeneities within the solar system that were introduced by supernova ejecta. For CAIs and one LL chondrite, also complementary W isotope data are reported for the same sample cuts. Once corrected for small neutron capture effects, different chondrite groups, eucrites, a silicate inclusion of a IAB iron meteorite, and terrestrial materials display homogeneous Hf isotope compositions including 174Hf. Hafnium-174 was thus uniformly distributed in the inner solar system when planetesimals formed at the system composition, and also variable r-process (or s-process) Hf and W contributions. Based on combined Hf and W isotope compositions, we show that CAIs sampled at least one component in which the proportion of r- and s-process derived Hf and W deviates from that of supernova ejecta. The Hf and W isotope anomalies in CAIs are therefore best explained by selective processing of presolar carrier phases prior to CAI formation, and not by a late injection of supernova materials. Likewise, other isotope anomalies in additional elements in CAIs relative to the bulk solar system may reflect the same process. The isotopic

  15. 肌皮神经的交通支及临床意义%Communicating Branches and Clinical Significance of the Musculocutaneous Nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹园园; 黄素群

    2013-01-01

      目的:观测肌皮神经的走行及分支,为临床预防及修复肌皮神经损伤提供解剖学基础.方法:对12具成人防腐尸体双上肢进行解剖,观察并测量肌皮神经的起点、长度、分支及交通支.结果:肌皮神经主干长51.15±42.74mm,起始点左右径3.19±1.35mm,前后径1.93±1.21mm,喙突距肌皮神经起点距离为40.82±12.72mm,肌皮神经穿喙肱肌者占91.67%(22侧).观察发现有4侧上肢存在肌皮神经至正中神经的交通支.结论:肌皮神经走行、起点和分支的变异均较大,同时存在交通支,临床应注意这些变异,以在外科手术中预防肌皮神经损伤及在修复过程中选择最佳术式.%Objective:To provide anatomy knowledge for injury of musculocutaneous nerve prevention and transportation by observation of its location and its branches. Methods: The bilateral forearms of 12 adult cadavers were dissected. We determined the origins of musculocutaneous nerve,measured its length and studied its branches and communicating branches as wel1. Results: The musculocutaneous nerve trunk was (51.15±42.74)mm long.The left-right diameter of the nerve origin was(3.19±1.35)mm,and its front-back diameter was(1.93 ± 1.21)mm. It starts at(40.82 ± 12.72)mm from coracoids process. There were 91.67% (22 case) museuloeutaneous nerve though coracobrachialis. 4 case of communicating branches between musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve were observed. Conclusion: There are great variation in musculocutaneous nerve’s origin.It is very important to know these variations,in case of extra damage to musculocutaneous nerve when trying to repair it.

  16. 46 CFR 111.75-5 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 111.75-5 Section 111.75-5...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Lighting Circuits and Protection § 111.75-5 Lighting branch circuits. (a) Loads. A lighting distribution panel must not supply branch circuits rated at over 30 amperes. (b) Connected...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.805 - Branch circuits required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch circuits required. 3280.805... Branch circuits required. (a) The number of branch circuits required shall be determined in accordance... or 20 ampere lighting area circuits. e.g. = number of 15 or 20 ampere circuits. (2) Small...

  18. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments to FY 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Charles

    1992-12-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1992 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA LeRC. Highlights from the branch's major work areas--Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods are included in the report as well as a listing of the fiscal year 1992 branch publications.

  19. A new RNA branching activity: the GIR1 ribozyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Steinar D

    2006-01-01

    ',5'-phosphodiester bonds in biology. We recently described a new ribozyme, the GIR1 branching ribozyme, which catalyzes the formation of a tiny lariat that caps an mRNA. This new example together with work on artificial branching ribozymes and deoxyribozymes shows that branching is facile and points...

  20. Similarity of solution branches for two-point semilinear problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available For semilinear autonomous two-point problems, we show that all Neumann branches and all Dirichlet branches with odd number of interior roots have the same shape. On the other hand, Dirichlet branches with even number of roots may look differently. While this result has been proved previously by Schaaf cite{S}, our approach appears to be simpler.

  1. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments for fiscal year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of fiscal year 1987 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's four major work areas, Aeroelasticity, Vibration Control, Dynamic Systems, and Computational Structural Methods, are included in the report as well as a complete listing of the FY87 branch publications.

