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Sample records for branching points assessed

  1. Distribution of airway narrowing responses across generations and at branching points, assessed in vitro by anatomical optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eastwood Peter R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous histological and imaging studies have shown the presence of variability in the degree of bronchoconstriction of airways sampled at different locations in the lung (i.e., heterogeneity. Heterogeneity can occur at different airway generations and at branching points in the bronchial tree. Whilst heterogeneity has been detected by previous experimental approaches, its spatial relationship either within or between airways is unknown. Methods In this study, distribution of airway narrowing responses across a portion of the porcine bronchial tree was determined in vitro. The portion comprised contiguous airways spanning bronchial generations (#3-11, including the associated side branches. We used a recent optical imaging technique, anatomical optical coherence tomography, to image the bronchial tree in three dimensions. Bronchoconstriction was produced by carbachol administered to either the adventitial or luminal surface of the airway. Luminal cross sectional area was measured before and at different time points after constriction to carbachol and airway narrowing calculated from the percent decrease in luminal cross sectional area. Results When administered to the adventitial surface, the degree of airway narrowing was progressively increased from proximal to distal generations (r = 0.80 to 0.98, P Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the bronchial tree expresses intrinsic serial heterogeneity, such that narrowing increases from proximal to distal airways, a relationship that is influenced by the route of drug administration but not by structural variations accompanying branching sites.

  2. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  3. Stability of Branched Flow from a Quantum Point Contact

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bo; Heller, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    In classically chaotic systems, small differences in initial conditions are exponentially magnified over time. However, it was observed experimentally that the (necessarily quantum) "branched flow" pattern of electron flux from a quantum point contact (QPC) traveling over a random background potential in two-dimensional electron gases(2DEGs) remains substantially invariant to large changes in initial conditions. Since such a potential is classically chaotic and unstable to changes in initial ...

  4. Vehicle Fleet Information - BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN: Bureau of Motor Vehicle License Branch Locations in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — BMV_LICENSE_BRANCHES_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 142 branch offices of the Indiana Bureau of Motor Vehicles (BMV). Addresses for each branch...

  5. Nonlinear branch-point dynamics of multiarm polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Denberg, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    Two branched polystyrene melts with narrow molar mass distribution have been synthesized: a multiarm An-C-C-An pom-pom polystyrene and an An-C asymmetric star polystyrene where n is the number of arms. The pom-pom and the asymmetric star have molar masses of Mw ) 300 kg/mol and Mw ) 275 kg...... polystyrene, the measured transient elongational viscosity is not consistent with a rheological constitutive equation that is separable in time and strain. Contrary to this situation, however, for pom-pom polystyrene, the transient elongational viscosity may be described by a time-strain separable...

  6. Indexes system of technological condition assessment of economic branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Antamoshkin, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    The increased level of innovative production process, connected with the current trends, points out the necessity of economic diversification of the whole national economy as well as regional economies in order to increase competitiveness and stable development. Russian regional economies are characterized with local directive of development and innovative processes have evident local vector. Intensive development of Siberian regional economies, which depends on oil and mining industries, considerably falls behind the world indicators according to the GRP output per head. To improve the quality of economic space the authors have suggested a new scientific approach, which allows qualitative assessment inside the economic space of resource-based regions, based on principles of high technological modes development inside economic branches taking into account density, regular enterprise distribution and connectivity of commercial organizations as well as secures innovative development of regional economy and its competitiveness. In this context it is necessary to develop a modern system of indexes, characterizing the structure of economic branches in accordance with present technological modes and at the same time the dynamics of appropriate structural shifts in regional economies of this type.

  7. Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2014-03-24

    Evolution of branch points in the distorted optical field is studied when a laser beam propagates through turbulent atmosphere along an uplink path. Two categories of propagation events are mainly explored for the same propagation height: fixed wavelength with change of the turbulence strength and fixed turbulence strength with change of the wavelength. It is shown that, when the beam propagates to a certain height, the density of the branch-points reaches its maximum and such a height changes with the turbulence strength but nearly remains constant with different wavelengths. The relationship between the density of branch-points and the Rytov number is also given. A fitted formula describing the relationship between the density of branch-points and propagation height with different turbulence strength and wavelength is found out. Interestingly, this formula is very similar to the formula used for describing the Blackbody radiation in physics. The results obtained may be helpful for atmospheric optics, astronomy and optical communication.

  8. Using the primal-dual interior point algorithm within the branch-price-and-cut method

    OpenAIRE

    Munari, P.; Gondzio, J.

    2013-01-01

    Branch-price-and-cut has proven to be a powerful method for solving integer programming problems. It combines decomposition techniques with the generation of both columns and valid inequalities and relies on strong bounds to guide the search in the branch-and-bound tree. In this paper, we present how to improve the performance of a branch-price-and-cut method by using the primal-dual interior point algorithm. We discuss in detail how to deal with the challenges of using the interior point alg...

  9. Branch Point Withdrawal in Elongational Startup Flow by Time-Resolved Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, N.

    2016-05-27

    We present a small angle neutron scattering (SANS) investigation of a blend composed of a dendritic polymer and a linear matrix with comparable viscosity in start-up of an elongational flow at Tg + 50. The two-generation dendritic polymer is diluted to 10% by weight in a matrix of a long well-entangled linear chains. Both components consist of mainly 1,4-cis-polyisoprene but differ in isotopic composition. The resulting scattering contrast is sufficiently high to permit time-resolved measurements of the system structure factor during the start-up phase and to follow the retraction processes involving the inner sections of the branched polymer in the nonlinear deformation response. The outer branches and the linear matrix, on the contrary, are in the linear deformation regime. The linear matrix dominates the rheological signature of the blend and the influence of the branched component can barely be detected. However, the neutron scattering intensity is predominantly that of the (branched) minority component so that its dynamics is clearly evident. In the present paper, we use the neutron scattering data to validate the branch point withdrawal process, which could not be unambiguously discerned from rheological measurements in this blend. The maximal tube stretch that the inner branches experience, before the relaxed outer arm material is incorporated into the tube is determined. The in situ scattering experiments demonstrate for the first time the leveling-off of the strain as the result of branch point withdrawal and chain retraction directly on the molecular level. We conclude that branch point motion in the mixture of architecturally complex polymers occurs earlier than would be expected in a purely branched system, presumably due to the different topological environment that the linear matrix presents to the hierarchically deep-buried tube sections. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF BRANCHING POINT DISTRIBUTION IN THE SOL OF IRRADIATED POLYSTYRENE WITH SEC-LALLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wanxi; WANG Mouzhi; SUN Jiazhen

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the change behavior of branching point distribution of irradiated polystyrene in sol has been first studied by the SEC-LALLS method. The experimental results show that branching parameter of the part with lower molecular weight in the sol changes little at the early stage of irradiation and that of the part with the higher molecular weight becomes greater with the increase in radiation dose.

  11. The Aggregate behavior of branch points--measuring the number and velocity of atmospheric turbulence layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Denis W; Sanchez, Darryl J; Matson, Charles L

    2010-10-11

    Optical waves propagating through atmospheric turbulence develop spatial and temporal variations in their phase. For sufficiently strong turbulence, these phase differences can lead to interference in the propagating wave and the formation of branch points; positions of zero amplitude. Under the assumption of a layered turbulence model, we show that these branch points can be used to estimate the number and velocities of atmospheric layers. We describe how to carry out this estimation process and demonstrate its robustness in the presence of sensor noise.

  12. The combinatorics of real double Hurwitz numbers with real positive branch points

    OpenAIRE

    Guay-Paquet, Mathieu; Markwig, Hannah; Rau, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the combinatorics of real double Hurwitz numbers with real positive branch points using the symmetric group. Our main focus is twofold. First, we prove correspondence theorems relating these numbers to counts of tropical real covers and study the structure of real double Hurwitz numbers with the help of the tropical count. Second, we express the numbers as counts of paths in a subgraph of the Cayley graph of the symmetric group. By restricting to real double Hurwitz numbers wit...

  13. 12 CFR 347.208 - Assessment base deductions by insured branch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.208 Assessment base deductions by insured branch. Deposits in an insured branch to the credit of the foreign bank or any of its offices, branches, agencies, or wholly owned subsidiaries may be deducted from the assessment base of the...

  14. Classification of vibrational resonances in the energy spectrum of the formaldehyde molecule and Katz's branch points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. D.; Duchko, A. N.

    2016-05-01

    The Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory of high orders and the algebraic Padé-Hermite approximants are used to determine the singular points of a vibrational energy function of the formaldehyde molecule dependent on a complex perturbation parameter as on the argument. It is shown that the Fermi, Darling-Dennison, and other higher-order vibrational resonances are related to Katz's points—common branch points on the complex plane of the energy of two vibrational states. Analysis of Katz's points that connect different vibrational states allows one to reveal essential resonance perturbations, to introduce an additional classification for them, and to determine the polyad structure of an energy spectrum.

  15. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1999-11-05

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years.

  16. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch was performed in June 1999 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc). The results of the study indicate that the stream is most impaired just downstream from the H-02 outfall and that the quality of the stream biota improves with increasing distance from the outfall. Conversely, macroinvertebrate habitat quality is best just downstream from the H-02 outfall. The midreaches of the stream contain very poor habitat quality, and the lower reaches of the stream, contain habitat of intermediate quality. Although much of the stream has degraded habitat due to channel erosion and scouring, there is strong evidence to suggest that the impairment is due to elevated concentrations of copper and zinc that are present in the H-02 effluent. A comparison of macroinvertebrate data collected in 1997 to the data collected in this study indicates that the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch has improved markedly in the last two years

  17. Pade approximants for functions with branch points - strong asymptotics of Nuttall-Stahl polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Aptekarev, Alexander I

    2011-01-01

    Let f be a germ of an analytic function at infinity that can be analytically continued along any path in the complex plane deprived of a finite set of points, f \\in\\mathcal{A}(\\bar{\\C} \\setminus A), \\sharp A <\\infty. J. Nuttall has put forward the important relation between the maximal domain of f where the function has a single-valued branch and the domain of convergence of the diagonal Pade approximants for f. The Pade approximants, which are rational functions and thus single-valued, approximate a holomorphic branch of f in the domain of their convergence. At the same time most of their poles tend to the boundary of the domain of convergence and the support of their limiting distribution models the system of cuts that makes the function f single-valued. Nuttall has conjectured (and proved for many important special cases) that this system of cuts has minimal logarithmic capacity among all other systems converting the function f to a single-valued branch. Thus the domain of convergence corresponds to the...

  18. Neutron capture at the s-process branching points $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl

    CERN Multimedia

    Branching points in the s-process are very special isotopes for which there is a competition between the neutron capture and the subsequent b-decay chain producing the heavy elements beyond Fe. Typically, the knowledge on the associated capture cross sections is very poor due to the difficulty in obtaining enough material of these radioactive isotopes and to measure the cross section of a sample with an intrinsic activity; indeed only 2 out o the 21 ${s}$-process branching points have ever been measured by using the time-of-flight method. In this experiment we aim at measuring for the first time the capture cross sections of $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl, both of crucial importance for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in AGB stars. The combination of both (n,$\\gamma$) measurements on $^{171}$Tm and $^{204}$Tl will allow one to accurately constrain neutron density and the strength of the 13C(α,n) source in low mass AGB stars. Additionally, the cross section of $^{204}$Tl is also of cosmo-chrono...

  19. LSPV+7, a branch-point-tolerant reconstructor for strong turbulence adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbock, Michael J; Hyde, Milo W; Schmidt, Jason D

    2014-06-20

    Optical wave propagation through long paths of extended turbulence presents unique challenges to adaptive optics (AO) systems. As scintillation and branch points develop in the beacon phase, challenges arise in accurately unwrapping the received wavefront and optimizing the reconstructed phase with respect to branch cut placement on a continuous facesheet deformable mirror. Several applications are currently restricted by these capability limits: laser communication, laser weapons, remote sensing, and ground-based astronomy. This paper presents a set of temporally evolving AO simulations comparing traditional least-squares reconstruction techniques to a complex-exponential reconstructor and several other reconstructors derived from the postprocessing congruence operation. The reconstructors' behavior in closed-loop operation is compared and discussed, providing several insights into the fundamental strengths and limitations of each reconstructor type. This research utilizes a self-referencing interferometer (SRI) as the high-order wavefront sensor, driving a traditional linear control law in conjunction with a cooperative point source beacon. The SRI model includes practical optical considerations and frame-by-frame fiber coupling effects to allow for realistic noise modeling. The "LSPV+7" reconstructor is shown to offer the best performance in terms of Strehl ratio and correction stability-outperforming the traditional least-squares reconstructed system by an average of 120% in the studied scenarios. Utilizing a continuous facesheet deformable mirror, these reconstructors offer significant AO performance improvements in strong turbulence applications without the need for segmented deformable mirrors. PMID:24979411

  20. Cloning and functional characterization of three branch point oxidosqualene cyclases from Withania somnifera (L.) dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Hussain, Aashiq; Dhar, Rekha S; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Hamid, Abid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-06-13

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Three full-length OSC cDNAs, β-amyrin synthase (WsOSC/BS), lupeol synthase (WsOSC/LS), and cycloartenol synthase (WsOSC/CS), having open reading frames of 2289, 2268, and 2277 bp, were isolated. Heterologous expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, LC-MS analyses, and kinetic studies confirmed their monofunctionality. The three WsOSCs were found to be spatially regulated at transcriptional level with WsOSC/CS being maximally expressed in leaf tissue. Promoter analysis of three WsOSCs genes resulted in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid, and yeast extract elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of each of the OSCs. Changes were also observed in mRNA levels under elicitations and further substantiated with protein expression levels by Western blotting. Negative regulation by yeast extract resulted in significant increase in withanolide content. Empirical evidence suggests that repression of competitive branch OSCs like WsOSC/BS and WsOSC/LS possibly leads to diversion of substrate pool toward WsOSC/CS for increased withanolide production.

  1. The neutron capture cross section of the ${s}$-process branch point isotope $^{63}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    Neutron capture nucleosynthesis in massive stars plays an important role in Galactic chemical evolution as well as for the analysis of abundance patterns in very old metal-poor halo stars. The so-called weak ${s}$-process component, which is responsible for most of the ${s}$ abundances between Fe and Sr, turned out to be very sensitive to the stellar neutron capture cross sections in this mass region and, in particular, of isotopes near the seed distribution around Fe. In this context, the unstable isotope $^{63}$Ni is of particular interest because it represents the first branching point in the reaction path of the ${s}$-process. We propose to measure this cross section at n_TOF from thermal energies up to 500 keV, covering the entire range of astrophysical interest. These data are needed to replace uncertain theoretical predicitons by first experimental information to understand the consequences of the $^{63}$Ni branching for the abundance pattern of the subsequent isotopes, especially for $^{63}$Cu and $^{...

  2. The (n, α) Reaction in the s-process Branching Point 59Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Weiß, C; Griesmayer, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Badurek, G.; Chiaveri, E.; Dressler, R.; Ganesan, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Koehler, P.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Marganiec, J.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Vlachoudis, V.; Altstadt, S.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D.G.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Leong, L.S.; Losito, R.; Mallick, A.; Manousos, A.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Riego, A.; Robles, M.S.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    The (n, α) reaction in the radioactive 59Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as 59Ni can be considered as the first branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. However, there is a discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data files for this reaction. At the n_TOF facility at CERN, a dedicated system based on sCVD diamond diodes was set up to measure the 59Ni(n, α)56Fe cross section. The results of this measurement, with special emphasis on the dominant resonance at 203 eV, are presented here.

  3. The (n, $\\gamma$) reaction in the s-process branching point $^{59}$Ni

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the $^{59}$Ni(n,$\\gamma$)$^{56}$Fe cross section at the neutron time of flight (n TOF) facility with a dedicated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond detector. The (n, ) reaction in the radioactive $^{59}$Ni is of relevance in nuclear astrophysics as it can be seen as a rst branching point in the astrophysical s-process. Its relevance in nuclear technology is especially related to material embrittlement in stainless steel. There is a strong discrepancy between available experimental data and the evaluated nuclear data les for this isotope. The aim of the measurement is to clarify this disagreement. The clear energy separation of the reaction products of neutron induced reactions in $^{59}$Ni makes it a very suitable candidate for a rst cross section measurement with the CVD diamond detector, which should serve in the future for similar measurements at n_TOF.

  4. Branch Point Twist Field Correlators in the Massive Free Boson Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Well-known measures of entanglement in one-dimensional many body quantum systems, such as the entanglement entropy and the logarithmic negativity, may be expressed in terms of the correlation functions of local fields known as branch point twist fields in a replica quantum field theory. In this "replica" approach the computation of measures of entanglement generally involves a mathematically non-trivial analytic continuation in the number of replicas. In this paper we consider two-point functions of twist fields and their analytic continuation in the 1+1 dimensional massive (non-compactified) free Boson theory. This is one of the few theories for which all matrix elements of twist fields are known so that we may hope to compute correlation functions very precisely. We study two particular two-point functions which are related to the logarithmic negativity of semi-infinite disjoint intervals and to the entanglement entropy of one interval. We show that our prescription for the analytic continuation yields resu...

  5. SERVICE QUALITY ASSESSMENT IN SELECTED BRANCHES OF SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION USING SERVQUAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Shirkavand, Fereshteh; Hossein, Seyed Mahdi; Mokhtarihesar, Parisa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of four branches of social security organization in Tehran Province, using SERVQUAL model and assessing the gaps between expectations and perceptions of customers in each branch of the service quality dimensions (factors tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and diversity). The population study was the daily costumers of four provincial branches, each group 120, total 480 people. Sampling was simple randomize and the study was cross s...

  6. Measurements of conversion electrons in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, A.; Tan, W.; Avetisyan, R.; Casarella, C.; Gyurijinyan, A.; Manukyan, K.V.; Marley, S.T.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Smith, K.; Smith, M.K.; Strauss, S.Y.; Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, Department of Physics, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Conversion coefficients, gamma-gamma and gamma-electron coincidences were measured in the s-process branching point nucleus {sup 176}Lu. Our goal was to determine the multipolarities of the γ-ray transitions that connect the high and low K states of {sup 176}Lu. This {sup 176}Lu nucleus has a long-lived ground state (K=7{sup -}) of 37.6 Gy, a short-lived isomeric state (K=0{sup -}) at 122.8 keV with half-life of 3.6 h, as well as a 58 μs isomer at 1588 keV (K=14{sup +}). The excitation structure of this nucleus contains bands of intermediate spins of both positive and negative parities. The intermediate states can under certain stellar temperatures completely change the equilibrium between the isomer and ground state of {sup 176}Lu and change the abundance of this nucleus. We populated 37 previously known levels in this nucleus via the {sup 176}Yb(p,n) reaction and measured 42 conversion coefficients for γ-ray transitions including 17 of them for the first time. (orig.)

  7. Using Covariance Analysis to Assess Pointing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David; Kang, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    A Pointing Covariance Analysis Tool (PCAT) has been developed for evaluating the expected performance of the pointing control system for NASA s Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). The SIM pointing control system is very complex, consisting of multiple feedback and feedforward loops, and operating with multiple latencies and data rates. The SIM pointing problem is particularly challenging due to the effects of thermomechanical drifts in concert with the long camera exposures needed to image dim stars. Other pointing error sources include sensor noises, mechanical vibrations, and errors in the feedforward signals. PCAT models the effects of finite camera exposures and all other error sources using linear system elements. This allows the pointing analysis to be performed using linear covariance analysis. PCAT propagates the error covariance using a Lyapunov equation associated with time-varying discrete and continuous-time system matrices. Unlike Monte Carlo analysis, which could involve thousands of computational runs for a single assessment, the PCAT analysis performs the same assessment in a single run. This capability facilitates the analysis of parametric studies, design trades, and "what-if" scenarios for quickly evaluating and optimizing the control system architecture and design.

  8. 76 FR 41323 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment for the Metropolitan Branch Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Metropolitan Branch Trail (MBT) Project. SUMMARY: The U.S. Federal Highway... resulting from constructing and operating the MBT on sections of land owned by the NPS within the area...

  9. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  10. Qualitative Macroinvertebrate Assessment of Crouch Branch, June 1999 and November 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2001-08-27

    Qualitative assessments of the macroinvertebrate community of Crouch Branch were performed in June 1999 and November 2000 to determine if effluent from the H-02 outfall is impairing the quality of the receiving stream. Concurrent samples were collected for metals analyses (copper and zinc in 1999; copper in 2000).

  11. 长江北支口门圆陀角附近潮滩沉积物重金属来源及污染评价%Sources and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of the Tidal Flat at the Yuantuojiao Point, the North Branch, Changjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽; 张振克

    2015-01-01

    基于圆陀角附近潮滩YY孔岩芯重金属(Co、Cr、Cu、Mn、Ni、V、Zn)富集系数和人为贡献率、地累积指数和潜在生态风险系数,讨论了圆陀角附近潮滩重金属来源及污染。结果表明,重金属Co、V平均含量显著高于背景值。除Cr是自然来源外,其它6种重金属受自然和人为来源的影响,且以自然来源为主。7种重金属总体无污染,仅Co、Cu、V和Zn在岩芯132 cm处出现无污染至中度污染。7种重金属潜在生态危害属轻微水平。值得关注的是,1997年之后,重金属Co、Cr、Mn、V、Zn地累积指数和潜在生态风险系数均有增加的趋势。%The North Branch, separated by the Chongming Island, was once the main channel in the estuary of the Changjiang River. The human reclamation and the south migration of the main channel led to the narrowing and shallowing of the North Branch. Yuantuojiao Point is the intersecting point of the North Branch of the Changjiang River with the South Yellow Sea coastal line. The specific geographic location and the complexity of regional morphological dynamics developed a typical silt-mud tidal flat. Heavy metals contents of the tid-al-flat sediments recorded rich information of the coastal environmental changes near the Yuantuojiao Point. In this study, the heavy metals sources and pollution evolution were discussed according to the heavy metals con-tents within the tidal-flat sediments at the Yuantuojiao Point. A drilling core of 218 cm was collected on the salt marsh at the Yuantuojiao Point. The grain size and 7 heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn) of the YY core were measured. The chronology of this core was built by using the 137Cs dating. The correlation analysis, enrich-ment coefficient, human contribution rate, geo-accumulation index, and potential ecological risk coefficient of the heavy metals from the YY core were calculated. The results show the contents of heavy metals were lower after 1960

  12. Accuracy Assessment Points for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 1543 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in the summer of 2005 as part of the vegetation mapping project. The points were randomly...

  13. Simulations demonstrate a simple network to be sufficient to control branch point selection, smooth muscle and vasculature formation during lung branching morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Géraldine Cellière; Denis Menshykau; Dagmar Iber

    2012-01-01

    Summary Proper lung functioning requires not only a correct structure of the conducting airway tree, but also the simultaneous development of smooth muscles and vasculature. Lung branching morphogenesis is strongly stereotyped and involves the recursive use of only three modes of branching. We have previously shown that the experimentally described interactions between Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)10, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and Patched (Ptc) can give rise to a Turing mechanism that not only re...

  14. Fixed points of a generalized smoothing transformation and applications to the branching random walk

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Quansheng

    1998-01-01

    Let {Ai : i ≥ 1} be a sequence of non-negative random variables and let M be the class of all probability measures on [0,∞]. Define a transformation T on M by letting Tμ be the distribution of ∑i=1∞AiZi, where the Zi are independent random variables with distribution μ, which are also independent of {Ai}. Under first moment assumptions imposed on {Ai}, we determine exactly when T has a non-trivial fixed point (of finite or infinite mean) and we prove that all fixed ...

  15. Functional criteria for assessing pointe-readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Megan; Liederbach, Marijeanne; Sandow, Emily

    2010-01-01

    The most popular criterion cited in the dance literature for advancement to pointe work is attainment of the chronological age of 12 years. However, dancers at this age vary greatly in terms of musculoskeletal maturity and motor skill development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether objective, functional tests could be used in conjunction with dance teacher expertise to determine pointe-readiness. It was hypothesized that dynamic tests of motor control can better indicate pointe-readiness than chronological age alone or in combination with static musculoskeletal measurements. Thirty-seven pre-pointe students from two professional ballet schools were tested for muscular strength, ankle joint range of motion, single leg standing balance, dynamic alignment, and turning skill. In addition, the participating students' ballet teachers independently graded each student on her readiness to begin dancing en pointe. Performance on three functional tests (the Airplane test, Sauté test, and Topple test) was closely associated with teacher subjective rating for pointe-readiness. It is concluded that these tests may be more useful for gauging acquisition of the skills required for safe and successful performance than the traditionally accepted indicators of chronological age, years of dance training, and ankle joint range of motion. PMID:21067685

  16. Accuracy Assessment Points for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 500 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in July and August of 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. Five hundred and one...

  17. Simulations demonstrate a simple network to be sufficient to control branch point selection, smooth muscle and vasculature formation during lung branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellière, Géraldine; Menshykau, Denis; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-08-15

    Proper lung functioning requires not only a correct structure of the conducting airway tree, but also the simultaneous development of smooth muscles and vasculature. Lung branching morphogenesis is strongly stereotyped and involves the recursive use of only three modes of branching. We have previously shown that the experimentally described interactions between Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)10, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and Patched (Ptc) can give rise to a Turing mechanism that not only reproduces the experimentally observed wildtype branching pattern but also, in part counterintuitive, patterns in mutant mice. Here we show that, even though many proteins affect smooth muscle formation and the expression of Vegfa, an inducer of blood vessel formation, it is sufficient to add FGF9 to the FGF10/SHH/Ptc module to successfully predict simultaneously the emergence of smooth muscles in the clefts between growing lung buds, and Vegfa expression in the distal sub-epithelial mesenchyme. Our model reproduces the phenotype of both wildtype and relevant mutant mice, as well as the results of most culture conditions described in the literature. PMID:23213471

  18. Simulations demonstrate a simple network to be sufficient to control branch point selection, smooth muscle and vasculature formation during lung branching morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Cellière

    2012-06-01

    Proper lung functioning requires not only a correct structure of the conducting airway tree, but also the simultaneous development of smooth muscles and vasculature. Lung branching morphogenesis is strongly stereotyped and involves the recursive use of only three modes of branching. We have previously shown that the experimentally described interactions between Fibroblast growth factor (FGF10, Sonic hedgehog (SHH and Patched (Ptc can give rise to a Turing mechanism that not only reproduces the experimentally observed wildtype branching pattern but also, in part counterintuitive, patterns in mutant mice. Here we show that, even though many proteins affect smooth muscle formation and the expression of Vegfa, an inducer of blood vessel formation, it is sufficient to add FGF9 to the FGF10/SHH/Ptc module to successfully predict simultaneously the emergence of smooth muscles in the clefts between growing lung buds, and Vegfa expression in the distal sub-epithelial mesenchyme. Our model reproduces the phenotype of both wildtype and relevant mutant mice, as well as the results of most culture conditions described in the literature.

  19. RHIC Critical Point Search: Assessing STAR's Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this report we discuss the capabilities and limitations of the STAR detector to search for signatures of the QCD critical point in a low energy scan at RHIC. We find that a RHIC low energy scan will cover a broad region of interest in the nuclear matter phase diagram and that the STAR detector -- a detector designed to measure the quantities that will be of interest in this search -- will provide new observables and improve on previous measurements in this energy range.

  20. Assessment of Myofascial Trigger Points Using Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a common musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome is currently made on clinical grounds. Numerous diagnostic criteria are used to identify myofascial pain syndrome, including the localization of MTrPs. Identifying the presence of MTrPs currently requires the physician to palpate the symptomatic region. Because the interrater reliability of the palpation technique has been found to be poor, numerous groups have been interested in finding objective imaging measures to localize the MTrP. This comprehensive review focuses on summarizing ultrasound imaging techniques that have shown promise in visually localizing the trigger point. The authors' literature search identified three sonographic approaches that have been used in MTrP localization: conventional gray-scale imaging, Doppler imaging, and elastographic ultrasound imaging. This review article explains the basic physics behind the imaging methods and summarizes the characteristics of the MTrP as identified by the ultrasonic techniques.

  1. Innovation Assessment of a Portuguese Railway branch of a foreign multinational - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Boavida, Nuno; Moretto, Susana Martins

    2010-01-01

    Paper developed for the unit “Innovation Economics and Management” of the PhD programme in Technology Assessment at the Universidade Nova de Lisboa in 2009-10 under the supervision of Prof. Maria Luísa Ferreira This paper analyses the application of the Innovation Scoring model and its results to the railway business branch of a foreign multinational. Results confirm some enrolment in non-core Research & Development connected to the commercial activity of selling trains. Two main determina...

  2. Treatment of Parkinson Disease by Meridian Muscle Region Tuina plus Earthly Branches Prescription of Point Selection Along Meridian: A Report of 1 Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Gui-neng; ZHI Lan-ying; KUAI Le

    2005-01-01

    @@ The treatment of parkinson disease mainly used to depend on medicament. The author treated one patient by meridian muscle region Tuina plus earthly branches prescription of point selection along meridian in the classical time therapeutics,Tuina according to the time and along the meridian, at the end of July, 2003. Now it was reported as follows.

  3. A Tree Branch Skeleton Extraction Approach Based on Point Cloud%一种树枝点云的骨架提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳妮; 郭华磊

    2016-01-01

    针对目前点云的树枝建模方法仅仅是使得树杆的骨架线与真实树枝的伸张形状相似,忽略了树杆局部细节层次的几何形状的展现的问题,论文提出一种树枝点云骨架点的提取方法.首先对能够表征真实树枝的骨架点的几何参数进行详细分析,然后对3D激光扫描仪采集的树枝的单侧点云数据中所蕴含的骨架点的几何参数进行了深入研究,得出了描述其几何特性的数学模型;接着通过求取树枝局部最优切分点集的主方向来描述骨架点的轴方向;最后通过运用LS-Method方法来拟合逼近树枝横截面圆的位置和半径两个几何参数,从而从树枝点云中准确的提取出了树枝骨架点位置、半径和轴方向三个几何参数.实验证明,该方法提取的树枝骨架点逼近了原始点云所蕴含的真实树枝的中轴线,有一定的实用价值.%Aiming at the branch point cloud modeling method is only done so that the shape of the skeleton Trunk line similar to the real branches,ignoring the geometry Trunk show details of local level issues,this paper presents a point cloud branch skeleton points extraction approach.First,we are able to characterize the real point of the branches of the skeleton detailed analysis of the geometric parameters,and then 3D laser scanners capture branches of unilateral point cloud data in-herent in the geometrical parameters skeleton point depth study,obtained describe geometric characteristics of the mathemat-ical model.then strike the branches by local optimal cut points set to describe the main direction of the skeleton point axis di-rection,and finally to fit the approximate cross-section of the branches circle position and radius of two methods by using LS-Method geometric parameters to accurately extracted from a branch point cloud branch skeleton position,radius and three-ax-is geometry.The experimental results show that the proposed approach has a certain practical value to

  4. Assessment of cardiac function and synchronicity in subjects with isolated bundle branch block using Doppler imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Hong-xia; HUA Wei; ZHANG Shu; SUN Xin; WANG Fang-zheng; CHEN Ke-ping; WANG Hao; CHEN Xin

    2006-01-01

    Background Using tissue Doppler imaging and conventional echocardiographic technique, we examined the cardiac function and synchronicity in individuals with isolated right bundle branch block (RBBB) or left bundle branch block (LBBB) and assessed the relationship between QRS duration and synchronicity.Methods Subjects with isolated RBBB (n=20), LBBB (n=10) and normal controls (n=20) were studied with conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. The difference between aortic and pulmonary preejection intervals was defined as interventricular delay. Parameters in septum and lateral wall were measured using tissue Doppler imaging, including peak sustained systolic velocity (SM), peak early (EM) and late (AM)diastolic velocities as well as time to peak velocities (Ts, TE and TA).Results Subjects with LBBB had lower SM and longer Ts than did the RBBB and control groups (P<0.05,P<0.001 respectively). A significant difference was observed in EM, being the lowest in the LBBB and the highest in the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, TE was longer in the LBBB group compared with the other two groups (P<0.001). Both AM and TA were similar among three groups (P>0.05). In the bundle branch block groups, one ventricle lagged about 40 ms behind the other. A significant correlation was found between interventricular delay and QRS duration (r =0.713, P<0.001).Conclusions Cardiac ventricles were not well synchronized with one ventricle lagging about 40 ms behind the other in subjects with LBBB or RBBB, even though only LBBB group showed barely perceptible, impaired cardiac function. In addition, QRS duration and cardiac asynchronicity were positively correlated.

  5. Accuracy Assessment Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Wupatki National Monument and in the surrounding...

  6. Selection of reproductive health end points for environmental risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Savitz, D A; Harlow, S D

    1991-01-01

    In addition to the challenges inherent in environmental health risk assessment, the study of reproductive health requires thorough consideration of the very definition of reproductive risk. Researchers have yet to determine which end points need to be considered to comprehensively evaluate a community's reproductive health. Several scientific issues should be considered in the selection of end points: the severity of the outcomes, with a trade-off between clinical severity and statistical or ...

  7. Alternative branch points are selected during splicing of a yeast pre-mRNA in mammalian and yeast extracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruskin, B; Pikielny, C W; Rosbash, M; Green, M R

    1986-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing in yeast and higher eukaryotes proceeds by similar pathways, in which a probable splicing intermediate and the excised intron are in a lariat configuration. To compare the pre-mRNA splicing mechanisms in yeast and higher eukaryotes, we have analyzed the RNA products resulting from in vitro processing of a yeast intron-containing pre-mRNA in HeLa cell and yeast extracts. In yeast, the RNA branch (2'-5' phosphodiester bond) of the RNA lariat forms at the third adenosine of the...

  8. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. 矿物绝缘预分支电缆施工要点%Key Construction Points of Mineral Insulated Prefabricated Branch Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏矿

    2016-01-01

    针对矿物绝缘预分支电缆电气施工中的防潮难点,结合在施工中遇到的问题,从施工工艺及施工原理着手,总结矿物绝缘预分支电缆施工中的电缆敷设、电缆中间接头、终端头制作和临时密封等工序的注意事项,以及剥除铜护层、核对电缆相序、终端头的制作、电缆中间接头制作等施工要点。%Regarding the moisture proof difficulties encountered in the electrical construction of mineral insulated prefabricated branch cable, as well as the problems during construction process, this article summaries the precautions during cable installation, cable intermediate head and terminal head production, temporary seal process etc. of mineral insulated prefabricated branch cable construction. Key construction points in mineral insulated prefabricated branch cable copper sheath removal, cable phase sequence check, terminal head production, and intermediate head production are also covered.

  10. Calibration and Assessment of the New Acropora 'Inter-Branch Skeleton' Palaeothermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J.; Webb, G. E.; Zhao, J. X.; Nothdurft, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    Coral reefs provide an increasingly important archive of palaeoclimate data that can be used to constrain climate model simulations. Reconstructing past environments may also provide insights into the potential of reef systems to survive changes in the Earth's climate. Geochemically based climate reconstructions are predominately acquired from massive Porites colonies, yet there remain significant spatial and temporal gaps in our understanding of climate evolution where no suitable coralla have been recovered. Branching corals are commonly the dominant species in modern reef facies and their abundance suggests an untapped source for this missing information. The potential of 'inter-branch skeleton' in corymbose Acropora to act as a new palaeoclimate archive is significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy of inter-branch skeleton in Acropora from Heron Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef, reveals a lack of secondary thickening deposits that typically characterize Acropora branches and renders them unsuitable for geochemical archives. Annual density banding, similar to that used for chronological determination of geochemical sampling in massive corals, is also observed within Acropora inter-branch skeleton. Clear seasonal signals in Sr/Ca within the skeletal structure will be correlated against the network of in situ temperature recorders in Heron lagoon and on the southern reef slope to provide a new palaeotemperature transfer equation.

