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Sample records for branch retinal vein

  1. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  2. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  3. Clinical Trials in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panakanti, Tandava Krishnan; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept) compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular) of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26957837

  4. Clinical trials in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandava Krishnan Panakanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy.

  5. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

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    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  6. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non-randomized, interve......Purpose: To report the clinical experience and results of using a microsurgical technique to decompress the arteriovenous connection in complicated branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) combined with haemorrhage, oedema an ischaemia. Methods: We carried out a retrospective, non...

  7. Multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusions in hyperhomocysteinemia

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    Abhijit Diwakar Gore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known modifiable risk factor for thromboembolism. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients having hyperhomocysteinemia is a known entity, particularly in young patients. However, multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is a rare condition, which can be a presentation of this disease. We present a patient who had multiple extra macular BRVO; on complete systemic workup, he was found to have raised homocysteine levels.

  8. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan René; Rosenberg, Niels Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  9. A rare case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Anugraha; Srikanth, Krishnagopal

    2016-01-01

    Sirsasana is a type of headstand postural yoga in which the body is completely inverted. It is performed with or without wall support. In this position, the body is held upright supported by the forearms, while the crown of the head rests lightly on the floor. This is an advanced pose and should be attempted under the supervision of a qualified yoga instructor. The practice of Sirsasana is postulated to increase blood flow to the brain, improving memory, and other intellectual functions. It is also known to cause causes raised intraocular pressure, decompression retinopathy, glaucomatous visual field defects, central retinal vein occlusion, progression of glaucoma, optic neuropathy, and conjunctival varix thrombosis. We report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana in a patient with systemic hypertension. PMID:27512326

  10. Mortality in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Nynne; Gade, Else; Knudsen, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the impact of branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), a condition related to arteriolar wall thickening, as a prognostic marker of mortality. DESIGN: Long-term follow-up study comparing cases with background population. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with BRVO. METHODS: Diagnosis...... occlusion was found in 329 patients (173 women, 156 men) born between 1902 and 1956, who were 39 to 91 years old when diagnosed between 1973 and 1998. Follow-up was concluded on July 8, 2004, when 144 deaths were recorded in patients (74 women, 70 men), compared with an expected number of 145.5 deaths...

  11. Axial length as a risk factor to branch retinal vein occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, EA; deLavalette, VWR; vandenBrom, HJB

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether axial length is a factor in branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: Axial length measurements in a group of 24 patients with a unilateral branch retinal Vein occlusion were compared with the axial length measurements in a control group. axial length measurements were ta

  12. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on retinal function after experimental branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Kyhn, Maria Voss;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  13. Dexamethasone Implant (Ozurdex in a Case with Unilateral Simultaneous Central Retinal Vein and Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Ozturk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous branch retinal artery and vein occlusion is a rare condition that may cause severe visual loss, and its treatment is often unrewarding. Herein, we report a case with simultaneous central retinal vein and branch retinal artery occlusion; it was successfully treated with a single dexamethasone intravitreal implant. The affected eye attained a visual acuity level of 20/25 from the visual acuity of hand motions at presentation with a residual, but relatively diminished, altitudinal scotoma during a follow-up period of 6 months.

  14. Influence of ischemia on visual function in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion and macular edema

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    Noma H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma¹, Hideharu Funatsu¹, Tatsuya Mimura², Katsunori Shimada³¹Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Owada-shinden, Chiba, Japan; ²Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; ³Department of Hygiene and Public Health II, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Visual function and retinal morphology were investigated to elucidate the influence of ischemia in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and macular edema. In 41 consecutive patients with BRVO aged 68.9 ± 10.0 years (22 women and 19 men, the area of capillary nonperfusion was measured by fluorescein angiography. Retinal thickness and retinal volume were measured by optical coherence tomography, and mean retinal sensitivity was calculated for each of 9 macular subfields. Mean visual acuity and macular sensitivity within the central subfield were not significantly correlated with the nonperfused area. However, the macular sensitivity within the central 5 subfields and all 9 subfields showed significant negative correlations with the nonperfused area. Also, macular thickness and volume within all 9 subfields were significantly correlated with the nonperfused area. In conclusion, evaluation of both the fovea and the entire macular region may be important in patients with ischemic BRVO.Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, macular sensitivity, ischemia

  15. Investigation of retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in a mouse model of retinal branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ebneter

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is a leading cause of visual impairment. Experimental models of this condition based on laser photocoagulation of retinal veins have been described and extensively exploited in mammals and larger rodents such as the rat. However, few reports exist on the use of this paradigm in the mouse. The objective of this study was to investigate a model of branch and central retinal vein occlusion in the mouse and characterize in vivo longitudinal retinal morphology alterations using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Retinal veins were experimentally occluded using laser photocoagulation after intravenous application of Rose Bengal, a photo-activator dye enhancing thrombus formation. Depending on the number of veins occluded, variable amounts of capillary dropout were seen on fluorescein angiography. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels were markedly elevated early and peaked at day one. Retinal thickness measurements with spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed significant swelling (p<0.001 compared to baseline, followed by gradual thinning plateauing two weeks after the experimental intervention (p<0.001. Histological findings at day seven correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging. The inner layers were predominantly affected by degeneration with the outer nuclear layer and the photoreceptor outer segments largely preserved. The application of this retinal vein occlusion model in the mouse carries several advantages over its use in other larger species, such as access to a vast range of genetically modified animals. Retinal changes after experimental retinal vein occlusion in this mouse model can be non-invasively quantified by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and may be used to monitor effects of potential therapeutic interventions.

  16. Visual prognosis and vitreous molecules after vitrectomy for macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Hidetaka Noma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma1, Hideharu Funatsu1, Tatsuya Mimura2, Shuichiro Eguchi3, Katsunori Shimada41Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Yachiyo, Chiba, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Eguchi Eye Hospital, Hakodate, Japan; 4Department of Hygiene and Public Health II, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: This study investigated whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF influence the visual prognosis of patients with macular edema and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. In 47 consecutive patients (47 eyes undergoing vitrectomy, retinal thickness was examined by optical coherence tomography. Best-corrected visual acuity and the vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF were also determined. Patients were followed for at least 6 months after surgery. Vitreous fluid levels of VEGF and sICAM-1 were significantly lower in the patients with more marked improvement of visual acuity after vitrectomy, while PEDF was significantly higher. VEGF and sICAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with greater postoperative improvement of macular edema, while PEDF was significantly lower. In BRVO patients, vitreous fluid levels of VEGF, sICAM-1, and PEDF may influence both the response of macular edema to vitrectomy and the visual prognosis.Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, vitrectomy, vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, pigment epithelium-derived factor 

  17. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization.

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    Elisa Dominguez

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined.We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO.Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease.

  18. Intravitreal Triamcinolone for Acute Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: a Randomized Clinical Trial

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    Alireza Ramezani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT injection for recent branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 30 phakic eyes with recent (less than 10 weeks′ duration BRVO were assigned to two groups. The treatment group (16 eyes received 4 mg IVT and the control group (14 eyes received subconjunctival sham injections. Changes in visual acuity (VA were the main outcome measure. Results: VA and central macular thickness (CMT changes were not significantly different between the study groups at any time point. Within group analysis showed significant VA improvement from baseline in the IVT group up to three months (P 0.05. Significant reduction in CMT was noticed only in the treatment group (‑172 ± 202 μm, P = 0.029 and at 4 months. Ocular hypertension occurred in 4 (25% and 2 (14.3% eyes in the IVT and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: A single IVT injection had a non-significant beneficial effect on VA and CMT in acute BRVO as compared to the natural history of the condition. The 3-month deferred treatment protocol advocated by the Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group may be a safer option than IVT injection considering its potential side effects.

  19. De novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma in an eye with previous branch retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, Mehreen; Bryant, Juanita Sonya; Alwassia, Ahmad A; Chen, Carolyn; Duker, Jay S

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the de novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma occurring 8 years after laser photocoagulation for previous branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). A 62-year-old man presented with an asymptomatic yellowish orange lesion in the macula on fundus examination of his left eye during a regular follow-up visit for bilateral BRVO associated with macular edema that had previously been treated with laser photocoagulation. The lesion was observed for 1.5 years until a decrease in vision occurred. Fundus photography revealed a yellow-to-orange, well-defined lesion in the macular region. Fluorescein angiography was consistent with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Optical coherence tomography and B-scan ultrasonography showed features consistent with choroidal osteoma. This is the first report of the de novo appearance of a choroidal osteoma occurring years after laser photocoagulation for BRVO. CNV developed secondary to the lesion, which was treated with intravitreal bevacizumab, leading to subjective and anatomic improvement.

  20. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

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    Petr Kolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  1. Preliminary Clinical Observation of Arteriovenous Sheathotomy for Treatment of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Lu; Yonghao Li; Changxian Yi; Mei Li; Xiulan Lu; Jinglin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To document the anatomic and functional improvement of six patients withbranch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) following successful arteriovenous adventitialsheathotomy (AAS).Methods: Retrospective study of 6 patients (6 eyes) with BRVO treated with AAS. Allpatients were not eligible for laser photocoagulation and had both macular edema andintraretinal hemorrhage. The visual acuity was in the range of 0.4 to 0.02. All patientsunderwent pars plana vitrectomy and AAS. The clinical improvement was determined byfundus photograph, fluorescein angiography (FAG), optical coherence tomography(OCT) and multifocal electroretinography (ERG). All patients were followedpostoperatively for an average of 20 months ranging from 12 to 24 months.Results: Sheathotomy and decompression of the arteriole/venule (A/V) crossing wereachieved in all 6 patients. 5 patients have improved their best-corrected visual acuity 4lines or more. The best one could reach to 1.0. One month after the operation, fundusphotograph and FAG demonstrated the resolution of intraretinal hemorrhage, reduction ofnon-perfusion area and apparent resolution of retinal venous dilation and tortuosity. OCTconfirmed remarkable reduction of retinal thickness. The microcysts at the foveadiminished. Multifocal ERG showed the recovery of the central peak at the macular andthe peripheral response density. However, capillary nonperfusion area andmicroaneurysm were found out by FAG in four patients at the points distal to thesheathotomy three months after the operation.Conclusions: Anatomic and functional improvement of retina can be achieved in patientswith BRV0 through AAS. However, the capillary nonperfusion and microaneurysm mayfollow this surgical procedure in some cases that need further treatment with laserphotocoagulation. The better visual improvement may be expected in the patients withearlier surgical intervention.

  2. Method of Quantifying Size of Retinal Hemorrhages in Eyes with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Using 14-Square Grid: Interrater and Intrarater Reliability

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    Yuko Takashima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe a method of quantifying the size of the retinal hemorrhages in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and to determine the interrater and intrarater reliabilities of these measurements. Methods. Thirty-five fundus photographs from 35 consecutive eyes with BRVO were studied. The fundus images were analyzed with Power-Point® software, and a grid of 14 squares was laid over the fundus image. Raters were asked to judge the percentage of each of the 14 squares that was covered by the hemorrhages, and the average of the 14 squares was taken to be the relative size of the retinal hemorrhage. Results. Interrater reliability between three raters was higher when a grid with 14 squares was used (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, 0.96 than that when a box with no grid was used (ICC, 0.78. Intrarater reliability, which was calculated by the retinal hemorrhage area measured on two different days, was also higher (ICC, 0.97 than that with no grid (ICC, 0.86. Interrater reliability for five fundus pictures with poor image quality was also good when a grid with 14 squares was used (ICC, 0.88. Conclusions. Although our method is subjective, excellent interrater and intrarater reliabilities indicate that this method can be adapted for clinical use.

  3. Branch retinal vein thrombosis and visual loss probably associated with pegylated interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana Lofego Gon(c)alves; Alberto Queiroz Farias; Patrícia Lofego Gon(c)alves; Elbio Antonio D'Amico; Flair José Carrilho

    2006-01-01

    Ophthalmological complications with interferon therapy are usually mild and reversible, not requiring the withdrawal of the treatment. We report a case of a patient who had visual loss probably associated with interferon therapy. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection (genotype 1a) was diagnosed in a 33-year old asymptomatic man. His past medical history was unremarkable and previous routine ophthalmologic check-up was normal. Pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin were started. Three weeks later he reported painless reduction of vision. Ophthalmologic examination showed extensive intraretinal hemorrhages and cottonwool spots, associated with inferior branch retinal vein thrombosis. Antiviral therapy was immediately discontinued, but one year later he persists with severely decreased visual acuity. This case illustrates the possibility of unlredictable and severe complications during pegylated interferon therapy.

  4. Five-year outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Nishida A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Akihiro Nishida,1,2 Hiroshi Kojima,1,2 Takanori Kameda,1,2 Michiko Mandai,1,3 Yasuo Kurimoto1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, 3Laboratory for Retinal Regeneration, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for macular edema (ME associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO have been previously reported, but the studies did not report the number of additional treatments after surgery. During 5 years of follow-up, we therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of PPV for BRVO and evaluated the incidence of additional treatments. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 25 eyes of 24 patients who underwent PPV for ME associated with BRVO and were followed up for at least 5 years. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured, and foveal thickness was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Additional treatments were also investigated. Results: The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR improved from 0.53±0.23 at baseline to 0.16±0.25 at 5 years (P<0.0001. The foveal thickness decreased from 535±222 µm at baseline to 205±143 µm at 5 years (P<0.0001. For the eyes with residual ME, the following additional treatments were performed within 5 years of follow-up: sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide in two eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in three eyes, grid laser photocoagulation in one eye, and direct photocoagulation of macroaneurysm in one eye. Additional surgeries were performed in two eyes: for one eye, phacoemulsification extraction of the ocular lens and intraocular lens implantation were performed because of cataract progression, and for the other eye, additional PPV was done for postoperative retinal detachment. Conclusion: PPV was effective for resolution of ME

  5. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of retinal vein occlusion. These measures include: Eating a low-fat diet Getting regular exercise Maintaining an ideal weight Not smoking Aspirin or other blood thinners may help prevent blockages in the other eye. Controlling diabetes may ...

  6. Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab

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    Tatsuya Yunoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT. OCT parameters were central macular thickness (CMT and average retinal thickness in a 1-mm-diameter circular region at the fovea (MRT. Results. Mean BCVA, CRT, and MRT were significantly improved from the baseline after PPV. Greater improvement of BCVA, CRT, and MRT was obtained after 1 month of IVB than after 6 months of PPV. No eyes showed worsening of macular edema after the surgery. Conclusion. PPV improved BCVA and recurrent macular edema due to BRVO, but PPV that was less effective than IVB had been in the same patients. PPV may be one of the treatment options for recurrent macular edema due to BRVO after IVB.

  7. Five-year outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Akihiro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Kameda, Takanori; Mandai, Michiko; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Long-term outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for macular edema (ME) associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) have been previously reported, but the studies did not report the number of additional treatments after surgery. During 5 years of follow-up, we therefore investigated the efficacy and safety of PPV for BRVO and evaluated the incidence of additional treatments. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 25 eyes of 24 patients who underwent PPV for ME associated with BRVO and were followed up for at least 5 years. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured, and foveal thickness was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Additional treatments were also investigated. Results The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) improved from 0.53±0.23 at baseline to 0.16±0.25 at 5 years (P<0.0001). The foveal thickness decreased from 535±222 µm at baseline to 205±143 µm at 5 years (P<0.0001). For the eyes with residual ME, the following additional treatments were performed within 5 years of follow-up: sub-Tenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide in two eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in three eyes, grid laser photocoagulation in one eye, and direct photocoagulation of macroaneurysm in one eye. Additional surgeries were performed in two eyes: for one eye, phacoemulsification extraction of the ocular lens and intraocular lens implantation were performed because of cataract progression, and for the other eye, additional PPV was done for postoperative retinal detachment. Conclusion PPV was effective for resolution of ME associated with BRVO and improved visual acuity with a small number of additional treatments during long-term follow-up. PMID:28255227

  8. Increase of aqueous inflammatory factors in macular edema with branch retinal vein occlusion: a case control study

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    Noma Hidetaka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 has a role in the pathogenesis of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO together with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Methods A retrospective case control study was performed in 22 patients with BRVO and macular edema, as well as 10 patients with nonischemic ocular diseases as the control group. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion with Scion Image software, while the severity of macular edema was examined by optical coherence tomography. Aqueous humor samples were obtained during the performance of combined vitrectomy and cataract surgery. sICAM-1 and VEGF levels in aqueous humor and plasma specimens were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Aqueous humor levels of sICAM-1 (median: 6.90 ng/ml and VEGF (median: 169 pg/ml were significantly elevated in BRVO patients compared with the control group (median: 3.30 pg/ml and 15.6 pg/ml, respectively (P = 0.005 and P P = 0.025. In addition, aqueous levels of both sICAM-1 and VEGF were correlated with the size of the non-perfused area of the retina in BRVO patients (P = 0.021 and P P = 0.020 and P = 0.005, respectively. Conclusions Both sICAM-1 and VEGF may be involved in the pathogenesis of macular edema associated with BRVO. Measurement of aqueous humor sICAM-1 levels may be useful for assessment of BRVO patients with macular edema, in addition to measurement of VEGF.

  9. Short-term effects of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (OZURDEX® on choroidal thickness in patients with naive branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Hasan Basri Arifoglu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT in patients with naïve branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO before and after intravitreal dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex® injection. Methods: Thirty-nine patients with unilateral BRVO and 35 healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. Choroidal thickness was evaluated by EDI-OCT at baseline and 1 month after dexamethasone implant. Results: The mean SFCT measured in 39 patients with BRVO was 299.41 ± 55.86 µm, significantly greater than that in contralateral eyes (283.76 ± 57.44 µm; p=0.009 and control eyes (276.14 ± 39.06 µm; p=0.044. The mean SFCT after the treatment was 279.64 ± 50.96 µm, significantly thinner than that before intravitreal dexamethasone therapy (p=0.004. Conclusions: SFCT in treatment-naive BRVO eyes was significantly greater than that in contralateral eyes and healthy eyes and decreased significantly after intravitreal dexamethasone implantation.

  10. Intravitreal bevacizumab versus triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: a matched study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing; TAO Yong; JIANG Yan-rong; LI Xiao-xin; GAO Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder of the elderly and both intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and intravitreal bevacizumab were reported to be effective. The purpose of this study was to compare intravitreal bevacizumab with intravitreal TA for the treatment of macular edema resulting from BRVO.Methods The retrospectively comparative interventional study included a bevacizumab group of 34 BRVO patients (1.25 mg bevacizumab) and a TA group of 34 BRVO patients (4.0 mg TA), and the two groups were matched by baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Examinations were designed to be carried out at 1 day, 3 days, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after each injection. The mean follow-up was (148.43±130.56) days. Main outcome parameters were BCVA and morphometric measurements of the macula obtained by optical coherence tomography.Results In all follow-ups, the mean changes of BCVA (LogMAR) between two groups were not significantly different (P >0.10). Similarly, the rates of patients who got BCVA improvement >2 lines or lost BCVA >2 lines were not significantly different, either (P >0.10). In both groups, compared with baseline, the mean central macular thickness (CMT) got reduction from 4 weeks to 1 year after initial injection, however, which lost statistical significance at 6-month follow-up in TA group (P=0.25) and lost significance at 3-month and 6-month follow-up in bevacizumab group (P=0.07, 0.21). The mean CMT between two groups differed at 3-month follow-up (P 0.40). In TA group, retinal pigment epithelium tear occurred in 1 eye at 8 weeks after initial injection and 12 eyes (35.3%) got intraocular pressure >21 mmHg. In bevacizumab group, no severe complications were observed.Conclusion For BRVO, intravitreal bevacizumab versus intravitreal TA causes a similar increase in visual acuity and reduction of macular edema (except 3-month follow-up) with minor complications during 1 year.

  11. Outcomes of microincision vitrectomy surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Sato S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shimpei Sato,1 Maiko Inoue,2 Shin Yamane,2 Akira Arakawa,2 Mikiro Mori,1 Kazuaki Kadonosono2 1Department of Opthalmology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional effect of microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Methods: The medical records of 101 eyes of 101 patients who had undergone MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO were studied. Patients were classified into ischemic and non-ischemic BRVO based on angiograph. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central foveal thickness (CFT, determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively.Results: Preoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR BCVA ± standard deviation (SD was 0.52±0.43 and mean CFT ± SD was 489.4±224.9 µm. Postoperative mean BCVA ± SD values were 0.41±0.35, 0.35±0.41, 0.29±0.36, and 0.25±0.41, and mean CFT values were 370.1±148.9, 327.5±157.5, 310.9±154.9, and 274.4±135.3 µm at 1, 3, 6, 12 months, respectively. The mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (all P<0.05, and the mean CFT was significantly decreased at all postoperative follow-up time points (all P<0.05. At the 12-month postoperative evaluation, BCVA had improved by 0.2 logMAR units in 50 eyes (60.0% with ischemic BRVO and in nine eyes (50.0% with non-ischemic BRVO. Six eyes (6.0% experienced recurrence or persistence of macular edema at 12 months postoperatively.Conclusion: MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO is effective in improving visual acuity and foveal morphology with low recurrence of macular edema. Keywords: MIVS, ILM, BRVO, central foveal thickness, CFT

  12. Efficacy and safety of intravitreal therapy in macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review.

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    Amelie Pielen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravitreal agents have replaced observation in macular edema in central (CRVO and grid laser photocoagulation in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes of intravitreal therapies for macular edema in CRVO and BRVO. METHODS AND FINDINGS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for RCTs with no limitations of language and year of publication. 11 RCTs investigating anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and steroids (triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were evaluated. EFFICACY CRVO: Greatest gain in visual acuity after 12 months was observed both under aflibercept 2 mg: +16.2 letters (8.5 injections, and under bevacizumab 1.25 mg: +16.1 letters (8 injections. Ranibizumab 0.5 mg improved vision by +13.9 letters (8.8 injections. Triamcinolone 1 mg and 4 mg stabilized visual acuity at a lower injection frequency (-1.2 letters, 2 injections. BRVO: Ranibizumab 0.5 mg resulted in a visual acuity gain of +18.3 letters (8.4 injections. The effect of dexamethasone implant was transient after 1.9 implants in both indications. SAFETY: Serious ocular adverse events were rare, e.g., endophthalmitis occurred in 0.0-0.9%. Major differences were found in an indirect comparison between steroids and anti-VEGF agents for cataract progression (19.8-35.0% vs. 0.9-7.0% and in required treatment of increased intraocular pressure (7.0-41.0% vs. none. No major differences were identified in systemic adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF agents result in a promising gain of visual acuity, but require a high injection frequency. Dexamethasone implant might be an alternative, but comparison is impaired as the effect is temporary and it has not yet been tested in PRN regimen. The ocular risk profile seems to be favorable for anti-VEGF agents in comparison to steroids. Because comparative data from head

  13. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

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    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  14. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

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    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  15. Subthreshold Micropulse Photocoagulation for Persistent Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion including Best-Corrected Visual Acuity Greater Than 20/40

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    Keiji Inagaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of subthreshold micropulse diode laser photocoagulation (SMDLP for persistent macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA > 20/40, thirty-two patients (32 eyes with macular edema secondary to BRVO were treated by SMDLP. After disease onset, all patients had been followed for at least 6 months prior to treatment. Baseline Snellen visual acuity was used to categorize the eyes as BCVA ≤ 20/40 (Group I or BCVA > 20/40 (Group II. Main outcome measures were reduction in central macular thickness (CMT in optical coherence tomography (OCT and BCVA at 6 months. In the total subject-pool at 6 months, BCVA had not changed significantly but CMT was significantly reduced. Group I exhibited no significant change in CMT at 3 months but exhibited significant reductions at 6 and 12 months. Group II exhibited a marginally significant reduction in CMT at 3 months and a significant reduction at 6 months. In patients with persistent macular edema secondary to BRVO, SMDLP appears to control macular edema with minimal retinal damage. Our findings suggest that SMDLP is an effective treatment method for macular edema in BRVO patients with BCVA > 20/40.

  16. Prolongation of injection interval after switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, Mizuki; Sai, Ryuto; Fukuda, Masahide; Azumi, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to investigate the outcome of switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in daily practice. Materials and methods This retrospective study enrolled 15 eyes in 15 Japanese patients with ME secondary to BRVO who had been receiving a pro re nata regimen of ranibizumab and had provided written informed consent to switch to aflibercept therapy. The intravitreal injection interval, central retinal thickness, and visual acuity were evaluated before and after switching. Results The mean period of ranibizumab treatment was 11.8±4.2 months. The mean observation period after switching to aflibercept was 10.6±3.4 months, and seven patients were observed for more than 12 months after switching. The mean intravitreal injection interval was prolonged by 23.6 days with aflibercept (68.2±26.4 days with ranibizumab vs 91.8±33.2 days with aflibercept; P=0.0011). The mean intravitreal injection interval just before the switch was 81.3±35.6 days and was significantly prolonged to 100.8±34.2 days just after the switch to aflibercept (P=0.0309). The mean central retinal thickness did not change before or after the switch to aflibercept (295±55 μm with ranibizumab vs 276±25 μm with aflibercept; P=0.12). The mean visual acuity also remained at an improved level after the switch. No systemic or ocular side effects were evident during the study period. Conclusion Switching therapy from ranibizumab to aflibercept in Japanese patients with ME secondary to BRVO prolonged the intravitreal injection interval without anatomical or functional degradation.

  17. Central retinal vein occlusion concomitant with dengue fever

    OpenAIRE

    Velaitham, Punithamalar; Vijayasingham, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is on the rise and there is increasing number of ocular complications that are being reported. Most common ocular complications are macular edema, macular hemorrhages, and foveolitis. There are case reports on branch retinal vessel occlusions. Most of the ocular complications are attributed to the bleeding tendency and transudative process in dengue viral infection. This is a case report of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) concomitant with dengu...

  18. [Retinal vein occlusion in a young patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemba, Mihail; Ochinciuc, Uliana; Sarbu, Laura; Avram, Corina; Camburu, Raluca; Stamate, Alina

    2013-01-01

    We present a case report of a 27 years old pacient with central retinal vein occlussion and macular edema. The pacient has a significant reduction of the macular aedema with complete recovery of vision after the treatment.

  19. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

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    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  20. Radiation Retinopathy Associated with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Liu; FengWen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of radiation retinopathy associated with central retinal vein occlusion.Methods: The clinical features and fundus fluorescein angiography of this case were analyzed.Results: The patient had been treated with radiotherapy for her nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and presented with sudden visual loss in the left eye. The funduscopic examination and fluorescein angiography showed the features of radiation retinopathy in both eyes, and central retinal vein occlusion in the left eye.Conclusions: Radiation retinopathy can be associated with central retinal vein occlusion in the same eye, and it seems that the endothelial cell loss caused by radiation retinopathy may lead to retinal vein occlusion.

  1. Electro-oculogram of Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five cases, including 26 eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) were examined by means of the electro-oculogram. The results showed that 23 of the 26 eyes suffering from RVO exhibited abnormalities of the electro-oculogram (EOG). The potential difference and Arden ratio in the RVO eyes were lower than those in the normal eyes (P<0.01). The more the visual acuity of ill eyes was decreased, the higher the abnormal rate of EOG in ill eyes was. 14 eyes had the visual acuity less than 0.1, whose EOGs ...

  2. CLINICAL STUDY OF RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT

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    Satyavathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is the most common retinal occlusive disorder encountered by Ophthalmologists and is usually associated with a variable amount of visual loss. This is the second most common retinal vascular disease next to diabetic retinopathy. Liebreich initially described dramatic obstruction of veins as retinal apoplexy. Leber ( 1 (1877 reported the first case of BRVO and called it Hem orrhagic retinitis. RVO most commonly affects the venous blood supply of the entire retina (CRVO or a quadrant drained by one of the branches (BRVO or less commonly the superior or inferior half of the retina alone is affected (HCRVO. For discussion and management purpose RVO is broadly classified into six clinical entities includes (1 Non - ischemic CRVO (2 Ischemic CRVO (3 Non ischemic HCRVO (4Ischemic HCRVO (5 Major BRVO (6Macular BRVO. So much of confusion still exists regarding its natural histo ry, degree of severity, management and its progression. The clinical study of RVO is taken up mainly with a view to study the importance of systemic risk factors in etiopathogenisis of RVO, to study the clinical features and effectiveness of treatment in m odification of the natural course and complications of RVO. Depending on type of venous occlusion patient may present with loss of central vision frequently noticed on waking up in the morning, or field contraction, erythropsia, floates, black spots. Episo des of amaurosis fugax lasts for minutes to hours may be present. There may be metamor - phopsia. Signs of decreased visual acuty, RAPD, visual field defects are observed. Fundus picture shows Retinal hemorrhages distributed based on type of venous occlusion . In ischemic CRVO the picture shows “berries on a twig”. Various sequel & complications include macular edema, anterior segment and retinal neovascularisation, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment may be encountered. Various risk factors include Hypert ension, Diabetes, Hyper lipidemia, IHD

  3. Retinal vascular oximetry during ranibizumab treatment of central retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab on retinal oxygenation in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with CRVO was analysed using the Oxymap Retin...

  4. Latin American Consensus on Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Francisco J. Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of anti-VEGF agents has allowed unprecedented progress in the management and treatment of ophthalmologic conditions characterized by an increased vascular permeability and intraocular neovascularization. One of these conditions is retinal vein occlusion (RVO.  RVO is one of the most common causes of reduced vision due to retinal vascular disease. Without timely treatment, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization and other potential sequelae of RVO can lead to photoreceptor cell death and consequently to irreversible vision loss.   Treatments for this indication that have been recently approved by several regulatory agencies throughout the world include: the VEGF inhibitor ranibizumab (Lucentis, Genentech, the VEGF and placental growth factor inhibitor aflibercept (Eylea, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Bayer HealthCare, and a slow release intravitreal implant of dexamethasone (Ozurdex, Allergan. In addition bevacizumab (Avastin, Genentech has been used extensively in an off-label manner.   These new treatments allow us to preserve vision for many RVO patients who could not have expected such favorable results just 5 or 6 years ago. However, not every treatment is effective for every patient, and whether one option is superior to another or a combination of options is superior to monotherapy, have yet to be definitively determined.   A growing body of literature with strong evidence supports the use of these new treatments. However, in several instances the literature is not conclusive to support unified management of RVO. This document is a summary analysis on RVO assembled by a group of specialists summoned by the Pan-American Vitreo-Retinal Society (SPRV to participate in this Latin American consensus.

  5. Usefulness of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor combined with dexamethasone implant for retinal vein occlusion

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    Kim M

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Moosang Kim Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medcine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwon, KoreaI read with great interest the recent study by Michalska-Małecka et al1 published in the journal Clinical Interventions in Aging. The authors investigated the impact of intravitreal dexamethasone implant on macular morphology and functions in eyes with macular edema (ME secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. I congratulate the authors for their enlightening study and would like to make some contributions to the study.Read the original article by Michalska-Małecka and colleagues.

  6. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion AssociatedWith Sildenafil (Viagra

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    H C Obiudu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion - Central retinal vein occlusion is a possible adverse effect of sildenafil use. Physicians should be vigilant while prescribing thismedication and avoid its use in patients with elevated intraocular pressure

  7. Changes in the retinal veins in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, T; Sellebjerg, F; Jensen, C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate patients with acute optic neuritis (ON) for changes of the retinal veins. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-six patients with acute ON were extensively neuro-ophthalmologically examined. RESULTS: Multiple sclerosis (MS) was found in 41 patients of whom 1 had periphlebitis...... retinae (PR) and 2 had venous sheathing (VS). Probable MS was found in 15 patients without prior symptoms of MS. One had PR and VS, and 2 had VS. Twenty patients had mono-symptomatic ON, none had retinal changes. CONCLUSION: Changes of the retinal veins should alert the clinician to a probable diagnosis...

  8. Mortality in patients with central retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Christoffersen, Nynne;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess mortality in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN: Registry-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Four hundred thirty-nine photographically verified CRVO patients and a control cohort of 2195 unexposed subjects matched by age and gender and alive.......03-1.56) and in women 60 to 69 years of age (SMR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.22-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Central retinal vein occlusion was associated with an overall increase in mortality compared with controls that was attributed statistically to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. We recommend treatment of hypertension...

  9. Cell Therapy Applications for Retinal Vascular Diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susanna S

    2016-04-01

    Retinal vascular conditions, such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion, remain leading causes of vision loss. No therapy exists to restore vision loss resulting from retinal ischemia and associated retinal degeneration. Tissue regeneration is possible with cell therapy. The goal would be to restore or replace the damaged retinal vasculature and the retinal neurons that are damaged and/or degenerating from the hypoxic insult. Currently, various adult cell therapies have been explored as potential treatment. They include mesenchymal stem cells, vascular precursor cells (i.e., CD34+ cells, hematopoietic cells or endothelial progenitor cells), and adipose stromal cells. Preclinical studies show that all these cells have a paracrine trophic effect on damaged ischemic tissue, leading to tissue preservation. Endothelial progenitor cells and adipose stromal cells integrate into the damaged retinal vascular wall in preclinical models of diabetic retinopathy and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mesenchymal stem cells do not integrate as readily but appear to have a primary paracrine trophic effect. Early phase clinical trials have been initiated and ongoing using mesenchymal stem cells or autologous bone marrow CD34+ cells injected intravitreally as potential therapy for diabetic retinopathy or retinal vein occlusion. Adipose stromal cells or pluripotent stem cells differentiated into endothelial colony-forming cells have been explored in preclinical studies and show promise as possible therapies for retinal vascular disorders. The relative safety or efficacy of these various cell therapies for treating retinal vascular disorders have yet to be determined.

  10. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin in the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion

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    Juan Carlos Mesa Gutiérrez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa Gutiérrez, Luis Arias Barquet, Josep Maria Caminal Mitjana, Sergi Prades Almolda, Nùria Planas Domènech, Octavi Pujol Goita, Marc Rubio Caso, Jorge Arruga GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab in the treatment of macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Methods: Prospective study, noncomparative, interventional case series. Twelve consecutive patients (12 eyes with macular edema associated with nonischemic retinal vein occlusion were treated with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg. All subjects underwent standardized ophthalmic evaluation at baseline and at weeks 1, 4, 12, and 24, consisting of visual acuity (VA measurement using ETDRS charts, and imaging with ocular coherence tomography evaluating changes in foveal thickness (FT and macular volume (MV.Results: The median age was 66 years (± 4.16, and the median duration of symptoms was 4 months (± 1.81. There were six cases of inferior branch vein occlusion and six cases of superior branch retinal vein occlusion. Mean VA improved from 1.32 ± 0.24 (logMAR values at baseline to 0.8 ± 0.15 (p = 0.0003 at the 6-month follow-up. The macular edema responded promptly, and a trend to restoration of normal macular anatomy was observed at by the seventh day. Mean FT improved from 615.50 ± 116.29 microns to 420 ± 72.53 microns (p = 0.001, and the mean MV improved from 19.81 ± 2.31mm3 to 9.23 ± 1.38 (p = 0.0001 at the 6-month follow-up.Keywords: Bevacizumab, retinal vein occlusion, intravitreal injection, vascular endothelial growth factor

  11. Systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in young patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinawat, Suthasinee; Bunyavee, Chavisa; Ratanapakorn, Tanapat; Sinawat, Supat; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada; Yospaiboon, Yosanan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To study the systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion in patients aged ≤50 years with a particular emphasis on atherosclerotic diseases and thrombophilic disorders. Methods Medical charts of patients, aged ≤50 years whose diagnoses were retinal vein occlusions during the period 1995–2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the number of systemic abnormalities associated with these patients. Secondary outcomes included types of retinal vein occlusion and sites of occlusion. Results Atherosclerotic diseases were the most common systemic abnormalities associated with retinal vein occlusion and accounted for 55.1% of the patients in the study. Hypertension in 27.55%, diabetes mellitus in 16.33%, and 5.1% with dyslipidemia were noted. The number of thrombophilic disorders seemed to be less than expected and were noted in only 5.1%. Other systemic abnormalities included viral hepatitis infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Oral contraceptives were used by some patients. Conclusion Atherosclerotic diseases remained the most commonly associated systemic diseases in the majority of these patients. Approach to these patients should include a screening for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid abnormalities. Thrombophilia should also be considered where no obvious atherosclerotic diseases are found or if the patient is <40 years old, a history of thrombosis or a family history of thrombosis is possible. PMID:28260858

  12. Role of Transthoracic Echocardiography in the Evaluation of Patients with Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Afsoon Fazlinezhad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Retinal vein occlusion  is a common vascular disorder disrupting vision. Two basic types of RVO are branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO.  Retinal vein occlusion is a multifactor process including systemic illness and local retinal factors.RVO may be associated with atherosclerotic risk factors. We analyzed the role of 2 dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE for detecting the cardiac disease in patients with retinal veins occlusion. Materials and Methods:In this cross-sectional study 70 recently diagnosed patients with RVO enrolled in the study. The clinical diagnosis of retinal vein occlusion and its type was confirmed by a vitreoretinal specialist. The Patients were then referred for performing complete TTE. Results: The prevalence of RVO increased with age, but did not vary by sex. The most frequent cardiovascular risk factor was hypertension. The findings of our study revealed that a variety of echocardiographic abnormalities may be presented in patients with RVO. Diastolic dysfunction was the most frequent echocardiographic finding and we found positive correlation between diastolic dysfunction with increasing age and the presence of hypertension. Other findings included mitral regurgitation (52.9%, mitral stenosis (2.9%, mitral annulus calcification (1.4%, mitral valve prolapse (8.6%, aortic insufficiency (22.9%, sclerotic aortic valve (27.1%, tricuspid regurgitation (45.7%, pulmonary insufficiency (8.6%, mild pulmonary hypertension (8.6%, and moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension (4.3% Mild LVH (11.4%, Moderate LVH (8.6%. Abnormality on IAS was defined in these patients, including paten foramen ovale, lipomatosis IAS, exaggerated motion of IAS, and aneurysm of IAS. Conclusion: In our study, the most common echocardiographic finding was diastolic dysfunction which was compatible with the patients' age and the fact that the most prevalent risk factor was hypertension. Other

  13. Central retinal vein occlusion: A patient with systemic sclerosis

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    Karadžić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis is a severe chronic connective tissue disease, which results in involvement of numerous internal organs. Changes in the eye are the consequences of organ-specific manifestations of scleroderma or adverse effects of immunosuppressive treatment applied. Case report. We reported a 42-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis and acute deterioration of vision in the left eye, with visual acuity 0.9. After thorough clinical examination, including fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography, the diagnosis of nonischemic central retinal vein occlusion was made. Further biochemical, rheumatological and immunological investigation, apart from inactive systemic sclerosis, showed normal findings. Therefore, the cause of central retinal vein occlusion could only be attributed to the microvascular changes in systemic sclerosis. After three months, visual acuity deteriorated to 0.6 due to the development of cystoid macular edema. The patient received intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and after a single dose visual acuity improved to 0.9. After a 6- month follow-up, macular edema resolved and visual acuity stabilized. Conclusion. According to our knowledge and current data from the literature, central retinal vein occlusion is a rare vision threatening manifestation of scleroderma. There are only few published case reports on central vein occlusion in scleroderma patients. Examination of the ocular fundus is recommended for evaluation of vascular disease in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  14. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion.

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    Michael Reich

    Full Text Available To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30 and compared with controls (n = 16. To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14 and control samples (n = 8.Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02. Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5, Opticin and Vitronectin, remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed.The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO.

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Michael; Dacheva, Ivanka; Nobl, Matthias; Siwy, Justyna; Schanstra, Joost P.; Mullen, William; Koch, Frank H. J.; Kopitz, Jürgen; Kretz, Florian T. A.; Auffarth, Gerd U.; Koss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH) samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters) were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30) and compared with controls (n = 16). To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14) and control samples (n = 8). Results Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides) could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02). Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), Opticin and Vitronectin), remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO) to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO. PMID:27362861

  17. Retinal vein occlusion during flare of multicentric Castleman's disease

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    Kozak I

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Igor Kozak,1,2 Erin G Reid31King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2University of California San Diego, Jacobs Retina Center at the Shiley Eye Center, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3University of California San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, AIDS Malignancy Consortium, La Jolla, CA, USAAbstract: We report a case of successive bilateral retinal vein occlusion in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive male with multicentric Castleman's disease treated successfully with a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab. Castleman's disease should be a differential diagnosis of occlusive retinovascular disease and, occasionally, ocular manifestation can lead to systemic diagnosis.Keywords: retinal vein occlusion, Castleman's disease, intravitreal bevacizumab

  18. Presentation of acute central retinal vein occlusion in scleroderma

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Faisal; Al Habash, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a rare complication of scleroderma. Here we report a case of a 30-year-old man who was diagnosed to have scleroderma in the rheumatology and dermatology clinic. During treatment with systemic steroids and immunosuppressive therapy the patient developed a sudden decrease of vision in the right eye and was diagnosed to have right CRVO with macular edema on fundus examination. After three consecutive Intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injections for macular e...

  19. Retinal vessel width measurement at branchings using an improved electric field theory-based graph approach.

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    Xiayu Xu

    Full Text Available The retinal vessel width relationship at vessel branch points in fundus images is an important biomarker of retinal and systemic disease. We propose a fully automatic method to measure the vessel widths at branch points in fundus images. The method is a graph-based method, in which a graph construction method based on electric field theory is applied which specifically deals with complex branching patterns. The vessel centerline image is used as the initial segmentation of the graph. Branching points are detected on the vessel centerline image using a set of detection kernels. Crossing points are distinguished from branch points and excluded. The electric field based graph method is applied to construct the graph. This method is inspired by the non-intersecting force lines in an electric field. At last, the method is further improved to give a consistent vessel width measurement for the whole vessel tree. The algorithm was validated on 100 artery branchings and 100 vein branchings selected from 50 fundus images by comparing with vessel width measurements from two human experts.

  20. Central retinal vein occlusion following Sirsasana (headstand posture

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    Shah Nikunj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO following Sirsasana, a head-down postural yoga. A 55-year-old male patient presented to us, with sudden-onset loss of vision following Sirsasana, in the right eye. The patient had suffered from pulmonary thromboembolism 5 years earlier and was receiving warfarin prophylaxis. Over 6 months of follow-up, the patient developed neovascularization of the iris and was subjected to panretinal laser with no improvement in visual acuity. Sirsasana could be an important risk factor for CRVO especially in predisposed patients.

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion

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    Chris Canning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the current status of the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion. There have been no randomised controlled trials comparing this treatment with the current standard treatment (largely laser so the lower grade evidence of single treatment case series and anecdotal reports are discussed. VEGF blockers are good at reducing macular oedema in the short term, do improve visual acuity in many cases, and do not seem to adversely affect the long term revascularisation that is necessary to overcome the vein occlusion. VEGF blocking agents are not used in isolation in this condition - they will remain an adjunct to systemic and other local treatments. The literature was reviewed in online searches of Embase and Ovid and the papers quoted are a representative sample of a larger body of publications.

  2. A Case of Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Uneventful Phacoemulsification

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    Daniel Dragnev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We would like to present a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following uneventful phacoemulsification, possibly caused by sub-Tenon's anaesthesia. There were no predisposing general health problems. There are two possible mechanisms: (1 mechanical effect of the bolus anaesthetic; (2 pharmacologically mediated changes in the vascular calibre. The latter mechanism is much more probable, because of the vasoconstrictive properties of both medications used. This is the first reported case of branch retinal artery occlusion after sub-Tenon's anaesthesia with preservative-free medications.

  3. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Johansen, Sven; Hamann, Steffen Ellitsgaard

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a rare case of Churg-Strauss syndrome presenting with severe visual loss due to a combined central retinal vein and artery occlusion. METHODS: A 42-year old man with a medical history of asthma and blood hypereosinophilia developed a sudden loss of vision in his right eye. We...... describe the clinical features and evolution of the case after treatment. RESULTS: A combined occlusion of the central retinal artery and central retinal vein was diagnosed by the funduscopic appearance of retinal whitening, macular cherry-red spot, papilloedema, retinal haemorrhages in all four quadrants...... the vascular occlusion and experienced no visual improvement. CONCLUSION: Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion can occur in Churg-Strauss syndrome. We suggest that regional vasculitis may be the pathological mechanism underlying the vascular occlusions observed in our case. The condition carries...