  2. Catalytic production of branched small alkanes from biohydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Shin-ichi; Kanno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hideo; Tamura, Masazumi; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-08-10

    Squalane, C30 algae-derived branched hydrocarbon, was successfully converted to smaller hydrocarbons without skeletal isomerization and aromatization over ruthenium on ceria (Ru/CeO2 ). The internal CH2 CH2 bonds located between branches are preferably dissociated to give branched alkanes with very simple distribution as compared with conventional methods using metal-acid bifunctional catalysts.

  3. Weighted Branching Simulation Distance for Parametric Weighted Kripke Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foshammer, Louise; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mariegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns branching simulation for weighted Kripke structures with parametric weights. Concretely, we consider a weighted extension of branching simulation where a single transitions can be matched by a sequence of transitions while preserving the branching behavior. We relax this notio...

  4. Fibers Caught in the Knuckles of the Forming Wires: Experimental Measurements and Physical Origins of the Force of Peeling in the Hydroentanglement Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xiang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In hydroentanglement process, very fine water jets with high pressure impinge on the fiberweb, which is supported by forming wires. The impact of the jets causes fiber entanglement in the fiberweb and produces an integrated fabric with desired performance, texture, and appearance similar to the forming wires. It is important that at the end of the process, the fiberweb can be easily separated from the forming wires. In this paper, the force of peeling required for the separation of the wet, hydroentangled fabric from the forming wires is measured experimentally. A set of experimental trials was conducted to investigate the effects of the jet pressure, fiberweb basis weight, and forming wires mesh size on the peeling force. Visualizing fibers caught in the knuckles of the forming wires under magnification reveals physical mechanisms leading to the formation of the peeling force.

  5. Eutrophication-induced acidification of coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Insights into origin and processes from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Arnaud; Fennel, Katja; Cai, Wei-Jun; Huang, Wei-Jen; Barbero, Leticia; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Nutrient inputs from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system into the northern Gulf of Mexico promote high phytoplankton production and lead to high respiration rates. Respiration coupled with water column stratification results in seasonal summer hypoxia in bottom waters on the shelf. In addition to consuming oxygen, respiration produces carbon dioxide (CO2), thus lowering the pH and acidifying bottom waters. Here we present a high-resolution biogeochemical model simulating this eutrophication-driven acidification and investigate the dominant underlying processes. The model shows the recurring development of an extended area of acidified bottom waters in summer on the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf that coincides with hypoxic waters. Not reported before, acidified waters are confined to a thin bottom boundary layer where the production of CO2 by benthic metabolic processes is dominant. Despite a reduced saturation state, acidified waters remain supersaturated with respect to aragonite.

  6. Impact of sludge stabilization processes and sludge origin (urban or hospital) on the mobility of pharmaceutical compounds following sludge landspreading in laboratory soil-column experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachassagne, Delphine; Soubrand, Marilyne; Casellas, Magali; Gonzalez-Ospina, Adriana; Dagot, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of sludge stabilization treatments (liming and anaerobic digestion) on the mobility of different pharmaceutical compounds in soil amended by landspreading of treated sludge from different sources (urban and hospital). The sorption and desorption potential of the following pharmaceutical compounds: carbamazepine (CBZ), ciprofloxacin (CIP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), salicylic acid (SAL), ibuprofen (IBU), paracetamol (PAR), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KTP), econazole (ECZ), atenolol (ATN), and their solid-liquid distribution during sludge treatment (from thickening to stabilization) were investigated in the course of batch testing. The different sludge samples were then landspread at laboratory scale and leached with an artificial rain simulating 1 year of precipitation adapted to the surface area of the soil column used. The quality of the resulting leachate was investigated. Results showed that ibuprofen had the highest desorption potential for limed and digested urban and hospital sludge. Ibuprofen, salicylic acid, diclofenac, and paracetamol were the only compounds found in amended soil leachates. Moreover, the leaching potential of these compounds and therefore the risk of groundwater contamination depend mainly on the origin of the sludge because ibuprofen and diclofenac were present in the leachates of soils amended with urban sludge, whereas paracetamol and salicylic acid were found only in the leachates of soils amended with hospital sludge. Although carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ketoprofen, econazole, and atenolol were detected in some sludge, they were not present in any leachate. This reflects either an accumulation and/or (bio)degradation of these compounds (CBZ, CIP, SMX, KTP, ECZ, and ATN ), thus resulting in very low mobility in soil. Ecotoxicological risk assessment, evaluated by calculating the risk quotients for each studied pharmaceutical compound, revealed no high risk due to the