  11. Assessment of Pen Branch delta and corridor vegetation changes using multispectral scanner data 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data were used to monitor natural succession of wetland vegetation species over a three-year period from 1992 through 1994 for Pen Branch on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Image processing techniques were used to identify and measure wetland vegetation communities in the lower portion of the Pen Branch corridor and delta. The study provided a reliable means for monitoring medium- and large-scale changes in a diverse environment. Findings from the study will be used to support decisions regarding remediation efforts following the cessation of cooling water discharge from K reactor at the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina.

  12. Establishing International Branch Campuses: A Framework for Assessing Opportunities and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    At the start of 2016, there were 230 international branch campuses operating worldwide, but of the campuses that were established since the mid-1990s, around 10 per cent have failed. The purpose of this article is to propose a framework that the strategic decision makers in higher education institutions can refer to when evaluating opportunities…

  13. Myocardial blood flow assessment with {sup 82}rubidium-PET imaging in patients with left bundle branch block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcao, Andrea; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares Junior, Jose; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Kalil Filho, Roberto; Meneghetti, Jose C., E-mail: andrea.falcao@incor.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (InCor/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Instituto do Coracao

    2015-11-15

    Objectives: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. Objective: we sought to investigate rubidium-82 ({sup 82}Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. Methods: thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress {sup 82}Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal {sup 82}Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). Results: stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p>0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). Conclusion: the data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by {sup 82}Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery

  14. The Interaction of Arp2/3 Complex with Actin: Nucleation, High Affinity Pointed End Capping, and Formation of Branching Networks of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyche Mullins, R.; Heuser, John A.; Pollard, Thomas D.

    1998-05-01

    The Arp2/3 complex is a stable assembly of seven protein subunits including two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) and five novel proteins. Previous work showed that this complex binds to the sides of actin filaments and is concentrated at the leading edges of motile cells. Here, we show that Arp2/3 complex purified from Acanthamoeba caps the pointed ends of actin filaments with high affinity. Arp2/3 complex inhibits both monomer addition and dissociation at the pointed ends of actin filaments with apparent nanomolar affinity and increases the critical concentration for polymerization at the pointed end from 0.6 to 1.0 μ M. The high affinity of Arp2/3 complex for pointed ends and its abundance in amoebae suggest that in vivo all actin filament pointed ends are capped by Arp2/3 complex. Arp2/3 complex also nucleates formation of actin filaments that elongate only from their barbed ends. From kinetic analysis, the nucleation mechanism appears to involve stabilization of polymerization intermediates (probably actin dimers). In electron micrographs of quick-frozen, deep-etched samples, we see Arp2/3 bound to sides and pointed ends of actin filaments and examples of Arp2/3 complex attaching pointed ends of filaments to sides of other filaments. In these cases, the angle of attachment is a remarkably constant 70 ± 7 degrees. From these in vitro biochemical properties, we propose a model for how Arp2/3 complex controls the assembly of a branching network of actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells.

  15. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Spencer, Tracey A.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 13 surface-water samples and 3 replicates from 5 sites in the West Branch Canal Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground from February through August 1999, as a part of an investigation of ground-water contamination and natural attenuation processes. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which are the four major contaminants that were detected in ground water in the Canal Creek area in earlier USGS studies. Field blanks were collected during the sampling period to assess sample bias. Field replicates were used to assess sample variability, which was expressed as relative percent difference. The mean variability of the surface-water replicate analyses was larger (35.4 percent) than the mean variability of ground-water replicate analyses (14.6 percent) determined for West Branch Canal Creek from 1995 through 1996. The higher variability in surface-water analyses is probably due to heterogeneities in the composition of the surface water rather than differences in sampling or analytical procedures. The most frequently detected volatile organic compound was 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane, which was detected in every sample and in two of the replicates. The surface-water contamination is likely the result of cross-media transfer of contaminants from the ground water and sediments along the West Branch Canal Creek. The full extent of surface-water contamination in West Branch Canal Creek and the locations of probable contaminant sources cannot be determined from this limited set of data. Tidal mixing, creek flow patterns, and potential effects of a drought that occurred during the sampling period also complicate the evaluation of surface-water contamination.

  16. STABILITY OF BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATES IN A PT-SYMMETRIC DOUBLE-δ POTENTIAL CLOSE TO BRANCH POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Löhle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a double-well potential, where atoms are incoupled to one side and extracted from the other, can in the mean-field limit be described by the nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE with a PT symmetric external potential. If the strength of the in- and outcoupling is increased two PT broken states bifurcate from the PT symmetric ground state. At this bifurcation point a stability change of the ground state is expected. However, it is observed that this stability change does not occur exactly at the bifurcation but at a slightly different strength of the in-/outcoupling effect. We investigate a Bose-Einstein condensate in a PT symmetric double-δ potential and calculate the stationary states. The ground state’s stability is analysed by means of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations and it is shown that the difference in the strength of the in-/outcoupling between the bifurcation and the stability change can be completely explained by the norm-dependency of the nonlinear term in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

  17. A safety assessment of branched chain saturated alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsito, D.; Bickers, D.; Bruze, M.;

    2010-01-01

    The Branched Chain Saturated Alcohol (BCSA) group of fragrance ingredients was evaluated for safety. In humans, no evidence of skin irritation was found at concentrations of 2-10%. Undiluted, 11 materials evaluated caused moderate to severe eye irritation. As current end product use levels are...... carcinogenicity study showed that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is a weak inducer of liver tumors in female mice, however, the relevance of this effect and mode of action to humans is still a matter of debate. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding BCSA under the present levels of use and...

  18. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot, Observation Points and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 282 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Cedar Breaks National...

  19. Accuracy Assessment Points for Gateway National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points, that were field sampled, based on the destination accuracy assessment points used in the vegetation...

  20. Accuracy Assessment Points for Natural Bridges National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 288 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in the fall of 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. The points were randomly...

  1. Accuracy Assessment Points for Capitol Reef National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 1,313 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in the summer of 2005 as part of the vegetation mapping project. The points were randomly...

  2. Accuracy Assessment Points for Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 757 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in the late summer of 2004 as part of the vegetation mapping project. The points were...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file displays the 661 accuracy assessment (AA) points visited in the late summer of 2006 as part of the vegetation mapping project. The points were...

  4. Assessing the Accuracy of the Precise Point Positioning Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisnath, S. B.; Collins, P.; Seepersad, G.

    2012-12-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS data processing technique has developed over the past 15 years to become a standard method for growing categories of positioning and navigation applications. The technique relies on single receiver point positioning combined with the use of precise satellite orbit and clock information and high-fidelity error modelling. The research presented here uniquely addresses the current accuracy of the technique, explains the limits of performance, and defines paths to improvements. For geodetic purposes, performance refers to daily static position accuracy. PPP processing of over 80 IGS stations over one week results in few millimetre positioning rms error in the north and east components and few centimetres in the vertical (all one sigma values). Larger error statistics for real-time and kinematic processing are also given. GPS PPP with ambiguity resolution processing is also carried out, producing slight improvements over the float solution results. These results are categorised into quality classes in order to analyse the root error causes of the resultant accuracies: "best", "worst", multipath, site displacement effects, satellite availability and geometry, etc. Also of interest in PPP performance is solution convergence period. Static, conventional solutions are slow to converge, with approximately 35 minutes required for 95% of solutions to reach the 20 cm or better horizontal accuracy. Ambiguity resolution can significantly reduce this period without biasing solutions. The definition of a PPP error budget is a complex task even with the resulting numerical assessment, as unlike the epoch-by-epoch processing in the Standard Position Service, PPP processing involving filtering. An attempt is made here to 1) define the magnitude of each error source in terms of range, 2) transform ranging error to position error via Dilution Of Precision (DOP), and 3) scale the DOP through the filtering process. The result is a deeper

  5. Pool size measurements facilitate the determination of fluxes at branching points in nonstationary metabolic flux analysis: The case of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eHeise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pool size measurements are important for the estimation of absolute intracellular fluxes in particular scenarios based on data from heavy carbon isotope experiments. Recently, steady-state fluxes estimates were obtained for central carbon metabolism in an intact illuminated rosette of Arabidopsis thaliana grown photoautotrophically (Szecowka et al., 2013; Heise et al., 2014. Fluxes were estimated therein by integrating mass-spectrometric data of the dynamics of the unlabeled metabolic fraction, data on metabolic pool sizes, partitioning of metabolic pools between cellular compartments and estimates of photosynthetically inactive pools, with a simplified model of plant central carbon metabolism. However, the fluxes were determined by treating the pool sizes as fixed parameters. Here we investigated whether and, if so, to what extent the treatment of pool sizes as parameters to be optimized in three scenarios may affect the flux estimates. The results are discussed in terms of benchmark values for canonical pathways and reactions, including starch and sucrose synthesis as well as the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and oxygenation reactions. In addition, we discuss pathways emerging from a divergent branch point for which pool sizes are required for flux estimation, irrespective of the computational approach used for the simulation of the observable labelling pattern. Therefore, our findings indicate the necessity for development of techniques for accurate pool size measurements to improve the quality of flux estimates from nonstationary flux estimates in intact plant cells in the absence of alternative flux measurements.

  6. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    extirpation for a local population may rapidly increase with only minimal increases in wind mortality. Conservation biologists and wildlife managers may need to consider this mortality pattern when issuing take permits and developing monitoring protocols for wind facilities. We also describe how our branching process models may be generalized across a wider range of species for a larger assessment project and then describe how our methods may be applied to other stressors in addition to wind.

  7. Assessing Readiness for En Pointe in Young Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jeffrey C; Kruse, David W

    2016-01-01

    Children begin ballet lessons as young as age 2 years. The graceful movements of classical ballet require a combination of artistry, flexibility, and strength to perform. During the training and development of a young ballerina, the transition to dancing en pointe ("on the toes") represents a significant milestone and traditionally begins around age 11 or 12 years, assuming the proper training background and dance aspirations. However, current dance medicine literature describes factors such as maturity, proper technique, strength, and postural control as the more significant factors in determining pointe readiness. An in-office evaluation of these factors can be performed by the clinician to assist dancers, their family, and their dance instructor(s) determine pointe readiness. PMID:26783970

  8. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Ozark National Scenic Riverways Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. This data set includes points used to collect data for map valdiation of community types in Ozark National Scenic...

  9. Accuracy Assessment Points for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at Washita Battlefield National Historic Site.

  10. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plot points were created from the GPS coordinates recorded at the center of each plot to map their distribution...

  11. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Shenandoah National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is an ESRI point shapefile. Points represent vegetation and accuracy assessment plots from which field data were collected as part of the Version 2.0...

  12. Accuracy Assessment Points for San Antonio Missions National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2006 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at San Antonio Missions National Historical Park.

  13. Accuracy Assessment Points for Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the sample points collected at Craters of the Moon National Monument and...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rose, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Farallon de Pajaros, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Aguijan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Swains, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Ofu & Olosega, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tinian, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Rota, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Alamagan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Baker, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Saipan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Jarvis, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kure, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maug, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Guguan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Sarigan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  11. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Hawaii, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  12. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  13. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Maui, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  14. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Tutuila, American Samoa in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  15. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Pearl & Hermes, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  16. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Agrihan, Marianas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  17. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at French Frigate, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  18. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  19. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Zeng, Hongchun [First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Ultrasonography, Urumqi (China); Koestenberger, Martin [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  20. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  1. Accuracy Assessment Points for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in May, 1997 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the USGS-NPS Vegetation...

  2. Accuracy Assessment Points for Badlands National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the accuracy assessment data associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geospatial database for Badlands National Park and...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Friendship Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation classification and mapping of Friendship Hill National Historic Site.

  4. Mapping with Small UAS: A Point Cloud Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Charles; Jozkow, Grzegorz; Grejner-Brzezinska, Dorota

    2015-12-01

    Interest in using inexpensive Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) technology for topographic mapping has recently significantly increased. Small UAS platforms equipped with consumer grade cameras can easily acquire high-resolution aerial imagery allowing for dense point cloud generation, followed by surface model creation and orthophoto production. In contrast to conventional airborne mapping systems, UAS has limited ground coverage due to low flying height and limited flying time, yet it offers an attractive alternative to high performance airborne systems, as the cost of the sensors and platform, and the flight logistics, is relatively low. In addition, UAS is better suited for small area data acquisitions and to acquire data in difficult to access areas, such as urban canyons or densely built-up environments. The main question with respect to the use of UAS is whether the inexpensive consumer sensors installed in UAS platforms can provide the geospatial data quality comparable to that provided by conventional systems. This study aims at the performance evaluation of the current practice of UAS-based topographic mapping by reviewing the practical aspects of sensor configuration, georeferencing and point cloud generation, including comparisons between sensor types and processing tools. The main objective is to provide accuracy characterization and practical information for selecting and using UAS solutions in general mapping applications. The analysis is based on statistical evaluation as well as visual examination of experimental data acquired by a Bergen octocopter with three different image sensor configurations, including a GoPro HERO3+ Black Edition, a Nikon D800 DSLR and a Velodyne HDL-32. In addition, georeferencing data of varying quality were acquired and evaluated. The optical imagery was processed by using three commercial point cloud generation tools. Comparing point clouds created by active and passive sensors by using different quality sensors, and finally

  5. Accuracy Assessment Points for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the accuracy assessment points used to assess the association-level vegetation map of Valley Forge National Historic Park developed by the...

  6. Accuracy Assessment Points for Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes the accuracy assessment points used to assess the alliance-level vegetation map of Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (HOFU) developed...

  7. Reliable and Valid Assessment of Point-of-care Ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todsen, Tobias; Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk; Olsen, Beth Härstedt;

    2015-01-01

    surgical patient cases in a controlled set-up. All ultrasound examinations were video-recorded and assessed by 2 blinded radiologists using OSAUS. Reliability was examined using generalizability theory. Construct validity was examined by comparing performance scores between the groups and by correlating...

  8. An Assessment of Hydrology, Fluvial Geomorphology, and Stream Ecology in the Cardwell Branch Watershed, Nebraska, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Woodward, Brenda K.; Fry, Beth E.; Wilson, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    An assessment of the 16.3-square-mile Cardwell Branch watershed characterized the hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and stream ecology in 2003-04. The study - performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Lincoln, Nebraska, and the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District - focused on the 7.7-square-mile drainage downstream from Yankee Hill Reservoir. Hydrologic and hydraulic models were developed using the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Engineering Center. Estimates of streamflow and water-surface elevation were simulated for 24-hour-duration design rainstorms ranging from a 50-percent frequency to a 0.2-percent frequency. An initial HEC-HMS model was developed using the standardized parameter estimation techniques associated with the Soil Conservation Service curve number technique. An adjusted HEC-HMS model also was developed in which parameters were adjusted in order for the model output to better correspond to peak streamflows estimated from regional regression equations. Comparisons of peak streamflow from the two HEC-HMS models indicate that the initial HEC-HMS model may better agree with the regional regression equations for higher frequency storms, and the adjusted HEC-HMS model may perform more closely to regional regression equations for larger, rarer events. However, a lack of observed streamflow data, coupled with conflicting results from regional regression equations and local high-water marks, introduced considerable uncertainty into the model simulations. Using the HEC-RAS model to estimate water-surface elevations associated with the peak streamflow, the adjusted HEC-HMS model produced average increases in water-surface elevation of 0.2, 1.1, and 1.4 feet for the 50-, 1-, and 0.2-percent-frequency rainstorms, respectively, when compared to the initial HEC-HMS model. Cross-sectional surveys and field assessments conducted between

  9. Mutagenesis and teratogenesis as end points in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic and teratogenic effects of agents released to the environment as a consequence of energy production are exceedingly difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, these effects on human health may be very costly in the context of cost-benefit analysis. In fact, the procedures required to limit mutagenic or teratogenic agents to the levels considered acceptable by regulatory bodies may constitute a major fraction of the cost of energy, especially where prudence dictates that a lack of empirical data requires extremely conservative regulations. Experience with ionizing radiation and with regulation of nuclear power installations illustrates the difficulty of genetic and teratogenic health impact assessment and the great uncertainties involved, as well as the influence of these impacts on the regulatory process and the consequent increased cost of power from this source. Data on genetic and teratogenic impacts on human health from chemical agents released to the environment by other energy technologies are much less complete, and, because of the large number of potentially active agents involved, it is evident that generic solutions to health impact assessment will be required to evaluate these energy alternatives

  10. Carcinogenesis as an end point in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All sources of energy production, with perhaps the exception of falling water, wind, and geothermal sources, appear to have associated carcinogenic hazards. Epidemiological information does not allow us to pinpoint single ''causes,'' but urban dwellers, coal miners, and petroleum refinery workers all appear to be at increased risk of cancer. Radiation--cancer relationships have been shown in exposed populations, and work is currently under way assessing the risks of former Atomic Energy Commission workers. With the exception of radiation exposure, there are few human data for estimating dose--response relationships to environmental carcinogens. At very low doses for add-on type exposures, safety-oriented behavior leads us to assume no thresholds and to operate as if the dose--response curve in man is likely to be linear

  11. Mandibular branch of the facial nerve in wistar rats: new experimental model to assess facial nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Salomone, Raquel; Nascimento, Silvia Bona do; Ferreira, Ricardo Jose Rodriguez; Silva, Ciro Ferreira da; Costa, Heloisa Juliana Zabeu Rossi

    2014-07-01

    Introduction The ideal animal model for nerve regeneration studies is the object of controversy, because all models described by the literature have advantages and disadvantages. Objective To describe the histologic and functional patterns of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of Wistar rats to create a new experimental model of facial nerve regeneration. Methods Forty-two male rats were submitted to a nerve conduction test of the mandibular branch to obtain the compound muscle action potential. Twelve of these rats had the mandibular branch surgically removed and submitted to histologic analysis (number, partial density, and axonal diameter) of the proximal and distal segments. Results There was no statistically significant difference in the functional and histologic variables studied. Conclusion These new histologic and functional standards of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve of rats establish an objective, easy, and greatly reproducible model for future facial nerve regeneration studies. PMID:25992106

  12. Branching out

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, J D

    2010-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.

  13. Assessment of soil n-alkane δD and branched tetraether membrane lipid distributions as tools for paleoelevation reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Sinninghe Damsté

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available δ18O values of pedogenic minerals forming from soil water are commonly used to reconstruct paleoelevation. To circumvent some of the disadvantages of this method, soil n-alkane δD values were recently proposed as a new tool to reconstruct elevation changes, after showing that soil n-alkane δD values track the altitude effect on precipitation δD variations (r2=0.73 along Mt. Gongga, China. To verify the suitability of soil n-alkane δD values as a paleoelevation proxy we measured the δD of soil n-alkanes along Mt. Kilimanjaro (Tanzania. At midslope, soil n-alkane δD values are possibly influenced by the present precipitation belt, causing D-depletion in precipitation, and hence in the soil n-alkanes. Consequently, soil n-alkane δD values do not linearly relate with altitude (r2=0.03, suggesting that, in this case, they can not serve as an unambiguous proxy to infer past elevation changes. In contrast, it was recently shown that the MBT/CBT temperature proxy, which is based on the distribution of branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT membrane lipids, is linearly related with MAT, and thus altitude (r2=0.77, at Mt. Kilimanjaro. This suggests that this proxy may be more suitable for paleoelevation reconstruction for this region. However, application of the MBT/CBT proxy on the altitude gradient along Mt. Gongga showed that, although the MBT/CBT-derived temperature lapse rate (−5.9°C/1000 m resembles the measured temperature lapse rate (−6.0°C/1000 m, there is a relatively large degree of scatter (r2=0.55. Our results thus show that both proxies can be subject to relatively large uncertainties in their assessment of past elevation changes, but that a combination of the soil n-alkane δD and MBT/CBT proxies can likely result in a more reliable assessment of paleoelevation.

  14. Upstream to downstream: a multiple-assessment-point approach for targeting non-point-source priority management areas at large watershed scale

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L.; Zhong, Y.; Wei, G; Shen, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of priority management areas (PMAs) is essential for the control of non-point-source (NPS) pollution, especially for a large-scale watershed. However, previous studies have typically focused on small-scale catchments adjacent to specific assessment points; thus, the interactions between multiple river points remain poorly understood. In this study, a multiple-assessment-point PMA (MAP-PMA) framework was proposed by integrating the upstream sources and the ...

  15. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plots, Observation and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 vegetation (classification) field plots (spatial database) and 2010 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the...

  16. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plot data were collected from 2000-2003; however, minimal attributes were maintained and a plots database was not...

  17. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plots within the park were identified and sampled in the summer of 2005. In the summer of 2006, randomly selected...

  18. Accuracy Assessment Points for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Colonial National Historical Park. It was...

  19. Accuracy Assessment Points for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Appomottox Court House National Historical...

  20. Accuracy Assessment Points Modified for Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Location of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation and fire fuel model mapping in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. In this...

  1. Accuracy Assessment Points for Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National...

  2. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Padre Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Currently there are NO DATA in this feature class. As of December 2009, a plots database has not been developed...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile depicts the locations of thematic accuracy assessment sampling points used in the vegetation mapping of Richmond National Battlefield Park. It was...

  4. Accuracy Assessment Points for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps accuracy assessment point locations for the vegetation map at Walnut Canyon National Monument and in the...

  5. 77 FR 4989 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the construction of access roads, a powerhouse... Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Availability of an Environmental Assessment... proposal by Turning Point Solar LCC (TPS). The proposal consists of constructing a 49.9 megawatt...

  6. Assessing Urban Non-Point Source pollutants at the Virginia Tech Extended Dry Detention Pond

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Kimberly Jean

    1997-01-01

    With a growing concern for the environment and increasing urbanization of rural areas, understanding the characteristics of urban non-point source pollution has become a focus for water quality investigators. Once thought to be a small contributor to the pollution problem, urban non-point sources are now responsible for transporting over 50% of all pollutants into natural waterways. Assessing ...

  7. Stochastic Transition between Turbulent Branch and Thermodynamic Branch of an Inhomogeneous Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Kimitaka

    2002-01-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point an...

  8. The Initial Cracking Point of Multi-Branch Hydraulic Fracture Temporary Plugging%多分支缝水力压裂暂堵起裂点位置研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏冲; 廖旋; 刘荆成

    2016-01-01

    针对多分支缝压裂成缝起裂点不明确的问题,基于多孔介质流固耦合理论模型,通过 Comsol Multiphysics 软件进行有限元模拟分支缝压裂过程,分析不同应力差条件下缝内起裂点和井筒起裂点的集中应力变化规律,随着缝内净压力的增加,存在一个差别点,区分起裂点起裂的优先顺序。通过控制缝内净压力变化,调整起裂优先顺序,控制分支缝延伸条数,保证了多分支缝水力压裂缝网的复杂性。对海拉尔油田现场实例计算分析,调整缝内净压力,施工结果与模拟结果相同,可以指导现场施工,提高多分支缝水力压裂的成功率。%The seam crack point of multiple branch seam fracturing is not clear.Based on the theory of porous media of fluid-solid coupling mode,Comsol software was used to simulate branch seam fracturing process using finite element simulation.The changing law of stress concentration of seam crack point and shaft crack point was analysized under the condition of different stress difference it was found that with the increase of net pressure on the seam,there was a difference which distinguished between crack priorities.By controlling the net pressure change within joint,the crack priorities was adjusted,the number of multi-branch fracture was controlled,and the multi-branch seam hydraulic pressure of the complexity of the fracture network was ensured.Calculation analysis of hailaer oil field on the spot was used to adjust the net pressure inside seam.The result of construction was same with simulation,and can be used to guide the construction to improve the success rate of multi-branch seam hydraulic fracturing.

  9. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  10. Accounting for professionalism: an innovative point system to assess resident professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Malakoff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professionalism is a core competency for residency required by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education. We sought a means to objectively assess professionalism among internal medicine and transitional year residents. Innovation: We established a point system to document unprofessional behaviors demonstrated by internal medicine and transitional year residents along with opportunities to redeem such negative points by deliberate positive professional acts. The intent of the policy is to assist residents in becoming aware of what constitutes unprofessional behavior and to provide opportunities for remediation by accruing positive points. A committee of core faculty and department leadership including the program director and clinic nurse manager determines professionalism points assigned. Negative points might be awarded for tardiness to mandatory or volunteered for events without a valid excuse, late evaluations or other paperwork required by the department, non-attendance at meetings prepaid by the department, and inappropriate use of personal days or leave. Examples of actions through which positive points can be gained to erase negative points include delivery of a mentored pre-conference talk, noon conference, medical student case/shelf review session, or a written reflection. Results: Between 2009 and 2012, 83 residents have trained in our program. Seventeen categorical internal medicine and two transitional year residents have been assigned points. A total of 55 negative points have been assigned and 19 points have been remediated. There appears to be a trend of fewer negative points and more positive points being assigned over each of the past three academic years. Conclusion: Commitment to personal professional behavior is a lifelong process that residents must commit to during their training. A professionalism policy, which employs a point system, has been instituted in our programs and may be a novel tool to

  11. Point process models in asthma attacks for assessing environmental risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kamakura, T; Yanagimoto, T

    1985-01-01

    Point process models are reviewed and discussed for assessing the effects of environmental risk factors on asthma attacks. It is pointed out that the logit model and proportional intensity model are useful for analyzing the data based on the diaries recorded consecutively during several months or during a few years. Some covariates that seems to influence upon asthmatics are explored using these models. Further work on estimating the smoothed base-line intensity function is briefly discussed ...

  12. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information

    OpenAIRE

    Valenza, G; Greco, A.; Citi, L; Bianchi, M; Barbieri, R; Scilingo, E. P.

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities al...

  13. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  14. Models for assessing the spatial distribution of geodetic point patterns: application to geoid prediction quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, Raaed Mohamed Kamel

    2013-05-01

    In this study, some stochastic and deterministic models have been proposed for the assessment of the regularity and isotropy of geodetic point patterns. These models utilized realized point configurations within a rectangular window, leaning on stochastic geometry. As an illustrative example, the geographical extent of the Egyptian Territory was selected as a test window. The proposed models have agreed with the visual and qualitative characteristics of the investigated patterns. Also, it has been found that the stochastic and deterministic models for regularity and isotropy have very strong mutual correlation coefficients. Furthermore, the proposed models were applied to some geoid interpolation algorithms. In particular, the relationships among the data/check point distributions and the geoid interpolation accuracies, were investigated. Finally, a closed expression was proposed, which efficiently describes the relations among such features. So, it is recommended to use such approach for the pre-analysis and planning of the geographic distributions of point patterns in similar and other geodetic applications.

  15. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  16. Bird biodiversity assessments in temperate forest: the value of point count versus acoustic monitoring protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Klingbeil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective monitoring programs for biodiversity are needed to assess trends in biodiversity and evaluate the consequences of management. This is particularly true for birds and faunas that occupy interior forest and other areas of low human population density, as these are frequently under-sampled compared to other habitats. For birds, Autonomous Recording Units (ARUs have been proposed as a supplement or alternative to point counts made by human observers to enhance monitoring efforts. We employed two strategies (i.e., simultaneous-collection and same-season to compare point count and ARU methods for quantifying species richness and composition of birds in temperate interior forests. The simultaneous-collection strategy compares surveys by ARUs and point counts, with methods matched in time, location, and survey duration such that the person and machine simultaneously collect data. The same-season strategy compares surveys from ARUs and point counts conducted at the same locations throughout the breeding season, but methods differ in the number, duration, and frequency of surveys. This second strategy more closely follows the ways in which monitoring programs are likely to be implemented. Site-specific estimates of richness (but not species composition differed between methods; however, the nature of the relationship was dependent on the assessment strategy. Estimates of richness from point counts were greater than estimates from ARUs in the simultaneous-collection strategy. Woodpeckers in particular, were less frequently identified from ARUs than point counts with this strategy. Conversely, estimates of richness were lower from point counts than ARUs in the same-season strategy. Moreover, in the same-season strategy, ARUs detected the occurrence of passerines at a higher frequency than did point counts. Differences between ARU and point count methods were only detected in site-level comparisons. Importantly, both methods provide similar

  17. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads;

    2011-01-01

    A large number of point sources threaten groundwater resources. A tool is presented which enables a uniform and transparent risk assessment and prioritisation of these point sources at the catchment scale with respect to the needs of further investigation or remediation. The tool integrates aquifer...... vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  18. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  19. Grade Point Average System of Assessment: the Implementation Peculiarities in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Sazonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the specificity, as well as flaws and faults of implementing the Grade Point Average (GPA system of students’ personal assessment in Russian higher schools. Nowadays, the above system is regarded as the basic functional element of educational process organization at the world’s leading universities. The author summarizes the foreign experience and demonstrates the advantages of the GPA system in comparison with the traditional domestic scale of assessment: full records of student’s assessment, objectivity, activation of responsibility for the results achieved, and self-control motivation. The standard GPA model is demonstrated, its application systemizing both the Russian and European requirements to the higher school graduates. The author suggests his own version of the assessment scale estimating and comparing the quality of education in Russian universities and worldwide. The research findings can be of interest to the specialists in the sphere of quality measurement and educational management. 

  20. Preliminary results: shale gas assessment project of the Kettle Point formation, Southern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beland Otis, Catherine [Ontario Geological Survey (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Kettle Point formation, situated in southern Ontario, is an Upper Devonian unit. In the course of a project of the Ontario Geological Survey, the formation was identified, amongst others, as a promising shale gas unit, due to its high organic content. The formation was therefore selected for the second phase of this study, which aimed at assessing its shale gas potential. Two boreholes have were drilled and sampled and a core sample was collected. The samples were stored in a specialized canister and analyzed for gas concentration and other important parameters. Results showed an important difference in gas quantities in the two wells, indicating that the gas has two origins within the formation. The preliminary results are not sufficient to determine if the formation is economically viable. This study constitutes a step towards the assessment of the gas potential of the Kettle Point formation and further hydrogeological work needs to be undertaken.

  1. AECB staff annual assessment of the Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is the independent federal agency that controls all nuclear activities in Canada. A major use of nuclear energy in Canada is electricity production. The AECB assesses every station's performance against legal requirements, including the conditions in the operating licence. Each station is inspected and all aspects of the station's operation and management is reviewed. This report is the AECB staff assessment of reactor safety at the Point Lepreau Generating Station in 1996. Point Lepreau operated safely but the worsening trends in NB Power's safety performance leads to the conclusion that urgent action is required. NB Power is required to report formally to the AECB on progress with measures to improve safety management every six months. Further licensing action will be taken on NB Power if it fails to make the improvements

  2. Optimization Method to Branch and Bound Large SBO State Spaces Under Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment via use of LENDIT Scales and S2R2 Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Nielsen; Akira Tokurio; Robert Hiromoto; Jivan Khatry

    2014-06-01

    Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods have been developed and are quite effective in evaluating risk associated with complex systems, but lack the capability to evaluate complex dynamic systems. These time and energy scales associated with the transient may vary as a function of transition time to a different physical state. Dynamic PRA (DPRA) methods provide a more rigorous analysis of complex dynamic systems, while complete, results in issues associated with combinatorial explosion. In order to address the combinatorial complexity arising from the number of possible state configurations and discretization of transition times, a characteristic scaling metric (LENDIT – length, energy, number, distribution, information and time) is proposed as a means to describe systems uniformly and thus provide means to describe relational constraints expected in the dynamics of a complex (coupled) systems. Thus when LENDIT is used to characterize four sets – ‘state, system, resource and response’ (S2R2) – describing reactor operations (normal and off-normal), LENDIT and S2R2 in combination have the potential to ‘branch and bound’ the state space investigated by DPRA. In this paper we introduce the concept of LENDIT scales and S2R2 sets applied to a branch-and-bound algorithm and apply the methods to a station black out transient (SBO).

  3. Improving the blind restoration of retinal images by means of point-spread-function estimation assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Marrugo Hernandez, Andrés Guillermo; Millán Garcia-Varela, M. Sagrario; Šorel, Michal; Kotera, Jan; Šroubek, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Retinal images often suffer from blurring which hinders disease diagnosis and progression assessment. The restoration of the images is carried out by means of blind deconvolution, but the success of the restoration depends on the correct estimation of the point-spread-function (PSF) that blurred the image. The restoration can be space-invariant or space-variant. Because a retinal image has regions without texture or sharp edges, the blind PSF estimation may fail. In this paper we propose a st...

  4. 方框图化简中相加点和分支点互换方法探讨%Discussion on the Methods of Exchanging Summing-point and Branch-point in the Block Diagram Simplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 闫沫

    2015-01-01

    The common methods of simplifying the block diagram are block diagram equivalent simplification and Mason formula .As for the block diagram of complex systems ,it is complicated to obtain the transfer function of control system through the Mason formula ,and the result may go wrong easily .Therefore , this paper discusses the moving methods of the exchange summing‐point and branch‐point ,and the applica‐tion steps ,and also uses an example to demonstrate the feasibility ,thus being highly practical .%简化控制系统方框图常用的方法有方框图等效变换法和Mason公式法。对于复杂系统的方框图,用Mason公式法求解控制系统的传递函数,这个过程较为繁琐,易于出错。基于此,探讨了相加点和分支点互换的移动方法以及使用步骤,并通过实例论证其简单可行,具有较强的实用性。

  5. The unique branching patterns of Deinococcus glycogen branching enzymes are determined by their N-terminal domains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo, M.; Kralj, S.; van der Maarel, M. J. E. C.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen branching enzymes (GBE) or 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzymes (EC 2.4.1.18) introduce alpha-1,6 branching points in alpha-glucans, e.g., glycogen. To identify structural features in GBEs that determine their branching pattern specificity, the Deinococcus geothermalis and Deinococcus radiodu

  6. Point-of-care echocardiography in simulation-based education and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amini R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard Amini, Lori A Stolz, Parisa P Javedani, Kevin Gaskin, Nicola Baker, Vivienne Ng, Srikar Adhikari Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona Medical Center, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Emergency medicine milestones released by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education require residents to demonstrate competency in bedside ultrasound (US. The acquisition of these skills necessitates a combination of exposure to clinical pathology, hands-on US training, and feedback. Objectives: We describe a novel simulation-based educational and assessment tool designed to evaluate emergency medicine residents’ competency in point-of-care echocardiography for evaluation of a hypotensive patient with chest pain using bedside US. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic medical center. A simulation-based module was developed to teach and assess the use of point-of-care echocardiography in the evaluation of the hypotensive patient. The focus of this module was sonographic imaging of cardiac pathology, and this focus was incorporated in all components of the session: asynchronous learning, didactic lecture, case-based learning, and hands-on stations. Results: A total of 52 residents with varying US experience participated in this study. Questions focused on knowledge assessment demonstrated improvement across the postgraduate year (PGY of training. Objective standardized clinical examination evaluation demonstrated improvement between PGY I and PGY III; however, it was noted that there was a small dip in hands-on scanning skills during the PGY II. Clinical diagnosis and management skills also demonstrated incremental improvement across the PGY of training. Conclusion: The 1-day, simulation-based US workshop was an effective educational and assessment tool at our institution. Keywords: point-of care ultrasound, simulation education

  7. Towards an approach to assess critical quality points (CQPs) in food production systems : a case study on French fries production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigated how to develop an approach for the systematic and science based assessment of those points in food production systems that have a critical effect on quality; such points could be designated as critical quality points (CQPs). One of the fundamental objectives of quality contr

  8. Feature relevance assessment for the semantic interpretation of 3D point cloud data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.; Mallet, C.

    2013-10-01

    The automatic analysis of large 3D point clouds represents a crucial task in photogrammetry, remote sensing and computer vision. In this paper, we propose a new methodology for the semantic interpretation of such point clouds which involves feature relevance assessment in order to reduce both processing time and memory consumption. Given a standard benchmark dataset with 1.3 million 3D points, we first extract a set of 21 geometric 3D and 2D features. Subsequently, we apply a classifier-independent ranking procedure which involves a general relevance metric in order to derive compact and robust subsets of versatile features which are generally applicable for a large variety of subsequent tasks. This metric is based on 7 different feature selection strategies and thus addresses different intrinsic properties of the given data. For the example of semantically interpreting 3D point cloud data, we demonstrate the great potential of smaller subsets consisting of only the most relevant features with 4 different state-of-the-art classifiers. The results reveal that, instead of including as many features as possible in order to compensate for lack of knowledge, a crucial task such as scene interpretation can be carried out with only few versatile features and even improved accuracy.