  4. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  5. Automated retinal fovea type distinction in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Waldstein, Sebastian M.; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Langs, Georg; Simader, Christian; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2015-03-01

    Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a non-invasive modality for acquiring high- resolution, three-dimensional (3D) cross-sectional volumetric images of the retina and the subretinal layers. SD-OCT also allows the detailed imaging of retinal pathology, aiding clinicians in the diagnosis of sight degrading diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Disease diagnosis, assessment, and treatment will require a patient to undergo multiple OCT scans, possibly using multiple scanners, to accurately and precisely gauge disease activity, progression and treatment success. However, cross-vendor imaging and patient movement may result in poor scan spatial correlation potentially leading to incorrect diagnosis or treatment analysis. The retinal fovea is the location of the highest visual acuity and is present in all patients, thus it is critical to vision and highly suitable for use as a primary landmark for cross-vendor/cross-patient registration for precise comparison of disease states. However, the location of the fovea in diseased eyes is extremely challenging to locate due to varying appearance and the presence of retinal layer destroying pathology. Thus categorising and detecting the fovea type is an important prior stage to automatically computing the fovea position. Presented here is an automated cross-vendor method for fovea distinction in 3D SD-OCT scans of patients suffering from RVO, categorising scans into three distinct types. OCT scans are preprocessed by motion correction and noise filing followed by segmentation using a kernel graph-cut approach. A statistically derived mask is applied to the resulting scan creating an ROI around the probable fovea location from which the uppermost retinal surface is delineated. For a normal appearance retina, minimisation to zero thickness is computed using the top two retinal surfaces. 3D local minima detection and layer thickness analysis are used

  6. Treatment of Retinal Vein Obstruction with Acupuncture and Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱霞; 毕爱美; 韩秀霞

    2002-01-01

    @@ We have treated thirty-two cases (52 eyes) of retinal vein obstruction by acupuncture and oral administration of Huo Xue Ming Mu Decoction. The total effective rate of 90.38% demonstrated that the treatment was definitely effective.

  7. Vitreous inflammatory factors and serous retinal detachment in central retinal vein occlusion: a case control series

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    Noma Hidetaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated whether the vitreous fluid levels of soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (sVEGFR-2, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1 were associated with the occurrence of serous retinal detachment (SRD in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Methods We recruited 33 patients with CRVO and macular edema, as well as 18 controls with nonischemic ocular diseases. Eighteen of the 33 patients with CRVO showed SRD on optical coherence tomography of the macula (defined as subretinal accumulation of fluid with low reflectivity, while the other 15 patients only had cystoid macular edema (CME, defined as hyporeflective intraretinal cavities. Retinal ischemia was evaluated by measuring the area of capillary non-perfusion using fluorescein angiography and the public domain Scion Image program, while central macular thickness (CMT was examined by optical coherence tomography. Vitreous fluid samples were obtained during pars plana vitrectomy and levels of the target molecules were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Ischemia was significantly more common in the SRD group (17/18 patients than in the CME group (5/15 patients (P ptrendptrend = 0.019. On the other hand, the vitreous fluid level of PEDF showed a significant decrease across the three groups (56.4 ± 40.0 ng/ml, 24.3 ± 17.3 ng/ml, and 16.4 ± 12.6 ng/ml, respectively, ptrend Conclusions Higher levels of inflammatory factors (sICAM-1 and sVEGFR-2 and lower levels of anti-inflammatory PEDF were observed in macular edema patients with SRD, suggesting that inflammation plays a key role in determining the severity of CRVO.

  8. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion Caused by Toxoplasmosis in an Adolescent

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    Elizabeth Chiang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO, while not uncommon in elderly patient populations, is rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of a BRAO secondary to toxoplasmosis in this demographic. Case: A previously healthy 17-year-old male developed a unilateral BRAO in conjunction with inflammation and increased intraocular pressure. Family history was positive for cerebrovascular accidents in multiple family members at relatively young ages. The patient had a hypercoagulable workup as well as a cardiovascular workup which were both normal. A rheumatologic workup was unremarkable. By 3 weeks, a patch of retinitis was more easily distinguished from the BRAO and the diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made. Treatment was started with prednisone and azithromycin with subsequent improvement in vision. Toxoplasma antibody levels were elevated for IgG and negative for IgM, IgA, and IgE. The etiology of the BRAO was attributed to ocular toxoplasmosis. Conclusions: Vascular occlusions are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the third case report of a BRAO in a patient in the pediatric population. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in young patients with retinal artery occlusions associated with inflammation.

  9. Relationship of spontaneous retinal vein pulsation with ocular circulatory cycle.

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    Mijin Kim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the timing of spontaneous venous pulsation (SVP relative to the ocular circulatory cycle by using the movie tool of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoloscope. METHODS: A video recording of the fundus was obtained using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Spectralis HRA, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany at 8 frames/s in 47 eyes (15 glaucoma patients and 32 glaucoma suspects with visible pulsation of both the central retinal artery (CRA and vein (CRV. The timing of the maximum and minimum diameters of the CRA (CRA(max and CRAmin, respectively and CRV (CRV(max and CRV(min, respectively was identified during four pulse cycles. The interval between CRV(min and CRA(min, and between CRV(max and CRA(max was expressed as the number of frames and as a percentage of the ocular circulatory cycle. RESULTS: The ocular circulatory cycle (from one CRA(max to the next lasted 7.7 ± 1.0 frames (958.8 ± 127.2 ms, mean ± SD, with a mean pulse rate of 62.6 beats/min. The diameter of the CRA was increased for 2.4 ± 0.5 frames (301.9 ± 58.8 ms and decreased for 5.3 ± 0.9 frames (656.9 ± 113.5 ms. CRV(max occurred 1.0 ± 0.2 frames after CRA(max (equivalent to 13.0% of the ocular circulatory cycle, while CRV(min occurred 1.1 ± 0.4 frames after CRA(min (equivalent to 14.6% of the ocular circulatory cycle. CONCLUSIONS: During SVP, the diameter of the CRV began to decrease at early diastole, and the reduction persisted until early systole. This finding supports that CRV collapse occurs during ocular diastole.

  10. Artery and vein diameter ratio measurement based on improvement of arteries and veins segmentation on retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Tachiki, Hirokazu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Okumura, Susumu; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Retinal arteriolar narrowing is decided based on the artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR). Previous methods segmented blood vessels and classified arteries and veins by color pixels in the centerlines of blood vessels. AVR was definitively determined through measurement of artery and vein diameters. However, this approach was not sufficient for cases with close contact between the artery of interest and an imposing vein. Here, an algorithm for AVR measurement via new classification of arteries and veins is proposed. In this algorithm, additional steps for an accurate segmentation of arteries and veins, which were not identified using the previous method, have been added to better identify major veins in the red channel of a color image. To identify major arteries, a decision tree with three features was used. As a result, all major veins and 90.9% of major arteries were correctly identified, and the absolute mean error in AVRs was 0.12. The proposed method will require further testing with a greater number of images of arteriolar narrowing before clinical application.

  11. Baseline characteristics and risk factors of retinal vein occlusion: a study by the Korean RVO Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Yong; Yoon, Young Hee; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Yoon, Hee Seong; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, June-Gone; Park, Kyu Hyung; Jo, Young Joon

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the demographic characteristics and risk factors of Korean patients with naÏve central or branch retinal vein occlusion (CRVO or BRVO). This study enrolled 41 clinical sites throughout Korea and included 557 consecutive patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) from May through November 2010. A total of 557 patients with new-onset RVO participated in this study. Two hundred and three (36.4%) patients were diagnosed with CRVO and 354 (63.6%) patients were diagnosed with BRVO. Comparisons between the two groups showed that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was significantly higher in CRVO patients and hypertension was significantly higher in BRVO patients (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Poor baseline visual acuity was significantly associated with female and old age in BRVO patients (P = 0.002 and 0.013, respectively), whereas the wide intraretinal hemorrhage (CRVO, P = 0.029; BRVO, P Korean patients. Hypertension is strongly associated with BRVO and diabetes mellitus is more strongly associated with CRVO in Korean patients with RVO. As the first nationwide study performed by the Korean Retinal Society, the results of this study can be applied to future studies on RVO.

  12. Automated characterization of blood vessels as arteries and veins in retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsharif, Qazaleh; Tajeripour, Farshad; Pourreza, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years researchers have found that alternations in arterial or venular tree of the retinal vasculature are associated with several public health problems such as diabetic retinopathy which is also the leading cause of blindness in the world. A prerequisite for automated assessment of subtle changes in arteries and veins, is to accurately separate those vessels from each other. This is a difficult task due to high similarity between arteries and veins in addition to variation of color and non-uniform illumination inter and intra retinal images. In this paper a novel structural and automated method is presented for artery/vein classification of blood vessels in retinal images. The proposed method consists of three main steps. In the first step, several image enhancement techniques are employed to improve the images. Then a specific feature extraction process is applied to separate major arteries from veins. Indeed, vessels are divided to smaller segments and feature extraction and vessel classification are applied to each small vessel segment instead of each vessel point. Finally, a post processing step is added to improve the results obtained from the previous step using structural characteristics of the retinal vascular network. In the last stage, vessel features at intersection and bifurcation points are processed for detection of arterial and venular sub trees. Ultimately vessel labels are revised by publishing the dominant label through each identified connected tree of arteries or veins. Evaluation of the proposed approach against two different datasets of retinal images including DRIVE database demonstrates the good performance and robustness of the method. The proposed method may be used for determination of arteriolar to venular diameter ratio in retinal images. Also the proposed method potentially allows for further investigation of labels of thinner arteries and veins which might be found by tracing them back to the major vessels.

  13. [Branch retinal vein occlusion: high time for cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredie, S.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk management is common in patients suffering from manifest cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and diabetes mellitus. It is generally accepted that medication is the most effective treatment for reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these patients. Re

  14. Impact of injection therapy on retinal patients with diabetic macular edema or retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaprasad S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sobha Sivaprasad,1 Sesan Oyetunde2 1NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, 2Allergan Holdings Ltd., Marlow, UK Purpose: An important factor in the choice of therapy is the impact it has on the patient’s quality of life. This survey aimed to understand treatment burden, treatment-related anxiety and worry, and practical issues such as appointment attendance and work absence in patients receiving injection therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME or retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Patients and methods: A European sample of 131 retinal patients completed a detailed questionnaire to elucidate the impact of injection therapy on individuals with DME or RVO.Results: RVO and DME greatly impact a patient’s quality of life. An intensive injection regimen and the requirements for multiple hospital visits place a large practical burden on the patient. Each intravitreal injection appointment (including travel time was reported to take an average of 4.5 hours, with a total appointment burden over 6 months of 13.5 hours and 20 hours for RVO and DME patients, respectively. This creates a significant burden on patient time and may make appointment attendance difficult. Indeed, 53% of working patients needed to take at least 1 day off work per appointment and 71% of patients required a carer’s assistance at the time of the injection appointment, ~6.3 hours per injection. In addition to practical issues, three-quarters of patients reported experiencing anxiety about their most recent injection treatment, with 54% of patients reporting that they were anxious for at least 2 days prior to the injection. Patients’ most desired improvement to their treatment regimen was to have fewer injections and to require fewer appointments, to achieve the same visual results.Conclusion: Patients’ quality of life is clearly very affected by having to manage an intensive intravitreal injection regimen, with a considerable treatment burden

  15. Individualized Ranibizumab Regimen Driven by Stabilization Criteria for Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Boscia, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the 12-month efficacy and safety profile of an individualized regimen of ranibizumab 0.5 mg driven by stabilization criteria in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN: A 24-month, prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter s...

  16. Erythrocyte oxidative stress is associated with cell deformability in patients with retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, M; Marcucci, R; Gori, A M; Mannini, L; Grifoni, E; Alessandrello Liotta, A; Sodi, A; Tartaro, R; Taddei, N; Rizzo, S; Prisco, D; Abbate, R; Fiorillo, C

    2016-11-01

    Essentials Retinal vein occlusion (RVO), characterized by blood hyperviscosity, has an unclear pathogenesis. We aimed to find out if hemorheological profile is altered by oxidative stress in RVO patients. Red blood cell (RBC) oxidative stress is associated to whole blood viscosity and RBC deformability. Reactive oxygen species alter RBC membrane rigidity, playing a key role in RVO pathogenesis.

  17. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  18. Retinal vein thrombosis associated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iman Zandieh; Mohamed Adenwalla; Cindy Cheong-Lee; Patrick E Ma; Eric M Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    An estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer fromchronic hepatitis C with a prevalence of 0.8%-1.0% of the general population in Canada. An increasing pool of evidence exists supporting the use of pegylatedinterferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C. We report a 49-year old male of North American aboriginal descent with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 2b). Biopsy confirmed that he had cirrhosis with a 2-wk history of left eye pain and decreased visual acuity. He developed retinal vein thrombosis after 16 of 24 wk of pegIFN-α 2a and ribavirin combination therapy. He was urgently referred to a retinal specialist and diagnosed with non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion of the left eye. PegIFN and ribavirin combination therapy was discontinued and HCV RNA was undetectable after 16 wk of treatment. Hematologic investigations revealed that the patient was a factor V Leiden heterozygote with mildly decreased protein C activity. Our patient had a number of hypercoagulable risk factors, including factor V Leiden heterozygosity, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C that alone would have most likely remained clinically silent. We speculate that in the setting of pegIFN treatment, these risk factors may coalesce and cause the retinal vein thrombosis.

  19. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  20. Macular Hole Progression after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Hemicentral Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Nagpal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion is commonly being treated with off-label intravitreal bevacizumab with good outcomes. A significant reduction in macular edema and improvement in visual acuity is seen following such a treatment with no serious adverse effects. In the reported case, a full-thickness macular hole was noticed one month after intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to hemicentral retinal vein occlusion. On a detailed review of the pre- and postoptical coherence tomography scans, it was realized that there was a preexisting stage 2-3 macular hole which was masked by the hemorrhages and edema at the fovea and the macular hole had progressed following the injection.

  1. The Modality of Huoxue—Huayu in Treatment of Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YapingDeng; JuanguoDuan

    1995-01-01

    Background:There were some reports in China about Huoxue-Huayu therapy on retinal vein occlusion(RVO),but prospective and systematic studies are very few.The curative effect and mechanism of this therapy on RVO have not been re-ported Previously6.Methods:80patients with RVO were randomly divided into2groups,FundusⅢ(groupA)and urokinase group(groupB).GroupAwas treated by FundusⅢo-ral liquid(a composite herbal recipe for Huoxue-Huayu or invigoration of blood circulation and reduction of blood stasis)10ml/timeP.O.t.i.d,The treatment course was1 mouth,Group Bwas treated by urokinase.The urokinase that pro-duced in China was used 10000u+5%glucose 500ml/dayi.v.drip for 5days in a course,the rest 5days going on another course.The total treatment courses last-ed 1month.too.Results:The visual acuity in group A was remarkably improved while that in group B did not change.The extravasated retinal blood was evidently absorded in 92.7%fo the cases in group Aand in 66.7%of those in groupB.Thedifference was significant.FundusⅢalso improved the retinal circulation.Decreased the whole blood viscosity and fibrinogen and educed leakage of the retinal capillar-ies.THe total effective rates were83.7%in group Aand58.7%in group Bwith significant statistical difference between the 2groups(P<0.01).Conclusion:FundusⅢmay alleviate retinal edema and necroses,improve the re-covering of visual acuity,the retinal microcirculation,th rate of absorbing of reti-nal haemorrhage and treat RVO,and the curative effect is better than urokinase.

  2. A patient with acute macular neuroretinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion

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    Hirooka K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kiriko Hirooka,1 Wataru Saito,1,2 Kousuke Noda,1,2 Susumu Ishida1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Ocular Circulation and Metabolism, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanPurpose: The precise mechanism causing acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN is still unknown. A recent report suggested that choroidal circulation impairment correlates with its pathogenesis. We report a rare case with simultaneous onset of AMN and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO, which is a retinal circulation disorder.Methods: Case report.Results: A 44-year-old woman complained of central visual loss of the left eye for the previous 2 weeks. The patient’s visual acuity was 0.5 in the left eye (OS. Fundoscopic examination revealed a wedge-shaped, dark reddish-brown lesion at the macula, and CRVO-like retinal hemorrhages OS. Fluorescein angiography revealed retinal vasculitis and hypofluorescence corresponding to the macular lesion. The patient’s scanning laser ophthalmoscopy infrared imaging result led to a diagnosis of AMN. Two weeks after corticosteroid pulse therapy, her visual acuity improved to 1.2 OS, with improvement of macular findings and Humphrey perimetry. When the dose of oral corticosteroid was decreased, the AMN lesion worsened, with recurrence of retinal hemorrhages. Visual functions improved again after an increased dose of corticosteroid.Conclusion: These results suggest that circulatory disorders almost simultaneously occurred in choroidal and retinal vessels, resulting in the onset of both AMN and CRVO.Keywords: choroidal circulation, optical coherence tomography, retinal circulation, systemic corticosteroid therapy

  3. Retinal vein occlusion and macular edema – critical evaluation of the clinical value of ranibizumab

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    Keane PA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearse A Keane1, Srinivas R Sadda21NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; 2Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs constitute the second most common cause of retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy, with a prevalence of between 1% and 2% in persons older than 40 years of age. Despite the existence of numerous potential therapeutic options, none is entirely satisfactory, and many patients with RVO suffer irreversible visual loss. Fortunately however, the recent introduction of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, such as ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA and bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, offers a potentially new treatment approach for clinicians managing this disorder. The results of the BRAVO and CRUISE trials have provided the first definitive evidence for the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of RVO. As a result, ranibizumab has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RVO-associated macular edema. In this review, we provide a critical evaluation of clinical trial data for the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab, and address unresolved issues in the management of this disorder. Keywords: ranibizumab, retinal vein occlusion, vascular endothelial growth factor, macular edema

  4. En-face optical coherence tomography angiography of neovascularization elsewhere in hemicentral retinal vein occlusion

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    Sogawa K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Sogawa, Taiji Nagaoka, Akihiro Ishibazawa, Atsushi Takahashi, Tomofumi Tani, Akitoshi Yoshida Department of Ophthalmology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Japan Purpose: To evaluate how the growth of neovascularization elsewhere (NVE was delineated in an eye with hemicentral retinal vein occlusion (CRVO using optical coherence tomography (OCT angiography. Patients and methods: We examined a 64-year-old man diagnosed with hemi-CRVO. The area around the occluded vein was scanned using a spectral-domain OCT device (RTVue XR Avanti. Blood flow was detected using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA algorithm. Color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography (FA, and OCT angiography examinations were performed at the first visit and at 3 and 6 months postpresentation. Results: At the first visit, FA revealed delayed retinal venous filling and extensive areas of capillary nonperfusion. The patient underwent a trial of intravitreal ranibizumab injection (0.5 mg/0.05 mL for the treatment of macular edema. At 3 months postpresentation, there was no NVE around the occluded vein in the en-face SSADA image, but at 6 months, NVE appeared on the occluded veins. The en-face SSADA image showed the NVE structure in the fibrovascular membrane on the occluded vein more clearly than FA images. Conclusion: OCT angiography clearly visualized the sprouting of NVE in an eye with hemi-CRVO. New findings of the vascular structure of NVE in hemi-CRVO were revealed using the en-face SSADA algorithm. Keywords: OCT angiography, hemi-CRVO, NVE

  5. Acute and chronic spectral domain optical coherence tomography features of branch retinal artery occlusion

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    Rodrigues, Ian Aureliano Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is a common vascular occlusive disorder. BRAO involving the posterior pole is usually symptomatic, but occasionally has very limited clinical features. We describe 2 cases where the underlying pathology was initially unclear and the diagnosis therefore not reached at presentation. Use of the latest retinal imaging, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) enabled correct diagnosis of BRAO. The images demonstrate and contrast the fine changes that can be seen in the acute and chronic phases of this condition and illustrate how the pathogenesis of BRAO is confined to the outer retinal layers. We believe the subtle presentations of this common condition that we discuss highlight how diagnosis of BRAO can often be challenging, but may be facilitated by the use of SD-OCT retinal imaging. PMID:23661655

  6. Full-Thickness Retinochoroidal Incision in the Management of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    San-Ni Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO treated with full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions and to compare whether there is difference in treatment response in ischemic and nonischemic CRVO. Methods. Retrospective study of patients of CRVO receiving full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions in Changhua Christian Hospital. Fluorescein angiography (FA, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect funduscopy, best corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness (CMT measured by optical coherence tomography were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients were divided into an ischemic and nonischemic group according to the findings of FA. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year. Results. Twenty-eight eyes (14 ischemic and 14 nonischemic CRVO were included. Functional retinochoroidal venous anastomosis (RCVA was achieved in 48 of the 65 retinochoroidal incisions (73.8%. Central macular thickness (CMT and retinal hemorrhage decreased significantly after the surgery. Significant visual gain was observed postoperatively in the nonischemic group, but not in the ischemic group. Postoperative complications included vitreous hemorrhage (17.8%, neovascular glaucoma (7.1%, and preretinal fibrovasular membrane (10.7%, all of which were in the ischemic group. Conclusions. RCVA formation induced by retinochoroidal incisions could improve venous flow, and decrease CMT and retinal hemorrhage. However, only eyes with nonischemic CRVO showed visual improvement.

  7. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

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    Mason lll JO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO.Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development.Results: Twelve (14.5% of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7% had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7% had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0% of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8 (P=0.02.Conclusion: ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. Keywords: neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, central

  8. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion secondary to systemic non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma

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    Shukla Dhananjay

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of low-grade systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL causing central retinal artery and vein occlusion, which was the only manifestation of disease recurrence. A young man with resolved systemic NHL underwent fluorescein angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to investigate a severe unilateral visual loss. A combined vascular occlusion was observed in the right eye. Neuroimaging detected optic nerve infiltration; but no systemic/ central nervous system involvement was observed. The patient was treated with high-doses of corticosteroids and optic nerve irradiation. The optic neuropathy and vascular occlusion were resistant to treatment. The subsequent neovascular glaucoma was treated by panretinal photocoagulation, which relieved the pain, but vision was not recovered. No further recurrence was observed over the following year.

  9. Central retinal vein occlusion: A review of current Evidence-based treatment options

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    Amy Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO can induce an ischemic and hypoxic state with resulting sequelae of macular edema and neovascularization. Many treatment options have been studied. Our review aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of the multiple treatment options of CRVO. A PubMed and Cochrane literature search was performed. Well-controlled randomized clinical trials that demonstrated strong level 1 evidence-based on the rating scale developed by the British Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine were included. Seven clinical trials met inclusion criteria to be included in this review. These included studies that investigated the safety and efficacy of retinal photocoagulation (1 study, intravitreal steroid treatment (2 studies, and antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment (4 studies for the treatment of CRVO. In addition, studies evaluating surgical treatment options for CRVO were also included. Many treatment modalities have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in the treatment of CRVO. These treatment options offer therapeutic benefits for patients and clinically superior visual acuity and perhaps the quality of life after suffering from a CRVO.

  10. Bilateral and Simultaneous Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

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    Andrea Govetto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To describe a case of bilateral and simultaneous central retinal vein occlusion (RVO in a young patient diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Case Report: A 38-year-old man with morbid obesity and daytime sleepiness presented with a history of bilateral vision loss. His visual acuity (VA was hand movements, and fundus examination (FE revealed bilateral central RVO. General medical examination revealed untreated hypertension and type II respiratory failure. Laboratory tests for thrombophilia showed increased hematocrit (59% and high levels of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein. Other causes of congenital and acquired hypercoagulability were ruled out. Pathologic polysomnography led to the diagnosis of OSAS. The patient was treated with antihypertensive drugs and continuous positive air pressure. In addition, he received intravitreal ranibizumab. At 10 months after presentation, his VA was no light perception in the right eye and hand movements in the left eye. FE revealed bilateral retinal and optic nerve atrophy, and the occurrence of a nonarteritic anterior ischemic neuropathy in the right eye was considered.

  11. [Morphological characteristics of the macula in patients with retinal vein occlusion before and after the treatment: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, A A; Burladinova, A A; Lebenkova, O A

    2014-01-01

    The article presents examination results of 26 patients with macular edema (ME) due to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) before and 1 month after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (Lucentis). Besides routine assessment, retinal spectral-domain optical coherent tomography (OCT) was performed in all cases. In accordance with derived OCT patterns of macular edema the patients were devided into two groups: swelling of the inner and outer retinal layers with serous detachment of neuroepithelium (group 1) and intraretinal edema with pseudocysts (group 2). It is shown that initial OCT features of retina in patients with ME due to RVO are prognostic for treatment results (serous retinal detachment may serve as a preventing factor of photoreceptor damage) and that visual improvement in patients with ME and serous detachment of neuroepithelium anticipates morphological changes.

  12. A study of evaluation of various risk factors of retinal vein occlusion

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    Vaishali Amrutlal Prajapati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study of various ocular and systemic risk factors in Retinal Vein Occulation (RVO at tertiary eye care centre. Methods: A prospective study included 50 eyes of 50 patients, in period of September 2010 to August 2012. Inclusion criteria: 1. Age >25 years, 2. All newly diagnosed cases of vein occlusion. Exclusion criteria: 1. Age Ischemic (24%. In risk factors - most common was hypertension - in 38 (76% patients. Followed by descending order, hyperlipidemia 27 (54% >diabetes mellitus 16 (32% >tobacco 14 (28% >hyper homocystinemia 4 (8% >severe alcohol 2 (4%. The complications were more in ischemic than Nonischemic-CRVO >BRVO - they were macular edema 43 (86% >neovascularization at iris - 14 (28% >neovascularization at angle - 10 (20% >neovascular glaucoma and #8211; 4 (8%. Conclusion: RVOs are more common with increasing age, in males and most common risk factor is hypertensive. Most common cause for vision loss is macular edema - ischemic >non-ischemic. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1054-1057

  13. Unilateral macular edema with central retinal vein occlusion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

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    Noma H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma,1 Hiroshi Shimizu,1 Tatsuya Mimura21Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, but the treatment of the macular edema with this disease is extremely difficult. We report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME secondary to unilateral CRVO in a patient with SLE that responded to intravitreous injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agent. A 33-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with unilateral impairment of vision. Microperimetry (MP-1 showed a cessation of foveal sensitivity. Fluorescein angiography showed CME without ischaemia of the macular region or peripheral retina (nonischemic CRVO. A diagnosis of CME and unilateral nonischemic CRVO combined with SLE was made and intravitreous anti-VEGF therapy was given. A sample of aqueous humor was harvested at the start of intravitreous injection after obtaining informed consent. Then the levels of VEGF and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 were measured in the aqueous humor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, revealing that VEGF was 234 pg/mL and MCP-1 was 501 pg/mL. Two weeks later, left eye vision improved to 20/20. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed considerable amelioration of retinal swelling and CME. MP-1 showed a marked increase of foveal sensitivity. However, she had recurrence of edema 3 months later. After harvesting aqueous humor again, intravitreous injection of an anti-VEGF agent was repeated for CME. The aqueous VEGF and MCP-1 levels were 156 pg/mL and 360 pg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that inflammation was improved by intravitreous injection of bevacizumab. Intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF agents may be effective for CME due to nonischemic CRVO in SLE patients

  14. Characterization of retinal damage in the episcleral vein cauterization rat glaucoma model.

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    Danias, John; Shen, Fran; Kavalarakis, Manolis; Chen, Bin; Goldblum, David; Lee, Kevin; Zamora, Maria-Florencia; Su, YanLing; Brodie, Scott E; Podos, Steven M; Mittag, Thom

    2006-02-01

    Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) is used in rats to generate a glaucoma model with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The long-term retinal damage in this glaucoma model, however, has not been accurately quantified. We report the location and amount of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) damage caused by (EVC) induced IOP elevation in two rat strains. IOP was raised in one eye of Wistar (N = 5) and Brown-Norway(B-N)(N = 7) rats by EVC and monitored monthly until IOP in contralateral eyes equalized at 5 months post-surgery. Animals were maintained for 3.5-4.5 additional months. B-N rats (N = 7) that had no EVC served as controls for this strain. Scotopic flash ERGs were recorded at baseline and just prior to euthanasia. Automated counts of all retrogradely labeled RGCs in retinal flat-mounts were determined and compared between contralateral eyes. RGC density maps were constructed and RGC size distribution was determined. Oscillatory potentials in the group of eyes which had elevated IOP were decreased at the time of euthanasia, when IOP had returned to normal. The group of normal B-N rats had similar RGC counts between contralateral eyes. In the experimental group the mean number of RGCs was not significantly different between control and experimental eyes, but 1 of 5 Wistar and 2 of 7 B-N experimental eyes had at least 30% fewer RGCs than contralateral control eyes. Total retinal area in B-N experimental eyes was higher compared to contralateral eyes. Cumulative IOP exposure of the experimental eyes was modestly correlated with RGC loss while oscillatory potentials appeared to be inversely related to RGC loss. In retinas with extensive (> 30% RGC loss) but not complete damage, smaller cells were preserved better than larger ones. The above results indicate that RGC loss in both Wistar and B-N strains is variable after a prolonged elevation of IOP via EVC. Such variability despite equivalent IOP levels and ERG abnormalities, suggests unknown factors that can protect IOP

  15. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

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    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  16. The Anatomic Course of the First Jejunal Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Vein in Relation to the Superior Mesenteric Artery

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    Pavlos Papavasiliou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to determine the anatomic course of the first jejunal branch of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV in relation to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. Methods. Three hundred consecutive contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scans were reviewed by a surgical oncologist with confirmation of findings by a radiologist. Results. The overall incidence of a first jejunal branch coursing anterior to the SMA was 41%. There was no correlation between patient gender and position of the jejunal branch. In addition, there was no correlation between size of the first jejunal branch and its location in relation to the SMA. The IMV drained into the SMV in 27% of the patients. The IMV drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence in 17% of patients and inserted into the splenic vein in 54%. An anterior coursing first jejunal branch statistically correlated with an IMV that drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence (=0.009. Conclusion. The first jejunal branch of the SMV has a highly variable course in relation to the SMA and has a higher incidence of an anterior location in this population than previously reported.

  17. Neuroretinitis with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Female

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    Sina Ahmadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Bartonella henselae neuroretinitis with significant disc and peripapillary edema, branch retinal artery occlusion without macula involvement and well preserved central vision. A 15-year-old female presented with loss of vision over 4 weeks in the left eye. She had a history of cat exposure, but a cat scratch, insect bite or conjunctivitis was not reported. An inferotemporal arcuate scotoma developed during the acute phase and persisted over the course of the follow-up.

  18. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation and risk of retinal vein thrombosis

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    Mohammad Soleiman Soltanpour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy level has been established as a significant risk factor for venous thrombosis and cardiovascular disease. Homozygosity for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutation has been associated with elevated plasma Hcy concentration and may contribute to retinal vein thrombosis (RVT development. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the hyperhomocysteinemia and/or homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation are associated with an increased risk for RVT. Materials and Methods: Our study population consisted of 73 consecutive patients (50-78 years old with RVT and 73 control subjects (51-80 years old, matched for age and sex. Genotyping for the MTHFR C677T mutation was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique and Hcy level was determined by an enzyme immunoassay kit. Results: The prevalence of 677TT genotype was higher in patients than control subjects, but the difference in frequency didn′t reach a significant value (P = 0.07. The frequency of the 677T allele was 26% and 21.2% in patients and controls, respectively and did not differ significantly between the two groups (odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (0.75-2.24, P = 0.33. Fasting plasma total Hcy level was significantly higher in patients than controls (P = 0.001. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that hyperhomocysteinemia, but not the MTHFR C677T mutation, is associated with RVT.

  19. Automated image analysis for diameters and branching points of cerebral penetrating arteries and veins captured with two-photon microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugashi, Takuma; Yoshihara, Kouichi; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao; Yamada, Yukio; Masamoto, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to characterize 3-dimensional (3D) morphology of the cortical microvasculature (e.g., penetrating artery and emerging vein), using two-photon microscopy and automated analysis for their cross-sectional diameters and branching positions in the mouse cortex. We observed that both artery and vein had variable cross-sectional diameters across cortical depths. The mean diameter was similar for both artery (17 ± 5 μm) and vein (15 ± 5 μm), and there were no detectable differences over depths of 50-400 μm. On the other hand, the number of branches was slightly increased up to 400-μm depth for both the artery and vein. The mean number of branches per 0.1 mm vessel length was 1.7 ± 1.2 and 3.8 ± 1.6 for the artery and vein, respectively. This method allows for quantification of the large volume data of microvascular images captured with two-photon microscopy. This will contribute to the morphometric analysis of the cortical microvasculature in functioning brains.

  20. [Physiopathology of macular edema in central vein occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Horia T; Manea, Georgiana

    2012-01-01

    Retinal Vein Occlusions are vascular diseases affecting the Central Retinal Vein and its branches causing decreased retinal drainage resulting in significant clinical and functional pathological changes. RVO determines the increase of vascular permeability, with edema and hemorrhage and development of collateral vessels in a few weeks. Among the serious consequences of venous occlusion is the installation of macular edema to which depends long-term visual prognosis. Macular Edema is the accumulation of intraretinal serous fluid in the macular area caused by the breakdown of blood-retinal barrier.

  1. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

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    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  2. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a Patient with Patent Foramen Ovale

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    Nasser Shoeibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a patient with patent foramen ovale (PFO. Case Report: A 29-year-old female patient was referred for sudden onset superior visual field defect in her left eye. Ocular examination revealed visual acuity of 20/32 in the affected eye along with a positive relative afferent pupillary defect. A calcified white embolus was noted at the first bifurcation of the inferior temporal artery in her left eye together with mild retinal edema. With a diagnosis of BRAO, the patient received oral acetazolamide, topical timolol, ocular massage and anterior chamber paracentesis. The visual field defect partially recovered and the embolus moved to the third bifurcation level as revealed by fundus examination. An extensive workup, including neurology, rheumatology, cardiology and hematology consultation, carotid ultrasonography, transthoracic/transesophageal echocardiography and laboratory testing was performed. All results were within normal limits except for a small-sized PFO detected by transesophageal echocardiography. Low-dose aspirin therapy was initiated and over the subsequent two years, no other embolic event occurred. Conclusion: The association between PFO and BRAO has not yet been reported. Intracardiac right-to-left shunting through a PFO, accentuated by Valsalva maneuver, may predispose to embolic events while the source of initial thrombosis remains unknown.

  3. Impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with elements of retinal vein occlusion in a patient on interferon for polycythemia vera

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    Rue KS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly S Rue, Louis K Hirsch, Alfredo A SadunDepartment of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Doheny Eye Institute and Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: We describe the course and likely pathophysiology of impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and retinal vein occlusion in a 56-year-old man with polycythemia vera managed with interferon alpha for 2 years. Our patient presented with decreased vision, scintillating scotomata, and floaters. Fundus examination findings and results of a fluorescein angiogram led to the diagnosis of impending AION and retinal vein occlusion. Considering that both polycythemia vera and interferon have possible influences on vascular occlusion and optic disc edema, we stopped interferon treatment and immediately attempted to treat the polycythemia vera empirically with pentoxifylline and any interferon-associated inflammation with prednisone. Our patient experienced complete resolution of fundus abnormalities and return of normal vision within 3 weeks, which may be attributed to our successful treatment of both etiologies. Thus, further study is warranted to elucidate the treatment of both polycythemia vera and interferon-induced impending AION.Keywords: optic disc edema, interferon alpha, vascular occlusion, Roth spot, autoantibody, pentoxifylline

  4. Thrombosis of the superior vena cava and auxiliary branches in patients with indwelling catheterization of the internal jugular vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han; WANG Shi-xiang; WANG Wei; XU Chen; SHEN Shen; YU Ling; ZHANG Gui-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Background Central venous thrombosis is a serious and life-threatening complication in hemodialysis (HD) patients with an indwelling catheter. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of thrombosis of the superior vena cava and auxiliary branches in Chinese HD patients with an indwelling internal jugular venous catheter and to explore its risk factors.Methods Fifty-four patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) with an indwelling catheter were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The thrombosis of the internal jugular vein, subclavical vein, brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava was assessed by vascular ultrasound. Collected were data on age, gender, ultrafiltration volume, Kt/V, blood pressure, levels of hemoglobin, serum albumin, lipid, calcium, and phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone.Results The patients were given short- or long-term double lumen central venous catheters. Among them, 42 patients had the catheter placed into the right internal jugular vein, and 12 patients into the left internal jugular vein. Different degrees of central venous thrombosis were found in 33 patients (61.1%). The prevalence of thrombosis in the jugular vein, brachiocephalic vein, subclavical vein and superior vena cava was 61.1% (33/54), 44.4% (24/54), 16.7% (9/54) and 5.6% (3/54), respectively. Among the 33 HD patients with central venous thrombosis, the percentages for one, two, three and four affected veins were 27.3% (9/33), 45.4% (15/33), 18.2% (6/33) and 9.1% (3/33), respectively. Twelve (12/33, 36.4%) of the 33 HD patients with central venous thrombosis had clinical symptoms. Nine patients (27.3%) had edema of the upper extremity and 3 (9.1%) had new-onset symptoms of pulmonary embolism such as cough, chest distress and short breath. The incidences of diabetes mellitus and malignant tumor and levels of lipoprotein a and homocysteic acid were significantly higher in the HD patients with central venous thrombosis than in those without

  5. Comparative efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regnier, Stephane A; Larsen, Michael; Bezlyak, Vladimir;

    2015-01-01

    an updated systematic review. SETTING: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of RCTs of treatments for macular oedema secondary to BRVO. INTERVENTIONS: Ranibizumab 0.5 mg pro re nata, aflibercept 2 mg monthly (2q4), dexamethasone 0.7 mg implant, laser photocoagulation, ranibizumab+laser, or sham intervention....... Bevacizumab and triamcinolone were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy outcomes were mean change in best corrected visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale) and the percentage of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters. Safety outcome was the percentage of patients with increased intraocular...

  6. Robot-assisted retinal vein cannulation with force-based puncture detection: Micron vs. the steady-hand eye robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonenc, Berk; Tran, Nhat; Gehlbach, Peter; Taylor, Russell H; Iordachita, Iulian

    2016-08-01

    Retinal vein cannulation is a demanding procedure where therapeutic agents are injected into occluded retina veins. The feasibility of this treatment is limited due to challenges in identifying the moment of venous puncture, achieving cannulation and maintaining it throughout the drug delivery period. In this study, we integrate a force-sensing microneedle with two distinct robotic systems: the handheld micromanipulator Micron, and the cooperatively controlled Steady-Hand Eye Robot (SHER). The sensed tool-to-tissue interaction forces are used to detect venous puncture and extend the robots' standard control schemes with a new position holding mode (PHM) that assists the operator hold the needle position fixed and maintain cannulation for a longer time with less trauma on the vasculature. We evaluate the resulting systems comparatively in a dry phantom, stretched vinyl membranes. Results have shown that modulating the admittance control gain of SHER alone is not a very effective solution for preventing the undesired tool motion after puncture. However, after using puncture detection and PHM the deviation from the puncture point is significantly reduced, by 65% with Micron, and by 95% with SHER representing a potential advantage over freehand for both.

  7. Conjoined unification venoplasty for triple portal vein branches of right liver graft: a case report and technical refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    Anomalous portal vein (PV) branching of the donor liver is uncommon and usually makes two, or rarely, more separate PV branches at the right liver graft. Autologous PV Y-graft interposition has long been regarded as the standard procedure, but is currently replaced with the newly developed technique of conjoined unification venoplasty (CUV) due to its superior results. Herein, we presented a case of CUV application to three PV openings of a right liver graft. The recipient was a 32-year-old male patient with hepatitis B virus-associated liver cirrhosis. The living liver donor was his 33-year-old sister who had a type III PV anomaly, but the right posterior PV branch was bifurcated early into separate branches of the segments VI and VII, thus three right liver PV branches were cut separately. We used the CUV technique consisting of placement of a small vein unification patch between three PV orifices, followed by overlying coverage with a crotch-opened autologous portal Y-graft. The portal Y-graft was excised and its crotches were incised to make a wide common orifice. Three bidirectional running sutures were required to attach the crotch-opened autologous portal Y-graft. After portal reperfusion, the conjoined PV portion bulged like a tennis ball, providing a wide range of alignment tolerance. The patient recovered uneventfully from the liver transplantation operation. The CUV technique enabled uneventful reconstruction of triple donor PV orifices. Thus, CUV can be a useful and effective technical option for reconstruction of right liver grafts with various anomalous PVs.

  8. Haemodynamic changes in the liver under balloon occlusion of a portal vein branch-evaluation with single-level dynamic computed tomography during hepatic arteriography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komada, Y. [Department of Radiology/Center for Advanced Medical Technology, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: brian-komada@msj.biglobe.ne.jp; Murata, S. [Department of Radiology/Center for Advanced Medical Technology, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tajima, H. [Department of Radiology/Center for Advanced Medical Technology, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kumita, S. [Department of Radiology/Center for Advanced Medical Technology, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kanazawa, H. [3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Tajiri, T. [1st Department of Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Aim: To assess haemodynamic changes in the liver under temporary occlusion of an intrahepatic portal vein. Materials and methods: Between February 2000 and October 2004, 16 patients with hepatobiliary disease underwent single-level dynamic computed tomography during hepatic arteriography (SLD-CTHA) under temporary balloon occlusion of an intrahepatic portal vein. All patients needed percutaneous transhepatic portography for therapy of their disease. SLD-CTHA was undertaken to clarify the time-attenuation curve influenced by portal vein occlusion, and it was performed continuously over a period of 30 s. The difference in absolute attenuation of the liver parenchyma in segments with occluded and non-occluded portal vein branches was determined by means of the CT number, and the difference in absolute attenuation of the occluded and non-occluded portal veins themselves was also evaluated. Results: SLD-CTHA demonstrated a demarcated hyperattenuation area in the corresponding distribution of the occluded portal vein branch. The attenuation of the liver parenchyma supplied by the occluded portal vein was significantly higher than that in the non-occluded area (p < 0.01). The balloon-occluded portal branch enhancement in 15 of 16 cases (94%) appears due to arterio-portal communications. Failure to evaluate a remaining case for portal branch enhancement was due to absence of a visualized portal branch in the section. Conclusion: Under temporary occlusion of an intrahepatic portal vein, hepatic angiography produced enhancement of the occluded portal branches and their corresponding parenchymal distribution; this finding is considered consistent with the presence of arterio-portal communications.

  9. Increased expression of angiogenic and inflammatory proteins in the vitreous of patients with ischemic central retinal vein occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ehlken

    Full Text Available Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is a common disease characterized by a disrupted retinal blood supply and a high risk of subsequent vision loss due to retinal edema and neovascular disease. This study was designed to assess the concentrations of selected signaling proteins in the vitreous and blood of patients with ischemic CRVO.Vitreous and blood samples were collected from patients undergoing surgery for ischemic CRVO (radial optic neurotomy (RON, n = 13, epiretinal gliosis or macular hole (control group, n = 13. Concentrations of 40 different proteins were determined by an ELISA-type antibody microarray.Expression of proteins enriched in the vitreous (CCL2, IGFBP2, MMP10, HGF, TNFRSF11B (OPG was localized by immunohistochemistry in eyes of patients with severe ischemic CRVO followed by secondary glaucoma. Vitreal expression levels were higher in CRVO patients than in the control group (CRVO / control; p < 0.05 for ADIPOQ (13.6, ANGPT2 (20.5, CCL2 (MCP1 (3.2, HGF (4.7, IFNG (13.9, IGFBP1 (14.7, IGFBP2 (1.8, IGFBP3 (4.1, IGFBP4 (1.7, IL6 (10.8, LEP (3.4, MMP3 (4.3, MMP9 (3.6, MMP10 (5.4, PPBP (CXCL7 or NAP2 (11.8, TIMP4 (3.8, and VEGFA (85.3. In CRVO patients, vitreal levels of CCL2 (4.2, HGF (23.3, IGFBP2 (1.23, MMP10 (2.47, TNFRSF11B (2.96, and VEGFA (29.2 were higher than the blood levels (vitreous / blood, p < 0.05. Expression of CCL2, IGFBP2, MMP10, HGF, and TNFRSF11B was preferentially localized to the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.Proteins related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and inflammation were significantly elevated in the vitreous of CRVO patients. Moreover, some markers known to indicate atherosclerosis may be related to a basic vascular disease underlying RVO. This would imply that local therapeutic targeting might not be sufficient for a long term therapy in a systemic disease but hypothetically reduce local changes as an initial therapeutic approach.