  7. Phenotypic and genotypic screening of human-originated lactobacilli for vitamin B12 production potential: process validation by micro-assay and UFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Tomar, S K; Mandal, Surajit

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) production is a strain specific, rare and hidden functional attribute of lactobacilli and a cogent protocol for selection of such isolates from the herd of lactobacilli is required. The present study included isolation of lactobacilli from human samples (milk and fecal), screening them by a polyphasic (three-phase) methodology for probable B12 production potential and validating the screening protocol by exploring selected strains for in vitro vitamin production (two-phase fermentation) and quantification [micro-assay and ultra fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)]. Fifty-nine Lactobacillus strains were recovered from tested biological samples. Contrary to screening inapplicabilities of first [growth potential (GP) in B12-free medium] and second phases (GP in B12-free and cobalt chloride-supplemented conditions), third phase (cbiK gene detection on genomic DNA) alone was revealed as a validated strategy for selection of two probable B12-producing lactobacilli. Microbiological assay confirmed production and bioavailability of produced vitamin, while UFLC testing validated the results by precisely quantifying the cyanocobalamin (industrially produced bio-available form of B12) in cell extracts of both possible B12 producers [BHM10 (10.91 ± 1.55 μg/l) and BCF20 (23.90 ± 1.73 μg/l)] and positive standard [Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016 (20.03 ± 4.17 μg/l)]. Moreover, this study generates a novel report for genomic detection, partial amplification and sequencing of cbiK gene in Lactobacillus plantarum species (both BHM10 and BCF20). In conclusion, contrary to first two phases, cbiK gene detection strategy successfully selects B12-producing strains from a group of human-originated lactobacilli and can be used in the future for similar screening studies.

  8. Theoretical prediction of side branch compromise after main branch stenting in coronary bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems of treatment of bifurcation lesions is side branch (SB) stenosis appearing after stent placement in the main vessel.The aim of this study was to create quantitative method for prediction of side branch compromise extent.We accepted that the main mechanism for SB ostial stenosis is flow divider (FD) displacement from stent struts after stent implantation in the main vessel.Using easily measurable parameters from coronary angiography,as SB diameter,angle α (initial angle between axes of parent vessel and SB axis) and angle α' (angle between above mentioned axes after stent placement) we can calculate percentage diameter stenosis at branch ostium (%DS):%DS = sin (α - α')/(tan α).In boundary condition of full FD displacement %DS = cos α.We tested our theoretical predictions with fluoroscopic observation of elastic wall model of bifurcation (45°distal angle between branches)permitting wall deformations with stent.There is full coincidence of values of %DS and percentage area stenosis (%AS).The regular formulas for calculations of %DS and %AS overestimate stenosis severity between 10% and 25%.Our model tests have shown full coincidence between predicted values for %DS and observed values.We demonstrate that part of the SB ostium is not visible in regular angiography and contributes to ostial lumen area.This is a method that permits quantitative prediction of side branch compromise.

  9. High resolution, shallow seismic reflection survey of the Pen Branch fault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stieve, A.

    1991-05-15

    The purpose of this project, at the Savannah River River Site (SRS) was to acquire, process, and interpret 28 km (17.4 miles) of high resolution seismic reflection data taken across the trace of the Pen Branch fault and other suspected, intersecting north-south trending faults. The survey was optimized for the upper 300 ft of geologic strata in order to demonstrate the existence of very shallow, flat lying horizons, and to determine the depth of the fault or to sediments deformed by the fault. Field acquisition and processing parameters were selected to define small scale spatial variability and structural features in the vicinity of the Pen Branch fault leading to the definition and the location of the Pen Branch fault, the shallowest extent of the fault, and the quantification of the sense and magnitude of motion. Associated geophysical, borehole, and geologic data were incorporated into the investigation to assist in the determination of optimal parameters and aid in the interpretation.

  10. Synthesis of carbon fibers with branched nanographene sheets for electrochemical double layer capacitor application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Masahiro; Kalita, Golap; Kato, Kimitoshi; Noda, Mikio; Uchida, Hideo; Wakita, Koichi; Umeno, Masayoshi; Tanemura, Masaki

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate a one step technique to synthesis the carbon fibers (CNFs) with branched nanographene sheets by the pulsed discharge (PD) plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. Highly crystalline branched nanographene sheets were directly grown from the surface of the carbon fibers to obtain a three dimensional (3D) nanostructure. The growth process can be explained from the catalyst support growth of the CNFs, and subsequently nucleation and growth of the nanographene sheets from the crystalline surface of the CNF. The deposited nanostructured films with different pulse discharge were used as an electrode for electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLC). It is observed that the capacitance is dependent on the morphology of the electrode materials and an optimum capacitance is obtained with the branched nanographene on CNFs.