  9. Extractive biodegradation and bioavailability assessment of phenanthrene in the cloud point system by Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Deng, Tao; Zeng, Xinying; Dong, Wei; Yu, Shuijing

    2016-01-01

    The biological treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an important issue. Most microbes have limited practical applications because of the poor bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, the extractive biodegradation of phenanthrene by Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans was conducted by introducing the cloud point system. The cloud point system is composed of a mixture of (40 g/L) Brij 30 and Tergitol TMN-3, which are nonionic surfactants, in equal proportions. After phenanthrene degradation, a higher wet cell weight and lower phenanthrene residue were obtained in the cloud point system than that in the control system. According to the results of high-performance liquid chromatography, the residual phenanthrene preferred to partition from the dilute phase into the coacervate phase. The concentration of residual phenanthrene in the dilute phase (below 0.001 mg/L) is lower than its solubility in water (1.18 mg/L) after extractive biodegradation. Therefore, dilute phase detoxification was achieved, thus indicating that the dilute phase could be discharged without causing phenanthrene pollution. Bioavailability was assessed by introducing the apparent logP in the cloud point system. Apparent logP decreased significantly, thus indicating that the bioavailability of phenanthrene increased remarkably in the system. This study provides a potential application of biological treatment in water and soil contaminated by phenanthrene. PMID:26392138

  10. A Unified Point Process Probabilistic Framework to Assess Heartbeat Dynamics and Autonomic Cardiovascular Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe eChen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, time-varying inhomogeneous point process models have been introduced for assessment of instantaneous heartbeat dynamics as well as specific cardiovascular control mechanisms and hemodynamics. Assessment of the model's statistics is established through the Wiener-Volterra theory and a multivariate autoregressive (AR structure. A variety of instantaneous cardiovascular metrics, such as heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA, and baroreceptor-cardiac reflex (baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, are derived within a parametric framework and instantaneously updated with adaptive and local maximum likelihood estimation algorithms. Inclusion of second order nonlinearities, with subsequent bispectral quantification in the frequency domain, further allows for definition of instantaneous metrics of nonlinearity. We here organize a comprehensive review of the devised methods as applied to experimental recordings from healthy subjects during propofol anesthesia. Collective results reveal interesting dynamic trends across the different pharmacological interventions operated within each anesthesia session, confirming the ability of the algorithm to track important changes in cardiorespiratory elicited interactions, and pointing at our mathematical approach as a promising monitoring tool for an accurate, noninvasive assessment in clinical practice.

  11. Assessment of Freezing Tolerance of Juglans Germplasms by Using Annual Dormant Branches%核桃属植物休眠期的抗寒性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田景花; 王红霞; 高仪; 张志华

    2013-01-01

    The test materials were annual dormant branches of 18 Juglans germplasms that belong to 4 species including J.regia L.,J.hopeiensis Hu.,J.mandshurica Maxim.,and J.nigra L.The semi-lethal temperatures (LTs0) were assessed separately by electrolyte leakage,tissue browning,and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) dyeing method with Logistic equation.Branch anatomical structures were observed with paraffin sections.The correlations between branch anatomical structures and freezing tolerance were analyzed.The results showed that relative electrical conductivities (REC) of walnut annual branches were rising with the temperature drop.The significant differences of LTs0 of Juglans germplasms were observed between-38 ℃ and-22 ℃.The interspecific differences were distinct,and the order of freezing tolerance was J.nigra > J.mandshurica,J.hopeiensis > J.regia.Electrolyte leakage,tissuebrowning,and TTC dyeing method all could be used for assessment of the freezing tolerance in dormant period,but LT50 assessed by electrolyte leakage was more accurate than the other methods.There was significant positive correlation (P < 0.01) between LT50 and REC at-24 ℃,which was a little higher than LT50 of the most Juglans germplasms.LT50 and REC at-24 ℃ could be used as physicochemical indexes for freezing tolerance identification of Juglans in dormant period.In addition,the tissues thickness of annual branches with roughly similar stem diameter had significant differences.The significant negative correlation (P < 0.01) was showed between LT50 and phellem layer thickness or phellem layer ratio in the branch,which provided morphological indexes to assess the freezing tolerance of Juglans in dormant period.%以核桃属(Juglans)中的普通核桃、核桃楸、河北核桃和黑核桃4个种的18份种质休眠期的1年生枝条为试验材料,采用电解质渗出率法、组织褐变法及氯化三苯基四氮唑(TTC)染色法并配合Logistic方程确定枝

  12. Improving the blind restoration of retinal images by means of point-spread-function estimation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, Andrés. G.; Millán, María. S.; Å orel, Michal; Kotera, Jan; Å roubek, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Retinal images often suffer from blurring which hinders disease diagnosis and progression assessment. The restoration of the images is carried out by means of blind deconvolution, but the success of the restoration depends on the correct estimation of the point-spread-function (PSF) that blurred the image. The restoration can be space-invariant or space-variant. Because a retinal image has regions without texture or sharp edges, the blind PSF estimation may fail. In this paper we propose a strategy for the correct assessment of PSF estimation in retinal images for restoration by means of space-invariant or space-invariant blind deconvolution. Our method is based on a decomposition in Zernike coefficients of the estimated PSFs to identify valid PSFs. This significantly improves the quality of the image restoration revealed by the increased visibility of small details like small blood vessels and by the lack of restoration artifacts.

  13. Benefit assessment of PET in malignant lymphomas. The IQWiG point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The call by the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to prove the patient-relevant benefit of positron emission tomography (PET) is currently a controversial topic in Germany. From a methodological point of view there is essentially no difference between diagnostic procedures and therapeutic (drug or non-drug) interventions in proving their causal benefit. A broad consensus has been reached since the 1960s (e.g. FDA regulations) that RCTs are the methodological gold standard for therapeutic interventions. Nevertheless, the same arguments that were cited against RCTs in assessing the benefit of therapeutic interventions are now used against RCTs in evaluating diagnostic tests (e.g. ethical problems, feasibility, etc.). This paper summarizes the central methodological arguments of the discussion on the benefit assessment of PET in malignant lymphomas from the perspective of IQWiG and its external experts. (orig.)

  14. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarina, Tatyana; Proskurnin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II) complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5-6.3) is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit of quantitation is 0.1 μg/mL, the determination range is 0.1 - 2.8 μg/mL (RSD 0.02-0.10). Copper does not interfere with the iron assessment.

  15. An assessment of radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from Hinkley Point power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the radiological impact of radionuclides discharged from the Hinkley Point site from liquid effluents generated by the existing A and B nuclear stations and the proposed C station. Computer models are used in the assessment. Doses to individual members of the public, who are representative of the most exposed in the population, are predicted to be about 0.04 mSv year-1 for the 'best estimate' of discharges from the A, B and C stations. In the worst case, with A and B stations discharging at their authorised limits, and with pessimistic estimates of C station discharges, the individual doses could rise to 0.17 mSv year-1. The predicted doses, from the combined effects of liquid and airborne discharges from the Hinkley site and other radionuclide inputs into the Severn Estuary, are considerably less than the ICRP-recommended limit of 1 mSv year-1 and target of 0.5 mSv year-1 accepted as government policy. Collective doses from liquid effluents are predicted to be less than, or approximately equal to, 12 man-Sv per year of operation of all three stations and are small compared with doses from natural radiation. The radiation effects of the discharges from the Hinkley Point site on marine fauna and seabirds are estimated and shown to be insignificant. (author)

  16. A new 3D modeling method for branches of standing trees based on point cloud data of terrestrial laser scanning%基于地面激光雷达的活立木枝干三维建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天安; 云挺; 薛联凤; 安锋

    2015-01-01

    The difficulty of 3D modeling for standing trees is to simplify complex and scattered mass measurement data. In regard to individual standing tree sample, the geometric shape of trunk is extremely irregular and unstructured, bran⁃ches and leaves grow optional and in dispersion, and the trunk measured point cloud data ( PCD) obtained by the terres⁃trial laser scanning( TLS) LiDAR is extraordinary numerous and jumbled. In this paper, we propose a new skeleton⁃based 3D modeling method for tree branches based on terrestrial laser scanned PCD. Firstly, leaves and branches of the original PCD are separated using semi⁃supervised SVM classifier. Then, the PCD of branches are segmented according to Dijkstra distance, and the skeleton of each connected part is extracted. After calculating the weights of distance and an⁃gle by linear programming, the skeletons are connected according to the weighted matching degree. The complete skele⁃tons of the whole tree are done, and the models are reconstructed by cylinder fitting. Experiments were carried out on Sakura and Michelia maudiae with the models reconstructed and the effectiveness of the algorithm analyzed. The results showed that the method used in this study is better than other previous methods in running time and occupying memory.%活立木点云数据三维重建的难点是测量数据海量且庞杂散乱。就单株活立木个体样本而言,树木主干几何形状极其不规整,枝叶分生散乱,由地面激光雷达扫描得到的树干实测数据非常庞杂散乱。笔者提出了一种新的基于骨架提取的活立木枝干三维建模方法:首先,对地面激光雷达扫描获得的原始点云进行枝叶分离;然后根据Dijkstra距离对枝干点云数据进行分段并提取每个连通部分的骨架;再根据加权的匹配度连接骨架,得到整株活立木完整的骨架;最后用圆柱体拟合出活立木枝干的模型。分别对含笑树和樱花树枝干进

  17. Data point (drill locations) locations used in assessing coals in the Yampa coal field (yam*ptg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are shapefiles and coverages of data points used in the assessment of coal zones A, B, C, and D in the Yampa coal field, northwestern Colorado. There are four...

  18. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plots, Observation and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the 2008 vegetation (classification) field plots (spatial database) and 2010 accuracy assessment points (spatial database) created from the...

  19. Assessing the dietary sources of two cichlid species in River Nile sub-branches: Stomach contents, fatty acids and stable isotopes analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad S. Abd El-Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We assess the importance of four different food sources as dietary components of Oreochromis niloticus and Sarotherodon galilaeus in Nile sub-branches using stomach contents, fatty acids (FA and stable isotopes (SI analyses. Diatoms were the dominant food items, whereas sand and mud constitute a major part of the stomach contents of both cichlids in the northern ElBehery canal. FAs and SI were compared in cichlids and four potential food sources. Carbon isotopes excluded the fresh macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum and its epiphytes as a potential food source, whereas FA biomarkers indicated that M. spicatum is assimilated in cichlids’ muscles as detrital materials. FA profiles of cichlids’ muscles were highly enriched by live diatom markers whereas decayed diatoms and bacterial markers were partially present. Carbon isotope signatures of cichlids were much close to that of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM which elucidated that SPOM was the source of diatoms and bacterial detritus incorporated in cichlids muscles. Cichlids were highly enriched with nitrogen signatures which was a result of increased anthropogenic effects and incorporation of bacterial films. SI and FA analyses precisely indicated that live diatoms and bacteria, detrital macrophytes are the main sources of organic matter incorporated in cichlids muscles.

  20. Accuracy assessment of Kinect for Xbox One in point-based tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goral, Adrian; Skalski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    We present the accuracy assessment of a point-based tracking system built on Kinect v2. In our approach, color, IR and depth data were used to determine the positions of spherical markers. To accomplish this task, we calibrated the depth/infrared and color cameras using a custom method. As a reference tool we used Polaris Spectra optical tracking system. The mean error obtained within the range from 0.9 to 2.9 m was 61.6 mm. Although the depth component of the error turned out to be the largest, the random error of depth estimation was only 1.24 mm on average. Our Kinect-based system also allowed for reliable angular measurements within the range of ±20° from the sensor's optical axis.

  1. Inhomogeneous Point-Processes to Instantaneously Assess Affective Haptic Perception through Heartbeat Dynamics Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, G.; Greco, A.; Citi, L.; Bianchi, M.; Barbieri, R.; Scilingo, E. P.

    2016-06-01

    This study proposes the application of a comprehensive signal processing framework, based on inhomogeneous point-process models of heartbeat dynamics, to instantaneously assess affective haptic perception using electrocardiogram-derived information exclusively. The framework relies on inverse-Gaussian point-processes with Laguerre expansion of the nonlinear Wiener-Volterra kernels, accounting for the long-term information given by the past heartbeat events. Up to cubic-order nonlinearities allow for an instantaneous estimation of the dynamic spectrum and bispectrum of the considered cardiovascular dynamics, as well as for instantaneous measures of complexity, through Lyapunov exponents and entropy. Short-term caress-like stimuli were administered for 4.3–25 seconds on the forearms of 32 healthy volunteers (16 females) through a wearable haptic device, by selectively superimposing two levels of force, 2 N and 6 N, and two levels of velocity, 9.4 mm/s and 65 mm/s. Results demonstrated that our instantaneous linear and nonlinear features were able to finely characterize the affective haptic perception, with a recognition accuracy of 69.79% along the force dimension, and 81.25% along the velocity dimension.

  2. Spatial Similarity Assessment of Point Clusters%空间点群目标相似度计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 杜清运; 闫浩文

    2011-01-01

    顾及到视觉认知的Gestalt原则,提出了一种综合考虑到点群的空间关系、空间分布和几何特征,注重空间点群的整体描述的相似度计算模型。实验结果表明,相似度计算结果与直观认知比较一致。%With the consideration of Gestalt principles in visual cognition,this paper proposed a similarity assessment model which has a comprehensive consideration of point cluster's spatial relationships,spatial distribution and geometry attributes.The topology relationship of point cluster is defined using point cluster's topology neighbors,the direction relationship and distance relationship is defined using point cluster's standard deviation ellipse,and then the computation method of point cluster's topology,direction and distance similarity assessment is given out on this basis.Also the distribution range and the distribution density of point cluster and their similarity assessment method is put forward.Finally the formal five factors were combined to do a whole assessment of point clusters similarity.Experiment results show that the similarity assessment is consistent with intuitive cognition.

  3. Xurography as a Rapid Fabrication Alternative for Point-of-Care Devices: Assessment of Passive Micromixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J. Israel; Mojica, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ciro A.; Siller, Héctor R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the copious amount of research on the design and operation of micromixers, there are few works regarding manufacture technology aimed at implementation beyond academic environments. This work evaluates the viability of xurography as a rapid fabrication tool for the development of ultra-low cost microfluidic technology for extreme Point-of-Care (POC) micromixing devices. By eschewing photolithographic processes and the bulkiness of pumping and enclosure systems for rapid fabrication and passively driven operation, xurography is introduced as a manufacturing alternative for asymmetric split and recombine (ASAR) micromixers. A T-micromixer design was used as a reference to assess the effects of different cutting conditions and materials on the geometric features of the resulting microdevices. Inspection by stereographic and confocal microscopy showed that it is possible to manufacture devices with less than 8% absolute dimensional error. Implementation of the manufacturing methodology in modified circular shape- based SAR microdevices (balanced and unbalanced configurations) showed that, despite the precision limitations of the xurographic process, it is possible to implement this methodology to produce functional micromixing devices. Mixing efficiency was evaluated numerically and experimentally at the outlet of the microdevices with performances up to 40%. Overall, the assessment encourages further research of xurography for the development of POC micromixers. PMID:27196904

  4. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  5. A disjunctive kriging program for assessing point-support conditional distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Xavier

    2006-08-01

    In geostatistical applications, the local distributions of the values of a regionalized attribute at unsampled locations can be assessed by nonlinear methods such as indicator or multigaussian kriging. Disjunctive kriging can also be applied in the framework of bivariate isofactorial models, for which there exists a complete family of functions (factors) with no spatial cross-correlations. This work focuses on the point-support models with polynomial factors and gives practical tips for the modeling of the univariate and bivariate distributions and for the implementation of disjunctive kriging, mainly in what refers to the convergence of the expansions into factors, the post-processing of the estimated statistics and the use of ordinary kriging. The tools and concepts are complemented by a set of computer programs and applied to two case studies. The first one consists of topsoil samples measuring the lead concentration at a smelter site in Dallas, Texas. A gamma isofactorial model is fitted to these data and disjunctive kriging is used to map the local probabilities that the actual concentrations exceed a toxic threshold and to divide the smelter site into a safe and a polluted area. The second case study concerns the infestation of field crops by a caterpillar. A negative binomial model is used to characterize the number of bored stalk internodes and to assess the risk that this number exceeds given values.

  6. Assessing the Accuracy of Georeferenced Point Clouds Produced via Multi-View Stereopsis from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arko Lucieer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor miniaturisation, improved battery technology and the availability of low-cost yet advanced Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV have provided new opportunities for environmental remote sensing. The UAV provides a platform for close-range aerial photography. Detailed imagery captured from micro-UAV can produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis (MVS techniques combining photogrammetry and computer vision. This study applies MVS techniques to imagery acquired from a multi-rotor micro-UAV of a natural coastal site in southeastern Tasmania, Australia. A very dense point cloud ( < 1–3 cm point spacing is produced in an arbitrary coordinate system using full resolution imagery, whereas other studies usually downsample the original imagery. The point cloud is sparse in areas of complex vegetation and where surfaces have a homogeneous texture. Ground control points collected with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS are identified and used for georeferencing via a Helmert transformation. This study compared georeferenced point clouds to a Total Station survey in order to assess and quantify their geometric accuracy. The results indicate that a georeferenced point cloud accurate to 25–40 mm can be obtained from imagery acquired from 50 m. UAV-based image capture provides the spatial and temporal resolution required to map and monitor natural landscapes. This paper assesses the accuracy of the generated point clouds based on field survey points. Based on our key findings we conclude that sub-decimetre terrain change (in this case coastal erosion can be monitored.

  7. Site Suitability Assessment with Dynamic Wake Meandering Model. A Certification Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas Bayo, Ricard; Parro, Gema

    2015-04-01

    Establishment of large wind farms requires enormous investments putting steadily greater emphasis on optimal topology design and control of these. This requires not only an optimization of the power output, but also the development of strategies to cope with the higher loading expected. The cornerstone of such strategies is a realistic characterization and modelling of the wake flow field inside the wind farm, beyond Frandsen's equivalent turbulence method. Whereas Frandsen model has been mostly considered in the industry so far, it has not proved completely satisfactory when facing current problems such as wake effects on turbines placed at short distances or consequences of half wake for turbine loading. The objective of the present work is to address these questions from a certification point of view within the framework of Risoe's Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model. The DWM model is based on the combination of three parts: modeling of quasi-steady wake deficits, a stochastic model of the downwind wake meandering and an added or self-generated wake turbulence. The analysis carried out is two-fold: First, a comparative study of the wake effects generated in Frandsen model as well as in various realizations of the DWM model is performed. For this purpose wake-induced loads are calculated using two different aeroelastic codes: HAWC2 and Bladed. Second, the applicability of DWM for the assessment of wind turbines under site-specific conditions is discussed and the conclusions summarized in a Recommended Practice. Clear prescriptions are thereby provided for the use of DWMM for site suitability assessments, including the aforementioned extreme situations, along with the interpretation of the future version of the IEC 61400-1 standards.

  8. Accuracy assessment of building point clouds automatically generated from iphone images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmacek, B.; Lindenbergh, R.

    2014-06-01

    Low-cost sensor generated 3D models can be useful for quick 3D urban model updating, yet the quality of the models is questionable. In this article, we evaluate the reliability of an automatic point cloud generation method using multi-view iPhone images or an iPhone video file as an input. We register such automatically generated point cloud on a TLS point cloud of the same object to discuss accuracy, advantages and limitations of the iPhone generated point clouds. For the chosen example showcase, we have classified 1.23% of the iPhone point cloud points as outliers, and calculated the mean of the point to point distances to the TLS point cloud as 0.11 m. Since a TLS point cloud might also include measurement errors and noise, we computed local noise values for the point clouds from both sources. Mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) of roughness histograms are calculated as (μ1 = 0.44 m., σ1 = 0.071 m.) and (μ2 = 0.025 m., σ2 = 0.037 m.) for the iPhone and TLS point clouds respectively. Our experimental results indicate possible usage of the proposed automatic 3D model generation framework for 3D urban map updating, fusion and detail enhancing, quick and real-time change detection purposes. However, further insights should be obtained first on the circumstances that are needed to guarantee a successful point cloud generation from smartphone images.

  9. Calibration of regional ionospheric delay with uncombined precise point positioning and accuracy assessment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Wei; Cheng Pengfei; Bei Jinzhong; Wen Hanjiang; Wang Hua

    2012-08-01

    A new method for the calibration of regional ionospheric delay based on uncombined precise point positioning (U-PPP) is proposed in this study. The performance of the new method was comparatively validated in terms of its accuracy and robustness with respect to the phase-smoothed pseudorange (PSP) method through two short-baseline experiments. Accuracy of the PPP-derived ionospheric delays was further assessed by interpolating them to a user station to perform single-frequency simulated kinematic PPP. Two 24-hr period datasets of four continuous operation reference system (CORS) stations were analyzed, collected during calm and disturbed ionospheric conditions, respectively. The single-frequency GPS observables from a user station, that were a-priori corrected by the interpolated ionospheric delays, were utilized to implement single-frequency PPP (SF-PPP). The results show that interpolation accuracy is better than 1 dm and, with the proposed method, is less affected by the ionospheric activity; meanwhile, positioning accuracy of SF-PPP was 4 ∼5 cm (horizontal) and better than 1 dm (vertical). For comparison, two reference SF-PPP solutions were also obtained, in which the ionospheric delays are eliminated either by forming semi-combination observations or by using global ionosphere maps (GIM) model values; in both cases the positioning accuracy was only 4 ∼7 dm (horizontal) and 1 m (vertical). These results provide a further demonstration of the performance of PPP-based regional ionospheric calibration in the parameter domain.

  10. Bioaerosol standoff detection and correlation assessment with concentration and viability point sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Rowsell, Susan; Roy, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    A standoff bioaerosol sensor based on intensified range-gated spectrometric detection of Laser Induced Fluorescence was used to spectrally characterize bioaerosol simulants during in-chamber and open-air releases at Suffield, Canada, in August 2008 from a standoff position. In total, 42 in-chamber Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var globigii; BG) cloud and 27 open-air releases of either BG, Pantoea agglomerans (formerly Erwinia herbicola; EH), MS2 and ovalbumin (OV) were generated. The clouds were refereed by different point sensors including Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and slit or impingers samplers. The APS monitored the particle size distribution and concentration and the samplers characterized the viable portion of the cloud. The extracted spectral signatures show robustness to different degree. The correlation assessment showed good results in most cases where the LIF signal to noise ratio was significant. The sensor 4σ sensitivity was evaluated to 1 300, 600, 100 and 30 ppl for BG, OV, MS2 and EH respectively. Correlation results are presented by plotting the SINBAHD metric versus the corresponding particle concentration, in which case, the obtained slope is proportional to the material fluorescence cross-section. The different acquired signal is hence compared in terms of their fluorescence cross-section additionally to their spectral characteristics.

  11. Assessing energy projects from the viewpoint of individual economic branches and total economy. The role of economic efficiency analysis, cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is an extremely important good and means of production not only for the individual branches of economy but, due to its essential meaning to the development of a region or a national economy and its external effects connected with production and consumption, also of great interest to all economic branches. This article deals with the relation of analyses in individual economical branches and those in total economy and with the question of what the importance of cost-benefit analyses and other methods is in the analysis in total economy. The author also mentions the planning as in the special literature the planning and evaluation phases are not analytically separated which is seen especially in the discussion about the multi-criteria methods. (orig.)

  12. Non-invasive measurement of hemoglobin: assessment of two different point-of-care technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Gayat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measurement of blood hemoglobin (Hb concentration is a routine procedure. Using a non-invasive point-of-care device reduces pain and discomfort for the patient and allows time saving in patient care. The aims of the present study were to assess the concordance of Hb levels obtained non-invasively with the Pronto-7 monitor (version 2.1.9, Masimo Corporation, Irvine, USA or with the NBM-200MP monitor (Orsense, Nes Ziona, Israel and the values obtained from the usual colorimetric method using blood samples and to determine the source of discordance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted two consecutive prospective open trials enrolling patients presenting in the emergency department of a university hospital. The first was designed to assess Pronto-7™ and the second NBM-200MP™. In each study, the main outcome measure was the agreement between both methods. Independent factors associated with the bias were determined using multiple linear regression. Three hundred patients were prospectively enrolled in each study. For Pronto-7™, the absolute mean difference was 0.56 g.L(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 0.69 with an upper agreement limit at 2.94 g.L(-1 (95% CI [2.70;3.19], a lower agreement limit at -1.84 g.L(-1 (95% CI [-2.08;-1.58] and an intra-class correlation coefficient at 0.80 (95% CI [0.74;0.84]. The corresponding values for the NBM-200MP™ were 0.21 [0.02;0.39], 3.42 [3.10;3.74], -3.01 [-3.32;-2.69] and 0.69 [0.62;0.75]. Multivariate analysis showed that age and laboratory values of hemoglobin were independently associated with the bias when using Pronto-7™, while perfusion index and laboratory value of hemoglobin were independently associated with the bias when using NBM-200MP™. CONCLUSION: Despite a relatively limited bias in both cases, the large limits of agreement found in both cases render the clinical usefulness of such devices debatable. For both devices, the bias is independently and inversely associated

  13. Impact of sensor's point spread function on land cover characterization: Assessment and deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Townshend, J.R.G.; Liang, S.; Kalluri, S.N.V.; DeFries, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    Measured and modeled point spread functions (PSF) of sensor systems indicate that a significant portion of the recorded signal of each pixel of a satellite image originates from outside the area represented by that pixel. This hinders the ability to derive surface information from satellite images on a per-pixel basis. In this study, the impact of the PSF of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250 m bands was assessed using four images representing different landscapes. Experimental results showed that though differences between pixels derived with and without PSF effects were small on the average, the PSF generally brightened dark objects and darkened bright objects. This impact of the PSF lowered the performance of a support vector machine (SVM) classifier by 5.4% in overall accuracy and increased the overall root mean square error (RMSE) by 2.4% in estimating subpixel percent land cover. An inversion method based on the known PSF model reduced the signals originating from surrounding areas by as much as 53%. This method differs from traditional PSF inversion deconvolution methods in that the PSF was adjusted with lower weighting factors for signals originating from neighboring pixels than those specified by the PSF model. By using this deconvolution method, the lost classification accuracy due to residual impact of PSF effects was reduced to only 1.66% in overall accuracy. The increase in the RMSE of estimated subpixel land cover proportions due to the residual impact of PSF effects was reduced to 0.64%. Spatial aggregation also effectively reduced the errors in estimated land cover proportion images. About 50% of the estimation errors were removed after applying the deconvolution method and aggregating derived proportion images to twice their dimensional pixel size. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Covariance Analysis Tool for Assessing Fundamental Limits of SIM Pointing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of the instrument pointing control system for NASA's Space Interferometer Mission (SIM). SIM has a complex pointing system that uses a fast steering mirror in combination with a multirate control architecture to blend feed forward information with feedback information. A pointing covariance analysis tool (PCAT) is developed specifically to analyze systems with such complexity. The development of PCAT as a mathematical tool for covariance analysis is outlined in the paper. PCAT is then applied to studying performance of SIM's science pointing system. The analysis reveals and clearly delineates a fundamental limit that exists for SIM pointing performance. The limit is especially stringent for dim star targets. Discussion of the nature of the performance limit is provided, and methods are suggested to potentially improve pointing performance.

  15. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  16. A Branch Comprehensive Vulnerability Assessment Method Based on Improved DEAHP Model%基于改进DEAHP模型的支路综合脆弱性评估方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王羽佳; 李华强; 刘沛清; 王兰

    2016-01-01

    Identification of branch vulnerability is of great significance for safe operation of power system and prevention of catastrophic failures. Most of existing branch vulnerability assessment methods fail to present a full view and weight-based comprehensive indices are too subjective. To solve these problems, this paper starts analysis from perspective of cause analysis and consequence evaluation of vulnerability, and presents evaluation indices reflecting anti-interference ability and influence of branches. Then branch comprehensive vulnerability index, considering both subjective preference and objective data, is generated with improved data envelopment analysis model with analytic hierarchy process restraint cone. Multi-layer and multi-angle branch vulnerability assessment index system is built. On this basis, a new branch comprehensive vulnerability assessment method is proposed. Simulation results show that this method is comprehensive and effective.%电力系统脆弱支路辨识,对系统安全运行、防止灾难性事故发生具有重要意义。针对现有脆弱支路评估方法存在的评估角度单一,综合指标权重选取过于主观的问题,文中综合脆弱性的原因分析与后果评估2个角度,建立反映支路抗干扰能力和影响力的指标集;基于改进的带层次分析法约束锥的数据包络分析模型进行多指标综合,得到了既考虑主观偏好又考虑客观数据的支路综合脆弱性评估指标,构建了多层次多角度的支路脆弱性评估指标体系,并基于此提出了一种新的支路综合脆弱性评估方法。仿真结果证明了该方法的全面性与有效性。

  17. Accuracy Assessment Point for Fire Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset was compiled to provide users with the geographic locations of the accuracy assessment plots used to assess the Fire Island Vegetation Map...

  18. Point Reward System: A Method of Assessment That Accommodates a Diversity of Student Abilities and Interests and Enhances Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derado, Josip; Garner, Mary L.; Tran, Thu-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Students' abilities and interests vary dramatically in the college mathematics classroom. How do we teach all of these students effectively? In this paper, we present the Point Reward System (PRS), a new method of assessment that addresses this problem. We designed the PRS with three main goals in mind: to increase the retention rates; to keep all…

  19. Assessment of photographs from wildlife monitoring cameras in Drakes Estero, Point Reyes National Seashore, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, William A.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Allen, Laurie K.; Molnia, Bruce F.; Price, Susan D.; Bristol, R. Sky; Stewart, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010, National Park Service (NPS) staff at the Point Reyes National Seashore, California, collected over 300,000 photographic images of Drakes Estero from remotely operated wildlife monitoring cameras. The purpose of the systems was to obtain photographic data to help understand possible relationships between anthropogenic activities and Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) behavior and distribution. The value of the NPS photographs for use in assessing the frequency and impacts of seal disturbance and displacement in Drakes Estero has been debated. In September 2011, the NPS determined that the photographs did not provide meaningful information for development of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Drakes Bay Oyster Company Special Use Permit. Limitations of the photographs included lack of study design, poor photographic quality, inadequate field of view, incomplete estuary coverage, camera obstructions, and weather limitations. The Marine Mammal Commission (MMC) reviewed the scientific data underpinning the Drakes Bay Oyster Company DEIS in November 2011 and recommended further analysis of the NPS photographs for use in characterizing rates and consequences of seal disturbance (Marine Mammal Commission, 2011). In response to that recommendation, the NPS asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct an independent review of the photographs and render an opinion on the utility of the remote camera data for informing the environmental impact analyses included in the DEIS. In consultation with the NPS, we selected the 2008 photographic dataset for detailed evaluation because it covers a full harbor seal breeding season (March 1 to June 30), provides two fields of view (two cameras were deployed), and represents a time period when cameras were most consistently deployed and maintained. The NPS requested that the photographs be evaluated in absence of other data or information pertaining to seal and human activity in

  20. A procedure for assessing future trends of subdaily precipitation values on point scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Villani, Veronica; Mercogliano, Paola; Vezzoli, Renata

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Italy, urban flooding or floods in small mountain basins, induced by heavy precipitations on subdaily scale, represent remarkable hazards able to cause huge damages and casualties often increased by very high population density. A proper assessment about how frequency and magnitude of such events could change under the effect of Climate Changes (CC) is crucial for the development of future territorial planning (such as early warning systems). The current constraints of climate modeling, also using high resolution RCM, prevent an adequate representation of subdaily precipitation patterns (mainly concerning extreme values) while available observed datasets are often unsuitable for the application of the bias-correction (BC) techniques requiring long time series. In this work, a new procedure is proposed: at point scale, precipitation outputs on 24 and 48 hours are provided by high resolution (about 8km) climate simulation performed through the RCM COSMO_CLM driven by GCM CMCC_CM and bias-corrected by quantile mapping approach. These ones are adopted for a monthly stochastic disaggregation approach combining Random Parameter Bartlett-Lewis (RPBL) gamma model with appropriate rainfall disaggregation technique. The last one implements empirical correction procedures, called adjusting procedures, to modify the model rainfall output, so that it is consistent with the observed rainfall values on daily time scale. In order to take into account the great difficulties related to minimization of objective function required by retrieving the 7 RPBL parameters, for each dataset the computations are repeated twenty times. Moreover, adopting statistical properties on 24 and 48 hours to retrieve RPBL parameters allows, according Bo et al. (1994), to infer statistical properties until hourly scale maintaining the information content about the possible changes in precipitation patterns due to CC. The entire simulation chain is tested on Baiso weather station, in

  1. From the twig tips to the deeper branches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum continues. From an applied perspective, however, molecular markers help to "tag" and "track" worms during their transmission cycle(s), providing new insights into host range, as well as methods for assessing parasite population dynamics through time and contingent...... upon disease control. While useful in determining dynamics at the tips of the evolutionary tree, these molecular tools also provide insights into deeper evolutionary branches. Although Ascaris is found throughout the globe, molecular analysis of worms retrieved from sub-Saharan Africa point towards...

  2. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  3. 高校构建学习型学生党支部长效机制的着力点%The Exerting Point of Long - term Mechanism to Construct College Students' Learning Type Party Branch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽琳

    2012-01-01

    Construction of the learning type students party branches is the important part of strengthening the party building in colleges under the new situation, which has important practical significance for strengthening the building of the student party branch, and promoting the healthy growth of the young student Party members. Strengthening awareness of learning,paying attention to he level of learning, innovating the forms of learning, improving the learning mechanism is the key to building the learning type students party branches in colleges.%建设学习型学生党支部是新形势下加强高校党建工作的重要内容,对于加强学生党支部自身建设、促进青年学生党员的健康成长具有重要的现实意义。强化学习意识、注重学习层次,创新学习方式,健全保障制度,是高校建设学习型学生党支部的关键所在。

  4. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Grand Portage National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation point data for Grand Portage National Monument (GRPO) was developed to support two projects associated with the 2006 vegetation map, the collection...

  5. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation point data for Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (PIRO) was developed to support two projects associated with the 2004 vegetation map, the collection...

  6. Accuracy Assessment of Mobile Mapping Point Clouds Using the Existing Environment as Terrestrial Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, S.; Brenner, C.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile mapping data is widely used in various applications, what makes it especially important for data users to get a statistically verified quality statement on the geometric accuracy of the acquired point clouds or its processed products. The accuracy of point clouds can be divided into an absolute and a relative quality, where the absolute quality describes the position of the point cloud in a world coordinate system such as WGS84 or UTM, whereas the relative accuracy describes the accuracy within the point cloud itself. Furthermore, the quality of processed products such as segmented features depends on the global accuracy of the point cloud but mainly on the quality of the processing steps. Several data sources with different characteristics and quality can be thought of as potential reference data, such as cadastral maps, orthophoto, artificial control objects or terrestrial surveys using a total station. In this work a test field in a selected residential area was acquired as reference data in a terrestrial survey using a total station. In order to reach high accuracy the stationing of the total station was based on a newly made geodetic network with a local accuracy of less than 3 mm. The global position of the network was determined using a long time GNSS survey reaching an accuracy of 8 mm. Based on this geodetic network a 3D test field with facades and street profiles was measured with a total station, each point with a two-dimensional position and altitude. In addition, the surface of poles of street lights, traffic signs and trees was acquired using the scanning mode of the total station. Comparing this reference data to the acquired mobile mapping point clouds of several measurement campaigns a detailed quality statement on the accuracy of the point cloud data is made. Additionally, the advantages and disadvantages of the described reference data source concerning availability, cost, accuracy and applicability are discussed.