  10. Unusual retinal manifestations of PORN combined complications of central retinal artery and vein occlusions%并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E-Shawn Goh; Stephen C.B.Teoh; Albert T.H.Lim

    2008-01-01

    ·AIM:To describe an unusual combination of retinal manifestations in an AIDS patient with progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN),complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).·METHODS:A case report.·RESULTS:The patient presented with PORN with primary optic nerve involvement complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion(CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO) as a primary manifestation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV).Aggressive treatment with intravitreal and specific systemic anti-VZV therapy,in addition to systemic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) achieved retinal quiescence with sparing of the fellow eye.Visual outcome of the affected eye was poor.·CONCLUSION:We present the first report of PORN associated with the unusual combined complications of CRAO and CRVO. Aggressive local treatment was combined with systemic therapy,which achieved local control and empirical prophylaxis for the fellow eye.%目的:报道1例艾滋病患者特殊的进行性外层视网膜坏死(PORN),同时合并视网膜中央动脉及静脉阻塞.方法:病例报告.结果:患者表现为进行性外层视网膜坏死,视神经亦受累,合并视网膜中央动静脉阻塞,与带状疱疹性视网膜病变的最初表现一样.积极的治疗包括玻璃体腔和特异性系统抗带状疱疹病毒治疗,以及强化的抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART).视网膜坏死静止,对侧眼未受累,而患眼的视力极差.结论:首次报道了1例并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN,积极的局部联合系统治疗使得局部病情控制,并预防了对侧眼发病.

  11. Percutaneous extraction of leads from coronary sinus vein and branch by modified techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xian-ming; GUO Ji-hong; LI Xue-bin; ZHANG Ping; WANG Long; LI Ding; LI Bing; AN Yi; LENG Min; DUAN Jiang-bo

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device and coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction are required due to the occurrence of systemic infection,malfunction,or upgrade.Relevant research of CS lead extraction is rare,especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools.We aimed to evaluate percutaneous extraction of CS leads by modified conventional techniques.Methods Of 200 patients referred for lead extraction from January 2007 to June 2011,24 (12.0%) involved CS leads (24 CS leads).We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics,optimized extraction techniques and feasibility of extraction.Results Complete procedural success was achieved in 23 patients (95.8%),and the clinical success in 24 patients (100.0%).The leading indication for CS lead extraction was infection (66.7%).Mean implant duration was (29.5±20.2)months (range,3-78 months).Sixteen CS leads (66.6%) were removed with locking stylets plus manual traction by superior transvenous approach.Mechanical dilatation and counter-traction was required to free fibrotic adhesions and extract 4 CS leads (16.7%),which had longer implant duration than other leads ((62.5±12.3) vs.(22.9±14.1) months,P<0.05).Another 4 CS (16.7%) leads were removed by modified and innovative snare techniques from femoral vein approach.Median extraction time was 11 minutes (range,3-61 minutes) per CS lead,which had significant correlation with implant duration (r =0.8,P <0.001).Sixteen patients (66.6%) were reimplanted with new devices at a median of 7.5days after extraction.Median followed-up was 23.5 months (range,8-61 months),three patients died due to sudden cardiac death (26 months),heart failure (45 and 57 months,respectively).Conclusion The modified procedure was proved to be practical for percutaneous extraction of CS leads,especially in developing countries lacking expensive powered sheaths.

  12. Association between isotretinoin use and central retinal vein occlusion in an adolescent with minor predisposition for thrombotic incidents: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labiris Georgios

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an adolescent boy with minimal pre-existing risk for thromboses who suffered central retinal vein occlusion associated with isotretinoin use for acne. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well documented case of this association. Case presentation An otherwise healthy 17-year-old white man who was treated with systemic isotretinoin for recalcitrant acne was referred with central retinal vein occlusion in one eye. Although a detailed investigation was negative, DNA testing revealed that the patient was a heterozygous carrier of the G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene. Despite the fact that this particular mutation is thought to represent only a minor risk factor for thromboses, it is probable that isotretinoin treatment greatly increased the risk of a vaso-occlusive incident in this patient. Conclusion Isotretinoin use may be associated with sight- and life-threatening thrombotic adverse effects even in young patients with otherwise minimal thrombophilic risk. Physicians should be aware of such potential dangers.

  13. One day wonder: Fast resolution of macular edema following intravitreal ranibizumab in retinal venous occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema is a significant cause of vision loss in patients with central retinal vein occlusions and branch retinal vein occlusions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF appears to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. Anti-VEGF therapy, such as intravitreal ranibizumab provides an effective treatment against vision-threatening macular edema. We report three patients of retinal vein occlusion with macular edema who demonstrated overnight resolution of macular edema following treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg. 3D optical coherence tomography (Optovue was used as a tool for comparison of the macular thickness before and after treatment. The significant reductions in the central foveal thickness demonstrated in these patients one night after intravitreal injections could have significant influence on modifying current treatment protocols. Early treatment of macular edema related to retinal venous occlusive disease with anti-VEGF injections could result in faster visual rehabilitation in these patients.

  14. Efficacy and tolerability of bilateral sustained-release dexamethasone intravitreal implants for the treatment of noninfectious posterior uveitis and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryder SJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Steven J Ryder,1 Danilo Iannetta,1 Swetangi D Bhaleeya,2 Szilárd Kiss1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Purpose: To report our experience with bilateral placement of dexamethasone 0.7 mg (DEX sustained-release intravitreal implant in the management of noninfectious posterior uveitis or macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion.Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with bilateral noninfectious posterior uveitis and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion who were treated with DEX intravitreal implant was performed. Ocular side effects such as intraocular pressure (IOP, cataract, and tolerability of bilateral injections was reviewed.Results: Twenty-two eyes of eleven patients treated with a total of 32 DEX implants were included. Ten of eleven patients received bilateral implants due to active noninfectious uveitis while the other demonstrated macular edema in both eyes following separate central retinal vein occlusions. Among the patients with bilateral uveitis, the mean interval between DEX implant in the initial eye and the subsequent DEX in the fellow eye was 15.6 days (range 2–71 days. Seven of the ten patients received the second implant in the fellow eye within 8 days of the initial implantation. None of the patients had bilateral implantations on the same day. Seven eyes required reimplantation for recurrence of inflammation (mean interval between first and repeat implantation was 6.00±2.39 months. Following single or, in the case of the aforementioned seven eyes, repeat DEX implantation, all 20 uveitic eyes demonstrated clinical and/or angiographic evidence of decreased inflammation in the form of reduction in vitreous cells on slit lamp ophthalmoscopy, macular edema on ophthalmoscopy, or optical coherence tomography and/or disc and vascular leakage on fluorescein angiography. The mean

  15. Development of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) and human umbilical vein smooth muscle cell (HUVSMC) branch/stem structures on hydrogel layers via biological laser printing (BioLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P K; Ringeisen, B R

    2010-03-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the prerequisite steps for viable tissue formation. The ability to influence the direction and structure in the formation of a vascular system is crucial in engineering tissue. Using biological laser printing (BioLP), we fabricated branch/stem structures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC). The structure is simple as to mimic vascular networks in natural tissue but also allow cells to develop new, finer structures away from the stem and branches. Additionally, we printed co-culture structures by first depositing only HUVECs, followed by 24 h incubation to allow for adequate cell-cell communication and differentiation into lumina; these cell printed scaffold layers were then removed from incubation and inserted into the BioLP apparatus so that HUVSMCs could be directly deposited on top and around the previously printed HUVEC structures. The growth and differentiation of these co-culture structures was then compared to the growth of printed samples with either HUVECs or HUVSMCs alone. Lumen formation was found to closely mimic the original branch and stem structure. The beginning of a network structure is observed. HUVSMCs acted to limit HUVEC over-growth and migration when compared to printed HUVEC structures alone. HUVSMCs and HUVECS, when printed in close contact, appear to form cell-cell junctions around lumen-like structures. They demonstrate a symbiotic relationship which affects their development of phenotype when in close proximity of each other. Our results indicate that it is possible to direct the formation and growth of lumen and lumen network using BioLP.

  16. 视网膜静脉阻塞患者中原发性开角型青光眼发病比例的研究%Percentage of primary open angle glaucoma in retinal vein occlusion patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许珂; 吴玲玲; 马志中; 刘瑜玲; 钱芳

    2016-01-01

    diagnosed RVO by fluorescein fundus angiography (FFA) were consecutively enrolled in Peking University Third Hospital from October 2011 to May 2013,and gonioscopy was carried out in all the patients.Glaucoma was diagnosed according to the criteria of the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO).RVO was classified into central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO),hemicentral retinal vein occlusion (HRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) based on fundus photograph and FFA,or classified into arteriovenous crossing RVO (AV-RVO),optic cup RVO (OC-RVO),optic nerve RVO without optical nerve head swelling (NONHS-RVO) and RVO with optical nerve head swelling (ONHS-RVO) based on the sites of venous occlusion.The percentages of POAG in different types of RVO were calculated.This study was approved by Ethic Committee of Peking University Third Hospital,and written informed consent was obtained from each patient before entering study cohort.Results Three hundred and seventeen RVO patients finished screening of glaucoma,with the response rate 84.5%.The percentage of POAG is 8.2% in RVO patients,including 7.1% in the CRVO patients,23.5% in HRVO patients and 6.2% in BRVO patients.The percentage of POAG was significantly higher in OC-RVO patients (27.9%) and NONHS-RVO patients (13.2%) than that in AV-RVO patients (4.7%) and ONHS-RVO patients (1.3%) (all at P<0.05).Conclusions The overall percentage of POAG in RVO patients in China is 3-4 times higher than general population.Higher percentage of POAG is found in OC-RVO patients and NONHS-RVO patients,suggesting that pathogenesis of RVO is probably associated with the glaucomatous anatomic changes of optical nerve head.

  17. Summarising the retinal vascular calibres in healthy, diabetic and diabetic retinopathy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontidis, Georgios; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Retinal vessel calibre has been found to be an important biomarker of several retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Quantifying the retinal vessel calibres is an important step for estimating the central retinal artery and vein equivalents. In this study, an alternative method to the already established branching coefficient (BC) is proposed for summarising the vessel calibres in retinal junctions. This new method combines the mean diameter ratio with an alternative to Murray׳s cube law exponent, derived by the fractal dimension,experimentally, and the branch exponent of cerebral vessels, as has been suggested in previous studies with blood flow modelling. For the above calculations, retinal images from healthy, diabetic and DR subjects were used. In addition, the above method was compared with the BC and was also applied to the evaluation of arteriovenous ratio as a biomarker of progression from diabetes to DR in four consecutive years, i.e. three/two/one years before the onset of DR and the first year of DR. Moreover, the retinal arteries and veins around the optic nerve head were also evaluated. The new approach quantifies the vessels more accurately. The decrease in terms of the mean absolute percentage error was between 0.24% and 0.49%, extending at the same time the quantification beyond healthy subjects.

  18. Umbilical and portal vein calcification following umbilical vein catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.; Fendel, H.; Hartl, M.

    1989-07-01

    Calcifications of the umbilical vein and intrahepatic branches of the portal vein developed in a newborn who had inserted an umbilical vein catheter for 11 days postnatally. The calcified intrahepatic portal veins can still be demonstrated sonographically at the age of three years, whereby these calcifications were no longer detectable radiologically. (orig.).

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of a novel radical neck dissection preserving the external jugular vein, greater auricular nerve, and deep branches of the cervical nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yadong Li, Jinsong Zhang, Kai Yang Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People's Republic of China Background: Conventional radical neck dissection often causes a variety of complications. Although the dissection method has been improved by retaining some tissues to reduce complications, the incomplete dissection may cause recurrence of disease. In the present study, we developed a novel radical neck dissection, which preserves the external jugular vein, the greater auricular nerve, and the deep branches of the cervical nerve, to effectively reduce complications and subsequently, to promote the postoperative survival quality. Methods: A total of 100 cases of radical neck dissection were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the efficacy, rate of complication, and postoperative dysfunction of patients treated with the novel radical neck dissection. Data analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. Results: Compared with conventional radical neck dissection, the novel radical neck dissection could significantly reduce complications and promote postoperative survival quality. Particularly, the preservation of the external jugular vein reduced the surgical risk (ie, intracranial hypertension and complications (eg, facial edema, dizziness, headache. Preservation of the deep branches of the cervical nerve and greater auricular nerve resulted in relatively ideal postoperative functions of the shoulders and ear skin sensory function (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our novel radical neck dissection procedure could effectively reduce the complications of intracranial hypertension, shoulder dysfunction, and ear sensory disturbances. It can be used as a regular surgical approach for oral carcinoma radical neck dissection. Keywords: oral cancer, head and neck cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, survival quality, neck dissection, recurrence

  20. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD. We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24–1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12–3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03–1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD. Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  1. Expression of the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus p25 protein induces hormonal changes and a root branching phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Claire; Schmidlin, Laure; Klein, Elodie; Taconnat, Ludivine; Prinsen, Els; Erhardt, Mathieu; Heintz, Dimitri; Weyens, Guy; Lefebvre, Marc; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Gilmer, David

    2011-06-01

    The RNA-3-encoded p25 protein was previously characterized as one of the major symptom determinants of the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus. Previous analyses reported the influence of the p25 protein in root proliferation phenotype observed in rhizomania disease on infected sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). A transgenic approach was developed, in which the p25 protein was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) ecotype in order to provide new clues as to how the p25 protein might promote alone disease development and symptom expression. Transgenic plants were characterized by Southern blot and independent lines carrying single and multiple copies of the transgene were selected. Mapping of the T-DNA insertion was performed on the monocopy homozygote lines. P25 protein was localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of epidermal and root cells of transgenic plants. Although A. thaliana was not described as a susceptible host for BNYVV infection, abnormal root branching was observed on p25 protein-expressing A. thaliana plants. Moreover, these transgenic plants were more susceptible than wild-type plants to auxin analog treatment (2,4-D) but more resistant to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA) and to lesser extend to salicylic acid (SA). Hormonal content assays measuring plant levels of auxin (IAA), jasmonate (JA) and ethylene precursor (ACC) revealed major hormonal changes. Global transcript profiling analyses on roots displayed differential gene expressions that could corroborate root branching phenotype and stress signaling modifications.

  2. Correlation Factor Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Duru; Huang Zhongning

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate correlation between retinal microvascular signs and essential hypertension classification. Methods The retinal microvascular signs in patients with essential hypertension were assessed with the indirect biomicroscopy lens, the direct and the indirect ophthalmoscopes were used to determine the hypertensive retinopathy grades and retinal arteriosclerosis grades.The rank correlation analysis was used to analysis the correlation these grades with the risk factors concerned with hypertension. Results Of 72 cases with essential hypertension, 28 cases complicated with coronary disease, 20 cases diabetes, 41 cases stroke,17 cases renal malfunction. Varying extent retinal arterioscleroses were found in 71 cases, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage, 2 cases with retina edema, 4 cases with retinal hard exudation, 5 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation, 2 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and cotton wool spot, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and microaneurysms,1 case with retinal edema and hard exudation, 1 case with retinal microaneurysms, 1 case with branch retinal vein occlusion. The rank correlation analysis showed that either hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades were correlated with risk factor lamination of hypertension (r=0.25 or 0.31, P<0.05), other correlation factors included age and blood high density lipoprotein concerned about hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades, but other parameters, namely systolic or diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose,blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine were not confirmed in this correlation analysis (P > 0.05).Conclusions Either hypertensive retinopathy grade or retinal arteriosclerosis grade is close with the hypertension risk factor lamination, suggesting that the fundus examination of patients with

  3. Comparison of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab and triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of intravitrealbevacizumab (IVB and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT in the treatment of macular edema (ME secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Materials and Methods: There were 20 patients treated with IVB (1.25 mg/0.05 mL and 16 treated with IVT (4 mg/0.1 mL. The two groups were compared with regard to best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT on optical coherence tomography (OCT, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography results, intraocular pressure (IOP, numbers of injections, and adverse events. Results: The mean follow-up times in the IVB and IVT groups were 17.45±8.1 months (range: 8-33 months and 19.94±10.59 months (range: 6-40 months, respectively (P = 0.431. Visual acuity increased and CMT decreased significantly within both groups, but no differences were observed between the groups (P = 0.718. The percentages of patients with increased IOP and iatrogenic cataracts were significantly higher in the IVT group than in the IVB group. Conclusions: Treatment with IVB and IVT both resulted in significant improvement in visual acuity and a decrease in CMT in patients with ME secondary to non-ischemic CRVO, with no difference between the two treatments. The incidence of adverse events, however, was significantly greater in the IVT group than in the IVB group. IVB may be preferred over IVT for the treatment of ME in patients with non-ischemic CRVO.

  4. Complement Factor H Expressed by Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Can Suppress Neovascularization of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: An in vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available Complement factor H (CFH is one of the most important soluble complement regulatory proteins and is closely associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in the elderly population in developed countries. Our study searches to investigate whether CFH expression is changed in oxidative damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells and the role of CFH in the in vitro neovascularization. First, it was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining that CFH was expressed by ARPE-19 cells. CFH mRNA and protein in oxidative (H2O2 damaged ARPE-19 cells were both reduced, as determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA also showed that ARPE-19 cells treated with H2O2 caused an increase in C3a content, which indicates complement activation. Then, wound assays were performed to show that CFH expression suppression promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration. Thereafter, ARPE-19 cells were transfected with CFH-specific siRNA and CFH knockdown was confirmed with the aid of Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. The ELISA results showed that specific CFH knockdown in ARPE-19 cells activated the complement system. Finally, in vitro matrigel tube formation assay was performed to determine whether change of CFH expression in RPE would affect tube formation by HUVECs. More tubes were formed by HUVECs co-cultured with ARPE-19 cells transfected with CFH specific-siRNA when compared with controls. Our results suggested that RPE cells might be the local CFH source, and RPE cell injuries (such as oxidative stress may cause CFH expression suppression, which in turn may lead to complement activation and promotion of tube formation by HUVECs. This finding is of importance in elucidating the role of complement in the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization including choroidal neovascularization.

  5. [Application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jianmin; Wang, Ningli

    2015-11-01

    Retinal oximeter is a new machine which has been used in the diagnose, treatment and research of several ophthalmic diseases for recent years. It allows ophthalmologists to gain retinal oxygen saturation directly. Therefore, retinal oximeter might be useful for ophthalmologists to understand ophthalmic diseases more deeper and clarify the impact of ischemia on retinal function. It has been reported in the literatures that retinal oximeter has potentially useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications in various eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein and artery occlusion, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, et al. In this thesis, the application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology is reviewed.

  6. Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varicose veins are swollen, twisted veins that you can see just under the skin. They usually occur in ... of the body. Hemorrhoids are a type of varicose vein. Your veins have one-way valves that help ...

  7. Observation on the course and distribution of the right posterior branch of portal vein in 100 cases%100例门静脉右后支的走行与分布观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢于; 胡文炜; 蔡守旺; 董家鸿

    2011-01-01

    目的 根据肝内门静脉的走行分布,对门静脉的右后支进行分类,为影像学和肝脏外科提供资料.方法 采用100 例正常的活体肝移植供肝影像资料,研究右后叶肝内门静脉的走行和分布.结果 100 例资料中门脉的右后支呈弓型的34 例,呈两支型的27 例,呈三支型的9 例,存在右前支变异的30 例.结论 右后叶大约有30%在解剖学上不能完全分界,不符合Couinaud 的分段方法.%Objective To evaluate the intrahepatic portal veins and hepatic veins of right posterior lobe of liver, put up a definition of hepatic segment for the imaging and liver surgery. Methods Using 100 successive sections of the upper abdomen of adult MRI enhanced images of living donor for liver transplantation.The course and division pattern of the intrahepatic portal vein and the hepatic veins, and also the relationship between them were investigated. Results Among the 100 right posterior of portal veins. arch-like pattern seen in 34 cases. two branches appeared in 27. three branches appeared in 9, variant appeared in 30.Conclusion The right posterior segments can not be identified about 30% by Couinaud's classification.

  8. Effects of Using Mental Intervention for Patients with Retinal Vein Obstruction%综合心理干预对视网膜静脉阻塞患者负性情绪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵太虹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of mental intervention to patients with retinal vein obstruction.Method Divided 58 patients with retinal vein obstruction into control group (29 cases) and intervention group(29 cases) randomly,the traditional pattern of psychological nursing were used in the control group, while the mental intervention was used in the intervention group, focus on the psychological evaluation, psychological intervention and guide the patients to self psychological nursing, the establishment of a social support system, respectively for 2 groups of patients in a hospital, two weeks after the comprehensive psychological intervention by the self-assessment lists of anxiety (SAS), depression self rating scale (SDS) on the anxiety and depression of related factors questionnaire.Results Intervention group patients with anxiety and depression was signiifcantly lower than in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion The implementation of comprehensive psychological intervention in patients with retinal vein occlusion can obviously reduce the patient's anxiety.%目的:研究综合心理干预对视网膜静脉阻塞患者负性情绪的影响。方法选择视网膜静脉阻塞患者58例,随机分为对照组和干预组各29例。对照组采用常规的心理护理模式,干预组采用综合心理干预,重点做好心理评估、心理干预、指导患者进行自我心理护理、建立社会支持系统,对2组患者分别于入院时、综合心理干预后2周采用焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)对其焦虑、抑郁情绪的相关因素问卷调查进行比较。结果干预组患者焦虑、抑郁情绪显著低于于对照组,P<0.05。结论对视网膜静脉阻塞患者实施综合心理干预,可明显减轻患者的负性情绪。

  9. Choroidal melanoma clinically simulating a retinal angioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, J.A.; Joffe, L.; Guibor, P.

    1978-01-01

    An amelanotic fundus lesion in a 35-year-old man was associated with a dilated retinal vessel, thus suggesting the diagnosis of retinal angioma. Fluorescein angiography and B-scan ultrasonography were not diagnostic, but a radioactive phosphorus uptake test suggested the lesion was malignant. The enucleated globe showed a malignant choroidal melanoma drained by a large retinal vein.

  10. Choroidal melanoma clinically simulating a retinal angioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, J A; Joffe, L; Guibor, P

    1978-01-01

    An amelanotic fundus lesion in a 35-year-old man was associated with a dilated retinal vessel, thus suggesting the diagnosis of retinal angioma. Fluorescein angiography and B-scan ultrasonography were not diagnostic, but a radioactive phosphorus uptake test suggested the lesion was malignant. The enucleated globe showed a malignant choroidal melanoma drained by a large retinal vein.

  11. Trombose de veia central da retina bilateral associada à síndrome de hiperviscosidade sanguínea: relato de caso Bilateral central retinal vein occlusion associated with blood hyperviscosity syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Helal Jr

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Relato de caso de um paciente masculino de 16 anos de idade com queixa inicial de baixa da acuidade visual e que no exame oftalmológico foi encontrado edema de papila bilateral, que evoluiu para trombose da veia central da retina em ambos os olhos. Na investigação laboratorial, foi feito diagnóstico de um mieloma múltiplo tipo IgA que cursava com síndrome de hiperviscosidade sanguínea, o que explicava o quadro oftalmológico. Após tratamento específico, o paciente apresentou melhora tanto da acuidade visual quanto do aspecto fundoscópico. O achado de oclusão de veia central da retina bilateral pode levar ao diagnóstico de importantes doenças sistêmicas. os achados fundoscópicos podem servir de parâmetro na avaliação do tratamento.The authors report the case of a 16-year-old male patient who presented with blurred vision and bilateral optic disc edema, then developing bilateral central retinal vein occlusion. On laboratory work-up, he was found to have multiple myeloma IgA along with hyperviscosity syndrome, which led to the ophthalmological features. After proper treatment, the patient recovered visual acuity and normalized his eye fundus changes. Bilateral central retinal vein occlusion finding may yield the diagnosis of major systemic diseases. Fundoscopic features may serve as parameters on treatment evaluation.

  12. Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H

    2014-02-01

    Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of αSMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  13. Comparative Study on Secondary Branches of Saphenous Vein High Lligation Combined with Electrocoagulation and Traditional Operation for Varicose Veins%次高位大隐静脉结扎联合属支电凝术与传统静脉曲张手术的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段学军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the time of great saphenous vein ligation combined with self-made high superiority trocar electrocoagulation of great saphenous veins.Methods Single lower limb varicosis of great saphenous vein in 81 casesdivided into modified group (28) and conventional group (53), respectively, to accept the traditional operation is of great saphenous vein high ligation and stripping of great saphenous vein and high ligation combined with self-madetrocar electrocoagulation, curative ef ect observation. Results The operationtime, bleeding volume, improved group number of the incision, incision lengthis less than the traditional group; quality of life score after operation (CIVIQ) is higher than that of the traditional group; <0.05. Conclusion High saphenous vein ligation combined with self-made trocar electrocoagulation is strippedsaphenous vein trunk, and a thorough treatment of the branches vein, simple and easy operation, smal trauma recovery, more beautiful, reflected thedevelopment direction of minimal y invasive surgery.%目的:探讨次高位大隐静脉结扎联合自制套管针电凝术治疗大隐静脉曲张的优越性。方法将单下肢大隐静脉曲张患者81例分成改良组(28例)和传统组(53例),分别接受传统手术即大隐静脉高位结扎剥脱术和次高位大隐静脉结扎联合自制简易套管针电凝术,观察疗效。结果改良组的手术时间、出血量、切口数量、切口总长度均小于传统组;术后生活质量评分(CIVIQ)高于传统组,<0.05。结论次高位大隐静脉结扎联合自制简易套管针电凝术即剥除了大隐静脉主干,同时彻底治疗了属支静脉,简便易操作,创伤小恢复快,更加美观,体现了外科的微创发展方向。

  14. Retinal vascular changes in hypertensive patients in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleye ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunday Tunji Oluleye,1 Bolutife Ayokunu Olusanya,1 Abiodun Moshood Adeoye2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Background: Earlier studies in Nigeria reported the rarity of retinal vascular changes in hypertensives. The aim of this study was to describe the various retinal vascular changes in the hypertensive patients of Nigeria.Patients and methods: Nine hundred and three hypertensive patients were studied. This study was approved by the ethical and research committee of the University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were measured. Cardiac echocardiography was performed on 156 patients. All patients had dilated fundoscopy and fundus photography using the Kowa portable fundus camera and an Apple iPhone with 20 D lens. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (Version 21.Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years with a male:female ratio of 1. No retinopathy was found in 556 (61.5% patients. In all, 175 (19.4% patients had features of hypertensive retinopathy. Retinal vascular occlusion was a significant finding in 121 patients (13.4%, of which branch retinal vein occlusion, 43 (4.7%, and central retinal vein occlusion, 30 (3.3%, were the most prominent ones in cases. Hemicentral retinal vein occlusion, 26 (2.9%, and central retinal artery occlusion, 17 (1.9%, were significant presentations. Other findings included nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in five (0.6% patients, hypertensive choroidopathy in seven (0.8% patients, and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment in five (0.6% patients. Left ventricular (LV geometry was abnormal in 85 (55.5% patients. Concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy were observed in 43 (27.6%, 26 (17.2%, and 15 (9.7% patients, respectively. LV

  15. Retinal flow cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, C; Veilleux, I; Lee, H; Pitsillides, C M; Côté, D; Lin, C P

    2007-12-01

    The in vivo flow cytometer is an instrument capable of continuous, real-time monitoring of fluorescently labeled cells in the circulation without the need to draw blood samples. However, the original system probes a single vessel in the mouse ear; the small sample volume limits the sensitivity of the technique. We describe an in vivo retinal flow cytometer that simultaneously probes five artery-vein pairs in the mouse eye by circularly scanning a small laser spot rapidly around the optic nerve head. We demonstrate that the retinal flow cytometer detects about five times more cells per minute than the original in vivo flow cytometer does in the ear.

  16. Retinal flow cytometer

    OpenAIRE

    Alt, C.; Veilleux, I.; H. Lee; Pitsillides, C. M.; Côté, D.; Lin, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo flow cytometer is an instrument capable of continuous, real-time monitoring of fluorescently labeled cells in the circulation without the need to draw blood samples. However, the original system probes a single vessel in the mouse ear; the small sample volume limits the sensitivity of the technique. We describe an in vivo retinal flow cytometer that simultaneously probes five artery–vein pairs in the mouse eye by circularly scanning a small laser spot rapidly around the optic nerv...

  17. Retinal vascular changes in hypertensive patients in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluleye, Sunday Tunji; Olusanya, Bolutife Ayokunu; Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood

    2016-01-01

    Background Earlier studies in Nigeria reported the rarity of retinal vascular changes in hypertensives. The aim of this study was to describe the various retinal vascular changes in the hypertensive patients of Nigeria. Patients and methods Nine hundred and three hypertensive patients were studied. This study was approved by the ethical and research committee of the University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were measured. Cardiac echocardiography was performed on 156 patients. All patients had dilated fundoscopy and fundus photography using the Kowa portable fundus camera and an Apple iPhone with 20 D lens. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (Version 21). Results The mean age of patients was 57 years with a male:female ratio of 1. No retinopathy was found in 556 (61.5%) patients. In all, 175 (19.4%) patients had features of hypertensive retinopathy. Retinal vascular occlusion was a significant finding in 121 patients (13.4%), of which branch retinal vein occlusion, 43 (4.7%), and central retinal vein occlusion, 30 (3.3%), were the most prominent ones in cases. Hemicentral retinal vein occlusion, 26 (2.9%), and central retinal artery occlusion, 17 (1.9%), were significant presentations. Other findings included nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in five (0.6%) patients, hypertensive choroidopathy in seven (0.8%) patients, and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment in five (0.6%) patients. Left ventricular (LV) geometry was abnormal in 85 (55.5%) patients. Concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy were observed in 43 (27.6%), 26 (17.2%), and 15 (9.7%) patients, respectively. LV hypertrophy was found in 42 (27%) patients, while 60 (39%) patients had increased relative wall thickness. In this study, bivariate analysis showed a correlation between LV relative wall thickness and severity of retinopathy in both eyes

  18. Retinal occlusive vasculer disorder and rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ortak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disease that affected older women with many ocular manifestations. Also, these systemic diseases can cause retinal vein occlusion and arterial occlusion that lead to serious and permanent visual loss. Rheumatoid arthritis's the most common manifestation is that retinal vasculitis and retinal vascular complications are associated with this complication. In this review, retinal vascular occlusive diseases are presented to associated with rheumatoid arthritis in literature. Rheumatoid arthritis and its complications have been outlined and was made to create a new perspective. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(1.000: 71-73

  19. Identifying All True Vessels from Segmented Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delucta Mary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

  20. [Retinal vasculitis in lupic disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, P; Laroche, L; Krulik, M; Prier, A M; Saraux, H; Canuel, C; Debray, J

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of retinal vasculitis in SLE-type diseases are reported. The first was central retinal vein occlusion occurring during clinical remission of SLE in a 55 year old black female. Prednisone maintenance therapy was unchanged and visual loss rapidly regressed with heparin therapy. The second case was a 33 year old black female in whom SLE was discovered following relapsing bilateral optic neuritis. A progressive visual improvement was obtained with high dose of prednisone (1 mg/kg/day). The third cas was a 17 year old white girl with retinal vasculitis. She had an unclassified connective tissue disease inaugurated by optic neuritis at the age of 10. High dose prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was effective on the visual loss. Retinal vasculitis lesions in SLE and their therapy are reviewed.

  1. AUTOMATIC RETINAL VESSEL TORTUOSITY MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Khdhair El Abbadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular vessels have the role to indicate the retinal diseases and for systematic diseases when there are any abnormalities in retinal vascular pattern. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e., how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. In this study we suggest a novel mask filter to track the blood vessel along its course and measuring the blood vessels tortuosity over the entire human retinal vessel network in fundus eye image, by using the arc to chord ratio. The suggested algorithm tested with straight and curve hand drawing lines and gives high accurate results.

  2. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    , Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral...... arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2...

  3. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  4. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep vein thrombosis, or DVT, is a blood clot that forms in a vein deep in the body. Most deep vein ... the condition is called thrombophlebitis. A deep vein thrombosis can break loose and cause a serious problem ...

  5. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1289.html . ...

  6. Automatic Vessel Segmentation on Retinal Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yuan Yu; Chia-Jen Chang; Yen-Ju Yao; Shyr-Shen Yu

    2014-01-01

    Several features of retinal vessels can be used to monitor the progression of diseases. Changes in vascular structures, for example, vessel caliber, branching angle, and tortuosity, are portents of many diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and arterial hyper-tension. This paper proposes an automatic retinal vessel segmentation method based on morphological closing and multi-scale line detection. First, an illumination correction is performed on the green band retinal image. Next, the morphological closing and subtraction processing are applied to obtain the crude retinal vessel image. Then, the multi-scale line detection is used to fine the vessel image. Finally, the binary vasculature is extracted by the Otsu algorithm. In this paper, for improving the drawbacks of multi-scale line detection, only the line detectors at 4 scales are used. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 0.939 for DRIVE (digital retinal images for vessel extraction) retinal database, which is much better than other methods.

  7. Retinal Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios Batsos; Kabanarou, Stamatina A.; Pantelis Fotiou; Alexandros Rouvas; Tina Xirou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods: A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyan...

  8. Frosted branch angiitis, neuroretinitis as initial ocular manifestation in Behçet disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet disease is an idiopathic, multisystem disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of orogenital ulceration and vasculitis of the veins and arteries of all calibers. Ocular involvement may affect the conjunctiva, sclera, uveal tract, vitreous, blood vessels, and retina. Many theories have pointed toward an autoimmune response behind its pathogenesis, which may be triggered by exposure to an infectious agent. Frosted branch angiitis is characterized by vascular inflammation, sheathing, retinal edema, and retinal hemorrhages. The disease may be idiopathic in a majority of the cases or may be associated with ocular and systemic pathology. Association between Behηet disease, Frosted branch angiitis, and neuroretinitis is not reported in literature. This uncommon combination reflects the varied systemic and ocular manifestations in Behηet disease, especially in patients who are not diagnosed and treated in time. We hereby report a case of bilateral frosted branch angiitis and neuroretinitis in a young male from Middle-east, suffering from Behçet disease.

  9. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Demirci

    2016-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low...

  10. Regulatory and Economic Considerations of Retinal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ankoor R; Williams, George A

    2016-01-01

    The advent of anti-VEGF therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion and diabetes mellitus has prevented blindness in tens of thousands of people. However, the costs of these drugs are without precedent in ophthalmic drug therapeutics. An analysis of the financial implications of retinal drugs and the impact of the Food and Drug Administration on treatment of retinal disease must include not only an evaluation of the direct costs of the drugs and the costs associated with their administration, but also the cost savings which accrue from their clinical benefit. This chapter will discuss the financial and regulatory issues associated with retinal drugs.

  11. Retinitis pigmentosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, Dyonne T.; Berson, Eliot L.; Dryja, Thaddeus P.

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary degenerations of the human retina are genetically heterogeneous, with well over 100 genes implicated so far. This Seminar focuses on the subset of diseases called retinitis pigmentosa, in which patients typically lose night vision in adolescence, side vision in young adulthood, and centra

  12. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.;

    2014-01-01

    ) and retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected...... only. Blood pressure had the strongest effect on arteriolar calibre, with a decrease in calibre of 3.6m (women)/4.1m (men) per standard deviation increase in mean arterial blood pressure. Retinal venular calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, BMI, HDL and LDL cholesterol....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...

  13. Unexplained postoperative retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohno H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hisato Ohno, Kenji InoueInouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report five cases of unexplained retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy. A 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy was performed for four cases of macular holes (MH and one case of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD. Retinal hemorrhages were observed on the first day after surgery and disappeared within several months without leaving any recognizable damage. We speculate that the retinal hemorrhages might have resulted from repeated collapse of the globe through a cannula under air perfusion, but other causes such as retinal vein congestion by face-down positioning are also possible.Keywords: retinal hemorrhage, vitrectomy, postoperative, macular hole, sutureless surgery

  14. Portal vein embolization induces compensatory hypertrophy of remnant liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yao Huang; Wei-Zhu Yang; Jian-Jun Li; Na Jiang; Qu-Bin Zheng

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different portal vein branch embolization agents in inducing compensatory hypertrophy of the remnant liver and to offer a theoretic basis for clinical portal vein branch embolization.METHODS: Forty-one adult dogs were included in the experiment and divided into four groups. Five dogs served as a control group, 12 as a gelfoam group, 12as a coil-gelfoam group and 12 as an absolute ethanol group. Left portal vein embolization was performed in each group. The results from the embolization in each group using different embolic agents were compared.The safety of portal vein embolization (PVE) was evaluated by liver function test, computed tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of liver and portal veins. Statistical test of variance was performed to analyze the results.RESULTS: Gelfoam used for PVE was inefficient in recanalization of portal vein branch 4 wk after the procedure. The liver volume in groups of coil-gelfoam and absolute ethanol increased 25.1% and 33.18%,respectively. There was no evidence of recanalization of embolized portal vein, hepatic dysfunction, and portal hypertension in coil-gelfoam group and absolute ethanol group.CONCOUSION: Portal vein branch embolization using absolute ethanol and coil-gelfoam could induce atrophy of the embolized lobes and compensatory hypertrophy of the remnant liver. Gelfoam is an inefficient agent.

  15. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a rapid evolution over two decades or a slow progression that never leads to blindness. In some cases, the clinical presentation is a cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over the visual field loss. RP is usually non syndromic but there are also many syndromic forms, the most frequent being Usher syndrome. To date, 45 causative genes/loci have been identified in non syndromic RP (for the autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and digenic forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of night blindness and peripheral visual field defects, lesions in the fundus, hypovolted electroretinogram traces, and progressive worsening of these signs. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, but is not usually performed due to the tremendous genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, so the visual prognosis is poor. The therapeutic approach is restricted to slowing down the degenerative process by sunlight protection and vitaminotherapy, treating the complications (cataract and macular edema, and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. However, new therapeutic strategies are emerging from intensive research (gene therapy, neuroprotection, retinal prosthesis.

  16. Portal Vein Thrombosis

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    Hakan Demirci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin achieves recanalization in more than half of acute cases.

  17. Portal Vein Thrombosis

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    Ronny Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  18. Focus on Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smaller than varicose veins and may cause symptoms. Spider veins typ - ically do not cause symptoms, and treatment for these is frequently cosmetic unless symptoms are present. Vein problems are among the most common chronic conditions in North America. In fact, more people lose work time from ...

  19. Mortality after portal vein embolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eung Chang; Park, Sang-Jae; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Hyeong Min; Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lee, In Joon; Kim, Hyun Beom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Portal vein embolization (PVE) is increasingly performed worldwide to reduce the possibility of liver failure after extended hepatectomy, by inducing future liver remnant (FLR) hypertrophy and atrophy of the liver planned for resection. The procedure is known to be very safe and to have few procedure-related complications. In this study, we described 2 elderly patients with Bismuth–Corlette type IV Klatskin tumor who underwent right trisectional PVE involving the embolization of the right portal vein, the left medial sectional portal branch, and caudate portal vein. Within 1 week after PVE, patients went into sepsis combined with bile leak and died within 1 month. Sepsis can cause acute liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. In this study, the common patient characteristics other than sepsis, that is, trisectional PVE; chronic alcoholism; aged >65 years; heart-related comorbidity; and elevated serum total bilirubin (TB) level (7.0 mg/dL) at the time of the PVE procedure in 1 patient, and concurrent biliary procedure, that is, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in the other patient might have affected the outcomes of PVE. These cases highlight that PVE is not a safe procedure. Care should be taken to minimize the occurrence of infectious events because sepsis following PVE can cause acute liver failure. Additionally, prior to performing PVE, the extent of PVE, chronic alcohol consumption, age, comorbidity, long-lasting jaundice, concurrent biliary procedure, etc. should be considered for patient safety. PMID:28178122

  20. Fundus Photographic, Fluorescein Angiographic Signs in Successful Laser Chorioretinal Venous Anastomosis for Retinal Vein Occlusion%建立激光诱导络网膜静脉吻合的视网膜静脉阻塞眼及其眼底血管荧光造影表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温晓霞; 张帆; 刘哲丽; 吴景天

    2002-01-01

    目的:描述成功建立脉络膜视网膜静脉吻合的视网膜静脉阻塞(retinal vein oclusion,RVO)眼的眼底改变和眼底血管荧光造影特征.方法:氪红激光诱导脉络膜视网膜静脉吻合术后,患者每1~2周复查一次,每次随诊均拍摄彩色眼底照片,并做荧光素眼底血管造影(fundusfluorescein angiography,FFA)检查,选取成功形成脉络膜视网膜静脉吻合的25例RVO 25眼,分析成功形成吻合的RVO眼的眼底及FFA特征.结果:1吻合成功的眼底征象:治疗部位的视网膜静脉下沉入脉络膜,吻合近端静脉段变细,主干静脉变狭窄,静脉逆向变粗,吻合近端静脉段变粗,吻合部位形成静脉袢.2吻合成功的FFA征象:①吻合局部团状高荧光;②视盘和吻合之间出现的逆向静脉血流;③静脉层流缺损.结论:激光诱导脉络膜视网膜静脉吻合可回流部分静脉血液,缓解阻塞静脉的压力.

  1. 视网膜中央静脉阻塞黄斑水肿玻璃体腔注射曲安奈德后视网膜电图明视负向反应变化%Changes of photopic negative response after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema caused by central retinal vein occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯超; 杨安怀; 陈长征; 梅昌娲; 易莲芳

    2011-01-01

    Background Intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) can effectively eliminate central vein occlusion macular edema and improve visual acuity, and photopic negative response (PhNR) can reflect the inner retinal function of RGCs and their axons. It is possible there is a correlation between these two observations.Objective This study was to evaluate the changes of PhNR of flash electroretinogram (F-ERG) after intravitreal injection of TA for macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion ( CRVO ). Methods Thirteen eyes of 12 patients with macular edema caused by CRVO received an injection of 0. 1 ml (4 rg) of TA. PhNR,visual acuity and retinal thickness of macular area were assessed with Roland RETI scan 3. 15 system,decimal visual chart and Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and 4 weeks after the administration of TA. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject before any medical procedure. Results Visual acuity was improved in 12 eyes and stable in 1 eye 4 weeks following the intravitreal injection of TA. OCT showed that the retinal thickness of the macular area was reduced ;meanwhile,elevation of the amplitude of PhNR also was seen in the F-ERG after the administration of TA in comparison with before the administration of TA. The calculated results determined that the visual acuities were 0. 32t0. 12 and 0. 48±0. 09 (t=6. 325 ,P=0. 000) ,and the retinal thickness values of the macular area were (459.46± 131.31 ) μm and ( 297.54 ±43.31 ) μm ( t = 5.961, P = 0. 000 ), and the average amplitude of PhNR were ( 80. 23±22.96 ) μV and (61.28 ±20. 16 ) μV ( t = 4. 438, P = 0. 001 ) before and after the intravitreal injection of TA, respectively,showing significant differences. No significant correlation was found between PhNR amplitude and retinal thickness of the macular area both before and after the administration of TA ( before: r = 0. 587, P = 0. 035; after:r=-0. 011 ,P = 0. 971 ). Conclusion PhNR can be used for

  2. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  3. Surgical Implications of Portal Vein Variations and Liver Segmentations: A Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Showkathali; Iqbal, Raiz; Iqbal, Faiz

    2017-02-01

    The Couinaud's liver segmentation is based on the identification of portal vein bifurcation and origin of hepatic veins. It is widely used clinically, because it is better suited for surgery and is more accurate in localizing and monitoring various intra parenchymal lesions. According to standard anatomy, the portal vein bifurcates into right and left branches; the left vein drains segment II, III and IV and the right vein divides into two secondary branches - the anterior portal vein drains segments V and VIII, and the posterior drains segments VI and VII. The portal vein variants such as portal trifurcation, with division of the main portal vein into the left, right anterior, and posterior branches, and the early origin of the right posterior branch directly from the main portal vein were found to be more frequent and was seen in about 20 - 35% of the population. Accurate knowledge of the portal variants and consequent variations in vascular segments are essential for intervention radiologists and transplant surgeons in the proper diagnosis during radiological investigations and in therapeutic applications such as preparation for biopsy, Portal Vein Embolization (PVE), Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt (TIPS), tumour resection and partial hepatectomy for split or living donor transplantations. The advances in the knowledge will reduce intra and postoperative complications and avoid major catastrophic events. The purpose of the present review is to update the normal and variant portal venous anatomy and their implications in the liver segmentations, complex liver surgeries and various radiological intervention procedures.