  11. Visualizing and Analyzing Branching Microtubule Nucleation Using Meiotic Xenopus Egg Extracts and TIRF Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Matthew; Petry, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic and meiotic spindles consist primarily of microtubules, which originate from centrosomes and within the vicinity of chromatin. Indirect evidence suggested that microtubules also originate throughout the spindle, but the high microtubule density within the spindle precludes the direct observation of this phenomenon. By using meiotic Xenopus laevis egg extract and employing total internal reflection (TIRF) microscopy, microtubule nucleation from preexisting microtubules could be demonstrated and analyzed. Branching microtubule nucleation is an ideal mechanism to assemble and maintain a mitotic spindle, because microtubule numbers are amplified while preserving their polarity. Here, we describe the assays that made these findings possible and the experiments that helped identify the key molecular players involved. PMID:27193844

  12. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from...... for 2-methylpropanoic acid production, revealing that the IlvE protein plays an important, but not essential role in the biosynthesis of branched-chain fatty acids and secondary metabolites in S. carnosus....

  13. Hierarchical weeping willow nano-tree growth and effect of branching on dye-sensitized solar cell efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Indria; Yeo, Junyeob; Hong, Sukjoon; Lee, Daeho; Nam, Koo Hyun; Choi, Jun-ho; Hong, Won-hwa; Lee, Dongjin; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2012-05-17

    In this paper we have demonstrated the simple, low cost, low temperature, hydrothermal growth of weeping willow ZnO nano-trees with very long branches to realize high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We also discuss the effects of branching on solar cell efficiency. By introducing branched growth on the backbone ZnO nanowires (NWs), the short circuit current density and the overall light conversion efficiency of the branched ZnO NW DSSCs increased to almost four times that for vertically grown ZnO NWs. The efficiency increase is attributed to the increase in surface area for higher dye loading and light harvesting and also to reduced charge recombination through direct conduction along the crystalline ZnO branches. As the length of the branches increased, the branches became flaccid and the increase in solar cell efficiency slowed down because the effective surface area increase was hindered by branch bundling during the drying process and subsequent decrease in the dye loading.

  14. Neutron Star Mergers as the Origin of r-Process Elements in the Galactic Halo Based on the Sub-halo Clustering Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Yuhri; Prantzos, Nikos

    2015-01-01

    Binary mergers (NSMs) of double neutron star (and black hole-neutron star) systems are suggested to be major sites of r-process elements in the Galaxy by recent hydrodynamical and nucleosynthesis studies. It has been pointed out, however, that the estimated long lifetimes of neutron star binaries are in conflict with the presence of r-process-enhanced halo stars at metallicities as low as [Fe/H] ~ -3. To resolve this problem, we examine the role of NSMs in the early Galactic chemical evolution on the assumption that the Galactic halo was formed from merging sub-halos. We present simple models for the chemical evolution of sub-halos with total final stellar masses between 10^4 M_solar and 2 x 10^8 M_solar. Typical lifetimes of compact binaries are assumed to be 100 Myr (for 95% of their population) and 1 Myr (for 5%), according to recent binary population synthesis studies. The resulting metallcities of sub-halos and their ensemble are consistent with the observed mass-metallicity relation of dwarf galaxies in...

  15. Growth by basal branching in two species of Huicungo palms, Astrocaryum carnosum and A. huicungo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Machahua

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The basal branching process of Astrocaryum carnosum and A. huicungo is described and its rate and structural expression at the population level is analyzed. Two populations of palms were used in this study, A. carnosum from the Alto Huallaga valley and A. huicungo from the Alto Mayo valley. Branching systems underground were exposed and drawn. For both species, it was established 25 quadrants of 20x20m, in which were counted (i the number of solitary and caespitose individuals, and (ii the numbers of axes composing the caespitose individuals. The axes of solitary and caespitose individuals were distributed by growth stages (seedling/juvenile-1/juvenile-2/adult. Seedling and juvenile-1 are not caespitose, basal branching starts in juvenile-2. A. huicungo presents a higher density of axes produced by basal branching than A. carnosum. This branching process in both species by formations of clones from short rhizomes allows an optimized exploitation of space and ensures the continuity of the population over time. However, its role in the spatial propagation of the species is very limited by the shortness of the rhizomes.