  7. Beta-ray dose assessment from skin contamination using a point kernel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a point kernel method to calculate beta-ray dose rate from skin contamination was introduced. The beta-ray doses rates were computed by performing numerical integration of the radial dose distribution around an isotropic point source of monoenergetic electrons called as point kernel. In this study, in-house code, based on MATLAB version 7.0.4 was developed to perform a numerical integration. The code generated dose distributions for beta-ray emitters from interpolated point kernel, and beta-ray dose rates from skin contamination were calculated by numerical integration. Generated dose distributions for selected beta-ray emitters agreed with those calculated by Cross et al within 20%, except at a longer distance where there are differences up to more than 100%. For a point source, calculated beta-ray doses were agreed well with those derived from Monte Carlo simulation. For a disk source, the differences were up to 17% at a deep region. Point kernel method underestimated beta-ray doses than Monte Carlo simulation. The code will be improved to deal with a three-dimensional source, shielding by cover material, air gap and contribution of photon to skin dose. For the sake of user's convenience, the code will be equipped with graphic user interface. (author)

  8. Branched projective structures with quasi-Fuchsian holonomy

    CERN Document Server

    Calsamiglia, Gabriel; Francaviglia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    We prove that if S is a closed compact surface of negative Euler characteristic, and if R is a quasi-Fuchsian representation in PSL(2,C), then the deformation space M(k,R) of branched projective structures on S with total branching order k and holonomy R is connected, as soon as k>0. Equivalently, two branched projective structures with the same quasi-Fuchsian holonomy and the same number of branch points are related by a movement of branch points. In particular grafting annuli are obtained by moving branch points. In the appendix we give an explicit atlas for the space M(k,R). It is shown to be a smooth complex manifold modeled on Hurwitz spaces.

  9. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C.; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  10. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  11. Comparative efficiency analysis of Portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction- based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their efficiency in fostering the use of new transaction channels, their efficiency in increasing sales and their customer base, and their efficiency in generating profits. Service qu...

  12. Comparative performance analysis of portuguese bank branches

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Thanassoulis, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    The advent of Internet banking and phone banking is changing the role of bank branches from a predominantly transaction-based one to a sales-oriented role. This paper reports on an assessment of the branches of a Portuguese bank in terms of their performance in their new roles in three different areas: Their effectiveness in fostering the use of new transaction channels such as the internet and the telephone, their effectiveness in increasing sales and their customer base, and the...

  13. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  14. Quality Assessment and Comparison of Smartphone and Leica C10 Laser Scanner Based Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmacek, Beril; Lindenbergh, Roderik; Wang, Jinhu

    2016-06-01

    3D urban models are valuable for urban map generation, environment monitoring, safety planning and educational purposes. For 3D measurement of urban structures, generally airborne laser scanning sensors or multi-view satellite images are used as a data source. However, close-range sensors (such as terrestrial laser scanners) and low cost cameras (which can generate point clouds based on photogrammetry) can provide denser sampling of 3D surface geometry. Unfortunately, terrestrial laser scanning sensors are expensive and trained persons are needed to use them for point cloud acquisition. A potential effective 3D modelling can be generated based on a low cost smartphone sensor. Herein, we show examples of using smartphone camera images to generate 3D models of urban structures. We compare a smartphone based 3D model of an example structure with a terrestrial laser scanning point cloud of the structure. This comparison gives us opportunity to discuss the differences in terms of geometrical correctness, as well as the advantages, disadvantages and limitations in data acquisition and processing. We also discuss how smartphone based point clouds can help to solve further problems with 3D urban model generation in a practical way. We show that terrestrial laser scanning point clouds which do not have color information can be colored using smartphones. The experiments, discussions and scientific findings might be insightful for the future studies in fast, easy and low-cost 3D urban model generation field.

  15. Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Hunter, Paul R; Few, Roger; Bell, Diana J

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases. PMID:23967294

  16. Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Edmunds

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases.

  17. [Croatian Medical Association--Branch Zagreb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaić, Zvonimir; Sain, Snjezana; Gulić, Mirjana; Mahovlić, Vjekoslav; Krznarić, Zeljko

    2014-01-01

    The available literature shows us that "Druztvo ljeciteljah u Zagrebus (the Society of Healers in Zagreb) was founded as far back as the year 1845 by a total of thirteen members. This data allows us to follow the role of doctors and health workers in Zagreb through their everyday profession, research, organizational and social work as well as management through a period of over one hundred to seventy years. The Branch Zagreb was active before the official establishment of subsidiaries of CMA which is evident from the minutes of the regular annual assembly of the Croatian Medical Association on 21 March 1948. Until the end of 1956, there was no clear division of labor, functions and competencies between the Branch and the Main Board. Their actions were instead consolidated and the Branch operated within and under the name of Croatian Medical Association. In that year the Branch became independent. The Branch Zagreb is the largest and one of the most active branches of the Croatian Medical Association. At the moment, the Branch brings together 3621 members, regular members--doctors of medicine (2497), doctors of dental medicine (384), retired physicians (710), and associate members (30 specialists with higher education who are not doctors). The Branch is especially accomplished in its activities in the area of professional development of its members and therefore organizes a series of scientific conferences in the framework of continuous education of physicians, allowing its members to acquire necessary points for the extension of their operating license. The choir "Zagrebacki lijecnici pjevaci" (Zagreb Physicians' Choir) of the Croatian Medical Music Society of the CMA and its activities are inseparable from the Branch Zagreb. The Branch is firmly linked to the parent body, the CMA, and thus has a visible impact on the strategy and the activities of the Association as a whole. Most professional societies of the CMA have their headquarters in Zagreb and this is

  18. Point-of-care diagnostic devices : An assessment of safety related technical documentation items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries CGJCA; de Bruijn ACP; van Drongelen AW; Hilbers-Modderman ESM; Roszek B; Geertsma RE; BMT; vgc

    2011-01-01

    Europese regelgeving vereist dat fabrikanten van point-of-care diagnostische testen technische documentatie opstellen waaruit blijkt dat het product veilig en functioneel is. In een onderzoek door het RIVM in opdracht van de Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg (IGZ) zijn verschillende tekortkomingen g

  19. Degradation Assessment in IGBT Modules Using Four-Point Probing Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Popok, Vladimir;

    2015-01-01

    Four-point probing of electrical parameters on various components of IGBT modules is suggested as an approach for the estimation of degradation in stressed devices. By comparison of these parameters for stressed and new components one can evaluate an overall degradation of the module and find out...

  20. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions.Patients and methods: Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points.Results: Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61

  1. Accuracy Assessment Points for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in July - August, 2001 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the USGS-NPS...

  2. Accuracy Assessment Points for Fort Laramie National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in August and September, 1998 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the...

  3. Accuracy Assessment Points for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Accuracy Assessment Observation Location executable shapefile (cachaa.exe) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems...

  4. Accuracy Assessment Points for Wind Cave National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping...

  5. Accuracy Assessment Points for Devils Tower National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in July and August, 1996 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the...

  6. Accuracy Assessment Points for Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Petrified Forest National Park Accuracy Assessment Observation Location zip shapefile (pefoaa.zip) was developed as a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)...

  7. Accuracy Assessment Points for Scotts Bluff National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in August, 1997 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the USGS-NPS...

  8. Accuracy Assessment Points for Mount Rushmore National Memorial Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in July and August, 1996 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the...

  9. Accuracy Assessment Points for Theodore Roosevelt National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the accuracy assessment data associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geospatial database for Theodore Roosevelt National Park...

  10. A study regarding the exposure scenario and key points for the risk assessment of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this study is to figure out the exposure scenario and clarify the key points for conducting the accurate risk assessment for the soil which is contaminated with a radioactive substance. As a first step, we figured out all conceivable exposure passages which are caused by the radioactive cesium contaminated soil and found that making consideration regarding the kind of exposed subjects, the length of time, the land usage and the distance from the ground zero etc are needed when conducting the accurate risk assessment for the soil which is contaminated with a radioactive substance. (author)

  11. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai

  12. Assessment of a pharmacist-driven point-of-care spirometry clinic within a primary care physicians office

    OpenAIRE

    Cawley MJ; Pacitti R; Warning W

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess value-added service of a pharmacist-driven point-of-care spirometry clinic to quantify respiratory disease abnormalities within a primary care physicians officeMethods: This retrospective, cohort study was an analysis of physician referred patients who attended our spirometry clinic during 2008-2010 due to pulmonary symptoms or disease. After spirometry testing, data was collected retrospectively to include patient demographics, spirometry results, and pulmonary pharmaceu...

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems. A marked point process approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-04-01

    The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process. The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: (1) planned process lifetime, (2) modification of the design, and (3) operational decisions. The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant. 62 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  14. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems. A marked point process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process. The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: (1) planned process lifetime, (2) modification of the design, and (3) operational decisions. The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant

  15. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Point Reyes National Seashore (PORE) to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2006-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Point Reyes National Seashore in Northern California. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined and an index value calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Point Reyes National Seashore consists of sand and gravel beaches, rock cliffs, sand dune cliffs, and pocket beaches. The areas within Point Reyes that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are areas of unconsolidated sediment where the coastal slope is lowest and wave energy is high.

  16. Fuzzy branching temporal logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seong-ick; Lee, Kwang H; Lee, Doheon

    2004-04-01

    Intelligent systems require a systematic way to represent and handle temporal information containing uncertainty. In particular, a logical framework is needed that can represent uncertain temporal information and its relationships with logical formulae. Fuzzy linear temporal logic (FLTL), a generalization of propositional linear temporal logic (PLTL) with fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states defined on a linear time model, was previously proposed for this purpose. However, many systems are best represented by branching time models in which each state can have more than one possible future path. In this paper, fuzzy branching temporal logic (FBTL) is proposed to address this problem. FBTL adopts and generalizes concurrent tree logic (CTL*), which is a classical branching temporal logic. The temporal model of FBTL is capable of representing fuzzy temporal events and fuzzy temporal states, and the order relation among them is represented as a directed graph. The utility of FBTL is demonstrated using a fuzzy job shop scheduling problem as an example. PMID:15376850

  17. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  18. Assessment Of ASTER GDEM And SRTM Performance By Comparing With Survey Control Points And Icesat/GLAS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarihani, A. A.; Callow, J. N.

    2011-12-01

    Topographic data plays a critical role in water resources modeling with determining watershed hydrologic characteristics from raster-based digital elevation models (DEM). Raster-based DEMs have been widely used to derive topographic attributes used in hydraulic and hydrologic modeling such as slope, stream network, basins boundary and area. Accurate models of floodplain topography are essential for having accurate output of hydrologic models. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) provides near-global topographic coverage of the Earth's surface with unprecedented consistency and accuracy with the resolution of 1-3 arc sec. A new Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) from optical stereo data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was recently released with the resolution of 1 arc sec. This study the performance of the ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEMs is assessed by comparing with ground-based survey control points and point data from ICESat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) for a 7x7degree area in Queensland Australia. This area contains large and remote river basins, where these datasets provide an invaluable resource from which river floodplain inundation can be measured and modelled. Our study focuses on both data and datum issues, which are required to provide a realistic assessment of the achievable relative and absolute ground topographic accuracies. We assessed ground-based survey control points' with ICESat satellite altimetry points and in turn assessed accuracy of the ASTER GDEM and SRTM DEMs over the study area. ICESat provides globally-distributed elevation data of high accuracy (2.47.3 m horizontal error and 0.040.13 m (per degree of incidence angle) vertical error)We applied the GLA14 elevation products (Land/Canopy elevations) for the Laser 3a observation period and Release 31 to compare with 5000 ground survey control points in study area.Our ICESat

  19. Risk assessment and risk transfer from an insurerś point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, G.

    2009-04-01

    Risk, a word that causes a lot of associations in human brains. Many of us don't like risks. Since hundreds of years insurance is the most common way to get rid of the financial consequences when risks convert to damages. This article deals with commercial risks and the possibilities of risk transfer, an important task within the field of risk management. For commercial entities it is very important to transfer risks, threatening the competitiveness or even worse the existence of a company. At the beginning of insurance it was more the less a bet between merchants and rich people. Later on mutual societies were taking place. Today we see a complex insurance industry with insurers, reinsurers, self insuring possibilities via captives and much more. This complex system, with all the different ways to deal with risk transfer requires a professional risk assessment! Risk assessment is based on knowledge about the threatened assets, the likelihood that they will be damaged, the threats and the possibilities to protect these assets. Assets may be tangible or intangible. Assessing risks is not a precise calculation that delivers a result without any doubt. But insurers and insured need a basis to fix a premium, both of them can agree. This contribution will present a system to assess risks and to find the right risk-transfer-premiums.

  20. Assessment of soil radon potential in Hong Kong, China, using a 10-point evaluation system

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, S.; Wiegand, J; Wartenberg, W; Leung, JKC; Jiao, JJ

    2012-01-01

    Radon and its progenies have been ranked second of being responsible for lung cancer in humans. Hong Kong has four major groups of uranium-rich plutonic and volcanic rocks and is suffering from radon emanated therefrom. However, there is a lack of radon potential maps in Hong Kong to resolve the spatial distribution of radon-prone areas. A ten-point radon potential system was developed in Germany (2005) to predict radon potential using both the in situ geogenic and geographic parameters under...

  1. Branch Processes of Regular Magnetic Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Shu-Fan; REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, by making use of Duan's topological current theory, the branch process of regular magnetic monopoles is discussed in detail Regular magnetic monopoles are found generating or annihilating at the limit point and encountering, splitting, or merging at the bifurcation point and the degenerate point systematically of the vector order parameter field φ(x).Furthermore, it is also shown that when regular magnetic monopoles split or merge at the degenerate point of field function φ, the total topological charges of the regular magnetic monopoles axe still unchanged.

  2. Introduction: Endocrine disruptors-exposure assessment, novel end points, and low-dose and mixture effects

    OpenAIRE

    Kortenkamp, A

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of discussing new research findings about chemicals able to interfere with the endocrine system, so-called endocrine disruptors, an international workshop was held in Prague, Czech Republic, 10–12 May 2005. The workshop was organized jointly by the EDEN project (Endocrine Disrupters: Exploring Novel Endpoints, Exposure, Low-Dose and Mixture-Effects in Humans, Aquatic Wildlife and Laboratory Animals; http://www.edenresearch.info) and the FIRE project (Risk Assessment of Bromina...

  3. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  4. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams

  5. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  6. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  7. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  8. Ideal point error for model assessment in data-driven river flow forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Dawson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When analysing the performance of hydrological models in river forecasting, researchers use a number of diverse statistics. Although some statistics appear to be used more regularly in such analyses than others, there is a distinct lack of consistency in evaluation, making studies undertaken by different authors or performed at different locations difficult to compare in a meaningful manner. Moreover, even within individual reported case studies, substantial contradictions are found to occur between one measure of performance and another. In this paper we examine the ideal point error (IPE metric – a recently introduced measure of model performance that integrates a number of recognised metrics in a logical way. Having a single, integrated measure of performance is appealing as it should permit more straightforward model inter-comparisons. However, this is reliant on a transferrable standardisation of the individual metrics that are combined to form the IPE. This paper examines one potential option for standardisation: the use of naive model benchmarking.

  9. Identifying the point of departures for the detailed sustainability assessment of biomass feedstocks for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Dalgaard, Tommy

    aspects between the current application and future potentials. In Denmark, straw is widely used as a source of energy for heat and power production and for animal production. Thus, the overall sustainability and the year-round supply should be examined, particularly if it acts as a principal feedstock...... for biorefineries and potential impacts to the existing market. This study aims to assist in the sustainability assessment of straw conversion in the biochemical conversion routes to deliver bioethanol and other biobased products. For the comparison, conversion of straw to produce heat and electricity in a Combined...

  10. A Note on AdS/SYM Correspondence on the Coulomb Branch

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yi-Yen

    1998-01-01

    We study Maldacena's conjecture and the AdS/SYM correspondence on the Coulomb branch. Several interesting aspects of this conjectured AdS/SYM correspondence on the Coulomb branch are pointed out and clarified.

  11. Cravity modulation of the moss Tortula modica branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorkavtsiv, Yaroslava; Kit, Nadja

    45-50 (o) to orthotropic stolon axes, and later it decreased negatively gravitropically. The bending of lateral branches of gravitropic protonemata is carried out in two stages: the light induction makes cells metabolically active, but not sensitive to gravitation, while the wall of daughter cell grows perpendicularly to the axes of mother cell and only after that the branches growth direction acquires dependent on gravitation fixed space orientation. Protonemata on light was branched under the angle 45-50 (o) to the axes of the main stolon, that caused similar phenotype of protonemata turf in many moss species. The growth of lateral branches and the set-point angle from the point of view of growth as physical process, is, perhaps, balanced by the action of gravitation and light, and is controlled endogenously by autotropic growth.

  12. Determination of Measurement Points in Urban Environments for Assessment of Maximum Exposure to EMF Associated with a Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A base station (BS antenna operates in accordance with the established exposure limits if the values of electromagnetic fields (EMF measured in points of maximum exposure are below these limits. In the case of BS in open areas, the maximum exposure to EMF probably occurs in the antenna’s boresight direction, from a few tens to a few hundred meters away. This is not a typical scenery for urban environments. However, in the line of sight (LOS situation, the region of maximum exposure can still be analytically estimated with good results. This paper presents a methodology for the choice of measurement points in urban areas in order to assess compliance with the limits for exposure to EMF.

  13. Microbial risk assessment with the OAEL approach at water abstraction points in rural Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yillia, Paul T.; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Mathooko, Jude M.; Ndomahina, Ernest T.

    US-based models for recreational water quality were applied to characterize the potential health risk (PHR) of infection with gastroenteritis (GI) and highly credible gastroenteritis (HCGI) illnesses from single exposure at several water abstraction points (WAPs) along the Njoro River in rural Kenya. Ambient geometric mean densities of Escherichia coli (EC) and intestinal enterococci (IE) were generally high (2-4 log units of cfu/100 ml) and risk levels were grossly in excess of acceptable health risk (AHR) levels for bathing and drinking. PHR was 2-3 times higher with the Cabelli (IE) model (Equation (2)) compared to the US EPA (EC) model (Equation (1)). Risk levels varied among WAPs in concomitance to the spatial and seasonal variability of ambient EC and IE densities. With the Cabelli IE model, PHR of HCGI illness on single exposure to the dry weather 95th percentile IE density for bathing was 2.5% of the exposed population at Logoman compared to 5.2% at Turkana Flats, 4.9% at Kenyatta or Nessuit and 4.6%, 4.5% and 4.2% at Treetop, Segotik and Njoro Bridge, respectively. PHR was ⩾5% on exposure to the wet weather 95th percentile IE density at all WAPs, excepting Treetop with 4.3%. Relative risk levels increased by at least 30 and 70 times for GI and HCGI illnesses, respectively, from drinking (250 ml) raw stream water, rising erratically in wet weather by >80% of the dry weather risk at Logoman, >30% at Njoro Bridge and Kenyatta and 10-15% at Segotik, Nessuit and Turkana Flats. By stipulating freshwater bathing water quality guidelines of 126 and 33 cfu/100 ml for EC and IE, respectively, US, EPA upholds maximum AHR levels at 0.7% and 1.9% for EC and IE, respectively. Hence, reducing current PHR levels at the WAPs to the US, EPA bathing AHR levels would require at least 2-4 log reductions of IE and EC densities with even further log reductions to achieve the WHO recommended drinking water AHR level of 0.1%. This would necessitate specialized treatment, in

  14. On the use of the point-mass modeling technique for assessing ice-mass variations in alpine glacier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimond, Stefan; Baur, Oliver; Krauss, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Most scientific studies dealing with gravity-based ice-mass balance estimations focus on the Earth's continental glacier systems, namely the Greenland and the Antarctica ice sheets. Alpine glacier regions such as the Alps, Himalaya or Patagonia, on the other hand, seem to be less considered. According to the most recent assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), however, glacier shrinkage is one of the most dominant contributors to global sea level rise. In this context we investigate the capability of the point-mass modeling technique to assess ice-mass variations in small-scale alpine regions from space-borne gravimetric data. Two different approaches of this method can be distinguished: point-mass modeling with (i) predefined and fixed positions and (ii) with unknown locations of the surface mass changes. Approach (i) yields a linear functional model in which only the magnitudes of the point-masses are considered unknown. A highly non-linear optimization problem needs to be solved for approach (ii), since both the magnitudes and the coordinates of the point-masses are introduced as unknown parameters. In addition to that, owing to the effect of downward continuation, this problem is categorized as ill-posed and needs to be remedied by introducing regularization. The L-curve criterion or the generalized cross-validation method are typically used for selecting a suitable regularization factor. We conducted a series of close-loop simulation tests for various alpine glacier systems to compare the two approaches. In order to solve the global optimization problems in (i) and (ii), we make use of genetic algorithms.

  15. Biomarkers of genotoxicity and other end-points in an integrated approach to environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, M; Nadal, J

    2004-05-01

    Risk is defined as the probability of a given toxicological hazard resulting in actual biological harm. This involves some form of mathematical relationship between exposure and toxic effects. Simplified models based on laboratory testing in surrogate species neglect potentially important factors in real life situations. Our own approach to the study of atmospheric and edaphic pollution, focused on realism, includes the use of sentinel species (animals as prospectors and integrators of information, along both the spatial and the temporal axes) and selected biomarkers. We aim to: (i) consider pollution as a complex mixture; (ii) take into account homeostasis of the environment and of living organisms; (iii) be realistic (all data obtained in the field; calculations based on actual effects; exposure measured as internal dose). The proposed test battery divides toxicological information into four blocks: systemic effects (serum biochemistry and histopathology in wild wood mice), reproduction (epididymis cell count in mice, malformations in amphibian larvae), genotoxicity (Comet test in mice and earthworms) and population effects (abundance and diversity in arthropods). Each block is represented by the sum of the results of the tests performed within the block (presented as a severity score from 0 to 3). A final value is obtained to represent the integrated toxicological harm (ITH) occurring at a given location. To assess exposure, taking into account bioavailability, we propose (i) for soil contamination studies, measuring EROD activity in liver; (ii) for atmospheric pollution, the gaseous fraction is taken from immission gases analysis, while the solid fraction is assessed through levels of metals in sentinel organisms, the values of both fractions then being combined. Finally, a regression line is established for exposure versus ITH in four to five locations with decreasing exposure levels, ranging from the immediate neighbourhood of the pollution focus to controls

  16. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  17. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-07-22

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly.

  18. Modeling and Assessment of GPS/BDS Combined Precise Point Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junping; Wang, Jungang; Zhang, Yize; Yang, Sainan; Chen, Qian; Gong, Xiuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique enables stand-alone receivers to obtain cm-level positioning accuracy. Observations from multi-GNSS systems can augment users with improved positioning accuracy, reliability and availability. In this paper, we present and evaluate the GPS/BDS combined PPP models, including the traditional model and a simplified model, where the inter-system bias (ISB) is treated in different way. To evaluate the performance of combined GPS/BDS PPP, kinematic and static PPP positions are compared to the IGS daily estimates, where 1 month GPS/BDS data of 11 IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations are used. The results indicate apparent improvement of GPS/BDS combined PPP solutions in both static and kinematic cases, where much smaller standard deviations are presented in the magnitude distribution of coordinates RMS statistics. Comparisons between the traditional and simplified combined PPP models show no difference in coordinate estimations, and the inter system biases between the GPS/BDS system are assimilated into receiver clock, ambiguities and pseudo-range residuals accordingly. PMID:27455278

  19. Comparative assessment of bone pose estimation using Point Cluster Technique and OpenSim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Rebecca L; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; Siston, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Estimating the position of the bones from optical motion capture data is a challenge associated with human movement analysis. Bone pose estimation techniques such as the Point Cluster Technique (PCT) and simulations of movement through software packages such as OpenSim are used to minimize soft tissue artifact and estimate skeletal position; however, using different methods for analysis may produce differing kinematic results which could lead to differences in clinical interpretation such as a misclassification of normal or pathological gait. This study evaluated the differences present in knee joint kinematics as a result of calculating joint angles using various techniques. We calculated knee joint kinematics from experimental gait data using the standard PCT, the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to experimental marker data, and the least squares approach in OpenSim applied to the results of the PCT algorithm. Maximum and resultant RMS differences in knee angles were calculated between all techniques. We observed differences in flexion/extension, varus/valgus, and internal/external rotation angles between all approaches. The largest differences were between the PCT results and all results calculated using OpenSim. The RMS differences averaged nearly 5° for flexion/extension angles with maximum differences exceeding 15°. Average RMS differences were relatively small (OpenSim, suggesting that the choice of marker weighting is not critical to the results of the least squares inverse kinematics calculations. The largest difference between techniques appeared to be a constant offset between the PCT and all OpenSim results, which may be due to differences in the definition of anatomical reference frames, scaling of musculoskeletal models, and/or placement of virtual markers within OpenSim. Different methods for data analysis can produce largely different kinematic results, which could lead to the misclassification of normal or pathological gait. Improved

  20. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  1. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  2. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  3. A Spatial and Temporal Assessment of Non-Point Groundwater Pollution Sources, Tutuila Island, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, C. K.; El-Kadi, A. I.; Dulaiova, H.; Glenn, C. R.; Fackrell, J.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of municipal groundwater supplies on Tutuila, the main island in American Samoa, is currently in question. A high vulnerability for contamination from surface activities has been recognized, and there exists a strong need to clearly identify anthropogenic sources of pollution and quantify their influence on the aquifer. This study examines spatial relationships and time series measurements of nutrients and other tracers to identify predominant pollution sources and determine the water quality impacts of the island's diverse land uses. Elevated groundwater nitrate concentrations are correlated with areas of human development, however, the mixture of residential and agricultural land use in this unique village based agrarian setting makes specific source identification difficult using traditional geospatial analysis. Spatial variation in anthropogenic impact was assessed by linking NO3- concentrations and δ15N(NO3) from an extensive groundwater survey to land-use types within well capture zones and groundwater flow-paths developed with MODFLOW, a numerical groundwater model. Land use types were obtained from high-resolution GIS data and compared to water quality results with multiple-regression analysis to quantify the impact that different land uses have on water quality. In addition, historical water quality data and new analyses of δD and δ18O in precipitation, groundwater, and mountain-front recharge waters were used to constrain the sources and mechanisms of contamination. Our analyses indicate that groundwater nutrient levels on Tutuila are controlled primarily by residential, not agricultural activity. Also a lack of temporal variation suggests that episodic pollution events are limited to individual water sources as opposed to the entire aquifer. These results are not only valuable for water quality management on Tutuila, but also provide insight into the sustainability of groundwater supplies on other islands with similar hydrogeology and land

  4. Integrated plant safety assessment. Systematic evaluation program, Big Rock Point Plant (Docket No. 50-155). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety when the supplement to the Final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report has been issued. This report documents the review of the Big Rock Point Plant, which is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. It also addresses a majority of the pending licensing actions for Big Rock Point, which include TMI Action Plan requirements and implementation criteria for resolved generic issues. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  5. Environmental Assessment - Proposed Application of Aerially Applied Ultra Low Volume Naled for the Control of Adult Mosquitoes within the Big Branch Marsh National Wildlife Refuge in Lacombe, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document assesses the effects that aerially applied ultra low volume Naled would have on adult mosquito populations. It also offers alternatives.

  6. The use of branch enclosures to assess direct and indirect effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on photosynthesis, respiration and isoprene emission of Populus alba leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brilli, F.; Tricoli, D.; Fares, S.; Loreto, F. [CNR - Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale, Roma (Italy); Centritto, M. [CNR - Istituto sull' Inquinamento Atmosferico, Roma (Italy)

    2008-09-30

    Forests emit a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), mainly isoprenoids. Isoprenoids may provide enhanced leaf thermotolerance, and/or may scavenge ozone and help provide protection against oxidative stress, but none of these hypotheses have been proved beyond reasonable doubt. Some isoprenoids are also active molecules in plant defense against biotic stresses, deterring herbivores from feeding and protecting wounded parts of the plants from invasion by bacteria and fungi. Biogenic VOC emission rates can also have direct and indirect effects on the carbon cycle at terrestrial level. A direct effect occurs because a part of the carbon assimilated by plants through photosynthesis is immediately re-emitted in the atmosphere as biogenic VOCs. In general about 1-2% of the carbon fixed by photosynthesis is released as isoprene by leaves, and this percentage can increase dramatically in stressed plants. The indirect effect of biogenic VOCs on the carbon cycle is linked to the high reactivity of these coupounds with anthropogenic and natural compounds (mainly NO{sub x}) leading to high ozone episodes and photochemical smog, particularly during periods of high radiation and temperature, when biogenic VOC emissions are usually high. This in turn causes the accumulation of slowly reacting compounds, such as methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), thus indirectly potentially contributing to the global warming associated with the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In the context of global cliamte change, there is therefore considerable interest in understanding how isoprenoids emission may change in the future, especially in response to CO{sub 2} concentration increase. The authors used a novel system of branch enclosures to study the impact of elevated CO{sub 2} (900 ppm) on the gas-exchange characteristics of developed and developing leaves of white poplar (Populus alba L.), as well as of leaves subsequently developing at ambient CO{sub 2

  7. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  8. Constrained branch-and-bound algorithm for image registration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Jian-qiu; WANG Zhang-ye; PENG Qun-sheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose a refined Branch-and-Bound algorithm for affine-transformation based image registration. Given two feature point-sets in two images respectively, the authors first extract a sequence of high-probability matched point-pairs by considering well-defined features. Each resultant point-pair can be regarded as a constraint in the search space of Branch-and-Bound algorithm guiding the search process. The authors carry out Branch-and-Bound search with the constraint of a pair-point selected by using Monte Carlo sampling according to the match measures of point-pairs. If such one cannot lead to correct result, additional candidate is chosen to start another search. High-probability matched point-pairs usually results in fewer loops and the search process is accelerated greatly. Experimental results verify the high efficiency and robustness of the author's approach.

  9. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  10. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  11. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  12. Mobile Laser Scanning along Dieppe coastal cliffs: reliability of the acquired point clouds applied to rockfall assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Carrea, Dario; Augereau, Emmanuel; Cancouët, Romain; Costa, Stéphane; Davidson, Robert; Delacourt, Chirstophe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Letortu, Pauline; Maquaire, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Dieppe coastal cliffs, in Normandy, France, are mainly formed by sub-horizontal deposits of chalk and flintstone. Largely destabilized by an intense weathering and the Channel sea erosion, small and large rockfalls are regularly observed and contribute to retrogressive cliff processes. During autumn 2012, cliff and intertidal topographies have been acquired with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Mobile Laser Scanner (MLS), coupled with seafloor bathymetries realized with a multibeam echosounder (MBES). MLS is a recent development of laser scanning based on the same theoretical principles of aerial LiDAR, but using smaller, cheaper and portable devices. The MLS system, which is composed by an accurate dynamic positioning and orientation (INS) devices and a long range LiDAR, is mounted on a marine vessel; it is then possible to quickly acquire in motion georeferenced LiDAR point clouds with a resolution of about 15 cm. For example, it takes about 1 h to scan of shoreline of 2 km long. MLS is becoming a promising technique supporting erosion and rockfall assessments along the shores of lakes, fjords or seas. In this study, the MLS system used to acquire cliffs and intertidal areas of the Cap d'Ailly was composed by the INS Applanix POS-MV 320 V4 and the LiDAR Optech Ilirs LR. On the same day, three MLS scans with large overlaps (J1, J21 and J3) have been performed at ranges from 600 m at 4 knots (low tide) up to 200 m at 2.2 knots (up tide) with a calm sea at 2.5 Beaufort (small wavelets). Mean scan resolutions go from 26 cm for far scan (J1) to about 8.1 cm for close scan (J3). Moreover, one TLS point cloud on this test site has been acquired with a mean resolution of about 2.3 cm, using a Riegl LMS Z390i. In order to quantify the reliability of the methodology, comparisons between scans have been realized with the software Polyworks™, calculating shortest distances between points of one cloud and the interpolated surface of the reference point cloud. A Mat

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapeutics for total diabetes management: assessment of composite end-points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Daisuke; Kuwata, Hitoshi; Usui, Ryota; Kurose, Takeshi; Seino, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of the benefits of anti-diabetic drugs for type 2 diabetes requires analysis of composite end-points, taking HbA1c, bodyweight, hypoglycemia and other metabolic parameters into consideration; continuous, optimal glycemic control as well as bodyweight, blood pressure and lipid levels are critical to prevent micro- and macro-vascular complications. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are now established as an important total treatment strategy for type 2 diabetes, exerting glucose-lowering effects with little hypoglycemia risk and also ameliorating bodyweight, blood pressure and lipid levels, which are therapeutic targets for prevention of complications of the disease. The available data strongly suggest only beneficial effects of GLP-1RAs; however, long-term evaluation of the relevant composite end-points including health-related quality of life and cost-effectiveness remain to be investigated in adequately powered, prospective, controlled clinical trials. In the meantime, healthcare professionals need to be scrupulously attentive for potential, rare adverse events in patients using GLP-1RAs. PMID:25916903

  14. PHP47 - Early assessment of highly innovative medical technology: clinical and economical gains of point-of-care applications for measuring potassium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, G.; Hummel, J.M.; Montfoort, A.; IJzerman, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Innovative point-of-care diagnostics are likely to be having a strong impact on health care. The aim of this study is to conduct an early assessment of point-of-care chips. These chips can detect many particles and, consequently, many product-market combinations can be developed. This st

  15. Vertical profile of branch CO2 efflux in a Norway spruce tree: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Pavelka, M.

    2012-04-01

    Despite woody-tissue CO2 effluxes having been recognized as an important component of forest carbon budget due to the fraction of assimilates used and the dramatic increase in woody with stand development, there is limited research to determine the CO2 efflux vertical variability of woody-tissue components. For a better understanding and quantification of branch woody-tissue CO2 efflux in forest ecosystems, it is necessary to identify the environmental factors influencing it and the role of the branch distribution within the canopy. The proper assessment of this forest component will improve the knowledge of the ratio between ecosystem respiration and gross primary production at forest ecosystem. In order to achieve this goal, branch CO2 efflux of Norway spruce tree was measured in ten branches at five different whorls during the growing season 2004 (from June till October) in campaigns of 3-4 times per month at the Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic, using a portable infrared gas analyzer operating as a closed system. Branch woody tissue temperature was measured continuously in ten minutes intervals for each sample position during the whole experiment period. On the basis of relation between CO2 efflux rate and woody tissue temperature a value of Q10 and normalized CO2 efflux rate (E10 - CO2 efflux rate at 10° C) were calculated for each sampled position. Estimated Q10 values ranged from 2.12 to 2.89 and E10 ranged from 0.41 to 1.19 ?molCO2m-2 s-1. Differences in branch CO2 efflux were found between orientations; East side branches presented higher efflux rate than west side branches. The highest branch CO2 efflux rate values were measured in August and the lowest in October, which were connected with woody tissue temperature and ontogenetic processes during these periods. Branch CO2 efflux was significantly and positively correlated with branch position within canopy and woody tissue temperature. Branches from the upper whorls showed higher respiration activity

  16. Assessment of styling performance in hair gels and hair sprays by means of a new two-point stiffness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoessel, Peter; Riemann, Solveig; Knebl, Robert; Schroeder, Jens; Schuh, Gerd; Castillo, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    A new two-point bending stiffness method on flat hair strands was developed and validated after application of hair styling gels and hair styling sprays. A special mold was used to align single hair fibers after applying the formulations to the hair. The styling gels used contain different commercially available thickeners and styling polymers, e.g., carbomer, acrylates/beheneth-25 methacrylate copolymer, Polyquaternium-86, PVP, VP/VA copolymers, and VP/methacrylamide/vinylimidazole copolymer. Evaluation of hair sprays was performed after spray application on flat hair strands. Commercially available hair styling resins were used, e.g. acrylates/t-butylacrylamide copolymer, octylacrylamide/acrylates/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer, and VP/VA copolymer (30:70). The new stiffness test method provided the best correlation with practically relevant sensory assessments on hair strands and a panel test in which styling gels were evaluated. However, we did not observe a correlation between the new stiffness method on flat hair strands and practical assessments in hair spray application. We postulate that different polymer/hair composites are responsible for these discrepancies. Hairs on model heads for half-side testing are spot-welded after spray application, while hairs are seam-welded in the stiffness test after alignment of single hair fibers. This alignment is necessary to achieve reproducible results.