  4. Retinal oximeter for the blue-green oximetry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Sieluzycka, Katarzyna B.; Hendryx, Jennifer K.; Ririe, Tyson J.; Deluca, Lawrence; Chipman, Russell A.

    2011-10-01

    Retinal oximetry offers potential for noninvasive assessment of central venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SO2) via the retinal vessels but requires a calibrated accuracy of +/-3% saturation in order to be clinically useful. Prior oximeter designs have been hampered by poor saturation calibration accuracy. We demonstrate that the blue-green oximetry (BGO) technique can provide accuracy within +/-3% in swine when multiply scattered light from blood within a retinal vessel is isolated. A noninvasive on-axis scanning retinal oximeter (ROx-3) is constructed that generates a multiwavelength image in the range required for BGO. A field stop in the detection pathway is used in conjunction with an anticonfocal bisecting wire to remove specular vessel reflections and isolate multiply backscattered light from the blood column within a retinal vessel. This design is tested on an enucleated swine eye vessel and a retinal vein in a human volunteer with retinal SO2 measurements of ~1 and ~65%, respectively. These saturations, calculated using the calibration line from earlier work, are internally consistent with a standard error of the mean of +/-2% SO2. The absolute measures are well within the expected saturation range for the site (-1 and 63%). This is the first demonstration of noninvasive on-axis BGO retinal oximetry.

  5. Acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, Simeon; Hristova, Ruska; Dacheva, Rositza; Toncheva, Reni; Shumnalieva, Russka; Shoumnalieva-Ivanova, Viara; Monova, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and deposition of immune complexes in tissues and organs. SLE can involve any region of the visual system. Although ocular manifestations are not part of the classification criteria for SLE, they can be observed in up to one-third of the patients with SLE. They are rarely reported at the time of disease onset. Retinal vasculitis is usually associated with active generalized disease. Due to its low frequency, we report a case of acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of SLE. Patient concerns and diagnosis: A 25-year-old white female was referred to the rheumatology clinic with gradually and rapid deterioration of the vision due to abnormal vessel permeability in the right fundus with edema along the vessels, occlusion of arterial branches in the middle periphery with leakage of the dye in these areas and indentical but less prominent changes with cotton wool spots in the papillomacular area and extensive hemorrhages in the left eye. The onset of malar rash, arthralgias and positive antinuclear, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-ribosomal P and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies with decreased C4 complement levels, as well as the positive lupus-band test confirmed the diagnosis of SLE. Interventions: Aggressive immunomodulating therapy with high-dose methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclophosphamide was used for suppression of the disease activity followed by azathioprine as maintaince therapy. Outcomes: Substantial improvement and partial resorption of the vasculitic changes, including central retinal artery and vein, was achieved prominently in the left eye. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and written informed consent was obtained from the patient. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary

  6. Imaging polarimetry and retinal blood vessel quantification at the epiretinal membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Masahiro; Elsner, Ann E.; Cheney, Michael C.; Usui, Masahiko; Iwasaki, Takuya

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated a polarimetry method to enhance retinal blood vessels masked by the epiretinal membrane. Depolarized light images were computed by removing the polarization retaining light reaching the instrument and were compared with parallel polarized light images, average reflectance images, and the corresponding images at 514 nm. Contrasts were computed for retinal vessel profiles for arteries and veins. Contrasts were higher in the 514 nm images in normal eyes but higher in the depolarized light image in the eyes with epiretinal membranes. Depolarized light images were useful for examining the retinal vasculature in the presence of retinal disease.

  7. [Right ovarian vein syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvis, G

    1985-01-01

    Right ovarian vein syndrome is revealed in pregnancy by right lumbar pains, and even by nephritic colics. It results from a congenital malposition of the right ovarian vein, which presses the right ureter on the external iliac artery. Diagnosis is by intravenous urography and retrograde ureteral pyelography. If pain persists despite treatment by analgesics, it may be necessary to place a double-J catheter, and to operate after delivery to ligate the ovarian vein.

  8. Postpartum renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, D; Sterns, R H; Segal, A J

    1985-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis in adults is usually a complication of the nephrotic syndrome. Rarely, it has been reported in nonnephrotic women postpartum. The thrombosis may be a complication of the hypercoagulable state associated with both the nephrotic syndrome and pregnancy. Two postpartum patients with renal vein thrombosis and no prior history of renal disease are reported here. Neither patient had heavy proteinuria. In both cases, pyelonephritis was suspected clinically and the diagnosis of renal vein thrombosis was first suggested and confirmed by radiologic examination. Renal vein thrombosis should be considered in women presenting postpartum with flank pain.

  9. Oral contraceptive pills: A risk factor for retinal vascular occlusion in in-vitro fertilization patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina S Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular occlusion is the most common cause of retinopathy leading to severe visual loss in all age groups. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is usually seen in older age group and is often associated with systemic vascular diseases. Although the exact cause and effect relationship has not been proven, central retinal vein occlusion has been associated with various systemic pathological conditions, hence a direct review of systems toward the various systemic and local factors predisposing the central retinal vein occlusion is advocated. We describe the development of central retinal venous occlusion with associated cystoid macular edema (CME in two healthy infertile women who were recruited for in vitro fertilization cycle for infertility. Predisposing risk factors associated with central retinal vein occlusion are obesity, sedentary life style, smoking, and some systemic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, associated autoimmune disorders e.g., antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, lupus, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, bleeding or clotting disorders, vasculitis, closed-head trauma, alcohol consumption, primary open-angle glaucoma or angle-closure glaucoma.In our patients, they were ruled out afterdoing allpertaining investigations. The cases were managed with further avoidance of oral contraceptives and intra-vitreal injections of Bevacizumab (Avastin, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF drug and Triamcinolone acetonide (a long acting synthetic steroid. Hence, even if no systemic diseases are detected. Physical examinations are recommended periodically for young women on oral contraceptive pills.

  10. Retinal Arterial Occlusive Diseasein a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease

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    Georgios Batsos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods: A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonellahenselae. Results: Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Conclusions: Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease.

  11. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood flow, and thin, stretched walls. The middle image shows where varicose veins might appear in a leg. Figure A shows ... blood flow, and thin, stretched walls. The middle image shows where varicose veins might appear in a leg. Older age or ...

  12. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

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    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  13. Retinal Image Analysis for Abnormality Detection-An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Karthikeyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Classification plays a major role in retinal image analysis for detecting the various abnormalities in retinal images. Classification refers to one of the mining concepts using supervised or unsupervised learning techniques. Approach: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the common complications of diabetes. Unfortunately, in many cases, the patient is not aware of any symptoms until it is too late for effective treatment. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy results in retinal disorders that include microaneursyms, drusens, hard exudates and intra-retinal micro-vascular abnormalities. Results: Automatic methods to detect various lesions associated with diabetic retinopathy facilitate the opthalmologists in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Abnormal retinal images fall into four different classes namely Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy (NPDR, Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO, Choroidal Neo-Vascularization Membrane (CNVM and Central Serous Retinopathy (CSR.. Conclusion: In this study, we have analysed the various methodologies for detecting the abnormalities in retinal images automatically along with their merits and demerits and proposed the new framework for detection of abnormalities using Cellular Neural Network (CNN.

  14. Congenital preduodenal portal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Mi Soo; Huh, Young Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Youngnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Congenital preduodenal portal vein, first reported by Knight in 1921, is an extremely rare congenital anomaly in which the portal vein passes anteriorly to the duodenum rather than posteriorly in its normal location. It is of surgical significance because it may cause difficulties in operations involving the gall bladder, biliary duct, or duodenum. Recently, we experienced 2 cases of preduodenal portal vein. One was found during surgical exploration for the diagnosis and correction of malrotation of the bowels and the other in a 3 day-old male newborn associated with dextrocardia, situs inversus, and duodenal obstruction by diaphragm. We report these 2 cases with a review of the literature.

  15. Diagnostic Value of 16 Slices Spiral-CT for Portal Vein Disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 胡道予; 肖明

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The diagnostic value of 16-slices spiral computed tomography (CT) for portal vein disorders was evaluated. Forty-one patients were scanned by the 16-slices spiral-CT. The celiac trunk,portal vein and their branches were reconstructed by volume rendering (VR), multiplanar volume reconstruction (MPVR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) technique, and the results were compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). VR, MPVR and MIP could display celiac trunk, portal vein, inferior vena cava and their branches and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt,portal vein emboli and the fistula of hepatic artery-portal vein. The results from 16-slices CT were better than DSA and identical with pathologic ones. The vessel three-dimension reconstruction technique of 16-slices spiral CT is valuable for evaluating the portal systemic disorders.

  16. Retinal remodeling in human retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B W; Pfeiffer, R L; Ferrell, W D; Watt, C B; Marmor, M; Marc, R E

    2016-09-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) in the human is a progressive, currently irreversible neural degenerative disease usually caused by gene defects that disrupt the function or architecture of the photoreceptors. While RP can initially be a disease of photoreceptors, there is increasing evidence that the inner retina becomes progressively disorganized as the outer retina degenerates. These alterations have been extensively described in animal models, but remodeling in humans has not been as well characterized. This study, using computational molecular phenotyping (CMP) seeks to advance our understanding of the retinal remodeling process in humans. We describe cone mediated preservation of overall topology, retinal reprogramming in the earliest stages of the disease in retinal bipolar cells, and alterations in both small molecule and protein signatures of neurons and glia. Furthermore, while Müller glia appear to be some of the last cells left in the degenerate retina, they are also one of the first cell classes in the neural retina to respond to stress which may reveal mechanisms related to remodeling and cell death in other retinal cell classes. Also fundamentally important is the finding that retinal network topologies are altered. Our results suggest interventions that presume substantial preservation of the neural retina will likely fail in late stages of the disease. Even early intervention offers no guarantee that the interventions will be immune to progressive remodeling. Fundamental work in the biology and mechanisms of disease progression are needed to support vision rescue strategies.

  17. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  18. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Froger

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats. After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%, whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  19. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  20. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  1. Deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Gargi; Roy, Subesha Basu; Haldar, Swaraj; Bhattacharya, Rabindra

    2010-12-01

    Occlusive clot formation in the veins causes venous thrombosis, the site most common in the deep veins of leg, called deep vein thrombosis. The clot can block blood flow and when it breaks off, called an embolism which in turn can damage the vital organs. Venous thrombosis occurs via three mechanisms ie, Virchow's triad. The mechanisms are decreased flow rate of blood, damage to the blood vessel wall and an increased tendency of the blood to clot. There are several factors which can increase a person's risk for deep vein thrombosis. The symptoms of deep vein thrombosis in the legs are pain, swelling and redness of the part. One variety of venous thrombosis is phlegmasia alba dolens where the leg becomes pale and cool. Investigations include Doppler ultrasound examination of the limb, D-dimer blood test, plethysmography of the legs, x-rays to show vein in the affected area (venography). Hospitalisation is necessary in some cases with some risk factors. The mainstream of treatment is with anticoagulants, mostly low molecular weight heparin for 6 months. Deep venous thrombosis is a rising problem. Early diagnosis and treatment is associated with a good prognosis.

  2. Mesenteric vein thrombosis: CT identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, A.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.; Kelvin, F.M.

    1984-07-01

    Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis was identified on computed tomographic scans in six patients. In each case, contrast-enhanced scans showed a high-density superior mesenteric vein wall surrounding a central filling defect. Four fo the six patients had isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. A fifth patient had associated portal vein and splenic vein thrombosis, and the sixth patient had associated portal vein and inferior vena cava thrombosis. One of the six patients had acute ischemic bowel disease. The other five patients did not have acute ischemic bowel symptoms associated with their venous occlusion. This study defines the computed tomographic appearance of mesenteric vein thrombosis.

  3. Tri-functional cannula for retinal endovascular surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2010-07-27

    A tri-functional cannula combines the functions of tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) solution delivery, illumination and venous pressure measurement. The cannula utilizes a tapered hollow-core optical fiber having an inlet for tPA solution, an attached fiber optic splitter configured to receive illumination light from an optical source such and a LED. A window in the cannula transmits the light to and from a central retinal vein. The return light is coupled to an optical detector to measure the pressure within the vein and determine whether an occlusion has been removed.

  4. Small saphenous vein: where does reflux go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gustavo Rossi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomy of small saphenous vein (SSV is very variable because of its complex embryological origin. SSV incompetence often causes reflux that goes to the perforating veins, sometimes not respecting the anatomical course. OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in reflux direction and reentry in the SSV. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 60 lower limbs with SSV incompetence of 43 patients were assessed using a color Doppler ultrasound protocol. RESULTS: Reentry variations were grouped into four types and subtypes. Percentage results were: Type A, perforating veins on the medial side = 25/60 cases (41.66%; subtypes: Cockett, Sherman, paratibial and vertex; Type B, lateral malleolus and perforating veins on the lateral side (fibular 17-26 cm = 15/60 cases (25%; subtypes: fibular and malleolus; Type C, two branches = 19/60 cases (31.66%; subtypes: gastrocnemius and Cockett, gastrocnemius and malleolus, and/or fibular, Cockett and malleolus, Cockett-vertex and fibular; Type D, reflux in the superficial system = 1/60 cases (1.66%. CONCLUSION: On most of the lower limbs assessed, reflux did not follow the classical anatomic course. Our findings demonstrated a high degree of variation in reflux/reentry, but no SSV anatomical variations. Reflux seems to, either look for the most accessible anatomical connection for reentry or be originated in the distal area and then reach the SSV.

  5. Retinal artery occlusions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case.

  6. Idiopathic pediatric retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manayath George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a healthy young girl. An eight-year-old girl presented with sudden loss of vision in her left eye. She had a pale retina with macular edema consistent with extensive BRAO. A thorough workup was performed to determine any etiologic factor. All test results were within normal limits. Her visual acuity improved from finger counting to 20/40 over two weeks, on immediate treatment with intravenous steroids (methyl prednisolone. This case suggests that BRAO can occur in healthy children without any detectable systemic or ocular disorders and a dramatic improvement may be achieved with prompt treatment with intravenous steroids.

  7. Retinal oximetry in patients with ischaemic retinal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rilvén, Sandra; Torp, Thomas Lee; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The retinal oximeter is a new tool for non-invasive measurement of retinal oxygen saturation in humans. Several studies have investigated the associations between retinal oxygen saturation and retinal diseases. In the present systematic review, we examine whether there are associations between...

  8. Retinal vascular calibre and response to light exposure and serial imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Sjølie, Anne K.; Mathiesen, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    and vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE). Outcome measures were difference in calibres after prior light versus prior dark exposure and difference in calibre during each of the two imaging sequences. Results: CRVE was wider with prior light exposure (2.7%, p = 0.0001), comparing the first image in each image......Purpose: To investigate whether retinal vessel calibre measurements on optical retinal photography are affected by light and dark exposure prior to photography and whether the vessel calibre changes during an imaging sequence of several images. Methods: Digital optical retinal photographs were...... obtained from 32 healthy adults in two separate image sequences of six images during 1 min; one sequence with 10 min of dark exposure and one with 10 min of light exposure prior to imaging. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibres were measured computer-assisted and summarized as central retinal artery...

  9. Molecular pathogenesis of retinal and choroidal vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campochiaro, Peter A

    2015-11-01

    There are two major types of ocular neovascularization that affect the retina, retinal neovascularization (NV) and subretinal or choroidal NV. Retinal NV occurs in a group of diseases referred to as ischemic retinopathies in which damage to retinal vessels results in retinal ischemia. Most prevalent of these are diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusions. Subretinal and choroidal NV occur in diseases of the outer retina and Bruch's membrane, the most prevalent of which is age-related macular degeneration. Numerous studies in mouse models have helped to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis underlying retinal, subretinal, and choroidal NV. There is considerable overlap because the precipitating event in each is stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) which leads to upregulation of several hypoxia-regulated gene products, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin 2, vascular endothelial-protein tyrosine phosphatase (VE-PTP), and several others. Stimulation of VEGF signaling and suppression of Tie2 by angiopoietin 2 and VE-PTP are critical for sprouting of retinal, subretinal, and choroidal NV, with perturbation of Bruch's membrane also needed for the latter. Additional HIF-1-regulated gene products cause further stimulation of the NV. It is difficult to model macular edema in animals and therefore proof-of-concept clinical trials were done and demonstrated that VEGF plays a central role and that suppression of Tie2 is also important. Neutralization of VEGF is currently the first line therapy for all of the above disease processes, but new treatments directed at some of the other molecular targets, particularly stabilization of Tie2, are likely to provide additional benefit for subretinal/choroidal NV and macular edema. In addition, the chronicity of these diseases as well as the implication of VEGF as a cause of retinal nonperfusion and progression of background diabetic retinopathy make sustained delivery approaches for VEGF

  10. Retinal vessel diameter changes induced by transient high perfusion pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ying; Zhao; Ping-Jun; Chang; Fang; Yu; Yun-E; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the effects of transient high perfusion pressure on the retinal vessel diameter and retinal ganglion cells.·METHODS: The animals were divided into four groups according to different infusion pressure and infusion time(60 mm Hg-3min, 60 mm Hg-5min, 100 mm Hg-3min, 100 mm Hg-5min). Each group consisted of six rabbits. The left eye was used as the experimental eye and the right as a control. Retinal vascular diameters were evaluated before, during infusion, immediately after infusion, 5min, 10 min and 30 min after infusion based on the fundus photographs. Blood pressure was monitored during infusion. The eyes were removed after 24 h.Damage to retinal ganglion cell(RGC) was analyzed by histology.·RESULTS: Retina became whiten and papilla optic was pale during perfusion. Measurements showed significant decrease in retinal artery and vein diameter during perfusion in all of the four groups at the proximal of the edge of the optic disc. The changes were significant in the 100 mm Hg-3min group and 100 mm Hg-5min group compared with 60 mm Hg-3min group(P 1=0.025, P 2=0.000).The diameters in all the groups recovered completely after 30 min of reperfusion. The number of RGC)showed no significant changes at the IOP in 100 mm Hg with5 min compared with contralateral untreated eye(P >0.05).·CONCLUSION: Transient fluctuations during infusion lead to temporal changes of retinal vessels, which could affect the retinal blood circulation. The RGCs were not affected by this transient fluctuation. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of pressure during realtime phacoemusification on retinal blood circulation.

  11. Astrocyte-derived vascular endothelial growth factor stabilizes vessels in the developing retinal vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Scott

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF plays a critical role in normal development as well as retinal vasculature disease. During retinal vascularization, VEGF is most strongly expressed by not yet vascularized retinal astrocytes, but also by retinal astrocytes within the developing vascular plexus, suggesting a role for retinal astrocyte-derived VEGF in angiogenesis and vessel network maturation. To test the role of astrocyte-derived VEGF, we used Cre-lox technology in mice to delete VEGF in retinal astrocytes during development. Surprisingly, this only had a minor impact on retinal vasculature development, with only small decreases in plexus spreading, endothelial cell proliferation and survival observed. In contrast, astrocyte VEGF deletion had more pronounced effects on hyperoxia-induced vaso-obliteration and led to the regression of smooth muscle cell-coated radial arteries and veins, which are usually resistant to the vessel-collapsing effects of hyperoxia. These results suggest that VEGF production from retinal astrocytes is relatively dispensable during development, but performs vessel stabilizing functions in the retinal vasculature and might be relevant for retinopathy of prematurity in humans.

  12. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-05

    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  13. [Ovarian vein syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero Doria, R; Guzmán Valls, P; López Alba, J; Tomás Ros, M; Rico Galiano, J L; Fontana Compiano, L O

    1996-04-01

    The Ovarian Vein Syndrome has been the subject of controversy ever since first described as such by Clark in 1964. This is an uncommon entity within urologic sings and symptoms which appears as a recurrent nephritic colic coinciding with menstruation or during the immediately preceding days. The authors review a clinical case from our Urology Service, including some considerations on the case.

  14. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect...

  15. Endovenous treatments for varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.R. van den Bos (Renate)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractEndovenous treatment is currently one of the most frequently used methods for treating varicose veins in the Netherlands. Varicose veins are tortuous and enlarged veins due to weakening in the vein’s wall or valves. They are manifestations of chronic venous disease (CVD), which may lead

  16. Relationship between encephalopathy and portal vein-vena cava shunt:Value of computed tomography during arterial portography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Chu; Zhen Li; Su-Ming Zhang; Dao-Yu Hu; Ming Xiao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the value of computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP) in portal vein-vena cava shunt,and analysis of the episode risk in encephalopathy.METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy due to portal hypertension were classified by West Haven method into grade Ⅰ(29 cases), gradeⅡ(16 cases), grade Ⅲ(10 cases), grade Ⅳ( 4 cases). All the patients were scanned by spiral-CT. Plane scans, artery phase and portal vein phase enhancement scans were performed, and the source images were thinly reconstructed to 1.25 mm. We reconstructed the celiac trunk, portal vein,inferior vena cava and their branches and subjected them to three-dimensional vessel analysis by volume rendering(VR) technique and multiplanar volume reconstruction(MPVR) technique. The blood vessel reconstruction technique was used to evaluate the scope and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt, portal vein emboli and the fistula of hepatic artery- portal vein. The relationship between the episode risk of portal-systemic encephalopathy and the scope and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt,portal vein emboli and fistula of hepatic artery- portal vein was studied.RESULTS: The three-dimensional vessel reconstruction technique of spiral-CT could display celiac trunk, portal vein,inferior vena cava and their branches at any planes and angles and the scope and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt, portal vein emboli and the fistula of hepatic artery- portal vein. In twenty-nine patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy, grade Ⅰ accounted for 89.7% esophageal varices, 86.2% paragastric varices; grade Ⅱ accounted for68.75% cirsomphalos, 56.25% paraesophageal varices,62.5% retroperitoneal varices and 81.25% dilated azygos vein; grade Ⅲ accounted for 80% cirsomphalos, 60%paraesophageal varices, 70% retroperitoneal varices, 90%dilated azygos vein, and part of the patients in grades Ⅱand Ⅲ had portal vein emboli and fistula of hepatic arteryportal vein

  17. Radial optic neurotomy for ischaemic central vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Jardón, C S; Meza-de Regil, A; Dalma-Weiszhausz, J; Leizaola-Fernández, C; Morales-Cantón, V; Guerrero-Naranjo, J L; Quiroz-Mercado, H

    2005-01-01

    Background/aims: Ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) accounts for 20–50% of all CRVO. No treatment has been proved to be effective. The efficacy of radial optic neurotomy (RON) was evaluated in eyes with ischaemic CRVO. Methods: 10 patients with ischaemic CRVO underwent RON. After pars plana vitrectomy, a microvitreoretinal blade was used to incise the scleral ring, cribriform plate, and adjacent sclera at the nasal edge of the optic disc. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), fluorescein angiography (FA), multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were measured preoperatively and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Results: No visual improvement was noted in the eyes that underwent RON. FA and mfERG showed no increase in retinal perfusion or retinal function postoperatively. Mean macular central thickness changed from 841 (SD 170) μm preoperatively to 162 (SD 34) μm at the sixth postoperative month. One patient had retinal central artery perforation intraoperatively. One patient developed neovascular glaucoma. Conclusion: RON in ischaemic CRVO did not improve visual function (by mfERG) or visual acuity although macular thickness did improve. This technique may be associated with potential risks. Randomised studies are needed to corroborate these results. PMID:15834084

  18. Varicosity of the pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicher-Dueber, A.; Lindner, P.; Schild, H.; Plewe, G.

    1986-04-01

    Varicosity of the pulmonary veins is a rare anomaly of the pulmonary vascular system. The varices do not usually change in size over years, do not cause symptoms and need no therapy. However, raised left atrial pressure can cause increase in the diameter of pulmonary vein varices. A case of lung vein varicosity in the right middle and upper lobe associated with coarctation of the aorta and an anomalous upper-middle lobe vein was observed over a period of 10 years. Increase in left atrial pressure (aortic and relative mitral regurgitation) led to enlargement of the pulmonary veins.

  19. KR-31378, a potassium-channel opener, induces the protection of retinal ganglion cells in rat retinal ischemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anho; Choi, Jun-Sub; Yoon, Yone-Jung; Kim, Kyung-A; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2009-04-01

    KR-31378 is a newly developed K(ATP)-channel opener. To investigate the ability of KR-31378 to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGC), experiments were conducted using two retinal ischemia models. Retinal ischemia was induced by transient high intraocular pressure (IOP) for acute ischemia and by three episcleral vein occlusion for chronic retinal ischemia. KR-31378 was injected intraperitoneally and administered orally in the acute and chronic ischemia models, respectively. Under the condition of chronic ischemia, RGC density in the KR-31378-treated group was statistically higher than that in the non-treated group, and IOP was reduced. In the acute retinal ischemia model, 90% of RGC were degenerated after one week in non-treated retina, but, RGC in KR-31378-treated retina were protected from ischemic damage in a dose-dependent manner and showed inhibited glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Furthermore, the KR-31378 protective effect was inhibited by glibenclamide treatment in acute ischemia. These findings indicate that systemic KR-31378 treatment may protect against ischemic injury-induced ganglion cell loss in glaucoma.

  20. Neuropilin 1 Involvement in Choroidal and Retinal Neovascularisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Robredo, Patricia; Sim, Dawn A.; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Inhibiting VEGF is the gold standard treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). It is also effective in preventing retinal oedema and neovascularisation (NV) in diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusions (RVO). Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) is a co-receptor for VEGF and many other growth factors, and therefore a possible alternative drug target in intra ocular neovascular disease. Here we assessed choroidal and retinal NV in an inducible, endothelial specific knock out model for Nrp1. Methods Crossing Nrp1 floxed mice with Pdgfb-CreERT2 mice produced tamoxifen-inducible, endothelial specific Nrp1 knock out mice (Nrp1ΔEC) and Cre-negative, control littermates. Cre-recombinase activity was confirmed in the Ai3(RCL-EYFP) reporter strain. Animals were subjected to laser-induced CNV (532 nm) and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was performed immediately after laser and at day 7. Fluorescein angiography (FA) evaluated leakage and postmortem lectin staining in flat mounted RPE/choroid complexes was also used to measure CNV. Furthermore, retinal neovascularisation in the oxygen induced retinopathy (OIR) model was assessed by immunohistochemistry in retinal flatmounts. Results In vivo FA, OCT and post-mortem lectin staining showed a statistically significant reduction in leakage (p<0.05), CNV volume (p<0.05) and CNV area (p<0.05) in the Nrp1ΔEC mice compared to their Cre-negative littermates. Also the OIR model showed reduced retinal NV in the mutant animals compared to wild types (p<0.001). Conclusion We have demonstrated reduced choroidal and retinal NV in animals that lack endothelial Nrp1, confirming a role of Nrp1 in those processes. Therefore, Nrp1 may be a promising drug target for neovascular diseases in the eye. PMID:28107458

  1. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids.

  2. Retinal oxygen saturation evaluation by multi-spectral fundus imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoobehi, Bahram; Ning, Jinfeng; Puissegur, Elise; Bordeaux, Kimberly; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Beach, James

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a multi-spectral method to measure oxygen saturation of the retina in the human eye. Methods: Five Cynomolgus monkeys with normal eyes were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine and intravenous pentobarbital. Multi-spectral fundus imaging was performed in five monkeys with a commercial fundus camera equipped with a liquid crystal tuned filter in the illumination light path and a 16-bit digital camera. Recording parameters were controlled with software written specifically for the application. Seven images at successively longer oxygen-sensing wavelengths were recorded within 4 seconds. Individual images for each wavelength were captured in less than 100 msec of flash illumination. Slightly misaligned images of separate wavelengths due to slight eye motion were registered and corrected by translational and rotational image registration prior to analysis. Numerical values of relative oxygen saturation of retinal arteries and veins and the underlying tissue in between the artery/vein pairs were evaluated by an algorithm previously described, but which is now corrected for blood volume from averaged pixels (n > 1000). Color saturation maps were constructed by applying the algorithm at each image pixel using a Matlab script. Results: Both the numerical values of relative oxygen saturation and the saturation maps correspond to the physiological condition, that is, in a normal retina, the artery is more saturated than the tissue and the tissue is more saturated than the vein. With the multi-spectral fundus camera and proper registration of the multi-wavelength images, we were able to determine oxygen saturation in the primate retinal structures on a tolerable time scale which is applicable to human subjects. Conclusions: Seven wavelength multi-spectral imagery can be used to measure oxygen saturation in retinal artery, vein, and tissue (microcirculation). This technique is safe and can be used to monitor oxygen uptake in humans. This work

  3. Resection and reconstruction of the right hepatic vein with combined S4, S7 and S8 segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Dong, Jia-Hong; Wang, Yan-Bin; Leng, Jian-Jun

    2009-10-01

    Preservation of the main branches of the right hepatic vein in hepatectomy can retain the liver function of the future remnant liver, and especially in some types of radical surgery, reconstruction of the hepatic vein is considered. A case is here presented where a high risk patient diagnosed with Caroli disease was treated effectively using precise hepatectomy.

  4. 抗磷脂抗体及凝血因子Ⅻ缺乏与视网膜静脉阻塞的相关研究%The correlation of antiphospholipid antibody and factor Ⅻ deficiency in patients with retinal vein occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙红晶; 李毓敏

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察抗磷脂抗体(APA)及凝血因子Ⅻ(F Ⅻ)缺乏在视网膜静脉阻塞(RVO)发病中的作用.方法 对RVO患者33例(33眼)及正常对照组30例(30眼),采用ELISA法检测抗心磷脂抗体(ACA)(IgG、IgM、IgA);APTT法检测LA;一期法测定FⅫ活性.采用Fisher检验进行统计学分析.结果 RVO组APAs总阳性率24.24%(8/33)与对照组6.67%(2/30)比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.085).RVO组ACA阳性率18.18%(6/33)与对照组(0/30)比较差异有统计学意义(P=0.025).≤50岁组及>50岁组RVO患者LA总阳性率与同年龄对照组相比差异均无统计学意义(P=0.160,P=0.206).RVO组FⅫ缺乏率42.42%(14/33)与对照组13.33%(4/30)比较差异有统计学意义(P=0.013).≤50岁组及>50岁组RVO患者FⅫ缺乏与同年龄对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.206,P=0.052).结论 研究表明ACA阳性及FⅫ缺乏引起的凝血障碍与RVO发病相关.%Objective Antiphospholipid antibody and factor Ⅻ deficiency are among the coagulation disorders that have been implicated in many thrombembolic events. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies and factor Ⅻ deficiency in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Methods The investigation was a case control study. The periphery blood was collected from a cohort of 33 consecutive patients with RVO and 30 age- and gender-matched normal subjects. Anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was detected by ELISA as binding index (BI) =A value/standard A value. The lupus anticoagulant antibody was examined by APTT test and the activity of factor Ⅻ was detected. This study was approved by The Human Research Ethics Committee of this hospital, and written informed consent was obtained from all the subjects before initiation of any study protocol. Results The total positive rate of APA in RVO group was 24. 24% (8/33), showing a insignificant difference in comparison with control group (6. 67%, 2/30) (P = 0. 085). The positive rate of

  5. Portal flow into the liver through veins at the site of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M; Heianna, J; Yasuda, K; Tate, E; Watarai, J; Shibata, S; Sato, T; Yamamoto, Y

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the role played by jejunal veins in hepatopetal flow after biliary-enteric anastomosis and to evaluate the helical CT features of hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis. We retrospectively analyzed helical CT images of the liver in 31 patients with biliary-enteric anastomosis who underwent hepatic angiography with (n=13) or without (n=18) CT arterial portography within 2 weeks of the CT examination during the last 4 years. Arterial portography showed hepatopetal flow through small vessels located (communicating veins) between the elevated jejunal veins and the intrahepatic portal branches in two (9%) of 22 patients with a normal portal system. Helical CT showed focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis in these two patients. All nine patients with extrahepatic portal vein occlusion (100%) had hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis, and four of the nine had decreased portal flow. CT revealed small communicating veins in two of these four patients. In five patients with normal portal perfusion despite extrahepatic portal vein occlusion, CT detected dilated communicating veins and elevated jejunal veins. The presence of communicating veins and/or focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis indicates hepatopetal flow through the elevated jejunal veins.

  6. Retroaortic left renal vein joining the left common iliac vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brancatelli, G.; Galia, M.; Finazzo, M.; Sparacia, G.; Pardo, S.; Lagalla, R. [Dept. of Radiology ' ' P. Cignolini' ' , Univ. of Palermo (Italy)

    2000-11-01

    Retroaortic left renal vein joining the left common iliac vein is a rare congenital anomaly in the development of the inferior vena cava. To our knowledge, only one case has been reported in the literature; however, its imaging features have never been described. A 27-year-old male presented with a 1-year history of recurrent right flank pain, dysuria, hematuria, and fever (39 C). Computed tomography and MR venography showed a retroaortic left renal vein joining the left common iliac vein. We present the CT and MR venography findings and discuss their feasibility in showing this congenital anomaly. (orig.)

  7. Bioelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, James D.

    2016-05-01

    Retinal prosthesis have been translated to clinical use over the past two decades. Currently, two devices have regulatory approval for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa and one device is in clinical trials for treatment of age-related macular degeneration. These devices provide partial sight restoration and patients use this improved vision in their everyday lives to navigate and to detect large objects. However, significant vision restoration will require both better technology and improved understanding of the interaction between electrical stimulation and the retina. In particular, current retinal prostheses do not provide peripheral visions due to technical and surgical limitations, thus limiting the effectiveness of the treatment. This paper reviews recent results from human implant patients and presents technical approaches for peripheral vision.

  8. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  9. Retinal Detachment in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Renata Silva do

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an obstetric disease of unknown cause that affects approximately 5% of pregnant women. The visual system may be affected with variable intensity, being the retinal detachment a rare complication. The retinal detachment in preeclampsia is usually bilateral and serous, and its pathogenesis is related to the choroidal ischemia secondary to an intense arteriolar vasospasm. The majority of patients have complete recovery of vision with clinical management, and surgery is unnecessary. This is a case report of a 27 year old patient who developed the severe form of preeclampsia on her first pregnancy. She had progressive blurred vision, until she could see only shadows. Ophthalmic examination diagnosed spread and bilateral retinal detachment. With blood pressure control at postpartum, the patient had her retina reattached, and recovery of vision.

  10. Liver lobation and intraparenchymal distribution of the portal vein in Brazilian guinea pig (Galea spixii Wagler, 1831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Liver lobation and intraparenchymal distribution of the portal vein was described according to studies performed in 10 specimens of Brazilian guinea pigs. The portal vein was cannulated and perfusedwith a vinyl acetate solution and the liver immersed in sulfuric acid solution to obtain vascular casts. The liver presented five lobes, which were named left lateral, left medial, square, right lateral, right medial, and caudate lobes with caudate and papillary processes. The portal vein, entering the portal fissure, divided into two branches, the right and left ones, as it entered the portal fissure. The right branch emitted isolated or common trunk branches to the right lateral lobe and to the caudate process of caudate lobe. On its turn, the left main branch of portal vein divided into two other branches. One of them formed a common trunk for the left lateral, left medial, and square lobes, being the two last ones in a common way. The second branch coursed towards to the right medial branch. Just after its formation, the common trunk of the left main branch emits small vascular branches to the papillary process of caudate lobe.

  11. Retinal arterial occlusion in Takayasu′s arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Sushmita

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Takayasu′s arteritis is an auto-immune disorder of the large and medium-sized arteries, commonly involving the heart and its main vessels. It is now recognised that the inflammatory process of the large arteries affects regions of the walls supplied by the vasa vasorum, suggesting that primary small vessel involvement may contribute to the development of the clinico-pathological features of Takayasu aorto-arteritis. Classical ophthalmic features of the disease result from reduced ocular perfusion, which manifests as hypoxic retinal changes such as microaneurysms, arterio-venous anastomosis and non-perfused areas. Branch retinal artery occlusion has not been previously described in this condition. This case illustrates retinal arterial occlusion as the presenting feature of Takayasu′s arteritis.

  12. Cephalic vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Walid; Selmo, Francesca; Hindi, Mia; Haddad, Fadi; Khalil, Ismail

    2007-11-01

    Cephalic vein aneurysms are rare malformations that may develop in any part of the vascular system, and their history, presentation, and management vary depending on their site. The etiology of venous aneurysms remains unclear, although several theories have been elaborated. Venous aneurysms are unusual vascular malformations that occur equally between the sexes and are seen at any age; they can present as either a painful or a painless subcutaneous mass. No serious complications have been reported from upper extremity venous aneurysms. Surgical excision is the definitive management for most of these. The case reported here presented with a painless and mobile, soft, subcutaneous mass that caused only cosmetic concern.

  13. A RARE CASE OF EXTENSIVE THROMBOSIS OF INFERIOR VENA CAVA, PORTAL VEIN, SPLENIC VEIN AND SUPERIOR MESENTRIC VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While the most common presentation of venous thromboembolic disease is deep vein thrombosis (DVT or pulmonary thromboembolism, rarer manifestations are thrombosis of jugular vein, cerebral sinus and inferior vena cava. Here we are presenting a rare case of inferior vena caval thrombosis with multiple thrombus in portal vein, splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein

  14. The sentinel vein: an important reference point for surgery in the temporal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinei, F A; Januszkiewicz, J; Nahai, F

    1998-01-01

    An intimate knowledge of the anatomy of the face is essential to the aesthetic surgeon. It is this knowledge that ultimately improves results and minimizes complications. The major morbidity associated with brow lifts is trauma to the temporal branch of the facial nerve. The general course of this nerve has been well documented, but exact details are still lacking. This anatomic study was designed to further elucidate its path. Dissections were performed on each side of 10 fresh cadaver heads. These dissections revealed a consistent relationship between the temporal branch of the facial nerve and the sentinel vein. The sentinel vein is reliably located and preoperatively easily defines the "zone of caution", enabling the surgeon to operate rapidly and with confidence until the zone is reached, at which time the dissection is slower as the vein is approached. In the patient in whom the sentinel vein is not easily visualized externally, it may be identified through fixed skeletal landmarks.

  15. Clinical effectiveness analysis of anti-VEGF for central retinal vein occlusion associated with macular edema : A Meta-analysis%抗VEGF药物治疗视网膜中央静脉阻塞并发黄斑水肿的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姝林; 陈有信

    2014-01-01

    、虹膜新生血管2眼等,而用药后全身不良事件罕见. 结论 抗VEGF药物治疗CRVO并发黄斑水肿效果明显,不良反应较少,但疗效维持时间较短.发病早期及时注射抗VEGF药物对患者更有益,但晚期注射仍能取得一定疗效.%Background Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) causes macular edema.The treatment options are limited.There have been a series of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the effectiveness of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),but the systematic review of the literature to assess the strength of evidence supporting the interventions is lack.Objective This study was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-VEGF therapy for improving vision and reducing macular edema in patients with CRVO associated with macular edema.Methods A systematic review and Meta-analysis was performed.According to guidelines of Cochrane collaboration,the literature of RCTs for anti-VEGF therapy treating CRVO with macular edema was searched from Cochrane Library,Pubmed,Embase,Wanfang databases and conference documents without the limiting of language or date.The literature was screened independently by two searchers,and the methodology quality of the included papers was estimated.The proportion of patients with the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥ 15 ETDRS letters,the change ranges of BCVA (LogMAR) and central fovea thickness (CFT) were analyzed.The overall effect size was analyzed using Review Manager 5.1 in The Cochrane Collaboration as weighted mean difference (WSD).Fixed effect mode was used to evaluate and compare the treating effectiveness between the anti-VEGF group and sham treating group.Results Six RCTs were incorporated with 948 eyes and generated 3 comparisons in the study,including 5 multi-central studies and 1 single central study.Pegaptanib was administered in 1 study,and ranibizumab was used in 2 studied,bevacizumab in 1 study and VEGF Trap-Eye in 2 studies.The results demonstrated that anti-VEGF therapy

  16. Historical Overview of Varicose Vein Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, Jephta; Moll, Frans L.

    2010-01-01

    Varicose veins are as old as Hippocrates. Varicose vein treatments come and go. Surgery for varicose vein disease is one of the commonest elective general surgical procedures. The history of varicose vein surgery has been traced. We note the first descriptions of varicose veins, and we particularly

  17. Retinal locus for scanning text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timberlake, George T; Sharma, Manoj K; Grose, Susan A; Maino, Joseph H

    2006-01-01

    A method of mapping the retinal location of text during reading is described in which text position is plotted cumulatively on scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal images. Retinal locations that contain text most often are the brightest in the cumulative plot, and locations that contain text least often are the darkest. In this way, the retinal area that most often contains text is determined. Text maps were plotted for eight control subjects without vision loss and eight subjects with central scotomas from macular degeneration. Control subjects' text maps showed that the fovea contained text most often. Text maps of five of the subjects with scotomas showed that they used the same peripheral retinal area to scan text and fixate. Text maps of the other three subjects with scotomas showed that they used separate areas to scan text and fixate. Retinal text maps may help evaluate rehabilitative strategies for training individuals with central scotomas to use a particular retinal area to scan text.

  18. Learning about Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that detect light). Photoreceptor cells capture and process light helping us to see. As these cells breakdown and die, patients experience progressive vision loss. The most common feature of all forms of RP is a ... cells that detect dim light) and cones (retinal cells that detect light and ...

  19. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  20. Neuro-Oncology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors of the brain and spinal cord. Neuro-Oncology Clinical Fellowship This is a joint program with ... NCINeuroOncology@mail.nih.gov . Our News The Neuro-Oncology Branch Welcomes Dr. Mark Gilbert as New Branch ...

  1. phenoVein - A software tool for leaf vein segmentation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, Jonas; Rishmawi, Louai; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Huber, Gregor; Scharr, Hanno; Hülskamp, Martin; Koornneef, Maarten; SCHURR, ULRICH; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    phenoVein is a software tool dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing images of leaf veins. It includes comfortable manual correction features. Advanced image filtering automatically emphasizes veins from background and compensates for local brightness inhomogeneities. Phenotypical leaf vein traits being calculated are total vein density, vein lengths and widths and skeleton graph statistics. For determination of vein widths, a model based vein edge estimation approach has been impleme...

  2. Prevalence of outer retinal tubulation in eyes with choroidal neovascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Giachetti Filho, Richard Geraldo; Zacharias,Leandro Cabral; Monteiro,Thaís Vera; Preti, Rony Carlos; Pimentel, Sérgio Gianoti

    2016-01-01

    Background Outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) are branching tubular structures located in the outer nuclear layer of the retina. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of ORTs observed in eyes with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) undergoing treatment with anti-angiogenic intravitreous injection (IVI) with anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) at the Ophthalmology Department of a tertiary hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods This is a descriptive study based on medic...