  16. Formation of Anodic Aluminum Oxide with Branched and Meshed Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeol; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), with a self-ordered hexagonal array, is important for various applications in nanofabrication including as the fabrication of nanotemplates and other nanostructures. With the consideration, there have been many efforts to control the characteristic parameters of porous anodic alumina by adjustment of the anodizing conditions such as the electrolyte, temperature, applied potential, and Al purity. In particular, impurities in Al are changing the morphology of an alumina film; however, the formation mechanism has not yet been explained. In this work, we anodized a high purity (99.999%, Al(high)) and low purity (99.8%, Al(low)) aluminum foil by a two-step anodization process in an oxalic acid solution or phosphoric acid. It was found that the purity of aluminum foil has influenced the morphology of the alumina film resulting in branched and meshed pores. Also, electrochemical analysis indicated that the branched and meshed pores in the low-purity Al foil formed by the presence of impurities. Impurities act as defects and change the general growth mechanism for pore formation by inducing an electric field imbalance during anodization. This work contributes to the research field of topographical chemistry and applied fields including nanofabrication.

  17. Temporal restriction of pancreatic branching competence during embryogenesis is mirrored in differentiating embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sue Mei; Li, Xueling; Schiesser, Jacqueline; Holland, Andrew M; Elefanty, Andrew G; Stanley, Edouard G; Micallef, Suzanne J

    2012-07-01

    To develop methods for the generation of insulin-producing β-cells for the treatment of diabetes, we have used GFP-tagged embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to elucidate the process of pancreas development. Using the reporter Pdx1(GFP/w) ESC line, we have previously described a serum-free differentiation protocol in which Pdx1-GFP(+) cells formed GFP bright (GFP(br)) epithelial buds that resembled those present in the developing mouse pancreas. In this study we extend these findings to demonstrate that these cells can undergo a process of branching morphogenesis, similar to that seen during pancreatic development of the mid-gestation embryo. These partially disaggregated embryoid bodies containing GFP(br) buds initially form epithelial ring-like structures when cultured in Matrigel. After several days in culture, these rings undergo a process of proliferation and form a ramified network of epithelial branches. Comparative analysis of explanted dissociated pancreatic buds from E13.5 Pdx1(GFP/w) embryos and ESC-derived GFP(br) buds reveal a similar process of proliferation and branching, with both embryonic Pdx1(GFP/w) branching pancreatic epithelium and ESC-derived GFP(br) branching organoids expressing markers representing epithelial (EpCAM and E-Cadherin), ductal (Mucin1), exocrine (Amylase and Carboxypeptidase 1A), and endocrine cell types (Glucagon and Somatostatin). ESC-derived branching structures also expressed a suite of genes indicative of ongoing pancreatic differentiation, paralleling gene expression within similar structures derived from the E13.5 fetal pancreas. In summary, differentiating mouse ESCs can generate pancreatic material that has significant similarity to the fetal pancreatic anlagen, providing an in vitro platform for investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning pancreatic development.

  18. Annual report, Basic Sciences Branch, FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Basic Sciences Branch of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) from October 1, 1990, through September 30, 1991. Seven technical sections of the report cover these main areas of NREL's in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, Solid-State Spectroscopy, and Superconductivity. Each section explains the purpose and major accomplishments of the work in the context of the US Department of Energy's National Photovoltaic Research Program plans.

  19. Branching time, indeterminism and tense logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    was first suggested by Saul Kripke in a letter to A.N. Prior, dated September 3, 1958, and it is shown how the elaboration of the idea in the course of the correspondence was intimately intervowen with considerations of how to represent indeterminism and of the adequacy of tensed logic in light of special...... relativity. The correspondence underpins the point that Prior’s later development of branching time may be understood as a crucial part of his attempt at the formulating a conceptual framework integrating basic human notions of time and free choice....

  20. A branching model for hadronic air showers

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, Vladimir; Ebr, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a simple branching model for the development of hadronic showers in the Earth's atmosphere. Based on this model, we show how the size of the pionic component followed by muons can be estimated. Several aspects of the subsequent muonic component are also discussed. We focus on the energy evolution of the muon production depth. We also estimate the impact of the primary particle mass on the size of the hadronic component. Even though a precise calculation of the development of air showers must be left to complex Monte Carlo simulations, the proposed model can reveal qualitative insight into the air shower physics.