  17. P04.10PREDICTIVE VALUE OF MGMT PROMOTER METHYLATION QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT IN GLIOBLASTOMA, WHICH OPTIMAL CUT-POINT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saint-Denis, T.; Lerhun, E.; Ramirez, C.; Devos, P.; Maurage, C.A.; Dubois, F.; Reyns, N.; Escande, F.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The methylation in the promoter region of the MGMT gene encoding the DNA repair protein O6-methyl guanine-DNA methyl transferase is a predictive marker for benefit from alkylating agent therapy and a prognostic factor in glioblastoma. Pyrosequencing-based assessement of MGMT promoter status is of particularly interest, but analytical methods and cut-points may varied from one center to another. We intend to establish a correlation between quantitative methylation of MGMT promoter values and overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS). METHODS: The clinical and biological data of 159 newly diagnosed glioblastoma recruited in Lille University Hospital between 2008 and 2011 were retrospectively collected. For the patients, the methylation status has been assessed by pyrosequencing on 5 CpG islands. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software V9.3. RESULTS: Median age of the patients was 61 years. Sixty three patients were male. Of 159 patients, 156 underwent a surgery (40,4% of complete resection), 3 patients were diagnosed only by biopsies. 123 received concomitant radiotherapy and temozolomide and adjuvant temozolomide. The median PFS and the median OS were 9,9 and 15,9. The most significant cut-off methylation determined on 5 sites mean methylaion value was 12% for both predictive and pronostic evaluations. Site 1 methylation status was the best predictive value for both PFS and OS compared to the other CpG islands. On this site 1, a >3% methylation status was a significant predictive factor for reponse to standard treatment for PFS and a >25% site 1 methylation status was a strong pronostic factor for 2 years survival (OS) (47%). CONCLUSIONS: Even a low MGMT methylation (>3%) status on selected CpG site can already be a predictive factor for response to treatment in glioblastoma and allow us to reduce the cut-off values. Highest methylations status are correlated with the longest overall survival and therefore confirm the

  18. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  19. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  20. Canine sense and sensibility: tipping points and response latency variability as an optimism index in a canine judgement bias assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J Starling

    Full Text Available Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs.

  1. Canine sense and sensibility: tipping points and response latency variability as an optimism index in a canine judgement bias assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Cody, Denis; Starling, Timothy R; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs.

  2. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  3. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  4. Assessment of Point-of-Care Diagnostics for G6PD Deficiency in Malaria Endemic Rural Eastern Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari W Satyagraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients infected by Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale suffer repeated clinical attacks without primaquine therapy against latent stages in liver. Primaquine causes seriously threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients having inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. Access to safe primaquine therapy hinges upon the ability to confirm G6PD normal status. CareStart G6PD, a qualitative G6PD rapid diagnostic test (G6PD RDT intended for use at point-of-care in impoverished rural settings where most malaria patients live, was evaluated.This device and the standard qualitative fluorescent spot test (FST were each compared against the quantitative spectrophotometric assay for G6PD activity as the diagnostic gold standard. The assessment occurred at meso-endemic Panenggo Ede in western Sumba Island in eastern Indonesia, where 610 residents provided venous blood. The G6PD RDT and FST qualitative assessments were performed in the field, whereas the quantitative assay was performed in a research laboratory at Jakarta. The median G6PD activity ≥ 5 U/gHb was 9.7 U/gHb and was considered 100% of normal activity. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency by quantitative assessment (<5 U/gHb was 7.2%. Applying 30% of normal G6PD activity as the cut-off for qualitative testing, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for G6PD RDT versus FST among males were as follows: 100%, 98.7%, 89%, and 100% versus 91.7%, 92%, 55%, and 99%; P = 0.49, 0.001, 0.004, and 0.24, respectively. These values among females were: 83%, 92.7%, 17%, and 99.7% versus 100%, 92%, 18%, and 100%; P = 1.0, 0.89, 1.0 and 1.0, respectively.The overall performance of G6PD RDT, especially 100% negative predictive value, demonstrates suitable safety for G6PD screening prior to administering hemolytic drugs like primaquine and many others. Relatively poor diagnostic performance among females due to mosaic G6PD phenotype is an

  5. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  6. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  7. Branching ratio approximation for the self-exciting Hawkes process

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiman, Stephen J.; Jean-Philippe Bouchaud

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a model-independent approximation for the branching ratio of Hawkes self-exciting point processes. Our estimator requires knowing only the mean and variance of the event count in a sufficiently large time window, statistics that are readily obtained from empirical data. The method we propose greatly simplifies the estimation of the Hawkes branching ratio, recently proposed as a proxy for market endogeneity and formerly estimated using numerical likelihood maximisation. We employ ...

  8. Statistical distributions of earthquake numbers: consequence of branching process

    OpenAIRE

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic, and the negative binomial (NBD). The theoretical model is the `birth and immigration' population process. The first three distributions above can be considered special cases of the NBD. In particular, a point branching process along t...

  9. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  10. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...

  11. Perspectives on the viscoelasticity and flow behavior of entangled linear and branched polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We briefly review the recent advances in the rheology of entangled polymers and identify emerging research trends and outstanding challenges, especially with respect to branched polymers. Emphasis is placed on the role of well-characterized model systems, as well as the synergy of synthesis-characterization, rheometry and modeling/simulations. The theoretical framework for understanding the observed linear and nonlinear rheological phenomena is the tube model, which is critically assessed in view of its successes and shortcomings, and alternative approaches are briefly discussed. Finally, intriguing experimental findings and controversial issues that merit consistent explanation, such as shear banding instabilities, multiple stress overshoots in transient simple shear and enhanced steady-state elongational viscosity in polymer solutions, are discussed, and future directions such as branch point dynamics and anisotropic monomeric friction are outlined. (topical review)

  12. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the site of emergence of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the temporalis muscle and to identify the number of its accessory branches and their locations. A pilot study, conducted on the same number of patients, concluded that the main zygomaticotemporal branch emerges from the deep temporal fascia at a point on average 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral palpebral commissure, commonly referred to as the lateral canthus. These measurements, however, were obtained after dissection of the temporal area, rendering the findings less reliable. The current study included 20 consecutive patients, 19 women and one man, between the ages of 26 and 85 years, with an average age of 47.6 years. Those who had a history of previous trauma or surgery in the temple area were excluded. Before the start of the endoscopic forehead procedure, the likely topographic site of the zygomaticotemporal branch was marked 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral orbital commissure on the basis of the information extrapolated from the pilot study. The surface mark was then transferred to the deeper layers using a 25-gauge needle stained with brilliant green. After endoscopic exposure of the marked site, the distance between the main branch of the trigeminal nerve or its accessory branches and the tattoo mark was measured in posterolateral and cephalocaudal directions. In addition, the number and locations of the accessory branches of the trigeminal nerve were recorded. On the left side, the average distance of the emergence site of the main zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the palpebral fissure was 16.8 mm (range, 12 to 31 mm) in the posterolateral direction and an average of 6.4 mm (range, 4 to 11 mm) in the cephalad direction. On the right side, the average measurements for the main branch were 17.1 mm (range, 15 to 21 mm) in the lateral direction and 6.65 mm (range, 5 to 11 mm) in the

  13. The zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve: an anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totonchi, Ali; Pashmini, Nazly; Guyuron, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the site of emergence of the zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the temporalis muscle and to identify the number of its accessory branches and their locations. A pilot study, conducted on the same number of patients, concluded that the main zygomaticotemporal branch emerges from the deep temporal fascia at a point on average 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral palpebral commissure, commonly referred to as the lateral canthus. These measurements, however, were obtained after dissection of the temporal area, rendering the findings less reliable. The current study included 20 consecutive patients, 19 women and one man, between the ages of 26 and 85 years, with an average age of 47.6 years. Those who had a history of previous trauma or surgery in the temple area were excluded. Before the start of the endoscopic forehead procedure, the likely topographic site of the zygomaticotemporal branch was marked 17 mm lateral and 6 mm cephalad to the lateral orbital commissure on the basis of the information extrapolated from the pilot study. The surface mark was then transferred to the deeper layers using a 25-gauge needle stained with brilliant green. After endoscopic exposure of the marked site, the distance between the main branch of the trigeminal nerve or its accessory branches and the tattoo mark was measured in posterolateral and cephalocaudal directions. In addition, the number and locations of the accessory branches of the trigeminal nerve were recorded. On the left side, the average distance of the emergence site of the main zygomaticotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve from the palpebral fissure was 16.8 mm (range, 12 to 31 mm) in the posterolateral direction and an average of 6.4 mm (range, 4 to 11 mm) in the cephalad direction. On the right side, the average measurements for the main branch were 17.1 mm (range, 15 to 21 mm) in the lateral direction and 6.65 mm (range, 5 to 11 mm) in the

  14. The effectiveness of computer reminders for improving quality assessment for point-of-care testing in general practice - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Reventlow, Susanne;

    2013-01-01

    for improving adherence to a quality assessment scheme for point-of-care testing in general practice. METHOD: The study was conducted as a randomized controlled crossover trial among general practices in the Capital Region of Denmark. The intervention consisted of sending computer reminders (Com...... reminders on adherence to the quality assessment scheme for point-of-care testing. Thus, computer reminders seem to be useful for supporting the implementation of relatively simple procedures for quality and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: http://NCT01152177....

  15. Assessment of radiological situation in the Murzhik inhabited point area on the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research program on the radiological situation assessment around of the Murzhik inhabited point due to information about high mortality in this region, situated in the west boundary of the Semipalatinsk test site, was realized. In the framework of this study the radiological inspection was carried out. Radiation contamination of examined area around the Murzhik village is very heterogeneous. The region most part including the section on the test site area are characterizing by radiation contamination and external gamma-dose close to background one. However some areas (radioactive cloud traces, explosion craters, underground test boreholes) are demonstrating high contamination levels and radiation dose rate (up to 1 mSv·h-1). This conducts to very high external irradiation doses and its can have some radiation effects. The effects have been observed in different populations of animals used as biological indicators. Although the majority of morphological parameters does not confirm the harmful influence of contamination the genetic indexes have been demonstrated the statistical differences between irradiated and control populations of animals in chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequencies and high genome instability. The health status of the Murzhik village human population was compared with control group health. With help of statistical analysis the considerable difference between two populations does not found by a majority of indexes. With help of micronuclei test it is revealed that lymphocyte cytogenesis damages frequency in the Murzhik inhabitants in two times higher than this value in the control group. The most noticeable effect - it is very high considerable increase (in 7 times, p<0.007) the observed dicentric chromosomes frequency (concerned as reliable indicator of radiation effects)

  16. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  17. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  18. Branching of periodic orbits from Kukles isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available We study local bifurcations of limit cycles from isochronous (or linearizable centers. The isochronicity has been determined using the method of Darboux linearization, which provides a birational linearization for the examples that we analyze. This transformation simplifies the analysis by avoiding the complexity of the Abelian integrals appearing in other approaches. As an application of this approach, we show that the Kukles isochrone (linear and nonlinear has at most one branch point of limit cycles. Moreover, for each isochrone, there are small perturbations with exactly one continuous family of limit cycles.

  19. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  20. 10 CFR 830.120 Criterion 10, Independent Assessment: We're here to help you exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each organization performing activities in the DOE Weapons Complex is required to have an pendent assessment function. This is consistent from DOE Order 5700.6C, Quality Assurance to 10 CFR 830-120, sometimes referred to as the Price-Anderson rule. DOE Order 5700.6C, Criterion 10 Independent Assessment requires, '' Planned and periodic independent assessments shall be conducted to measure item quality and process effectiveness and to promote improvement. The organization performing independent assessments shall have sufficient authority and freedom from the line organization to carry out its responsibilities. Persons conducting independent assessments shall be technically qualified and knowledgeable in the areas assessed.'' 10 CFR 830.120, (c) Quality assurance criteria -- (3) Assessment -- (ii) Independent Assessment requires,''Independent assessments shall be planned and conducted to measure item and service quality, to measure the adequacy of work performance, and to promote improvement. The group performing independent assessments shall have sufficient authority and freedom from the line to carry out its responsibilities. Persons conducting independent assessments shall be technically qualified and knowledgeable in the areas assessed.''

  1. Relative importance of modularity and other morphological attributes on different types of lithic point weapons: assessing functional variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando González-José

    Full Text Available The specific using of different prehistoric weapons is mainly determined by its physical properties, which provide a relative advantage or disadvantage to perform a given, particular function. Since these physical properties are integrated to accomplish that function, examining design variables and their pattern of integration or modularity is of interest to estimate the past function of a point. Here we analyze a composite sample of lithic points from southern Patagonia likely formed by arrows, thrown spears and hand-held points to test if they can be viewed as a two-module system formed by the blade and the stem, and to evaluate the degree in which shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle explain the observed variance and differentiation among points supposedly aimed to accomplish different functions. To do so we performed a geometric morphometric analysis on 118 lithic points, departing from 24 two-dimensional landmark and semi landmarks placed on the point's contour. Klingenberg's covariational modularity tests were used to evaluate different modularity hypotheses, and a composite PCA including shape, size, asymmetry, blade: stem length ratio, and tip angle was used to estimate the importance of each attribute to explaining variation patterns. Results show that the blade and the stem can be seen as "near decomposable units" in the points integrating the studied sample. However, this modular pattern changes after removing the effects of reduction. Indeed, a resharpened point tends to show a tip/rest of the point modular pattern. The composite PCA analyses evidenced three different patterns of morphometric attributes compatible with arrows, thrown spears, and hand-held tools. Interestingly, when analyzed independently, these groups show differences in their modular organization. Our results indicate that stone tools can be approached as flexible designs, characterized by a composite set of interacting morphometric

  2. Variation in the Branching Pattern of the Superficial Palmar Arch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalatha S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe a rare variation in the superficial palmar arch (SPA encountered during routine cadaveric dissection. SPA was formed by the superficial branches of ulnar and radial arteries which provided a proper digital branch to the ulnar side of the little finger and three common palmar digital branches to the medial four digits. Additionally a first common digital artery was seen to emerge from the radial side of SPA which further divided into the arteria princeps pollicis and arteria radialis indicis. We also found a small communicating branch between the arteria princeps pollicis and the radial artery in the anatomical snuff box. Such arterial variations in the palm due to alteration in the developmental sequence remains a crucial issue in the reconstructive hand surgeries, especially while dealing with the innovative microsurgical procedures, where these varied patterns act as pivotal points around which successful results of various advanced surgical procedures revolve.

  3. Key points in verifying novelty assessment of medical literature%医学科技查新审核要点实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾永松; 张琴; 苏炼

    2014-01-01

    科技查新审核是完成查新报告的最后环节,与查新报告质量密切相关。本文以医学科技查新为例,结合实证分析探讨了审核员如何对查新报告的科学技术路线、查新点、检索词、检索策略及查新结论几个要点进行关键审核。%Verification of scientific literature novelty assessment is the final step in writing the literature novelty assessment report and is closely related with its academic level.The key points in verifying novelty assessment of medical literature were thus analyzed with examples in this paper, including the scientific and technical points, literature novelty assessment points, retrieval terms, retrieval strategies, and conclusion of literature novelty assessment.

  4. Unioned layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coal assessment area, Green River Basin, Wyoming (porbbfing.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representation of the spatial query layer for the Point of Rocks-Black Butte coalfield, Greater Green River Basin,...

  5. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  6. Conductivity control of as-grown branched indium tin oxide nanowire networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforge, J M; Cocker, T L; Beaudry, A L; Cui, K; Tucker, R T; Taschuk, M T; Hegmann, F A; Brett, M J

    2014-01-24

    Branched indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowire networks are promising candidates for transparent conductive oxide applications, such as optoelectronic electrodes, due to their high porosity. However, these branched networks also present new challenges in assessing conductivity. Conventional four-point probe techniques cannot separate the effect of porosity on the long-range conductivity from the intrinsic material conductivity. Here we compare the average nanoscale conductivity within the film measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to the film conductivity measured by four-point probe in a branched ITO nanowire network. Both techniques report conductivity increases with deposition flux rate from 0.5 to 3.0 nm s(-1), achieving a maximum of ~ 10 (Ω cm)(-1). Modeling the THz-TDS conductivity data using the Drude-Smith model allows us to distinguish between conductivity increases resulting from morphological changes and those resulting from the intrinsic properties of the ITO. In particular, the intrinsic material conductivity within the nanowires can be extracted, and is found to reach a maximum of ~ 3000 (Ω cm)(-1), comparable to bulk ITO. To determine the mechanism responsible for increasing conductivity with flux rate, we characterize dopant concentration and morphological changes (i.e., to branching behavior, nanowire diameter and nucleation layers). We propose that changes in the electron density, primarily due to changes in O-vacancy concentration at different flux rates, are responsible for the observed conductivity increase. This understanding will assist balancing structural and conductivity requirements in applications of transparent conductive oxide networks.

  7. An assessment of the moving point method for numerical calculation of fluid-structure interaction in water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of providing an accurate numerical method for modelling fluid-structure interaction in practical water hammer calculations for power station pipe networks is addressed. The application of the moving point method to a problem representative of practical water hammer is presented. A suitable model including both liquid pressure waves and pipe wall tension waves if formulated as a set of partial differential equations with algebraic equations and boundary and initial conditions. The problem is non-dimensionalized, to identify key parameters, and a suitable linearized problem is constructed by omitting small terms. The problem is transformed to characteristic variables which are shown to be simply transported along the pipe without change of value. This motivates the choice of the moving point method. In the course of the work a program WHOMP (Water Hammer On Moving Points) was developed which exploits the moving point method. It is specific to the problem of a single pipe with thin elastic walls but the boundary and initial conditions permitted are sufficiently general that any reasonable physical problem for a single pipe can be addressed. Results of WHOMP for the model problem are compared with experimental and other numerical results including superficially those from a commercially available code FLUSTRIN. Some consideration of extending the moving point method to practical pipe networks is given. This includes the incorporation of bending and torsion waves in the pipe wall and incorporation of additional physics leading to significant non-linearity. (author)

  8. An Assessment of Pre- and Post Fire Near Surface Fuel Hazard in an Australian Dry Sclerophyll Forest Using Point Cloud Data Captured Using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Wallace

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of ecological and structrual changes induced by fire events is important for understanding the effects of fire, and planning future ecological and risk mitigation strategies. This study employs Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS data captured at multiple points in time to monitor the changes in a dry sclerophyll forest induced by a prescribed burn. Point cloud data was collected for two plots; one plot undergoing a fire treatment, and the second plot remaining untreated, thereby acting as the control. Data was collected at three epochs (pre-fire, two weeks post fire and two years post fire. Coregistration of these multitemporal point clouds to within an acceptable tolerance was achieved through a two step process utilising permanent infield markers and manually extracted stem objects as reference targets. Metrics describing fuel height and fuel fragmentation were extracted from the point clouds for direct comparison with industry standard visual assessments. Measurements describing the change (or lack thereof in the control plot indicate that the method of data capture and coregistration were achieved with the required accuracy to monitor fire induced change. Results from the fire affected plot show that immediately post fire 67% of area had been burnt with the average fuel height decreasing from 0.33 to 0.13 m. At two years post-fire the fuel remained signicantly lower (0.11 m and more fragmented in comparison to pre-fire levels. Results in both the control and fire altered plot were comparable to synchronus onground visual assessment. The advantage of TLS over the visual assessment method is, however, demonstrated through the use of two physical and spatially quantifiable metrics to describe fuel change. These results highlight the capabilities of multitemporal TLS data for measuring and mapping changes in the three dimensional structure of vegetation. Metrics from point clouds can be derived to provide quantified estimates of surface

  9. Assessment of tungsten/rhenium thermocouples with metal-carbon eutectic fixed points up to 1500°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotoh, M. [National Research Council of Canada 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa ON. Canada K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2013-09-11

    Four Type A thermocouples and two Type C thermocouples were calibrated at the Au fixed point and Co-C and Pd-C eutectic fixed points. The thermocouples were exposed to 1330 °C for a total of 100 hours. The maximum drift due to the exposure was found to be 4.8 °C. The fixed-point calibration EMF of these thermocouples deviated by less than 0.86% from the temperature specified by the standards ASTM E230-2003 for Type C and GOSTR 8.585-2001 for Type A. The length of one of Type A thermocouples A52 is longer than the others by 150mm. Making use of this provision it was possible to place annealed part of A52 to the temperature gradient part of calibration arrangement every time. Therefore observed aging effect was as low as 0.5 °C compared to the other thermocouples.

  10. Integrated plant-safety assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program: Big Rock Point Plant (Docket No. 50-155)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review of the Big Rock Point Plant, which is one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. It also addresses a majority of the pending licensing actions for Big Rock Point, which include TMI Action Plan requirements and implementation criteria for resolved generic issues. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  11. Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Hoo; Como, Christopher S; Singhal, Kunal; Lee, Sangwoo; Han, Ki Hoon

    2012-06-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the functional swing plane (FSP) of the clubhead and the motion planes (MPs) of the shoulder/arm points and (2) to assess planarity of the golf swing based on the FSP and the MPs. The swing motions of 14 male skilled golfers (mean handicap = -0.5 +/- 2.0) using three different clubs (driver, 5-iron, and pitching wedge) were captured by an optical motion capture system (250Hz). The FSP and MPs along with their slope/relative inclination and direction/direction of inclination were obtained using a new trajectory-plane fitting method. The slope and direction of the FSP revealed a significant club effect (p < 0.001). The relative inclination and direction of inclination of the MP showed significant point (p < 0.001) and club (p < 0.001) effects and interaction (p < 0.001). Maximum deviations of the points from the FSP revealed a significant point effect (p < 0.001) and point-club interaction (p < 0.001). It was concluded that skilled golfers exhibited well-defined and consistent FSP and MPs, and the shoulder/arm points moved on vastly different MPs and exhibited large deviations from the FSP. Skilled golfers in general exhibited semi-planar downswings with two distinct phases: a transition phase and a planar execution phase. PMID:22900396

  12. The use of multiple versus single assessment time points to improve screening accuracy in identifying children at risk for later serious antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Buckley, Jacquelyn A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-10-01

    Guided by Kraemer et al.'s (Psychological Methods, 3:257-271, 1999) framework for measuring the potency of risk factors, we sought to improve on the classification accuracy reported in Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:88-96, 2004a) and Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44:790-797, 2005) by using multiple as opposed to single point in time assessments of early aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classification of youth who would likely benefit from targeted preventive interventions. Different from Petras et al. (2004a, 2005), the outcome used in this study included serious antisocial behavior in young adulthood as well as in adolescence. Among males, the use of multiple time points did not yield greater classification accuracy than the highest single time points, that is, third and fifth grades. For females, although fifth grade represented the best single time point in terms of classification accuracy, no significant association was found between earlier time points and the later outcome, rendering a test of the multiple time points hypothesis moot. The findings presented in this study have strong implications for the design of targeted intervention for violence prevention, indicating that the screening quality based on aggression ratings during the elementary years is rather modest, particularly for females. PMID:23408279

  13. [Variations of the celiac trunk branches in the fetus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordei, P; Antohe, D S

    2002-09-01

    The study was performed on 60 human foetuses, aged between 4 to 9 months, using as methods dissection and plastic and contrast substances injection. We studied the celiac trunk in what concerns the division into its terminal branches, insisting on the possible morphological variations, some rare collateral branches starting from the common arterial trunk, the dimensional relations between the branches at their origin and the level of the celiac trunk origin from the aorta, in relation with the vertebral column, the diaphragmatic passage of the aorta and with the superior mesenteric artery. We also assessed the dimensional relations (calibers at origin) between the branches of the celiac trunk. Ass possible variations of the division of the celiac trunk, we assessed: gastro-hepatic trunk, with the splenic artery directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery; gastro-splenic trunk, with the hepatic artery originating from the aorta; hepato-splenic trunk, with origin of the left gastric artery either directly from the aorta or from the hepatic artery. Rare variations: celiaco-mesenteric trunk; two arterial trunks, hepato-splenic and hepato-gastric; separate aortic origin for all three "classic" branches of the celiac trunk; two hepatic arteries, one from the celiac trunk and the other from the aorta or superior mesenteric artery; celiac trunk that divides into several terminal branches; one or two suprarenal arteries originating from the celiac trunk. PMID:12572348

  14. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  15. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  16. La Parguera Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  17. Rabbit Lake uranium mining a-zone, d-zone, eagle point: report of the environmental assessment panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report of the environmental assessment panel on Rabbit Lake, Saskatchewan. A review of the proposed development of the uranium mining facility at Rabbit Lake with respect to the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic impacts

  18. A study to assess the influence of interprofessional point of care simulation training on safety culture in the operating theatre environment of a university teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Theresa; Gale, Thomas; Anderson, Ian; Roberts, Martin; Sice, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional point of care or in situ simulation is used as a training tool in our operating theatre directorate with the aim of improving crisis behaviours. This study aimed to assess the impact of interprofessional point of care simulation on the safety culture of operating theatres. A validated Safety Attitude Questionnaire was administered to staff members before each simulation scenario and then re-administered to the same staff members after 6-12 months. Pre- and post-training Safety Attitude Questionnaire-Operating Room (SAQ-OR) scores were compared using paired sample t-tests. Analysis revealed a statistically significant perceived improvement in both safety (p culture) 6-12 months after interprofessional simulation training. A growing body of literature suggests that a positive safety culture is associated with improved patient outcomes. Our study supports the implementation of point of care simulation as a useful intervention to improve safety culture in theatres.

  19. BIRCH XYLAN GRAFTED WITH PLA BRANCHES OF PREDICTABLE LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Persson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Birch xylan (4-O-methylglucuronoxylan isolated from a kraft cooking liquor was delignified and grafted with polylactide of predictable branch length. This graft copolymerization resulted in very high total yields, greater than 90%, and with less than 10% polylactide homopolymer byproducts. Mild reaction conditions (40°C, 5 to 120 minutes were used, which was believed to limit transesterification reactions and thus make it possible to reach good predictability of the polylactide branch length. The thermal properties of the polylactide-grafted xylan depended on the branch length. Short branches resulted in fully amorphous materials with a glass transition temperature of about 48 to 55°C, whereas long polylactide branches resulted in semi-crystalline materials with melting points of about 130°C. Using mixtures of L-lactide and D/L-lactide in the monomer feed further altered the thermal properties. The degradation temperatures of the polylactide-grafted xylans were higher than that of the unmodified xylan, with degradation temperatures of about 300°C and 250°C, respectively. Tensile testing showed increased elongation at break with increasing branch length. The proposed method thus enables tailor-making of copolymers with specific thermal and mechanical properties.

  20. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kruseman, Gideon; Blokland, Pieter-Willem; Bouma, Foppe; Luesink, Harry H.; Mokveld, Lennard J.; Vrolijk, Hans C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to assess. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. This paper presents the current generation of mineral emission models from agriculture based on micro-simulation of farms in combination with a spatial equilibrium model for the dispersion of manure...

  1. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    OpenAIRE

    ARAI, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS) is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score...

  2. Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment as approaches to assess potential impacts of products on water consumption: Key learning points from pilot studies on tea and margarine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jefferies, D.; Muñoz, I.; Hodges, J.; King, V.J.; Aldaya, M.M.; Ercin, A.E.; Milá i Canals, L.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Water accounting and environmental impact assessment across the product's life cycle is gaining prominence. This paper presents two case studies of applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Water Footprint (WF) approaches to tea and margarine. The WF, excluding grey water, of a carton of 50 g tea

  3. NGNP Point Design - Results of the Initial Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulic Assessments During FY-03, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip E. MacDonald; James W. Sterbentz; Robert L. Sant; P. Bayless; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; W. K. Terry

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary preconceptual designs for two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), one for a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and one for a pebble bed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs are to meet three basic requirements: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 °C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The two efforts are discussed separately below. The analytical results presented in this report are very promising, however, we wish to caution the reader that future, more detailed, design work will be needed to provide final answers to a number of key questions including the allowable power level, the inlet temperature, the power density, the optimum fuel form, and others. The point design work presented in this report provides a starting point for other evaluations, and directions for the detailed design, but not final answers.

  4. Segmental Body Composition Assessment for Obese Japanese Adults by Single-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis with 8-point Contact Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Susumu; Demura, Shinichi; Kitabayashi, Tamotsu; Noguchi, Takanori

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of segmental body composition variables estimated by singlefrequency BIA with 8-point contact electrodes (SF-BIA8), compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were 72 obese Japanese adults (43 males and 29 females) aged 30 to 66 years. Segmental body composition variables (fat free mass : FFM, fat mass : FM, and percent fat mass : %FAT) were measured by these techniques. The correlations between impedance values and FFM measured b...

  5. An immunoinhibition approach to overcome the impact of pre-existing antibodies on cut point establishment for immunogenicity assessment of moxetumomab pasudotox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Amy K; Vainshtein, Inna; Roskos, Lorin K; Chavez, Carlos; Sun, Bo; Liang, Meina

    2016-08-01

    Immunogenicity can impact PK, PD, efficacy and safety of biopharmaceuticals, and is often evaluated as a secondary objective in clinical studies. Methods to detect anti-drug antibodies (ADA) and neutralizing ADA (NAb) are semi-quantitative and utilize cut points to determine positive or negative samples. Assay cut points are established by the statistical analysis of treatment-naïve subject specimens that are assumed ADA and NAb-negative. Pre-existing antibodies to various biopharmaceuticals have been observed in treatment-naïve subjects and may artificially elevate the cut point, resulting in compromised assay sensitivities, inaccuracy in immunogenicity reporting and ultimately misleading assessment of the impact of immunogenicity on clinical outcomes. Although several approaches such as removal of pre-existing antibody samples or increasing the sample dilution could be used for cut point establishment to mitigate impact of pre-existing antibodies, they each have limitations, especially when a high prevalence of pre-existing antibodies is observed. Here we describe an innovative approach used to establish cut points for ADA and NAb assays of moxetumomab pasudotox (moxetumomab), a recombinant anti-CD22 immunotoxin, to which a high prevalence of pre-existing antibodies was observed. In order to overcome the challenges associated with this high prevalence and prevent establishment of an artificially elevated cut point, we developed an immunoinhibition approach that allowed generation of pseudo ADA and NAb-negative populations for cut point determination. Immunoinhibition was performed by adding excess moxetumomab (for ADA) or a non-CD22 binding PE38-containing immunotoxin, CAT-5001 (for NAb), to treatment-naive samples prior to evaluating samples for cut point establishment. This approach successfully eliminated pre-existing antibody activity in treatment-naive samples, enabling establishment of more accurate ADA and NAb assay cut points. A comparative analysis of

  6. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation. PMID:27039023

  7. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  8. Fluid Flow at Branching Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochi, Taha

    2013-01-01

    The flow of fluids at branching junctions plays important kinematic and dynamic roles in most biological and industrial flow systems. The present paper highlights some key issues related to the flow of fluids at these junctions with special emphasis on the biological flow networks particularly blood transportation vasculature.

  9. Convergence in law for the branching random walk seen from its tip

    CERN Document Server

    Madaule, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Considering a critical branching random walk on the real line. In a recent paper, Aidekon [3] developed a powerful method to obtain the convergence in law of its minimum after a log-factor normalization. By an adaptation of this method, we show that the point process formed by the branching random walk and its minimum converge in law to a Poisson point process colored by a certain point process. This result, confirming a conjecture of Brunet and Derrida [10], can be viewed as a discrete analog of the corresponding results for the branching brownian motion, previously established by Arguin et al. [5] [6] and Aidekon et al. [2].

  10. SIMPLE: assessment of non-point phosphorus pollution from agricultural land to surface waters by means of a new methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoumans, O F; Mol-Dijkstra, J; Akkermans, L M W; Roest, C W J

    2002-01-01

    In the past, environmental Phosphorus (P) parameters like soil P indices have been used to catogorize the potential risk of P losses from agricultural land. In order to assess the actual risk of P pollution of groundwater and surface waters, dynamic process oriented soil and water quality models have been frequently used. Recently, an approximating model for phosphorus, called SIMPLE, has been developed. This model approximates the output from a complex dynamic water quality model. The approximating model is called a metamodel. This simple P-model proves to be a powerful tool for quick assessment of the risk of P pollution from agricultural land to surface waters. PMID:12079100

  11. SIMPLE: assessment of non-point phosphorus pollution from agricultural land to surface waters by means of a new methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.; Mol-Dijkstra, J.P.; Akkermans, L.M.W.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, environmental phosphorus (P) parameters like soil P indices have been used to catogorize the potential risk of P losses from agricultural land. In order to assess the actual risk of P pollution of groundwater and surface waters, dynamic process oriented soil and water quality models hav

  12. The sector constants of continuous state branching processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Handa, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Continuous state branching processes with immigration are studied. We are particularly concerned with the associated (non-symmetric) Dirichlet form. After observing that gamma distributions are only reversible distributions for this class of models, we prove that every generalized gamma convolution is a stationary distribution of the process with suitably chosen branching mechanism and with continuous immigration. For such non-reversible processes, the strong sector condition is discussed in terms of a characteristic called the Thorin measure. In addition, some connections with notion from noncommutative probability theory will be pointed out through calculations involving the Stieltjes transform.

  13. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point. PMID:25768548

  14. Anomalous scaling in an age-dependent branching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Schmidt, Stephanie; Tuğrul, Murat; Eguíluz, Víctor M; Hernández-García, Emilio; Klemm, Konstantin

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a one-parametric family of tree growth models, in which branching probabilities decrease with branch age τ as τ(-α). Depending on the exponent α, the scaling of tree depth with tree size n displays a transition between the logarithmic scaling of random trees and an algebraic growth. At the transition (α=1) tree depth grows as (logn)(2). This anomalous scaling is in good agreement with the trend observed in evolution of biological species, thus providing a theoretical support for age-dependent speciation and associating it to the occurrence of a critical point.

  15. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  16. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level. PMID:26936476

  17. Necessities and problems of coupling climate and socioeconomic models for integrated assessments studies from an economist's point of view

    OpenAIRE

    Ha-Duong, Minh

    1999-01-01

    This presentation has two parts. The first part is more theoretical. We will examine the definition of Integrated Assessment Models of Climate Change and identify their main aims. We will also have look at the differences between climate and socioeconomic models. The second part will be applied. We present the Dynamics of Inertia and Adaptability Model (DIAM). That model will be used to study some of the fundamentals economic parameters of IAMs: the discount rate, the technical progress rate,...

  18. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  19. Factors affecting branch failures in open-grown trees during a snowstorm in Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Brian; Finn, John T

    2014-01-01

    In October 2011, a snowstorm in the northeastern USA caused many branch failures of many tree species commonly planted in urbanized settings. Immediately following the storm, we assessed 1,764 trees for possible snow-induced damage and factors affecting it on the campus of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, MA, USA. Nearly all failures were of branches, most of which were not defective. We used logistic regression to assess whether the probability of branch failure differed among species, diameter at breast height (DBH) and the presence of a defect or leaves increased for different species. We also measured branch morphology of (i) branches that did and did not fail for one angiosperm species and (ii) all branches on a sub-sample (stratified by DBH) of three individuals of seven other angiosperm species. Probability of branch failure differed among species. It also increased with greater DBH in eight of ten species studied, decreased when defects were present in four of ten species, and increased in one species when leaves were present. The relationship between branch failure and DBH appeared to be due to the correlation between DBH and branch morphology, which was mostly similar among species. As DBH increased, so did the mean diameter and length of primary branches, and the cumulative diameter of secondary branches. In contrast, branch slenderness decreased with increasing DBH. Combined, these factors presumably expedited the accumulation of snow on branches due to greater surface area and less flexibility. This explained why most failed branches were not defective. Since the frequency of intense storms is predicted to increase with global climate change, urban foresters should consider the timing of leaf senescence when selecting deciduous trees, to reduce the likelihood of failure of open-grown, deciduous trees in urbanized areas. PMID:25674460

  20. Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment as approaches to assess potential impacts of products on water consumption: Key learning points from pilot studies on tea and margarine

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, D; Muñoz, I.; HODGES, J.; King, V.J.; Aldaya, M.M.; Ercin, A.E.; Milá i Canals, L.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Water accounting and environmental impact assessment across the product's life cycle is gaining prominence. This paper presents two case studies of applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Water Footprint (WF) approaches to tea and margarine. The WF, excluding grey water, of a carton of 50 g tea is 294 L green water and 10 L blue water, and that of a 500 g tub of margarine is 553 L green water, 109 L blue water. The inventory results in the LCA studies (blue water) are 13 L for tea and 11...