  3. Duration of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment predicts recovery of retinal sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rose

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The decision to treat a disease is often based on the presence or absence of symptoms, one prototype case being rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Detachment of the neural retina from the pigment epithelium is a major cause of anatomical and functional dysfunction of the retina, where retinal recovery is inversely related to duration of detachment. The purpose of retinal reattachment is to effect recovery of the photoreceptors and pigment epithelium from degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the critical duration of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment resulting in optimal retinal recovery after reattachment. A prospective study was conducted at a private hospital in Yogyakarta. Thirty five eyes were involved in this study. Three months after reattachment, central retinal recovery was measured by means of a Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter. The results showed that retinal recovery developed three months after surgery if the onset of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was less than 28 days before surgery. The results were not significant if the onset of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment was more than 35 days. Although the Goldmann manual kinetic perimeter can efficiently detect central retinal sensitivity, it should be supported by more sensitive tools to evaluate the anatomy and function of the retina.

  4. Agenesis of the iliac veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M L; Posniak, H V

    1984-01-01

    Three case reports of patients with the rare anomaly of agenesis of the iliac veins are presented. It is emphasised that full phlebographic investigation should be carried out in such patients before surgical treatment is considered. It is pointed out that surgical ablation may exacerbate the symptoms of leg swelling and varicose veins for which the patients seek advice.

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  6. Infrared imaging of varicose veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Zeeuw, Raymond; Verdaasdonk, Ruud M.; Wittens, Cees H. A.

    2004-06-01

    It has been established that varicose veins are better visualized with infrared photography. As near-infrared films are nowadays hard to get and to develop in the digital world, we investigated the use of digital photography of varicose veins. Topics that are discussed are illumination setup, photography and digital image enhancement and analysis.

  7. 10-Minute Conultation Varicose veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A 55 year old woman presents with a history of tortuous veins on both legs and a related ache towards the end of the day.She finds these veins unsightly and would like to know whether she can have them treated.

  8. Peripapillary retinal thermal coagulation following electrical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjari Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have presented the case report of a 20 year old boy who suffered an electric injury shock, following which he showed peripapillary retinal opacification and increased retinal thickening that subsequently progressed to retinal atrophy. The fluorescein angiogram revealed normal retinal circulation, thus indicating thermal damage to retina without any compromise to retinal circulation.

  9. Retinal vessel diameters and their correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet; Cuneyt; Ozmen; Zeynep; Aktas; Burcin; Kepez; Yildiz; Murat; Hasanreisoglu; Berati; Hasanreisoglu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare retinal artery-vein diameters(RAVDs)of patients with pseudoexfoliation(PSX) syndrome with healthy controls and investigate the correlations between retinal nerve fiber layer(RNFL) thickness parameters and RAVDs.METHODS: Seventeen eyes with PSX and 17 eyes of age-matched controls were included in the study. All participants underwent routine ophthalmological examination, Humphrey visual field and RNFL examination by using Stratus OCT. Retinal images were obtained by using a retinal camera(Topcon 501X).RAVDs were measured from inferior nasal, inferior temporal, superior nasal and superior temporal arcuates by using IMAGEnet software. Superior, inferior, nasal,temporal and average RNFL thicknesses were recorded.RAVDs and RNFL parameters in groups and correlations were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U and Spearmann correlation tests.RESULTS: Only inferior quadrant and average RNFL thickness were detected thinner in the PSX group compared with control group(P =0.009, P =0.038,respectively). No statistically significant difference regarding RAVDs was found between two groups.CONCLUSION: RAVDs seems to be comparable in the PSX and control group. RNFL is thinner in the inferior quadrant in the PSX group. RNFL thickness and RAVDs show significant correlations in both groups. This correlation doesn’t seem to be specific to PSX.

  10. Application of cystoscope in surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wei, Xu-Biao; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2016-06-14

    Development of portal vein tumor thrombus deteriorates the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, while surgical treatment can offer a promising prognosis for selected patients. However, the possibility of residual lesions in portal vein after conventional thrombectomy is a main risk factor leading to postoperative recurrence. Therefore, ensuring the complete removal of tumor thrombus during operation is critical to improve prognosis. For the first time, we report here one case of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus in which cystoscope was successfully applied as a substitute of intravascular endoscope to visualize the cavity of the portal vein. The patient was a 61-year-old man with a 7-cm tumor in the right lobe of the liver, with tumor thrombus invading the right branch and adjacent to the conjunction of the portal vein. After removal of the tumor, the Olympus CYF-VA2 cystoscope was used to check the portal vein from the opening stump of the right branch of the portal vein. In this case, residual thrombus tissue was found near the opening stump and the conjunction of the portal vein. The residual lesion was carefully retrieved from the stump after retraction of the cystoscope. The procedure was repeated until no residual lesion was found. The whole duration time of thrombectomy was 22.5 (15 + 7.5) min. The patient was free from recurrence at 8 months after the procedure. Our work indicated that the cystoscope is a suitable substitute, with a proper size and function to check the portal vein system and ensure the curability of thrombectomy. Although well-designed clinic trails are still needed, this procedure may further improve the postoperative prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus.

  11. Sagittal vein thrombosis caused by central vein catheter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral venous thrombosis, including thrombosis of cerebral veins and major dural sinuses, is an uncommon disorder in the general population. However, it has a higher frequency among patients younger than 40 years of age, patients with thrombophilia, pregnant patients or those receiving hormonal contraceptive therapy or has foreign body such as catheter in their veins or arterial system. In this case report, we described clinical and radiological findings in a patient with protein C-S deficiency and malposition of central vein catheter.

  12. The anatomical variations of sylvian veins and cisterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, I H; Tüzün, Y; Takçi, E; Kadioğlu, H H; Kayaoğlu, C R; Barlas, E

    1997-06-01

    The anatomical variations of sylvian vein and cistern were investigated during the pterional approach in 750 operative cases with different pathologies. All patients were operated on at the Neurosurgical Department of Ataturk University Medical School, Erzurum, Turkiye. The patients underwent surgery for the lesions necessitating the right or left pterional approach. The findings were recorded during surgical intervention and observed through the operative sketches of the pathologies, the slides, and videotapes of the operations. In our study, we surgically classified the variations of sylvian vein, according to its branching and draining patterns. Type I: The fronto-orbital (frontosylvian), fronto-parietal (parietosylvian) and anterior temporal (temporosylvian) veins drain into one sylvian vein. Type II: Two superficial sylvian veins with separated basal vein draining into the sphenoparietal and Rosenthal's basal vein. Type III: Two superficial sylvian veins draining into the sphenoparietal and the superior petrosal veins. Type IV: Hypoplastic superficial sylvian vein and the deep one. Four types of sylvian vein variations were defined as follows. The type I was seen in 52.8% (n = 396), the type II was found in 19.2% (n = 144), type III was recorded in 18.2% (n = 137), and type IV, or hypoplastic and deep form was discovered in 9.8% (n = 73) of patients. The coursing of sylvian vein was in the temporal side (Temporal Coursing) in 62.4 percent of the cases (n = 469), in the frontal side (Frontal Coursing) in 25 % of the patients (n = 187) and in 9 percent of the cases (n = 67) in the deep localization (Deep Coursing). Only 3.6% of the cases (n = 27) showed Mixed Coursing. The variations of the sylvian cisterns were classified into three types, according to the relationships between the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. In Sylvian type, the frontal and temporal lobes are loosely (Sylvian Type A, wide and large) or tightly (Sylvian Type B

  13. Pattern of inner retinal layers involvement in pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy as determined by SD-OCT: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Laura Melo Junqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy is an ocular disease characterized by outer retina and choroidal atrophy often with overlying intraretinal bone spicule pigment deposition along the retinal veins. As a rare condition, there is scant information in the literature regarding the pattern of inner retinal layers involvement. We present a case of a 41-year-old white man initially referred for a glaucoma evaluation. Fundoscopy revealed patches of retinochoroidal atrophy and light pigmentation extending from the optic nerve head along the inferior-temporal retinal veins in both eyes. Using different spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT protocols we identified a significant thinning of the inner retinal layers along the inferior-temporal veins, but with a lucid interval surrounding the optic nerve head. Standard automated perimetry revealed a superior absolute arcuate scotoma sparing the central fixation (good structure-functional correlation. This pattern of inner retinal layers involvement was not previously described. We believe SD-OCT added significantly to the anatomical description of this case. Physicians should consider these new anatomical findings and correlate them with functional status while assessing these patients.

  14. Pattern of inner retinal layers involvement in pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy as determined by SD-OCT: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela Laura Melo; Lopes, Flavio Siqueira Santos; Biteli, Luís Gustavo; Prata, Tiago Santos

    2013-01-01

    Pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy is an ocular disease characterized by outer retina and choroidal atrophy often with overlying intraretinal bone spicule pigment deposition along the retinal veins. As a rare condition, there is scant information in the literature regarding the pattern of inner retinal layers involvement. We present a case of a 41-year-old white man initially referred for a glaucoma evaluation. Fundoscopy revealed patches of retinochoroidal atrophy and light pigmentation extending from the optic nerve head along the inferior-temporal retinal veins in both eyes. Using different spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) protocols we identified a significant thinning of the inner retinal layers along the inferior-temporal veins, but with a lucid interval surrounding the optic nerve head. Standard automated perimetry revealed a superior absolute arcuate scotoma sparing the central fixation (good structure-functional correlation). This pattern of inner retinal layers involvement was not previously described. We believe SD-OCT added significantly to the anatomical description of this case. Physicians should consider these new anatomical findings and correlate them with functional status while assessing these patients.

  15. Vein matching using artificial neural network in vein authentication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori Hoshyar, Azadeh; Sulaiman, Riza

    2011-10-01

    Personal identification technology as security systems is developing rapidly. Traditional authentication modes like key; password; card are not safe enough because they could be stolen or easily forgotten. Biometric as developed technology has been applied to a wide range of systems. According to different researchers, vein biometric is a good candidate among other biometric traits such as fingerprint, hand geometry, voice, DNA and etc for authentication systems. Vein authentication systems can be designed by different methodologies. All the methodologies consist of matching stage which is too important for final verification of the system. Neural Network is an effective methodology for matching and recognizing individuals in authentication systems. Therefore, this paper explains and implements the Neural Network methodology for finger vein authentication system. Neural Network is trained in Matlab to match the vein features of authentication system. The Network simulation shows the quality of matching as 95% which is a good performance for authentication system matching.

  16. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  17. LOCALIZATION OF PALM DORSAL VEIN PATTERN USING IMAGE PROCESSING FOR AUTOMATED INTRA-VENOUS DRUG NEEDLE INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Kavitha. R,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vein pattern in palms is a random mesh of interconnected and inter- wining blood vessels. This project is the application of vein detection concept to automate the drug delivery process. It dealswith extracting palm dorsal vein structures, which is a key procedure for selecting the optimal drug needle insertion point. Gray scale images obtained from a low cost IR-webcam are poor in contrast, and usually noisy which make an effective vein segmentation a great challenge. Here a new vein image segmentation method is introduced, based on enhancement techniques resolves the conflict between poor contrast vein image and good quality image segmentation. Gaussian filter is used to remove the high frequency noise in the image. The ultimate goal is to identify venous bifurcations and determine the insertion point for the needle in between their branches.

  18. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  19. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT.

  20. Veias do sistema porta-hepático em gansos domésticos Veins from hepatic portal vein system in domestic geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Santos

    2009-04-01

    hepatic lobe, connected by a parenchyma bridge. The right hepatic lobe had vessels exclusively from the hepatic portal system composed by intraparenchymal distribution of the right hepatic portal vein, while the vessels of the left hepatic lobe came from the right hepatic portal vein and from small left hepatic portal veins. The right hepatic portal vein emitted the right caudal branch, which emitted a small right caudolateral branch and a large right caudomedial branch. Cranially this vein emitted right cranial and right lateral branches. The tranverse portion of the right hepatic portal vein crossed to the left hepatic lobe, emitting 1 to 6 small cranial and caudal branches to the medial area of the liver. In the left hepatic lobe, the left branch from the right hepatic vein emitted the left cranial, left lateral and left median branches. One to six left hepatic portal veins were identified arising from the left branch or from the transverse portion of the right hepatic portal vein. These vessels arose from the gizzard and pro-ventricle. In 40% of geese one proper hepatic portal vein originated from venous vessels of the gizzard and was distributed into the caudal extremity of the left hepatic isolated lobe.

  1. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  2. Mouse model of sustained elevation in intraocular pressure produced by episcleral vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ederra, Javier; Verkman, A S

    2006-05-01

    We have developed an inducible mouse model of glaucoma based on episcleral vein cauterization (EVC). Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in adult mice was produced by cauterizing three episcleral veins. Serial IOP measurements were done by induction-impact tonometry. IOP was significantly elevated by 104+/-20% in 20 out of 23 mice (87%) within the first day after EVC, and remained elevated for 4 weeks, with mean IOP 94% higher in EVC-treated vs. contralateral control eyes. Aqueous outflow blockade was verified from the IOP response to pulsed fluid infusions into the anterior chamber. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, determined by retrograde labelling using Fluoro-Gold applied to the superior colliculous, was approximately 20% at 2 weeks after EVC. We conclude that episcleral vein occlusion in mice produces significant and sustained elevation in IOP associated with increased outflow resistance and RGC loss, and thus may be useful to model glaucoma in genetically modified and drug-treated mice.

  3. [Surgery of essential varicose veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraval, M

    1994-03-15

    Idiopathic varicose veins of the lower limbs are a frequent but benign disorder. Surgery is only a moment in the course of the disease. Although not the only treatment of essential varicose veins, surgery by an experienced team performing crossectomy, stripping by intussusception using a stripper, and phlebectomy gives fully satisfactory results, both to patient and to physician, in over 80% of cases. New techniques were recently developed that, at present, have not confirmed early hopes.

  4. Portal Vein Thrombosis in non cirrhotic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Spaander (Manon)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExtrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT) is the most common cause of portal hypertension in non- cirrhotic patients. EPVT has been defined as an obstruction of the extrahepatic portal vein with or without involvement of the intrahepatic portal veins. Although the portal vein accounts f

  5. A histopathologic study of retinal arterial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichte, C; Streeten, B W; Friedman, A H

    1978-04-01

    An isolated retinal arterial aneurysm was found postmortem in the eye of a 75-year-old hypertensive woman, and multiple aneurysms were in the enucleated eye of a 68-year-old hypertensive man with neovascular glaucoma. The aneurysmal sites showed thickening of the vessel walls with hyaline, fibrin, and foamy macrophages. Fresh or organized thrombus partially filled the aneurysmal lumina. Trypsin digestion preparations in Case 2 showed a progressive severity of aneurysmal changes from the simplest "cuff" type to the hemorrhagic "b;pwout" aneurysms with a linear split in the vessel wall. Atheroma was present in the larger arterial branches and fat was in most of the aneurysmal walls. These findings suggested that damage to the arterial wall by cholesterol or other emboli, or by occlusive disease, may predispose especially hypertensive patients to arterial aneurysm formation.

  6. Successful thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer in a patient with anatomic variation of the left inferior pulmonary vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano,Hideharu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary lung cancer with a rare distribution pattern of left inferior pulmonary vein (PV, encountered in the thoracoscopic left lower lobectomy. Thoracoscopic observation revealed 2 trunks of inferior PV (ventral and dorsal branch at the stem level. The ventral trunk consisted of a branch of vein (V(5 from the lingular segment and venous ramifications (V(8a, V(9 and V(10a from the basal segment. On the other hand, a branch of vein (V(6 from the superior segment in the lower lobe and other veins (V(8b and V(10b + c from the basal segment emptied together into the dorsal trunk. We successfully carried out a thoracoscopic left lower lobectomy without excision of the aberrant vein (V(5. Retrospective review of the preoperative chest CT demonstrates the double trunk inferior PV and the aberrant lingular branch emptying with V(8a into the ventral trunk. Knowledge of the branching variations of PV from preoperative evaluations leads to appropriate thoracoscopic procedures for lung cancer.

  7. Perceptual Fading without Retinal Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-Jang; Colas, Jaron T.

    2012-01-01

    A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here…

  8. Retinal detachment surgery without cryotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chignell, A H; Markham, R H

    1981-01-01

    A series of cases of retinal detachment treated without the application of cryotherapy at the time of surgery has been studied. The omission of cryotherapy while not interfering with retinal reattachment, carries the risk of redetachment at a later date. Macular pucker may still occur in spite of the absence of cryotherapy.

  9. Doppler-ultrasonographic finding of air in the portal vein: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Kwan Sup; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Bae, Sang Hoon [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Classically air in the portal vein has been detected on plain radiography, but computed tomography and ultrasonography have been shown to be more sensitive. We report a case of air in the PV in a 10-day-old infant with pneumatosis intestinalis with its ultrasonographic and Doppler findings. The patient was a 10-day-old infant born by cesarean section at 41 weeks. Simple abdomen film revealed branching pattern of radiolucent air shadows within in contour of liver, gas distention of bowel loops and thickenod bowel walls with lincar intraluminal air shadows in abdomen, suggesting necrotizing enterocolitis. So we performed Doppler ultrasonography. Ultrasonography showed branching pattern of hyperechogenic dots and along the lumen of left portal vein. The color Doppler study revealed an aliasing duo to increased velocity and whirling pattern of blood flow, and the Duplex Doppler spectral display showed sharp, vertical bidirectional spikes by air in portal vein. Air in the portal vein can be easily diagnosed by the following signs: hyperechogenic dots in the portal vein on ultrasonography and vertical, sharp bidirectional spikes superimposed on the usual Doppler tracing of the portal vein on Duplex ultrasonography.

  10. Retinal vascular geometry and its association to microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M L; Broe, R; Frydkjaer-Olsen, U

    2017-01-01

    of patients with T1DM participated in a clinical examination in 2011. Blood and urine analyses were done and retinal images taken. PDR was defined as Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study level 61 or above, nephropathy as albumin-creatinin ratio ≥300 mg/g, and neuropathy as vibration perception threshold......PURPOSE: To examine associations between retinal vascular geometry (tortuosity, branching coefficient [BC] and length-diameter ratio [LDR]) and diabetic proliferative retinopathy (PDR), nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: A cohort...... >25 Volt. Retinal vessel parameters were measured using semi-automated software. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to investigate correlations between retinal vascular parameters and outcomes. Models were adjusted for other variables (sex, age, duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic...

  11. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  12. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  13. Endovascular Radiofrequency Ablation for Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins. Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on August 26th, 2010 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability, and cost-effectiveness of RFA for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition Varicose veins (VV) are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad

  14. Spontaneous Rupture of Uterine Vein in Twin Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emek Doger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Aim of our study is to present a case of a twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complicated with hemoperitoneum at third trimester. Case. A 26-year-old nulliparous pregnant woman at 32 weeks of gestation with twin pregnancy following invitro fertilization cycle complained of abdominal pain. After 48 hours of admission, laparotomy was performed with indications of aggravated abdominal pain and decreased hemoglobin levels. Utero-ovarian vein branch rupture was detected on the right posterior side of uterus and bleeding was stopped by suturing the vein. Etiopathogenesis of the present case still remains unclear. Conclusion. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine vessels during pregnancy is a rare complication and may lead to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis and treatment are based on the clinical symptoms of acute abdominal pain and laboratory tests of hypovolemic shock signs.

  15. Microvascular network topology of the human retinal vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, S; Brab, M; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Reim, M; Schmid-Schönbein, H

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of blood flow in the human retinal vessels requires a detailed picture of the microvascular network topology. In order to lay the foundation for a quantitative microcirculatory network analysis of the human retina, a novel technique for tissue preparation and network characterization was developed. After injection of hydrogen peroxide into the human bulb, the microvasculature was filled with oxygen produced by endothelial catalase and visualized after embedding in a mixture of cedar oil and gum damar. The vessel topology was documented in the form of photomicrographs, which permitted complete reconstruction of the microvasculature on transparent overlays. By considering the complete capillary system it was possible to divide the retinal network into dichotomous, asymmetric arteriolar and venular trees. The Strahler ordering method, which considers both dichotomous and side branching configurations, was selected and applied to analyze the retinal vascular trees, using the capillaries as the zero order reference vessels. The number of vessel segments was found to be an approximate logarithmic function of the order number, in accordance with Horton's law. Vessel lengths within each order were found to be log-normal distributed, and median lengths for different orders could be approximated by a 2nd degree polynomial curve. Diameters within each order could be approximated by a Gaussian distribution, and the mean values for different orders could be expressed by an exponential curve. These data provide the basis for conductance, pressure and flow computations within the retinal microvessels.

  16. Effects of pulmonary veins ligation style for the patients' stress and cardiac on lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang SHENTU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It is needed to explore the effects of operation on stress statue, myocardial damage and arrhythmia to lung cancer. This study would compare the effects of two ligation styles of pulmonary vein on lung cancer patients' stress and cardiac postoperative. Methods 54 cases were divided into two groups randomly:the pulmonary vein trunk-ligation group (trunk group, 27 cases and the pulmonary vein branch-ligation group (branch group, 27 cases. The blood concentrations of hydrocortisone (HC, blood glucose (BG and cardial troponin-I (cTnI were determined at different time point. The surgical data, the quantum of pain and ECG also recorded. Results ① There were no significance difference of the operation time, blood loss during operation and drainage volume in first day after operation between two groups. ② There're no differences of the quantum of pain between two groups. ③ The HC of the two groups' ascend obviously on the end of operation and descend during postoperative. ④ The BG of the two groups' rise on the 1st day obviously, maintain high level on the 2nd day, descend on the 3rd day but still higher than that of preoperation.⑤ The BG and HC show a direct positive correlation postoperative. ⑥ The cTnIs of the trunk group ascend immediatelyafter operation, but there's no statistically significance between two groups. ⑦ The arrhythmia incidence is higher in the trunk group, but the arrhythmia incidences classified by the date after operation of the two groups' show no distinction. Conclusion ① The effects of two pulmonary vein ligation styles on postoperative stress show no significance differences.② The style of pulmonary vein trunk-ligation has a more obvious tendency to do harm to heart than that of branch-ligation. ③ The style of pulmonary vein branch-ligation may reduce the arrhythmia incidence after operation.

  17. Application of a modified regularization procedure for estimating oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Isa; Ansari, Rashid; Samil Yetik, I.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2010-03-01

    Phosphorescence lifetime measurement based on a frequency domain approach is used to estimate oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels. The classical least squares (LS) estimation was initially used to determine oxygen tension indirectly from intermediate variables. A spatial regularized least squares (RLS) method was later proposed to reduce the high variance of oxygen tension estimated by LS method. In this paper, we provide a solution using a modified RLS (MRLS) approach that utilizes prior knowledge about retinal vessels oxygenation based on expected oxygen tension values in retinal arteries and veins. The performance of MRLS method was evaluated in simulated and experimental data by determining the bias, variance, and mean absolute error (MAE) of oxygen tension measurements and comparing these parameters with those derived with the use of LS and RLS methods.

  18. Acute retinal necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Hernán Ocampo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical features in a case of acute retinal necrosis are described as well as its diagnostic approach and response to early treatment. Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study case report of a 26 year old male patient who arrived to the emergency room with a three day history of sudden visual loss in the right eye (RE. At initial evaluation a visual acuity of hand movements in the RE, 20/15 in the left eye (LE and a right relative afferent pupillary defect were found. Fundoscopy revealed profuse soft exudates and hemorrhages involving posterior pole, inferior hemiretina and superotemporal periphery. Infectious workup and fluoresceinic angiography were made and positive serologies for herpes virus types 1 and 2, without HIV, were found. A diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis was made and treatment with intravenous valgancyclovir for two weeks and intra-vitreous triamcinolone for severe vasculitis, was given. Then a 3 months treatment with oral antiviral agents was prescribed. Results: Patient’s evolution showed improvement with treatment and at two and a half months of follow up, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye, normal slit lamp examination, tonometry of 12 mm Hg and fundoscopy improved when compared to initial pictures.Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosing ARN taking into account clinical findings. Prompt intravenous and intra-vitreous treatments are needed to achieve good clinical and functional outcomes and to avoid central nervous system complications.

  19. Retinal vessels caliber changes after strabismus surgery: results of 6mo follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji-Peng; Fu, Jing; Zhou, Jin-Qiong; Wang, Xiao-Zhen; Wang, Wen-Ying; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of strabismus surgery on retinal vessels calibers with digital color fundus photographs. METHODS Two hundred consecutive strabismus patients underwent surgery, and 118 patients (female/male, 55/63) who finished 6-month follow-up were finally included in this study. Optic disc-centered digital color fundus photographs of both eyes of all patients were taken prior to surgery and 6mo post surgery. The retinal vascular caliber of 116 operated eyes were measured using the computer program IVAN. The operated eyes were divided into 3 groups according to the surgical methods, recession of one muscle, one muscle recession and one muscle folding, one muscle resection and one muscle recession. The effect of number of altered muscles on retinal vessels was analyzed using statistic software SPSS 16.0. RESULTS The mean age was 12.4±8.6y. Averaged central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) of all patients was 120.31±23.02 µm preoperatively, and 122.87±15.93 µm six months after surgery. Averaged central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) was 171.11±31.73 µm preoperatively and 175.02±21.00 µm postoperatively. There was no significant difference of averaged CRAE (P=0.22) or CRVE (P=0.19) before and after operation. Averaged arteriole to venule ratio (AVR) was 0.71±0.07 before surgery and 0.70±0.07 after surgery. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative retinal vessels calibers among different surgical groups did not show significant differences. Also, there was no advantage of rectus muscle folding to muscle resection. CONCLUSION Up to 6mo after strabismus surgery, the retinal vascular calibers were not altered. No more than two muscles in one surgery are safe for retinal perfusion. PMID:27672600

  20. Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-29

    Distribution List (enclosed) bI’TF rruIoN STATEMEN A Approved for publi reljaso Disatbunon Unlimited TREATMENT OF LASER-INDUCED RETINAL INJURIES FINAL...suprathreshold retinal laser lesions II. Subthreshold retinal laser lesions III. Effect of steroid treatment on laser-induced retinal injury Discussion and...In the present study we investigated the effect of corticosteroid treatment of argon laser-induced retinal injury on vitreal accumulation of both

  1. Pregnancy in the Setting of Asymptomatic Non-Cirrhotic Chronic Portal Vein Thrombosis Complicated by Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işık Üstüner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT can be chronic or acute in nature; it is characterized by a thrombus formation in the main portal vein and/or its right or left branches. Herein, we present a 36-year-old woman with asymptomatic noncirrhotic chronic PVT who developed preeclampsia in the later stage of pregnancy. This report will emphasize the clinical differential diagnosis, outcome, and management of pregnancies complicated by noncirrhotic PVT.

  2. Caffeine administration prevents retinal neuroinflammation and loss of retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Maria H.; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Nadal-Nícolas, Francisco; Ambrósio, António F.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, being characterized by progressive optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), accompanied by increased inflammatory response involving retinal microglial cells. The etiology of glaucoma is still unknown, and despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) being a major risk factor, the exact mechanisms responsible for RGC degeneration remain unknown. Caffeine, which is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Several evidences suggest that caffeine can attenuate the neuroinflammatory responses and afford protection upon central nervous system (CNS) injury. We took advantage of a well characterized animal model of glaucoma to investigate whether caffeine administration controls neuroinflammation and elicits neuroprotection. Caffeine or water were administered ad libitum and ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by laser photocoagulation of the limbal veins in Sprague Dawley rats. Herein, we show that caffeine is able to partially decrease the IOP in ocular hypertensive animals. More importantly, we found that drinking caffeine prevented retinal microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response and attenuated the loss of RGCs in animals with ocular hypertension (OHT). This study opens the possibility that caffeine or adenosine receptor antagonists might be a therapeutic option to manage RGC loss in glaucoma. PMID:27270337

  3. Nicht-operative invasive Therapie der Perforansinsuffizienz // Nonoperative Therapy in the Treatment of Varicose Vein Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerweck C

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonoperative therapy options in the treatment of varicose vein disease have gained more in importance over the last decade. A profound, catheter- based varicose vein therapy must accomplish powerful therapy solutions for all kinds of varicose vein anatomies, such as saphenous veins, side branches and incompetent perforating veins. This overview, focused on thermal ablation techniques such as laser-, radiofrequencyor steamablation and other chemical sclerotherapy options provides also step-by-step guidance and tricks on perforating vein ablation. The enormous quantity of incompetent perforating vein ablation studies shows great interest in this method and occupies an important place in the field of chronic venous disease therapy. p bKurzfassung: /bNicht-operative Therapieverfahren gewinnen in der modernen Varizentherapie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Um eine uneingeschränkte Varizensanierung mit kathetergestützten Therapieverfahren durchführen zu können, sind analog zur operativen Sanierung für sämtliche Varizenformen potente Okklusionsverfahren notwendig. Diese Arbeit soll einen Überblick zum derzeitigen Stand der Ablationserfolge von inkompetenten Perforansvenen geben. Neben den thermischen Ablationsverfahren wie Laser-, Radiowellen- und Dampfablation sowie sonstigen chemischen Sklerosierungsarten gibt die Arbeit praktische Anleitung und Tipps zur Durchführung einer Perforansvenenablation. Die große Anzahl von Studien zur Perforansvenen ablation zeigt, dass die Behandlung mit Kathetersystemen einen bedeutenden und festen Platz in der Therapie der Perforansvarikosis hat.

  4. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  5. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  6. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  7. Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Congenital Retinal Macrovessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shinji; Endoh, Katsuhisa; Tampo, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report a case of retinal microvascular abnormalities in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) associated with congenital retinal macrovessels. An abnormal retinal macrovessel, crossing the macula horizontally, was detected in the right eye. Additionally, retinal microvascular abnormalities were detected. Eight years after the initial visit, the retinal microvascular abnormalities were noted to have changed substantially. We speculate that retinal microvascular abnormalities in NF1 may change dynamically over the years. PMID:23781366

  8. Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Congenital Retinal Macrovessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Makino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of retinal microvascular abnormalities in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 associated with congenital retinal macrovessels. An abnormal retinal macrovessel, crossing the macula horizontally, was detected in the right eye. Additionally, retinal microvascular abnormalities were detected. Eight years after the initial visit, the retinal microvascular abnormalities were noted to have changed substantially. We speculate that retinal microvascular abnormalities in NF1 may change dynamically over the years.

  9. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction and portal vein thrombosis in special situations: Need for a new classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan A Wani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized.

  10. Partial duplication of the internal yugular vein and its relation with the espinal nerve. Description of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel TORRES-MORIENTES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Duplication of internal jugular vein is a rare finding and, in most cases, it is diagnosed incidentally in the neck dissection. Description: We present two cases of unilateral partial duplication of the internal jugular vein after neck dissection in two patients with laryngeal carcinomas. Discussion: The internal jugular vein drains the blood of cranial cavity. Duplication can be unilateral, bilateral, partial or total. In some cases it is due to the passage of nerve structures causing a duplicate vein with an anterior and posterior branch. Conclusions: Duplication of internal jugular vein is a rare entity, but it is necessary to remember its existence in neck surgery, when reading angiograms and when placing central catheters.

  11. Endovascular Laser Therapy for Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of the MAS evidence review was to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence on the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost–effectiveness of endovascular laser therapy (ELT) for the treatment of primary symptomatic varicose veins (VV). Background The Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee (OHTAC) met on November 27, 2009 to review the safety, effectiveness, durability and cost-effectiveness of ELT for the treatment of primary VV based on an evidence-based review by the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS). Clinical Condition VV are tortuous, twisted, or elongated veins. This can be due to existing (inherited) valve dysfunction or decreased vein elasticity (primary venous reflux) or valve damage from prior thrombotic events (secondary venous reflux). The end result is pooling of blood in the veins, increased venous pressure and subsequent vein enlargement. As a result of high venous pressure, branch vessels balloon out leading to varicosities (varicose veins). Symptoms typically affect the lower extremities and include (but are not limited to): aching, swelling, throbbing, night cramps, restless legs, leg fatigue, itching and burning. Left untreated, venous reflux tends to be progressive, often leading to chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). A number of complications are associated with untreated venous reflux: including superficial thrombophlebitis as well as variceal rupture and haemorrhage. CVI often results in chronic skin changes referred to as stasis dermatitis. Stasis dermatitis is comprised of a spectrum of cutaneous abnormalities including edema, hyperpigmentation, eczema, lipodermatosclerosis and stasis ulceration. Ulceration represents the disease end point for severe CVI. CVI is associated with a reduced quality of life particularly in relation to pain, physical function and mobility. In severe cases, VV with ulcers, QOL has been rated to be as bad or worse as other chronic diseases such as

  12. Angiosarcoma of common iliac vein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibis, Kamuran; Usta, Ufuk; Cosar, Rusen; Ibis, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant tumour of endothelial cells. Primary angiosarcoma of venous origin is extremely rare, and has a very poor prognosis. A 63-year-old woman with retroperitoneal mass underwent en bloc resection on a part of iliac vein followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. No recurrence was detected during 3 years of follow-up. PMID:25596292

  13. Separation of Veins and Arteries for estimating Hypertensive Retinopathy in Fundus Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR through retinal pictures turn out being a vital issue today since HR is quickly expanding ailment that is found in eyes. HR happens because of the height of the circulatory strain. The most imperative estimation that is used to analyze HR through retinal pictures is arteriovenous proportion (AVR. This paper depicts a strategy to decide AVR by first section the vessels using match separating method and afterward identify the optic circle to decide the Region of Interest. When the area of interest is discovered, we order the veins into supply routes and veins utilizing Neural Network to decide the AVR. Once the vessels are classified, we separate the arteries and veins based on the color separation. The work is performed by using MATLAB R2014. This paper is partitioned into four segments. Area one portrays the introduction. Area two decribes the technique/ systems to decide AVR. Area three depicts the examination of results with some past results. Segment four portrays the conclusion. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 673-678

  14. Filling in the retinal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

  15. Retinal implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Alice T; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B

    2014-07-01

    Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus II is the only device with FDA approval. Argus II and Alpha-IMS have both received the European CE Marking. All others are in clinical trials, except the Boston Retinal Implant, which is in animal studies. Vision restoration: resolution theoretically correlates with electrode number. Among devices with external cameras, the Boston Retinal Implant leads with 100 electrodes, followed by Argus II with 60 electrodes and visual acuity of 20/1262. Instead of an external camera, Alpha-IMS uses a photodiode system dependent on natural eye movements and can deliver visual acuity up to 20/546. Long-term compatibility: IMI offers iterative learning; Epi-Ret 3 is a fully intraocular device; Alpha-IMS uses intraocular photosensitive elements. Merging the results of these three criteria, Alpha-IMS is the most likely to achieve long-term success decades later, beyond current clinical availability.

  16. Retinal prosthesis for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Eyal; Maia, Mauricio; Weiland, James D; Greenberg, Robert J; Fujii, Gildo Y; Torres, Gustavo; Piyathaisere, Duke V; O'Hearn, Thomas M; Liu, Wentai; Lazzi, Gianluca; Dagnelie, Gislin; Scribner, Dean A; de Juan, Eugene; Humayun, Mark S

    2002-01-01

    Most of current concepts for a visual prosthesis are based on neuronal electrical stimulation at different locations along the visual pathways within the central nervous system. The different designs of visual prostheses are named according to their locations (i.e., cortical, optic nerve, subretinal, and epiretinal). Visual loss caused by outer retinal degeneration in diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration can be reversed by electrical stimulation of the retina or the optic nerve (retinal or optic nerve prostheses, respectively). On the other hand, visual loss caused by inner or whole thickness retinal diseases, eye loss, optic nerve diseases (tumors, ischemia, inflammatory processes etc.), or diseases of the central nervous system (not including diseases of the primary and secondary visual cortices) can be reversed by a cortical visual prosthesis. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of current and future concepts of retinal and optic nerve prostheses. This article will begin with general considerations that are related to all or most of visual prostheses and then concentrate on the retinal and optic nerve designs. The authors believe that the field has grown beyond the scope of a single article so cortical prostheses will be described only because of their direct effect on the concept and technical development of the other prostheses, and this will be done in a more general and historic perspective.

  17. Clinical studies on inferior right hepatic veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Xing; Hong Li; Wei-Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Many small veins are called accessory, short hepatic veins in addition to the right, middle and left hepatic veins. The size of these veins varied from a pinhole to 1 cm; the size of inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs) is thicker than that of short hepatic veins or more than 1 cm occasionally. Adults have a higher incidence rate of the IRHV. DATA SOURCES:A literature search of the PubMed database was conducted and research articles were reviewed. RESULTS:The size of IRHVs is related to the size of the right hepatic vein, i.e. the larger the diameter of the right hepatic vein, the smaller the diameter of the IRHVs, and vice versa. The IRHVs are divided into superior, medial and inferior groups, separately named the superior, medial and inferior right hepatic veins according to the position of the IRHV entering the inferior vena cava. The superior right hepatic vein mainly drains the superior part of segmentⅦ, and the medial right hepatic vein drains the middle part of segmentⅦ. A thicker IRHV mainly drains segmentⅥ and the inferior part of segmentⅦ and a thinner IRHV drains the inferior part of segmentⅤ. CONCLUSIONS:The clinical signiifcance of these studies on IRHVs is varied: (1) Hepatic caudate lobe resection could be introduced after study on the veins of that lobe. (2) It is very important to identify the draining region of the IRHV for guiding hepatic segmentectomy. The postero-inferior area of the right lobe can be preserved along with the hypertrophic IRHV even if the entire main right hepatic vein is resected during segmentectomy ofⅦ andⅧwith right hepatic vein resection for patients with primary liver cancer. (3) The ligation of the major hepatic vein for the treatment of juxtahepatic vein injury is recommended because of severe hemorrhagic shock and dififculty in

  18. Common femoral vein reconstruction using internal jugular vein after blast injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Andrew M; West, Charles A; Davis, James A; Gilani, Ramyar; Askenasy, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Common femoral vein traumatic injuries are rare. Surgical management is controversial and by nature case specific. In this report, we present an unusual case of an isolated common femoral vein injury from a gunshot blast repaired with an interposition internal jugular vein bypass. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an isolated common femoral vein reconstructed in this manner.

  19. Artery-vein separation via MRA--an image processing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, T; Udupa, J K; Saha, P K; Odhner, D

    2001-08-01

    This paper presents a near-automatic process for separating vessels from background and other clutter as well as for separating arteries and veins in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiographic (CE-MRA) image data, and an optimal method for three-dimensional visualization of vascular structures. The separation process utilizes fuzzy connected object delineation principles and algorithms. The first step of this separation process is the segmentation of the entire vessel structure from the background and other clutter via absolute fuzzy connectedness. The second step is to separate artery from vein within this entire vessel structure via iterative relative fuzzy connectedness. After seed voxels are specified inside artery and vein in the CE-MRA image, the small regions of the bigger aspects of artery and vein are separated in the initial iterations, and further detailed aspects of artery and vein are included in later iterations. At each iteration, the artery and vein compete among themselves to grab membership of each voxel in the vessel structure based on the relative strength of connectedness of the voxel in the artery and vein. This approach has been implemented in a software package for routine use in a clinical setting and tested on 133 CE-MRA studies of the pelvic region and two studies of the carotid system from six different hospitals. In all studies, unified parameter settings produced correct artery-vein separation. When compared with manual segmentation/separation, our algorithms were able to separate higher order branches, and therefore produced vastly more details in the segmented vascular structure. The total operator and computer time taken per study is on the average about 4.5 min. To date, this technique seems to be the only image processing approach that can be routinely applied for artery and vein separation.

  20. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may raise your risk for varicose veins. The normal wear and tear of aging may cause the valves in your veins to weaken and not work well. Gender Women tend to get varicose veins more often than men. Hormonal changes that occur during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause (or ...

  1. Radiological aspects of portal vein embolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lienden, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with liver regeneration after portal vein embolization (PVE) or portal vein ligation (PVL). Several aspects of these portal vein occlusion techniques are evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. In addition, the role of dynamic liver function tests and CT-volumetry in risk a

  2. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G;

    1996-01-01

    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 4...

  3. A prospective case-control study to investigate retinal microvascular changes in acute dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Petrina; Lye, David C; Yeo, Tun Kuan; Cheung, Carol Y; Thein, Tun-Linn; Wong, Joshua G; Agrawal, Rupesh; Li, Ling-Jun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Gan, Victor C; Leo, Yee-Sin; Teoh, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Dengue infection can affect the microcirculation by direct viral infection or activation of inflammation. We aimed to determine whether measured retinal vascular parameters were associated with acute dengue infection. Patients with acute dengue were recruited from Communicable Diseases Center, Singapore and age-gender-ethnicity matched healthy controls were selected from a population-based study. Retinal photographs were taken on recruitment and convalescence. A spectrum of quantitative retinal microvascular parameters (retinal vascular caliber, fractal dimension, tortuosity and branching angle) was measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. (Singapore I Vessel Assessment, version 3.0). We included 62 dengue patients and 127 controls. Dengue cases were more likely to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular calibers (158.3 μm vs 144.3 μm, p dengue coincided with decrease in retinal vascular calibers and venular fractal dimension. Dengue patients have altered microvascular network in the retina; these changes may reflect pathophysiological processes in the immune system.

  4. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  5. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  6. A New Multimodal Biometric System Based on Finger Vein and Hand Vein Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Randa Boukhris Trabelsi; Alima Damak Masmoudi; Dorra Sellami Masmoudi

    2013-01-01

    As a reliable and robust biological characteristic, the vein pattern increases more and more the progress in biometric researches. Generally, it was shown that single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet high performances. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on fusion of both hand vein and finger vein modalities. For finger vein recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MLBP), and for hand vein recognitionan Improved Gaussian Matche...

  7. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eArredondo Zamarripa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  8. AN EXCEPTIONAL CASE OF QUADRUPLE RENAL ARTERIES & T WIN RENAL VEINS WITH CROWDED HILAR ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The renal vasculature was always a subject of varia tions both in the number and pattern of portal of entry into kidney and Perihilar placement of the artery, vein and pelvis. Good anatomical insight is an essential prerequisite besides the surgical expertise. The cadaveric dissection revealed a Right Kidney supplied by Quadruple renal arteries & Drained by two renal veins. The main renal artery (MRA was arising from antero lateral aspect and the accessory renal artery was arising from anterior as pect of aorta 1cm distal to the former vessel. Only the MRA showed Fork Pattern Branching with fou r anterior segmental arteries and one posterior segmental artery in the pre hilar region. T he first and fourth segmental arteries showed a small subsidiary branch and a large tortuo us subsidiary branch respectively. The later along with the branch running downwards and lateral from lower renal artery formed a common trunk and pierced the capsule and entered int o the substance of the kidney anteriorly about 2cm lateral to the hilum, thus forming an abe rrant artery. The upper polar artery was seen arising from the lower supra renal artery. The main renal vein (MRV, was formed by two formative tributaries of which one is larger and ot her being smaller. The later was seen just anterior to the third anterior segmental branch of MRA. Accessory renal vein was formed by only one tributary encircled by the fourth anterior segmental artery and posterior segmental artery. There was crowding of structures seen with altered hilar anatomy in both vertical and horizontal disposition. Such a rare combination of extra renal multiple arterio-venous variation is of worth concern to the urologists harvesting ki dneys from the live donors for performing transplantation procedures. Partial nephrectomies for the hilar tumors and for Radiologists during interpretation of the angiograms.