  1. The efficacy of computer reminders on external quality assessment for point-of-care testing in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldorff, Frans B; Siersma, Volkert; Ertmann, Ruth;

    2011-01-01

    of these studies, outcomes are measured by the number of split tests received by the laboratory. CONCLUSIONS: This study will contribute to knowledge on the efficacy of ComRem in primary care. Because the study does not explore GPs' perceptions and experiences with regard to ComRem, we will......BACKGROUND: Point-of-care testing (POCT) is increasingly being used in general practice to assist general practitioners (GPs) in their management of patients with diseases. However, low adherence to quality guidelines in terms of split test procedures has been observed among GPs in parts of the...... Capital Region in Denmark. Computer reminders embedded in GPs electronic medical records (ComRem) may facilitate improved quality control behaviour, but more research is needed to identify what types of reminders work and when. The overall aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of ComRem to improve...

  2. Quantitative assessment of spatial sound distortion by the semi-ideal recording point of a hear-through device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Christensen, Flemming; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    to the ear canal as the ideal recording point – i.e. all directional properties of the incident sound field are recorded without distortion - it is critical for such device to be sufficiently small so that it can be completely inserted into the ear canal. This is not always feasible and the device may......A hear-through device combines a microphone and earphone in an earpiece so that when worn, one per ear, it can work as an acoustically transparent system allowing for simultaneous individual binaural recording and playback of the real sound field at the ears. Recognizing the blocked entrance...... stretch out from the ideal position and thus distort the captured spatial information. Here we present measurements that quantify by how much the directional properties of the sound field are distorted by semi-ideal hear-through prototypes built by mounting miniature microphones on the outer part...

  3. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  4. The use of individual cut points from treadmill walking to assess free-living moderate to vigorous physical activity in obese subjects by accelerometry: is it useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadland Eivind

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variation in counts between subjects at a given speed or work rate are the most important source of error in physical activity (PA measurements with accelerometers. The aim of this study was to explore how the use of individual accelerometer cut points (ICPs affected the analysis of PA field data. Methods We performed a treadmill calibration protocol to determine cut points for moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA (≥3 metabolic equivalents and assessed free-living PA in 44 severely obese subjects using the Actigraph GT1M accelerometer. We obtained cut points in 42 subjects (11 men, mean (standard deviation of body mass index (BMI 39.8 (5.7, age 43.2 (9.2 years, of whom 35 had valid measurement of free-living PA (minutes of MVPA/day. Linear regression was used to analyze associations with the ICPs and time in MVPA/day. MVPA/day was also compared with values derived using a group cut point (GCP. Results Resting oxygen consumption (partial r = 0.74, p 2 = 14%, p = .023, coefficient of variation = 45.1%. Conclusions The results indicate that the use of ICPs had a strong influence on the PA level. Two thirds of the variation in the ICPs could be explained, however, a certain degree of measurement error will be present. Thus, we are not able to conclude with respect to the most appropriate procedure for analyzing time in MVPA.

  5. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay

    2013-01-01

    On the day of launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers. During launch operations, the payload/launch team sometimes asks the LWOs if they expect the upper-level winds to change during the countdown. The LWOs used numerical weather prediction model point forecasts to provide the information, but did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or adequately display the upper-level observations and compare them directly in the same display to the model point forecasts to help them determine which model performed the best. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) rawinsondes with point forecast wind profiles from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Mesoscale (NAM), Rapid Refresh (RAP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models to assess the performance of these models. The AMU suggested adding observations from the NASA 50 MHz wind profiler and one of the US Air Force 915 MHz wind profilers, both located near the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility, to supplement the AMPS observations with more frequent upper-level profiles. Figure 1 shows a map of KSC/CCAFS with the locations of the observation sites and the model point forecasts.

  6. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Creep of welded branched pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rayner, Glen

    2004-01-01

    Creep failure of welds in high-temperature power plant steam piping systems is known to be a potential cause of plant failure. Creep behaviour of plain pipes with circumferential welds and cross-weld specimens have received fairly extensive attention. However, research into the creep behaviour of welded thick-walled branched steam pipes has received less attention. Consequently, this thesis addresses improving the understanding of the creep behaviour for this type of geometry. Numerical and a...

  8. APPROXIMATION OF VOLUME AND BRANCH SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF TREES FROM LASER SCANNER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Raumonen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for automatically approximating the above-ground volume and branch size distribution of trees from dense terrestrial laser scanner produced point clouds. The approach is based on the assumption that the point cloud is a sample of a surface in 3D space and the surface is locally like a cylinder. The point cloud is covered with small neighborhoods which conform to the surface. Then the neighborhoods are characterized geometrically and these characterizations are used to classify the points into trunk, branch, and other points. Finally, proper subsets are determined for cylinder fitting using geometric characterizations of the subsets.

  9. Interactions between Axillary Branches of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronica Ongaro; Katherine Bainbridge; Lisa Williamson; Ottoline Leyser

    2008-01-01

    Studies of apical dominance have benefited greatly from two-branch assays in pea and bean,in which the shoot system is trimmed back to leave only two active cotyledonary axillary branches.In these two-branch shoots,a large body of evidence shows that one actively growing branch is able to inhibit the growth of the other,prompting studies on the nature of the inhibitory signals,which are still poorly understood.Here,we describe the establishment of two-branch assays in Arabidopsis,using consecutive branches on the bolting stem.As with the classical studies in pea and bean,these consecutive branches are able to inhibit one another's growth.Not only can the upper branch inhibit the lower branch,but also the lower branch can inhibit the upper branch,illustrating the bi-directional action of the inhibitory signals.Using mutants,we show that the inhibition is partially dependent on the MAX pathway and that while the inhibition is clearly transmitted across the stem from the active to the inhibited branch,the vascular connectivity of the two branches is weak,and the MAX pathway is capable of acting unilaterally in the stem.

  10. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  11. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  12. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system. PMID:25817721

  13. The role of point-of-care assessment of platelet function in predicting postoperative bleeding and transfusion requirements after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective platelet function assessment after cardiac surgery can predict postoperative blood loss, guide transfusion requirements and discriminate the need for surgical re-exploration. We conducted this study to assess the predictive value of point-of-care testing platelet function using the Multiplate® device. Methods: Patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively recruited ( n = 84. Group A ( n = 42 patients were on anti-platelet therapy until surgery; patients in Group B ( n = 42 stopped anti-platelet treatment at least 5 days preoperatively. Multiplate® and thromboelastography (TEG tests were performed in the perioperative period. Primary end-point was excessive bleeding (>2.5 ml/kg/h within first 3 h postoperative. Secondary end-points included transfusion requirements, re-exploration rates, intensive care unit and in-hospital stays. Results: Patients in Group A had excessive bleeding (59% vs. 33%, P = 0.02, higher re-exploration rates (14% vs. 0%, P < 0.01 and higher rate of blood (41% vs. 14%, P < 0.01 and platelet (14% vs. 2%, P = 0.05 transfusions. On multivariate analysis, preoperative platelet function testing was the most significant predictor of excessive bleeding (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, P = 0.08, need for blood (OR: 5.5, P < 0.01 and platelet transfusion (OR: 15.1, P < 0.01. Postoperative "ASPI test" best predicted the need for transfusion (sensitivity - 0.86 and excessive blood loss (sensitivity - 0.81. TEG results did not correlate well with any of these outcome measures. Conclusions: Peri-operative platelet functional assessment with Multiplate® was the strongest predictor for bleeding and transfusion requirements in patients on anti-platelet therapy until the time of surgery. Study registration: ISRCTN43298975 (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN43298975/.

  14. Points of orientation along the road into the 21st century. Analysis and valuation of an assessment by Prognos AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The federal ministry for economy at regular intervals commissions expertises assessing the long-term development of the energy economy, thereby contributing to energy-political opinion-forming. That independent scientific institutions are charged with theses expertises has order-political reasons. It must be avoided that the market developments sized up by energy forecasts are misunderstood by the economy and consumers as planning data. The most recent energy forecast is entitled ''Energy markets of Germany in a Europe in the process of unification - perspectives to the year 2020''. The expertise was submitted in December 1995. The paper sums up the assumptions and results of the forecast and gives first hints for an energy-political valuation (orig.)

  15. Method of branch ariflow for calculatinga complicated mine ventilation networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ze-gong

    2001-01-01

    The solutions widely used at preeent for calculating complicated mine ventilation networks are ones in which resistance of the branches and characteristic parameters of the fans are taken as basic input data. But it is time-and-energy-consuming to obtain the branch resistance values. A new solution is developed in this peper in which the branch reeistance values are obtained through measuring and evaluating the airflow of the whole ventilation network. Theoretical analysis is made of the establishment of a linear equation series with branch resistance as unknown numbers, an equation series for which one, and only one, result of solutions exists. This solution is programmed in C language and passed on a personal computer. The programmed solution programmed proves of practical use, as demonstrated by specific examples. Being different from other solutions, the method takes the branch airflow and fan working points as basic input data, and the present solution is of greater advantage for calculating ventilation networks of mines in operation.

  16. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khatami Firooz Abadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  17. A Model for Locating Branches of Ghavamin Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyed Mohammad Ali Khatami Firouzabadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating branches of finance and credit institutes and banks is one of the most important and strategic decisions in the field of banking. This task is more significant in private institutes than state banks because of budgetary limitations of private institutes. This kind of banking needs acceptance and usage of modern technologies such as GIS in order to increase customer satisfaction. Therefore in this research, viewpoints of 30 managers, chiefs of branches and experienced employees have been considered the city of Rasht with the aim of determining appropriate sites for establishing branches. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches have been used for data analysis. They include one sample t-test for identifying criteria and Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP for identifying weights of criteria and for this purpose, SPSS, Expert Choice, GIS and LINGO soft wares have been used. Findings imply that other than four existing branches, with respect to achieved criteria and usage of Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP, coverage of 95% of demands in the research area with establishing four branches in the specified points can be achieved.

  18. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Samarina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5–6.3 is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit of quantitation is 0.1 μg/mL, the determination range is 0.1 – 2.8 μg/mL (RSD 0.02–0.10. Copper does not interfere with the iron assessment.

  19. Dire necessity and transformation: entry-points for modern science in Islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Furber, Steven W; Kholwadia, Mohammad A; Moosa, Ebrahim

    2014-02-01

    The field of medicine provides an important window through which to examine the encounters between religion and science, and between modernity and tradition. While both religion and science consider health to be a 'good' that is to be preserved, and promoted, religious and science-based teachings may differ in their conception of what constitutes good health, and how that health is to be achieved. This paper analyzes the way the Islamic ethico-legal tradition assesses the permissibility of using vaccines that contain porcine-derived components by referencing opinions of several Islamic authorities. In the Islamic ethico-legal tradition controversy surrounds the use of proteins from an animal (pig) that is considered to be impure by Islamic law. As we discuss the Islamic ethico-legal constructs used to argue for or against the use of porcine-based vaccines we will call attention to areas where modern medical data may make the arguments more precise. By highlighting areas where science can buttress and clarify the ethico-legal arguments we hope to spur an enhanced applied Islamic bioethics discourse where religious scholars and medical experts use modern science in a way that remains faithful to the epistemology of Islamic ethics to clarify what Islam requires of Muslim patients and healthcare workers. PMID:23445524

  20. ASSESSMENT OF THE INQUIRY-BASED PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS IN SCIENCE EDUCATION UPON STUDENTS’ POINTS OF VIEWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan AKINOGLU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to assess how students in 6th, 7th and 8th grades of primary education see the project works made in science education and their implementation processes. The study was fulfilled upon the descriptive survey model to collect data. Participants of the research were 100 students who had project implementation experiences in science education, and they were from 24 primary schools in 7 districts randomly chosen in the city of Istanbul in Turkey. Data of the study were collected by using a semi-constructed interview form offered to students during the 2005-2006 teaching year. In the research, following items were examined: The extent to which students are inspired from the previously made projects during their own project selection process, the level of scientific document survey and the effects of contemporary events, science and technology class topics and students’ interest areas. It was seen that internet is the mostly used source to obtain information. For students, one of the most problematic issues faced during the project implementation is the time limits set out by teacher. It was found that the most obvious benefit obtained by students from the project works is their increasing interest towards science and technology class. The most significant change seen by students regarding project preparation is their increasing grades in exams during and following the project works.

  1. The Effects of a Branch Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Donald; Wang, Yaqin

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of a branch campus on the social welfare of the host country and the foreign university. Overall, we find that a branch campus increases both the domestic social welfare (measured by the aggregate student utility) and the tuition revenue of the foreign university. The effect of a branch campus on the brain drain is…

  2. Assessment of precipitable water vapor derived from ground-based BeiDou observations with Precise Point Positioning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Li, Wenwen; Shi, Chuang; Zhao, Qile; Su, Xing; Qu, Lizhong; Liu, Zhizhao

    2015-01-01

    Precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation from Global Positioning System (GPS) has been extensively studied and used for meteorological applications. However PWV estimation using the emerging BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is very limited. In this paper the PWV estimation strategy and the evaluation of the results inferred from ground-based BDS observations using Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method are presented. BDS and GPS data from 10 stations distributed in the Asia-Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions during the year 2013 are processed using the PANDA (Position and Navigation Data Analyst) software package. The BDS-PWV and GPS-PWV are derived from the BDS-only and GPS-only observations, respectively. The PPP positioning differences between BDS-only and GPS-only show a standard deviation (STD) GPS-PWV at the HKTU station (Hong Kong, China) is compared with PWV derived from a radiosonde station (about 1 km distance) over a 6-month period. The GPS-PWV shows a good agreement with radiosonde-PWV with a bias of 0.002 mm and a STD of 2.49 mm while BDS-PWV has with a bias of -2.04 mm and STD 2.68 mm with respect to radiosonde-PWV. This indicates that the PWV estimated from the BDS can achieve similar precision as PWV from GPS. The BDS-PWV is compared to GPS-PWV at 10 stations. The mean bias and STD of their differences at 10 stations are 0.78 mm and 1.77 mm, respectively. The mean root mean square (RMS) value is 2.00 mm by considering the GPS-PWV as reference truth. This again confirms that the BDS-PWV has a good agreement with the GPS-PWV. It clearly indicates that the BDS is ready for the high precision meteorological applications in the Asia-Pacific and West Indian Ocean regions and that BDS alone can be used for PWV estimation with an accuracy comparable to GPS.

  3. Assessing the concentrations of polar organic microcontaminants from point sources in the aquatic environment: measure or model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Ternes, Thomas; Williams, Richard J; Sumpter, John P

    2008-08-01

    To carry out meaningful ecotoxicity studies on novel polar organic microcontaminants, it is essential to know what concentrations wildlife may be exposed to. Traditionally these values were obtained by analytical chemistry, but in recent years GIS water quality models have been developed which may offer a quick and reliable way of getting the same information. Thus, two ways of obtaining basically the same information now exist, and an issue, therefore, arises as to which method is the most appropriate to use in which situation. To address this issue we have critically reviewed and compared measuring and modeling approaches for the determination of sewage effluent and river water concentrations of organic microcontaminants. Where model predictions and chemical measurements can be directly compared in sewage effluents, receiving waters, and across catchments, reported model mean values have all been within 1 order of magnitude of the measured values, with typically no more than a 3- or 4-fold difference. Interlaboratory chemical analysis of some organic microcontaminants in effluents in the challenging ng/L range have provided results which have varied from one another by a similar margin. No such comparison has been carried out yet for GIS water quality models to determine variation in predicted concentrations. As the level of ecotoxicological effects of many chemicals is often considerably higher than the reported measured or modeled values, such errors that might occur will often be of no consequence. But due to their extraordinary potency, much more accuracy is required with some natural and synthetic hormones. Significantly, modeling is no more complex to conduct when dealing with contaminants at ng/L compared with mg/L concentrations, but the same cannot be said for chemical analysis. A combination of modeling and measuring techniques will give the greatest confidence in risk assessment. PMID:18754451

  4. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  5. Higher order branching of periodic orbits from polynomial isochrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Toni

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the higher order local bifurcations of limit cycles from polynomial isochrones (linearizable centers when the linearizing transformation is explicitly known and yields a polynomial perturbation one-form. Using a method based on the relative cohomology decomposition of polynomial one-forms complemented with a step reduction process, we give an explicit formula for the overall upper bound of branch points of limit cycles in an arbitrary $n$ degree polynomial perturbation of the linear isochrone, and provide an algorithmic procedure to compute the upper bound at successive orders. We derive a complete analysis of the nonlinear cubic Hamiltonian isochrone and show that at most nine branch points of limit cycles can bifurcate in a cubic polynomial perturbation. Moreover, perturbations with exactly two, three, four, six, and nine local families of limit cycles may be constructed.

  6. The branching Brownian motion seen from its tip

    CERN Document Server

    Aïdékon, E; Brunet, É; Shi, Z

    2011-01-01

    Very recently, Arguin et al. have proved the conjecture (which can be found in the work of Lalley and Sellke) that the branching Brownian motion seen from its tip (e.g. from its rightmost particle) converges to an invariant point process. The main goal of the present work is to give a complete description of the limit object and an alternative proof of the convergence. As conjectured by Brunet and Derrida and proved by Arguin et al., the structure of this extremal point process turns out to be a certain Poisson point process with exponential intensity in which each atom has been decorated by an independent copy of an auxiliary point process. Here, we give an explicit construction of this decoration point process.

  7. SWIP Prediction: Complexity-Effective Indirect-Branch Prediction Using Pointers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Chao Xie; Dong Tong; Ming-Kai Huang; Qin-Qing Shi; Xu Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Predicting indirect-branch targets has become a performance bottleneck for many applications.Previous highperformance indirect-branch predictors usually require significant hardware storage or additional compiler support,which increases the complexity of the processor front-end or the compilers.This paper proposes a complexity-effective indirectbranch prediction mechanism,called the Set-Way Index Pointing (SWIP) prediction.It stores multiple indirect-branch targets in different branch target buffer (BTB) entries,whose set indices and way locations are treated as set-way index pointers.These pointers are stored in the existing branch-direction predictor.SWIP prediction reuses the branch direction predictor to provide such pointers,and then accesses the pointed BTB entries for the predicted indirect-branch target.Our evaluation shows that SWIP prediction could achieve attractive performance improvement without requiring large dedicated storage or additional compiler support.It improves the indirect-branch prediction accuracy by 36.5% compared to that of a commonly-used BTB,resulting in average performance improvement of 18.56%.Its energy consumption is also reduced by 14.34% over that of the baseline.

  8. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay

    2013-01-01

    On the day-of-launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers to include NASA's Launch Services Program and NASA's Ground Systems Development and Operations Program. They currently do not have the capability to display and overlay profiles of upper-level observations and numerical weather prediction model forecasts. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool in the form of a graphical user interface (GUI) that will allow them to plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) 50 MHz tropospheric wind profiling radar, KSC Shuttle Landing Facility 915 MHz boundary layer wind profiling radar and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Processing System (AMPS) radiosondes, and then overlay forecast wind profiles from the model point data including the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model, Rapid Refresh (RAP) model and Global Forecast System (GFS) model to assess the performance of these models. The AMU developed an Excel-based tool that provides an objective method for the LWOs to compare the model-forecast upper-level winds to the KSC wind profiling radars and CCAFS AMPS observations to assess the model potential to accurately forecast changes in the upperlevel profile through the launch count. The AMU wrote Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) scripts to automatically retrieve model point data for CCAFS (XMR) from the Iowa State University Archive Data Server (http://mtarchive.qeol.iastate.edu) and the 50 MHz, 915 MHz and AMPS observations from the NASA/KSC Spaceport Weather Data Archive web site (http://trmm.ksc.nasa.gov). The AMU then developed code in Excel VBA to automatically ingest and format the observations and model point data in Excel to ready the data for generating Excel charts for the LWO's. The resulting charts allow the LWOs to independently initialize the three models 0

  9. MYOCARDIAL DEFORMATION AND COMPLETE LEFT BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Pavlyukova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue Doppler imaging is evolving as a useful echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Over the last 10 years, myocardial deformation imaging has become possible initially with tissue Doppler , and more recently with myocardial speckle-tracking using 2D echocardiography. Unlike simple tissue velocity measurements, deformation measurements are specific for the region of interest. Strain rate or strain measurements have been used as sensitive indicators for subclinical diseases, and it is the most widely used tool to assess mechanical dyssynchrony. Left bundle branch block is a frequent, etiologically heterogeneous, clinically hostile and diagnostically challenging entity. About 2% of patients underwent cardiac stress testing show stable or intermittent left bundle branch block. Presence of left bundle branch block is associated with a lower and slower diastolic coronary flow velocity especially during hyperemia. Stress echocardiography is the best option for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, albeit specificity and sensitivity reduce in patients with left bundle branch block in the territory of left anterior descending artery in presence of initial septum dyskinesia.

  10. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  11. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  12. An Individual Tree Detection Algorithm for Dense Deciduous Forests with Spreading Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, G.

    2015-12-01

    Individual tree information derived from LiDAR may have the potential to assist forest inventory and improve the assessment of forest structure and composition for sustainable forest management. The algorithms developed for individual tree detection are commonly focusing on finding tree tops to allocation the tree positions. However, the spreading branches (cylinder crowns) in deciduous forests cause such kind of algorithms work less effectively on dense canopy. This research applies a machine learning algorithm, mean shift, to position individual trees based on the density of LiDAR point could instead of detecting tree tops. The study site locates in a dense oak forest in Indiana, US. The selection of mean shift kernels is discussed. The constant and dynamic bandwidths of mean shit algorithms are applied and compared.

  13. Change point analysis and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to develop an analytical framework for studying processes such as continuous innovation and business development in high-tech SME clusters that transcends the traditional qualitative-quantitative divide. It integrates four existing and well-recognized approaches...

  14. NEPR Accuracy Assessment Points - 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile denotes the location of underwater photos and videos taken in shallow water (0-35m) benthic habitats surrounding Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra...

  15. Coral reef assessment and monitoring made easy using Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe software in Calangahan, Lugait, Misamis Oriental, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. M. Tabugo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef communities are considered as the most diverse marine ecosystems that provide food, shelter and protection to marine organisms. It provides many important benefits to humans but often a subject to impairment through human activities. Cascading human influences and climate change appeared as a reason behind its decline. Thus, coral reef monitoring methods are substantial. This study utilized Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe software, as a means to increase efficiency of coral reef monitoring efforts because it automates, facilitates and speeds the process of random point count analysis and can perform image calibration, planar area and length calculations of benthic features. The method was used to estimate community statistics of benthos based on captured still images for every 1m marked across four 50m transect line (total 200 m at 4.6-5.6m depth. Transect images were assigned with 30 spatial random points for identification. Multiple image frames were combined for each transect length supplying datasheet containing header information, statistical parameters species / substrate type (relative abundance, mean and standard deviation and Shannon-Weaver and Simpson's Index calculation for species diversity. Generated transect datasets were statistically analyzed to give quantitative population estimates over the area of interest. Data from individual frames were combined per transect to allow both inter- and intra- site/transect comparisons. This study reports the current status of coral reefs across Calangahan, Lugait, Misamis Oriental, Philippines and proved the efficiency of CPCe as a tool in reef assessment and monitoring. Results showed that most common genera Porites and Acropora were dominant, with Porites lobata as the most abundant coral species in the area. Moreover, results also showed that there were various diseases present affecting corals leading to increased mortality.

  16. Assessing Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry and Suitability for Irrigation Purposes of Aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire, South-West Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tathy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater of AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire (south-west town of Congo-Brazzaville was assessed for factors controlling the hydrochemistry and its irrigation suitability. Thirty three groundwater samples collected from 11 piezometers were analyzed for physical parameters such as: pH, temperature (T, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS; major cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions Cl- , SO42- , HCO3-. Factor analysis revealed four factors associated with the mineralization, alkalinity, temperature and pH of the groundwater. Some indexes which can influence the groundwater quality for irrigation were determined: Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, percent of sodium (%Na, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC, Permeability Index (PI and Potential Salinity (PS. These indexes for water irrigation were compared with standard limits. They have been found within the safe limit suitable for irrigation. The total dissolved solids in the groundwater were lower than 1500 mg/L, this denotes that irrigation using groundwater of aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire would not cause salinity hazards.

  17. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  18. Assessing normative cut points through differential item functioning analysis: An example from the adaptation of the Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS for use as a cognitive screening test in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutlay Sehim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Middlesex Elderly Assessment of Mental State (MEAMS was developed as a screening test to detect cognitive impairment in the elderly. It includes 12 subtests, each having a 'pass score'. A series of tasks were undertaken to adapt the measure for use in the adult population in Turkey and to determine the validity of existing cut points for passing subtests, given the wide range of educational level in the Turkish population. This study focuses on identifying and validating the scoring system of the MEAMS for Turkish adult population. Methods After the translation procedure, 350 normal subjects and 158 acquired brain injury patients were assessed by the Turkish version of MEAMS. Initially, appropriate pass scores for the normal population were determined through ANOVA post-hoc tests according to age, gender and education. Rasch analysis was then used to test the internal construct validity of the scale and the validity of the cut points for pass scores on the pooled data by using Differential Item Functioning (DIF analysis within the framework of the Rasch model. Results Data with the initially modified pass scores were analyzed. DIF was found for certain subtests by age and education, but not for gender. Following this, pass scores were further adjusted and data re-fitted to the model. All subtests were found to fit the Rasch model (mean item fit 0.184, SD 0.319; person fit -0.224, SD 0.557 and DIF was then found to be absent. Thus the final pass scores for all subtests were determined. Conclusion The MEAMS offers a valid assessment of cognitive state for the adult Turkish population, and the revised cut points accommodate for age and education. Further studies are required to ascertain the validity in different diagnostic groups.

  19. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  20. 3D modelling of branching in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Shoot branching is a key determinant of overall aboveground plant form. During plant development, the number of branches formed strongly influences the amount of light absorbed by the plant, and thus the plant’s competitive strength in terms of light capture in relation to neighbouring plants. Branching is regulated by multiple internal factors which are modulated by different environmental signals. A key environmental signal in the context of a plant population is a low red / far-red intensi...

  1. The Relationship between Mechanical Hyperalgesia Assessed by Manual Tender Point Examination and Disease Severity in Patients with Chronic Widespread Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstine Amris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical utility of tender point (TP examination in patients reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP is the subject of contemporary debate. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between mechanical hyperalgesia assessed by manual TP examination and clinical disease severity. 271 women with CWP were recruited from a clinical setting. Data collection included patient-reported symptoms, health-related quality of life variables, and observation-based measures of functional ability, muscle strength, 6-minute walk, and pressure pain thresholds measured by cuff algometry. TP examination was conducted according to ACR-guidelines. Relationships between disease variables and TP count (TPC were analyzed with logistic regression in a continuum model, allowing the TPC to depend on the included disease variables and two regression models carried out for a TPC threshold level, varying between 1 and 17. The threshold analyses indicated a TPC threshold at 8, above which a large number of disease variables became consistently significant explanatory factors, whereas none of the disease variables reached a significance level in the continuum model. These results support the premise that the presence of mechanical hyperalgesia influences symptomatology in CWP and that the severity of clinical expression is related to a threshold of TPs, rather than being part of a continuum.

  2. Supercritical branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hutzenthaler, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical branching processes in constant environment conditioned on eventual extinction are known to be subcritical branching processes. The case of random environment is more subtle. A supercritical branching diffusion in random environment (BDRE) conditioned on eventual extinction of the population is not a BDRE. However the quenched law of the population size of a supercritical BDRE conditioned on eventual extinction is equal to the quenched law of the population size of a subcritical BDRE. As a consequence, supercritical BDREs have a phase transition which is similar to a well-known phase transition of subcritical branching processes in random environment.

  3. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  4. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  5. Networks of companies and branches in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, A M; Sienkiewicz, J; Suchecki, K; Chmiel, Anna M.; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    In this study we consider relations between companies in Poland taking into account common branches they belong to. It is clear that companies belonging to the same branch compete for similar customers, so the market induces correlations between them. On the other hand two branches can be related by companies acting in both of them. To remove weak, accidental links we shall use a concept of threshold filtering for weighted networks where a link weight corresponds to a number of existing connections (common companies or branches) between a pair of nodes.

  6. Assessment of a Monte-Carlo simulation of SPECT recordings from a new-generation heart-centric semiconductor camera: from point sources to human images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE), a Monte-Carlo simulation platform, has previously been used for optimizing tomoscintigraphic images recorded with scintillation Anger cameras but not with the new-generation heart-centric cadmium–zinc–telluride (CZT) cameras. Using the GATE platform, this study aimed at simulating the SPECT recordings from one of these new CZT cameras and to assess this simulation by direct comparison between simulated and actual recorded data, ranging from point sources to human images. Geometry and movement of detectors, as well as their respective energy responses, were modeled for the CZT ‘D.SPECT’ camera in the GATE platform. Both simulated and actual recorded data were obtained from: (1) point and linear sources of 99mTc for compared assessments of detection sensitivity and spatial resolution, (2) a cardiac insert filled with a 99mTc solution for compared assessments of contrast-to-noise ratio and sharpness of myocardial borders and (3) in a patient with myocardial infarction using segmented cardiac magnetic resonance imaging images. Most of the data from the simulated images exhibited high concordance with the results of actual images with relative differences of only: (1) 0.5% for detection sensitivity, (2) 6.7% for spatial resolution, (3) 2.6% for contrast-to-noise ratio and 5.0% for sharpness index on the cardiac insert placed in a diffusing environment. There was also good concordance between actual and simulated gated-SPECT patient images for the delineation of the myocardial infarction area, although the quality of the simulated images was clearly superior with increases around 50% for both contrast-to-noise ratio and sharpness index. SPECT recordings from a new heart-centric CZT camera can be simulated with the GATE software with high concordance relative to the actual physical properties of this camera. These simulations may be conducted up to the stage of human SPECT-images even if further refinement is

  7. Popliteal artery branching patterns-an angiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, C.P. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chris.laura2001@ntlworld.com; Orme, R. [Department of Radiology, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, Shrewsbury (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-15

    AIM: To analyse the variations in branching patterns of the popliteal artery and infrapopliteal vessels using angiography. MATERIALS And METHODS: Femoral angiograms of 1037 lower limbs in 568 patients were examined to assess the popliteal artery branching pattern. Variations of the infrapopliteal vessels supplying the foot were assessed in 662 limbs from the same cohort of patients. RESULTS: Nine hundred and forty-one (90.7%) limbs had the usual branching pattern with anterior tibial artery (AT) arising first followed by the tibial-peroneal trunk (TPT), which then gives rise to the posterior tibial (PT) and peroneal (PR) arteries. Variations in popliteal branching pattern were seen in 96 (9.3%) limbs. The commonest variation is high origin of the AT in 47 (4.5%) limbs or trifurcation of the popliteal artery in 33 (3.2%) limbs with AT, PT and PR arising together with no true TPT. The course of AT with high origin either anterior or posterior to popliteus was almost equal [25 (2.4%) or 22 (2.1%) limbs, respectively]. Eleven limbs (1.1%) had high origin of PT and two (0.2%) had a high origin of the PR. Six hundred and fifty-five (99%) limbs had normal infrapopliteal vessels. Seven (1%) had hypoplasia-aplasia of the infrapopliteal vessels. Five (0.8%) limbs had a hypoplastic PT with the remaining 2 (0.2%) having either a hypoplastic-aplastic AT or hypoplasia-aplasia of both AT and PT. CONCLUSION: Variations in the branching of the popliteal artery occur in about 10% of patients. Knowledge of these variations is important because of the potential consequences for the management of peripheral vascular disease.

  8. Ventricular fiber optimization utilizing the branching structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Takumi; Yoneda, Kazunori; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Kariya, Taro; Sugiura, Seiryo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm that optimizes the ventricular fiber structure of the human heart. A number of histological studies and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging analyses have revealed that the myocardial fiber forms a right-handed helix at the endocardium. However, the fiber formation changes its orientation as a function of transmural depth, becoming a left-handed helix at the epicardium. To determine how nature can construct such a structure, which obtains surprising pumping performance, we introduce macroscopic modeling of the branching structure of cardiac myocytes in our finite element ventricular model and utilize this in an optimization process. We put a set of multidirectional fibers around a central fiber orientation at each point of the ventricle walls and simulate heartbeats by generating contraction forces along each of these directions. We examine two optimization processes using the workloads or impulses measured in these directions to update the central fiber orientation. Both processes improve the pumping performance towards an optimal value within several tens of heartbeats, starting from an almost-flat fiber orientation. However, compared with the workload optimization, the impulse optimization produces better agreement with experimental studies on transmural changes of fiber helix angle, streamline patterns of characteristic helical structures, and temporal changes in strain. Furthermore, the impulse optimization is robust under geometrical changes of the heart and tends to homogenize various mechanical factors such as the stretch and stretch rate along the fiber orientation, the contraction force, and energy consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26453026

  9. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Menshykau

    Full Text Available Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation. While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10 and sonic hedgehog (SHH as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc. We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes.

  10. Branch mode selection during early lung development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshykau, Denis; Kraemer, Conradin; Iber, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Many organs of higher organisms, such as the vascular system, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver and glands, are heavily branched structures. The branching process during lung development has been studied in great detail and is remarkably stereotyped. The branched tree is generated by the sequential, non-random use of three geometrically simple modes of branching (domain branching, planar and orthogonal bifurcation). While many regulatory components and local interactions have been defined an integrated understanding of the regulatory network that controls the branching process is lacking. We have developed a deterministic, spatio-temporal differential-equation based model of the core signaling network that governs lung branching morphogenesis. The model focuses on the two key signaling factors that have been identified in experiments, fibroblast growth factor (FGF10) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) as well as the SHH receptor patched (Ptc). We show that the reported biochemical interactions give rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing patterning mechanisms that allows us to reproduce experimental observations in wildtype and mutant mice. The kinetic parameters as well as the domain shape are based on experimental data where available. The developed model is robust to small absolute and large relative changes in the parameter values. At the same time there is a strong regulatory potential in that the switching between branching modes can be achieved by targeted changes in the parameter values. We note that the sequence of different branching events may also be the result of different growth speeds: fast growth triggers lateral branching while slow growth favours bifurcations in our model. We conclude that the FGF10-SHH-Ptc1 module is sufficient to generate pattern that correspond to the observed branching modes. PMID:22359491

  11. Branch-pipe-routing approach for ships using improved genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Haiteng; Niu, Wentie

    2016-09-01

    Branch-pipe routing plays fundamental and critical roles in ship-pipe design. The branch-pipe-routing problem is a complex combinatorial optimization problem and is thus difficult to solve when depending only on human experts. A modified genetic-algorithm-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The simplified layout space is first divided into threedimensional (3D) grids to build its mathematical model. Branch pipes in layout space are regarded as a combination of several two-point pipes, and the pipe route between two connection points is generated using an improved maze algorithm. The coding of branch pipes is then defined, and the genetic operators are devised, especially the complete crossover strategy that greatly accelerates the convergence speed. Finally, simulation tests demonstrate the performance of proposed method.