  9. Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A J; See, M S; Ellis, H

    2008-01-01

    The superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) is highly vulnerable to trauma and iatrogenic injury. This study aimed to map the course of the SBRN in the context of surgical approaches and identify a safe area of incision for de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Twenty-five forearms were dissected. The SBRN emerged from under brachioradialis by a mean of 8.31 cm proximal to the radial styloid (RS), and remained radial to the dorsal tubercle of the radius by a mean of 1.49 cm. The nerve divided into a median of four branches. The first branch arose a mean of 4.92 cm proximal to the RS, traveling 0.49 cm radial to the first compartment of the extensor retinaculum, while the main nerve remained ulnar to it by 0.64 cm. All specimens had branches underlying the traditional transverse incision for de Quervain's release. A 2.5-cm longitudinal incision proximal from the RS avoided the SBRN in 17/25 cases (68%). In 20/25 specimens (80%), the SBRN underlay the cephalic vein. In 18/25 (72%), the radial artery was closely associated with a sensory nerve branch near the level of the RS (SBRN 12/25, lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm (LCNF) 6/25.) A longitudinal incision in de Quervain's surgery may be preferable. Cannulation of the cephalic vein in the distal third of the forearm is best avoided. The close association between the radial artery and first branch of the SBRN or the LCNF may explain the pain often experienced during arterial puncture. Particular care should be taken during radial artery harvest to avoid nerve injury.

  10. Deep vein thrombosis in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman-Brochu, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a review of the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in pregnancy, a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. The incidence of DVT in pregnancy varies widely, but it is a leading cause of maternal morbidity in both the United States and the United Kingdom. Risk factors during pregnancy include prolonged bed rest or immobility, pelvic or leg trauma, and obesity. Additional risk factors are preeclampsia, Cesarean section, instrument-assisted delivery, hemorrhage, multiparity, varicose veins, a previous history of a thromboembolic event, and hereditary or acquired thrombophilias such as Factor V Leiden. Heparin is the anticoagulant of choice to treat active thromboembolic disease or to administer for thromboprophylaxis, but low molecular-weight heparin is being used with increasing frequency in the pregnant woman. Perinatal nurses should be aware of the symptoms, diagnostic tools, and treatment options available to manage active thrombosis during pregnancy and in the intrapartum and postpartum periods.

  11. FINGER-VEIN RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Haritha Deepthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the Person‟s/Organization‟s Private information‟s are becoming very easy to access, the demand for a Simple, Convenient, Efficient, and a highly Securable Authentication System has been increased. In considering these requirements for data Protection, Biometrics, which uses human physiological or behavioral system for personal Identification has been found as a solution for these difficulties. However most of the biometric systems have high complexity in both time and space. So we are going to use a Real time Finger-Vein recognition System for authentication purposes. In this paper we had implemented the Finger Vein Recognition concept using MATLAB R2013a. The features used are Lacunarity Distance, Blanket Dimension distance. This has more accuracy when compared to conventional methods.

  12. Management of varicose veins and venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Allen

    2012-12-26

    Chronic venous disease, reviewed herein, is manifested by a spectrum of signs and symptoms, including cosmetic spider veins, asymptomatic varicosities, large painful varicose veins, edema, hyperpigmentation and lipodermatosclerosis of skin, and ulceration. However, there is no definitive stepwise progression from spider veins to ulcers and, in fact, severe skin complications of varicose veins, even when extensive, are not guaranteed. Treatment options range from conservative (eg, medications, compression stockings, lifestyle changes) to minimally invasive (eg, sclerotherapy or endoluminal ablation), invasive (surgical techniques), and hybrid (combination of ≥1 therapies). Ms L, a 68-year-old woman with varicose veins, is presented. She has had vein problems over the course of her life. Her varicose veins recurred after initial treatment, and she is now seeking guidance regarding her current treatment options.

  13. [ENDOVENOUS LASER TREATMENT FOR VARICOSE VEINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Masahiro; Kanaoka, Yuji; Ohki, Takao

    2015-05-01

    Varicose veins are a common condition attecting approximately 10 million patients in Japan. The main cause of varicose veins is reflux of the saphenous vein, and conventional treatment for several decades was stripping the affected saphenous vein and phlebectomy. Endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) is a less-invasive treatment method in which the saphenous vein is ablated with a laser under local anesthesia. EVLT has been approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare since 2011, and we have performed EVLT on 5,160 legs with saphenous insufficiency with no severe complications including deep vein thrombosis except for one case of arteriovenous fistula. EVLT appears to be a safe, effective treatment option for varicose veins with saphenous insufficiency.

  14. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  15. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  16. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  17. [Congenital retinal folds in different clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, M

    2005-01-01

    We present 12 clinical cases of congenital retinal folds with different etiologies: posterior primitive vitreous persistency and hyperplasia (7 cases),retinocytoma (1 case). retinopathy of prematurity (1 case), astrocytoma of the retina (1 case), retinal vasculitis (1 case), Goldmann-Favre syndrome (1 case). Etiopathogenic and nosological aspects are discussed; the congenital retinal folds are interpreted as a symptom in a context of a congenital or acquired vitreo-retinal pathology.

  18. Exploring the retinal connectome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Shaw, Margaret V.; Yang, Jia-Hui; DeMill, David; Lauritzen, James S.; Lin, Yanhua; Rapp, Kevin D.; Mastronarde, David; Koshevoy, Pavel; Grimm, Bradley; Tasdizen, Tolga; Whitaker, Ross

    2011-01-01

    Purpose A connectome is a comprehensive description of synaptic connectivity for a neural domain. Our goal was to produce a connectome data set for the inner plexiform layer of the mammalian retina. This paper describes our first retinal connectome, validates the method, and provides key initial findings. Methods We acquired and assembled a 16.5 terabyte connectome data set RC1 for the rabbit retina at ≈2 nm resolution using automated transmission electron microscope imaging, automated mosaicking, and automated volume registration. RC1 represents a column of tissue 0.25 mm in diameter, spanning the inner nuclear, inner plexiform, and ganglion cell layers. To enhance ultrastructural tracing, we included molecular markers for 4-aminobutyrate (GABA), glutamate, glycine, taurine, glutamine, and the in vivo activity marker, 1-amino-4-guanidobutane. This enabled us to distinguish GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells; to identify ON bipolar cells coupled to glycinergic cells; and to discriminate different kinds of bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells based on their molecular signatures and activity. The data set was explored and annotated with Viking, our multiuser navigation tool. Annotations were exported to additional applications to render cells, visualize network graphs, and query the database. Results Exploration of RC1 showed that the 2 nm resolution readily recapitulated well known connections and revealed several new features of retinal organization: (1) The well known AII amacrine cell pathway displayed more complexity than previously reported, with no less than 17 distinct signaling modes, including ribbon synapse inputs from OFF bipolar cells, wide-field ON cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells, and extensive input from cone-pathway amacrine cells. (2) The axons of most cone bipolar cells formed a distinct signal integration compartment, with ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses targeting diverse cell types. Both ON and OFF bipolar cells receive

  19. Retinal abnormalities in multiple sclerosis patients with associated chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Adamczyk-Ludyga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a non-invasive method for the assessment of optic nerve fibers and retinal ganglion cells. This study was aimed at the assessment of retinal abnormalities in multiple sclerosis patients in the context of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency using OCT of the retina and the optic nerve. We examined 239 multiple sclerosis (MS patients, including 220 patients with associated chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency and 19 MS patients without venous pathology. The following OCT parameters were assessed: average ganglion cell complex thickness, global loss volume, focal loss volume and average retinal nerve fibre layer thickness. Abnormalities in the azygous and internal jugular veins were evaluated using catheter venography. We found a higher prevalence of abnormal OCT parameters in the patients with previous history of optic neuritis, not only on the side of inflammatory event, but also in the contralateral eye, which is in line with already existing body of evidence. The new and intriguing discovery is that we found statistically significant higher prevalence of abnormal OCT values in multiple sclerosis patients with unilateral stenosis of internal jugular vein. Patients who were not found venous abnormalities, as well as those presenting with pathologic azygous or bilateral internal jugular venous outflows, did not demonstrate a changed frequency of abnormal OCT parameters. Potential association between venous malformations and eye manifestations of multiple sclerosis, as has been demonstrated in this report, justifies further studies on this topic.

  20. Undivided Retromandibular Vein Continuing As External Jugular Vein With Facial Vein Draining Into It : An Anatomical Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Choudhary, Ashwani K Sharma, Harbans Singh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the blueprint of the whole body is unravelled, faultlessly during the growth anddevelopment of an animal; but amazingly variations do occur. During routine dissection of head and neckin a middle aged cadaver in the Post Graduate Department of Anatomy of this medical college, we foundvariation in the formation of external jugular vein on both sides, which was formed by the continuation ofundivided trunk of retromandibular vein. The facial vein and posterior auricular vein were the tributaries ofexternal jugular vein. The sound anatomical knowledge of variations of the veins of head and neck isessential to the success of surgical procedures. The embryological evaluation of the above anomaly wasdone and compared with the available literature which showed that the observed variation was rare

  1. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-03-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persists in an eccentric position. This residual lumen transmits blood to the portal system from paraumbilical and systemic sources, and is retained in the upper part of the vein, even in old age. A similar process of lumen closure is observed in the ductus venosus. In early childhood the lower third of the vein undergoes breakdown, with fatty infiltration, resulting in its complete division into vascular fibro-elastic strands, and in old age some breakdown occurs in the outermost part of the wall of the upper two thirds. The paraumbilical veins are thick-walled and of similar structure to the umbilical vein. Together they constitute an accessory portal system which is confined between the layers of the falciform ligament and is in communication with the veins of the ventral abdominal wall. The constituents form an ascending series, namely, Burow's veins, the umbilical vein, and Sappey's inferior and superior veins. The main channel of Sappey's inferior veins may be the remnant of the right umbilical vein since it communicates with the right rectus sheath and often communicates directly with the portal system within the right lobe of the liver. The results are of significance in relation to clinical usage of the umbilical vein.

  2. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  3. Angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis and retinal-choroidal anastomosis after treatments in eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Masaaki Saito,1 Tomohiro Iida,1,2 Mariko Kano,1 Kanako Itagaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis (RRA and retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA for eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab injections as monotherapy or intravitreal bevacizumab combined with photodynamic therapy.Methods: In this interventional, consecutive case series, we retrospectively reviewed five naïve eyes from four patients (mean age 80 years treated with three consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injections as initial treatment, and followed up for at least 3 months. In cases with over 3 months of follow-up and having recurrence of RAP or leakage by fluorescein angiography, retreatment was performed with a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection and photodynamic therapy.Results: Indocyanine green angiography showed RRA in three eyes with subretinal neovascularization and RCA in two eyes with choroidal neovascularization at baseline. At 3 months after baseline (month 3, neither the RRA nor RCA was occluded in any eye on indocyanine green angiography. Retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab plus photodynamic therapy was performed in three eyes at months 3 (persistent leakage on fluorescein angiography, 6, and 7 (recurrence of RAP lesion, which achieved obvious occlusion of the RRA and RCA. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.13 to 0.21 at month 3 (P = 0.066. No complications or systemic adverse events were noted.Conclusion: Although intravitreal bevacizumab for RAP was effective in improving visual acuity during short-term follow-up, intravitreal bevacizumab could not achieve complete occlusion of RRA and RCA, which could

  4. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  5. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  6. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  7. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  8. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  9. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using bank of Gabor filters. Then Fisher Discriminated Analysis (FDA is used to reduce the dimension of the features vectors. For vein pattern verification, this work uses Nearest Neighbors method. The EER of the proposed method is 0.2335%.

  10. Triamcinolone-assisted Pars Plana Vitrectomy for Retinal Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuping Zheng; Naixue Sun; Quanchen Xiong; Xiaohua Wang; Yanlong Quan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose:To determine whether triamcinolone acetonide (TA)staining facilitates posterior hyaloid removal in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for retinal disease.Methods: A triamcinolone acetonide(TA)-assisted vitrectomy was performed on patients with the following disease: proliferative diabetic retionpathy(5eyes), central retinal vein occlusion(5eyes), macuar hole (3eyes), and epiretinal membrane(2eyes). Eyes without apparent preoperative posterior vitreous detachment were enrolled in this study. After a core PPV, TA aqueous suspension (40 mg/ml) was injected into the mid vitreous cavity to visualize the posterior hyaloid, thus allowing a complete posterior hyaloid separation and removal. The visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), tamponade, corneal pathology, after-cataract, vitreous hemorrhage, and necessity for reoperation were thereafter examined for at least 3 months after surgery.Results: In all patients, the vitreous body was clearly seen by means of triamcinolone during surgery, and complete removal of posterior hyaloid was facilitated and confirmed.Retina was attached in 14 of 15 eyes, and vision acuity was improved in 9 of 15 eyes.Two eyes showed transient postoperative IOP elevation, 2 eyes had after cataract formation and 1eye had cataract progression. Vitreous hemorrhage occurred in 1 eye. No eye had corneal pathology.Conclusion: Triamcinolone improved the visibility of the hyaloid and the safety of surgical procedures during PPV. No obvious adverse effect due to toxicity of TA accrued in TA-assisted PPV.

  11. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  12. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy.

  13. [Progress of research in retinal image registration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lun; Wei, Lifang; Pan, Lin

    2011-10-01

    The retinal image registration has important applications in the processes of auxiliary diagnosis and treatment for a variety of diseases. The retinal image registration can be used to measure the disease process and the therapeutic effect. A variety of retinal image registration techniques have been studied extensively in recent years. However, there are still many problems existing and there are numerous research possibilities. Based on extensive investigation of existing literatures, the present paper analyzes the feature of retinal image and current challenges of retinal image registration, and reviews the transformation models of the retinal image registration technology and the main research algorithms in current retinal image registration, and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of various types of algorithms. Some research challenges and future developing trends are also discussed.

  14. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindne

  15. Incidence and Clinical Features of Neovascularization of the Iris following Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young Ho; Ahn, Seong Joon; Hong, Jeong-Ho; Park, Kyu Hyung; Han, Moon-Ku; Jung, Cheolkyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of neovascularization of the iris (NVI) and clinical features of patients with NVI following acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Methods A retrospective review of 214 consecutive CRAO patients who visited one tertiary hospital between January 2009 and January 2015 was conducted. In total, 110 patients were eligible for this study after excluding patients with arteritic CRAO, a lack of follow-up, iatrogenic CRAO secondary to cosmetic filler injection, or NVI detected before CRAO attack. Fluorescein angiography (FA) was applied until retinal arterial reperfusion was achieved, typically within 1 to 3 months. Results The incidence of NVI was 10.9% (12 out of 110 patients). Neovascular glaucoma was found in seven patients (6.4%). The mean time to NVI diagnosis after CRAO events was 3.0 months (range, 1 week to 15 months). The cumulative incidence was 5.5% at 3 months, 7.3% at 6 months, and 10.9% at 15 months. Severely narrowed ipsilateral carotid arteries were observed in only three patients (27.3%). The other nine patients (75.0%) showed no predisposing conditions for NVI, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy or central retinal vein occlusion. Reperfusion rate and prevalence of diabetes were significantly different between patients with NVI and patients without NVI (reperfusion: 0% [NVI] vs. 94.7% [no NVI], p < 0.001; diabetes: 50.0% [NVI] vs. 17.3% [no NVI], p = 0.017). Conclusions CRAO may lead to NVI and neovascular glaucoma caused by chronic retinal ischemia from reperfusion failure. Our results indicate that follow-up fluorescein angiography is important to evaluate retinal artery reperfusion after acute CRAO events, and that prophylactic treatment such as panretinal photocoagulation should be considered if retinal arterial perfusion is not recovered. PMID:27729755

  16. The long-term relation among retinal arteriolar narrowing, blood pressure, and incident severe hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Liew, Gerald; Tan, Ava G; Wong, Tien Yin; Leeder, Stephen R; Smith, Wayne; Shankar, Anoop; Mitchell, Paul

    2008-07-01

    The authors assessed associations between retinal vascular signs and incident severe hypertension in an older population-based cohort. At baseline (1992-1994), 3,654 residents aged 49-97 years living in the Blue Mountains area west of Sydney, Australia, were examined; respectively, 2,335 (75.1%) and 1,952 (76%) survivors were reexamined 5 and 10 years later. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured, and average central retinal artery and central retinal vein equivalents for that eye were estimated. Severe hypertension was defined by previous diagnosis of hypertension plus antihypertensive medication use or by systolic blood pressure > or =160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > or =100 mmHg at examinations. Of the 1,424 participants at risk, 618 developed severe hypertension over 10 years (cumulative incidence = 47.7%, 95% confidence interval: 44.9, 50.5). Participants who subsequently developed severe hypertension had significantly narrower mean central retinal artery equivalents than those who did not (187.0 vs. 191.9 mum, p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, mean arterial blood pressure, and plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, baseline narrowing central retinal artery equivalent was associated with increased risk of severe hypertension (per standard deviation reduction, odds ratio = 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 1.2; narrowest vs. widest quintile, odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 2.1). These findings support structural narrowing in small arteries and arterioles antecedent to clinical onset of severe hypertension.

  17. Small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Oliviero; Marzano, Chiara; Papa, Alessia; Pasquale, Chiara; Gasperini, Maria Ludovica; Gigante, Antonietta; Valla, Dominique Charles; Plessier, Aurélie; Amoroso, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction at any level from the small hepatic veins to the atrio-caval junction, in the absence of heart failure or constrictive pericarditis. Various imaging modalities are available for investigating the gross hepatic vascular anatomy but there are rare forms of this disease where the obstruction is limited to the small intrahepatic veins, with normal appearance of the large hepatic veins at imaging. In this cases only a liver biopsy can demonstrate the presence of a small vessels outflow block. We report two cases of small hepatic veins Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  18. Sonographic Findings in Fetal Renal Vein Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Rebecca E; Bromley, Bryann; Benson, Carol B; Frates, Mary C

    2015-08-01

    We present the sonographic findings of fetal renal vein thrombosis in a series of 6 patients. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was 31.2 weeks. Four cases were unilateral, and 2 were bilateral. The most common findings were renal enlargement and intrarenal vascular calcifications, followed by increased renal parenchymal echogenicity. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was found in 4 patients and common iliac vein thrombosis in 2. Fetal renal vein thrombosis is an uncommon diagnosis with characteristic sonographic findings. The presence of these findings should prompt Doppler interrogation of the renal vein and inferior vena cava to confirm the diagnosis.

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wakako; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the iliac vein is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 63-year-old Japanese woman with leiomyosarcoma of the right external iliac vein. The patient complained of right inguinal pain and swelling. Computed tomography demonstrated a mass surrounding the right external iliac artery and vein. Metastases in the lungs and liver were found. Complete resection of the tumor along with the involved vessels was performed. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were used to reconstruct the vessels. Pathological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein. Although the prognosis of leiomyosarcoma is poor, en bloc tumor resection is the treatment of choice.

  20. phenoVein - A tool for leaf vein segmentation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, J.; Rishmawi, L.; Pflugfelder, D.; Huber, G; Scharr, H.; Hülskamp, M; Koornneef, M.; Schurr, U; Jahnke, S.

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurements of leaf vein traits are an important aspect of plant phenotyping for ecological and genetic research. Here, we present a powerful and user-friendly image analysis tool named phenoVein. It is dedicated to automated segmenting and analyzing of leaf veins in images acquired with different imaging modalities (microscope, macrophotography, etc.), including options for comfortable manual correction. Advanced image filtering emphasizes veins from the background and compensates f...

  1. Retinal detachment in a patient with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muh-Shy; Ho, Tzyy-Chang; Chang, Ching-Chung; Hou, Ping-Kang

    2007-01-01

    We report extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers in a 42-year-old patient with retinal detachment. Fundus examination revealed a horseshoe-shaped tear near the temporal edge. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed and firm vitreo-retinal adhesion was noticed in the area of extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers. Following vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade, the retina was reattached successfully. In conclusion, retinal detachment may develop in patients with extensive myelinated retinal nerve fibers. Vitrectomy may be performed to treat this condition.

  2. Plasmalemma Vesicle-Associated Protein Has a Key Role in Blood-Retinal Barrier Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewska-Kruk, Joanna; van der Wijk, Anne-Eva; van Veen, Henk A; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Vogels, Ilse M C; Versteeg, Danielle; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Klaassen, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    Loss of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) properties induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other factors is an important cause of diabetic macular edema. Previously, we found that the presence of plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein (PLVAP) in retinal capillaries associates with loss of BRB properties and correlates with increased vascular permeability in diabetic macular edema. In this study, we investigated whether absence of PLVAP protects the BRB from VEGF-induced permeability. We used lentiviral-delivered shRNA or siRNA to inhibit PLVAP expression. The barrier properties of in vitro BRB models were assessed by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance, permeability of differently sized tracers, and the presence of endothelial junction complexes. The effect of VEGF on caveolae formation was studied in human retinal explants. BRB loss in vivo was studied in the mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy model. The inhibition of PLVAP expression resulted in decreased VEGF-induced BRB permeability of fluorescent tracers, both in vivo and in vitro. PLVAP inhibition attenuated transendothelial electrical resistance reduction induced by VEGF in BRB models in vitro and significantly increased transendothelial electrical resistance of the nonbarrier human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, PLVAP knockdown prevented VEGF-induced caveolae formation in retinal explants but did not rescue VEGF-induced alterations in endothelial junction complexes. In conclusion, PLVAP is an essential cofactor in VEGF-induced BRB permeability and may become an interesting novel target for diabetic macular edema therapy.

  3. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  4. Effect of eye NGF administration on two animal models of retinal ganglion cells degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Colafrancesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF administration on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in experimentally induced glaucoma (GL and diabetic retinopathy (DR. GL was induced in adult rats by injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein of the eye and diabetes (DT was induced by administration of streptozoticin. Control and experimental rats were treated daily with either ocular application of NGF or vehicle solution. We found that both animal models present a progressive degeneration of RGCs and changing NGF and VEGF levels in the retina and optic nerve. We then proved that NGF eye drop administration exerts a protective effect on these models of retinal degeneration. In brief, our findings indicate that NGF can play a protective role against RGC degeneration occurring in GL and DR and suggest that ocular NGF administration might be an effective pharmacological approach.

  5. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  6. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  7. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Shuang; YE Jun-jie; ZHAO Jia-liang; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS.Methods It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 μg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients).Results Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque.Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6±25.3) ×106/L (range,(0-85) × 106/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed.Conclusions CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  8. The role of the preoperative portal vein embolization in major hepatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sun Woo; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Sung Gyu; Kwon, Tae Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    To assess the role of the preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) in patients in need of major hepatectomy. Total of 11 cases consisted of Klatskin tumor (n = 6), gallbladder cancer (n = 2), and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 3). After percutaneous transhepatic puncture of portal vein (right: 7, left: 4), the embolization of 1st order branch of right portal vein was done with Gentamicin soaked Gelfoam cubes. Radiologically, the angle between the middle hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava was measured on pre-and post-PVE CT (F/U: 10 days) to evaluate the hypertrophy of the left lobe. Clinically, amount and nature of the drained bile through the PTBD tube of both lobes were analyzed in 5 patients with Klatskin tumor. The interval between PVE and operation was 10-24 days. Operative findings and the changes of postop, total bilirubin were analyzed and the complication after procedure was checked. There was decrease in mean angle between the middle hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava from 35.9 degree to 23.9 degree, but it was insignificant statistically ({rho} = 0.09). The embolization of right portal vein was done and there was increase in amount of drained bile from the nonembolized left lobe by 2-3 folds 8-14 days after PVE. The color and consistency between both lobes were significantly different; right lobe was darker in color and softer in consistency. Postoperative total bilirubin increased by 2-3 folds 1 to 4 days after PVE and normalized 10 to 14 days after PVE. Most of the patients had mild abdominal pain and fever after PVE and 1 patient had localized hematoma at puncture site which was subsided spontaneously. The preoperative portal vein embolization is a useful method for minimizing postoperative liver failure in patients in need of major hepatectomy.

  9. Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the sole presenting sign of Susac syndrome in a young man: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Luiza dos Apóstolos-Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 24-year-old man presenting with sudden visual loss in the left eye from a central retinal artery occlusion. An extensive clinical investigation revealed no etiology. Three weeks later, however, the patient developed hearing loss followed by encephalopathy and multiple branch retinal artery occlusions in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography confirmed retinal vascular occlusions with no sign of vasculitis. The neurological examination revealed a diffuse encephalopathy while the MRI scan disclosed several small areas of infarcts in the brain. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on audiometry. The patient was diagnosed with Susac syndrome and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in slight improvement and stabilization. This case shows that Susac syndrome may be diagnosed late due to the absence at onset of one or more of the symptoms of the classic triad (encephalopathy, multiple branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss. This case also serves to emphasize that Susac syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion, even in apparently healthy young men.

  10. Endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disselhoff, B.C.V.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the technique of endovenous laser ablation and the outcome of various series of patients with varicose veins due to reflux in the great saphenous vein, treated by endovenous laser ablation or cryostripping in a single-centre study. This study has shown clear advantages of endov

  11. PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS-ULTRASOUND IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajkovska Meri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portal venous system, apart from the main portal vein, includes its tributaries: superior and inferior mesenteric vein, as well as splenic vein, so the term portal venous thrombosis encompasses a broad spectrum of pathological conditions. Usually, one or more causative factors can be recognized, either local endothelial/ flow disturbances, or systemic inherited /acquired conditions. Portal vein thrombosis can be associated with benign or malignant disorders. Weather we are speaking about acute or chronic thrombosis, the clinical presentation is different. Acute thrombosis can be presented in a wide range, from mild abdominal discomfort to a state of intestinal ischemia and life-threatening infarction. Chronic thrombosis is usually recognized when variceal bleeding or other symptoms of portal hypertension express. Fast and accurate diagnosis sometimes is a life-saving procedure, especially in acute vascular alterations. Recently, due to the improvement of imaging procedures the number of patients with diagnosed portal vein thrombosis is increasingly growing. With a negative predictive value of 98% color Doppler ultrasound is considered as imaging modality of choice in detecting portal vein thrombosis. Based on large studies it is presumed that overall risk of getting portal vein thrombosis during lifetime is 1% in general population, but much bigger 5%-15% in cirrhotic patients. Existence of specific ultrasound criteria, if fulfilled, has ensured that diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis is fast and non-invasive. Procedure is convenient for the patient and healthcare providers, and above all, allows prompt treatment preventing further deterioration.

  12. Generating and analyzing synthetic finger vein images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillerström, Fieke; Kumar, Ajay; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The finger-vein biometric offers higher degree of security, personal privacy and strong anti-spoofing capabilities than most other biometric modalities employed today. Emerging privacy concerns with the database acquisition and lack of availability of large scale finger-vein database have

  13. Improving the management of varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onida, Sarah; Lane, Tristan R A; Davies, Alun H

    2013-01-01

    Up to 30% of the UK population are affected by varicose veins. They are a manifestation of increased venous pressure in the lower limb caused by impaired venous return. Primary varicosities result from poor drainage from the superficial to the deep venous system. Secondary varicosities arise as a result of underlying pathology impeding venous drainage, such as deep venous thrombosis or increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by a mass, pregnancy or obesity. Patients with bleeding varicose veins should be referred to a vascular service immediately. Referral is also indicated in the following cases: symptomatic primary or recurrent varicose veins; lower limb skin changes thought to be caused by chronic venous insufficiency; superficial vein thrombosis and suspected venous incompetence; a venous leg ulcer or healed venous leg ulcer. Imaging is crucial in the assessment of the superficial and deep venous system to enable assessment of venous competence. The gold standard imaging technique is colour duplex ultrasonography. Duplex ultrasound should be used to confirm the diagnosis of varicose veins and the extent of truncal reflux, and to plan treatment for patients with suspected primary or recurrent varicose veins. Superficial vein ligation, phlebectomy and stripping have been the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, new techniques have been developed that are minimally invasive, enabling treatment of superficial venous incompetence with reduced morbidity. NICE recommends that endothermal ablation, in the form of radiofrequency or laser treatment, should be offered as treatment for patients with confirmed varicose veins and truncal reflux.

  14. [Vitreo-retinal surgery for complicated retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Z

    1993-07-01

    93 eyes (93 patients) of complicated retinal detachment were treated with vitreo-retinal surgery. Among the series, 75 eyes were rhegmatogenous with PVR C3-D3 in 66 eyes (88.0%), while the remaining 18 eyes were traction induced. None of the cases had giant tears or complicating diabetes. On discharge from the hospital, the operation was effective in 62 cases (66.7%), in whom the retina was totally reattached or only a small amount of subretinal fluid remained. In a group of 40 eyes where the inert gas SF6 was used, the operation was effective in 30 cases (75.0%). 41 cases were followed up postoperatively for over 3 months, averaging 13.7 months, to find the operative results stable in 33 eyes (80.5%), with the visual acuity improved in 22 cases (66.7%), unchanged in 9 cases (27.3%), and decreased in 2 cases (6.0%). The operative procedures, the peeling of pre-retinal membrane, the effect of PVR severity on the operative results, and the promotion of operative efficacy by application of wide encircling buckle and inert gas tamponade were discussed.

  15. Assessment and management of patients with varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Louise

    Varicose veins are enlarged superficial veins found in the legs. This article explores the anatomy and physiology of the venous system to assist nurses to assess, manage and treat patients with varicose veins.

  16. A case of a spontaneous intraorbital arteriovenous fistula: clinico-radiological findings and treatment by transvenous embolisation via the superior ophthalmic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Jawad; Laitt, Roger; Leatherbarrow, Brian; Herwadkar, Amit

    2013-04-01

    A 72-year-old male presented with progressive right axial proptosis and red eye. Catheter angiography demonstrated an intraorbital arteriovenous fistula (IAVF) distal to the central retinal artery (CRA). Transvenous embolisation following direct surgical exposure of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) resulted in rapid resolution of his symptoms and signs. Transvenous embolisation via the SOV is a safe, effective alternative to transarterial embolisation for treating spontaneous IAVF where transarterial embolisation poses a risk of CRA occlusion.

  17. Advances in Retinal Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.

  18. 合并视网膜大血管阻塞的系统性红斑狼疮的临床观察%Clinical observation of systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with major retinal vascular occlusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乔; 聂尚武; 王晓琴; 陈盼

    2015-01-01

    ?AIM: To observe the clinical characteristics of the patients with systemic lupus erythematosus ( SLE ) complicated with major retinal vascular occlusion. ?METHODS:Seventeen patients ( 21 eyes ) with SLE complicated with major retinal vascular occlusion were selected as the experimental group from January 2010 to January 2014 in our hospital.Thirty cases ( 60 eyes ) of SLE patients without retinopathy were selected as the control group. Ocular and systemic examination and related laboratory tests, including various autoimmune antibodies, were taken. Clinical symptoms and signs were recorded. ?RESULTS:In the experimental group, 13 cases were uniocular, 4 cases were bilocular, in which there were central retinal vein occlusion ( CRVO ) in 7 eyes ( 33%) , branch retinal vein occlusion ( BRVO ) in 9 eyes ( 43%) , central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) in 3 eyes(14%), branch retinal artery occlusion ( BRAO ) in 1 eye ( 5%) , CRAO combined with CRVO in 1 eye ( 5%).The best corrected visual acuity ( BCVA ) of the experimental group was significantly worse than that of the control group.The incidence of skin erythema ( 76%) , fever ( 59%) , arthritis ( 53%) , central nervous system symptoms ( headache and neuropsychiatric abnormalities) ( 76%) , pleurisy ( 41%) were significantly higher than those of the control group.The positive rate of anti ds-DNA antibody ( 100%) and antiphospholipid antibody (65%), the decrease of C3(82%), the elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate ( 100%) , thrombocytopenia ( 65%) were significantly higher than those of the control group. The score of SLEDAI ( systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index ) was 20.24 ±4.66 prompting SLE in moderate or severe active stage. ? CONCLUSION: In SLE patients with major retinal vascular occlusion, the visual acuity was severely damaged, the multi-system was affected in varying degrees, and all of the patients were in moderate and severe activity period. There may be a correlation between

  19. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  20. In vivo visualizing the dynamics of bone marrow stem cells in mouse retina and choroidal-retinal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heuy-Ching H.; Zwick, Harry; Edsall, Peter R.; Cheramie, Rachel D.; Lund, David J.; Stuck, Bruce

    2007-02-01

    It has recently been shown that bone marrow cells can differentiate into various lineage cells including neural cells in vitro and in vivo. Therefore it is an attractive therapeutic intervention to apply autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells that may offer neuroprotection to laser-induced retinal injuries. The purpose of this study is to develop a method with which to visualize bone marrow stem cells dynamics in mouse retinal circulation. We have used a physiological method, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), to track the highly enriched stem/progenitor cells circulating in the retina. Stem cells were enriched by immunomagnetic depletion of cells committed to the T- and B lymphocytic, myeloid and erythorid lineages. CellTracker TM Green-labeled stem cells were injected into the tail veins of mice with laser-induced focal retinal injuries. Bone marrow stem cells labeled with CellTracker TM Green were visible in the retinal circulation for as long as 1 hour and 30 minutes. These studies suggest that stem cell-enriched bone marrow cells may have the ability to mobilize into laser-induced retinal injuries and possibly further proliferate, differentiate and functionally integrate into the retina.

  1. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  2. Retinal Cell Degeneration in Animal Models

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Niwa; Hitomi Aoki; Akihiro Hirata; Hiroyuki Tomita; Green, Paul G.; Akira Hara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of various retinal cell degeneration models in animal induced by chemicals (N-methyl-d-aspartate- and CoCl2-induced), autoimmune (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis), mechanical stress (optic nerve crush-induced, light-induced) and ischemia (transient retinal ischemia-induced). The target regions, pathology and proposed mechanism of each model are described in a comparative fashion. Animal models of retinal cell degeneration provide insi...

  3. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.PICKARD; Patricia; J.SOLLARS

    2010-01-01

    A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina.These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(ipRGCs) express a photopigment,melanopsin,that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input.Although relatively few in number,ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels.Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate rather than vertebrate photoreceptors.ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions.ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN),a circadian oscillator and biological clock,and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle.ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body.ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina,providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light.Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries,current progress and directions for future investigation.

  4. Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB, play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases. The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.

  5. Intrahepatic Left to Right Portoportal Venous Collateral Vascular Formation in Patients Undergoing Right Portal Vein Ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienden, K. P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Hoekstra, L. T. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bennink, R. J. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Gulik, T. M. van [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We investigated intrahepatic vascular changes in patients undergoing right portal vein ligation (PVL) or portal vein embolization (PVE) in conjunction with the ensuing hypertrophic response and function of the left liver lobe. Methods: Between December 2008 and October 2011, 7 patients underwent right PVL and 14 patients PVE. Computed tomographic (CT) volumetry to assess future remnant liver (FRL) and functional hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed in all patients before and 3 weeks after portal vein occlusion. In 18 patients an intraoperative portography was performed to assess perfusion through the occluded portal branches. Results: In all patients after initially successful PVL, reperfused portal veins were observed on CT scan 3 weeks after portal occlusion. This was confirmed in all cases during intraoperative portography. Intrahepatic portoportal collaterals were identified in all patients in the PVL group and in one patient in the PVE group. In all other PVE patients, complete occlusion of the embolized portal branches was observed on CT scan and on intraoperative portography. The median increase of FRL volume after PVE was 41.6 % (range 10-305 %), and after PVL was only 8.1 % (range 0-102 %) (p = 0.179). There were no differences in FRL function between both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative PVE and PVL are both methods to induce hypertrophy of the FRL in anticipation of major liver resection. Compared to PVE, PVL seems less efficient in inducing hypertrophy of the nonoccluded left lobe. This could be caused by the formation of intrahepatic portoportal neocollateral vessels, through which the ligated portal branches are reperfused within 3 weeks.

  6. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  7. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  8. Portal vein gas in emergency surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Hind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal vein gas is an ominous radiological sign, which indicates a serious gastrointestinal problem in the majority of patients. Many causes have been identified and the most important was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular accident. The presentation of patients is varied and the diagnosis of the underlying problem depends mainly on the radiological findings and clinical signs. The aim of this article is to show the clinical importance of portal vein gas and its management in emergency surgery. Methods A computerised search was made of the Medline for publications discussing portal vein gas through March 2008. Sixty articles were identified and selected for this review because of their relevance. These articles cover a period from 1975–2008. Results Two hundreds and seventy-five patients with gas in the portal venous system were reported. The commonest cause for portal vein gas was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular pathology (61.44%. This was followed by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (16.26%, obstruction and dilatation (9.03%, sepsis (6.6%, iatrogenic injury and trauma (3.01% and cancer (1.8%. Idiopathic portal vein gas was also reported (1.8%. Conclusion Portal vein gas is a diagnostic sign, which indicates a serious intra-abdominal pathology requiring emergency surgery in the majority of patients. Portal vein gas due to simple and benign cause can be treated conservatively. Correlation between clinical and diagnostic findings is important to set the management plan.

  9. Ventriculoatrial shunting via the azygos vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, C; DuBois, J J; Laurent, J P; Pokorny, W J; Harberg, F J; Cheek, W R

    1990-06-01

    The treatment of hydrocephalus has evolved through many stages but the "cure" is still elusive. It is not unusual for the neurosurgeon to find that the commonly used routes for catheter placement or sites for drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cannot be employed. The azygos vein was used to gain access to the right atrium when the CSF could not be drained into the peritoneal cavity, nor could the neck veins be used to place the catheter into the right atrium. The azygos vein is a convenient and safe route to reach the right atrium in selected patients.

  10. [FEATURES LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN PORTAL VEIN THROMBOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasov, P A

    2015-07-01

    In 2012 - 2013 years in 265 patients for liver transplantation was performed, including in 224 (84.5%)--from a living donor, in 41 (15.5%)--from the dead body. Using a Foley catheter to stop bleeding, and the imposition of vascular sutures during endovenectomy in portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and its possible damage under all conditions. In particular, PVT IV degree (Grade IV) in order to restore blood flow in the graft using the left gastric and renal vein is an alternative, if they are cryopreserved vein may be suitably used.

  11. Portal Decompression Using the Inferior Mesenteric Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gorini

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We report five patients with variceal hemorrhage, in three cases secondary to diffuse thrombosis of the portal, superior mesenteric and splenic veins. Mesenteric angiography demonstrated patency of the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV in each, and successful portal decompression by anastomosis of the IMV to the left renal vein (n=4 or the inferior vena cava (n=1 was accomplished. Bleeding was permanently controlled: four patients have survived from one to eight years post-operatively. Because shunt procedures utilizing the IMV are technically straightforward, subtotally decompress the portal system and avoid the right upper quadrant, they may be advantageous in certain clinical settings.

  12. Varicose veins--Who should be referred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onida, Sarah; Davies, Alun H; Franklin, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Varicose veins are a common, progressive condition in the UK, with significant negative effects on patients' quality of life. Despite their prevalence, access to secondary care for the assessment and treatment of varicose veins can be variable throughout the country.The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidelines developed in 2013 provide evidence-based guidance on the referral, assessment, and management of the patient with venous disease.In this article, we review the development of the guidelines for the management of varicose veins over the last 15 years, highlighting the latest changes in referral criteria.

  13. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  14. The variations of Sylvian veins and cisterns in anterior circulation aneurysms. An operative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, I H; Kadioğlu, H H; Tüzün, Y; Kayaoğlu, C R; Takçi, E

    1996-01-01

    The anatomical variations of Sylvian vein and cistern were investigated during the pterional approach in 230 patients with 276 aneurysms of anterior circulation arteries, that were operated on at the Neurosurgical Department of Atatürk University Medical School. Erzurum, Türkiye. All patients underwent radical surgery for aneurysm by the right or left pterional approach. The findings were recorded during surgical intervention and observed through the slides and videotapes of the operations. In our study, we surgically classified the variations of the Sylvian vein, according to its branching and draining patterns. Type I: The fronto-orbital (frontosylvian), fronto-parietal (parietosylvian) and anterior temporal (temporosylvian) veins drain into one sylvian vein. Type II: Two superficial Sylvian veins with separated basal vein draining into the sphenoparietal and Rosenthal's basal vein. Type III: Two superficial Sylvian veins draining into the sphenoparietal and the superior petrosal veins. Type IV: Hypoplastic superficial Sylvian vein and the deep one. Four types of Sylvian vein variations were defined as follows. The Type I was seen in 45% (n = 103), the Type II was found in 29% (n = 67), Type III was recorded in 15% (n = 34) and Type IV, or hypoplastic and deep form was discovered in 11% (n = 26) of patients. The course of the Sylvian vein was on the temporal side (Temporal Coursing) in 70 percent of the cases (n = 160), on the frontal side (Frontal Coursing) in 19% of the patients (n = 45) and in 8 percent of the cases (n = 18) in the deep localization (Deep Coursing). Only 3 percent of the cases (n = 7) showed a mixed course. The variations of the Sylvian cisterns were classified into three types, according to the relationships between the lateral fronto-orbital gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. In Sylvian Type, the frontal and temporal lobes are loosely (Sylvian Type A, Large) or tightly (Sylvian Type B, Close and Narrow) approximated on the surface

  15. Chronic venous insufficiency patterns in lower extremity veins detected by Doppler Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özhan Özgür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to reveal patterns ofchronic venous insufficiency of lower extremity detectedby color Doppler ultrasound and clarify its clinical implicationsin the patients with varicose veins symptoms.Methods: Between 2006 to 2011, a total of 2006 patientspresented with symptoms of venous insufficiency wereincluded in study. A total of 3938 lower extremity venoussystems were examined using color Doppler US. Weclassified four patterns considering combinations of superficialand deep venous insufficiency.Results: Of 2006 patients, 966 had either single venousinsufficiency (790, 82% or combined insufficiency (176,18%. Superficial venous insufficiency was observedat the saphenoefemoral junction (SFJ in 25.5%, at theGreat Saphenous Vein (GSV in 57.6%, at the GiacominiVein in 2.4%, at the saphenopopliteal junction in 1.8% andfinally at the Small Saphenous Vein (SSV in 9.1% of thepatients. We found multilevel venous insufficiency showingconnections at the rate of 51%. We described fourpatterns as Pattern 1: SFJ insufficiency combined withGSV (97.9%, GSV branching (7.1%, and perforatingvein (20.8% insufficiency, Pattern 2: Deep venous insufficiencycombined with SFJ (63.6%, GSV (76.4%, andSSV (16.4% insufficiency, Pattern 3: SPJ insufficiencycombined with SSV insufficiency (95.5% and Pattern 4:Giacomini Vein insufficiency combined with GSV (67.9%and SSV (75% insufficiency.Conclusion: Chronic venous insufficiency may show fourdifferent patterns. Our results revealed that SFJ and GSVinsufficiency combination and deep venous insufficiencyand GSV insufficiency combinations are the most commoninsufficiency patterns seen in lower extremity.Key words: Doppler ultrasound, varicose veins, venous insufficiency

  16. VeinPLUS: A Transillumination and Reflection-based Hand Vein Database

    OpenAIRE

    Gruschina, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives a short summary of work related to the creation of a department-hosted hand vein database. After the introducing section, special properties of the hand vein acquisition are explained, followed by a comparison table, which shows key differences to existing well-known hand vein databases. At the end, the ROI extraction process is described and sample images and ROIs are presented.

  17. Vein of Galen Malformation: Outcome after Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurodevelopmental outcome after endovascular treatment of vein of Galen malformation (VOGM in 27 patients seen between 1983 and 2002 was assessed by chart review and parental questionnaires at the University of California, San Francisco.

  18. 门静脉血栓的MRI诊断%MRI Diagnosis of Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃智颖; 张应和; 范真真; 梁晓芬; 苏敏仪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨MRI诊断门静脉血栓(PVT)的价值.方法 回顾性分析经临床随访证实的9例PVT患者的资料,所有病例均行常规MRI平扫及三维容积超快速多期动态增强扫描( LAVA).结果 9例肝PVT中,4例位于门静脉左支,2例门静脉右支,3例位于门静脉主干,其中1例同时累及门静脉右支.MRI均能显示门静脉及其分支内血栓异常信号,平扫T1WI及T2WI流空信号消失,增强扫描各期血栓均无强化,管腔内出现充盈缺损.结论 MRI是诊断PVT的有效影像学检查方法.%Objective To discuss the diagnostic value of MR Imaging for portal vein thrombus. Methods Retrospective analysis of 9 cases of portal vein thrombosis confirmed by clinical follow-up, all the cases were performed by plain scan and Liver Acquisition with Volume Acceleration MRI. Results During these 9 PVT, 4 cases thrombus located in the left branch of portal vein, 2 in the right branch of portal vein,3 in the trunk of portal, and lease two branchs of portal compromised. MRI can well demonstrate the abnormal signals of the thrombus in the portal vein or its branch, normal flowing void disappeared in the TlWI and T2WI of the MR plain scan, and there were no enhancement in any phases of the thronbus. showed filling defect within the lumen. Conclusion MRI is the effective radiographie technique for the diagnosis of PVT.

  19. Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; de Bruin, J

    1981-11-01

    Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in rabbit eyes is studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that retinal striations noted ophthalmoscopically in these eyes represent individual fiber bundles, Axon bundles are compartmentalized within tissue tunnels comprised of elongated processes of glial cell origin.

  20. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions.

  1. Retinal ischemia and embolism. Causes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijman, C.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The ocular fundus allows direct visualization of the retinal vasculature, blood vessels that are part of the cerebral circulation. Unraveling the causes of retinal ischemia may provide further insight in the pathophysiological processes that underlie cerebral ischemia. The primary aim of the studies

  2. The umbilical and paraumbilical veins of man.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, B F; Tudor, R G

    1980-01-01

    During its transit through the umbilicus structural changes occur in the thick wall of the extra-abdominal segment of the umbilical vein whereby the components of the intra-abdominal segment acquire an essentially longitudinal direction and become arranged in fibro-elastic and fibro-muscular zones. The vein lumen becomes largely obliterated by asymmetrical proliferation of loose subendothelial conective tissue. The latter forms a new inner zone within which a small segment of the lumen persis...

  3. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread.

  4. CT in thrombosed dilated posterior epidural vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammatter, S.; Schnyder, P.; Preux, J. de

    1987-05-01

    The authors report a case of thrombosis of the distal end of an enlarged right posterior epidural vein. The patient had a markedly narrow lumbar canal due to L5 spondylolisthesis. The dilated vein and the thrombosis were displayed by computed tomography but remained unrecognized until surgery. Pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. A review of the English, French and German literature revealed no prior radiological reports of a similar condition.

  5. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Raghavendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric - inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up.

  6. Efficacy of varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great safenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Cunha Senra Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of varicose veins with preservation of the great saphenous vein. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 15 female patients between 25 and 55 years of age with clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP classification 2, 3 and 4. The patients underwent surgical treatment of primary varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV preservation. Doppler ultrasonography exams were carried out in the first and third months postoperatively. The form of clinical severity of venous disease, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS was completed before and after surgery. We excluded patients with history of deep vein thrombosis, smoking or postoperatively use of elastic stockings or phlebotonics. RESULTS: All patients had improved VCSS (p <0.001 and reduction in the diameter of the great saphenous vein (p <0.001. There was a relationship between VCSS and the GSV caliber, as well as with preoperative CEAP. There was improvement in CEAP class in nine patients when compared with the preoperative period (p <0.001. CONCLUSION: The varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great saphenous vein had beneficial effects to the GSV itself, with decreasing caliber, and to the symptoms when the vein had maximum caliber of 7.5 mm, correlating directly with the CEAP. The decrease in GSV caliber, even without complete abolition of reflux, leads to clinical improvement by decreasing the reflux volume.

  7. The cell stress machinery and retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Dimitra; Aguilà, Monica; Bevilacqua, Dalila; Novoselov, Sergey S; Parfitt, David A; Cheetham, Michael E

    2013-06-27

    Retinal degenerations are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterised by progressive loss of vision due to neurodegeneration. The retina is a highly specialised tissue with a unique architecture and maintaining homeostasis in all the different retinal cell types is crucial for healthy vision. The retina can be exposed to a variety of environmental insults and stress, including light-induced damage, oxidative stress and inherited mutations that can lead to protein misfolding. Within retinal cells there are different mechanisms to cope with disturbances in proteostasis, such as the heat shock response, the unfolded protein response and autophagy. In this review, we discuss the multiple responses of the retina to different types of stress involved in retinal degenerations, such as retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma. Understanding the mechanisms that maintain and re-establish proteostasis in the retina is important for developing new therapeutic approaches to fight blindness.

  8. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F;

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to examine the prevalence and diagnostic spectrum of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study with data from the Danish Retinitis Pigmentosa Registry that comprises all patients in Denmark with generalized retinal....... RESULTS: Of the 5,602,628 Danish citizens on January 1, 2013, 1622 patients were registered as having a generalized retinal dystrophy and were alive and living in Denmark, corresponding to a prevalence of 1:3,454. In 28% of cases the eye condition was part of a syndrome, while the remaining 72% had eye...... disease only. Aside from simplex cases (45%), the most common hereditary pattern was autosomal recessive (23%). CONCLUSION: This epidemiological survey demonstrates that the prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in the Danish population is 1:3454. Many of the dystrophies are the subjects of clinical...

  9. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  10. Endovascular treatment of iliac vein compression syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-you; LI Xiao-qiang; QIAN Ai-min; SANG Hong-fei; RONG Jian-jie; ZHU Li-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS),the symptomatic compression of the left common iliac vein between the right common iliac artery and the vertebrae,is not an uncommon condition.The aim of this research was to retrospectively evaluate long-term outcome and the significance of endovascular treatment in patients with left IVCS.Methods Between January 1997 and September 2008,296 patients received interventional therapy in the left common iliac vein.In the second stage,170 cases underwent saphenous vein high ligation and stripping.Two hundred and thirty-one cases were followed up over a period of 6 to 120 months (average 46 months) and evaluated for symptom improvement with color ultrasound and ascending venography.Results The stenotic or occlusive segments of the left iliac vein were successfully dilated in 285 cases,of whom 272 received stent implantation therapy.Most of the patients achieved satisfactory results on discharge.During the follow-up period,varicose veins were alleviated in 98.7% of the patients,and leg swelling disappeared or was obviously relieved in 84% of cases.About 85% of leg ulcers completely healed.The total patency rate was 91.7% as evaluated with color ultrasound and 91.5% with ascending venography.Conclusions Endovascular treatment of IVCS provides effective symptomatic improvement and good long-term patency in most patients.

  11. Bilateral Progressive Obliterative Retinal Vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, 10 cases of a special type of retinal vasculitis are reported, which was characterized by progressive obliteration of vessels in both eyes, developed from the periphery to the posterior ploe, and was complicated by vitreous hemorrhage (5 eyes) and neovascular glaucoma (5 eyes) in later stage. The visual acuity was 0. 05 in 10 eyes (50%). Argon laser pho-tocoagulation seemed to be able to retard the natural course of the disease. Fundus changes, differential diagnosis and treatment etc are...

  12. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  13. Delayed response of the retina after hyperbaric oxygen exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Hasler, Pascal W; Sander, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine retinal electrophysiological function and retinal thickness in healthy eyes before and after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure. Methods: The healthy eye in each of six subjects who underwent experimental HBO treatment for branch retinal vein occlusion in the fellow eye was exam......Purpose: To examine retinal electrophysiological function and retinal thickness in healthy eyes before and after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure. Methods: The healthy eye in each of six subjects who underwent experimental HBO treatment for branch retinal vein occlusion in the fellow eye...

  14. Evaluation of leg varicose veins by MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Yoshifumi; Shiraishi, Tomokuni; Taira, Mitsuru [Kansai Medical Univ., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kohri Hospital; Imamura, Atsushi; Yamada, Hitoshi; Okuno, Masafumi; Kamiyama, Yasuo

    1998-11-01

    Preoperative evaluation was conducted on 30 patients with leg varicose veins by MR venography (MRV), and compared with conventional venography, MR images were performed by the 3D-SMASH Method. Compared with venography, MRV could more clearly demonstrate leg varicose veins with perforating veins than venography. It could detected fine varicose veins more than 2 mm in diameter, and deep veins. Furthermore, 3D observation enables accurate detection of the location of perforating vein. In conclusion, MRV is useful for the diagnosis of leg varicose vein. (author)

  15. Surgical treatment of an aneurysm of a distal branch of the renal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Solafah; Pierret, Charles; Ba, Bakar; Mlynski, Amélie; de Kerangal, Xavier; Houlgatte, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysms of the renal artery and its branches are rare, but are associated with significant morbimortality due to the absence of clinical symptoms and hemorrhagic risk in the event of rupture. We report the case of a patient with an aneurysm of a distal branch of the right renal artery that measured 25 mm in diameter. The diagnosis and localization were obtained using selective arteriography. Treatment consisted of resection of the aneurysmal sac associated with closure with a saphenous vein patch rather than an endovascular treatment in order to preserve the nephronic capital. Right renal parenchymatous vascularization was satisfactory on arterial echo-Doppler and angioscanner assessment at 1 year.

  16. Scattering removal for finger-vein image restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Ben; Shi, Yihua

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of finger-vein image degradation, a biological optical model (BOM) specific to finger-vein imaging is proposed according to the principle of light propagation in biological tissues. Based on BOM, the light scattering component is sensibly estimated and properly removed for finger-vein image restoration. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is powerful in enhancing the finger-vein image contrast and in improving the finger-vein image matching accuracy.

  17. Sixty-four-slice computed tomography in surgical strategy of portal vein cavernous transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Man Zhang; Cong-Lun Pu; Ying-Cun Li; Chun-Bao Guo

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of 64-slice computed tomography (CT) in portal vein cavernous transformation to determine surgical strategy.METHODS:The site of lesions and extent of collateral circulation in 12 pediatric cases of cavernous transformation of the portal vein with surgical treatment were analyzed.RESULTS:Eleven of 12 children had esophageal vari-ces and were treated with lower esophageal and gastric devascularization and splenectomy,and the other case was only treated with splenectomy.There were eight cases with spontaneous spleen/stomach-renal shunt,four with Retzius vein opening,which was reserved during surgery.Three cases of lesions involving the intrahepatic portal vein (PV) were treated with livingdonor liver transplantation.One patient died from PV thrombosis after liver transplantation,and the rest had no significant complications.CONCLUSION:The PV,its branches and collateral circulation were clearly seen by 64-slice spiral CT angi-ography,which helped with preoperative surgical planning.

  18. Imaging and radiological interventions in extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sudheer S Pargewar; Saloni N Desai; S Rajesh; Vaibhav P Singh; Ankur Arora; Amar Mukund

    2016-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction(EHPVO) is a primary vascular condition characterized by chronic long standing blockage and cavernous transformation of portal vein with or without additional involvement of intrahepatic branches, splenic or superior mesenteric vein. Patients generally present in childhood with multiple episodes of variceal bleed and EHPVO is the predominant cause of paediatric portal hypertension(PHT) in developing countries. It is a pre-hepatic type of PHT in which liver functions and morphology are preserved till late. Characteristic imaging findings include multiple parabiliary venous collaterals which form to bypass the obstructed portal vein with resultant changes in biliary tree termed portal biliopathy or portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. Ultrasound with Doppler, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiography and magnetic resonance portovenography are non-invasive techniques which can provide a comprehensive analysis of degree and extent of EHPVO, collaterals and bile duct abnormalities. These can also be used to assess in surgical planning as well screening for shunt patency in post-operative patients. The multitude of changes and complications seen in EHPVO can be addressed by various radiological interventional procedures. The myriad of symptoms arising secondary to vascular, biliary, visceral and neurocognitive changes in EHPVO can be managed by various radiological interventions like transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, partial splenic embolization, balloon occluded retrograde obliteration of portosystemic shunt(PSS) and revision of PSS.

  19. Imaging and radiological interventions in extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargewar, Sudheer S; Desai, Saloni N; Rajesh, S; Singh, Vaibhav P; Arora, Ankur; Mukund, Amar

    2016-06-28

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is a primary vascular condition characterized by chronic long standing blockage and cavernous transformation of portal vein with or without additional involvement of intrahepatic branches, splenic or superior mesenteric vein. Patients generally present in childhood with multiple episodes of variceal bleed and EHPVO is the predominant cause of paediatric portal hypertension (PHT) in developing countries. It is a pre-hepatic type of PHT in which liver functions and morphology are preserved till late. Characteristic imaging findings include multiple parabiliary venous collaterals which form to bypass the obstructed portal vein with resultant changes in biliary tree termed portal biliopathy or portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. Ultrasound with Doppler, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiography and magnetic resonance portovenography are non-invasive techniques which can provide a comprehensive analysis of degree and extent of EHPVO, collaterals and bile duct abnormalities. These can also be used to assess in surgical planning as well screening for shunt patency in post-operative patients. The multitude of changes and complications seen in EHPVO can be addressed by various radiological interventional procedures. The myriad of symptoms arising secondary to vascular, biliary, visceral and neurocognitive changes in EHPVO can be managed by various radiological interventions like transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, partial splenic embolization, balloon occluded retrograde obliteration of portosystemic shunt (PSS) and revision of PSS.

  20. A Sleeve Gastrectomy Complicated by Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis, Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Pulmonary Emboli: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Leung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a growing problem all over the world, including the United States. Single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a surgery performed for patients who want to lose weight. The number of deaths resulting from thromboembolic complications from bariatric surgeries continues to be of major concern. Case Description: A 38-year-old female was admitted for single incision sleeve gastrectomy and was discharged home three days later. Subsequently she began to have abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. A CT scan revealed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis with small bowel ischemia, splenic infarction and main and right portal vein branch thrombosis. An exploratory laparotomy demonstrated necrotic bowel due to abdominal compartment syndrome, and an area of small bowel was resected due to internal hernia. Surgical management of the patient during her second hospital stay included a decompressive laparotomy, internal hernia reduction, a small bowel resection. Discussion: Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis can be a life-threatening complication and present with non-specific presentations; thus, it is imperative that it is identified and managed promptly as these cases carry significant morbidity and mortality. Obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery frequently have other co-morbidities; many of which can complicate a case further. Mesenteric vein thromboses are normally treated with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin.

  1. Anatomical and radiographical studies on the venous drainage of the udder in goat with special reference to the cranial superficial epigastric vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.A. Adam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was achieved to clarify the venous drainage of the udder in twelve healthy Egyptian Baladi goats. Gum-milk latex injection (nine specimens and radiographic imaging technique (three specimens were used to demonstrate the course and tributaries of the main veins draining the udder. The obtained results revealed that the udder of goat was drained through three venous circles, one at its base, while the other two were present in the form of one circle at the base of each teat. The basal venous circle was formed by the external pudendal and cranial superficial epigastric veins, as well as the dorsal labial and mammary branch of the ventral perineal vein. While the papillary venous circle was formed mainly by the cranial and caudal lateral sinus branches of the cranial mammary vein of the external pudendal vein. Also, the origin, course, distribution and termination of the cranial superficial epigastric vein were described. The venous architecture reported in this study could serve as a guide for the further surgical interference within the udder of goat.

  2. Demarcation laser photocoagulation induced retinal necrosis and rupture resulting in large retinal tear formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Carlos; Pieramici, Dante J; Matsui, Rodrigo; Rabena, Melvin; Graue, Federico

    2015-06-01

    Retinal tears after laser photocoagulation are a rare complication that occurs after intense laser. It is talked about among retina specialist occurring particularly at the end of a surgical case while applying endophotocoagulation; to the best our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of a large retinal tear induced after attempted in-office demarcation laser photocoagulation (DLP) that simulated a giant retinal tear. DLP has been employed in the management of selected cases of macula sparring rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Even though extension of the retinal detachment through the "laser barrier" is considered a failure of treatment, few complications have been described with the use of this less invasive retinal detachment repair technique. We describe a case of a high myopic woman who initially was treated with demarcation laser photocoagulation for an asymptomatic retinal detachment associated with a single horseshoe tear and a full thickness large retinal tear was created where the laser was placed. Intense laser photocoagulation resulted in abrupt laser induced retinal necrosis and rupture creating this large retinal break. Proper laser technique should reduce the risks associated with this procedure.

  3. Leaf vein segmentation using Odd Gabor filters and morphological operations

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, Vini; Aviral

    2012-01-01

    Leaf vein forms the basis of leaf characterization and classification. Different species have different leaf vein patterns. It is seen that leaf vein segmentation will help in maintaining a record of all the leaves according to their specific pattern of veins thus provide an effective way to retrieve and store information regarding various plant species in database as well as provide an effective means to characterize plants on the basis of leaf vein structure which is unique for every specie...

  4. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haghighatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC

  5. Nutcracker Syndrome Complicated by Left Renal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Mallat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated renal vein thrombosis is a rare entity. We present a patient whose complaint of flank pain led to the diagnosis of a renal vein thrombosis. In this case, abdominal computed tomography angiography was helpful in diagnosing the nutcracker syndrome complicated by the renal vein thrombosis. Anticoagulation was started and three weeks later, CTA showed complete disappearance of the renal vein thrombosis. To treat the Nutcracker syndrome, we proposed left renal vein transposition that the patient consented to.

  6. Nutcracker syndrome complicated by left renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallat, Faouzi; Hmida, Wissem; Jaidane, Mehdi; Mama, Nadia; Mosbah, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    Isolated renal vein thrombosis is a rare entity. We present a patient whose complaint of flank pain led to the diagnosis of a renal vein thrombosis. In this case, abdominal computed tomography angiography was helpful in diagnosing the nutcracker syndrome complicated by the renal vein thrombosis. Anticoagulation was started and three weeks later, CTA showed complete disappearance of the renal vein thrombosis. To treat the Nutcracker syndrome, we proposed left renal vein transposition that the patient consented to.

  7. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Morteza Sanei

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) had a tendency to extend into the renal vein and inferior vena cava, while extension into the gonadal vein has been rarely reported. Gonadal vein tumor thrombosis appears as an enhancing filling defect within the dilated gonadal vein anterior to the psoas muscle and shows an enhancement pattern identical to that of the original tumor. The possibility of gonadal vein thrombosis should be kept in mind when looking at an imaging study of patients with RCC.

  8. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. V...

  9. Scattering Removal for Finger-Vein Image Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Jinfeng Yang; Ben Zhang; Yihua Shi

    2012-01-01

    Finger-vein recognition has received increased attention recently. However, the finger-vein images are always captured in poor quality. This certainly makes finger-vein feature representation unreliable, and further impairs the accuracy of finger-vein recognition. In this paper, we first give an analysis of the intrinsic factors causing finger-vein image degradation, and then propose a simple but effective image restoration method based on scattering removal. To give a proper description of f...

  10. An effective preprocessing method for finger vein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, JiaLiang; Li, Qiong; Wang, Ning; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2013-07-01

    The image preprocessing plays an important role in finger vein recognition system. However, previous preprocessing schemes remind weakness to be resolved for the high finger vein recongtion performance. In this paper, we propose a new finger vein preprocessing that includes finger region localization, alignment, finger vein ROI segmentation and enhancement. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is capable of enhancing the quality of finger vein image effectively and reliably.

  11. Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Arai,1 Tsutomu Sakai,1 Kiichiro Okano,1 Ranko Aoyagi,1 Ayano Imai,2 Hiroshi Takase,2 Manabu Mochizuki,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka11Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma retinochoroiditis

  12. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  13. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  14. Regarding optical coherence tomography grading of ischemia in central retinal venous occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathy K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Koushik TripathyDepartment of Vitreoretina and Uvea, ICARE Eye Hospital & Postgraduate Institute, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, IndiaThe author read with interest the article by Browning et al.1 The author humbly wants to discuss a few facts.1. The article1 discusses grading of retinal ischemia based on optical coherence tomography features in central retinal venous occlusion. As coexisting central retinal arterial occlusion or cilioretinal arterial occlusion may also cause inner retinal hyper-reflectivity, exclusion of such cases is an important consideration before implicating central retinal venous occlusion for the ischemia. Extensive intraretinal hemorrhages are other important hindrances to the evaluation of the perfusion status of the retina using both fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography.2. It would be interesting to know the gonioscopic findings, especially neovascularization of the anterior chamber angle if it was performed at presentation and during the follow-ups.3. The manuscript documented that the incidence of anterior segment neovascularization at 1 year was 8.9% in severe ischemia group.1 The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization in perfused groups was higher (15.4% and 17.6% for mild and moderate ischemia, respectively. Although the sample size was low, such findings are contrary to the literature2 and require further discussion. Authors' replyDavid J Browning, Omar S Punjabi, Chong LeeDepartment of Ophthalmology, Charlotte Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Associates, P.A., Charlotte, NC, USA We thank Dr Tripathy for his interest in our article and would respond to his above-mentioned points.1. We agree that excluding eyes with cilioretinal artery and central retinal artery occlusions is necessary to be able to attribute inner retinal reflectivity changes to central retinal vein occlusion. Cilioretinal artery occlusion is associated with a band of ischemic retinal whitening and central retinal artery occlusion

  15. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on laser-induced retinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanfeng; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Lingjun; Wang, Meiyan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xiaorong

    2014-05-27

    Stem cell therapy has shown encouraging results for neurodegenerative diseases. The retina provides a convenient locus to investigate stem cell functions and distribution in the nervous system. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by systemic transplantation in a laser-induced retinal injury model. MSCs from C57BL/6 mice labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were injected via the tail vein into mice after laser photocoagulation. We found that the average diameters of laser spots and retinal cell apoptosis were decreased in the MSC-treated group. Interestingly, GFP-MSCs did not migrate to the injured retina. Further examination revealed that the mRNA expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were lower in the injured eyes after MSC transplantation. Our results suggest that intravenously injected MSCs have the ability to inhibit retinal cell apoptosis, reduce the inflammatory response and limit the spreading of damage in the laser-injured retina of mice. Systemic MSC therapy might play a role in neuroprotection, mainly by regulation of the intraocular microenvironment.

  16. Therapeutic Effect of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Laser-Induced Retinal Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown encouraging results for neurodegenerative diseases. The retina provides a convenient locus to investigate stem cell functions and distribution in the nervous system. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs by systemic transplantation in a laser-induced retinal injury model. MSCs from C57BL/6 mice labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP were injected via the tail vein into mice after laser photocoagulation. We found that the average diameters of laser spots and retinal cell apoptosis were decreased in the MSC-treated group. Interestingly, GFP-MSCs did not migrate to the injured retina. Further examination revealed that the mRNA expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were lower in the injured eyes after MSC transplantation. Our results suggest that intravenously injected MSCs have the ability to inhibit retinal cell apoptosis, reduce the inflammatory response and limit the spreading of damage in the laser-injured retina of mice. Systemic MSC therapy might play a role in neuroprotection, mainly by regulation of the intraocular microenvironment.

  17. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  18. Isolated left innominate vein aneurysm: A rare cause of mediastinal widening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Dua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinal widening in an adult is mostly nodal in origin. Occasionally vascular aneurysms may be the underlying cause, in which case the aorta or its branches are most frequently involved. Thoracic venous aneurysms, on the other hand, have been reported only in anecdotes, with fusiform aneurysm of the superior vena cava being the commonest. Isolated aneurysms involving the brachiocephalic/innominate vein are extremely rare. We describe detection of a saccular aneurysm of the innominate vein, as the underlying cause of mediastinal widening seen on a chest radiograph in a 42-year-old asymptomatic woman. The characteristic radiological findings of thoracic venous aneurysms are described with particular reference to the importance of multiplanar computed tomography in such settings. Also discussed is the role of imaging in the diagnosis and guiding the management of this rare entity.

  19. Admixture mapping scans identify a locus affecting retinal vascular caliber in hypertensive African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Reich, David; Wong, Tien Y; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Patterson, Nick; Tandon, Arti; Li, Man; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sharrett, A Richey; Kao, W H Linda

    2010-04-15

    Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 ancestry-informative SNPs, we estimated the percentage of African ancestry (PAA) and conducted genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 1,737 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE) representing summary measures of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, respectively, were measured from retinal photographs. PAA was significantly correlated with CRVE (rho = 0.071, P = 0.003), but not CRAE (rho = 0.032, P = 0.182). Using admixture mapping, we did not detect significant admixture association with either CRAE (genome-wide score = -0.73) or CRVE (genome-wide score = -0.69). An a priori subgroup analysis among hypertensive individuals detected a genome-wide significant association of CRVE with greater African ancestry at chromosome 6p21.1 (genome-wide score = 2.31, locus-specific LOD = 5.47). Each additional copy of an African ancestral allele at the 6p21.1 peak was associated with an average increase in CRVE of 6.14 microm in the hypertensives, but had no significant effects in the non-hypertensives (P for heterogeneity retinal vascular caliber and further insights into the interaction between genetic effects of the microvascular system and hypertension.

  20. 视网膜血氧测定仪在眼科的应用进展%Application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 马建民; 王宁利

    2015-01-01

    视网膜血氧测定仪是近年来开始用于眼科疾病诊疗和研究的仪器,可以直接检测视网膜的血氧饱和度,有望为眼科医师更深入地了解眼科疾病提供了新的途径和角度,并阐明视网膜缺血对其功能的影响.目前文献已经报道,视网膜血氧测定仪在包括糖尿病性视网膜病变、视网膜中央动静脉阻塞、视网膜色素变性及青光眼性视神经病变等在内的多种眼病的诊断和治疗中有潜在价值.本文就视网膜血氧测定仪在眼科疾病中的应用进展进行综述.%Retinal oximeter is a new machine which has been used in the diagnose, treatment and research of several ophthalmic diseases for recent years.It allows ophthalmologists to gain retinal oxygen saturation directly.Therefore, retinal oximeter might be useful for ophthalmologists to understand ophthalmic diseases more deeper and clarify the impact of ischemia on retinal function.It has been reported in the literatures that retinal oximeter has potentially useful diagnostic and therapeutic indications in various eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein and artery occlusion, retinitis pigmentosa, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, et al.In this thesis, the application of retinal oximeter in ophthalmology is reviewed.

  1. Admixture mapping scans identify a locus affecting retinal vascular caliber in hypertensive African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Cheng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular caliber provides information about the structure and health of the microvascular system and is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Compared to European Americans, African Americans tend to have wider retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, even after controlling for cardiovascular risk factors. This has suggested the hypothesis that differences in genetic background may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in retinal vascular caliber. Using 1,365 ancestry-informative SNPs, we estimated the percentage of African ancestry (PAA and conducted genome-wide admixture mapping scans in 1,737 African Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study. Central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE representing summary measures of retinal arteriolar and venular caliber, respectively, were measured from retinal photographs. PAA was significantly correlated with CRVE (rho = 0.071, P = 0.003, but not CRAE (rho = 0.032, P = 0.182. Using admixture mapping, we did not detect significant admixture association with either CRAE (genome-wide score = -0.73 or CRVE (genome-wide score = -0.69. An a priori subgroup analysis among hypertensive individuals detected a genome-wide significant association of CRVE with greater African ancestry at chromosome 6p21.1 (genome-wide score = 2.31, locus-specific LOD = 5.47. Each additional copy of an African ancestral allele at the 6p21.1 peak was associated with an average increase in CRVE of 6.14 microm in the hypertensives, but had no significant effects in the non-hypertensives (P for heterogeneity <0.001. Further mapping in the 6p21.1 region may uncover novel genetic variants affecting retinal vascular caliber and further insights into the interaction between genetic effects of the microvascular system and hypertension.

  2. [Calcified deep vein thrombosis in a patient with recurrent deep vein thrombosis and sarcoidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmek, Dubravka Zupanić; Brajković, Ivana; Bekić, Dinko; Krnić, Antun; Jurković, Petar; Pavlović, Tomislav

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we present a rare case of calcified deep vein thrombosis in a 42-year-old female patient with frequent relapses of pulmonary sarcoidosis since 1995, for which she was on maintenance therapy with corticosteroids and with consequential secondary diabetes. Recent femoral vein thrombosis was diagnosed with color Doppler in 2012. At the same time, calcified occlusive thrombus in vena cava inferior from the level of renal vein to the confluence of hepatic veins was diagnosed on abdominal multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). Digital subtraction venography (DSV) revealed a well-developed collateral circulation through the paravertebral veins, azygos and hemiazygos vein. There were no risk factors for thrombosis other than sarcoidosis and diabetes. Deep vein thrombosis is rarely described with sarcoidosis, but according to literature reports, it usually appears as a recurrence and simultaneously at multiple locations. According to the current knowledge, we cannot say for sure whether it is a disease with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis or there is a combination of multiple risk factors present simultaneously.

  3. Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Retinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalam, K V; Sambhav, Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software) helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD), retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA). Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  4. Assessment of blood-retinal barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinores, S A

    1995-01-01

    The blood-retinal barrier consists of two components which are comprised of the retinal vascular endothelium and the retinal pigment epithelium, respectively. Its functional integrity can be recognized by tight junctions between these cells with a paucity of endocytic vesicles within them and the presence of the molecules that regulate the ionic and metabolic gradients that constitute the barrier. The barrier is compromised in several disease processes and by a variety of agents, but in most cases the location and mechanism for barrier failure is not understood. Perfusion with a variety of radiolabeled tracer molecules, vitreous fluorophotometry, or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to quantitate blood-retinal barrier leakage. Fluorescein angiography or magnetic resonance imaging can localize sites of leakage in vivo with limited resolution. Evans blue dye can be used to visualize blood-retinal barrier failure in gross pathological specimens and immuno-histochemical labeling of serum proteins such as albumin or fibrinogen can be used to localize sites of blood-retinal barrier breakdown by light microscopy. Tracers such as horseradish peroxidase, microperoxidase, or lanthanum, or the immunocytochemical demonstration of albumin can be used to reveal blood-retinal barrier breakdown at the ultrastructural level and provide insights into the mechanisms involved. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of each of these methods to aid in selection of the appropriate techniques to derive the desired information.

  5. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  6. Optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K V Chalam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA is a new, non-invasive imaging system that generates volumetric data of retinal and choroidal layers. It has the ability to show both structural and blood flow information. Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA algorithm (a vital component of OCTA software helps to decrease the signal to noise ratio of flow detection thus enhancing visualization of retinal vasculature using motion contrast. Published studies describe potential efficacy for OCTA in the evaluation of common ophthalmologic diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD, retinal vascular occlusions and sickle cell disease. OCTA provides a detailed view of the retinal vasculature, which allows accurate delineation of microvascular abnormalities in diabetic eyes and vascular occlusions. It helps quantify vascular compromise depending upon the severity of diabetic retinopathy. OCTA can also elucidate the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in wet AMD. In this paper, we review the knowledge, available in English language publications regarding OCTA, and compare it with the conventional angiographic standard, fluorescein angiography (FA. Finally, we summarize its potential applications to retinal vascular diseases. Its current limitations include a relatively small field of view, inability to show leakage, and tendency for image artifacts. Further larger studies will define OCTA's utility in clinical settings and establish if the technology may offer a non-invasive option of visualizing the retinal vasculature, enabling us to decrease morbidity through early detection and intervention in retinal diseases.

  7. Genomic analysis of mouse retinal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Blackshaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate retina is comprised of seven major cell types that are generated in overlapping but well-defined intervals. To identify genes that might regulate retinal development, gene expression in the developing retina was profiled at multiple time points using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. The expression patterns of 1,051 genes that showed developmentally dynamic expression by SAGE were investigated using in situ hybridization. A molecular atlas of gene expression in the developing and mature retina was thereby constructed, along with a taxonomic classification of developmental gene expression patterns. Genes were identified that label both temporal and spatial subsets of mitotic progenitor cells. For each developing and mature major retinal cell type, genes selectively expressed in that cell type were identified. The gene expression profiles of retinal Müller glia and mitotic progenitor cells were found to be highly similar, suggesting that Müller glia might serve to produce multiple retinal cell types under the right conditions. In addition, multiple transcripts that were evolutionarily conserved that did not appear to encode open reading frames of more than 100 amino acids in length ("noncoding RNAs" were found to be dynamically and specifically expressed in developing and mature retinal cell types. Finally, many photoreceptor-enriched genes that mapped to chromosomal intervals containing retinal disease genes were identified. These data serve as a starting point for functional investigations of the roles of these genes in retinal development and physiology.

  8. Relationship between Retinal Vascular Caliber and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmor Alon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD patients without diabetes and hypertension. Methods: Intention to treat study of individuals who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT during a two year period. Coronary artery disease (CAD was defined as stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery. Liver and spleen density were measured by abdominal (CT; intima-media thickness (IMT by Doppler ultrasound; retinal artery and vein diameter by colored-retinal angiography; and metabolic syndrome by ATP III guidelines. Serum biomarkers of insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidant-antioxidant status were assessed. Results: Compared with 22 gender and age matched controls, the 29 NAFLD patients showed higher prevalence of coronary plaques (70% vs. 30%, p < 0.001, higher prevalence of coronary stenosis (30% vs. 15%, p < 0.001, lower retinal arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR (0.66 ± 0.06 vs. 0.71 ± 0.02, p < 0.01, higher IMT (0.98 ± 0.3 vs. 0.83 ± 0.1, p < 0.04, higher carotid plaques (60% vs. 40%, p < 0.001, higher homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA (4.0 ± 3.4 vs. 2.0 ± 1.0, p < 0.005, and higher triglyceride levels (200 ± 80 vs. 150 ± 60, p < 0.005 than controls. Multivariate analysis showed fatty liver (OR 2.5; p < 0.01, IMT (OR 2.3 p < 0.001, and retinal AVR ratio (OR 1.5, p < 0.01 to be strongly associated with CAD independent of metabolic syndrome (OR 1.2, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Patients with smaller retinal AVR (<0.7 are likely to be at increased risk for CAD and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with NAFLD even without hypertension or diabetes.

  9. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  10. Automatic diagnosis of retinal diseases from color retinal images

    CERN Document Server

    Jayanthi, D; SwarnaParvathi, S

    2010-01-01

    Teleophthalmology holds a great potential to improve the quality, access, and affordability in health care. For patients, it can reduce the need for travel and provide the access to a superspecialist. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine as it is a largely image based diagnosis. The main goal of the proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease in the retina and to automatically detect and segment retinal diseases without human supervision or interaction. The proposed system will diagnose the disease present in the retina using a neural network based classifier.The extent of the disease spread in the retina can be identified by extracting the textural features of the retina. This system will diagnose the following type of diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Drusen.

  11. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  12. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  13. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  14. A new approach for sclera vein recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. L.; Du, Yingzi; Zhou, Zhi

    2010-04-01

    The vein structure in the sclera is stable over time, unique to each person, and well suited for human identification. A few researchers have performed sclera vein pattern recognition and reported promising initial results. Sclera recognition poses several challenges: the vein structure moves and deforms with the movement of the eye; images of sclera patterns are often defocused and/or saturated; and, most importantly, the vein structure in the sclera is multi-layered and has complex non-linear deformation. In this paper, we proposed a new method for sclera recognition: First, we developed a color-based sclera region estimation scheme for sclera segmentation. Second, we designed a Gabor wavelet-based sclera pattern enhancement method, and an adaptive thresholding method to emphasize and binarize the sclera vein patterns. Third, we proposed a line descriptor-based feature extraction, registration, and matching method that is illumination-, scale-, orientation-, and deformation-invariant, and can mitigate the multi-layered deformation effects exhibited in the sclera and tolerate segmentation error. It is empirically verified using the UBIRIS database that the proposed method can perform accurate sclera recognition.

  15. [New drug therapy for retinal degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohguro, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal degeneration characterized by nyctalopia, ring scotoma, and bone-spicule pigmentation of the retina. So far, no effective therapy has been found for RP. As a possible molecular etiology of RP, retina-specific gene deficits are most likely involved, but little has been identified in terms of intracellular mechanisms leading to retinal photoreceptor cell death at post-translational levels. In order to find an effective therapy for RP, we must look for underlying common mechanisms that are responsible for the development of RP, instead of designing a specific therapy for each of the RP types with different causes. Therefore, in the present study, several animal models with different causes of RP were studied, including (1)Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats with a deficit of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) function caused by rhodopsin mutation; (2) P23H rats, (3) S334ter rats, (4) photo stress rats, (5) retinal degeneration (rd) mice with a deficit of phosphodiesterase(PDE) function; and (6) cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) model rats with a deficit of recoverin-dependent photoreceptor adaptation function. In each of these models, the following assessments were made in order to elucidate common pathological mechanisms among the models: (1) retinal function assessed by electroretinogram (ERG), (2) retinal morphology, (3) retinoid analysis, (4) rhodopsin regeneration, (5) rhodopsin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, and (6) cytosolic cGMP levels. We found that unregulated photoreceptor adaptation processes caused by an imbalance of rhodopsin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation caused retinal dysfunction leading to photoreceptor cell death. As possible candidate drugs for normalizing these retinal dysfunctions and stopping further retinal degeneration, nilvadipine, a Ca channel blocker, retinoid derivatives, and anthocyanine were chosen and tested to determine their effect on the above animal models with

  16. Photostress Testing Device for Diagnosing Retinal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Swan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Retinal diseases such as Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD affect nearly one in three elderly patients. ARMD damages the central vision photoreceptors in the fovea. The Photostress Test is a simple technique for testing for the early effects of ARMD. Here, the illumination sources in a novel self-administered Photostress Testing device were modeled for safety and distribution in illumination software. After satisfying the design constraints in the model, a prototype of the illumination system was fabricated and tested to confirm the modeling results. The resultant prototype can be used to aid in the diagnosis of retinal disease and is well within retinal safety levels.

  17. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, S; Gopal, L

    1996-12-01

    Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil), as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  18. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Sandeep

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil, as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  19. Pressure Changes before and after Explosive Rhyolitic Bomb Ejection at Chaiten, Chile Recorded By Water Diffusion Profiles Around Tuffisite Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffen, H.; McGowan, E.; Castro, J. M.; Berlo, K.; James, M. R.; Owen, J.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Saubin, E.; Wehbe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The recent rhyolitic eruptions at Chaitén and Cordón Caulle have provided valuable new insights into the relationship between explosive and effusive activity, and the gas escape mechanisms that permit rapid effusion of degassed lava[1,2]. Bombs ejected during mixed explosive-effusive activity host spectacular tuffisite veins cutting both dense obsidian (Fig 1a) and highly-expanded pumice. Tuffisite veins are ash-filled fracture networks that act as ephemeral permeable pathways for gas escape in shallow conduits and lava domes. Previous studies have revealed water depletion adjacent to tuffisite veins, leading to models of fracture-triggered pressure release[2] and estimates of gas escape timescales[2,3]. We have characterised water diffusion profiles from a new suite of tuffisite-bearing Chaitén bombs, using synchrotron-source FTIR at the Diamond Light Source, Oxford, UK. Unexpectedly, one exceptionally large tuffisite vein, which is 30 mm thick (Fig. 1a, b) is mantled by zones of strong water enrichment, which enclose the usual narrow depletion zones immediately adjacent to the vein (Fig. 1c). Consistent results from different branches of this vein (Fig. 1b) indicate a similar history. The plausible range of diffusion model solutions points towards ~2-4 hours of vein pressurisation, followed by a brief pre-quench period of lower pressure conditions. In our model the vein opened during a period of overpressure at the lava dome base, sustained by gas influx from a deeper catchment extending hundreds of metres into the upper conduit. Overpressure culminated in violent bomb ejection, after which vein pressure decreased due to gas leakage to the atmosphere through the incompletely welded vein, as observed in rhyolitic bombs from Cordón Caulle (Fig. 1d). Commonly-seen water depletion zones[2,3] may therefore merely record post-fragmentation degassing. However, the enrichment zone points towards the type of deep pressurisation associated with cycles of tilt and

  20. Long-term outcomes in patients undergoing vitrectomy for retinal detachment due to viral retinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida DRP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available David RP Almeida,1 Eric K Chin,1 Ryan M Tarantola,1 Elizabeth O Tegins,1 Christopher A Lopez,1 Herbert Culver Boldt,1 Karen M Gehrs,1 Elliott H Sohn,1 Stephen R Russell,1 James C Folk,1 Vinit B Mahajan1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Omics Laboratory, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA Purpose: To determine the outcomes in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD secondary to viral retinitis. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, consecutive, noncomparative, interventional case series of 12 eyes in ten patients with RRD secondary to viral retinitis. Results of vitreous or aqueous biopsy, effect of antiviral therapeutics, time to retinal detachment, course of visual acuity, and anatomic and surgical outcomes were investigated. Results: There were 1,259 cases of RRD during the study period, with 12 cases of RRD secondary to viral retinitis (prevalence of 0.95%. Follow-up was available for a mean period of 4.4 years. Varicella zoster virus was detected in six eyes, herpes simplex virus in two eyes, and cytomegalovirus in two eyes. Eight patients were treated with oral valacyclovir and two patients with intravenous acyclovir. Lack of optic nerve involvement correlated with improved final visual acuity of 20/100 or greater. Pars plana vitrectomy (n=12, silicone-oil tamponade (n=11, and scleral buckling (n=10 provided successful anatomic retinal reattachment in all cases, with no recurrent retinal detachment and no cases of hypotony during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Varicella zoster virus was the most frequent cause of viral retinitis, and lack of optic nerve involvement was predictive of a favorable visual acuity prognosis. Vitrectomy with silicone-oil tamponade and scleral buckle placement provided stable anatomical outcomes. Keywords: viral retinitis, acute retinal necrosis, herpetic retinitis, vitrectomy, retinal detachment 

  1. The cost-effectiveness of the Argus II retinal prosthesis in Retinitis Pigmentosa patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a hereditary genetic disease causing bilateral retinal degeneration. RP is a leading cause of blindness resulting in incurable visual impairment and drastic reduction in the Quality of life of the patients. Second Sight Medical Products Inc. developed Argus II, a retinal prosthesis system for treating RP. Argus II is the world’s first ever-commercial implant intended to restore some vision in the blind patients. The objective of this study was to assess...

  2. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  3. Comparative Study of Compensatory Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model: Portal Vein Ligation Only versus Sequential Ligation of the Portal Vein and Hepatic Artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young [Dept. of Pathology, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Mo [Dept. of Surgery, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To compare the volume change and the regenerative capacity between portal vein ligation (embolization) (PVL) and heterochronous PVL with hepatic artery ligation (HAL) in a rodent model. The animals were separated into three groups: group I, ligation of the left lateral and median portal vein branches; group II, completion of PVL, followed by ligation of the same branches of the hepatic artery after 48 h; control group, laparotomy without ligation was performed. Five rats from each group were sacrificed on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the operation. Volume change measurement, liver function tests and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. The volume of the nonligated lobe between groups I and II was not significantly different by day 5 and day 7. Mean alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels were significantly higher in group II, while the albumin level was higher in group I. Both c-kit- and MIB-5-positive cells used in the activity detection of regeneration were more prevalent in group I on day 1, 3, and 5, with statistical significance. There was no operation related mortality. PVL alone is safe and effective in compensatory liver regeneration. Performing both PVL and HAL does not confer any additional benefits.

  4. A general principle governs vision-dependent dendritic patterning of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Ping; Sun, Jin Hao; Tian, Ning

    2014-10-15

    Dendritic arbors of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) collect information over a certain area of the visual scene. The coverage territory and the arbor density of dendrites determine what fraction of the visual field is sampled by a single cell and at what resolution. However, it is not clear whether visual stimulation is required for the establishment of branching patterns of RGCs, and whether a general principle directs the dendritic patterning of diverse RGCs. By analyzing the geometric structures of RGC dendrites, we found that dendritic arbors of RGCs underwent a substantial spatial rearrangement after eye-opening. Light deprivation blocked both the dendritic growth and the branch patterning, suggesting that visual stimulation is required for the acquisition of specific branching patterns of RGCs. We further showed that vision-dependent dendritic growth and arbor refinement occurred mainly in the middle portion of the dendritic tree. This nonproportional growth and selective refinement suggest that the late-stage dendritic development of RGCs is not a passive stretching with the growth of eyes, but rather an active process of selective growth/elimination of dendritic arbors of RGCs driven by visual activity. Finally, our data showed that there was a power law relationship between the coverage territory and dendritic arbor density of RGCs on a cell-by-cell basis. RGCs were systematically less dense when they cover larger territories regardless of their cell type, retinal location, or developmental stage. These results suggest that a general structural design principle directs the vision-dependent patterning of RGC dendrites.