  12. Branch-pipe-routing approach for ships using improved genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Haiteng; Niu, Wentie

    2016-05-01

    Branch-pipe routing plays fundamental and critical roles in ship-pipe design. The branch-pipe-routing problem is a complex combinatorial optimization problem and is thus difficult to solve when depending only on human experts. A modified genetic-algorithm-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The simplified layout space is first divided into threedimensional (3D) grids to build its mathematical model. Branch pipes in layout space are regarded as a combination of several two-point pipes, and the pipe route between two connection points is generated using an improved maze algorithm. The coding of branch pipes is then defined, and the genetic operators are devised, especially the complete crossover strategy that greatly accelerates the convergence speed. Finally, simulation tests demonstrate the performance of proposed method.

  13. Origin of Broad Visible Emission from Branched Polysilane and Polygermane Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Sato, Takaaki; Matsuda, Minoru

    2001-11-01

    The emission properties of branched polysilane and polygermane are studied using time-resolved emission spectroscopy. As branched polymers, the organosilicon cluster (OSI) and organogermanium cluster (OGE) are investigated, which are prepared from tetrachlorosilane and tetrachlorogermane, respectively, and have a hyperbranched structure. The broad visible emissions of OSI and OGE are explained by the energy diagram based on a configuration coordinate model, and the excited states are attributed to a localized state around the branching point. The molecular orbital (MO) calculation suggested the formation of a localized state by the distortion around the branching point in the excited state. The potential barrier for the nonradiative relaxation process was determined from the temperature dependence of the emission lifetime.

  14. Turning Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Moves from the United States and North Korea give new impetus to nuclear disablement and U.S.-North Korea ties The tense situation surrounding denu-clearization on the Korean Peninsula has reached a turning point. On

  15. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  16. A role for Fas II in the stabilization of motor neuron branches during pruning in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Sarita; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2005-09-01

    During insect metamorphosis, the nervous system is extensively remodeled resulting in the development of new circuits that will execute adult-specific behaviors. The peripheral remodeling seen during development of innervation to the Dorsal Longitudinal (flight) Muscle (DLM) in Drosophila involves an initial retraction of larval neuromuscular junctions followed by adult-specific branch outgrowth. Subsequently, a phase of pruning occurs during which motor neuron branches are pruned back to reveal the stereotypic pattern of multiple contact points (or arbors) along the length of each DLM fiber. In this study, we show that the cell adhesion molecule, Fasciclin II (Fas II), is important for generating the stereotypic pattern. In Fas II hypomorphs, the number of contact points is increased, and the phenotype is rescued by targeted expression of Fas II in either synaptic partner. Arbor development has three distinct phases: outgrowth and elaboration, pruning and stabilization, and expansion of stabilized arbors. Fas II is expressed during the first two phases. A subset of branches is labeled during the elaboration phase, which is likely to initiate a stabilization pathway allowing branches to survive the pruning phase. However, since not all Fas II positive branches are retained, we propose that it primes branches for stabilization. Our data suggest that Fas II functions to restrict branch length and arbor expanse.

  17. Roles for auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in regulating shoot branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brett J; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-04-01

    Many processes have been described in the control of shoot branching. Apical dominance is defined as the control exerted by the shoot tip on the outgrowth of axillary buds, whereas correlative inhibition includes the suppression of growth by other growing buds or shoots. The level, signaling, and/or flow of the plant hormone auxin in stems and buds is thought to be involved in these processes. In addition, RAMOSUS (RMS) branching genes in pea (Pisum sativum) control the synthesis and perception of a long-distance inhibitory branching signal produced in the stem and roots, a strigolactone or product. Auxin treatment affects the expression of RMS genes, but it is unclear whether the RMS network can regulate branching independently of auxin. Here, we explore whether apical dominance and correlative inhibition show independent or additive effects in rms mutant plants. Bud outgrowth and branch lengths are enhanced in decapitated and stem-girdled rms mutants compared with intact control plants. This may relate to an RMS-independent induction of axillary bud outgrowth by these treatments. Correlative inhibition was also apparent in rms mutant plants, again indicating an RMS-independent component. Treatments giving reductions in RMS1 and RMS5 gene expression, auxin transport, and auxin level in the main stem were not always sufficient to promote bud outgrowth. We suggest that this may relate to a failure to induce the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes, which always correlated with bud outgrowth in our treatments. We present a new model that accounts for apical dominance, correlative inhibition, RMS gene action, and auxin and cytokinin and their interactions in controlling the progression of buds through different control points from dormancy to sustained growth. PMID:19218361

  18. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jing Liu

    Full Text Available To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH, both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family, and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members.

  19. 12 CFR 741.11 - Foreign branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Contents of Business Plan. The written business plan must address the following: (1) Analysis of market... regarding the branch (shares, lending, capital, charge-offs, collections); (6) The field of membership or... for branch operations (balance sheet and income and expense projections) for the first and second...

  20. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that were sweeping…

  1. Statistical Distributions of Earthquake Numbers: Consequence of Branching Process

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2009-01-01

    We discuss various statistical distributions of earthquake numbers. Previously we derived several discrete distributions to describe earthquake numbers for the branching model of earthquake occurrence: these distributions are the Poisson, geometric, logarithmic, and the negative binomial (NBD). In particular, a point branching process along the magnitude (or log seismic moment) axis with independent events (immigrants) explains the magnitude/moment-frequency relation and the NBD of earthquake counts in large time/space windows, as well as the dependence of the NBD parameters on the magnitude threshold. We discuss applying these distributions, especially the NBD, to approximate event numbers in earthquake catalogs. There are many different representations of the NBD. Most can be traced either to the Pascal distribution or to the mixture of the Poisson distribution with the gamma law. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of both representations for statistical analysis of earthquake catalogs. We also consider ap...

  2. A Multisection Broadband Impedance Transforming Branch-Line Hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S; Danshin, T

    1995-01-01

    Measurements and design equations for a two section impedance transforming hybrid suitable for MMIC applications and a new method of synthesis for multisection branch-line hybrids are reported. The synthesis method allows the response to be specified either of Butterworth or Chebyshev type. Both symmetric (with equal input and output impedances) and non-symmetric (impedance transforming) designs are feasible. Starting from a given number of sections, type of response, and impedance transformation ratio and for a specified midband coupling, power division ratio, isolation or directivity ripple bandwidth, the set of constants needed for the evaluation of the reflection coefficient response is first calculated. The latter is used to define a driving point impedance of the circuit, synthesize it and obtain the branch line immittances with the use of the concept of double length unit elements (DLUE). The experimental results obtained with microstrip hybrids constructed to test the validity of the brute force optim...

  3. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1989-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Such a RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their Filled Coal Ash Pond on McCoy Branch. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented or planned for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The McCoy Branch RFI plan included provisions for biological monitoring of the McCoy Branch watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to: (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline and after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program will also determine if the classified uses, as identified by the State of Tennessee, of McCoy Branch are being protected and maintained. This report discusses results from toxicity monitoring of snails fish community assessment, and a Benthic macroinvertebrate community assessment.

  4. Ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch, 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, M.G. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    The 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) required assessment of all current and former solid waste management units. Following guidelines under RCRA and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a remedial investigation (RI) was required of the Y-12 Plant for their filled coal ash pond (FCAP) and associated areas on McCoy Branch. The RI process was initiated and assessments were presented. Because the disposal of coal ash in the ash pond, McCoy Branch, and Rogers Quarry was not consistent with the Tennessee Water Quality Act, several remediation steps were implemented between 1986 and 1994 for McCoy Branch to address disposal problems. The required ecological risk assessments of McCoy Branch watershed included provisions for biological monitoring of the watershed. The objectives of the biological monitoring were to (1) document changes in biological quality of McCoy Branch after completion of a pipeline bypassing upper McCoy Branch and further, after termination of all discharges to Rogers Quarry, (2) provide guidance on the need for additional remediation, and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of implemented remedial actions. The data from the biological monitoring program may also determine whether the goals of protection of human health and the environment of McCoy Branch are being accomplished.

  5. Electrophoretic dynamics of self-assembling branched DNA structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Daniel Milton

    This study advances our understanding of the electrophoretic dynamics of branched biopolymers and explores technologies designed to exploit their unique properties. New self-assembly techniques were developed to create branched DNA for visualization via fluorescence microscopy. Experiments in fixed gel networks reveal a distinct trapping behavior, in contrast with linear topologies. The finding that detection can be achieved by introducing a branch point contributes significantly to the field of separation science and can be exploited to develop new applications. Results obtained in polymer solutions point to identical mobilities for branched and linear topologies, despite large differences in their dynamics. This finding led to a new description of electrophoresis based on non-Newtonian viscoelastic effects in the electric double layer surrounding a charged object. This new theoretical framework presents a new outlook important not only to the electrophoretic physics of nucleic acids, but all charged objects including proteins, colloids, and nanoparticles. To study the behavior of smaller biopolymers, such as restriction fragments and recombination intermediates, a library of symmetrically branched DNA was synthesized followed by characterization in gels. The experimental results contribute a large body of information relating molecular architecture and the dynamics of rigid structures in an electric field. The findings allow us to create new separation technologies based on topology. These contributions can also be utilized in a number of different applications including the study of recombination intermediates and the separation of proteins according to structure. To demonstrate the importance of these findings, a sequence and mutation detection technique was envisioned and applied for genetic analysis. Restriction fragments from mutation "hotspots" in the p53 tumor suppressor gene, known to play a role in cancer development, were analyzed with this technique

  6. Introduction to the police scientific development branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Police Scientific Development Branch (Pdb) of the UK Home Office evaluates technologies, develops equipment and detection standards for the police and security communities. PSDB's guidance helps to protect critical sites, including nuclear sites, in the United Kingdom. PSDB evaluates doors, walls, fences, locks, glazing and other barrier to determine whether they meet national and European standards against conventional physical attack. PSDB also evaluates intruder-detection systems. If solutions for security problems do not exist commercially, it might help to develop them. Examples include computer machine-vision systems to guide a pan-tilt-zoom camera automatically, and to assess intruder alarms. PSDB's automatic alarm verification system (AMETHYST) is now being installed for test at a nuclear power station on England's south coast. PSDB has used its analysis of the effects of exploding bombs on building materials to influence building codes. The PSDB also evaluates technologies for crime investigation, surveillance, explosive detection and bomb search. PSDB uses its experience to help train security practitioners to select, specify, and audit security at critical sites, including sites that handle nuclear materials. PSDB's technologies and advice have helped to protect the UK against terrorist attacks. Its expertise can be made available to help meet other European needs. (author)

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Variational Surface Reconstruction from Sparse Point Clouds in Freehand 3D Ultrasound Imaging during Image-Guided Tumor Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangcheng Deng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface reconstruction for freehand 3D ultrasound is used to provide 3D visualization of a VOI (volume of interest during image-guided tumor ablation surgery. This is a challenge because the recorded 2D B-scans are not only sparse but also non-parallel. To solve this issue, we established a framework to reconstruct the surface of freehand 3D ultrasound imaging in 2011. The key technique for surface reconstruction in that framework is based on variational interpolation presented by Greg Turk for shape transformation and is named Variational Surface Reconstruction (VSR. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the quality of surface reconstructions, especially when the input data are extremely sparse point clouds from freehand 3D ultrasound imaging, using four methods: Ball Pivoting, Power Crust, Poisson, and VSR. Four experiments are conducted, and quantitative metrics, such as the Hausdorff distance, are introduced for quantitative assessment. The experiment results show that the performance of the proposed VSR method is the best of the four methods at reconstructing surface from sparse data. The VSR method can produce a close approximation to the original surface from as few as two contours, whereas the other three methods fail to do so. The experiment results also illustrate that the reproducibility of the VSR method is the best of the four methods.

  8. Point-surface fusion of station measurements and satellite observations for mapping PM2.5 distribution in China: methods and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tongwen; Zeng, Chao; Yuan, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse human health effects, and China is currently suffering from serious PM2.5 pollution. To obtain spatially continuous ground-level PM2.5 concentrations, several models established by point-surface fusion of ground station and satellite observations have been developed. However, how well do these models perform at national scale in China? Is there space to improve the estimation accuracy of PM2.5 concentration? The contribution of this study is threefold. Firstly, taking advantage of the newly established national monitoring network, we develop a national-scale generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model to estimate PM2.5 concentrations. Secondly, different assessment experiments are undertaken in time and space, to comprehensively evaluate and compare the performance of the widely used models. Finally, to map the yearly and seasonal mean distribution of PM2.5 concentrations in China, a pixel-based merging strategy is proposed. The results indicat...

  9. Identifying thermal cycling mechanisms in PWR branch line piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.T. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States); Keller, J.D.; Bilanin, A.J. [Continuum Dynamics, Inc., Ewing, NJ (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Predicting the onset and the characteristics of thermal cycling in pressurized water reactor (PWR) branch line piping systems is critical to formulation of thermal fatigue screening tools. The complex nature of the underlying thermal-hydraulic phenomena, however, significantly complicates prediction using analytical models or direct numerical simulations. Instead, it is necessary to perform scaled experiments to identify the physical mechanisms and to gather data for formulation of semi-empirical models for the thermal cycling phenomena. Through the EPRI Materials Reliability Program a test program is underway to identify and develop semi-empirical correlations for the physical thermalhydraulic mechanisms that cause thermal cycling in dead-ended PWR branch line piping systems. Three series of tests are being performed in this test program: configuration tests on a representative up-horizontal (UH) branch line piping geometry, configuration tests on a representative down-horizontal (DH) branch line piping geometry, and high Reynolds number tests to assess penetration of secondary flow structures into a dead-ended branch line. Results from UH and DH configuration tests indicate that random turbulence penetration is not sufficient for thermal cycling to occur. Rather a swirling flow structure, representative of a large, 'corkscrew' vortical structure, is required for thermal cycling. Scale tests on the UH configuration have simulated cycling phenomena observed in full-scale plant data and have been used to determine parametric sensitivities in formulating a predictive model for the thermal cycling. Data indicate that the mechanism for thermal cycling in UH configurations is stochastic but scales with the leak rate from the valve. The critical dependent variables are reduced to several non-dimensional scaling curves, resulting in a semiempirical predictive model. This paper discusses the test program and the results obtained to date. Application of these

  10. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species. PMID:12495920

  11. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  12. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  13. Agents in branching space-times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuel; Belnap

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this essay Is to make some brief suggestions on the beginnings of a theory of agentsand agency In branching spacetlmes.foe thought Is to combine the ideas of agency as developed agalnst the relatively simple background of branching time with the richer notions of Indetermlnlsm asstructured In the theory of branching space-times.My plan Is to say a little about agency In branchingtime and a little about branchlg spacetlmes,and then ask how the two can be brought together.Atthe end there Is an ...

  14. Branching solutions to one-dimensional variational problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A O

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with the new class of one-dimensional variational problems - the problems with branching solutions. Instead of extreme curves (mappings of a segment to a manifold) we investigate extreme networks, which are mappings of graphs (one-dimensional cell complexes) to a manifold. Various applications of the approach are presented, such as several generalizations of the famous Steiner problem of finding the shortest network spanning given points of the plane. Contents: Preliminary Results; Networks Extremality Criteria; Linear Networks in R N; Extremals of Length Type Functionals: The

  15. Simulated lipoprotein transport in the wall of branched arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbeau, M Z; Lutz, R J; Collins, W E

    2000-01-01

    Study of arterial blood flow dynamics improves our understanding of the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The transport and accumulation of macromolecules in the arterial wall can be influenced by local fluid mechanics. We used numeric simulations to investigate such transport in a T-junction model. Presumably an in vitro experiment would consist of gel segments inserted in the walls of a mechanical flow T-junction model near branch points where separation and recirculation zones are expected. The transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) was investigated theoretically at these sites in a two dimensional numeric T-branch model. In the numeric model, the hydraulic conductivity of the porous gel wall segments was varied for a fixed species diffusivity to provide simulations with wall transmural Peclet numbers ranging from 0.3 to 30. Steady state flow patterns in the lumen of the two dimensional T-branch were simulated at Reynolds numbers of 250 and 500, using the software package FIDAP 7.61 to implement the finite element method. The simulations demonstrated that wall Peclet numbers greater than 1.0 were needed to achieve species concentration gradients within the wall that varied in the axial direction, thereby reflecting the influence of disturbed flow and pressure patterns in the lumen. As expected, the transmural concentration gradients were steeper when convection predominated. Blood flow in the lumen can influence the distribution of macromolecules in the arterial wall and needs to be investigated for the relevance to atherosclerosis.

  16. Processes governing the mass balance of Chhota Shigri Glacier (Western Himalaya, India assessed by point-scale surface energy balance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Azam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies revealed that Himalayan glaciers have been shrinking at an accelerated rate since the beginning of the 21st century. However the climatic causes for this shrinkage remain unclear given that surface energy balance studies are almost nonexistent in this region. In this study, a point-scale surface energy balance analysis was performed using in-situ meteorological data from the ablation zone of Chhota Shigri Glacier over two separate periods (August 2012 to February 2013 and July to October 2013 in order to understand the response of mass balance to climate change. Energy balance numerical modeling provides quantification of the surface energy fluxes and identification of the factors affecting glacier mass balance. The computed ablation was validated by stake observations. During summer-monsoon period, net radiation was the primary component of the surface energy balance with 82% of the total heat flux which was complimented with turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes with a share of 13% and 5%, respectively. A striking feature of energy balance is the positive turbulent latent heat flux, thus condensation or re-sublimation of moist air at the glacier surface takes place, during summer-monsoon period which is characterized by relatively high air temperature, high relative humidity and almost permanent melting surface. The impact of Indian summer monsoon on Chhota Shigri Glacier mass balance has also been assessed. This analysis demonstrates that the intensity of snowfall events during the summer-monsoon season plays a key role on surface albedo, in turn on melting, and thus is among the most important drivers controlling the annual mass balance of the glacier. Summer-monsoon air temperature, controlling the precipitation phase (rain vs. snow and thus albedo, counts, indirectly, also among the most important drivers for the glacier mass balance.

  17. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  18. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees

    CERN Document Server

    Theckes, Benoit; Boutillon, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration, due to their flexibility, which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is here identified and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shape branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being...

  19. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  20. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. [eds.

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  2. Exceptional points in atomic spectra and Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Cartarius, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Exceptional points are a special type of degeneracy which can appear for the resonances of parameter-dependent quantum spectra described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. They represent positions in the parameter space at which two or even more resonances pass through a branch point singularity. At the critical parameter values, the energies, the widths, and the wave functions describing the resonances are identical. The branching eigenstates show a geometric phase for a parameter space loop aro...

  3. A MORPHOMETRICAL STUDY OF BRANCHING PATTERN AND ANATOMICAL RELATIONSHIPS OF THE FACIAL NERVE ON THE FACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIM OF THE STUDY: The facial nerve gives off five main terminal branches within the substance of parotid gland. They diverge within the gland and supply the muscles of facial expression. Distinctive anastomotic patterns has been previously studied and reported. These anastomos es have pragmatic significance in surgical terms. The purpose of our study is to review the branching pattern of the facial nerve on the face and evaluate the variant anatomical relationships with adjacent structures. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study was done at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal and Hassan institute of medical sciences, Hassan. The facial nerve was dissected on thirty cadavers bilaterally (60 sides. The five terminal branches were observed from their point of origin in the parotid gland and t raced to their termination. The distances from the neighboring structures were measured to elucidate anatomical relations further. The results obtained were analyzed and compared with the previous studies. RESULTS : Wide variation in the branching pattern of facial nerve was noted. CONCLUSION : The knowledge of variant relations of the facial nerve branches will be of utmost importance for the maxillofacial and plastic surgeons for the preservation of the facial nerve in surgeries like parotidectomy, reconstructive surgeries of the face etc. The variations in the branching pattern can also presumably explain why accidental or deliberate division of a particular branch often fails to result in the anticipated facial ner ve weakness

  4. Parton Branching in Color Mutation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C

    1999-01-01

    The soft production problem in hadronic collisions as described in the eikonal color mutation branching model is improved in the way that the initial parton distribution is treated. Furry branching of the partons is considered as a means of describing the nonperturbative process of parton reproduction in soft interaction. The values of all the moments, and $C_q$, for q=2,...,5, as well as their energy dependences can be correctly determined by the use of only two parameters.

  5. CAST Xi'an Branch Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) Xi'an Branch was established on April 8,2008.The new branch consists of the headquarters of the former Xi'an Institute of Space Radio Technology (XISRT) of CAST and five former subsidiaries of the XISRT,i.e.the Institute of Space Electronic Technology,the Institute of Microwave Technology,the Institute of Space Antenna Technology,the Manufacturing Center for Space Electronics and Civilian High-tech Company.

  6. AGB [asymptotic giant branch]: Star evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asymptotic giant branch stars are red supergiant stars of low-to-intermediate mass. This class of stars is of particular interest because many of these stars can have nuclear processed material brought up repeatedly from the deep interior to the surface where it can be observed. A review of recent theoretical and observational work on stars undergoing the asymptotic giant branch phase is presented. 41 refs

  7. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  8. Vibration analysis of pipelines with arbitrary branches by absorbing transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gongmin; Li, Shuaijun; Li, Yanhua; Chen, Hao

    2013-11-01

    Branched pipes of arbitrary shapes are prevalent in pipe systems. Considering fluid-structure interaction (FSI), an absorbing transfer matrix method in frequency domain for fluid-filled pipelines with any branched pipes is proposed in this paper. A dominant chain of pipeline would be selected, and the point transfer matrix of each junction on the dominant chain would be determined. Here, the point transfer matrix, representing the influence of branched pipes at the junction on the dominant pipeline, was "absorbed" by the dominant chain. Based on these, with transfer matrixes of other elements, the fluid and structure dynamics problem could be solved following the chain transfer matrix method process. Several numerical examples with different constraints are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method. Moreover, the experiment of cross-shaped pipes with various boundary conditions was carried out. And results from the present approach were validated by measured and numerical data. Then, the forced vibrations of branched pipes were analyzed by considering the effects of various parameters, which shows the fluid pressure and vibrations can be optimized by changing the branch angles and positions. Through these examples, it is shown that the proposed method is efficient and can be used to calculate branched pipes of any shape.

  9. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  10. Myocardial Bridges and their Relationship to the Anterior Interventricular Branch of the Left Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Vanildo Júnior de Melo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between myocardial bridges and the anterior interventricular branch (anterior descending of the left coronary artery. METHODS: The study was carried out with postmortem material, and methods of dissection and observation were used. We assessed the perimeter of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery using a pachymeter, calculated its proximal and distal diameters in relation to the myocardial bridge, and also its diameter under the myocardial bridge in 30 hearts. We also observed the position of the myocardial bridge in relation to the origin of the anterior interventricular branch. RESULTS: The diameters of the anterior interventricular branch were as follows: the mean proximal diameter was 2.76±0.76 mm; the mean diameter under the myocardial bridge was 2.08±0.54 mm; and the mean distal diameter was 1.98±0.59 mm. In 33.33% (10/30 of the cases, the diameter of the anterior interventricular branch under the myocardial bridge was lower than the diameter of the anterior interventricular branch distal to the myocardial bridge. In 3.33% (1/30 of the cases, an atherosclerotic plaque was found in the segment under the myocardial bridge. The myocardial bridge was located in the middle third of the anterior interventricular branch in 86.66% (26/30 of the cases. CONCLUSION: Myocardial bridges are more frequently found in the middle third of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery. The diameter of the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery under the myocardial bridge may be smaller than after the bridge. Myocardial bridges may not provide protection against the formation of atherosclerotic plaque inside the anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery.

  11. Branching influences force-velocity curves and length fluctuations in actin networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansda, Deepak Kumar; Sen, Shamik; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2014-12-01

    We investigate collective dynamics of branched actin networks growing against a rigid movable wall constrained by a resistive force. Computing the force velocity relations, we show that the stall force of such networks depends not only on the average number of filaments touching the wall, but also on the amount of fluctuation of the leading edge of the network. These differences arise due to differences in the network architecture, namely, distance between two adjacent branching points and the initial distance of the starting filament from the wall, with their relative magnitudes influencing the nature of the force velocity curves (convex versus concave). We also show that the introduction of branching results in nonmonotonic diffusion constant, a quantity that measures the growth in length fluctuation of the leading edge of the network, as a function of externally applied force. Together our results demonstrate how the collective dynamics of a branched network differs from that of a parallel filament network.

  12. Branching influences force-velocity curves and length fluctuations in actin networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansda, Deepak Kumar; Sen, Shamik; Padinhateeri, Ranjith

    2014-12-01

    We investigate collective dynamics of branched actin networks growing against a rigid movable wall constrained by a resistive force. Computing the force velocity relations, we show that the stall force of such networks depends not only on the average number of filaments touching the wall, but also on the amount of fluctuation of the leading edge of the network. These differences arise due to differences in the network architecture, namely, distance between two adjacent branching points and the initial distance of the starting filament from the wall, with their relative magnitudes influencing the nature of the force velocity curves (convex versus concave). We also show that the introduction of branching results in nonmonotonic diffusion constant, a quantity that measures the growth in length fluctuation of the leading edge of the network, as a function of externally applied force. Together our results demonstrate how the collective dynamics of a branched network differs from that of a parallel filament network.

  13. Simplicial fixed point algorithms and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.F.

    1996-01-01

    Fixed point theory is an important branch of modern mathematics and has always been a major theoretical tool in fields such as differential equations, topology, function analysis, optimal control, economics, and game theory. Its applicability has been increased enormously by the development of simpl

  14. Measuring neuronal branching patterns using model-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Luczak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neurons have complex branching systems which allow them to communicate with thousands of other neurons. Thus understanding neuronal geometry is clearly important for determining connectivity within the network and how this shapes neuronal function. One of the difficulties in uncovering relationships between neuronal shape and its function is the problem of quantifying complex neuronal geometry. Even by using multiple measures such as: dendritic length, topology, distribution of segments, direction of branches, etc, a description of three dimensional neuronal embedding remains incomplete. To help alleviate this problem, here we propose a new measure, a shape diffusiveness index (SDI, to quantify spatial relations between branches at the local and global scale. It was shown that growth of neuronal trees can be modeled by using Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA process. By measuring ‘how easy’ it is to reproduce the analyzed shape by using the DLA algorithm it can be measured how ‘diffusive’ is that shape. Intuitively, ‘diffusiveness’ measures how tree-like is a given shape. For example shapes like an oak tree will have high values of SDI. This measure is capturing an important feature of dendritic tree geometry, which is difficult to assess with other measures. This approach also presents a paradigm shift from well-defined deterministic measures to model-based measures, which estimate how well a model with specific properties can account for features of analyzed shape.

  15. Measuring neuronal branching patterns using model-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Artur

    2010-01-01

    Neurons have complex branching systems which allow them to communicate with thousands of other neurons. Thus understanding neuronal geometry is clearly important for determining connectivity within the network and how this shapes neuronal function. One of the difficulties in uncovering relationships between neuronal shape and its function is the problem of quantifying complex neuronal geometry. Even by using multiple measures such as: dendritic length, distribution of segments, direction of branches, etc, a description of three dimensional neuronal embedding remains incomplete. To help alleviate this problem, here we propose a new measure, a shape diffusiveness index (SDI), to quantify spatial relations between branches at the local and global scale. It was shown that growth of neuronal trees can be modeled by using diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) process. By measuring "how easy" it is to reproduce the analyzed shape by using the DLA algorithm it can be measured how "diffusive" is that shape. Intuitively, "diffusiveness" measures how tree-like is a given shape. For example shapes like an oak tree will have high values of SDI. This measure is capturing an important feature of dendritic tree geometry, which is difficult to assess with other measures. This approach also presents a paradigm shift from well-defined deterministic measures to model-based measures, which estimate how well a model with specific properties can account for features of analyzed shape. PMID:21079752

  16. Differential Effects on Student Demographic Groups of Using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite Score, Act Benchmarks, and High School Grade Point Average for Predicting Long-Term College Success through Degree Completion. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunzel, Justine; Noble, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the differential effects on racial/ethnic, family income, and gender groups of using ACT® College Readiness Assessment Composite score and high school grade point average (HSGPA) for predicting long-term college success. Outcomes included annual progress towards a degree (based on cumulative credit-bearing hours…

  17. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary using the Line Point-Intercept (LPI) method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Line Point-Intercept (LPI) method is one of two surveys conducted at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS) in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) using the Line Point-Intercept (LPI) method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Line Point-Intercept (LPI) method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessment of coral reef communities in Puerto Rico using the Line Point-Intercept (LPI) method

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Line Point-Intercept (LPI) method is one of two benthic surveys conducted in Puerto Rico as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program (NCRMP). The LPI...

  1. Saturation point structure of marine stratocumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Reinout; Betts, Alan K.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation of the microstructure of a Pacific stratocumulus capped boundary layer is presented. A complex structure of three branches, identified using conserved variable diagrams, is found to correspond well to a conceptual model for the unstable, radiatively cooled cloud topped boundary layer. A simple conditional sampling method was used to identify saturation point pairs for ascending and descending branches of the internal boundary layer circulation. Results indicate a primary circulation scale of 5 km and provide a reasonable cloud top entrainment rate of 1 cm/s.

  2. THE EFFECT OF IMPLEMENTING CORE BANKING SERVICES ON PROFITABILITY. CASE STUDY: ALL BRANCHES OF A PRIVATE BANK IN MASHHAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Dehghan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the growth of information technology and increasing competition among banks has considerably affected attracting customers. Banking industry has made great changes to transform into the core banking. The present study aims to assess the effect of the implementation of core banking services on profitability. These services, as different branches of electronic banking, are consisting of internet banking, mobile banking, telephone banking, point of sale (POS, ATM, and electronic money which are all tested in the current study. In order to test research hypotheses and the existing relationship between variables, needed data has been collected and analyzed through the application of stepwise regression model. The achieved findings indicate a significant relationship between the application of internet banking and ATM and the variable of profitability, while there is no significant relationship between the application of telephone banking, mobile banking, POS, and electronic money and profitability.

  3. Measurement of tau lepton branching fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present τ- lepton branching fraction measurements based on data from the TPC/Two-Gamma detector at PEP. Using a sample ofτ- → ντK-π+π- events, we examine the resonance structure of the K-π+π- system and obtain the first measurements of branching fractions for τ- → ντK1-(1270) and τ- → ντK1-(1400). We also describe a complete set of branching fraction measurements in which all the decays of the τ- lepton are separated into classes defined by the identities of the charged particles and an estimate of the number of neutrals. This is the first such global measurement with decay classes defined by the four possible charged particle species, e, μ, π, and K

  4. Geometry optimization of branchings in vascular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamassi, Jamel; Bierwisch, Claas; Pelz, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Progress has been made in developing manufacturing technologies which enable the fabrication of artificial vascular networks for tissue cultivation. However, those networks are rudimentary designed with respect to their geometry. This restricts long-term biological functionality of vascular cells which depends on geometry-related fluid mechanical stimuli and the avoidance of vessel occlusion. In the present work, a bioinspired geometry optimization for branchings in artificial vascular networks has been conducted. The analysis could be simplified by exploiting self-similarity properties of the system. Design rules in the form of two geometrical parameters, i.e., the branching angle and the radius ratio of the daughter branches, are derived using the wall shear stress as command variable. The numerical values of these parameters are within the range of experimental observations. Those design rules are not only beneficial for tissue engineering applications. Moreover, they can be used as indicators for diagnoses of vascular diseases or for the layout of vascular grafts.

  5. Heterogeneity of coronary arterial branching geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shu-Yen; Reyes, Denise A.; Higgins, William E.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Past measurements of arterial branching geometry have indicated that the branching geometry is somewhat consistent with an optimal trade-off between the work needed to build and maintain the arterial tree and the work needed to operate the tree as a transport system. The branching geometry is also consistent with the mechanism that acutely adjusts the lumen diameter by way of maintaining a constant shear stress by dilating (or constricting) the arteries via the nitric oxide mechanism. However, those observations also indicate that there is considerable variation about the predicted optimization, both within any one individual and between individuals. Possible causes for this variation include: (1) measurement noise -- both due to the imprecision of the method but also the preparation of the specimen for applying the measurement technique, (2) the fact that the measurement task presents a major logistic problem, which increases as the vessel size decreases (but the number of branches correspondingly doubles at each branching) and results in progressive under-sampling as the vessel size decreases, (3) because of the logistic task involved the number of arterial trees analyzed is also greatly limited, and (4) there may indeed be actual heterogeneity in the geometry which is due to slight variation in implementation of the 'rules' used to construct a vascular tree. Indeed, it is this latter possibility that is of considerable physiological interest as it could result in the observed heterogeneity of organ perfusion and also provide some insight into the relative importance of 'initial ' conditions (i.e., how the vascular tree initially develops during embryogenesis) and the adaptive mechanisms operative in the maturing individual. The use of micro-CT imaging to provide 3D images of the intact vascular tree within the intact organ overcomes or minimizes the logistic problems listed above. It is the purpose of this study to examine whether variability in the branching

  6. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.

    2012-01-01

    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  7. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN AnYue; LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models, the general collision branching processes with two parameters, is considered in this paper. For such models, it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states. Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established. Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector, the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times. The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established. The mean global holding time is also obtained. It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  8. Logic, planning agency and branching time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Souza Silvestre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a formal account of a kind of agency so far neglected in the field of philosophical modal logic of action: planning agency. In doing this we follow the standard approach of modal logics of agency exemplified by the works of Belnap, Chellas and Pörn. Since we believe there is a close relation between planning, time and indeterminism, we use the theory of branching time as a conceptual framework for investigating the basic features of planning agency. Besides introducing a branching-time semantics, we also provide a calculus sound and complete with respect to this semantics.

  9. Branching vertical vein with multiple sites of obstruction in supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaneetha Sasikumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an infant with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and a branching vertical vein with multiple points of narrowing, draining the confluence into the innominate vein. The embryology and clinical relevance of this interesting anatomy is discussed.

  10. Branched covers of the sphere and the prime-degree conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Pascali, Maria Antonietta

    2010-01-01

    To a branched cover between closed, connected and orientable surfaces one associates a "branch datum", which consists of the two surfaces, the total degree d, and the partitions of d given by the collections of local degrees over the branching points. This datum must satisfy the Riemann-Hurwitz formula. A "candidate surface cover" is an abstract branch datum, a priori not coming from a branched cover, but satisfying the Riemann-Hurwitz formula. The old Hurwitz problem asks which candidate surface covers are realizable by branched covers. It is now known that all candidate covers are realizable when the candidate covered surface has positive genus, but not all are when it is the 2-sphere. However a long-standing conjecture asserts that candidate covers with prime degree are realizable. To a candidate surface cover one can associate one Y -> X between 2-orbifolds, and in a previous paper we have completely analyzed the candidate surface covers such that either X is bad, spherical, or Euclidean, or both X and Y ...

  11. Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-07-27

    Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.

  12. Function Point Analysis Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  13. Branch and Bound Experiments in Convex Nonlinear Integer Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Omprakash K. Gupta; Ravindran, A

    1985-01-01

    The branch and bound principle has long been established as an effective computational tool for solving mixed integer linear programming problems. This paper investigates the computational feasibility of branch and bound methods in solving convex nonlinear integer programming problems. The efficiency of a branch and bound method often depends on the rules used for selecting the branching variables and branching nodes. Among others, the concepts of pseudo-costs and estimations are implemented ...

  14. Effect of left bundle branch block on TIMI frame count

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice Tolunay; Ahmet Kasapkara; İsa Öner Yüksel; Nurcan Başar; Ayşe Saatcı Yaşar; Mehmet Bilge

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Left bundle branch block is an independent risk factorfor cardiac mortality. In this study we aimed to evaluatecoronary blood flow with TIMI frame count in patients with left bundle branch block and angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Materials and methods: We retrospectively studied 17 patients with left bundle branch block and as a control group 16 patients without left bundle branch block. All patientshad angiographically proven normal coronary arteries.Left bundle branch...

  15. On the red giant branch mass loss in 47 Tucanae: Constraints from the horizontal branch morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We obtain stringent constraints on the actual efficiency of mass loss for red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc, by comparing synthetic modeling based on stellar evolution tracks with the observed distribution of stars along the horizontal branch in the colour-magnitude-diagram. We confirm that the observed, wedge-shaped distribution of the horizontal branch can be reproduced only by accounting for a range of initial He abundances --in agreement with inferences from the analysis of the main sequence-- and a red giant branch mass loss with a small dispersion. We have carefully investigated several possible sources of uncertainty that could affect the results of the horizontal branch modeling, stemming from uncertainties in both stellar model computations and the cluster properties such as heavy element abundances, reddening and age. We determine a firm lower limit of ~0.17$Mo for the mass lost by red giant branch stars, corresponding to horizontal branch stellar masses between ~0.65Mo ...

  16. Branching Processes with Immigration and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeng-hu

    2006-01-01

    This is a survey on the recent progresses in the study of branching processes with immigration,generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes,and affine Markov processes.We mainly focus on the applications of skew convolution semigroups and the connections in those processes.

  17. Infrared studies of asymptotic giant branch stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis studies are presented of asymptotic giant branch stars, which are thought to be an important link in the evolution of the galaxy. The studies were performed on the basis of data collected by the IRAS, the infrared astronomical satelite. 233 refs.; 33 figs.; 16 tabs

  18. 76 FR 60757 - Executive Branch Qualified Trusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... portfolio must meet the diversification requirements of Sec. 2634.406(b)(2) of this subpart. (2) In the case... of the trust's portfolio would be materially enhanced. Additionally, as with the blind trust, the... qualified trusts provisions for the executive branch in subparts D and E of 5 CFR part 2634 (see 57 FR...

  19. Branch II : Neutrino Oscillations at Low Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, A., E-mail: anatael@in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3. Laboratoire d' Astro-Particule et Cosmologie. 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet. Paris. 75205. Cedex 13 (France); Volpe, C., E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Orsay and University of Paris XI,CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    We summarize here briefly the experimental and theoretical results presented at the NOW2010 workshop during the parallel session Branch II 'Oscillations at low energies'. The topics have covered open problems and recent advances in solar neutrinos, reactor and geo-neutrinos, as well as neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae.

  20. Fitting IRT Models to Dichotomous and Polytomous Data: Assessing the Relative Model-Data Fit of Ideal Point and Dominance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Ali, Usama S.; Drasgow, Fritz; Williams, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relative model-data fit of an ideal point item response theory (IRT) model (the generalized graded unfolding model [GGUM]) and dominance IRT models (e.g., the two-parameter logistic model [2PLM] and Samejima's graded response model [GRM]) to simulated dichotomous and polytomous data generated from each of these models.…

  1. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.; Blokland, P.W.; Bouma, F.; Luesink, H.H.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to asses. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. Th

  2. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  3. Characterization of linear and branched polyacrylates by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaicharoen, Kittisak; Polce, Michael J; Singh, Anirudha; Pugh, Coleen; Wesdemiotis, Chrys

    2008-10-01

    The unimolecular degradation of alkali-metal cationized polyacrylates with the repeat unit CH(2)CH(COOR) and a variety of ester pendants has been examined by tandem mass spectrometry. The fragmentation patterns resulting from collisionally activated dissociation depend sensitively on the size of the ester alkyl substituent (R). With small alkyl groups, as in poly(methyl acrylate), lithiated or sodiated oligomers (M) decompose via free-radical chemistry, initiated by random homolytic C-C bond cleavages along the polymer chain. The radical ions formed this way dissociate further by backbiting rearrangements and beta scissions to yield a distribution of terminal fragments with one of the original end groups and internal fragments with 2-3 repeat units. If the ester alkyl group bears three or more carbon atoms, cleavages within the ester moieties become the predominant decomposition channel. This distinct reactivity is observed if R = t-butyl, n-butyl, or the mesogenic group (CH(2))(11)-O-C(6)H(4)-C(6)H(4)-CN. The [M+alkali metal](+) ions of the latter polyacrylates dissociate largely by charge-remote 1,5-H rearrangements that convert COOR to COOH groups by expulsion of 1-alkenes. The acid groups may displace an alcohol unit from a neighboring ester pendant to form a cyclic anhydride, unless hindered by steric effects. Using atom transfer radical polymerization, hyperbranched polyacrylates were prepared carrying ester groups both within and between the branches. Unique alkenes and alcohols are cleaved from ester groups at the branching points, enabling determination of the branching architecture. PMID:18373231

  4. Allegheny County Cell Tower Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays cell tower locations as points in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on outbuilding codes in the Property Assessment Parcel Database used...

  5. Bi-objective branch-and-cut algorithms: Applications to the single source capacitated facility location problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, Sune Lauth; Ehrgott, Matthias; Nielsen, Lars Relund

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world optimization problems are of a multi-objective nature, involving objectives which are conflicting and incomparable. Solving a multi-objective optimization problem requires a method which can generate the set of rational compromises between the objectives. In this paper, we propose...... two distinct bound set based branch-and-cut algorithms for bi-objective combinatorial optimization problems, based on implicitly and explicitly stated lower bound sets, respectively. The algorithm based on explicitly given lower bound sets computes for each branching node a lower bound set...... and compares it to an upper bound set. The implicit bound set based algorithm, on the other hand, fathoms branching nodes by generating a single point on the lower bound set for each local nadir point. We outline several approaches for fathoming branching nodes and we propose an updating scheme for the lower...

  6. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  7. Buck Island National Monument Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  8. Maui Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  9. Hawaii Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  10. Molokai Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  11. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  12. Oahu Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  13. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, Cedar Point National Wildlife Refuge, and West Sister Island National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (ONWRC) describes current hydrologic information,...

  14. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  15. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Gulf of Mexico Bradenton Beach to Clearwater Beach, Florida Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  16. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Salvo to Duck, North Carolina Mean (interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives features of beach morphology from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  17. National Assessment of Hurricane-Induced Coastal Erosion Hazards: Southeast Atlantic Miami to Jupiter, Florida Raw (non-interpolated) Beach Slope Point Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project derives beach morphology features from lidar elevation data for the purpose of understanding and...

  18. Maui Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of the Main Hawaiian Islands Prepared by Visual Interpretation from Remote Sensing Imagery Collected by NOAA Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  19. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  20. The capabilities and limitations of conductance-based compartmental neuron models with reduced branched or unbranched morphologies and active dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Eric B; Edgerton, Jeremy R; Jaeger, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Conductance-based neuron models are frequently employed to study the dynamics of biological neural networks. For speed and ease of use, these models are often reduced in morphological complexity. Simplified dendritic branching structures may process inputs differently than full branching structures, however, and could thereby fail to reproduce important aspects of biological neural processing. It is not yet well understood which processing capabilities require detailed branching structures. Therefore, we analyzed the processing capabilities of full or partially branched reduced models. These models were created by collapsing the dendritic tree of a full morphological model of a globus pallidus (GP) neuron while preserving its total surface area and electrotonic length, as well as its passive and active parameters. Dendritic trees were either collapsed into single cables (unbranched models) or the full complement of branch points was preserved (branched models). Both reduction strategies allowed us to compare dynamics between all models using the same channel density settings. Full model responses to somatic inputs were generally preserved by both types of reduced model while dendritic input responses could be more closely preserved by branched than unbranched reduced models. However, features strongly influenced by local dendritic input resistance, such as active dendritic sodium spike generation and propagation, could not be accurately reproduced by any reduced model. Based on our analyses, we suggest that there are intrinsic differences in processing capabilities between unbranched and branched models. We also indicate suitable applications for different levels of reduction, including fast searches of full model parameter space. PMID:20623167

  1. Uplifting the baryonic branch: a test for backreacting anti-D3-branes

    OpenAIRE

    Dymarsky, Anatoly; Massai, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Placing D3 or anti-D3-branes at the tip of the Klebanov-Strassler background results in uplifting the baryonic branch of the moduli space of the dual field theory. In this paper we derive a mass formula for the scalar particle associated with the motion along the baryonic branch, from both open and closed string points of view. We show that both methods give the same mass at linear order in number of (anti)D3-branes, thus providing a comprehensive check for the recently found linearized super...

  2. Mean span dimensions of ideal polymer chains containing branches and rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei; Teraoka, Iwao; Hansen, Flemming Yssing;

    2011-01-01

    We present a general method for calculating the mean span dimension of various branched and ringed polymers under the assumption of Gaussian chain statistics. The method allows a routine construction of an integral expression of the mean span dimension based on three base functions, determined...... for a connector, an arm and a loop, respectively. Applications of our method are shown to a variety of polymer architectures including star, two-branch-point, comb and various cyclic chains (eight-shaped, θ-shaped and several semicyclic chains). Comparing the mean span dimension with other commonly used molecular...

  3. Measuring chain digitisation maturity: An assessment of Dutch retail branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to develop a validated measurement model and typology for chain digitisation maturity, defined as the degree of interorganisational collaboration through ICT. Design/methodology/approach – Through a literature (meta) study, 22 existing maturity models are fou

  4. Measuring chain digitisation maturity: an assessment of Dutch retail branches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a validated measurement model and typology for chain digitisation maturity, defined as the degree of interorganisational collaboration through ICT. The advantages of interorganisational information systems (IOIS) seem to meet the challenges currently facing

  5. A one-dimensional theory for Higgs branch operators

    CERN Document Server

    Dedushenko, Mykola; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-01-01

    We use supersymmetric localization to calculate correlation functions of half-BPS local operators in 3d ${\\cal N} = 4$ superconformal field theories whose Lagrangian descriptions consist of vectormultiplets coupled to hypermultiplets. The operators we primarily study are certain twisted linear combinations of Higgs branch operators that can be inserted anywhere along a given line. These operators are constructed from the hypermultiplet scalars. They form a one-dimensional non-commutative operator algebra with topological correlation functions. The 2- and 3-point functions of Higgs branch operators in the full 3d ${\\cal N}=4$ theory can be simply inferred from the 1d topological algebra. After conformally mapping the 3d superconformal field theory from flat space to a round three-sphere, we preform supersymmetric localization using a supercharge that does not belong to any 3d ${\\cal N} = 2$ subalgebra of the ${\\cal N}=4$ algebra. The result is a simple model that can be used to calculate correlation functions ...

  6. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  7. Leonardo's branching rule in trees: How self-similar structures resist wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloy, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    In his notebooks, Leonardo da Vinci observed that ``all the branches of a tree at every stage of its height when put together are equal in thickness to the trunk,'' which means that the total cross-sectional area of branches is conserved across branching nodes. The usual explanation for this rule involves vascular transport of sap, but this argument is questionable because the portion of wood devoted to transport varies across species and can be as low as 5%. It is proposed here that Leonardo's rule is a consequence of the tree skeleton having a self-similar structure and the branch diameters being adjusted to resist wind-induced loads. To address this problem, a continuous model is first considered by neglecting the geometrical details of branching and wind incident angles. The robustness of this analytical model is then assessed with numerical simulations on tree skeletons generated with a simple branching rule producing self-similar structures. This study was supported by the European Union through the fellowship PIOF-GA-2009-252542.

  8. The assessment of point-source and diffuse soil metal pollution in Swansea (Wales, UK) using robust geostatistical methods : a case study in Swansea (Wales, UK)

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, B. P.; Tye, A. M.; B. G. Rawlins

    2011-01-01

    The spatial variation of soil metal content arising from diffuse pollution in industrial regions cannot be analysed by conventional geostatistical methods because predictions are influenced by metal content from natural sources and extreme values from point-source pollution. We analyse a survey of soil arsenic, copper, lead, and tin at 372 locations around Swansea (Wales, UK). We use the approach of Hamon et al. (2004) to determine the natural metal concentrations in contaminated regions from...

  9. Processes governing the mass balance of Chhota Shigri Glacier (western Himalaya, India) assessed by point-scale surface energy balance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. F.; P. Wagnon; Vincent, C; Ramanathan, Al.; Favier, V.; Mandal, A; Pottakkal, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Some recent studies revealed that Himalayan glaciers were shrinking at an accelerated rate since the beginning of the 21st century. However, the climatic causes for this shrinkage remain unclear given that surface energy balance studies are almost nonexistent in this region. In this study, a point-scale surface energy balance analysis was performed using in situ meteorological data from the ablation zone of Chhota Shigri Glacier over two separate periods (August 2012 to February 2013 and July...

  10. Micro-simulation as a tool to assess policy concerning non-point source pollution: the case of ammonia in Dutch agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kruseman, G.; Blokland, P.W.; Bouma, F.; Luesink, H.H.; Vrolijk, H.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Non-point source pollution is notoriously difficult to asses. A relevant example is ammonia emissions in the Netherlands. Since the mid 1980s the Dutch government has sought to reduce emissions through a wide variety of measures, the effect of which in turn is monitored using modeling techniques. This paper presents the current generation of mineral emission models from agriculture based on micro-simulation of farms in combination with a spatial equilibrium model for the dispersion of manure ...

  11. Processes governing the mass balance of Chhota Shigri Glacier (Western Himalaya, India) assessed by point-scale surface energy balance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Azam, M. F.; P. Wagnon; Vincent, C; AL. Ramanathan; Mandal, A; Pottakkal, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed that Himalayan glaciers have been shrinking at an accelerated rate since the beginning of the 21st century. However the climatic causes for this shrinkage remain unclear given that surface energy balance studies are almost nonexistent in this region. In this study, a point-scale surface energy balance analysis was performed using in-situ meteorological data from the ablation zone of Chhota Shigri Glacier over two separate periods (Aug...

  12. VOR programe package for calculating hydraulic shock in generally branched coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using program VOR 1 it is possible to make steady-state hydraulic calcualtions of a generally branched pipe network. This program is used to solve initial conditions for the actual non-steady state calculation of hydraulic shock using program VOR 2. The physical flow model is one-dimensional, single-phase, pressure losses are concentrated at points of fictitious diaphragms. For numerical solution, the fictitious diaphragm method is used, which is an analogy of the graphic Schnyder-Bergeron method and the method of characteristics. A failure due to a shock may be modeled by changes in pressure, flow rate and the adjustment of the fitting at any arbitrary point in the circuit. The calculation will determine the time course of the pressure and flow rate at all points in the circuit. Selected as an example was seizing of the main circulating pump in one branch of the WWER primary circuit. (B.S.)

  13. Applying Longitudinal Mean and Covariance Structures (LMACS) Analysis to Assess Construct Stability Over Two Time Points: An Example Using Psychological Entitlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkov, Bozhidar M.; Finney, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional methods of assessing construct stability are reviewed and longitudinal mean and covariance structures (LMACS) analysis, a modern approach, is didactically illustrated using psychological entitlement data. Measurement invariance and latent variable stability results are interpreted, emphasizing substantive implications for educators and…

  14. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  15. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models,the general collision branching processes with two parameters,is considered in this paper.For such models,it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states.Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established.Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector,the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times.The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established.The mean global holding time is also obtained.It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  16. Assessing Climate Vulnerability and Resilience of a Major Water Resource System - Inverting the Paradigm for Specific Risk Quantification at Decision Making Points of Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. W.; Ellis, A. W.; Skindlov, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Water resource systems have provided vital support to transformative growth in the Southwest United States and the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area where the Salt River Project (SRP) currently satisfies 40% of the area's water demand from reservoir storage and groundwater. Large natural variability and expectations of climate changes have sensitized water management to risks posed by future periods of excess and drought. The conventional approach to impacts assessment has been downscaled climate model simulations translated through hydrologic models; but, scenario ranges enlarge as uncertainties propagate through sequential levels of modeling complexity. The research often does not reach the stage of specific impact assessments, rendering future projections frustratingly uncertain and unsuitable for complex decision-making. Alternatively, this study inverts the common approach by beginning with the threatened water system and proceeding backwards to the uncertain climate future. The methodology is built upon reservoir system response modeling to exhaustive time series of climate-driven net basin supply. A reservoir operations model, developed with SRP guidance, assesses cumulative response to inflow variability and change. Complete statistical analyses of long-term historical watershed climate and runoff data are employed for 10,000-year stochastic simulations, rendering the entire range of multi-year extremes with full probabilistic characterization. Sets of climate change projections are then translated by temperature sensitivity and precipitation elasticity into future inflow distributions that are comparatively assessed with the reservoir operations model. This approach provides specific risk assessments in pragmatic terms familiar to decision makers, interpretable within the context of long-range planning and revealing a clearer meaning of climate change projections for the region. As a transferable example achieving actionable findings, the approach can

  17. Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoff Brindley

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction TERMINOLOGY AND KEY CONCEPTS The term assessment refers to a variety of ways of collecting information on a learner's language ability or achievement. Although testing and assessment are often used interchangeably, the latter is an umbrella term encompassing measurement instruments administered on a ‘one-off’ basis such as tests, as well as qualitative methods of monitoring and recording student learning such as observation, simulations of project work. Assessment is also distinguished from evaluation which is concerned with the overall language programme and not just with what individual students have learnt. Proficiency assessment refers to the assessment of general language abilities acquired by the learner independent of a course of study.This kind of assessment is often done through the administration of standardised commercial language-proficency tests. On the other hand, assessment of achievement aims to establish what a student had learned in relation to a particular course or curriculum (thus frequently carried out by the teacher) .Achievement assesssment may be based either on the specific content of the course or on the course objectives (Hughes 1989).

  18. Effects of Cooking End-point Temperature and Muscle Part on Sensory ‘Hardness’ and ‘Chewiness’ Assessed Using Scales Presented in ISO11036:1994

    OpenAIRE

    SASAKI, Keisuke; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Texture and ‘tenderness’ in particular, is an important sensory characteristic for consumers’ satisfaction of beef. Objective and detailed sensory measurements of beef texture have been needed for the evaluation and management of beef quality. This study aimed to apply the sensory scales defined in ISO11036:1994 to evaluate the texture of beef. Longissimus and Semitendinosus muscles of three Holstein steers cooked to end-point temperatures of 60°C and 72°C were subjected to sensory analyses b...

  19. Computers in Some Branches of Applied Physiology .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Verma

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the applications of computers in the evaluation of different types of problems occuring in some branches of applied physiology. The recent applications of computers to perform advanced multivariate regression analysis for developing regression models in applied physiology are also highlighted. The regression models are practical significance for screening personnel in defence services, mines, industrial works, sports and the like.

  20. Minimum disparity estimation in controlled branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Miguel; Minuesa, Carmen; del Puerto, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Minimum disparity estimation in controlled branching processes is dealt with by assuming that the offspring law belongs to a general parametric family. Under some regularity conditions it is proved that the minimum disparity estimators proposed -based on the nonparametric maximum likelihood estimator of the offspring law when the entire family tree is observed- are consistent and asymptotic normally distributed. Moreover, it is discussed the robustness of the estimators proposed. Through a si...

  1. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  2. Recursive algorithms, branching coefficients and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent relations for branching coefficients in affine Lie algebras integrable highest weight modules are studied. The decomposition algorithm based on the injection fan technique is adopted to the situation where the Weyl denominator becomes singular with respect to a reductive subalgebra. We study some modifications of the injection fan technique and demonstrate that it is possible to define the "subtracted fans" that play the role similar to the original ones. Possible applications of subtracted fans in CFT models are considered.

  3. On the Ergodic Capacity of Dual-Branch Correlated Log-Normal Fading Channels with Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alquwaiee, Hessa

    2015-05-01

    Closed-form expressions of the ergodic capacity of independent or correlated diversity branches over Log-Normal fading channels are not available in the literature. Thus, it is become of an interest to investigate the behavior of such metric at high signal-to-noise (SNR). In this work, we propose simple closed-form asymptotic expressions of the ergodic capacity of dual-branch correlated Log- Normal corresponding to selection combining, and switch-and-stay combining. Furthermore, we capitalize on these new results to find new asymptotic ergodic capacity of correlated dual- branch free-space optical communication system under the impact of pointing error with both heterodyne and intensity modulation/direct detection. © 2015 IEEE.

  4. On Higgs Branch Localization of Seiberg-Witten Theories on Ellipsoid

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Heng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we consider so-called "Higgs Branch Localization" for four dimensional N=2 field theories on 4d ellipsoid. We find a new set of saddle point equations arising from additional Higgs branch deformation term, whose solutions include both Higgs branch and BPS instanton-vortex mixed configurations. By evaluating the contour integral, we also demonstrate the ellipsoid partition almost factorizes into purely b and 1/b dependent parts, using SQCD as an explicit example. We identify various factorized parts with the ellipsoid partition function of two dimensional N=(2,2) SQCDA, which is precisely the vortex world volume theory. We also give physical interpretation for the non-factorizable parts and discuss future directions.

  5. On Higgs branch localization of Seiberg-Witten theories on an ellipsoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we consider so-called "Higgs branch localization" for four-dimensional N=2 field theories on a 4D ellipsoid. We find a new set of saddle point equations arising from the additional Higgs branch deformation term, whose solutions include both Higgs branch and BPS instanton-vortex mixed configurations. By evaluating the contour integral, we also demonstrate that the ellipsoid partition almost factorizes into purely b- and b^{-1}-dependent parts, using SQCD as an explicit example. We identify various factorized parts with the ellipsoid partition function of two-dimensional N=(2,2) SQCDA, which is precisely the vortex world volume theory. We also give a physical interpretation for the non-factorizable parts and discuss future directions.

  6. [Geometry and algebra of branches of the middle cerebral artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkov, S M

    1986-01-01

    A classification of the cortical branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is suggested by means of which each branch in any hemisphere can be qualified and identified in any variant of MCA branching. The principle of the classification consists in grouping the branches into arteries and trunks of the second, third, etc. order. Branches supplying blood to a certain sector of the lateral surface of the hemisphere are designated arteries. Their number and zone of branching are constant. Branches giving rise to 2 and more arteries are named trunks. Branching of the trunks, the number of trunks of the second, third, etc. order, and the site and type of origin of the arteries are extremely variable. Each trunk can be designated by a formula stating its order and the name of the artery supplied by this trunk. The arrangement of the MCA branches on the surface of the gyri and deep in the sulci, represented on the map of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, is designated conditionally as geometry of MCA branches. The order of branching of the trunks and the type of origin of the arteries, represented on abstract maps of the lateral surface of the hemisphere, are designated conditionally as algebra of the MCA branches. The variability of the geometry and algebra of the MCA branches must be taken into consideration in operations for extra-intracranial microanastomosis and in endovasal intervention on the MCA. PMID:3811741

  7. Measurements of $\\Xi_c^{+}$ Branching Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M S; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2003-01-01

    Using data collected by the fixed target Fermilab experiment FOCUS, we measure the branching ratios of the Cabibbo favored decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$, $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\bar{K}^{*}(892)^0$, and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Lambda^0K^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be $0.91\\pm0.11\\pm0.04$, $0.78\\pm0.16\\pm0.06$, and $0.28\\pm0.06\\pm0.06$, respectively. We report the first observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^+K^-$ and we measure the branching ratio relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be $0.16\\pm0.06\\pm0.01$. We also set 90% confidence level upper limits for $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+ \\phi$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^*(1690)^0(\\Sigma^+ K^-) K^+$ relative to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^+K^-\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 and 0.05, respectively. We find an indication of the decays $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Omega^-K^{+}\\pi^+$ and $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Sigma^{*}(1385)^+ \\bar{K}^0$ and set 90% confidence level upper limits for the branching ratios with respect to $\\Xi_c^+ \\to \\Xi^-\\pi^+\\pi^+$ to be 0.12 a...

  8. RADIONUCLIDE INVENTORY AND DISTRIBUTION: FOURMILE BRANCH, PEN BRANCH, AND STEEL CREEK IOUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiergesell, R.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-29

    As a condition to the Department of Energy (DOE) Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Facility Review Group (LFRG) review team approving the Savannah River Site (SRS) Composite Analysis (CA), SRS agreed to follow up on a secondary issue, which consisted of the consolidation of several observations that the team concluded, when evaluated collectively, could potentially impact the integration of the CA results. This report addresses secondary issue observations 4 and 21, which identify the need to improve the CA sensitivity and uncertainty analysis specifically by improving the CA inventory and the estimate of its uncertainty. The purpose of the work described herein was to be responsive to these secondary issue observations by re-examining the radionuclide inventories of the Integrator Operable Units (IOUs), as documented in ERD 2001 and Hiergesell, et. al. 2008. The LFRG concern has been partially addressed already for the Lower Three Runs (LTR) IOU (Hiergesell and Phifer, 2012). The work described in this investigation is a continuation of the effort to address the LFRG concerns by re-examining the radionuclide inventories associated with Fourmile Branch (FMB) IOU, Pen Branch (PB) IOU and Steel Creek (SC) IOU. The overall approach to computing radionuclide inventories for each of the IOUs involved the following components: • Defining contaminated reaches of sediments along the IOU waterways • Identifying separate segments within each IOU waterway to evaluate individually • Computing the volume and mass of contaminated soil associated with each segment, or “compartment” • Obtaining the available and appropriate Sediment and Sediment/Soil analytical results associated with each IOU • Standardizing all radionuclide activity by decay-correcting all sample analytical results from sample date to the current point in time, • Computing representative concentrations for all radionuclides associated with each compartment in each of the IOUs • Computing the

  9. Assessing the existing context and proposed plan of Yazd historical texture from the point of access to emergency services using network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khalili

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended Abstract1- Introduction In addition to general diseases, texture and material oldness, complexity and density of the building, have exposed the inhabitants of the historical texture of cities like Yazd to dangers such as earthquake and fire. Thus, in this type of texture, the supplementary and health-medical land uses like emergency has special importance regarding the roles they play. Accessing the medical services especially the emergency requires special attention to the connection network structure. Thus, in the urban plans especially for the historical and time-worn textures, this requires more attention to the connection network structure and also the pattern of locating and quick and in time and comfortable access to emergency centers related to that and according to the standards and criteria, in order to act quickly and without facing any obstacles and limitations of the urban environment in the case of requirement.This study tries to analyze the existing context and the proposed plan of Yazd historical texture from the point of access to emergency services relating to its connection network structure.2- Theoretical basesThe main view point in the research methodology of this paper is analytic descriptive and the applied kind which is performed with the systematic trend and based on the theoretical information and geographical data. The tool which is used for such analysis is GIS tool and Network Analyst tool. First a network of all the connection paths of the historical texture based on the real directions of traffic is prepared and after creating topology, the other network supplemental information such as street type, length and width of the street, one-way, tow-way and cul-de-sac, traffic volume, average speed, and the crossroads and the existing limitations was added and the special relation between the network lines was created and the network became intelligent and according to this, the time factor, i.e. the duration of

  10. Comparative assessment of two structural materials from a life-cycle point of view : Using dynamic and LCA calculation units from LESOSAI

    OpenAIRE

    Matricon, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle assessment is being applied to an increasing number of building projects from one side while the usual dynamic thermal simulations are being conducted from the other side on the same projects. However, there are few observations in the literature linking these two types of calculations: embodied and operating energies are rarely directly compared. This paper compares those energies for some case studies. The challenge is to quantify to what extent chosen structural materials can ch...

  11. Spatial Quantification of Non-Point Source Pollution in a Meso-Scale Catchment for an Assessment of Buffer Zones Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Mikołaj Piniewski; Paweł Marcinkowski; Ignacy Kardel; Marek Giełczewski; Katarzyna Izydorczyk; Wojciech Frątczak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to spatially quantify diffuse pollution sources and estimate the potential efficiency of applying riparian buffer zones as a conservation practice for mitigating chemical pollutant losses. This study was conducted using a semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model that underwent extensive calibration and validation in the Sulejów Reservoir catchment (SRC), which occupies 4900 km2 in central Poland. The model was calibrated and validated agains...

  12. Differentiation of crack branching types in fractured glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2011-07-01

    The influence of different physical factors on the fracture branching phenomenon was investigated on a fractured brittle (glass) bottle. A fully branched fracture tree consisting of 144 initiation sites was induced. Branching sites were concentrated in two zones: close to the fracture origin and further away from it along the bottle axis, which was shown to be related to reflection of transverse acoustic waves from the bottle's shoulder. Two types of branching formed, complete full branches (FB), and attempted branching (AB) when one branch was shorter than 5 mm. Branching in the first zone was shown to be regulated by both the distribution of flaw lengths and the distances from each FB to its nearest fracture neighbor. Fracture spacing was found to be proportional to the stress at the propagating fracture tips.

  13. Evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections is estimated by evaluation procedure for straight pipe, the applicability of this procedure has not been clear. That was discussed in this study. The buckling pressure of branch pipe connections was estimated by linear eigenvalue analysis with FEA (Finite Element Analysis). The types of branch pipe connections were T-joints and T-pipes. The ranges of configurations in branch pipe connections for FEA were determined by survey of branch pipe connections in the Japanese nuclear power plants. The results of the FEA showed that the buckling strength of branch pipe was found sufficiently to be superior to that of straight piping from comparisons of estimations by FEA for branch pipe connections and those by formula for straight pipe in the design code. It was concluded that the formula for straight pipe is applicable for the evaluation of allowable external pressure for branch pipe connections. (author)

  14. The effectiveness of computer reminders versus postal reminders for improving quality assessment for point-of-care testing in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, Volkert; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm; Reventlow, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of electronic and postal reminders for increasing adherence to the quality assurance programme for the international normalized ratio (INR) point-of-care testing (POCT) device inprimary care. Methods: All 213...... (Postal) if they did not perform a split test to check the quality of their INR POCT for each calendar month. The adherence of the practices was tracked during the subsequent 8 months subdivided into two 4-month periods both without intervention. Outcomes were measures of split test procedure adherence....... Results: Both interventions were associated with an increase in adherence to the split test procedure – a factor 6.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.46–7.72] and 8.22 [95% CI5.87–11.52] for ComRem and Postal, respectively – but there is no evidence that one of the interventions was more effective than...

  15. Resistance to the novel fungicide pyrimorph in Phytophthora capsici: risk assessment and detection of point mutations in CesA3 that confer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhili; Shao, Jingpeng; Chen, Lei; Lu, Xiaohong; Hu, Jian; Qin, Zhaohai; Liu, Xili

    2013-01-01

    Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide with high activity against the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. We investigated the risk that P. capsici can develop resistance to pyrimorph. The baseline sensitivities of 226 P. capsici isolates, tested by mycelial growth inhibition, showed a unimodal distribution with a mean EC(50) value of 1.4261 (± 0.4002) µg/ml. Twelve pyrimorph-resistant mutants were obtained by repeated exposure to pyrimorph in vitro with a frequency of approximately 1 × 10(-4). The resistance factors of the mutants ranged from 10.67 to 56.02. Pyrimorph resistance of the mutants was stable after 10 transfers on pyrimorph-free medium. Fitness in sporulation, cystospore germination, and pathogenicity in the pyrimorph-resistant mutants was similar to or less than that in the parental wild-type isolates. On detached pepper leaves and pepper plants treated with the recommended maximum dose of pyrimorph, however, virulence was greater for mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance than for the wild type. The results suggest that the risk of P. capsici developing resistance to pyrimorph is low to moderate. Among mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance, EC(50) values for pyrimorph and CAA fungicides flumorph, dimethomorph, and mandipropamid were positively correlated. This indicated that point mutations in cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3) may confer resistance to pyrimorph. Comparison of CesA3 in isolates with a high level of pyrimorph resistance and parental isolates showed that an amino acid change from glutamine to lysine at position 1077 resulted in stable, high resistance in the mutants. Based on the point mutations, an allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect pyrimorph resistance in P. capsici populations.

  16. Resistance to the novel fungicide pyrimorph in Phytophthora capsici: risk assessment and detection of point mutations in CesA3 that confer resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhili Pang

    Full Text Available Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide with high activity against the plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. We investigated the risk that P. capsici can develop resistance to pyrimorph. The baseline sensitivities of 226 P. capsici isolates, tested by mycelial growth inhibition, showed a unimodal distribution with a mean EC(50 value of 1.4261 (± 0.4002 µg/ml. Twelve pyrimorph-resistant mutants were obtained by repeated exposure to pyrimorph in vitro with a frequency of approximately 1 × 10(-4. The resistance factors of the mutants ranged from 10.67 to 56.02. Pyrimorph resistance of the mutants was stable after 10 transfers on pyrimorph-free medium. Fitness in sporulation, cystospore germination, and pathogenicity in the pyrimorph-resistant mutants was similar to or less than that in the parental wild-type isolates. On detached pepper leaves and pepper plants treated with the recommended maximum dose of pyrimorph, however, virulence was greater for mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance than for the wild type. The results suggest that the risk of P. capsici developing resistance to pyrimorph is low to moderate. Among mutants with a high level of pyrimorph resistance, EC(50 values for pyrimorph and CAA fungicides flumorph, dimethomorph, and mandipropamid were positively correlated. This indicated that point mutations in cellulose synthase 3 (CesA3 may confer resistance to pyrimorph. Comparison of CesA3 in isolates with a high level of pyrimorph resistance and parental isolates showed that an amino acid change from glutamine to lysine at position 1077 resulted in stable, high resistance in the mutants. Based on the point mutations, an allele-specific PCR method was developed to detect pyrimorph resistance in P. capsici populations.

  17. Calcium as a branching signal in Neurospora crassa.

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, J L; Kinney, S G

    1983-01-01

    The divalent cation ionophore A23187 was found to induce apical branching in Neurospora crassa. Optimal effects were obtained by treatment with 0.1 mM ionophore for 30 min. Branching first became manifest during or shortly after treatment; successive rounds of branching could be observed at later times. Calcium starvation of the mycelium markedly reduced its subsequent response to the ionophore, whereas starvation for other divalent cations had no detectable effect. The branching response was...

  18. Characterizing Weighted MSO for Trees by Branching Transitive Closure Logics

    OpenAIRE

    Fülöp, Zoltán; Vogler, Heiko

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the branching transitive closure operator on weighted monadic second-order logic formulas where the branching corresponds in a natural way to the branching inherent in trees. For arbitrary commutative semirings, we prove that weighted monadic second order logics on trees is equivalent to the definability by formulas which start with one of the following operators: (i) a branching transitive closure or (ii) an existential second-order quantifier followed by one universal first-ord...

  19. Statistics of branched flow in a weak correlated random potential

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Lev

    2002-01-01

    Recent images of electron flow through a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) device show branching behavior that is reproduced in numerical simulations of motion in a correlated random potential [cond-mat/0010348]. We show how such branching naturally arises from caustics in the classical flow and find a simple scaling behavior of the branching under variation of the random potential strength. Analytic results describing the statistical properties of the branching are confirmed by classical a...

  20. Theoretical prediction of side branch compromise after main branch stenting in coronary bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    One of the main problems of treatment of bifurcation lesions is side branch (SB) stenosis appearing after stent placement in the main vessel.The aim of this study was to create quantitative method for prediction of side branch compromise extent.We accepted that the main mechanism for SB ostial stenosis is flow divider (FD) displacement from stent struts after stent implantation in the main vessel.Using easily measurable parameters from coronary angiography,as SB diameter,angle α (initial angle between axes of parent vessel and SB axis) and angle α' (angle between above mentioned axes after stent placement) we can calculate percentage diameter stenosis at branch ostium (%DS):%DS = sin (α - α')/(tan α).In boundary condition of full FD displacement %DS = cos α.We tested our theoretical predictions with fluoroscopic observation of elastic wall model of bifurcation (45°distal angle between branches)permitting wall deformations with stent.There is full coincidence of values of %DS and percentage area stenosis (%AS).The regular formulas for calculations of %DS and %AS overestimate stenosis severity between 10% and 25%.Our model tests have shown full coincidence between predicted values for %DS and observed values.We demonstrate that part of the SB ostium is not visible in regular angiography and contributes to ostial lumen area.This is a method that permits quantitative prediction of side branch compromise.