  5. Laminins and retinal vascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Malia M; Lefebvre, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling vascular development, both normal and pathological, are not yet fully understood. Many diseases, including cancer and diabetic retinopathy, involve abnormal blood vessel formation. Therefore, increasing knowledge of these mechanisms may help develop novel therapeutic targets. The identification of novel proteins or cells involved in this process would be particularly useful. The retina is an ideal model for studying vascular development because it is easy to access, particularly in rodents where this process occurs post-natally. Recent studies have suggested potential roles for laminin chains in vascular development of the retina. This review will provide an overview of these studies, demonstrating the importance of further research into the involvement of laminins in retinal blood vessel formation.

  6. MRI manifestations of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Rui-li; MA Xiao-ye; CAI Ji-ping; ZHU Huang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To assess MRI in the evaluation of enlarged superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Methods: MRI manifestations and etiology of forty-six patients with enlarged SOV were analyzed. Results: SOV enlargement was noted to occur in carotid-cavernous fistula, ophthalmic Graves'disease, Tolosa-Hunt syndrome, inflammation at the apex of the orbit, orbital pseudotumor and thrombosis of cavernous sinus. The dilated vein appeared as signal void tubular shadows on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The diameter of the enlarged vein was 3.5-6.0 mm. Extraocular muscle enlargement, orbital pathologies, enlarged carotid cavernous sinus etc were also revealed by MRI. Conclusion: The dilated SOV may be well demonstrated by MRI. The etiological diagnosis of enlarged SOV can be made in combination with the associated findings.

  7. Pathogenesis of varicose veins - lessons from biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfisterer, Larissa; König, Gerd; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The development of varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency is preceded by and associated with the pathophysiological remodelling of the venous wall. Recent work suggests that an increase in venous filling pressure is sufficient to promote varicose remodelling of veins by augmenting wall stress and activating venous endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In line with this, known risk factors such as prolonged standing or an obesity-induced increase in venous filling pressure may contribute to varicosis. This review focuses on biomechanically mediated mechanisms such as an increase in wall stress caused by venous hypertension or alterations in blood flow, which may be involved in the onset of varicose vein development. Finally, possible therapeutic options to counteract or delay the progress of this venous disease are discussed.

  8. Integration of retinal image sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Lucia

    1998-10-01

    In this paper a method for noise reduction in ocular fundus image sequences is described. The eye is the only part of the human body where the capillary network can be observed along with the arterial and venous circulation using a non invasive technique. The study of the retinal vessels is very important both for the study of the local pathology (retinal disease) and for the large amount of information it offers on systematic haemodynamics, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. In this paper a method for image integration of ocular fundus image sequences is described. The procedure can be divided in two step: registration and fusion. First we describe an automatic alignment algorithm for registration of ocular fundus images. In order to enhance vessel structures, we used a spatially oriented bank of filters designed to match the properties of the objects of interest. To evaluate interframe misalignment we adopted a fast cross-correlation algorithm. The performances of the alignment method have been estimated by simulating shifts between image pairs and by using a cross-validation approach. Then we propose a temporal integration technique of image sequences so as to compute enhanced pictures of the overall capillary network. Image registration is combined with image enhancement by fusing subsequent frames of a same region. To evaluate the attainable results, the signal-to-noise ratio was estimated before and after integration. Experimental results on synthetic images of vessel-like structures with different kind of Gaussian additive noise as well as on real fundus images are reported.

  9. Photodiode circuits for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, J D; Cogan, S F; Mathieson, K; Sher, A; Palanker, D V

    2011-10-01

    Photodiode circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution retinal prostheses. While several of these systems have been constructed and some even implanted in humans, existing descriptions of the complex optoelectronic interaction between light, photodiode, and the electrode/electrolyte load are limited. This study examines this interaction in depth with theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Actively biased photoconductive and passive photovoltaic circuits are investigated, with the photovoltaic circuits consisting of one or more diodes connected in series, and the photoconductive circuits consisting of a single diode in series with a pulsed bias voltage. Circuit behavior and charge injection levels were markedly different for platinum and sputtered iridium-oxide film (SIROF) electrodes. Photovoltaic circuits were able to deliver 0.038 mC/cm(2) (0.75 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50- μm platinum electrodes, and 0.54-mC/cm(2) (11 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50-μ m SIROF electrodes driven with 0.5-ms pulses of light at 25 Hz. The same pulses applied to photoconductive circuits with the same electrodes were able to deliver charge injections as high as 0.38 and 7.6 mC/cm(2) (7.5 and 150 nC/phase), respectively. We demonstrate photovoltaic stimulation of rabbit retina in-vitro, with 0.5-ms pulses of 905-nm light using peak irradiance of 1 mW/mm(2). Based on the experimental data, we derive electrochemical and optical safety limits for pixel density and charge injection in various circuits. While photoconductive circuits offer smaller pixels, photovoltaic systems do not require an external bias voltage. Both classes of circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prostheses.

  10. Use of 64-slice Spiral CT Angiography of Renal Vein Imaging in Evaluating Renal Vein Abnor-malities%64层3DMSCT在肾静脉异常中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯伟伟; 王云华; 蒋中标; 郑凯

    2015-01-01

    【目的】探讨64层多排螺旋CT(MSCT)三维血管成像(3D MSCTA)在肾静脉中的诊断价值。【方法】收集拟行活体肾移植术供肾者96例,临床可疑胡桃夹综合征者5例,行64层3D M SC T A ,了解肾脏静脉血管起始、数目、分支走行及管径大小,进一步比较3D MSCTA各种图像后处理重建方法对肾静脉异常的显示效果。【结果】双肾静脉均为一支且其起源与走行正常者66例。肾静脉变异35例:包括2条右肾静脉者4例,3条右肾静脉者2例,主动脉后肾静脉者1例,肾静脉细小(考虑可疑胡桃夹综合征)者5例,性腺静脉和或腰静脉及左肾上腺静脉(左肾静脉常见属支)汇入左肾静脉主干者20例,2条左肾静脉者3例(2条肾静脉分别与腹主动脉前后分别汇入下腔静脉者1例;1条肾静脉汇入下腔静脉、一条肾静脉汇入半奇静脉者1例;1条肾静脉汇入下腔静脉、一条肾静脉汇入左髂总静脉者1例)。与手术所见完全一致者为99例,符合率为98%(99/101)。【结论】64层3D MSCTA结合适当的后处理重建方法可满意显示肾静脉正常解剖及变异情况,是评价各种肾静脉异常的准确、安全方法。%[Objective] To explore the use of 3‐dimensional 64‐slice Spiral computed tomography angiogra‐phy (3D MSCTA) in the diagnosis of renal veins .[Methods] A total of 96 cases of potential live renal donor and 5 cases of clinically diagnosed nut‐cracker sign (NCS) were examined by 64‐slice spiral computed tomo‐graphy angiography (CTA) .The origin ,number ,branch ,course and size of renal veins were observed .Fur‐ther comparisons were made for the capacities of deciphering renal vein abnormalities on all kinds of postpro‐cessing reconstruction images of 3D MSCT .[Results]Double renal vein with normal origins and courses were found in 66 cases .Among 35 cases of renal vein variation ,there were double right renal

  11. Portal venous arterialization resulting in increased portal inflow and portal vein wall thickness in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Gang Li; Yong-Liang Chen; Jing-Xi Chen; Lei Qu; Bin-Dang Xue; Zhi-Hai Peng; Zhi-Qiang Huang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To explore the influence of portal vein hemodynamic changes after portal venous arterialization(PVA) on peribiliary vascular plexus (PVP)morphological structure and hepatic pathology,and to establish a theoretical basis for the clinical application of PVA.METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and PVA groups.After PVA,hemodynamic changes of the portal vein and morphological structure of hepatohilar PVP were observed using Doppler ultrasound,liver function tests,ink perfusion transparency management and three-dimensional reconstruction of computer microvisualization,and pathological examination was performed on tissue from the bile duct wall and the liver.RESULTS:After PVA,the cross-sectional area and blood flow of the portal vein were increased,and the increase became more significant over time,in a certain range.If the measure to limit the flow in PVA was not adopted,the high blood flow would lead to dilatation of intrahepatic portal vein and its branches,increase in collagen and fiber degeneration in tunica intima.Except glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT),other liver function tests were normal.CONCLUSION:Blood with a certain flow and oxygen content is important for filling the PVP and meeting the oxygen requirement of the bile duct wall.After PVA,It is the anatomic basis to maintain normal morphology of hepatohilar bile duct wall that the blood with high oxygen content and high flow in arterialized portal vein may fill PVP by collateral vessel reflux.A adequate measure to limit blood flow is necessary in PVA.

  12. Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, E A; Chung, M; Dubra, A; Hunter, J J; Merigan, W H; Williams, D R

    2011-03-01

    Adaptive optics imaging of cone photoreceptors has provided unique insight into the structure and function of the human visual system and has become an important tool for both basic scientists and clinicians. Recent advances in adaptive optics retinal imaging instrumentation and methodology have allowed us to expand beyond cone imaging. Multi-wavelength and fluorescence imaging methods with adaptive optics have allowed multiple retinal cell types to be imaged simultaneously. These new methods have recently revealed rod photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, and the smallest retinal blood vessels. Fluorescence imaging coupled with adaptive optics has been used to examine ganglion cells in living primates. Two-photon imaging combined with adaptive optics can evaluate photoreceptor function non-invasively in the living primate retina.

  13. [Intraocular hypertension after retinal detachment surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

    2012-01-01

    This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachment, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy, internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who developed increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber.

  14. The treatment of bullous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D; Chignell, A H; Inglesby, D V; Little, B C; Franks, W

    1992-01-01

    We describe the results of a consecutive series of 97 cases of bullous superior retinal detachment treated by conventional surgery. The retinal detachments were characterized by either a single retinal break or multiple retinal breaks confined within 1 clock hour and no proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The surgery involved sequential drainage of subretinal fluid, injection of air, cryotherapy and the application of local explant. All cases would otherwise be suitable for pneumatic retinopexy. The anatomical success rate was 85.5% with a single operation and 97% with further procedures. We report on the complications encountered and appraise the advantages and disadvantages of this operation. Forty-five of the 97 cases had detachment of the macula for less than 2 weeks, and 35 of the 45 (80%) achieved a visual acuity of 6/18 or better. These visual results challenge the assertion that better visual outcome might be attained with pneumatic retinopexy.

  15. [Ocular hypertension after surgery for retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muşat, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

    2012-01-01

    This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachement, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who develop increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber.

  16. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesieme EB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is the formation of blood clots (thrombi in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality.Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT.Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google.Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome.Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and selective

  17. Postpartum Ovarian Vein Thrombophlebitis with Staphylococcal Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549

  18. Renal actinomycosis with concomitant renal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dong-Suk; Jang, Won Ik; Jung, Ji Yoon; Chung, Sarah; Choi, Dae Eun; Na, Ki-Ryang; Lee, Kang Wook; Shin, Yong-Tai

    2012-02-01

    Renal actinomycosis is a rare infection caused by fungi of the genus Actinomyces. A 74-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of gross hematuria with urinary symptoms and intermittent chills. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed thrombosis in the left renal vein and diffuse, heterogeneous enlargement of the left kidney. After nephrectomy, sulfur granules with chronic suppurative inflammation were seen microscopically, and the histopathological diagnosis was renal actinomycosis. Our case is the first report of renal actinomycosis with renal vein thrombosis.

  19. Doppler spectral characteristics of infrainguinal vein bypasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina G; von Jessen, F; Sillesen, H;

    1993-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the velocity profile of femoropopliteal and femorocrural vein bypasses, 128 patients undergoing infrainguinal vein bypass surgery entered a postoperative Duplex surveillance protocol, which included clinical assessment and Duplex scanning, using Doppler spectral analysis...... of arteriovenous fistulas the initially antegrade diastolic velocity was replaced by a retrograde flow within 3 months, whereas a forward flow in diastole was sustained in grafts with patent fistulas. Abnormal Duplex findings in 31 patients led to angiography and revision in 13 cases. Four revised grafts failed...

  20. Duplicated Ižnternal Juguler Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirbas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available    Duplicated internal juguler vein (DIJV is a rare anomaly and reported incidence is 0.4 % in the literature. A 45-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital because of non pulsatile neck swelling. The magnetic resonance image (MRI showed left IJVs divided at the angles of the mandible running anterior to the common carotid artery until anterior mediastinal level. Clinicians should be aware of the rare possibility of duplicated IJVs in patients presenting with neck swelling. The development of imaging technics have revealed more cases of duplicated internal juguler vein.

  1. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  2. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  3. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena Sandeep; Gopal Lingam

    1996-01-01

    Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil), as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membrane...

  4. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Liew; Jie Jin Wang; Elena Rochtchina; Tien Yin Wong; Paul Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. METHODS: Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken ...

  5. Pro-neurotrophins secreted from retinal ganglion cell axons are necessary for ephrinA-p75NTR-mediated axon guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broom Emma R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinotectal map formation develops via topographically specific guidance and branching of retinal axons in their target area. This process is controlled, in part, by reverse signalling of ephrinAs expressed on retinal axons. As glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecules, ephrinAs require transmembrane co-receptors to exert this function, for which the two neurotrophin receptors, p75NTR and TrkB, were recently proposed. Results We show here that the ligands for these receptors, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor precursor (proBDNF and its processed form, BDNF, respectively, control the branching of retinal axons antagonistically, which they mediate by inducing the corresponding neurotrophin receptor-ephrinA complexes. Moreover, scavenging proneurotrophins, by adding antibodies specific for the pro-domain of proBNDF or a soluble extracellular domain of p75NTR, abolish repellent ephrinA reverse signalling in the stripe assay. Conclusions This indicates that retinal cells secrete proneurotrophins, inducing the ephrinA-p75NTR interaction and enabling repellent axon guidance. The antagonistic functions of proBDNF and BDNF raise the possibility that topographic branching is controlled by local control of processing of proneurotrophins.

  6. Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delu eSong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD.

  7. Diagnostic imaging in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Nagasawa, Toshihiko; Katome, Takashi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Naito, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a progressive inherited retinal disease, and patients with RP have reduced visual function caused by a degeneration of the photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). At the end stage of RP, the degeneration of the photoreceptors in the fovea reduces central vision, and RP is one of the main causes of acquired blindness in developed countries. Therefore, morphological and functional assessments of the photoreceptors in the macula area can be useful in estimating the residual retinal function in RP patients. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established method of examining the retinal architecture in situ. The photoreceptor inner/outer segment (IS/OS) junction is observed as a distinct, highly reflective line by OCT. The presence of the IS/OS junction in the OCT images is essential for normal visual function. Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) results from the accumulation of lipofuscin in the RPE cells and has been used to investigate RPE and retinal function. More than one-half of RP patients have an abnormally high density parafoveal FAF ring (AF ring). The AF ring represents the border between functional and dysfunctional retina. In this review, we shall summarize recent progress on diagnostic imaging in eyes with RP.

  8. Retinal Vascular Fractals and Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Ong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal microvascular network changes have been found in patients with age-related brain diseases such as stroke and dementia including Alzheimer's disease. We examine whether retinal microvascular network changes are also present in preclinical stages of dementia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 300 Chinese participants (age: ≥60 years from the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore study who underwent detailed clinical examinations including retinal photography, brain imaging and neuropsychological testing. Retinal vascular parameters were assessed from optic disc-centered photographs using a semiautomated program. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered, and cognitive function was summarized as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment no dementia (CIND and dementia were diagnosed according to standard diagnostic criteria. Results: Among 268 eligible nondemented participants, 78 subjects were categorized as CIND-mild and 69 as CIND-moderate. In multivariable adjusted models, reduced retinal arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions were associated with an increased risk of CIND-mild and CIND-moderate. Reduced fractal dimensions were associated with poorer cognitive performance globally and in the specific domains of verbal memory, visuoconstruction and visuomotor speed. Conclusion: A sparser retinal microvascular network, represented by reduced arteriolar and venular fractal dimensions, was associated with cognitive impairment, suggesting that early microvascular damage may be present in preclinical stages of dementia.

  9. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Liu, Zongbin; Zhang, Kai; Han, Xin; Saito, Yuki; Xia, Xiaojun; Yokoi, Kenji; Shen, Haifa; Qin, Lidong

    2015-08-28

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demonstrated by administration of glycinergic factors. In addition, an image-based analytical method was used to quantify the synaptic connections and to assess the kinetics of synaptic regeneration. The rate of RSR decreased significantly below 100 μM of inhibitor glycine and then approached to a relatively constant level at higher concentrations. Furthermore, RSR was enhanced by chemical stimulation with potassium chloride. Collectively, the microfluidic synaptic regeneration chip provides a novel tool for high-throughput investigation of RSR at the cellular level and may be useful in quality control of retinal precursor cell transplantation.

  10. The Use Of The VEINES-QOL/Sym Questionnaire In Patients Operated For Varicose Veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdalski Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous insufficiency is a common, chronic disease that affects nearly half of the population in highly developed countries. The vast majority of affected patients suffer from varicose veins (VV. Recently, the priority in medicine has been patient satisfaction with treatment and high quality of life. Therefore, disease-specific questionnaires that measure quality of life have been developed. One of these is VEINES-QOL/Sym with two subscales that assess quality of life and disease symptoms. To date, it has been used to examine patients with venous ulcers and thrombosis. No data are available concerning the use of VEINES to assess patients after VV surgery.

  11. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  12. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  13. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  14. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Takashi; Hori, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  15. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Osamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA. Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A, in the tissue (MBR-T, and in the vessels (MBR-V were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  16. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  17. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  18. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  19. Brain vein disorders in newborn infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raets, Marlou; Dudink, Jeroen; Raybaud, Charles; Ramenghi, Luca; Lequin, Maarten; Govaert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The brain veins of infants are in a complex phase of remodelling in the perinatal period. Magnetic resonance venography and susceptibility-weighted imaging, together with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound, have provided new tools to aid study of venous developmental anatomy and disease. This review

  20. Gene Variants Associated With Deep Vein Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Irene D.; Bare, Lance A.; Doggen, Carine J.M.; Arellano, Andre R.; Tong, Carmen; Rowland, Charles M.; Catanese, Joseph; Young, Bradford A.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Devlin, James J.; Rosendaal, Frits R.

    2008-01-01

    Context The genetic causes of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are not fully understood. Objective To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with DVT. Design, Setting, and Patients We used 3 case-control studies of first DVT. A total of 19 682 gene-centric SNPs were genotyped in 44

  1. A RARE VARIATION OF GREAT SAPHENOUS VEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakhate Manisha

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The venous system is more complex and variable than arterial system due to its frequent anatomical variations. This paper discusses the anatomy of the great saphenous vein and its variation observed in a male cadaver of around 60 years old.

  2. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology.

  3. Varicose Veins: Role of Mechanotransduction of Venous Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Hussein M.

    2012-01-01

    Varicose veins affect approximately one-third of the adult population and result in significant psychological, physical, and financial burden. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis of varicose vein formation remains unidentified. Venous hypertension exerted on veins of the lower extremity is considered the principal factor in varicose vein formation. The role of mechanotransduction of the high venous pressure in the pathogenesis of varicose vein formation has not been adequately investigated despite a good progress in understanding the mechanomolecular mechanisms involved in transduction of high blood pressure in the arterial wall. Understanding the nature of the mechanical forces, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers in the vein wall, and the downstream signaling pathways will provide new molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins. This paper summarized the current understanding of mechano-molecular pathways involved in transduction of hemodynamic forces induced by blood pressure and tries to relate this information to setting of venous hypertension in varicose veins. PMID:22489273

  4. Varicose Veins: Role of Mechanotransduction of Venous Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein M. Atta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicose veins affect approximately one-third of the adult population and result in significant psychological, physical, and financial burden. Nevertheless, the molecular pathogenesis of varicose vein formation remains unidentified. Venous hypertension exerted on veins of the lower extremity is considered the principal factor in varicose vein formation. The role of mechanotransduction of the high venous pressure in the pathogenesis of varicose vein formation has not been adequately investigated despite a good progress in understanding the mechanomolecular mechanisms involved in transduction of high blood pressure in the arterial wall. Understanding the nature of the mechanical forces, the mechanosensors and mechanotransducers in the vein wall, and the downstream signaling pathways will provide new molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins. This paper summarized the current understanding of mechano-molecular pathways involved in transduction of hemodynamic forces induced by blood pressure and tries to relate this information to setting of venous hypertension in varicose veins.

  5. Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Agents in the Treatment of Retinal Disease: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campochiaro, Peter A; Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2016-10-01

    The association of retinal hypoxia with retinal neovascularization has been recognized for decades, causing Michaelson to postulate in 1948 that a factor secreted by hypoxic retina was involved. The isolation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), characterization of its angiogenic activity, and demonstration that its expression was increased in hypoxic tissue made it a prime candidate. Intraocular levels of VEGF are elevated in patients with retinal or iris neovascularization, and VEGF-specific antagonists markedly suppress retinal neovascularization in mice and primates with ischemic retinopathy. Vascular endothelial growth factor antagonists also suppress choroidal neovascularization, and transgenic expression of VEGF in the retina of mice causes subretinal neovascularization. Clinical trials using a VEGF antagonist that blocks all isoforms of VEGF-A in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) demonstrated dramatic benefit. Similar results have been obtained with 2 other VEGF antagonists. Retinal hypoxia also contributes to diabetic macular edema (DME), and because of the absence of good animal models, small clinical trials were used to test the role of VEGF. The results clearly implicated VEGF as a major contributor to DME and have been confirmed by several large multicenter trials. A similar strategy demonstrated that VEGF is a major contributor to macular edema resulting from retinal vein occlusion, also confirmed in multicenter trials. Secondary outcomes in these large clinical trials have shown that VEGF inhibition improves retinal hemorrhages, retinal vessel closure, and progression of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Anti-VEGF agents also provide therapeutic benefits in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Thus, the development of VEGF antagonists has revolutionized the treatment of nAMD, diabetic retinopathy, and other ischemic retinopathies, but in many patients, the upregulation of VEGF is prolonged. Although the

  6. EVALUATION OF RAT MODEL OF CHRONIC GLAUCOMA BY LIGATING EPISCLERAL VEINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yi-sheng; CAI Kang; CHENG Yu; JIAO Qin; LIU Xiao-hong; YAO Hui-ping; ZHOU Xiao-qing

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate the rat model of chronic glaucoma by episcleral veins ligation (EVL). Methods Experimental glaucoma was induced unilaterally in 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats by ligating two episcleral veins. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in rats was measured by a Goldmann applanation tonometer under 3% pentobarbital sodium anesthesia. The optic nerve head and retinal vasculature were assessed by repeated fundus examinations. The amount of optic nerve axons was assessed by Image-Pro Plus image analysis system in a masked fashion. Results IOP without EVL was (19.21±1.23)mmHg, whereas the EVL eyes gained about 1.8-fold higher IOP [(33.96±2.73)mmHg] after EVL immediately (P<0.001). The elevated IOP gradually decreased over time. However, the differences were kept significant up to 8 weeks after EVL. The IOP was reduced to similar levels as contralateral eyes at 12 and 16 weeks after EVL. The glaucomatous optic nerve excavation appeared in EVL eyes at 8 weeks after EVL, and the optic nerve excavation enlarged gradually with the increasing post-operation time. The amount of optic nerve axons also significantly decreased in EVL eyes at 8 weeks after EVL, and the amount of axons decreased gradually with the increasing post-operation time. Conclusion Increase of IOP caused by EVL represents a useful and efficient model of experimental glaucoma in rats.

  7. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail: akursadpoyraz@yahoo.com.tr; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  8. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Young Ho Park; Kang Ryoung Park

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger‐vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger‐vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are diffic...

  9. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  10. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  11. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  12. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  13. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  14. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Avanesova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD is a severe ocular disorder which requires prompt treatment to prevent low vision and blindness. It is also a significant socio-economic problem as 84% of RDD patients are able-bodied. RRD grading systems (including current Machemer grading system, risk factors, and pathogenesis are reviewed. The role of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in RDD pathogenesis and recurrence is described. Macula involvement determines RDD outcome. Optical coherence tomography (OCT provides the study of retina anatomy and the analysis of parameters that affect post-op best corrected visual acuity, i.e., defects of the junction between inner segments and outer segments (IS/OS, the integrity of external (ELM and internal limiting membrane (ILM, outer nuclear layer thickness (ONLT etc. Fluorescent angiography allows to understand the reasons for low vision in anatomically successful RDD surgery. Scleral buckling, balloon buckling, pneumatic retinopexy, vitrectomy, cryopexy, and laser coagulation are important tools in surgical armamentarium. In recent years, vitrectomy is growing in popularity for RDD treatment. Criteria for procedure selection and surgical success rate in phakic and pseudophakic eyes are discussed. The outcomes of vitrectomy with air/gas and silicone oil tamponade are compared. Bimanual vitrectomy benefits are discussed. 

  15. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Avanesova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD is a severe ocular disorder which requires prompt treatment to prevent low vision and blindness. It is also a significant socio-economic problem as 84% of RDD patients are able-bodied. RRD grading systems (including current Machemer grading system, risk factors, and pathogenesis are reviewed. The role of proliferative vitreoretinopathy in RDD pathogenesis and recurrence is described. Macula involvement determines RDD outcome. Optical coherence tomography (OCT provides the study of retina anatomy and the analysis of parameters that affect post-op best corrected visual acuity, i.e., defects of the junction between inner segments and outer segments (IS/OS, the integrity of external (ELM and internal limiting membrane (ILM, outer nuclear layer thickness (ONLT etc. Fluorescent angiography allows to understand the reasons for low vision in anatomically successful RDD surgery. Scleral buckling, balloon buckling, pneumatic retinopexy, vitrectomy, cryopexy, and laser coagulation are important tools in surgical armamentarium. In recent years, vitrectomy is growing in popularity for RDD treatment. Criteria for procedure selection and surgical success rate in phakic and pseudophakic eyes are discussed. The outcomes of vitrectomy with air/gas and silicone oil tamponade are compared. Bimanual vitrectomy benefits are discussed. 

  16. Primary varicose veins: Frequency, clinical significance and surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Dragan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION According to the definition of the World Health Organization, varicose veins represent abnormally enlarged superficial veins having baggy or cylindrical shape. The most frequent cause of primary varicose veins is the insufficiency of long saphenous vein (LSV, but especially the basin of its connection with femoral vein and perforating veins. OBJECTIVE The objectives of these investigations were: the determination of insufficiency incidence of SSV in cases of LSV insufficiency; the establishment of association of insufficiency of perforating veins of the basin of LSV and SSV; the study of the results of surgical treatment of insufficiency and varicosity of both short and long saphenous veins. METHODS In this study, 100 patients (66 women and 34 men, average age 52.1 years, with clinical symptoms showing the insufficiency and varicosity of long saphenous vein with no change of deep vein system were examined. Ultrasonographic examinations were made using Color Doppler probes - 7.5 and 3.75 MHz (Toshiba Corevison SSA 350 A; the development of incompetence of long saphenous vein (LSV and short saphenous vein (SSV at the level of the junction as well as other incompetent valves were examined. The reflux was defined as a retrograde flow of the duration longer than 0.5 seconds. RESULTS The insufficiency of short saphenous vein was determined by ultrasonographic examination in 34%, while the insufficiency of perforating veins in 80% of patients. 40% of patients were operated (33.3% of females, and 52.9% of males. The most frequent indications for surgical treatment of superficial veins insufficiency were: strong varicosities, clear symptoms and signs, superficial thrombophlebitis and conditions after superficial thrombophlebitis. Surgical treatment was applied in 16% of patients due to recurrence in the basin of long saphenous vein, and in 6% of cases because of the recurrence in the basin of short saphenous vein. Data analysis failed to

  17. Melanopsin retinal ganglion cell loss in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Koronyo, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Melanopsin retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) are photoreceptors driving circadian photoentrainment, and circadian dysfunction characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated mRGCs in AD, hypothesizing their contribution to circadian dysfunction. METHODS: We assessed retinal nerve...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions NARP neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa ( NARP ) is a condition that ...

  19. Retinal Vessel Segmentation Using A New Topological Method

    CERN Document Server

    Brooks, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A novel topological segmentation of retinal images represents blood vessels as connected regions in the continuous image plane, having shape-related analytic and geometric properties. This paper presents topological segmentation results from the DRIVE retinal image database.

  20. [Forensic medical implications in the course of sclerotherapy of varicose veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, J; Farman, T

    1996-11-01

    Complications are exceptional compared to the number of sclerosis treatments performed. We report 58 case-files with medico-legal implications. Intraarterial injections are by far the most severe complications: we observed 40 such cases with the following consequences: 7 major amputations including 2 above the knee and 5 below the knee, 6 minor peripheral amputations of one or more toes, 27 severe sequelae, mainly due to retraction of the triceps sural muscle. This type of accident occurs more readily after attempted sclerosis of the lesser saphenous vein "crosse", although other localizations can be involved: inguinal area by sclerosis of the greater saphenous vein "crosse", the lower third of the leg with direct injection into the anterior or posterior tibial artery or its branches. Subcutaneous injections of the sclerosis agent produce either simple inflammatory reactions or skin necrosis. Neurological disorders can be observed by direct damage to the nerve. Sensorial complications may occur by lesion of a cutaneous branch of the popliteal sciatic nerve. Other cases involve motor disorders. Pulmonary thromboembolic events (4 cases) appear to be exception when modern criteria for the diagnosis of phlebitis are used. General allergic and anaphylactic reactions are very rare and often related to overdose. The same is true for toxic reactions. One case of septicemia occurred after incision of post-sclerosis clots. From a medicolegal point of view, the responsibility of the practician is usually confirmed for severe accidents (intraarterial injections) leading to trophic disorders. For necrosis or limited eschars, the question is debated.

  1. Treatment of recurrent varicose veins of the great saphenous vein by conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendael, L. van; Vliet, J.A. van der; Flinkenflogel, L.; Roovers, E.A.; Sterkenburg, S.M. van; Reijnen, M.M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Varicose vein recurrence of the great saphenous vein (GSV) is a common, costly, and complex problem. The aim of the study was to assess feasibility of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in recurrent varicose veins of the GSV and to compare this technique with conventional surgical reinterve

  2. Stem Cell Therapies in Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakriti Garg

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has long been considered a promising mode of treatment for retinal conditions. While human embryonic stem cells (ESCs have provided the precedent for regenerative medicine, the development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs revolutionized this field. iPSCs allow for the development of many types of retinal cells, including those of the retinal pigment epithelium, photoreceptors, and ganglion cells, and can model polygenic diseases such as age-related macular degeneration. Cellular programming and reprogramming technology is especially useful in retinal diseases, as it allows for the study of living cells that have genetic variants that are specific to patients’ diseases. Since iPSCs are a self-renewing resource, scientists can experiment with an unlimited number of pluripotent cells to perfect the process of targeted differentiation, transplantation, and more, for personalized medicine. Challenges in the use of stem cells are present from the scientific, ethical, and political realms. These include transplant complications leading to anatomically incorrect placement, concern for tumorigenesis, and incomplete targeting of differentiation leading to contamination by different types of cells. Despite these limitations, human ESCs and iPSCs specific to individual patients can revolutionize the study of retinal disease and may be effective therapies for conditions currently considered incurable.

  3. [Genetic diagnostic testing in inherited retinal dystrophies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, S; Biskup, S

    2013-03-01

    Inherited retinal dystrophies are clinically and genetically highly heterogeneous. They can be divided according to the clinical phenotype and course of the disease, as well as the underlying mode of inheritance. Isolated retinal dystrophies (i.e., retinitis pigmentosa, Leber's congenital amaurosis, cone and cone-rod dystrophy, macular dystrophy, achromatopsia, congenital stationary nightblindness) and syndromal forms (i.e., Usher syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome) can be differentiated. To date almost 180 genes and thousands of distinct mutations have been identified that are responsible for the different forms of these blinding illnesses. Until recently, there was no adequate diagnostic genetic testing available. With the development of the next generation sequencing technologies, a comprehensive genetic screening analysis for all known genes for inherited retinal dystrophies has been established at reasonable costs and in appropriate turn-around times. Depending on the primary clinical diagnosis and the presumed mode of inheritance, different diagnostic panels can be chosen for genetic testing. Statistics show that in 55-80 % of the cases the genetic defect of the inherited retinal dystrophy can be identified with this approach, depending on the initial clinical diagnosis. The aim of any genetic diagnostics is to define the genetic cause of a given illness within the affected patient and family and thereby i) confirm the clinical diagnosis, ii) provide targeted genetic testing in family members, iii) enable therapeutic intervention, iv) give a prognosis on disease course and progression and v) in the long run provide the basis for novel therapeutic approaches and personalised medicine.

  4. Retinal haemorrhages in vacuum extraction deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahgat Mostafa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty eight newly born infants were subjected to fundus examination in the first 5 hours of labour then daily till discharge from the hospital then weekly till complete absorption of retinal haemorrhages The 238 infants were 23 delivered by caesarean section, 90 with spontaneous vaginal delivery,45 babies (over3.5 kgm delivered vaginallyand80 delivered by vacuum extraction. It was found that 37.39% of the newborns had retinal haemorrhages. The incidence, type and severity of retinal haemorrhages were related to the extent of obstetric trauma during birth. They were least with caesarean section. (4.35%, more in babies with spontaneous vaginal delivery (20%, more higher in infants over 3.5 kgm birth weight (33.33% and maximum in vacuum extraction deliveries (68.75%. A good correlation was made between the site and duration of cup application, level and rate of increase of negative pressure, the presence and size of cephalhematoma and the incidence and severity of retinal haemorrhages A good choice of cases as well as good control of the technique of vacuum extraction will minimize the incidence and severity of retinal haemorrhages in the new born.

  5. External Approach Microsurgery of Retinal Dialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhang; Piqing Hu; Lixin Shun; Xuechun Zhu; Yingwu Yi; Wen Liu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the effect of external approach microsurgery in retinal dialysis.Methods: Consecutive 30 eyes of 28 patients with retinal dialysis were enrolled for this study. The progresses of the external approach microsurgery were following. Under the surgical microscopy, the preplacement of mattress sutures for buckling and/or encircling following retrobulbar anesthesia and scleral exposure, draining subretinal fluid, the cryotherapy of retinal breaks, checking the position of breaks on scleral buckle and gases injection were performed in turn.Results: After drainage of subretinal fluid, with scleral depression cryotherapy reaction around breaks could be observed clearly under the microscopy. All breaks were located on anterior slope of the buckle. Intraoperative complications were mild subretinal hemorrhage at drainage site and corneal epithelium exfoliation in 3 eyes, respectively.Postoperative complications were mainly secondary glaucoma and retinal redetachment.The one-operation reattachmentl rate was 96.7% (29 eyes), and the final reattachment rate was 100% after one eye had a second external approach microsurgery. The postoperative vision acuity (VA) was significantly better than the preoperative VA (X2=9.529, P< 0.01).Conclusion: External approach microsurgery has favourable effect on the surgery of retinal dialysis.

  6. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Omaha, NE (United States); Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Omaha, NE (United States); Lyden, Elizabeth R. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Public Health, Omaha, NE (United States); Haney, Suzanne B. [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Omaha, NE (United States); University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  7. Primary leiomyosarcoma of saphenous vein presenting as deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremed, Daniel I; Faries, Peter L; Schanzer, Harry R; Marin, Michael L; Ting, Windsor

    2014-12-01

    Only a small number of venous leiomyosarcomas have been previously reported. Of these tumors, those of saphenous origin comprise a minority of cases. A 59-year-old man presented with symptoms of deep vein thrombosis and was eventually diagnosed with primary leiomyosarcoma of great saphenous vein origin. The tumor was treated with primary resection and femoral vein reconstruction with autologous patch. Although extremely rare, saphenous leiomyosarcoma can present as deep vein thrombosis. Vascular tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of atypical extremity swelling refractory to conventional deep vein thrombosis management.

  8. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Tajada, Fernando Llosa; Vargas, Juan Rosas; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-07-01

    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au-Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E-W vein with secondary N55-60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have been guided by regional N40°E and N40°W fractures. Two main vein-filling stages are identified. stage 1 is a quartz-adularia-pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite-electrum-Mn silicate-carbonate assemblage that fills the main E-W veins. stage 2, which contains most of the precious-metal mineralization, is divided into pre-bonanza and bonanza substages. The pre-bonanza substage consists of a quartz-adularia-carbonate assemblage that is observed within the secondary N45-60°W veins, in veinlets that cut the stage 1 assemblage, and in final open-space fillings. The two latter structures are finally filled by the bonanza substage characterized by a Fe-poor sphalerite-chalcopyrite-pyrite-galena-tennantite-tetrahedrite-polybasite-pearceite-electrum assemblage. The ore in the main veins is systematically brecciated, whereas the ore in the secondary veins and geodes is characteristic of open-space crystallization. Microthermometric measurements on sphalerite from both stages and on quartz and calcite from stage 2 indicate a salinity range of 0 to 15.5 wt% NaCl equivalent and homogenization temperatures bracketed between 200 and 330°C. Secondary CO2-, N2- and H2S-bearing fluid inclusions are also identified. The age of vein emplacement, based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained on adularia of different veins, is estimated at around 11 Ma, with some overlap between adularia of stage 1 (11.4±0.4 Ma) and of stage 2 (10.8±0.3 Ma). A three-phase tectonic model has been constructed to explain the

  9. The porcine retinal vasculature accessed using an endovascular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morén, Håkan; Undrén, Per; Gesslein, Bodil;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the retinal circulation in the pig can be accessed using interventional neuroradiology and to explore the possibility of creating occlusions that result in experimental retinal ischemia.......The aim of this study was to examine whether the retinal circulation in the pig can be accessed using interventional neuroradiology and to explore the possibility of creating occlusions that result in experimental retinal ischemia....

  10. Contribution of Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation to Retinal Degenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Madeira, Maria H.; Raquel Boia; Santos, Paulo F.; António F. Ambrósio; Santiago, Ana R.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide and are characterized by chronic and progressive neuronal loss. One common feature of retinal degenerative diseases and brain neurodegenerative diseases is chronic neuroinflammation. There is growing evidence that retinal microglia, as in the brain, become activated in the course of retinal degenerative diseases, having a pivotal role in the initiation and propagation of the neurodegenerative process. A bett...

  11. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The lessons we learned are (1 Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2 Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3 Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4 It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  12. Retinal blood flow velocity in patients with active uveitis using the retinal function imager

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xing; Kedhar Sanjay; Bhoomibunchoo Chavakij

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest a link between macular edema and retinal blood flow velocity (RBFV).The effects of inflammation in the retinal blood vessels are not clearly understood.We want to evaluate the differences in retinal blood flow velocities of patients with active uveitis and healthy controls using the retinal function imager (RFI)and determine the correlation between retinal blood flow veiocity and central macular thickness in uveitis patients.Methods Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients with active anterior uveitis and 51 eyes of 51 normal control subjects were enrolled.Retinal blood flow velocities evaluated by RFI and central macular thickness evaluated by optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT) were obtained.Differences among the groups were assessed using Stata statistical software.Results Ten eyes had uveitic cystoid macular edema (CME).Median (first quartile,third quartile) venous velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 2.09 (1.92,2.44),2.64 (2.32,2.86),and 2.82 (2.39,3.53) mm/s respectively.Median (first and quartile) arterial velocity for uveitic eyes with CME,uveitic eyes without CME,and controls were 3.79 (3.61,4.09),3.46 (2.86,4.12),and 3.93 (3.35,4.65) mm/s.Uveitic eyes with CME had significantly lower venous velocity than controls (P=0.044).There was a strong linear relationship between venous velocity and central retinal thickness (P=-0.007).Conclusions Retinal venous velocities were significantly decreased in eyes with uveitic CME relative to controls.Decreased venous velocity was correlated with increased central retinal thickness in uveitic eyes.

  13. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  14. Clinical Features of Primary Vein Grafts in Free Tissue Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Nemoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcomes of free tissue transfers combined with vein grafts have been inconsistent, and discussions continue regarding their appropriate use. Of the 142 free tissue transfers that we performed from January 2004 to December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 15 consecutive patients who underwent free tissue transfers in combination with vein grafts. Etiologies included trauma (8 patients, infection (4, and tumor (3. Types of free tissue transfers were fibula (4, anterolateral thigh (3, groin (3, jejunum (3, latissimus dorsi (1, and dorsal pedis (1. Vein grafts were used for the artery (6, vein (2, or both (7. The donor veins were the saphenous vein (12 and the external jugular vein (3. The mean length of the grafted veins was 10.8 cm (range: 4–18 cm. Even though complications of congestion occurred in 2 patients, these flaps survived by reexploration. The flap success rate was 15 of 15 (100% of vein grafted free flaps versus 124 of 127 (97.6% of free flaps not requiring vein grafts. To improve the success rate of free tissue transfers combined with vein grafts, securing healthy recipient vessels, meticulous surgical handling, a reliable vascular anastomosis technique, and strict postoperative monitoring are crucial.

  15. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  16. Ovarian vein thrombosis in a polytrauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Emma; Beaven, Alastair; Balogun, Moji; Porter, Keith

    2015-12-18

    A young mother presented to a major trauma centre following a road traffic collision. Her admission CT traumagram demonstrated liver and renal lacerations, spinal and pelvic fractures with no abnormalities of the ovarian veins. Her inpatient course was uncomplicated other than a sustained, isolated raised C reactive protein. CT of the abdomen 1 week after injury demonstrated stable solid organ injuries and the additional, unexpected finding of a right ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT). A pragmatic approach was taken towards the management of the OVT given the haemorrhagic risk from her traumatic injuries. A multidisciplinary, consultant-led plan was made to slowly increase enoxaparin to a therapeutic dose under close surveillance and to then switch to warfarin following an outpatient consultation with a consultant haematologist. A MR venogram was performed after 3 months of anticoagulation, and this demonstrated complete resolution of the OVT and normal appearances of the ovary.

  17. The great brain versus vein debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ravi S

    2012-08-15

    From the earliest fMRI experiments, it was quickly appreciated by those working with BOLD at high field that the signal change originated from visible veins whose spatial localization was relatively coarse ("the macrovasculature"), and smaller vessels ("the microvasculature") that were not individually visible in BOLD images. It was expected that a functional brain imaging technique that was predominantly sensitive to the macrovasculature would not have the same effective resolution as one sensitive to the microvasculature. Elimination of the venous signal and enhancement of the microvascular one offered the tantalizing ability to image columnar and lamellar structures in the brain and distinguished fMRI from its predecessor techniques. This article reviews a brief history of how these signal sources were first identified and separated and some of the controversy associated with the "brain versus vein" debate.

  18. Pulmonary vein stenosis: Etiology, diagnosis and management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pablo Pazos-López; Cristina García-Rodríguez; Alba Guitián-González; Emilio Paredes-Galán; María ángel; De La Guarda álvarez-Moure; Marta Rodríguez-álvarez; José Antonio Baz-Alonso; Elvis Teijeira-Fernández; Francisco Eugenio Calvo-Iglesias; Andrés í?iguez-Romo

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary vein stenosis(PVS) is rare condition characterized by a challenging diagnosis and unfavorable prognosis at advance stages. At present, injury from radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation has become the main cause of the disease. PVS is characterized by a progressive lumen size reduction of one or more pulmonary veins that, when hemodynamically significant, may raise lobar capillary pressure leading to signs and symptoms such as shortness of breath, cough, and hemoptysis. Image techniques(transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and perfusion imaging) are essential to reach a final diagnosis and decide an appropriate therapy. In this regard, series from referral centers have shown that surgical and transcatheter interventions may improve prognosis. The purpose of this article is to review the etiology, assessment and management of PVS.

  19. Retinal vascular and structural dynamics during acute hyperglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver N; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare retinal vascular dynamics during acute hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with type 2 diabetes and 27 healthy controls were examined with fundus photographic measurement of retinal vessel diameters, retinal oxim...

  20. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Booij (Judith); S. van Soest (Simone); S.M.A. Swagemakers (Sigrid); A.H.W. Essing (Anke); J.H.M. Verkerk (Annemieke); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy