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Sample records for branch retinal vein

  1. Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Scherfig, Erik;

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  2. Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Its Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desmond; Archer

    1992-01-01

    The natural course of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion is determined by the site and completeness of the occlusion, the integrity of arterial perfusion to the affected sector and the efficiency of the developing collateral circulation. Most patients with tributary vein occlusion have some capillary fall out and microvascular incompetence in the distribution of the affected retina and vision is significantly compromised in over 50% of patients who have either chronic macular oedema or ischemia involving the...

  3. Metamorphopsia Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Koichiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Osaka, Rie; Nakano, Yuki; Fujita, Tomoyoshi; Shiragami, Chieko; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Uji, Akihito; Muraoka, Yuki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To apply M-CHARTS for quantitative measurements of metamorphopsia in eyes with acute branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and to elucidate the pathomorphology that causes metamorphopsia. Methods This prospective study consisted of 42 consecutive patients (42 eyes) with acute BRVO. Both at baseline and one month after treatment with ranibizumab, metamorphopsia was measured with M-CHARTS, and the retinal morphological changes were examined with optical coherence tomography. Results At baseline, metamorphopsia was detected in the vertical and/or horizontal directions in 29 (69.0%) eyes; the mean vertical and horizontal scores were 0.59 ± 0.57 and 0.52 ± 0.67, respectively. The maximum inner retinal thickness showed no association with the M-CHARTS score, but the M-CHARTS score was correlated with the total foveal thickness (r = 0.43, p = 0.004), the height of serous retinal detachment (r = 0.31, p = 0.047), and the maximum outer retinal thickness (r = 0.36, p = 0.020). One month after treatment, both the inner and outer retinal thickness substantially decreased. However, metamorphopsia persisted in 26 (89.7%) of 29 eyes. The posttreatment M-CHARTS score was not correlated with any posttreatment morphological parameters. However, the posttreatment M-CHARTS score was weakly correlated with the baseline total foveal thickness (r = 0.35. p = 0.024) and closely correlated with the baseline M-CHARTS score (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Conclusions Metamorphopsia associated with acute BRVO was quantified using M-CHARTS. Initial microstructural changes in the outer retina from acute BRVO may primarily account for the metamorphopsia. PMID:27123642

  4. Clinical trials in branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandava Krishnan Panakanti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is the second most common retinal vascular disorder. The management of macular edema has changed considerably over time. The laser is considered the gold standard treatment for over two decades. However, visual recovery with laser is usually slow and incomplete. The advent of intravitreal agents, specifically anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF have heralded a new era which promises rapid recovery of vision and quality of vision. Randomized clinical trials have reported optimal results with anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and aflibercept compared to laser therapy or steroids. However, nearly 50% of the patients require repeat intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy up to 4 years after initiating therapy to sustain the visual gains. The adverse events (systemic and ocular of these agents are minimal. Monotherapy with anti-VEGF agents have been found to provide better results than any combination with laser. This review article summarizes evidence from randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment options for the treatment of macular edema secondary to BRVO with a special focus on anti-VEGF therapy.

  5. Branch retinal vein occlusion associated with quetiapine fumarate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siang Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report a case of branch retinal vein occlusion in a young adult with bipolar mood disorder treated with quetiapine fumarate. Case Presentation A 29 years old gentleman who was taking quetiapine fumarate for 3 years for bipolar mood disorder, presented with sudden vision loss. He was found to have a superior temporal branch retinal vein occlusion associated with hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion Atypical antipsychotic drugs have metabolic side effects which require regular monitoring and prompt treatment.

  6. Sequential occlusion of the branch retinal artery and branch retinal vein in a patient with hypertension: an interventional case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Norio; Matsumoto, Chota; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Background There are some cases that reported central retinal vein occlusion accompanied by ciliary artery occlusion, however, combined branch retinal artery and vein occlusion is a rare condition that has been infrequently reported. We describe in this report one case of retinal vein occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion occurring simultaneously. Case presentation A 50 year-old woman presented with acute visual loss in her right eye. Fundus photography showed retinal ischemia and tor...

  7. Multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusions in hyperhomocysteinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Diwakar Gore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperhomocysteinemia is a well-known modifiable risk factor for thromboembolism. Retinal vascular occlusion in patients having hyperhomocysteinemia is a known entity, particularly in young patients. However, multiple extra macular branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is a rare condition, which can be a presentation of this disease. We present a patient who had multiple extra macular BRVO; on complete systemic workup, he was found to have raised homocysteine levels.

  8. Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan René; Rosenberg, Niels Thomas; Christoffersen, Nynne; Vorum, Henrik; Gade, Else; Larsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion....

  9. Combined branch retinal vein and artery occlusion in toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggio, Fabio Bom; Novelli, Fernando José de; Rosa, Evandro Luis; Nobrega, Mário Junqueira

    2016-01-01

    A 22-year-old man complained of low visual acuity and pain in his left eye for five days. His ophthalmological examination revealed 2+ anterior chamber reaction and a white, poorly defined retinal lesion at the proximal portion of the inferotemporal vascular arcade. There were retinal hemorrhages in the inferotemporal region extending to the retinal periphery. In addition, venous dilation, increased tortuosity, and ischemic retinal whitening along the inferotemporal vascular arcade were also observed. A proper systemic work-up was performed, and the patient was diagnosed with ocular toxoplasmosis. He was treated with an anti-toxoplasma medication, and his condition slowly improved. Inferior macular inner and middle retinal atrophy could be observed on optical coherence tomography as a sequela of ischemic injury. To our knowledge, this is the first report of combined retinal branch vein and artery occlusion in toxoplasmosis resulting in a striking and unusual macular appearance. PMID:27463632

  10. Retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central retinal vein occlusion; Branch retinal vein occlusion; CRVO; BRVO ... Retinal vein occlusion is most often caused by hardening of the arteries ( atherosclerosis ) and the formation of a blood clot. Blockage ...

  11. Concurrent central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion in giant cell arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Edward R Chu, Celia S ChenDepartment of Ophthalmology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Ophthalmic involvement in giant cell arteritis can manifest in a number of ways. Central retinal artery occlusion is one of the common causes of visual loss in giant cell arteritis. On the contrary, branch retinal vein occlusion is rarely associated with the latter. We report an 89-year-old lady with acute left central retinal artery occlusion on a backg...

  12. Treatment of branch retinal vein occlusion induced macular edema with bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Barthelmes Daniel; Wolf-Schnurrbusch Ute; Tappeiner Christoph; Abegg Mathias; Wolf Sebastian; Fleischhauer Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Branch retinal vein occlusion is a frequent cause of visual loss with currently insufficient treatment options. We evaluate the effect of Bevacizumab (Avastin®) treatment in patients with macular edema induced by branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods Retrospective analysis of 32 eyes in 32 patients with fluorescein angiography proven branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema and Bevacizumab treatment. Outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity in logMAR and cen...

  13. Sequential occlusion of the branch retinal artery and branch retinal vein in a patient with hypertension: an interventional case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Norio Okamoto, Chota Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Shimomura Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama City, Osaka, Japan Background: There are some cases that reported central retinal vein occlusion accompanied by ciliary artery occlusion, however, combined branch retinal artery and vein occlusion is a rare condition that has been infrequently reported. We describe in this report one case of retinal vein occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion occurring simu...

  14. Sequential occlusion of the branch retinal artery and branch retinal vein in a patient with hypertension: an interventional case report

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto N; Matsumoto C; Shimomura Y

    2014-01-01

    Norio Okamoto, Chota Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Shimomura Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama City, Osaka, Japan Background: There are some cases that reported central retinal vein occlusion accompanied by ciliary artery occlusion, however, combined branch retinal artery and vein occlusion is a rare condition that has been infrequently reported. We describe in this report one case of retinal vein occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion occurring simu...

  15. Treatment of Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion induced Macular Edema with Bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthelmes Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Branch retinal vein occlusion is a frequent cause of visual loss with currently insufficient treatment options. We evaluate the effect of Bevacizumab (Avastin® treatment in patients with macular edema induced by branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods Retrospective analysis of 32 eyes in 32 patients with fluorescein angiography proven branch retinal vein occlusion, macular edema and Bevacizumab treatment. Outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity in logMAR and central retinal thickness in OCT. Results Visual acuity was significantly better 4 to 6 weeks after Bevacizumab treatment compared to visual acuity prior to treatment (before 0.7 ± 0.3 and after 0.5 ± 0.3; mean ± standard deviation; p Conclusion We present evidence that intravitreal Bevacizumab is an effective and lasting treatment for macular edema after branch retinal vein occlusion.

  16. Role of aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: comparison of clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Oellers P; Grewal DS; Fekrat S

    2016-01-01

    Patrick Oellers,1,2 Dilraj S Grewal,1,2 Sharon Fekrat1,2 1Duke Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, 2Surgical Service, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: For years, the standard of care for branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema was initial observation followed by grid-pattern laser photocoagulation for persistent edema. Newer pharmacologic options have revolutionized the management of branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular ede...

  17. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection effects on contrast sensitivity in macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Rony Carlos Preti; Lisa Mariel Vasquez Ramirez; Sergio Luis Gianotti Pimentel; Augusto Alves Lopes Motta; Cleide Guimarães Machado; Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro; Walter Yukihiko Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness in eyes with macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with macular edema from unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single bevacizumab injection. Patients were submitted to a complete evaluation including best corrected visual acuity, contr...

  18. Effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on retinal function after experimental branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Rasmus; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Kyhn, Maria Voss;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs.......The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) following an induced branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs....

  19. Comparison Between Intravitreal Bevacizumab and Triamcinolone for Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Young; Park, Sung Pyo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab to those of triamcinolone acetonide injection for the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods This retrospective study included 50 eyes of 50 patients who received a single injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL, 22 eyes) or triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg/0.1 mL, 28 eyes) as the only treatment for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion; all patients had a post-inj...

  20. Intravitreal bevacizumab in macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion: 12-month results

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa R; Maharjan N; Paudyal G

    2012-01-01

    Raba Thapa,1 Nhukesh Maharjan,2 Govinda Paudyal11Vitreo-retinal Service, Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, 2Research Department, Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu, NepalPurpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety, anatomical, and visual outcomes following intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech) on macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).Methods: A prospective, interventional case series study was conducted among pa...

  1. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hyp...

  2. Study of retinal vessel oxygen saturation in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei-Lei; Dong, Yan-Min; Zong, Yao; Zheng, Qi-Shan; Fu, Yue; Yuan, Yong-Guang; Huang, Xia; Qian, Garrett; Gao, Qian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore how oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels is altered in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS Fifty BRVO eyes were divided into ischemic (n=26) and non-ischemic (n=24) groups, based on fundus fluorescein angiography. Healthy individuals (n=52 and n=48, respectively) were also recruited as controls for the two groups. The mean oxygen saturations of the occluded vessels and central vessels were measured by oximetry in the BRVO and control groups. RESULTS In the ischemic BRVO group, the occluded arterioles oxygen saturation (SaO2-A, 106.0%±14.3%), instead of the occluded venule oxygen saturation (SaO2-V, 60.8%±9.4%), showed increases when compared with those in the same quadrant vessels (SaO2-A, 86.1%±16.5%) in the contralateral eyes (P<0.05). The oxygen saturations of the central vessels showed similar trends with those of the occluded vessels. In the non-ischemic BRVO group, the occluded and central SaO2-V and SaO2-A showed no significant changes. In both the ischemic and non-ischemic BRVOs, the central SaO2-A was significantly increased when compared to healthy individuals. CONCLUSION Obvious changes in the occluded and central SaO2-A were found in the ischemic BRVO group, indicating that disorders of oxygen metabolism in the arterioles may participate in the pathogenesis of ischemic BRVO. PMID:26949618

  3. Pharmacological intravitreal treatment for macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion: Three-month results

    OpenAIRE

    Karadžić Jelena; Kovačević Igor; Ljikar Jelena; Grgić Zorka; Devečerski Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Macular edema is the main cause of visual loss in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Macular edema is initially reversible, but over time, permanent loss of vision occurs from structural damage to the macula. For this reason, there is a need for more rapid and effective treatments than laser photocoagulation which has been established as a gold standard. There are several pharmacologic agents which have changed the management of macu...

  4. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: 12-month results

    OpenAIRE

    Demir M; Oba E.; Gulkilik G; Odabasi M; Ozdal E

    2011-01-01

    Mehmet Demir, Ersin Oba, Gökhan Gulkilik, Mahmut Odabasi, Erhan OzdalSisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Sisli, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: To present the functional and anatomic changes after intravitreal bevacizumab in eyes with macular edema (ME) due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).Design: The study was a retrospective study.Materials and methods: The study included 31 patients with ME due to BRVO. We compared the examination findings of patients with ME b...

  5. Neuroprotective effect of minocycline in a rat model of branch retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuan; Li, Xiao-Xin; He, Xiang-Jun; Zhang, Qi; Tao, Yong

    2013-08-01

    Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is the second most frequent retinal vascular disorder. Currently the first-line therapies for BRVO include anti-VEGF and dexamethasone implant treatment, however, with direct or indirect damage on retinal neurons, it has limited effect in improving patients visual acuity. Therefore, novel treatments with neuroprotective effect for BRVO retina were expected. Minocycline is a semisynthetic, broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic with high penetration through the blood brain barrier. The neuroprotective effects of minocycline have been shown in various central nervous system (CNS) disease. Since both CNS and retina were composed of neurons and glials, it is reasonable to expect a neuroprotective effect by minocycline for BRVO retina. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to study whether minocycline has neuroprotective effect in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and the possible underlying molecular basis. We created BRVO in rats using laser photocoagulation. The animals were then randomly divided into 4 groups to evaluate the effect of minocycline: group A: minocycline 45 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection (i.p.), group B: minocycline 90 mg/kg i.p., group C: normal saline i.p., group D: sham injection. Fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA) were conducted. The changes in thickness of retinal layers were measured with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vivo. We found that retinal edema occurred predominantly in the inner retinal layers. Intraperitoneal administration of minocycline significantly ameliorated retinal edema in the early stage of BRVO. We performed Full field Electroretinography (ffERG) to evaluate retinal function and found that the reduction of b wave amplitude decreased in the combined maximal response. The expressional levels of apoptosis related genes (Bax, Bcl-2) and inflammation related genes (IL-1 β, TNF α, MCP-1 and CCR2) were measured by real-time PCR, the results showed that

  6. Role of aflibercept for macular edema following branch retinal vein occlusion: comparison of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oellers P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Oellers,1,2 Dilraj S Grewal,1,2 Sharon Fekrat1,2 1Duke Eye Center, Duke University Medical Center, 2Surgical Service, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: For years, the standard of care for branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema was initial observation followed by grid-pattern laser photocoagulation for persistent edema. Newer pharmacologic options have revolutionized the management of branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-associated macular edema, and the visual outcomes of these eyes are better than ever. However, a variety of available treatment options including intravitreal corticosteroids and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents have established novel challenges with regard to appropriate drug selection. This review summarizes the available clinical studies with special emphasis on the comparison of intravitreal aflibercept with ranibizumab, bevacizumab, and steroid agents. Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, BRVO, macular edema, cystoid macular edema, grid-pattern laser photocoagulation, triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, pegaptanib, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  7. Effects of intravitreal bevacizumab on reduced visual acuity and macular thickness secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Fahreddin

    2013-01-01

    Kadir Eltutar, Fahreddin Acar, Nurhan Dincer, Sibel Zirtiloglu, Erkan Unsal Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in the treatment of macular thickness and reduced visual acuity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 15 eyes of 15 consecutive patients diagnosed with branch retinal vein occlusion between May 200...

  8. Effects of intravitreal bevacizumab on reduced visual acuity and macular thickness secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Eltutar K; Acar F; Dincer N; Zirtiloglu S; Unsal E

    2013-01-01

    Kadir Eltutar, Fahreddin Acar, Nurhan Dincer, Sibel Zirtiloglu, Erkan Unsal Istanbul Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in the treatment of macular thickness and reduced visual acuity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 15 eyes of 15 consecutive patients diagnosed with branch retinal vein occlusion between May 2008...

  9. Sheathotomy in complicated cases of branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafoord, S.; Karlsson, N.; Cour, M. la

    2008-01-01

    examined for pre- and postoperative best corrected VA (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) and fundus photography. Ten patients were examined with fluorescein angiography and eight with ocular coherence tomography (OCT). Postoperative progression of cataract was recorded, as were other complications. The...... mean follow-up time was 20 months (8-39 months). Results: Best corrected VA had improved in nine patients, was unchanged in one patient and had deteriorated in two patients at the last follow-up. Noted complications were venous haemorrhage at surgery in five patients, retinal detachment in one patient...... and progression of cataract in four patients. Conclusions: Microsurgical treatment with sheathotomy of BRVO is a technically feasible procedure with few complications. Postoperative increased reperfusion could explain the resolution of macular haemorrhage, oedema and ischaemia, and may improve visual...

  10. Comparison of the Efficacy of Intravitreal Aflibercept and Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Kang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-two eyes of 52 patients with treatment-naïve macular edema associated with perfused branch retinal vein occlusion were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven cases received PRN intravitreal bevacizumab, and 25 cases were treated by PRN intravitreal aflibercept with monthly follow-ups for 12 months. Both aflibercept and bevacizumab were effective in reduction of macular thickness and improvement of visual acuity for the participants. Both antivascular endothelial growth factor agents had similar efficacy and duration of treatment for these eyes with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion during a 12-month period. No serious systemic or ocular adverse events were reported.

  11. Association between retinal hemorrhagic pattern and macular perfusion status in eyes with acute branch retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Yuki; Uji, Akihito; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Murakami, Tomoaki; Ooto, Sotaro; Suzuma, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Ayako; Iida, Yuto; Miwa, Yuko; Hata, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study included 63 eyes with acute branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) to evaluate the retinal hemorrhagic patterns at the posterior poles and explore their clinical relevance in macular perfusion differentiation. Retinal hemorrhagic patterns and macular perfusion status were evaluated via fundus photography and fluorescein angiography, respectively. Macular perfusion was judged as nonischemic in 30, ischemic in 28, and undeterminable in 5 among the 63 eyes. Predominant hemorrhagic patterns were flame-shaped in 39 (67.2%) and non-flame-shaped in 19 (32.8%) eyes. All 39 eyes with a flame-shaped hemorrhage showed a nonischemic macula. Of the 19 eyes classified as having a non-flame-shaped hemorrhage, 13 (68.4%) had an ischemic macula and 6 (31.6%) had a nonischemic macula (P non-flame-shaped hemorrhage (P < 0.001), and in those with a nonischemic macula versus those with an ischemic macula (P < 0.001). The area under the curve for parallelism was 0.975 (P < 0.001), suggesting an accurate diagnostic parameter for macular perfusion differentiation. In conclusion, we objectively evaluated retinal hemorrhagic patterns at the posterior pole in BRVO using the parallelism method, which was useful in differentiating macular perfusion status. PMID:27334338

  12. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization.

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    Elisa Dominguez

    Full Text Available Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined.We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO.Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease.

  13. Pharmacological intravitreal treatment for macular edema in branch retinal vein occlusion: Three-month results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Macular edema is the main cause of visual loss in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion. Macular edema is initially reversible, but over time, permanent loss of vision occurs from structural damage to the macula. For this reason, there is a need for more rapid and effective treatments than laser photocoagulation which has been established as a gold standard. There are several pharmacologic agents which have changed the management of macular edema. Material and Methods. Twenty eyes of 20 consecutive patients of the Department of Eye Diseases, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, in Novi Sad, were enrolled in this prospective, randomized and consecutive study conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. The patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups, and they were given an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05 mL (Avastin®, or triamcinolone acetonid injection 4 mg/0.1mL (Kenalog®. Reinjections were performed according to the following retreatment criteria a loss of visual acuity or increase in central retinal thickness. Results. Both intravitreal bevacizumab and triamcinolonacetonid were very effective in reducing macular edema and improving visual acuity in the eyes with macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion. The effect of the treatment was more pronounced if it started early after the onset of macular edema. The reported temporary effects of intravitreal triamcinolon- acetonide and bevacizumab could be explained by their clearance from the eye. Conclusion. The short-term results of our clinical trial showed that pharmacological intravitreal agents, such as bevacizumab and triamcinolon-acetonid, lead to rapid resolution of macular edema and significant improvement of visual acuity.

  14. Intravitreal Triamcinolone for Acute Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ramezani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of intravitreal triamcinolone (IVT injection for recent branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. Methods: In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 30 phakic eyes with recent (less than 10 weeks′ duration BRVO were assigned to two groups. The treatment group (16 eyes received 4 mg IVT and the control group (14 eyes received subconjunctival sham injections. Changes in visual acuity (VA were the main outcome measure. Results: VA and central macular thickness (CMT changes were not significantly different between the study groups at any time point. Within group analysis showed significant VA improvement from baseline in the IVT group up to three months (P 0.05. Significant reduction in CMT was noticed only in the treatment group (‑172 ± 202 μm, P = 0.029 and at 4 months. Ocular hypertension occurred in 4 (25% and 2 (14.3% eyes in the IVT and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: A single IVT injection had a non-significant beneficial effect on VA and CMT in acute BRVO as compared to the natural history of the condition. The 3-month deferred treatment protocol advocated by the Branch Vein Occlusion Study Group may be a safer option than IVT injection considering its potential side effects.

  15. Comparative efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regnier, Stephane A; Larsen, Michael; Bezlyak, Vladimir;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to BRVO were identified from...... an updated systematic review. SETTING: A Bayesian network meta-analysis of RCTs of treatments for macular oedema secondary to BRVO. INTERVENTIONS: Ranibizumab 0.5 mg pro re nata, aflibercept 2 mg monthly (2q4), dexamethasone 0.7 mg implant, laser photocoagulation, ranibizumab+laser, or sham...... intervention. Bevacizumab and triamcinolone were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy outcomes were mean change in best corrected visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale) and the percentage of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters. Safety outcome was the percentage of patients with increased...

  16. Single intravitreal bevacizumab injection effects on contrast sensitivity in macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Carlos Preti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness in eyes with macular edema from branch retinal vein occlusion. METHODS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with macular edema from unilateral branch retinal vein occlusion were treated with a single bevacizumab injection. Patients were submitted to a complete evaluation including best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography measurements before treatment and one and three months after injection. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and optical coherence tomography measurements were compared to baseline values. RESULTS: Mean visual acuity measurement improved from 0.77 logMAR at baseline to 0.613 logMAR one month after injection (P=0.0001 but worsened to 0.75 logMAR after three months. Contrast sensitivity test demonstrated significant improvement at spatial frequencies of 3, 6, 12 and 18 cycles/degree one month after injection and at the spatial frequency of 12 cycles/degree three months after treatment. Mean ± standard deviation baseline central macular thickness (552 ± 150 µm reduced significantly one month (322 ± 127 µm, P=0.0001 and three months (439 ± 179 µm, P=0.01 after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab injection improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity and reduces central macular thickness one month after treatment. Visual acuity returns to baseline levels at the 3-month follow-up, but some beneficial effect of the treatment is still present at that time, as evidenced by optical coherence tomography-measured central macular thickness and contrast sensitivity measurements.

  17. Intravitreal bevacizumab in macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion: 12-month results

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    Thapa R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Raba Thapa,1 Nhukesh Maharjan,2 Govinda Paudyal11Vitreo-retinal Service, Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, 2Research Department, Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu, NepalPurpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety, anatomical, and visual outcomes following intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin; Genentech on macular edema (ME secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Methods: A prospective, interventional case series study was conducted among patients with ME due to BRVO, from June 2008 to October 2011. Intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL was given at 4–6 weekly intervals until the ME subsided, and cases were followed up for a year. Complete ophthalmic evaluations and measurement of central retinal thickness (CRT by optical coherence tomography were performed at baseline and follow-up visits.Results: Sixty-three eyes of 63 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 58.22 years (standard deviation [SD], 12.3. The CRT at baseline was 515.3 ± 189.4 µm, and it significantly improved at each follow-up, with a CRT of 233.6 ± 101.5 µm at 12 months. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA at baseline was 0.82 ± 0.54, and it significantly improved at each follow-up, with a BCVA of 0.40 ± 0.25 at 12 months (P < 0.001. The BCVA was better in 76% of the patients with a more than three-line increase in 55.5% of the eyes. The average number of intravitreal bevacizumab injections was 3.1 (range, 1–6 injections. Recurrent ME occurred in 30.2% of cases. There were no major ocular or systemic adverse events.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab appears to be a safe and effective drug for reducing ME and improving visual acuity secondary to BRVO at 12-month follow-up at a tertiary referral eye hospital in Nepal.Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, bevacizumab, macular edema

  18. Consecutive Macular Edema and Visual Outcome in Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Sung Uk Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purposes. The study introduced the concept of “consecutive macular edema” and evaluated the validity of visual outcome in macular edema (ME secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. Methods. Patients were categorized into the gainer group and the nongainer group according to the final visual acuity. We analyzed clinical characteristics involving total and consecutive duration of ME between the two groups. Results. Among the total 71 eyes of 71 patients, intravitreal bevacizumab injection (26 patients, triamcinolone (21, and natural course (33 were enrolled. The consecutive duration of ME was shorter in the gainer group than in the nongainer group (3.33 ± 1.50 and 5.24 ± 2.39 months; P=0.000. After exclusion of macular ischemia, consecutive duration of ME in gainer group was also significantly shorter than in nongainer group (3.62 ± 1.60 and 6.11 ± 4.20 months; P=0.010. Conclusions. The duration of ME in the nongainer group was longer than in the gainer group. In particular, the consecutive duration was an important factor in determining the final visual outcome. Clinical Trial Registration. Approval by Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital Institutional Review Board/Ethics Committee was obtained for this retrospective study.

  19. Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuya Yunoki; Keiichi Mitarai; Shuichiro Yanagisawa; Tsuyoshi Kato; Nobuo Ishida; Atsushi Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB). Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corr...

  20. Comparison of the Efficacy of Intravitreal Aflibercept and Bevacizumab for Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jia-Kang; Su, Pei-Yuan; Hsu, Yung-Ray; Chen, Yun-Ju; Chen, Fang-Ting; Tseng, Ying-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-two eyes of 52 patients with treatment-naïve macular edema associated with perfused branch retinal vein occlusion were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-seven cases received PRN intravitreal bevacizumab, and 25 cases were treated by PRN intravitreal aflibercept with monthly follow-ups for 12 months. Both aflibercept and bevacizumab were effective in reduction of macular thickness and improvement of visual acuity for the participants. Both antivascular endothelial growth factor agents had...

  1. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

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    Petr Kolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  2. Intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: 12-month results

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    Demir M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Demir, Ersin Oba, Gökhan Gulkilik, Mahmut Odabasi, Erhan OzdalSisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital, Eye Clinic, Sisli, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: To present the functional and anatomic changes after intravitreal bevacizumab in eyes with macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Design: The study was a retrospective study.Materials and methods: The study included 31 patients with ME due to BRVO. We compared the examination findings of patients with ME before and after intravitreal bevacizumab therapy at 12 months. The study included patients who had macular edema secondary to BRVO treated with bevacizumab. The therapy was started in the first week after occlusion. The initial therapy was three intravitreal bevacizumab injections at monthly intervals with 1.25/0.05 mL bevacizumab. Patients with a baseline visual acuity less than 0.5 (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR] 0.30, central macular thickness (CMT more than 290 µm, and no neovascularization were included. Patients with diabetes mellitus or a history of intravitreal triamcinolone or grid laser photocoagulation therapy or ischemic BRVO were excluded. The retreatment criteria were as follows: increased CMT more than 100 µm combined with a loss of visual acuity of five or more letters. The statistical analysis of this study was carried out by paired samples t-test (SPSS. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.Results: This retrospective study included 33 eyes of 31 patients (20 women, 11 men; mean age was 55.30 ± 9.62 years (range 36–75 years. Patients received a mean of 5.3 injections during 12 months of follow-up. The best corrected visual acuity increased from 0.66 ± 0.20 (logMAR at baseline to 0.22 ± 0.13 (logMAR (t = 15.42; P < 0.001 at month 12. The CMT decreased from 494.15 ± 104.16 µm at baseline to 261.79 ± 45.36 µm at month 12 (-232.36 ± 109.98 µm; P < 0.001. No bevacizumab

  3. Efficacy of combined intravitreal bevacizumab and triamcinolone for branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Rasha I Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of combined treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB and triamcinolone acetate (IVT for patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 20 eyes injected with 1.25 mg IVB and 2 mg IVT for clinically identified BRVO within 8 weeks of onset. All patients lacked concomitant ocular pathology and completed 6 months′ follow-up. Clinical examination including LogMAR visual acuity (VA and central macular thickness (CMT by spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT was performed preoperatively and at 1, 3 and 6 months post-operatively. Results : Mean patient age was 61.3 years with a mean BRVO diagnosis time of 3 weeks at presentation. VA improved from logMAR 1.08 preoperatively to Mean logMAR VA of 0.55 ± 0.17 at 1 month (P < 0.001, 0.56 ± 0.21 at 3 months (P < 0.001, and 0.38 ± 0.1 at 6 months (P < 0.001 Mean CMT improved from 482 ± 107 μm preoperatively to 319 ± 53 μm at 1 month (P < 0.001, 344 ± 89 μm at 3 months (P < 0.001, and 241 ± 29 μm at 6 months (P < 0.001. Mean IOP preoperatively was 16.5 mmHg, 21 mmHg at 1 month, and 15 mmHg at 6 months. Six out of 20 patients (30% were re-injected with IVB and IVT at 3 months. Conclusions: Early combined treatment with IVB and IVT is effective in improving anatomic and functional outcomes in patients with macular edema secondary to BRVO.

  4. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Karia, Niral

    2010-01-01

    Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  5. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

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    Niral Karia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  6. The comparison of intravitreal triamcinolone and bevacizumab in patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Gokce G

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gokcen Gokce,1 Gungor Sobaci,2 Ali Hakan Durukan,2 Fazil Cuneyt Erdurman31Department of Ophthalmology, Sarikamis Military Hospital, Kars, Turkey; 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Canakkale Military Hospital, Canakkale, TurkeyPurpose: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA and intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB in the treatment of macular edema related to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, using the new optical coherence tomography parameters.Material and methods: The medical records of 62 patients (IVTA n=26; IVB n=36 with macular edema secondary to BRVO and at least 12 months follow-up between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated by within-group and inter-group comparisons.Results: Both groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristics (P>0.05. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA improvement and central subfoveal thickness (CST reduction were significantly higher in the IVTA group at only the third month (P<0.05. In nonischemic BRVO, while BCVA improvement was significantly higher in the IVTA group at the third and sixth months (P<0.05, no significant difference was found in CST reduction at all visits (P>0.05. In ischemic BRVO, no significant difference was found in BCVA improvement at all visits, but CST reduction was significantly higher in the IVTA group at the first and third months. Logarithmic optical coherence tomography change (LogOCTc and relative change in retinal thickness (RCRT showed the same levels of significance in the comparisons. Relative change in retinal thickening (RCRTing was more valuable compared to the other parameters in the subgroup analyses.Conclusion: There was no difference between groups at the 12th month. IVTA was more efficient than IVB in regard to BCVA improvement in nonischemic BRVO in the early follow-up. IVTA made significant retinal thinning

  7. Branch retinal vein thrombosis and visual loss probably associated with pegylated interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciana Lofego Gon(c)alves; Alberto Queiroz Farias; Patrícia Lofego Gon(c)alves; Elbio Antonio D'Amico; Flair José Carrilho

    2006-01-01

    Ophthalmological complications with interferon therapy are usually mild and reversible, not requiring the withdrawal of the treatment. We report a case of a patient who had visual loss probably associated with interferon therapy. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection (genotype 1a) was diagnosed in a 33-year old asymptomatic man. His past medical history was unremarkable and previous routine ophthalmologic check-up was normal. Pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin were started. Three weeks later he reported painless reduction of vision. Ophthalmologic examination showed extensive intraretinal hemorrhages and cottonwool spots, associated with inferior branch retinal vein thrombosis. Antiviral therapy was immediately discontinued, but one year later he persists with severely decreased visual acuity. This case illustrates the possibility of unlredictable and severe complications during pegylated interferon therapy.

  8. Comparison of single injection and three monthly injections of intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Ito Y

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuka Ito, Yoshitsugu Saishin, Osamu Sawada, Masashi Kakinoki, Taichiro Miyake, Tomoko Sawada, Hajime Kawamura, Masahito Ohji Department of Ophthalmology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Shiga, Japan Purpose: Our aim was to compare the 1 year efficacy and safety results of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB in two prospective, consecutive groups of patients with macular edema (ME following branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Patients and methods: Twenty-five eyes with ME after BRVO received one IVB injection (single-injection group and 27 eyes received three monthly IVB injections (three-injection group. Both groups were followed monthly for 12 months. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and the central foveal thickness (CFT on optical coherence tomography were evaluated before and after treatment. Patients were eligible to receive an IVB injection if the mean CFT increased 100 µm or more or the BCVA decreased 0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR unit or more compared with values measured on the last visit.Results: The mean logMAR BCVA and CFT, respectively, improved from 0.56 to 0.33 and from 598 µm to 348 µm in the single-injection group (P<0.001 and from 0.55 to 0.26 and from 514 µm to 293 µm in the three-injection group (P<0.001. During the study period, the mean total number of injections was significantly smaller in the single-injection group than in the three-injection group (2.1 and 4.3, respectively, P<0.001. No serious complications related to the IVB injections developed in either group.Conclusion: The single-injection group achieved similar visual outcomes for ME secondary to BRVO with fewer injections compared with the three-injection group. Keywords: branch retinal vein occlusion, bevacizumab, single intravitreal injection, three monthly intravitreal injections

  9. Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab

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    Tatsuya Yunoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and optical coherence tomography (OCT. OCT parameters were central macular thickness (CMT and average retinal thickness in a 1-mm-diameter circular region at the fovea (MRT. Results. Mean BCVA, CRT, and MRT were significantly improved from the baseline after PPV. Greater improvement of BCVA, CRT, and MRT was obtained after 1 month of IVB than after 6 months of PPV. No eyes showed worsening of macular edema after the surgery. Conclusion. PPV improved BCVA and recurrent macular edema due to BRVO, but PPV that was less effective than IVB had been in the same patients. PPV may be one of the treatment options for recurrent macular edema due to BRVO after IVB.

  10. Importance of Central Retinal Sensitivity for Prediction of Visual Acuity after Intravitreal Bevacizumb in Eyes with Macular Edema Associated with Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion.

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    Masahiko Sugimoto

    Full Text Available To determine whether the baseline retinal sensitivity can predict the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA at 1 month after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB in eyes with macular edema (ME associated with a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.We evaluated 16 eyes of 16 patients who had ME associated with a BRVO. The mean ± standard deviation age was 69.1 ± 8.9 years, and all had a single IVB injection. The BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT, integrity of the ellipsoid zone (EZ of the photoreceptors, and retinal sensitivity were determined before (baseline and at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month following the IVB. The average threshold retinal sensitivity (AT within the central 10° was determined by Macular Integrity Assessment. The correlations between the BCVA at 1 month and the CMT, integrity of the EZ, and AT at each visit were determined.One month after IVB, the BCVA improved significantly from 0.56 ± 0.27 logMAR units to 0.32 ± 0.28 logMAR units, and the CMT from 611.4 ± 209.3 μm to 258.7 ± 64.0 μm (P <0.05. The AT improved significantly from 17.9 ± 5.3 dB to 21.2 ± 5.0 dB (P <0.05. At 1 day after the treatment, both the integrity of the EZ (r = 0.59 and the retinal sensitivity (r = 0.76 were moderately correlated with the BCVA at 1 month.These results indicate that both the integrity of the EZ and the AT at 1 day after the IVB can predict the BCVA after treatment for ME associated with BRVO. There is a possibility that these parameters will predict the effectiveness of IVB for each case.

  11. Differences in aqueous concentrations of cytokines in macular edema secondary to branch and central retinal vein occlusion.

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    Jing Feng

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigates the differential aqueous concentrations of interleukin 6, 8, 1β (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, respectively, serum amyloid A (SAA, transforming growth factor (TGF-β, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in eyes with macular edema as a result of a branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significantly higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TGF-β, bFGF, SAA, and VEGF were found in the aqueous humor of CRVO and BRVO patients than in the aqueous humor of control patients. A significant correlation was observed between the concentration of bFGF and the inner central macular thickness (CMT of BRVO patients (r = 0.688; P = 0.02. A significant correlation was observed between the concentration of SAA and both the full and outer CMT of the ischemic group (r = 0.545 and 0.683, respectively; P = 0.04 and 0.01, respectively. In the non-ischemic group, the level of IL-6 was significantly associated with inner CMT (r = 0.560; P = 0.03. The full and outer CMT was significantly reduced in CRVO patients when compared with BRVO patients (P = 0.02 and 0.02, respectively after injection of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB at 4 weeks. SIGNIFICANCE: Serum amyloid A as a major protein involved in the acute and chronic stages of inflammation, and IL-6 and bFGF were significantly associated with the extent of macular edema in patients with RVO. Besides VEGF, other inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesic factors may be associated with RVO. This finding may have implications for the medical treatment of RVO.

  12. The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on ocular blood flow in diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion as measured by laser speckle flowgraphy

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    Nitta F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fumihiko Nitta,1 Hiroshi Kunikata,1,2 Naoko Aizawa,1 Kazuko Omodaka,1 Yukihiro Shiga,1 Masayuki Yasuda,1 Toru Nakazawa1–31Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Retinal Disease Control, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanBackground: This study evaluated the effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB on macular edema associated with diabetic retinopathy (DME or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVOME using laser speckle flowgraphy.Methods: A comparative interventional study of 25 eyes from 22 patients with macular edema (DME group: 12 eyes; BRVOME group: 13 eyes who underwent IVB. Mean blur rate (MBR was measured in the retinal artery, retinal vein, optic nerve head (ONH, and choroid before and after IVB. Results: In the BRVOME group, there was no significant change in MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein or ONH, but choroidal MBR decreased significantly (P=0.04. In the DME group, the MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein, ONH, and choroid decreased significantly (P=0.02, P=0.04, P<0.001, and P=0.04, respectively. In the DME group, pre-IVB MBR in the ONH was significantly correlated with post-IVB foveal thickness (R= -0.71, P=0.002. There was no such correlation in the BRVOME group in the ONH.Conclusion: IVB had a suppressive effect on circulation in eyes with DME but not in those with BRVOME. This suggests that this noninvasive and objective biomarker may be a useful part of pre-IVB evaluations and decision-making in DME.Keywords: macular edema, mean blur rate, optic nerve head, biomarker, ocular circulation

  13. Retinal vein occlusion: current treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Rosangela; Torres Gimeno, Ana; Battaglia Parodi, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a pathology noted for more than 150 years. Although a lot has been written on the matter, it is still a frequent condition with multifactorial etiopathogenesis with many unclear aspects. The RVO pathogenesis has varied systemic and local implications that make it difficult to elaborate treatment guidelines. The management of the patient with RVO is very complex and a multidisciplinary approach is required in order to identify and correct the associated risk factors. Laser therapy remains the gold standard in RVO, but only modest functional improvement has been shown in branch retinal occlusion forms. Multicenter studies of intravitreal drugs present them as an option to combine with laser. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, corticosteroids and sustained-release implants are the future weapons to stop disease progression and get a better visual outcome. Consequently, it is useful to clarify some aspects of the pathology that allow a better patient management. PMID:20938213

  14. Intravitreal Bevacizumab Alone or Combined with Macular Laser Photocoagulation for Recurrent or Persistent Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Takafumi Hirashima; Tomoyuki Chihara; Toshitaka Bun; Takao Utsumi; Miou Hirose; Hideyasu Oh

    2014-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) injection with or without macular laser photocoagulation (MLP) for recurrent or persistent macular edema (ME) secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods. Thirty-four eyes underwent IVB injection for ME secondary to BRVO as a primary treatment. Twenty of the 34 eyes experienced recurrent or persistent ME after the first IVB. Nine of the 20 eyes (Group 1) were retreated with IVB combined with MLP. The remaini...

  15. Comparative Evaluation Between Ranibizumab Combined with Laser and Bevacizumab Combined with Laser Versus Laser Alone for Macular Oedema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Shorya Vardhan Azad; Amjad Salman; Deepankur Mahajan; Siddharth Sain; Rajvardhan Azad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical and functional efficacy of combination therapy of intravitreal ranibizumab with laser or intravitreal bevacizumab with laser treatment compared to only laser treatment for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Materials and Methods: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with BRVO of at least 6 weeks duration were randomized into three groups: Group 1 received a single dose of intravitreal Ranibizumab followed by grid laser treatment, Group 2 r...

  16. Intravitreal bevacizumab versus triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: a matched study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jing; TAO Yong; JIANG Yan-rong; LI Xiao-xin; GAO Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is a common retinal vascular disorder of the elderly and both intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and intravitreal bevacizumab were reported to be effective. The purpose of this study was to compare intravitreal bevacizumab with intravitreal TA for the treatment of macular edema resulting from BRVO.Methods The retrospectively comparative interventional study included a bevacizumab group of 34 BRVO patients (1.25 mg bevacizumab) and a TA group of 34 BRVO patients (4.0 mg TA), and the two groups were matched by baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Examinations were designed to be carried out at 1 day, 3 days, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year after each injection. The mean follow-up was (148.43±130.56) days. Main outcome parameters were BCVA and morphometric measurements of the macula obtained by optical coherence tomography.Results In all follow-ups, the mean changes of BCVA (LogMAR) between two groups were not significantly different (P >0.10). Similarly, the rates of patients who got BCVA improvement >2 lines or lost BCVA >2 lines were not significantly different, either (P >0.10). In both groups, compared with baseline, the mean central macular thickness (CMT) got reduction from 4 weeks to 1 year after initial injection, however, which lost statistical significance at 6-month follow-up in TA group (P=0.25) and lost significance at 3-month and 6-month follow-up in bevacizumab group (P=0.07, 0.21). The mean CMT between two groups differed at 3-month follow-up (P 0.40). In TA group, retinal pigment epithelium tear occurred in 1 eye at 8 weeks after initial injection and 12 eyes (35.3%) got intraocular pressure >21 mmHg. In bevacizumab group, no severe complications were observed.Conclusion For BRVO, intravitreal bevacizumab versus intravitreal TA causes a similar increase in visual acuity and reduction of macular edema (except 3-month follow-up) with minor complications during 1 year.

  17. Outcomes of microincision vitrectomy surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

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    Sato S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shimpei Sato,1 Maiko Inoue,2 Shin Yamane,2 Akira Arakawa,2 Mikiro Mori,1 Kazuaki Kadonosono2 1Department of Opthalmology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional effect of microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS with internal limiting membrane (ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO.Methods: The medical records of 101 eyes of 101 patients who had undergone MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO were studied. Patients were classified into ischemic and non-ischemic BRVO based on angiograph. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central foveal thickness (CFT, determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography, were evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively.Results: Preoperative mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR BCVA ± standard deviation (SD was 0.52±0.43 and mean CFT ± SD was 489.4±224.9 µm. Postoperative mean BCVA ± SD values were 0.41±0.35, 0.35±0.41, 0.29±0.36, and 0.25±0.41, and mean CFT values were 370.1±148.9, 327.5±157.5, 310.9±154.9, and 274.4±135.3 µm at 1, 3, 6, 12 months, respectively. The mean BCVA was significantly improved at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (all P<0.05, and the mean CFT was significantly decreased at all postoperative follow-up time points (all P<0.05. At the 12-month postoperative evaluation, BCVA had improved by 0.2 logMAR units in 50 eyes (60.0% with ischemic BRVO and in nine eyes (50.0% with non-ischemic BRVO. Six eyes (6.0% experienced recurrence or persistence of macular edema at 12 months postoperatively.Conclusion: MIVS with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to BRVO is effective in improving visual acuity and foveal morphology with low recurrence of macular edema. Keywords: MIVS, ILM, BRVO, central foveal thickness, CFT

  18. Efficacy and safety of intravitreal therapy in macular edema due to branch and central retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Pielen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intravitreal agents have replaced observation in macular edema in central (CRVO and grid laser photocoagulation in branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes of intravitreal therapies for macular edema in CRVO and BRVO. METHODS AND FINDINGS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched for RCTs with no limitations of language and year of publication. 11 RCTs investigating anti-VEGF agents (ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and steroids (triamcinolone, dexamethasone implant with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were evaluated. EFFICACY CRVO: Greatest gain in visual acuity after 12 months was observed both under aflibercept 2 mg: +16.2 letters (8.5 injections, and under bevacizumab 1.25 mg: +16.1 letters (8 injections. Ranibizumab 0.5 mg improved vision by +13.9 letters (8.8 injections. Triamcinolone 1 mg and 4 mg stabilized visual acuity at a lower injection frequency (-1.2 letters, 2 injections. BRVO: Ranibizumab 0.5 mg resulted in a visual acuity gain of +18.3 letters (8.4 injections. The effect of dexamethasone implant was transient after 1.9 implants in both indications. SAFETY: Serious ocular adverse events were rare, e.g., endophthalmitis occurred in 0.0-0.9%. Major differences were found in an indirect comparison between steroids and anti-VEGF agents for cataract progression (19.8-35.0% vs. 0.9-7.0% and in required treatment of increased intraocular pressure (7.0-41.0% vs. none. No major differences were identified in systemic adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF agents result in a promising gain of visual acuity, but require a high injection frequency. Dexamethasone implant might be an alternative, but comparison is impaired as the effect is temporary and it has not yet been tested in PRN regimen. The ocular risk profile seems to be favorable for anti-VEGF agents in comparison to steroids. Because comparative data from head

  19. Zapora mrežničnih ven: Retinal vein occlusion:

    OpenAIRE

    Jaki, Polona; Mavri, Alenka; Štalc, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a common disease, especially in the elderly, and is associated with significant visual morbidity, as a consequence of persistent macular oedema, macular ischemia, and in the advanced stages of the disease, due to retinal or iris neovascularisation with vitreal haemorrhages or neovascular glaucoma. There are two types of retinal vein occlusion with respect to the site of occlusion: branch retinal vein occlusion and central retinal vein occlusion. The obstruction is ma...

  20. Laser photocoagulation for retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Mirzabekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is one of the leading causes of permanent vision loss. In adults, central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO occurs in 1.8% while branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO occurs in 0.2%. Treatment strategy and disease prognosis are determined by RVO type (ischemic/non-ischemic. Despite numerous studies and many current CRVO and BRVO treatment approaches, the management of these patients is still being debated. Intravitreal injections of steroids (triamcinolone acetate, dexamethasone and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitors (bevacizumab, ranibizumab were shown to be fairly effective. However, it is unclear whether anti-VEGF agents are reasonable in ischemic RVOs. Laser photocoagulation remains the only effective treatment of optic nerve head and/or retinal neovascularization. Laser photocoagulation is also indicated for the treatment of macular edema. Both threshold and sub-threshold photocoagulation may be performed. Photocoagulation performed with argon (514 nm, krypton (647 nm, or diode (810 nm laser for macular edema provides similar results (no significant differences. The treatment may be complex and include medication therapy and/or surgery. Medication therapy includes anti-aggregant agents and antioxidants, i.e., emoxypine which may be used in acute RVO as well as in post-thrombotic retinopathy. 

  1. Intravitreal Bevacizumab Alone or Combined with Macular Laser Photocoagulation for Recurrent or Persistent Macular Edema Secondary to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Hirashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection with or without macular laser photocoagulation (MLP for recurrent or persistent macular edema (ME secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. Methods. Thirty-four eyes underwent IVB injection for ME secondary to BRVO as a primary treatment. Twenty of the 34 eyes experienced recurrent or persistent ME after the first IVB. Nine of the 20 eyes (Group 1 were retreated with IVB combined with MLP. The remaining 11 eyes (Group 2 were retreated with IVB alone. Results. In Group 1, the postoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA improved compared with the preoperative value at all follow-up visits, although no statistically significant improvement was observed at 6 months. In contrast, BCVA significantly improved from 0.53 to 0.40 at 6 months (P<0.05 in Group 2. Conclusion. Combined therapy tended to have a smaller effect on visual acuity compared with IVB monotherapy.

  2. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion after antivascular endothelial growth factor treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirakata Y

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yukari Shirakata,1 Kouki Fukuda,1 Tomoyoshi Fujita,1 Yuki Nakano,1 Hiroyuki Nomoto,2 Hidetaka Yamaji,3 Fumio Shiraga,4 Akitaka Tsujikawa1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, 2Nomoto Eye Clinic, Himeji, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Shirai Eye Hospital, Mitoyo, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the anatomic and functional outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling for recurrent macular edema (ME due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO after intravitreal injections of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents. Methods: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with treatment-naive ME from BRVO were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents. Recurred ME was treated with pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling. Results: After the surgery, ME was significantly reduced at 1 month (P=0.031 and the reduction increased with time (P=0.007 at the final visit. With the reduction in ME, treated eyes showed a slow improvement in visual acuity (VA. At the final visit, improvement in VA was statistically significant compared with baseline (P=0.048. The initial presence of cystoid spaces, serous retinal detachment, or subretinal hemorrhage under the fovea, as well as retinal perfusion status, showed no association with VA improvement. However, the presence of epiretinal membrane showed a significant association with the visual recovery. Although eyes without epiretinal membrane showed visual improvement (-0.10±0.32 in logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR], eyes with epiretinal membrane showed greater visual improvement (-0.38±0.12 in logMAR, P=0.012. Conclusion: For recurrent ME due to BRVO after anti-VEGF treatment, particularly when accompanied by epiretinal membrane, pars plana vitrectomy combined with internal limiting membrane peeling might be a

  3. Retinal vein occlusion and the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, P. M.; Galton, D J; Hamilton, A M; Blach, R K

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-nine patients with retinal vein occlusion (40 with central, 59 with branch vein occlusion) were investigated for the prevalence of associated diseases for comparison with an age-matched control group. There was a significantly increased prevalence of hyperlipidaemia (p less than 0.001) and hypercholesterolaemia (p less than 0.001) in the group with branch retinal vein occlusion and of hyperlipidaemia (p less than 0.001) and hypercholesterolaemia (p less than 0.02) in the group with cen...

  4. Grid laser with modified pro re nata injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab in macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion: MARVEL report no 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Raja; Panchal, Bhavik; Stewart, Michael W; Das, Taraprasad; Chhablani, Jay; Jalali, Subhadra; Hasnat Ali, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to prospectively study the efficacy of grid laser combined with intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab in eyes with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion. Patients and methods Treatment-naïve eyes were enrolled to receive injections of ranibizumab or bevacizumab. During the first 6 months, patients were evaluated monthly and injected if the best-corrected visual acuity changed by five or more letters or fluid was noted on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT); during the next 6 months, patients were evaluated bimonthly and injected only if the best-corrected visual acuity decreased by five or more letters with the associated fluid. Grid laser photocoagulation was performed if there was fluid on OCT and was repeated if patients were eligible after a minimum interval of 3 months. Results The mean numbers of ranibizumab and bevacizumab injections were, respectively, 3.2±1.5 and 3.0±1.4 in the first 6 months and 0.3±0.6 and 0.3±0.6 in the last 6 months. Moreover, 55/75 (73.33%) participants did not receive any injections in the last 6 months. The mean reductions in central retinal thickness at 12 months were 165.67 μm (PGrid laser photocoagulation is effective in maintaining the vision even in the presence of fluid on OCT, although it’s required more often in patients treated with bevacizumab. PMID:27330272

  5. Comparative evaluation between ranibizumab combined with laser and bevacizumab combined with laser versus laser alone for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shorya Vardhan Azad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical and functional efficacy of combination therapy of intravitreal ranibizumab with laser or intravitreal bevacizumab with laser treatment compared to only laser treatment for macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. Materials and Methods: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with BRVO of at least 6 weeks duration were randomized into three groups: Group 1 received a single dose of intravitreal Ranibizumab followed by grid laser treatment, Group 2 received a single dose of intravitreal Bevacizumab followed by grid laser treatment, and Group 3 received grid laser alone. Outcomes at 6 months follow-up were reported. Data were collected on best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central foveal thickness (CFT, and gain in lines of Snellen acuity. Results: At 6 month follow-up, the difference in the mean BCVA and CFT between the three treatment groups was not statistically significant (P > 0.05, all comparisons. Six eyes (60% in Group 1, four eyes (40% in Group 2 and two eyes (20% in Group 3 had a statistically significant gain of ≥3 lines of Snellen acuity (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Both ranibizumab and bevacizumab combined with laser photocoagulation, resulted in better outcomes than grid laser treatment.

  6. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarosa M Uhumwangho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were reviewed. Data obtained were analyzed with the GraphPad Instat Software, Inc. version V2.05a program, San Diego, Califonia and a P < 0.05 considered significant. Results: There were 20 patients made of 14 (70.0% males and 6 (30.0% females with a mean age of 62.7 ± 10.4 years. There were 15 (68.2% eyes with central RVO, 3 (13.6% eyes with branch RVO, and 4 (18.2% eyes with hemi RVO. Bilateral involvement occurred in 2 (10.0% patients. Risk factors included hypertension 14 (70.0%, diabetes mellitus 9 (45.0%, and glaucoma 5 (22.7%. Multiple risk factors were present in 14 (70.0% patients. Complications included macula edema 15 (68.2%, retinal neovascularization 5 (22.7%, neovascular glaucoma 3 (13.6%, and vitreous hemorrhage 2 (9.1%. Eyes which had definitive treatment with intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors and laser photocoagulation for macula edema and retinal neovascularization, respectively, had better visual acuity compared to eyes which did not receive these treatment, P = 0.002. Conclusion: The incidence and visual loss that occurs from RVO can be reduced by modifying known risk factors and early institution of appropriate therapy for complications that occur.

  7. Correlation of inflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines from undiluted vitreous samples with spectral domain OCT scans, in untreated branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfister M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marcel Pfister,1,4 Florian Rothweiler,2 Martin Michaelis,2 Jindrich Cinatl Jr,2 Ralf Schubert,3 Frank H Koch,1 Michael J Koss1,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; 2Department of Virology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; 3Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy and Cystic Fibrosis, Children's Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; 4Doheny Eye Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Purpose: To assess the levels of inflammatory and angiogenic cytokines in undiluted vitreous from treatment-naïve patients with macular edema secondary to nonischemic branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO, with flow cytometric bead array (CBA and to correlate the results with subjective and multiple spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT parameters. Methods: A total of 43 eyes from 43 patients (mean age 69.7 years, 23 male were divided into groups of new, "fresh" (n = 28; mean duration after onset 4.1 months and older BRVO (n = 15; 11.6 months. Because of macular edema, these patients underwent an intravitreal therapy combining a single-site 23 g core vitrectomy with bevacizumab and dexamethasone. Undiluted vitreous was then analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor isoform A (VEGF-A levels with CBA and correlated with visual acuity (VA, clinical parameters of BRVO (type and perfusion status, and morphologic parameters, such as central macular thickness, central retinal thickness, thickness of the neurosensory retina, thickness of the serous retinal detachment, and the disruption of the ellipsoid line (photoreceptor inner and outer segments and the external limiting membrane, as measured with SD-OCT. Twenty-eight undiluted vitreous samples from patients with idiopathic, nonuveitis vitreous floaters served as the controls. Results: The mean IL-6 was 23.2 pg/mL (standard deviation, ±48.8, MCP-1 was 602

  8. Retinal vein and artery occlusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christine Benn; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Lamberts, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Retinal vascular occlusions may constitute an independent risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.......Retinal vascular occlusions may constitute an independent risk factor for stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation....

  9. Retinal vein occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uhumwangho, Odarosa M.; Darlingtess Oronsaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the most common occlusive retinal vascular disorder and results in varying degrees of visual loss. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation, risk factors, and treatment outcomes in a group of patients with RVO seen in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients who presented to the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria in whom a diagnosis of RVO was made over a 5 years period were revi...

  10. Grid photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab for recurrent macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2011-01-01

    Ken Ogino, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Tomoaki Murakami, Yuki Muraoka, Yumiko Kurashige, Nagahisa YoshimuraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: To report the efficacy of grid photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) for macular edema recurring after previous IVBs associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO).Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 19 eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) ...

  11. Establishing an experimental rat model of photodynamically-induced retinal vein occlusion using erythrosin B

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Ying Wu; Mi Zheng; Qing Gu; Zhi Zheng; Xin Xia

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To develop a reliable, reproducible rat model of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with a novel photosensitizer (erythrosin B) and study the cellular responses in the retina.METHODS:Central and branch RVOs were created in adult male rats via photochemically-induced ischemia. Retinal changes were monitored via color fundus photography and fluorescein angiography at 1 and 3h, and 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21d after irradiation. Tissue slices were evaluated histopathologically. Retinal ganglion cell survi...

  12. Treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Roomasa Channa, Michael Smith, Peter A CampochiaroDepartments of Ophthalmology and Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a prevalent retinal vascular disease, second only to diabetic retinopathy. Previously there was no treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO and patients were simply observed for the development of severe complications, generally resulting in poor visual outcomes. The only treatment for branch vein occlusion (BRVO was grid laser photocoagulation, which reduces edema very slowly and provides benefit in some, but not all patients. Within the past year, clinical trials have demonstrated the effects of three new pharmacologic treatments, ranibizumab, triamcinolone acetonide, and dexamethasone implants. The benefit/risk ratio is best for intraocular injections of ranibizumab, making this first-line therapy for most patients with CRVO or BRVO, while intraocular steroids are likely to play adjunctive roles. Standard care for patients with RVO has changed and will continue to evolve as results with other new agents are revealed.Keywords: vascular endothelial growth factor, triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethosone implant, sustained release, vascular leakage, ischemia

  13. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  14. CLINICAL STUDY OF RETINAL VEIN OCCLUSIONS AND MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyavathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion is the most common retinal occlusive disorder encountered by Ophthalmologists and is usually associated with a variable amount of visual loss. This is the second most common retinal vascular disease next to diabetic retinopathy. Liebreich initially described dramatic obstruction of veins as retinal apoplexy. Leber ( 1 (1877 reported the first case of BRVO and called it Hem orrhagic retinitis. RVO most commonly affects the venous blood supply of the entire retina (CRVO or a quadrant drained by one of the branches (BRVO or less commonly the superior or inferior half of the retina alone is affected (HCRVO. For discussion and management purpose RVO is broadly classified into six clinical entities includes (1 Non - ischemic CRVO (2 Ischemic CRVO (3 Non ischemic HCRVO (4Ischemic HCRVO (5 Major BRVO (6Macular BRVO. So much of confusion still exists regarding its natural histo ry, degree of severity, management and its progression. The clinical study of RVO is taken up mainly with a view to study the importance of systemic risk factors in etiopathogenisis of RVO, to study the clinical features and effectiveness of treatment in m odification of the natural course and complications of RVO. Depending on type of venous occlusion patient may present with loss of central vision frequently noticed on waking up in the morning, or field contraction, erythropsia, floates, black spots. Episo des of amaurosis fugax lasts for minutes to hours may be present. There may be metamor - phopsia. Signs of decreased visual acuty, RAPD, visual field defects are observed. Fundus picture shows Retinal hemorrhages distributed based on type of venous occlusion . In ischemic CRVO the picture shows “berries on a twig”. Various sequel & complications include macular edema, anterior segment and retinal neovascularisation, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment may be encountered. Various risk factors include Hypert ension, Diabetes, Hyper lipidemia, IHD

  15. Retinal vascular oximetry during ranibizumab treatment of central retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; la Cour, Morten; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of intravitreal injections of the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor ranibizumab on retinal oxygenation in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). METHODS: Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with CRVO was analysed using the Oxymap Retin...

  16. The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on ocular blood flow in diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion as measured by laser speckle flowgraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Nitta F; Kunikata H; Aizawa N; Omodaka K; Shiga Y; Yasuda M; Nakazawa T

    2014-01-01

    Fumihiko Nitta,1 Hiroshi Kunikata,1,2 Naoko Aizawa,1 Kazuko Omodaka,1 Yukihiro Shiga,1 Masayuki Yasuda,1 Toru Nakazawa1–31Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Retinal Disease Control, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanBackground: This study evaluated the effect of intravitreal injection o...

  17. Changes in the retinal veins in acute optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, T; Sellebjerg, F; Jensen, C

    1999-01-01

    retinae (PR) and 2 had venous sheathing (VS). Probable MS was found in 15 patients without prior symptoms of MS. One had PR and VS, and 2 had VS. Twenty patients had mono-symptomatic ON, none had retinal changes. CONCLUSION: Changes of the retinal veins should alert the clinician to a probable diagnosis...

  18. Changes in macular thickness and visual acuity after intravitreal bevacizumab injection in patients with retinal vein occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of single Intravitreal Bevacizumab (Avastin) injection on visual acuity (VA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) in patients with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Study Design: Prospective, non-randomized, interventional case series. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital Rawalpindi from March 2012 to February 2013. Patients and Methods: Twenty three patients with macular edema attributable to vein occlusion received intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab 1.25 mg. Nine patients had central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and 14 patients had branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Complete ophthalmic examination including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was done at base line and follow up visits. Results: At base line mean visual acuity was Log MAR 0.73 and showed improvement to mean Log MAR 0.39 at 12 weeks after intravitreal Bevacizumab (IVB) injection. Mean CRT was 527 meu m at baseline that decreased to 274 meu m after 12 weeks of IVB treatment. Conclusion: Intravitreal Bevacizumab appears to result in significant short term improvement of VA and macular edema secondary to vein occlusion. (author)

  19. Therapeutic potential of intravitreal pharmacotherapy in retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the most common visually disabling disease affecting the retina after diabetic retinopathy. Although the disease entity has long been known, its management is still controversial. Macular edema is the main reason for decreased visual acuity (VA) in this retinal vascular disorder. Recently the vitreous cavity has increasingly been used as a reservoir of drugs for the direct treatment of macular edema through intravitreal injection route. The most widely injected...

  20. Mortality in Patients with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Christoffersen, Nynne; Vorum, Henrik; Gade, Else Fredsted; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess mortality in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). DESIGN: Registry-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS: Four hundred thirty-nine photographically verified CRVO patients and a control cohort of 2195 unexposed subjects matched by age and gender and alive.......27; 95% CI, 1.03-1.56) and in women 60 to 69 years of age (SMR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.22-3.08). CONCLUSIONS: Central retinal vein occlusion was associated with an overall increase in mortality compared with controls that was attributed statistically to cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. We recommend...

  1. Grid photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab for recurrent macular edema associated with retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogino K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ken Ogino, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Tomoaki Murakami, Yuki Muraoka, Yumiko Kurashige, Nagahisa YoshimuraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: To report the efficacy of grid photocoagulation combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB for macular edema recurring after previous IVBs associated with retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Methods: This retrospective study consisted of 19 eyes with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and nine eyes with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO, which were treated with grid photocoagulation combined with IVB for recurrent macular edema after previous IVBs. The mean duration of total follow-up was 29.3 ± 5.8 months.Results: After this combination therapy, foveal thickness was reduced, significant with slight improvement in visual acuity (VA. At 1 month after treatment, although 25 of the 28 eyes showed complete resolution of the cystoid space, the macular edema recurred to some extent in 19 eyes. Compared with initial values, final foveal thickness was reduced significantly in both BRVO and CRVO groups (P < 0.001, but improvement in VA was significant only for eyes with BRVO (P = 0.012. The total number of IVB was 2.8 ± 0.7 for eyes with either BRVO or CRVO.Conclusion: Grid photocoagulation combined with IVB has a substantial effect on reducing recurrent macular edema associated with RVO, but the effect on visual acuity is limited.Keywords: bevacizumab, grid laser photocoagulation, macular edema, optical coherence tomography, retinal vein occlusion

  2. Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Vitreous Humor in Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Reich

    Full Text Available To analyze the protein profile of human vitreous of untreated patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO.Sixty-eight vitreous humor (VH samples (44 from patients with treatment naïve RVO, 24 controls with idiopathic floaters were analyzed in this clinical-experimental study using capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometer and tandem mass spectrometry. To define potential candidate protein markers of RVO, proteomic analysis was performed on RVO patients (n = 30 and compared with controls (n = 16. To determine validity of potential biomarker candidates in RVO, receiver operating characteristic (ROC was performed by using proteome data of independent RVO (n = 14 and control samples (n = 8.Ninety-four different proteins (736 tryptic peptides could be identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be significant when comparing RVO and control samples (P = 1.43E-05 to 4.48E-02. Five proteins (Clusterin, Complement C3, Ig lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5, Opticin and Vitronectin, remained significant after using correction for multiple testing. These five proteins were also detected significant when comparing subgroups of RVO (central RVO, hemi-central RVO, branch RVO to controls. Using independent samples ROC-Area under the curve was determined proving the validity of the results: Clusterin 0.884, Complement C3 0.955, IGLL5 1.000, Opticin 0.741, Vitronectin 0.786. In addition, validation through ELISA measurements was performed.The results of the study reveal that the proteomic composition of VH differed significantly between the patients with RVO and the controls. The proteins identified may serve as potential biomarkers for pathogenesis induced by RVO.

  4. Intravitrel bevacizumab in different type of retinal vein occlusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Retinal vein occlusion is frequent cause of visual loss with insufficient treatment options. Many treatment options have been tried in the past including intravitreal triamcenoloneacetonide injection. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and complications of intravitreal injection of Bevacizumab in different types of retinal vein occlusion. Method: This interventional study was carried out at Al Ibrahim eye hospital, Karachi from July 2011 to December 2012. Patients diagnosed with retinal vein occlusion of any type were included in the study using non-probability purposive sampling technique, after informed written consent. Patients were injected intra-vitreally with Bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05 ml under sterilized technique in operation room. Best corrected visual acuity and optical coherence tomography was repeated in every follow up along with the detailed fundoscopy and intraocular pressure measurement. Data analysis was done using SPSS-20.0. Results: A total 278 patients were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Mean age of the patients was 54.28 years (SD=5.62). Out of 278 patients included in the study, 132 had BRVO, 141 had CRVO while 5 had HRVO. Mean visual acuity before injection was 2.309 lines of Snellen's acuity chart read, with minimum of 1 line read and maximum of 4 lines read (standard deviation=l.00). After 12 weeks post injection, 92 patients read 7 lines (6/6) of Snellen's visual acuity chart. Mean visual acuity was 4.75 lines of Snellen's acuity chart read, with minimum of 1 line read and maximum of 7 lines read (standard deviation=1.00). 77 percentage of the patients had visual improvement after injection (p<0.05). Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab injection is very effective in reducing macular thickness as well in improving visual acuity in all types of retinal vein occlusion. (author)

  5. Intravitreal pegaptanib for refractory macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Udaondo P; Garcia-Delpech S; Salom D; Garcia-Pous M; Diaz-Llopis M

    2011-01-01

    Patricia Udaondo1,2, Salvador Garcia-Delpech1,3, David Salom1,3, Maria Garcia-Pous1,3, Manuel Diaz-Llopis1,31Nuevo Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 2University Cardenal Herrera CEU, Valencia, Spain; 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, SpainPurpose: To assess the efficacy of intravitreal Pegaptanib sodium (Macugen®) injection in the management of refractory macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion.Methods: This is a prospe...

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Canning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the current status of the use of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF blocking agents in retinal vein occlusion. There have been no randomised controlled trials comparing this treatment with the current standard treatment (largely laser so the lower grade evidence of single treatment case series and anecdotal reports are discussed. VEGF blockers are good at reducing macular oedema in the short term, do improve visual acuity in many cases, and do not seem to adversely affect the long term revascularisation that is necessary to overcome the vein occlusion. VEGF blocking agents are not used in isolation in this condition - they will remain an adjunct to systemic and other local treatments. The literature was reviewed in online searches of Embase and Ovid and the papers quoted are a representative sample of a larger body of publications.

  7. Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Hawel, Jeff; Ageno, Walter; Kovacs, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a frequent cause of visual loss for which few effective therapies are available. Anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin might be of value in its treatment. We conducted a systematic review and meta analysis of randomized trials evaluating the effect of low molecular weight heparin in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, the Cochrane Library, Lilacs, the Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science database and gray literature. Main outcome was the mean difference between the visual acuity measured at baseline and at six months expressed in the logMAR scale. Secondary outcome was a composite of any adverse ocular outcome including: worsening of visual acuity, visual fields or fluorescein angiography, or development of iris neovascularization, any neovascularization or neovascular glaucoma. Subgroup analyses for branch versus central retinal vein occlusion were conducted. We identified 1,084 references of which 3 studies comparing low molecular weight heparin with aspirin (229 evaluable patients) were included. Overall, the pooled mean visual acuity difference was −0.23 logMAR (95% CI −0.38, −0.09; P=0.002) in favor of low molecular weight heparin. Low molecular weight heparin was associated with a 78% risk reduction for developing any adverse ocular outcome (pooled RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.10, 0.46; P<0.001). In subgroup analyses benefits seemed lower in branch retinal vein occlusion. No increased vitreous hemorrhages were observed. In patients with retinal vein occlusion treatment with low molecular weight heparin seems to be associated with improvement in the visual acuity and less adverse ocular outcomes. These benefits might differ in patients with central as opposed to branch retinal vein occlusion. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and clarify its benefits in specific subgroups of patients before definitive recommendations can be made. PMID:20305141

  8. Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welling JD

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

  9. Macular Hole Progression after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Hemicentral Retinal Vein Occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Nagpal; Vikram Mehta; Kamal Nagpal

    2012-01-01

    Macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion is commonly being treated with off-label intravitreal bevacizumab with good outcomes. A significant reduction in macular edema and improvement in visual acuity is seen following such a treatment with no serious adverse effects. In the reported case, a full-thickness macular hole was noticed one month after intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to hemicentral retinal vein occlusion. On a detailed review of the pre- and postoptica...

  10. End Stage Renal Disease as a Potential Risk Factor for Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Ni; Yang, Te-Cheng; Lin, Jian-Teng; Lian, Ie-Bin

    2015-11-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) has been reported to be an important risk factor for systemic vascular disease. Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is closely related with cardiovascular diseases; however, its association with ESRD had not been reported. The aim of the study was to investigate whether ESRD is a risk factor for RVO, including central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). This population-based study is based on the longitudinal data from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised 5344 patients with diagnosis of ESRD on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis during the period from January 1996 to December 2011. For each ESRD patient, we selected 20 non-ESRD patients matched on age and sex. Each ESRD patient and his/her controls were followed from the initiation of renal dialysis until either the diagnosis of RVO or censorship. Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the hazard of RVO between cohorts. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) adjusted by the comorbidities of RVO including diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, hypercholesteremia, and hypertriglyceridemia. After stratifying by DM status, the statistics were applied again to examine the associations among the DM cohort and non-DM cohort.The 16-year RVO cumulative incidence for ESRD cohort was 2-fold to the non-ESRD (1.01% vs 0.46%). After matching with age, sex, hypertension, and hypercholesteremia, the adjusted HR was 1.46 (95% confidence interval = 1.07-2.01, P value = 0.018). By further excluding patients with DM, the adjusted HR escalated to 2.43 (95% confidence interval = 1.54-3.83, P < 0.001). In contrast, there was no significant risk of ESRD on RVO in the DM patients (HR = 1.03). We conclude that among the non-DM patients, ESRD cases had significantly higher RVO rate than the non-ESRD, which indicates that ESRD maybe a potential risk factor for the development of RVO in

  11. Therapeutic effect of dexamethasone implant in retinal vein occlusions resistant to anti-VEGF therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallsh J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Josh Wallsh, Behnam Sharareh, Ron GallemoreRetina Macula Institute, Torrance, CA, USAPurpose: To test the efficacy of the intravitreal dexamethasone (DEX implant in patients with retinal vein occlusions (RVOs who have failed multiple anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF treatments.Methods: A randomized exploratory study of ten patients with branch RVO or central RVO who received at least two previous anti-VEGF treatments and had persistent or unresponsive cystoid macular edema. Treatment with the DEX implant was either every 4 months or pro re nata (PRN depending on their group assignment for 1 year. Multifocal electroretinography and microperimetry were the primary end points, with high-resolution optical coherence tomography and best-corrected visual acuity as the secondary end points.Results: All patients in both the every 4 month and PRN cohorts who completed the study received the three maximal injections of DEX; therefore, the data from both cohorts were combined and reported as a case series. On average, the multifocal electroretinography amplitude increased significantly from 5.11±0.66 to 24.19±5.30 nV/deg2 at 12 months (P<0.005, mean macular sensitivity increased from 7.67±2.10 to 8.01±1.98 dB at 4 months (P=0.32, best-corrected visual acuity increased significantly from 51.0±5.1 to 55.4±5.1 early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study letters at 2 months (P<0.05, and central retinal thickness decreased from 427.6±39.5 to 367.1±37.8 µm at 4 months (P<0.05. Intraocular pressure increased significantly in one patient, with that patient requiring an additional glaucoma medication for management. Additionally, cataract progression increased significantly (P<0.05 in this patient population and partially limited analysis of other end points.Conclusion: DEX should be considered as a treatment option in patients with RVOs who have failed anti-VEGF therapy, as the results of this study demonstrated an improvement in

  12. Retinal artery and vein thrombotic occlusion during pregnancy: markers for familial thrombophilia and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz WS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Will S Kurtz,1 Charles J Glueck,1 Robert K Hutchins,2,3 Robert A Sisk,2,3 Ping Wang1 1Cholesterol, Metabolism, and Thrombosis Center, Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati, 2Cincinnati Eye Institute, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Background: Ocular vascular occlusion (OVO, first diagnosed during or immediately after giving birth, often reflects superposition of the physiologic thrombophilia of pregnancy on previously undiagnosed underlying familial or acquired thrombophilia associated with spontaneous abortion, eclampsia, or maternal thrombosis. Specific aim: We describe OVO, first diagnosed during pregnancy or immediately postpartum, in three young females (ages 32, 35, 40 associated with previously undiagnosed familial thrombophilia. Results: Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO occurred at 9 and 13 weeks gestation in two females, aged 32 and 35. Central retinal vein occlusion occurred immediately postpartum in a 40-year-old. One of the two females with BRAO subsequently developed eclampsia, and one had a history of unexplained first trimester spontaneous abortion. All three females were found to have previously unexplained familial thrombophilia. The two females with BRAO had low first trimester free protein S 42 (41%, lower normal limit (50%, and one of these two had high factor VIII (165%, upper normal limit 150%. The woman with central retinal vein occlusion had high factor XI (169%, upper normal limit 150%. Enoxaparin (40–60 mg/day was started and continued throughout pregnancy in both females with BRAO to prevent maternal–placental thrombosis, and of these two females, one had an uncomplicated pregnancy course and term delivery, and the second was at gestational week 22 without complications at the time of this manuscript. There were no further OVO events in the two females treated with enoxaparin or in the untreated patient with postpartum eclampsia. Conclusion: OVO during

  13. Concomitant multiple myeloma spectrum diagnosis in a central retinal vein occlusion: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Multiple myeloma is a neoplastic plasma-cell disorder resulting from malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It can cause a hyperviscosity syndrome secondary to the paraproteinaemia associated with the disease. The increased hyperviscosity can lead to retinal vein occlusions and other ocular problems that may challenge clinicians. In patients with multiple myeloma and hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus, retinal changes appear similar and changes due to one disease or the other may be difficult to determine. A 48-year-old white female presented to the clinic with a complaint of blurry vision in her left eye. A full comprehensive ocular examination revealed a central retinal vein occlusion presumably from the patient's history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia. Further bloodwork revealed monoclonal protein in the patient's serum and an increased percentage of plasma cells in the bone marrow. She was diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, part of the multiple myeloma disease spectrum. She was referred to a retinal specialist for initiation of intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. Multiple myeloma has been implicated in younger patients as an underlying cause of retinal vein occlusions. Multiple myeloma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal vein occlusions, even if other risk factors for venous occlusion like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia are present. Timely referral to the patient's primary care physician and haematologist is important for appropriate treatment and control of underlying systemic conditions. PMID:27079282

  14. Anatomy of the portal branches and the hepatic veins in the caudate lobe of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortale, J R; Borges Keiralla, L C

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the caudate portal branches and their relationships with the hepatic caudate veins and propose a new nomenclature for the caudate branches based on their territory of distribution. We realized the fine dissection of the veins of the caudate lobe in 40 human livers fixed and preserved in formalin. In 15/40 (37.5%) cases there was a single branch to the caudate lobe. In 25/40 (62.5%) cases there was more than one branch, with a posterior caudate branch in 20/40 (50%) cases, an anterior caudate branch in 15/40 (37.5%) cases, a left caudate branch in 14/40 (35%) cases, and a right caudate branch in 8/40 (20%) cases. The most frequent combination detected (11/40, 27.5% of cases) was that of the posterior and anterior branches. The venous drainage of the caudate lobe and its papillary process was provided by the superior caudate hepatic vein in 23/40 (57.5%) cases, by the middle caudate vein in 35/40 (87.5%) cases (which was the only vein in 12/35 cases), and by the inferior caudate vein in 16/40 (40%) cases. In 11/40 (12.5%) cases there were accessory caudate veins, which emptied into the left and intermediate hepatic veins. The portal branches and the hepatic veins related to the caudate process were studied. In conclusion, the new nomenclature analyzes more precisely the distribution of the caudate portal branches. PMID:15300411

  15. Mortality in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Nynne; Gade, Else; Knudsen, Lars; Juel, Knud; Larsen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    between patients and the background population. An association between BRVO and cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk factors has previously been documented in cross-sectional studies. The contrasting outcome in this longitudinal study may have been influenced by interventions instituted after the diagnosis...... of BRVO was made and by preferential survival before the diagnosis of BRVO of the more fit patients with the necessary precursor condition of having arteriovenous nicking, which is more prevalent in subjects with diabetes and hypertension....

  16. Branching vertical vein with multiple sites of obstruction in supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaneetha Sasikumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an infant with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and a branching vertical vein with multiple points of narrowing, draining the confluence into the innominate vein. The embryology and clinical relevance of this interesting anatomy is discussed.

  17. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusions Combined with Artery Occlusions in A Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Wen; Xuemei Chen; Haitai Li; Ruiduan Liao; Dezheng Wu

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first report of a bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusionscombined with artery occlusions in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS). Methods: Case report. Results: A 22-year-old Chinese(male) with a positive human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection developed bilateral nonischemic central retinal vein occlusions combinedwith artery occlusions and severe vision loss. The manifestations of the fundus andfluorescein angiography were similar in both eyes.Conclusion: This case report provides the evidences that central retinal vein and arteryocclusions are probably part of the spectrum of AIDS vascular diseases.

  18. Retinal vein thrombosis associated with pegylated-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iman Zandieh; Mohamed Adenwalla; Cindy Cheong-Lee; Patrick E Ma; Eric M Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    An estimated 300 million people worldwide suffer fromchronic hepatitis C with a prevalence of 0.8%-1.0% of the general population in Canada. An increasing pool of evidence exists supporting the use of pegylatedinterferon (pegIFN) and ribavirin combination therapy for hepatitis C. We report a 49-year old male of North American aboriginal descent with chronic hepatitis C (genotype 2b). Biopsy confirmed that he had cirrhosis with a 2-wk history of left eye pain and decreased visual acuity. He developed retinal vein thrombosis after 16 of 24 wk of pegIFN-α 2a and ribavirin combination therapy. He was urgently referred to a retinal specialist and diagnosed with non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion of the left eye. PegIFN and ribavirin combination therapy was discontinued and HCV RNA was undetectable after 16 wk of treatment. Hematologic investigations revealed that the patient was a factor V Leiden heterozygote with mildly decreased protein C activity. Our patient had a number of hypercoagulable risk factors, including factor V Leiden heterozygosity, cirrhosis, and hepatitis C that alone would have most likely remained clinically silent. We speculate that in the setting of pegIFN treatment, these risk factors may coalesce and cause the retinal vein thrombosis.

  19. Automatic determination of the artery vein ratio in retinal images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    A lower ratio between the width of the arteries and veins (Arteriolar-to-Venular diameter Ratio, AVR) on the retina, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as an increased risk of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents an automatic method that detects the location of the optic disc, determines the appropriate region of interest (ROI), classifies the vessels in the ROI into arteries and veins, measures their widths and calculates the AVR. After vessel segmentation and vessel width determination the optic disc is located and the system eliminates all vessels outside the AVR measurement ROI. The remaining vessels are thinned, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. Features are extracted from each centerline pixel that are used to assign them a soft label indicating the likelihood the pixel is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type, the median soft label is assigned to each centerline pixel in the segment. Next artery vein pairs are matched using an iterative algorithm and the widths of the vessels is used to calculate the AVR. We train and test the algorithm using a set of 25 high resolution digital color fundus photographs a reference standard that indicates for the major vessels in the images whether they are an artery or a vein. We compared the AVR values produced by our system with those determined using a computer assisted method in 15 high resolution digital color fundus photographs and obtained a correlation coefficient of 0.881.

  20. Case Report of Optic Disc Drusen with Simultaneous Peripapillary Subretinal Hemorrhage and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zhiwei Law

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old Chinese gentleman presented with right eye floaters and photopsia over one week. His visual acuities were 20/20 bilaterally. Posterior segment examination showed a right eye swollen optic disc and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO associated with an area of subretinal hemorrhage adjacent to the optic disc. Fundus fluorescein (FA and indocyanine green angiographies (ICGA of the right eye did not demonstrate choroidal neovascularization (CNV, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, or retinal ischemia. Ultrasound B-scan revealed optic disc drusen (ODD. In view of good vision and absence of CNV, he was managed conservatively with spontaneous resolution after two months. Commonly, ODD may directly compress and mechanically rupture subretinal vessels at the optic disc, resulting in peripapillary subretinal hemorrhage, as was likely the case in our patient. Mechanical impairment of peripapillary circulation also results in retinal ischemia and may trigger the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV and/or polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV, leading to subretinal haemorrhage. Compromise in central venous outflow with increased retinal central venous pressure from the direct mechanical effects of enlarging ODD results in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Patients with subretinal hemorrhage and CRVO from ODD should be monitored closely for the development of potentially sight-threatening complications.

  1. Anti vascular endothelial growth factor (bevacizumab) in central retinal vein occlusion: an interventional case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vascular endothelial growth factor plays major role in ocular angio genesis and retinal edema production and is a step forward in the management of ocular neovascularization and retinal edematous pathologies. To determine the efficacy and safety of intra-vitreal Avastin (Bevacizumab) in cases having central retinal vein occlusion. All patients with central retinal occlusion occurring in the past 3 months and seen between the study period were included in the study. Diagnosis of central retinal vein occlusion was made clinically by slit lamp biomicroscopy with 78D examination Patients who had received any treatment for and eyes which already had developed Anterior Segment Neovascularization, Neovascularization elsewhere or Neovascularization on disc at presentation were excluded. Dose of 0.05 ml (1.25mg) of Avastin (Bevacizumab) was used as intra vitreal injection every month for 3 months in cases that presented within a month of occlusion and less injections were given in dose presenting later. Follow-up was done at 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day after the onset of disease. Visual outcome was defined as Snellen's or LogMar Best Corrected Visual Acuity at final follow up, of 120th day, compared to the visual acuity at presentation. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 17. Total of 17 eyes of 17 patients were included in this study. Eleven (64.7%) patients were males while 6(35.3%) were females. Total of 40 intra-vitreal injections of Avastin were given to patients with a mean of 2.35 injections per eye. Good visual outcome was achieved in 10(58.8%) eyes, while 7(41.2%) had stable visual outcome. Mean initial Best Corrected Visual Acuity (LogMar) in all 17 eyes was 1.79(SD+0.87) which significantly improved to a mean of 1.18 (SD+0.77) at final follow up. Mean improvement in Best Corrected Visual Acuity (LogMar) after paired sample test in all patients at final follow up on day 120 was 0.61(SD+0.84). Retinal hemorrhages and macular edema decreased clinically on

  2. Macular Hole Progression after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Hemicentral Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Nagpal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion is commonly being treated with off-label intravitreal bevacizumab with good outcomes. A significant reduction in macular edema and improvement in visual acuity is seen following such a treatment with no serious adverse effects. In the reported case, a full-thickness macular hole was noticed one month after intravitreal bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to hemicentral retinal vein occlusion. On a detailed review of the pre- and postoptical coherence tomography scans, it was realized that there was a preexisting stage 2-3 macular hole which was masked by the hemorrhages and edema at the fovea and the macular hole had progressed following the injection.

  3. Sulfur Mustard Exposure and Non-Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Shoeibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man was referred with a complaint of visual loss in his left eye and his best corrected visual acuity was 20/80. Slit lamp examination showed arborizing conjunctival vessels and dry eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography revealed a non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. Cardiovascular, rheumatologic, and hematologic work up showed no abnormal findings. An ascertained history of exposure to sulfur mustard during the Iran-Iraq war was documented in his medical history. Four sessions of intravitreal bevacizumab injections were done as needed. After two-year follow-up, visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/25 and macular edema was resolved without any need for further interventions. We conclude that sulfur mustard gas exposure may be considered as a predisposing factor for central retinal vein occlusion, as was found in our patient (an Iranian war veteran by excluding all yet known etiologies and predisposing factors.

  4. Drug treatment of macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: a network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, John A.; Shyangdan, Deepson; Uthman, Olalekan A; Lois, Noemi; Waugh, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Objective To indirectly compare aflibercept, bevacizumab, dexamethasone, ranibizumab and triamcinolone for treatment of macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion using a network meta-analysis (NMA). Design NMA. Data sources The following databases were searched from January 2005 to March 2013: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-process, EMBASE; CDSR, DARE, HTA, NHSEED, CENTRAL; Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. Eligibility criteria for selecting studi...

  5. Central retinal vein occlusion: a prospective histopathologic study of 29 eyes in 28 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, W R; Chan, C.C.; Hutchins, G M; Terry, J M

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and histopathologic features of 29 eyes from 29 patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) are reported. A fresh or a recanalized thrombus was observed in each eye. This study considers the temporal aspects of the cases, and it notes the different morphologic features of the occlusion. These observations explain most of the variability of the changes observed in previous reports. We believe that these different features represent the various stages in the natural evoluti...

  6. Risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion Following End-Stage Renal Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yuh-Shin; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Wang, Jiu-yao; Jan, Ren-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) following end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study was designed as a retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study. The subjects were ESRD patients identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), code 585. The study cohort included 92,774 ESRD patients registered between January 2000 and December 2009 at the Taiwan National Health Insurance...

  7. Systematic literature review of treatments for management of complications of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Steven E; Gala, Smeet; Nanavaty, Merena; Shah, Anshul; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Kefalas, Panos

    2016-01-01

    Background To understand the clinical and economic outcomes of treatments for managing complications of ischemic central retinal vein occlusion (iCRVO). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review by searching multiple databases and ophthalmology conferences from 2004 to 2015. Studies published in English language and populations of age ≥45 years were included. For clinical endpoints, we defined eligibility criteria as randomized controlled trials, prospective before-and-after study d...

  8. Bevacizumab therapy for macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion: Long-term results

    OpenAIRE

    Manayath, George J.; V Narendran; Nadia Al-Kharousi; Upender K Wali

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is no proven effective treatment for vision loss in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Bevacizumab has been reported in small series with limited follow-up, to have a positive effect in reducing cystoid macular edema (CME) and improving vision in CRVO. Purpose: To report long-term results with the use of bevacizumab in CRVO. Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case series included 15 patients, serially evaluated with best corrected visual acuity (...

  9. Optic Nerve Sheath Melanoma Presenting as a Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, Alexander; Sibony, Patrick A; Stippa, Nigel A; Boyle, Nariman S; Davis, James E

    2016-03-01

    A 64-year-old woman, with a history of diabetes and melanoma, developed a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in her left eye. On exam, she had severe disc edema with retinal nerve fiber layer thickening, and anterior deformation of the peripapillary retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/Bruch membrane layer (ppRPE/BM) toward the vitreous on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) suggesting an optic nerve sheath (ONS) meningioma. Magnetic resonance imaging findings and ONS biopsy later confirmed a metastatic melanoma. This case demonstrates that the shape of the RPE/BM on SD-OCT may aid in the decision to consider imaging in patients with isolated CRVO. PMID:26535468

  10. A patient with acute macular neuroretinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirooka K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Kiriko Hirooka,1 Wataru Saito,1,2 Kousuke Noda,1,2 Susumu Ishida1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Ocular Circulation and Metabolism, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanPurpose: The precise mechanism causing acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN is still unknown. A recent report suggested that choroidal circulation impairment correlates with its pathogenesis. We report a rare case with simultaneous onset of AMN and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO, which is a retinal circulation disorder.Methods: Case report.Results: A 44-year-old woman complained of central visual loss of the left eye for the previous 2 weeks. The patient’s visual acuity was 0.5 in the left eye (OS. Fundoscopic examination revealed a wedge-shaped, dark reddish-brown lesion at the macula, and CRVO-like retinal hemorrhages OS. Fluorescein angiography revealed retinal vasculitis and hypofluorescence corresponding to the macular lesion. The patient’s scanning laser ophthalmoscopy infrared imaging result led to a diagnosis of AMN. Two weeks after corticosteroid pulse therapy, her visual acuity improved to 1.2 OS, with improvement of macular findings and Humphrey perimetry. When the dose of oral corticosteroid was decreased, the AMN lesion worsened, with recurrence of retinal hemorrhages. Visual functions improved again after an increased dose of corticosteroid.Conclusion: These results suggest that circulatory disorders almost simultaneously occurred in choroidal and retinal vessels, resulting in the onset of both AMN and CRVO.Keywords: choroidal circulation, optical coherence tomography, retinal circulation, systemic corticosteroid therapy

  11. Retinal vein occlusion and macular edema – critical evaluation of the clinical value of ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane PA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearse A Keane1, Srinivas R Sadda21NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; 2Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs constitute the second most common cause of retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy, with a prevalence of between 1% and 2% in persons older than 40 years of age. Despite the existence of numerous potential therapeutic options, none is entirely satisfactory, and many patients with RVO suffer irreversible visual loss. Fortunately however, the recent introduction of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, such as ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA and bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, offers a potentially new treatment approach for clinicians managing this disorder. The results of the BRAVO and CRUISE trials have provided the first definitive evidence for the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of RVO. As a result, ranibizumab has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RVO-associated macular edema. In this review, we provide a critical evaluation of clinical trial data for the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab, and address unresolved issues in the management of this disorder. Keywords: ranibizumab, retinal vein occlusion, vascular endothelial growth factor, macular edema

  12. Accelerated ischemic vascular retinopathy after intravitreally injected bevacizumab for central retinal vein occlusion in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isola V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vincenzo Isola,1 Alfredo Pece,1,2 Claudio Massironi,1 Simone Reposi,1 Fabio Dimastrogiovanni11Department of Ophthalmology, Melegnano Hospital, 2Fondazione Retina 3000, Milano, ItalyBackground: Ischemic changes in the retinal circulation are an uncommon but severe adverse vascular reaction to intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, San Francisco, CA, USA/Roche, Basel, Switzerland for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. In the two cases reported here, ischemic changes in the retina vasculature following intravitreal bevacizumab for CRVO were observed with the aim of describing the clinical and angiographic features of these changes.Methods: Two elderly patients with recent-onset CRVO received one off-label intravitreal injection of bevacizumab 0.05 mL/1.25 mg.Results: In Case 1, the patient's pre-treatment visual acuity was 20/400. At 3 weeks post injection, the patient could count fingers at a distance of 1 ft (30 cm and fluorescein angiography showed reduction in intraretinal hemorrhages and areas of retinal non-perfusion. However, at 6 weeks these were markedly increased compared with those seen in the photograph taken 3 weeks after treatment. In Case 2, the patient's pre-treatment visual acuity was 20/200. At 1 month post injection, vision had decreased to 20/400 and fluorescein angiography showed severe macular ischemia with a remarkable capillary dropout throughout the macula.Conclusion: Ischemic retinal injury may be an uncommon but severe adverse vascular reaction to intravitreal bevacizumab for CRVO. Although progression of retinal ischemia in CRVO could be observed shortly after intravitreal bevacizumab, whether this is a drug- or procedure-related effect or part of the natural history of the condition remains uncertain.Keywords: Avastin, ischemia, macular infarction, intraretinal hemorrhage, retinal non-perfusion

  13. Bilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusion as Presenting Feature of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Subina; Gupta, Panchmi; Sharma, Anuj; Sood, Sunandan; Palta, Anshu; Goyal, Shilpa

    2016-01-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a common pathology of the retinal vasculature. Patients with CRVO usually present with a drop in visual acuity. The condition bears no specific therapy; treatment is aimed at the management of potentially blinding complications, of which there are many. With majority of cases being unilateral, bilateral CRVO is usually associated with an underlying systemic illness such as a hyperviscosity syndrome. Here, we present a case of a patient, who presented with a bilateral drop in vision diagnosed as bilateral CRVO on ophthalmic evaluation. Systemic workup revealed the presence of an underlying undiagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia. An initial presentation to the ophthalmologist is a rare occurrence in leukemic patients. This case report highlights the role of the ophthalmologist in diagnosing a potentially life-threatening hematological illness. PMID:27555710

  14. Photopic 30 Hz flicker ERG as a predictor for rubeosis in central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, J.; Andreasson, S.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the predictive value of the cone b-wave implicit time in the photopic compared with the scotopic 30 Hz flicker ERG for rubeosis in central retinal vein occlusion.
METHODS—44 patients with a central retinal vein occlusion were examined with full field electroretinogram (ERG).
RESULTS—The average implicit time in the photopic 30 Hz flicker ERG in patients who developed rubeosis (n=15) was 38.3 ms. In the patients who did not develop rubeosis (n=29) it was 31.3. The differenc...

  15. Intraocular cytokines in retinal vein occlusion and its relation to the efficiency of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey G Shchuko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the change in the concentration of intraocular cytokines (ICs in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO before and after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy (IVR, and to find the correlations of IC with clinical activity of RVO and efficiency of treatment. Materials and Methods: Forty-four patients aged 46–79 years old (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.5 years old with RVO and macular edema (18 patients – with central RVO, 26 – with branch RVO treated with IVR were included into the study. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were simultaneously measured in aqueous humor by flow fluorometry using Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine Panel, 27-Plex (Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA at baseline and after the first IVR. Control group consisted of 20 age-matched patients. Results: The levels of 11 cytokines (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], receptor antagonist interleukin-1, interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-12r70, IL-13, IL-15, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted were significantly (P < 0.05 different compared to control and significantly (P < 0.05 changed after IVR both in central and branch RVO. The patients were divided into two groups: the first -"effective" and the second - "partially effective" therapy. The second group characterized by the higher concentrations of VEGF, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and MCP-1 at baseline compared to the first group. Conclusion: The patients with RVO were characterized by the increased levels of VEGF and other pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Aqueous concentration of cytokines were different in patients with central and branch RVO and significantly changed after IVR. Insufficient response to IVR was associated with activation of immune-inflammatory processes.

  16. Full-Thickness Retinochoroidal Incision in the Management of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Ni Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO treated with full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions and to compare whether there is difference in treatment response in ischemic and nonischemic CRVO. Methods. Retrospective study of patients of CRVO receiving full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions in Changhua Christian Hospital. Fluorescein angiography (FA, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect funduscopy, best corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness (CMT measured by optical coherence tomography were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients were divided into an ischemic and nonischemic group according to the findings of FA. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year. Results. Twenty-eight eyes (14 ischemic and 14 nonischemic CRVO were included. Functional retinochoroidal venous anastomosis (RCVA was achieved in 48 of the 65 retinochoroidal incisions (73.8%. Central macular thickness (CMT and retinal hemorrhage decreased significantly after the surgery. Significant visual gain was observed postoperatively in the nonischemic group, but not in the ischemic group. Postoperative complications included vitreous hemorrhage (17.8%, neovascular glaucoma (7.1%, and preretinal fibrovasular membrane (10.7%, all of which were in the ischemic group. Conclusions. RCVA formation induced by retinochoroidal incisions could improve venous flow, and decrease CMT and retinal hemorrhage. However, only eyes with nonischemic CRVO showed visual improvement.

  17. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason lll JO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV rate in eyes with a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO or a central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and to study factors that may influence the ONV rate secondary to CRAO.Methods: This was a retrospective case series of consecutive patients (286 total eyes: 83 CRAOs and 203 BRAOs who were diagnosed with a retinal artery occlusion from 1998 to 2013 at the Retina Consultants of Alabama and University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between hypothesized risk factors and ONV development.Results: Twelve (14.5% of the 83 eyes with a CRAO developed ONV. Eleven of 12 eyes (91.7% had iris neovascularization, ten of 12 eyes (83.3% had neovascular glaucoma, and two of 12 eyes (16.7% had neovascularization of the optic disc. The average time for ONV development secondary to CRAO was 30.7 days, ranging from the date of presentation to 137 days. Only two (<1.0% of the 203 eyes with a BRAO developed iris neovascularization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 was a risk factor for ONV development following a CRAO with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.4–19.8 (P=0.02.Conclusion: ONV is an important complication of CRAO and is a less-frequent complication of BRAO. Patients with a CRAO, especially those with diabetes mellitus type 2, should be closely monitored for the first 6 months for ONV. Keywords: neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, retinal artery occlusion, central

  18. Central retinal vein occlusion: A review of current Evidence-based treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO can induce an ischemic and hypoxic state with resulting sequelae of macular edema and neovascularization. Many treatment options have been studied. Our review aims to investigate the safety and efficacy of the multiple treatment options of CRVO. A PubMed and Cochrane literature search was performed. Well-controlled randomized clinical trials that demonstrated strong level 1 evidence-based on the rating scale developed by the British Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine were included. Seven clinical trials met inclusion criteria to be included in this review. These included studies that investigated the safety and efficacy of retinal photocoagulation (1 study, intravitreal steroid treatment (2 studies, and antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment (4 studies for the treatment of CRVO. In addition, studies evaluating surgical treatment options for CRVO were also included. Many treatment modalities have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious in the treatment of CRVO. These treatment options offer therapeutic benefits for patients and clinically superior visual acuity and perhaps the quality of life after suffering from a CRVO.

  19. A study of evaluation of various risk factors of retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Amrutlal Prajapati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A study of various ocular and systemic risk factors in Retinal Vein Occulation (RVO at tertiary eye care centre. Methods: A prospective study included 50 eyes of 50 patients, in period of September 2010 to August 2012. Inclusion criteria: 1. Age >25 years, 2. All newly diagnosed cases of vein occlusion. Exclusion criteria: 1. Age Ischemic (24%. In risk factors - most common was hypertension - in 38 (76% patients. Followed by descending order, hyperlipidemia 27 (54% >diabetes mellitus 16 (32% >tobacco 14 (28% >hyper homocystinemia 4 (8% >severe alcohol 2 (4%. The complications were more in ischemic than Nonischemic-CRVO >BRVO - they were macular edema 43 (86% >neovascularization at iris - 14 (28% >neovascularization at angle - 10 (20% >neovascular glaucoma and #8211; 4 (8%. Conclusion: RVOs are more common with increasing age, in males and most common risk factor is hypertensive. Most common cause for vision loss is macular edema - ischemic >non-ischemic. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1054-1057

  20. Unilateral macular edema with central retinal vein occlusion in systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

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    Noma H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hidetaka Noma,1 Hiroshi Shimizu,1 Tatsuya Mimura21Department of Ophthalmology, Yachiyo Medical Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is frequent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, but the treatment of the macular edema with this disease is extremely difficult. We report a case of cystoid macular edema (CME secondary to unilateral CRVO in a patient with SLE that responded to intravitreous injection of an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agent. A 33-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with unilateral impairment of vision. Microperimetry (MP-1 showed a cessation of foveal sensitivity. Fluorescein angiography showed CME without ischaemia of the macular region or peripheral retina (nonischemic CRVO. A diagnosis of CME and unilateral nonischemic CRVO combined with SLE was made and intravitreous anti-VEGF therapy was given. A sample of aqueous humor was harvested at the start of intravitreous injection after obtaining informed consent. Then the levels of VEGF and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 were measured in the aqueous humor by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, revealing that VEGF was 234 pg/mL and MCP-1 was 501 pg/mL. Two weeks later, left eye vision improved to 20/20. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed considerable amelioration of retinal swelling and CME. MP-1 showed a marked increase of foveal sensitivity. However, she had recurrence of edema 3 months later. After harvesting aqueous humor again, intravitreous injection of an anti-VEGF agent was repeated for CME. The aqueous VEGF and MCP-1 levels were 156 pg/mL and 360 pg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that inflammation was improved by intravitreous injection of bevacizumab. Intravitreous injection of anti-VEGF agents may be effective for CME due to nonischemic CRVO in SLE patients

  1. Automated detection and classification of major retinal vessels for determination of diameter ratio of arteries and veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Hatanaka, Yuji; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities of retinal vasculatures can indicate health conditions in the body, such as the high blood pressure and diabetes. Providing automatically determined width ratio of arteries and veins (A/V ratio) on retinal fundus images may help physicians in the diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy, which may cause blindness. The purpose of this study was to detect major retinal vessels and classify them into arteries and veins for the determination of A/V ratio. Images used in this study were obtained from DRIVE database, which consists of 20 cases each for training and testing vessel detection algorithms. Starting with the reference standard of vasculature segmentation provided in the database, major arteries and veins each in the upper and lower temporal regions were manually selected for establishing the gold standard. We applied the black top-hat transformation and double-ring filter to detect retinal blood vessels. From the extracted vessels, large vessels extending from the optic disc to temporal regions were selected as target vessels for calculation of A/V ratio. Image features were extracted from the vessel segments from quarter-disc to one disc diameter from the edge of optic discs. The target segments in the training cases were classified into arteries and veins by using the linear discriminant analysis, and the selected parameters were applied to those in the test cases. Out of 40 pairs, 30 pairs (75%) of arteries and veins in the 20 test cases were correctly classified. The result can be used for the automated calculation of A/V ratio.

  2. Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of retinal vein occlusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    OpenAIRE

    Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Hawel, Jeff; Ageno, Walter; Kovacs, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Retinal vein occlusion is a frequent cause of visual loss for which few effective therapies are available. Anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin might be of value in its treatment. We conducted a systematic review and meta analysis of randomized trials evaluating the effect of low molecular weight heparin in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, HealthSTAR, the Cochrane Library, Lilacs, the Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science datab...

  3. Impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with elements of retinal vein occlusion in a patient on interferon for polycythemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Rue KS; Hirsch LK; Sadun AA

    2012-01-01

    Kelly S Rue, Louis K Hirsch, Alfredo A SadunDepartment of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Doheny Eye Institute and Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: We describe the course and likely pathophysiology of impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) and retinal vein occlusion in a 56-year-old man with polycythemia vera managed with interferon alpha for 2 years. Our patient presented with decreased vision, scintillating scotomata, and floaters. ...

  4. Intense Exercise Causing Central Retinal Vein Occlusion in a Young Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Moisseiev, Elad; Sagiv, Oded; Lazar, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old patient who developed a central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with significant macular edema and visual impairment following intense exercise and dehydration. The patient was treated with 3 intravitreal bevacizumab injections with complete resolution. A review of the literature on the cause and treatment for CRVO in young patients was performed, focusing on the role of intense exercise and dehydration as a rare pathogenesis mechanism of CRVO.

  5. Association of MMP2-1306C/T and TIMP2G-418C polymorphisms in retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortak, Huseyin; Demir, Selim; Ateş, Omer; Söğüt, Erkan; Alim, Sait; Benli, Ismail

    2013-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are large groups of zinc-dependent proteases that play an important role in many diseases and pathological processes such as cancer, angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and vascular disease. Also, it was found that the expression of MMPs was high during the initial period of thrombosis in a rat model of traumatic deep vein thrombosis. Moreover, the presence of metalloproteinase activity and endogenous inhibitor activity in vitrectomy samples are associated with neovascularization of several retinal diseases such as exudative age related maculopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and central retinal vein occlusion. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible association of the matrix metalloproteinase 2-1306C/T (rs 243865) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase 2 G-418C (rs 8179090) polymorphisms with the risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulated blood. Genotyping of the MMP2-1306C/T and TIMP2G-418C polymorphisms were performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MMP2-1306 T allele carriers (CT + TT) had a significantly increased risk of RVO compared with the CC homozygotes (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 4.78; 95% CI = 2.85-8.09). After adjusting for hypertension, diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia, MMP2-1306 T allele carriers (CT + TT) also had a significantly increased risk of RVO (B = 1.453; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.275; 95% CI:2.529-7.224). MMP2-1306C/T, but not TIMP2G-418C, gene variants are a risk factor for the development of retinal vein occlusion. PMID:23791966

  6. Homocysteine, MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, folic acid and vitamin B 12 in patients with retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspari Giorgio; Bellatorre Alessandro; Rossi Lisa; Quaglia Ilaria; Di Micco Pierpaolo; Ferrazzi Paola; Rota Lidia; Lodigiani Corrado

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Many available data have suggested that hyperhomocysteinaemia, an established independent risk factor for thrombosis (arterial and venous), may be associated with an increased risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Aim of the study To evaluate homocysteine metabolism in consecutive caucasian patients affected by RVO from Northern Italy. Patients and Methods 69 consecutive patients from Northern Italy (mean age 64.1 ± 14.6 yy) with recent RVO, were tested for plasma levels o...

  7. A comparative study between intravitreal triamcinolone and bevacizumab for macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion with poor vision

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Ji; Na Kyeong-Ik

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab and triamcinolone in patients with macular edema after central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), presenting with poor visual acuity. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective, comparative case series of 38 consecutive eyes, with macular edema secondary to CRVO, with 20/200 or worse vision, which were treated primarily either with intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg; 24 eyes) or intravitreal triamcinolone (4 mg; 14 eyes). During follow-up, ...

  8. Efficacy and visual prognostic factors of intravitreal bevacizumab as needed for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hirose M; Matsumiya W; Honda S; Nakamura M

    2014-01-01

    Miki Hirose, Wataru Matsumiya, Shigeru Honda, Makoto NakamuraDepartment of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and prognostic factors of intraocular injections of bevacizumab as needed in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).Methods: This is a retrospective study including 28 eyes of 27 consecutive patients with macular edema due to...

  9. Sacral meningeal arteriovenous fistula fed by branches of the hypogastric arteries and drained through medullary veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a new case of intra-spinal extra-medullary meningeal arteriovenous fistula draining through medullary veins. Discovered in a 33-year-old black man suffering from a cauda equina syndrome, this malformation suspected in myelography was confirmed by a selective angiographic procedure of both internal iliac arteries. This investigation specified the sacral site of the fistula as well as its feeding arteries from several branches of the left and right internal iliac arteries and its posterior and intra-meningeal venous medullary drainage. An embolization procedure followed by a surgical approach and a second embolization session brought a fair improvement to this young patient who could walk again. The acquired traumatic origin of the fistula is discussed for this patient who had been previously operated at his L5-S1 level. (orig.)

  10. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  11. Risk of Retinal Vein Occlusion Following End-Stage Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuh-Shin; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Jan, Ren-Long

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) following end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study was designed as a retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study. The subjects were ESRD patients identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), code 585. The study cohort included 92,774 ESRD patients registered between January 2000 and December 2009 at the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. An age- and sex-matched control group comprised 92,774 patients (case:control = 1:1) selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Information for each patient was collected from the index date until December 2011. The incidence and risk of RVO were compared between the ESRD and control groups. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for RVO after adjustment for potential confounders was obtained by Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to calculate the RVO cumulative incidence rate. The main outcome measure was the incidence of RVO following ESRD.In total, 904 ESRD patients (0.97%) and 410 controls (0.44%) had RVO (P leading to a significantly elevated risk of RVO in the ESRD patients compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 3.05, 95% confidence interval = 2.72-3.43). After adjustment for potential confounders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, congestive heart failure, and coronary artery disease, ESRD patients were 3.05 times more likely to develop RVO in the full cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.05, 95% confidence interval = 2.64-3.51). In addition, hypertension patients showed high incidence rate of RVO in the ESRD group compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.44-2.03) and maintained significant risk of RVO after adjustment for other confounders in the cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.39, 95% confidence

  12. Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a Patient with Patent Foramen Ovale

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    Nasser Shoeibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a patient with patent foramen ovale (PFO. Case Report: A 29-year-old female patient was referred for sudden onset superior visual field defect in her left eye. Ocular examination revealed visual acuity of 20/32 in the affected eye along with a positive relative afferent pupillary defect. A calcified white embolus was noted at the first bifurcation of the inferior temporal artery in her left eye together with mild retinal edema. With a diagnosis of BRAO, the patient received oral acetazolamide, topical timolol, ocular massage and anterior chamber paracentesis. The visual field defect partially recovered and the embolus moved to the third bifurcation level as revealed by fundus examination. An extensive workup, including neurology, rheumatology, cardiology and hematology consultation, carotid ultrasonography, transthoracic/transesophageal echocardiography and laboratory testing was performed. All results were within normal limits except for a small-sized PFO detected by transesophageal echocardiography. Low-dose aspirin therapy was initiated and over the subsequent two years, no other embolic event occurred. Conclusion: The association between PFO and BRAO has not yet been reported. Intracardiac right-to-left shunting through a PFO, accentuated by Valsalva maneuver, may predispose to embolic events while the source of initial thrombosis remains unknown.

  13. Impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy with elements of retinal vein occlusion in a patient on interferon for polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rue KS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kelly S Rue, Louis K Hirsch, Alfredo A SadunDepartment of Neuro-Ophthalmology, Doheny Eye Institute and Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: We describe the course and likely pathophysiology of impending anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and retinal vein occlusion in a 56-year-old man with polycythemia vera managed with interferon alpha for 2 years. Our patient presented with decreased vision, scintillating scotomata, and floaters. Fundus examination findings and results of a fluorescein angiogram led to the diagnosis of impending AION and retinal vein occlusion. Considering that both polycythemia vera and interferon have possible influences on vascular occlusion and optic disc edema, we stopped interferon treatment and immediately attempted to treat the polycythemia vera empirically with pentoxifylline and any interferon-associated inflammation with prednisone. Our patient experienced complete resolution of fundus abnormalities and return of normal vision within 3 weeks, which may be attributed to our successful treatment of both etiologies. Thus, further study is warranted to elucidate the treatment of both polycythemia vera and interferon-induced impending AION.Keywords: optic disc edema, interferon alpha, vascular occlusion, Roth spot, autoantibody, pentoxifylline

  14. An Unusual Case of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion and Review of the Toxicity Profile of Regorafenib in GIST Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartsman, Gustavo; Wagner, Michael J; Zobniw, Chrystia M; Trinh, Van Anh; Patel, Shreyaskumar; Somaiah, Neeta

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract with around 5000 new cases per year. Outcomes for patients with GIST dramatically improved after the development of tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeted against the aberrant signaling pathways that drive GIST oncogenesis. Majority of patients derive benefit from first-line imatinib, and the type of driver mutation is predictive of response. However, almost half of the patients eventually develop resistance to initial targeted therapy and further lines of treatment do not have the same impact. Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor approved as a third-line therapy for advanced GIST and though its efficacy is limited in comparison to imatinib, it has activity across the various driver mutation categories in GIST even in the setting of imatinib resistance. Herein, we describe a case of central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) secondary to regorafenib and review regorafenib's efficacy and toxicity profile. PMID:27319943

  15. Efficacy and visual prognostic factors of intravitreal bevacizumab as needed for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirose M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Miki Hirose, Wataru Matsumiya, Shigeru Honda, Makoto NakamuraDepartment of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanPurpose: Our aim was to investigate the efficacy and prognostic factors of intraocular injections of bevacizumab as needed in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO.Methods: This is a retrospective study including 28 eyes of 27 consecutive patients with macular edema due to CRVO and followed for at least 6 months. The mean age of the patients was 66.3 years. The patients underwent an intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (1.25 mg at the initial visit. Retreatments were performed when macular edema was persistent or worsened (as-needed regimen. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. The change in central retinal thickness (CRT was evaluated as the secondary outcome. Finally, the factors useful for predicting BCVA outcome were determined.Results: The mean number of injections was 1.8 over a period of 6 months. The mean BCVA (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution was significantly improved at 1 (-0.097, 3 (-0.14, and 6 months (-0.25 after the initial injection (P<0.05, <0.01, and <0.001, respectively. The mean CRT was also improved significantly at 1 (-250.4, 3 (-150.0, and 6 months (-187.2 (P<0.001 each. Earlier treatment and better improvement in BCVA at 1 month after the initial treatment were the prognostic factors significantly associated with better visual outcomes at 6 months (P=0.047 and 0.029, respectively.Conclusion: Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as needed significantly improved visual acuity and macular edema in CRVO patients. Time before the treatment and early response to the treatment were important factors for the visual outcome.Keywords: central retinal vein occlusion, bevacizumab, macular edema, efficacy, prognostic factor, pro re nata regimen

  16. Conjoined unification venoplasty for triple portal vein branches of right liver graft: a case report and technical refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae Hyun; Song, Gi-Won; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous portal vein (PV) branching of the donor liver is uncommon and usually makes two, or rarely, more separate PV branches at the right liver graft. Autologous PV Y-graft interposition has long been regarded as the standard procedure, but is currently replaced with the newly developed technique of conjoined unification venoplasty (CUV) due to its superior results. Herein, we presented a case of CUV application to three PV openings of a right liver graft. The recipient was a 32-year-old male patient with hepatitis B virus-associated liver cirrhosis. The living liver donor was his 33-year-old sister who had a type III PV anomaly, but the right posterior PV branch was bifurcated early into separate branches of the segments VI and VII, thus three right liver PV branches were cut separately. We used the CUV technique consisting of placement of a small vein unification patch between three PV orifices, followed by overlying coverage with a crotch-opened autologous portal Y-graft. The portal Y-graft was excised and its crotches were incised to make a wide common orifice. Three bidirectional running sutures were required to attach the crotch-opened autologous portal Y-graft. After portal reperfusion, the conjoined PV portion bulged like a tennis ball, providing a wide range of alignment tolerance. The patient recovered uneventfully from the liver transplantation operation. The CUV technique enabled uneventful reconstruction of triple donor PV orifices. Thus, CUV can be a useful and effective technical option for reconstruction of right liver grafts with various anomalous PVs.

  17. Short-term efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion that is refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul Gi Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the 1-month efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA in treating macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO that was refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, observational study included 23 eyes from 23 patients with macular edema secondary to RVO. Macular edema that did not respond to two or more consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections was treated with intravitreal TA. Central foveal thickness (CFT and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA were compared before and one month after TA injection. Results: Fifteen eyes were diagnosed with central RVO, and eight eyes were diagnosed with branch RVO. All patients were previously treated with 2.4 ± 0.6 intravitreal bevacizumab injections. The TA injection was performed, on average, 5.8 ± 1.4 weeks after the last bevacizumab injection. The CFT before TA injection was 516.6 ± 112.4 μm and significantly decreased to 402.3 ± 159.7 μm after TA therapy (P < 0.001. The logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution BCVA was 0.72 ± 0.34 before TA therapy and was not significantly improved by the treatment (0.67 ± 0.35, P = 0.119, despite a decrease in CFT. However, seven eyes (30.4% had a BCVA gain of one or more lines. Conclusions: Intravitreal TA therapy was beneficial in some patients with macular edema secondary to RVO that was refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab therapy. This study suggests that intravitreal TA should be considered as a treatment option for refractory macular edema.

  18. Short-term efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion that is refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Seul Gi; Kim, Jae Hui; Lee, Tae Gon; Kim, Chul Gu; Kim, Jong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the 1-month efficacy of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) in treating macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) that was refractory to intravitreal bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, observational study included 23 eyes from 23 patients with macular edema secondary to RVO. Macular edema that did not respond to two or more consecutive intravitreal bevacizumab injections was treated with intravitreal TA. Central foveal thickness (CFT)...

  19. Clinical utilization of anti-vascular endothelial growth-factor agents and patient monitoring in retinal vein occlusion and diabetic macular edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Szilárd Kiss,1 Ying Liu,2 Joseph Brown,3 Nancy M Holekamp,4,5 Arghavan Almony,6 Joanna Campbell,2 Jonathan W Kowalski2 1Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY; 2Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA; 3IMS Health, Woodland Hills, CA; 4Pepose Vision Institute, Chesterfield, MO; 5Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO; 6Carolina Eye Associates, Southern Pines, NC, USA Purpose: To examine the utilization of bevacizumab and ranibizumab and disease monitoring in patients with branch or central retinal vein occlusion (BRVO/CRVO or diabetic macular edema (DME in clinical practice.Patients and methods: This retrospective claims analysis included newly diagnosed patients with one or more bevacizumab or ranibizumab injections. Bevacizumab or ranibizumab utilization was assessed by year of first injection: 2008–2010 cohorts (12-month follow-up, January to June 2011 cohort (6-month follow-up. The main outcome measures were mean annual numbers of injections, ophthalmologist visits and optical coherence tomography examinations, and proportion of patients with additional laser or intravitreal triamcinolone (IVTA use.Results: A total of 885 BRVO, 611 CRVO, and 2,733 DME patients treated with bevacizumab were included, with too few ranibizumab-treated patients for meaningful analysis. Across the 2008, 2009, and 2010 cohorts, mean annual numbers of bevacizumab injections increased, but remained low (BRVO 2.5, 3.1, 3.3; CRVO 3.1, 3.1, 3.5; and DME 2.2, 2.5, 3.6, respectively; mean ophthalmologist visits ranged between 4.4 and 6.5, and mean optical coherence tomography examinations ranged between 3.1 and 3.9 across all conditions. A total of 42.0% of BRVO, 16.5% of CRVO, and 57.7% of DME patients received additional laser or IVTA therapy. The number of bevacizumab injections was positively associated with laser use in BRVO (3.3 versus 2.9, P<0.03, and with laser or IVTA use in DME (laser, 3.3 versus 2.7, P<0

  20. Association of the Fractal Dimension of Retinal Arteries and Veins with Quantitative Brain MRI Measures in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, Howard A.; Holman, Susan; Lui, Yvonne W.; Baird, Alison E.; Yu, Hua; Klein, Ronald; Rojas-Soto, Diana Marcella; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Stebbins, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The fractal dimension of retinal arteries and veins is a measure of the complexity of the vascular tree. We hypothesized that retinal fractal dimension would be associated with brain volume and white matter integrity in HIV-infected women. Design Nested case-control within longitudinal cohort study. Methods Women were recruited from the Brooklyn site of the Women’s Interagency HIV study (WIHS); 34 HIV-infected and 21 HIV-uninfected women with analyzable MRIs and retinal photographs were included. Fractal dimension was determined using the SIVA software program on skeletonized retinal images. The relationship between predictors (retinal vascular measures) and outcomes (quantitative MRI measures) were analyzed with linear regression models. All models included age, intracranial volume, and both arterial and venous fractal dimension. Some models were adjusted for blood pressure, race/ethnicity, and HIV-infection. Results The women were 45.6 ± 7.3 years of age. Higher arterial dimension was associated with larger cortical volumes, but higher venous dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes. In fully adjusted models, venous dimension was significantly associated with fractional anisotropy (standardized β = -0.41, p = 0.009) and total gray matter volume (β = -0.24, p = 0.03), and arterial dimension with mean diffusivity (β = -0.33,.p = 0.04) and fractional anisotropy (β = 0.34, p = 0.03). HIV-infection was not associated with any retinal or MRI measure. Conclusions Higher venous fractal dimension was associated with smaller cortical volumes and lower fractional anisotropy, whereas higher arterial fractal dimension was associated with the opposite patterns. Longitudinal studies are needed to validate this finding. PMID:27158911

  1. Unusual retinal manifestations of PORN combined complications of central retinal artery and vein occlusions%并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E-Shawn Goh; Stephen C.B.Teoh; Albert T.H.Lim

    2008-01-01

    ·AIM:To describe an unusual combination of retinal manifestations in an AIDS patient with progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN),complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).·METHODS:A case report.·RESULTS:The patient presented with PORN with primary optic nerve involvement complicated by combined central retinal artery occlusion(CRAO) and central retinal vein occlusion(CRVO) as a primary manifestation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV).Aggressive treatment with intravitreal and specific systemic anti-VZV therapy,in addition to systemic highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) achieved retinal quiescence with sparing of the fellow eye.Visual outcome of the affected eye was poor.·CONCLUSION:We present the first report of PORN associated with the unusual combined complications of CRAO and CRVO. Aggressive local treatment was combined with systemic therapy,which achieved local control and empirical prophylaxis for the fellow eye.%目的:报道1例艾滋病患者特殊的进行性外层视网膜坏死(PORN),同时合并视网膜中央动脉及静脉阻塞.方法:病例报告.结果:患者表现为进行性外层视网膜坏死,视神经亦受累,合并视网膜中央动静脉阻塞,与带状疱疹性视网膜病变的最初表现一样.积极的治疗包括玻璃体腔和特异性系统抗带状疱疹病毒治疗,以及强化的抗逆转录病毒治疗(HAART).视网膜坏死静止,对侧眼未受累,而患眼的视力极差.结论:首次报道了1例并发视网膜中央动静脉阻塞的特殊PORN,积极的局部联合系统治疗使得局部病情控制,并预防了对侧眼发病.

  2. Vesicle recycling at ribbon synapses in the finely branched axon terminals of mouse retinal bipolar neurons

    OpenAIRE

    LoGiudice, Lisamarie; Sterling, Peter; Matthews, Gary

    2009-01-01

    In retinal bipolar neurons, synaptic ribbons mark the presence of exocytotic active zones in the synaptic terminal. It is unknown, however, where compensatory vesicle retrieval is localized in this cell type and by what mechanism(s) excess membrane is recaptured. To determine whether endocytosis is localized or diffuse in mouse bipolar neurons, we imaged FM4-64 to track vesicles in cells whose synaptic ribbons were tagged with a fluorescent peptide. In synaptic terminals, vesicle retrieval oc...

  3. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutation

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    Ali Riza Cenk Celebi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO.

  4. Branching patterns of the main portal vein: Effect on estimated remnant liver volume in preoperative evaluation of donors for liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To compare estimated remnant liver volume (ERLV) ratios among the major main portal vein (MPV) variants. Methods: Eighty-five potential donors underwent multidetector CT examination. Arterial, portal and hepatic venous phase images were obtained. CT volumetric measurements were performed by using summation-of-area method. MPV variants were classified into three groups. In type 1 (group 1), the MPV branches into the right portal vein (RPV) and the left portal vein (LPV). In type 2 (group 2), the MPV trifurcates into the right anterior portal vein (RAPV), right posterior portal vein (RPPV) and LPV. In type 3 (group 3), the RPPV arises from the MPV as a first branch, and the RAPV emerges directly from the LPV. Results: No differences were observed between groups 1 and 2 with respect to ERLV ratios. However, significant differences were discovered between groups 1 and 3 and between groups 2 and 3 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The ERLV proportions in the donors with a type 3 MPV variation were significantly lower than those in the donors with type 1 and type 2 MPV variations and six (31.6%) donors in group 3 presented an ERLV percentage below 30% of the total liver volume.

  5. Association between isotretinoin use and central retinal vein occlusion in an adolescent with minor predisposition for thrombotic incidents: a case report

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    Labiris Georgios

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report an adolescent boy with minimal pre-existing risk for thromboses who suffered central retinal vein occlusion associated with isotretinoin use for acne. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first well documented case of this association. Case presentation An otherwise healthy 17-year-old white man who was treated with systemic isotretinoin for recalcitrant acne was referred with central retinal vein occlusion in one eye. Although a detailed investigation was negative, DNA testing revealed that the patient was a heterozygous carrier of the G20210A mutation of the prothrombin gene. Despite the fact that this particular mutation is thought to represent only a minor risk factor for thromboses, it is probable that isotretinoin treatment greatly increased the risk of a vaso-occlusive incident in this patient. Conclusion Isotretinoin use may be associated with sight- and life-threatening thrombotic adverse effects even in young patients with otherwise minimal thrombophilic risk. Physicians should be aware of such potential dangers.

  6. One day wonder: Fast resolution of macular edema following intravitreal ranibizumab in retinal venous occlusions

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    Lalit Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macular edema is a significant cause of vision loss in patients with central retinal vein occlusions and branch retinal vein occlusions. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF appears to be a key factor in the pathogenesis of this disease. Anti-VEGF therapy, such as intravitreal ranibizumab provides an effective treatment against vision-threatening macular edema. We report three patients of retinal vein occlusion with macular edema who demonstrated overnight resolution of macular edema following treatment with intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 mg. 3D optical coherence tomography (Optovue was used as a tool for comparison of the macular thickness before and after treatment. The significant reductions in the central foveal thickness demonstrated in these patients one night after intravitreal injections could have significant influence on modifying current treatment protocols. Early treatment of macular edema related to retinal venous occlusive disease with anti-VEGF injections could result in faster visual rehabilitation in these patients.

  7. Changes in the foveal microstructure after intravitreal bevacizumab application in patients with retinal vascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Feucht, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    Nikolaus Feucht, Etienne Michael Schönbach, Ines Lanzl, Konstantin Kotliar, Chris Patrick Lohmann, Mathias MaierDepartment of Ophthalmology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, GermanyPurpose: To investigate changes in the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in patients with retinal vascular disease.Patients and methods: This retrospective, consecutive study examined 53 eyes of 53 patients with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion in 25 patients (47.2%) and nonp...

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of bilateral sustained-release dexamethasone intravitreal implants for the treatment of noninfectious posterior uveitis and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion

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    Ryder SJ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Steven J Ryder,1 Danilo Iannetta,1 Swetangi D Bhaleeya,2 Szilárd Kiss1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Purpose: To report our experience with bilateral placement of dexamethasone 0.7 mg (DEX sustained-release intravitreal implant in the management of noninfectious posterior uveitis or macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion.Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with bilateral noninfectious posterior uveitis and macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion who were treated with DEX intravitreal implant was performed. Ocular side effects such as intraocular pressure (IOP, cataract, and tolerability of bilateral injections was reviewed.Results: Twenty-two eyes of eleven patients treated with a total of 32 DEX implants were included. Ten of eleven patients received bilateral implants due to active noninfectious uveitis while the other demonstrated macular edema in both eyes following separate central retinal vein occlusions. Among the patients with bilateral uveitis, the mean interval between DEX implant in the initial eye and the subsequent DEX in the fellow eye was 15.6 days (range 2–71 days. Seven of the ten patients received the second implant in the fellow eye within 8 days of the initial implantation. None of the patients had bilateral implantations on the same day. Seven eyes required reimplantation for recurrence of inflammation (mean interval between first and repeat implantation was 6.00±2.39 months. Following single or, in the case of the aforementioned seven eyes, repeat DEX implantation, all 20 uveitic eyes demonstrated clinical and/or angiographic evidence of decreased inflammation in the form of reduction in vitreous cells on slit lamp ophthalmoscopy, macular edema on ophthalmoscopy, or optical coherence tomography and/or disc and vascular leakage on fluorescein angiography. The mean

  9. Blood flow velocity vector field reconstruction from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler OCT measurements in retinal veins

    OpenAIRE

    Aschinger, Gerold C.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Rainer A. Leitgeb; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Gröschl, Martin; René M. Werkmeister

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the actual blood flow velocity vector field in retinal microvessels from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography measurements. First, for a better understanding of measured phase patterns, several flow situations were simulated on the basis of the known dual beam measurement geometry. We were able to extract the vector field parameters that determine the measured phase pattern, allowing for the development of an...

  10. Thrombophilic mutations and risk of retinal vein occlusion Mutações trombofílicas e risco de oclusão venosa retiniana

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    Ana Luiza Biancardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The association of retinal vein occlusion and hereditary thrombophilia abnormalities is not established, with controversial results in the literature. This study investigates the association between retinal vein occlusion and three thrombophilic mutations: factor V 1691A (factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210A (PT 20210A and homozygous methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677T (MTHFR 677TT. METHODS: 55 consecutive retinal vein occlusion patients and 55 controls matched by age, gender and race, were tested for the presence of the following mutations: factor V Leiden, PT 20210A and MTHFR 677TT. The frequencies of the three mutations in cases and controls were compared. RESULTS: Factor V Leiden was found in 3.6% of patients and in 0% of controls; PT 20210A was found in 1.8% of patients and 3.6% of controls, (matched-pair odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 5.51; MTHFR 677TT was found in 9% of patients and 9% of controls (matched-pair odds ratio, 1; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 3.45. Arterial hypertension was more frequent in patients than controls (matched-pair odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 9.21. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that thrombophilic mutations are not risk factors for RVO. Routine investigation of hereditary thrombophilia in these patients is not justified.OBJETIVOS: A associação entre oclusão venosa retiniana e trombofilias hereditárias não está estabelecida, com resultados controversos na literatura. O presente estudo investiga a associação entre a oclusão venosa retiniana e três mutações trombofílicas: fator V 1691A (fator V Leiden, protrombina 20210A (PT 20210A e mutação C677T do gene da metileno-tetra-hidro-folato redutase (MTHFR 677TT. MÉTODOS: Cinquenta e cinco pacientes portadores de oclusão venosa retiniana e 55 controles pareados por idade, sexo e raça foram testados para a presença das seguintes mutações: fator V Leiden, PT 20210A e MTHFR 677TT. As freq

  11. A Case of Abnormal Lymphatic-Like Differentiation and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Activation in Neovascularization Associated with Hemi-Retinal Vein Occlusion

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    Sirpa Loukovaara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pathological vascular differentiation in retinal vein occlusion (RVO-related neovessel formation remains poorly characterized. The role of intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation or endothelial progenitor cell activity has not been studied in this disease. Methods: Vitrectomy was performed in an eye with hemi-RVO; the neovessel membrane located at the optic nerve head was removed and subjected to immunohistochemistry. Characterization of the neovascular tissue was performed using hematoxylin and eosin, α-smooth muscle actin, and the pan-endothelial cell (EC adhesion molecule CD31. The expression of lymphatic EC markers was studied by lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1, podoplanin (PDPN, and prospero-related homeobox protein 1 (Prox-1. Potential vascular stem/progenitor cells were identified by active cellular proliferation (Ki67 and expression of the stem cell marker CD117. Results: The specimen contained blood vessels lined by ECs and surrounded by pericytes. Immunoreactivity for LYVE-1 and Prox-1 was detected, with Prox-1 being more widely expressed in the active Ki67-positive lumen-lining cells. PDPN expression was instead found in the cells residing in the extravascular tissue. Expression of the stem cell markers CD117 and Ki67 suggested vascular endothelial progenitor cell activity. Conclusions: Intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation coupled with progenitor cell activation may be involved in the pathology of neovessel formation in ischemia-induced human hemi-RVO.

  12. A Case of Abnormal Lymphatic-Like Differentiation and Endothelial Progenitor Cell Activation in Neovascularization Associated with Hemi-Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukovaara, Sirpa; Gucciardo, Erika; Repo, Pauliina; Lohi, Jouko; Salven, Petri; Lehti, Kaisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pathological vascular differentiation in retinal vein occlusion (RVO)-related neovessel formation remains poorly characterized. The role of intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation or endothelial progenitor cell activity has not been studied in this disease. Methods Vitrectomy was performed in an eye with hemi-RVO; the neovessel membrane located at the optic nerve head was removed and subjected to immunohistochemistry. Characterization of the neovascular tissue was performed using hematoxylin and eosin, α-smooth muscle actin, and the pan-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule CD31. The expression of lymphatic EC markers was studied by lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), podoplanin (PDPN), and prospero-related homeobox protein 1 (Prox-1). Potential vascular stem/progenitor cells were identified by active cellular proliferation (Ki67) and expression of the stem cell marker CD117. Results The specimen contained blood vessels lined by ECs and surrounded by pericytes. Immunoreactivity for LYVE-1 and Prox-1 was detected, with Prox-1 being more widely expressed in the active Ki67-positive lumen-lining cells. PDPN expression was instead found in the cells residing in the extravascular tissue. Expression of the stem cell markers CD117 and Ki67 suggested vascular endothelial progenitor cell activity. Conclusions Intraocular lymphatic-like differentiation coupled with progenitor cell activation may be involved in the pathology of neovessel formation in ischemia-induced human hemi-RVO. PMID:26327908

  13. Blood flow velocity vector field reconstruction from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler OCT measurements in retinal veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschinger, Gerold C.; Schmetterer, Leopold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Gröschl, Martin; Werkmeister, René M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to reconstruct the actual blood flow velocity vector field in retinal microvessels from dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography measurements. First, for a better understanding of measured phase patterns, several flow situations were simulated on the basis of the known dual beam measurement geometry. We were able to extract the vector field parameters that determine the measured phase pattern, allowing for the development of an algorithm to reconstruct the velocity vector field from measured phase data. In a next step, measurements were performed at a straight vessel section and at a venous convergence; the obtained phase data were evaluated by means of the new approach. For the straight vessel section, the reconstructed flow velocity vector field yielded a parabolic flow. For the venous convergence, however, the reconstructed vector field deviated from a parabolic profile, but was in very good accordance with the simulated vector field for the given vessel geometry. The proposed algorithm allows predictions of the velocity vector field. Moreover, the algorithm is also sensitive to directional changes of the flow velocity as small as <1°, thereby offering insight in the flow characteristics of the non-Newtonian fluid blood in microvessels. PMID:26137367

  14. Summarising the retinal vascular calibres in healthy, diabetic and diabetic retinopathy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontidis, Georgios; Al-Diri, Bashir; Hunter, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Retinal vessel calibre has been found to be an important biomarker of several retinal diseases, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Quantifying the retinal vessel calibres is an important step for estimating the central retinal artery and vein equivalents. In this study, an alternative method to the already established branching coefficient (BC) is proposed for summarising the vessel calibres in retinal junctions. This new method combines the mean diameter ratio with an alternative to Murray׳s cube law exponent, derived by the fractal dimension,experimentally, and the branch exponent of cerebral vessels, as has been suggested in previous studies with blood flow modelling. For the above calculations, retinal images from healthy, diabetic and DR subjects were used. In addition, the above method was compared with the BC and was also applied to the evaluation of arteriovenous ratio as a biomarker of progression from diabetes to DR in four consecutive years, i.e. three/two/one years before the onset of DR and the first year of DR. Moreover, the retinal arteries and veins around the optic nerve head were also evaluated. The new approach quantifies the vessels more accurately. The decrease in terms of the mean absolute percentage error was between 0.24% and 0.49%, extending at the same time the quantification beyond healthy subjects. PMID:27017067

  15. Correlation Factor Analysis of Retinal Microvascular Changes in Patients With Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Duru; Huang Zhongning

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate correlation between retinal microvascular signs and essential hypertension classification. Methods The retinal microvascular signs in patients with essential hypertension were assessed with the indirect biomicroscopy lens, the direct and the indirect ophthalmoscopes were used to determine the hypertensive retinopathy grades and retinal arteriosclerosis grades.The rank correlation analysis was used to analysis the correlation these grades with the risk factors concerned with hypertension. Results Of 72 cases with essential hypertension, 28 cases complicated with coronary disease, 20 cases diabetes, 41 cases stroke,17 cases renal malfunction. Varying extent retinal arterioscleroses were found in 71 cases, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage, 2 cases with retina edema, 4 cases with retinal hard exudation, 5 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation, 2 cases with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and cotton wool spot, 1 case with retinal hemorrhage complicated by hard exudation and microaneurysms,1 case with retinal edema and hard exudation, 1 case with retinal microaneurysms, 1 case with branch retinal vein occlusion. The rank correlation analysis showed that either hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades were correlated with risk factor lamination of hypertension (r=0.25 or 0.31, P<0.05), other correlation factors included age and blood high density lipoprotein concerned about hypertensive retinopathy grades or retinal arteriosclerosis grades, but other parameters, namely systolic or diastolic pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose,blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine were not confirmed in this correlation analysis (P > 0.05).Conclusions Either hypertensive retinopathy grade or retinal arteriosclerosis grade is close with the hypertension risk factor lamination, suggesting that the fundus examination of patients with

  16. Comparison of the effects of intravitreal bevacizumab and triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

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    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of intravitrealbevacizumab (IVB and intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVT in the treatment of macular edema (ME secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Materials and Methods: There were 20 patients treated with IVB (1.25 mg/0.05 mL and 16 treated with IVT (4 mg/0.1 mL. The two groups were compared with regard to best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, central macular thickness (CMT on optical coherence tomography (OCT, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and fundus fluorescein angiography results, intraocular pressure (IOP, numbers of injections, and adverse events. Results: The mean follow-up times in the IVB and IVT groups were 17.45±8.1 months (range: 8-33 months and 19.94±10.59 months (range: 6-40 months, respectively (P = 0.431. Visual acuity increased and CMT decreased significantly within both groups, but no differences were observed between the groups (P = 0.718. The percentages of patients with increased IOP and iatrogenic cataracts were significantly higher in the IVT group than in the IVB group. Conclusions: Treatment with IVB and IVT both resulted in significant improvement in visual acuity and a decrease in CMT in patients with ME secondary to non-ischemic CRVO, with no difference between the two treatments. The incidence of adverse events, however, was significantly greater in the IVT group than in the IVB group. IVB may be preferred over IVT for the treatment of ME in patients with non-ischemic CRVO.

  17. Complement Factor H Expressed by Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Can Suppress Neovascularization of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: An in vitro Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available Complement factor H (CFH is one of the most important soluble complement regulatory proteins and is closely associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD, the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in the elderly population in developed countries. Our study searches to investigate whether CFH expression is changed in oxidative damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells and the role of CFH in the in vitro neovascularization. First, it was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining that CFH was expressed by ARPE-19 cells. CFH mRNA and protein in oxidative (H2O2 damaged ARPE-19 cells were both reduced, as determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA also showed that ARPE-19 cells treated with H2O2 caused an increase in C3a content, which indicates complement activation. Then, wound assays were performed to show that CFH expression suppression promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs migration. Thereafter, ARPE-19 cells were transfected with CFH-specific siRNA and CFH knockdown was confirmed with the aid of Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. The ELISA results showed that specific CFH knockdown in ARPE-19 cells activated the complement system. Finally, in vitro matrigel tube formation assay was performed to determine whether change of CFH expression in RPE would affect tube formation by HUVECs. More tubes were formed by HUVECs co-cultured with ARPE-19 cells transfected with CFH specific-siRNA when compared with controls. Our results suggested that RPE cells might be the local CFH source, and RPE cell injuries (such as oxidative stress may cause CFH expression suppression, which in turn may lead to complement activation and promotion of tube formation by HUVECs. This finding is of importance in elucidating the role of complement in the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization including choroidal neovascularization.

  18. Complement Factor H Expressed by Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Can Suppress Neovascularization of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Huang, Qing; Tang, Min; Zhang, Junjun; Fan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) is one of the most important soluble complement regulatory proteins and is closely associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the leading cause of irreversible central vision loss in the elderly population in developed countries. Our study searches to investigate whether CFH expression is changed in oxidative damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and the role of CFH in the in vitro neovascularization. First, it was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining that CFH was expressed by ARPE-19 cells. CFH mRNA and protein in oxidative (H2O2) damaged ARPE-19 cells were both reduced, as determined by Real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also showed that ARPE-19 cells treated with H2O2 caused an increase in C3a content, which indicates complement activation. Then, wound assays were performed to show that CFH expression suppression promoted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration. Thereafter, ARPE-19 cells were transfected with CFH-specific siRNA and CFH knockdown was confirmed with the aid of Real-time PCR, immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. The ELISA results showed that specific CFH knockdown in ARPE-19 cells activated the complement system. Finally, in vitro matrigel tube formation assay was performed to determine whether change of CFH expression in RPE would affect tube formation by HUVECs. More tubes were formed by HUVECs co-cultured with ARPE-19 cells transfected with CFH specific-siRNA when compared with controls. Our results suggested that RPE cells might be the local CFH source, and RPE cell injuries (such as oxidative stress) may cause CFH expression suppression, which in turn may lead to complement activation and promotion of tube formation by HUVECs. This finding is of importance in elucidating the role of complement in the pathogenesis of ocular neovascularization including choroidal neovascularization. PMID:26091360

  19. 前部缺血性视神经病变并发视网膜分支动脉阻塞1例%A case of branch retinal artery obstruction complicated after anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ungsoo Samuel Kim; Hyoung-Seok Kim; Young Ju Lew

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To report a case of branch retinal artery obstruction (BRAO) complicated after anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION).METHODS: A 42-year-old woman who complained of visual disturbance was performed ophthalmological examinations such as fundus photography, fluorescent angiography (FAG) and visual field test. RESULTS: At first visit, disc swelling was noted and arterial circulation was intact, however, 1 week after onset, the inferior branch retinal artery began to shrink and the flame hemorrhage intensified. Sixteen months later, the optic disc evidenced an atrophic change; additionally, a ghost vessel in the inferior branch retinal artery was found.CONCLUSION: We report a case of complications of BRAO arising after AION which caused the mechanical compression on the arterial circulation.%目的:报告1例前部缺血性视神经病变(anterior ischemic optic neuropathy,AION)并发视网膜分支动脉阻塞(branch retinal artery obstruction,BRAO).方法:患者,女,42岁,因视力障碍进行如下眼科检查:眼底照相、荧光血管造影(fluorescent angiography,FAG)和视野测试.结果:第一次就诊时,患者视盘肿胀,动脉循环完整,发病1wk后,视网膜下支动脉开始萎缩并火焰状出血加剧.16mo后,视盘呈萎缩性改变,此外,发现视网膜下分支动脉血管影一条.结论:AION并发BRAO可造成动脉循环的机械性压迫.

  20. Relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and incident cerebrovascular diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Wengen; Wang, Changyun

    2016-06-01

    Several studies investigating the role of retinal vascular occlusions, on cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) have been reported, but the results are still inconsistent. We therefore sought to evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular occlusions and CVD.We systematically searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases through January 31, 2016 for studies evaluating the effect of retinal vascular occlusions on the risk of CVD. Data were abstracted using predefined criteria, and then pooled by RevMan 5.3 software.A total of 9 retrospective studies were included in this meta-analysis. When compared with individuals without retinal vascular occlusions, both individuals with retinal artery occlusion (RAO) (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-3.34; P = 0.005) and individuals with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.24-1.50; P < 0.00001) had higher risks of developing CVD. Additionally, both individuals with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.12-3.56; P = 0.02) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-1.48; P = 0.04) were significantly associated with increased risk of CVD.Published literatures support both RVO and RAO are associated with increased risks of CVD. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27368050

  1. Esclerite posterior associada à oclusão da veia central da retina e edema macular cistoide: relato de caso Posterior scleritis associated with central retinal vein occlusion and cystoid macular edema: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Wada Kamei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de esclerite posterior associada à oclusão da veia central da retina e edema macular cistoide. Com esse caso, observamos como a doença pode ser agressiva e como a acuidade visual pode ser comprometida. No entanto, o tratamento correto pode melhorar as alterações oculares com melhora visual. Alertamos também para os cuidados que devem ser tomados em relação ao uso de altas doses de corticosteroides.A case of posterior scleritis associated with central retinal vein occlusion and cystoid macular edema is reported. With this case, we noticed how the disease can be aggressive and how the visual acuity can be compromised. However, the correct treatment can improve the ocular changes with visual improvement. We also alert to the care with the use of high doses of corticosteroids.

  2. Evaluation of the anatomical correlation between biliary branches of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazuo [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan); Shinohara, Yasushi; Amano, Hodaka; Okazumi, Shinichi; Asano, Takehide; Isono, Kaichi; Ryu, Munemasa

    1995-12-01

    We analyzed anatomical correlation between biliary trees of the left lobe of the liver and the umbilical portion of the portal vein (UP) by CT with injection of contrast material into biliary tract through the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage tube (Cholangio-CT). Cholangio-CT was performed in 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. In 15 cases out of these 27 cases, left lateral superior subsegment branch (B2) and left lateral inferior subsegment branch (B3) originated in the right side of UP and ran in the cranial side of UP. In 6 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the cranial side of UP from the common duct of B2 and B3. In 5 cases, B2 and B3 arose in the left side of UP from the common duct which ran in the cranial side of UP. In one patient, B3 ran in the caudate side of UP. In 10 out of 27 cases, a bile duct branch which originated and ran in the cranial side of UP was depicted. It was not clear whether this branch belonged to medial segment branch or B3. (author).

  3. 巴马小型猪后肢外侧隐静脉后支抽血方法的研究%Study of venepuncture method to posterior branch of lateral saphenous vein for Bama minipig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝钢; 杨云生; 闫秀英; 郭志超

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the venepuncture method to posterior branch of lateral saphenous vein for minipig. Methods: The posterior branch of lateral saphenous vein for Bama minipig was punctured by intravenous infusion needle and blood volume needed was drown with injection syringe. Results;Blood volume needed were acquired successfully and achievement ratio is 95. 83% (46/48). Skin infection and blood pollution were all not found. When autopsy was executed after 6 days in the final venepuncture, hypoderm infection and blood vessel embolism were all not found out in the site of venepuncture. Conclusion: It is a simple and effective method to draw blood from posterior branch of lateral saphenous vein for minipig.%目的:探讨小型猪后肢外侧隐静脉后支抽血的方法.方法:采用一次性使用静脉输液针穿刺巴马小型猪后肢外侧隐静脉后支,用注射器抽取所需要的血量.结果:操作顺利,能够采集所需血量,抽血成功率95.83%(46/48),未出现抽血部位皮肤感染和血样污染.最后一次抽血后第6天处死动物并解剖,发现抽血部位的皮下组织未出现感染,穿刺部位的血管未见到闭塞.结论:在小型猪后肢外侧隐静脉后支抽血,具有方法简单、损伤小、效果可靠、不需要麻醉的特点.

  4. Changes in the foveal microstructure after intravitreal bevacizumab application in patients with retinal vascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feucht N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nikolaus Feucht, Etienne Michael Schönbach, Ines Lanzl, Konstantin Kotliar, Chris Patrick Lohmann, Mathias MaierDepartment of Ophthalmology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, GermanyPurpose: To investigate changes in the area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ in patients with retinal vascular disease.Patients and methods: This retrospective, consecutive study examined 53 eyes of 53 patients with macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion in 25 patients (47.2% and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy in 28 patients (52.8%. The macular edema was treated with an intravitreal injection of 0.05 mL equal to 1.25 mg bevacizumab. Before and 6–8 weeks after the injection, best corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy of the anterior segment and fundus, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography were conducted. The FAZ was manually circumscribed on early-phase angiography images and the area of the FAZ was measured.Results: The preoperative overall mean FAZ area was 0.327 ± 0.126 mm2 (median 0.310 mm2. At the control consultation, the overall mean area was significantly larger (0.422 ± 0.259 mm2; median 0.380 mm2; P < 0.001. In the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy subpopulation, the mean area was 0.361 ± 0.129 mm2 (median 0.330 mm2 before bevacizumab application and 0.434 mm2 at the follow-up visit (mean increase 0.071 mm2/19.7%. In the branch retinal vein occlusion group, the baseline FAZ area was 0.290 ± 0.115 mm2 and 0.407 ± 0.350 mm2 at follow-up (median 0.330 mm2; mean increase 0.117 mm2/40.3%. No cases of severe operation-associated complications were observed.Conclusion: The results confirm the safety of intravitreal bevacizumab injection in patients with macular edema due to nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion. The enlargement of the FAZ could be equivalent to an increase in retinal ischemia. These results may be transient; a potential vascular risk, however

  5. [Retinal venous obliteration and general pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aconiu, M; Mihălaş, G; Nemoianu, C

    1992-01-01

    The study of 148 retinal venous obliterations have shown 81 occlusions of central vein and 67 of I and II venous branch. A number of 90 was for the feminine gender (sex) and 59 for the masculine sex. The average age for the appearance of the venous occlusions was 62 years old, having extreme limits between 36-84 years old. Bilaterality has been for 3 cases. Concerning the associated medical affections, hypertension was for 67 patients, myocardiosclerosis have been mentioned for 67 patients, atherosclerosis for 21 patients, pulmonary scleroemphisis for 12 patients. Arterial hypertension with its aspersion that is arteriosclerosis are the main factors that have generated retinal circulation modifyings and have led to a degree of arterial insufficiency. Comparing the ophthalmological aspect to the pressure in the ophthalmic artery, most of the patients had a concordance of TACR and the retinal and choroidal angiosclerosis. The oscillometric examination to the inferior members has been effectuated for 21 patients and it has shown diminished values only for 3 cases. The forecast of the disease is still reserved. Following a group of 40 patients having OVR between 5 and 15 years old it has been established an average survival of 6.2 years. It is mentioned that 26% between these have dyed during the first six years. PMID:1520668

  6. Retinal oximetry

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinn Hákon Harðarson 1978

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Malfunction of retinal blood flow or oxygenation is believed to be involved in various diseases. Among them are retinal vessel occlusions, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. Reliable, non-invasive technology for retinal oxygen measurements has been scarce and most of the knowledge on retinal oxygenation comes from animal studies. This thesis describes human retinal oximetry, performed with novel retinal oximetry technology. The thesis describes studies on retinal vessel oxygen satu...

  7. OCT定性定量视网膜静脉阻塞性黄斑水肿%To define the quality and quantity of macular edema in retinal vein occlusion using OCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福燕; 李志敏; 李建阳; 吴珂; 刘璐; 赫晓燕

    2008-01-01

    Objective To emphasize the function of combining more than one program of scan and analysis of OCT to estimate the quality and quantity of maeular edema in retinal vein occlusion (RVOME) Methods 36 eyes of various types of retinal vein occlusion with macular edema underwent OCT.First,using the Line seen of 4 direction crossing the central fovea and Proportion analysis to define the quality of RVOME. Second,using the Macular thickness map scan and Thickness /volume analysis to define the quantity of RVOME.Reeord the data of the retinal thickness of the force,the area of 1 millimeter diameter of the macular center and the macular volume of this 1 millimeter diameter and the total macular volume.Results There are 6 common OCT images in RVOME: the subretinal fluid collection, the macular eystoid edema, the sponge-like retinal swelling,the retinal thickness thinner in quadrant,the serous retinal detachment and the epiretinal membranes.The average retinal thickness at the central fovea was (447.61±197.47)μm,the area of 1 millimetre diameter of the macular center was (451.78±192.19)μm and its volume was (0.35±0.15)μm3, the total macular volume was(10.20±3.53 )μm3.Conclusions The combination of more than one program of seen and analysis of OCT can define the quality and quantity of macular edema in RVOME fast and comprehensively,avoiding missing the diagnosis of RVOME,and getting the accurate data to study the result of treatment in follow up.%目的 强调OCT多个扫描及分析程序联合应用,定性定量分析视网膜静脉阻塞所致黄斑水肿(RVOME)的性质与程度的作用.方法 对36例36只眼视网膜中央静脉、分支静脉及半侧静脉阻塞波及黄斑的患眼进行OCT检查:作经过黄斑中心凹多径线线性扫描,成比例处理程序定性分析;作黄斑厚度地形图扫描,容积与厚度分析程序定量研究,记录黄斑中心凹,黄斑中心1 mm直径圆形区域视网膜平均厚度及其容积和黄斑总容积等参

  8. Retinal vascular changes in hypertensive patients in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleye ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sunday Tunji Oluleye,1 Bolutife Ayokunu Olusanya,1 Abiodun Moshood Adeoye2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria Background: Earlier studies in Nigeria reported the rarity of retinal vascular changes in hypertensives. The aim of this study was to describe the various retinal vascular changes in the hypertensive patients of Nigeria.Patients and methods: Nine hundred and three hypertensive patients were studied. This study was approved by the ethical and research committee of the University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were measured. Cardiac echocardiography was performed on 156 patients. All patients had dilated fundoscopy and fundus photography using the Kowa portable fundus camera and an Apple iPhone with 20 D lens. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (Version 21.Results: The mean age of patients was 57 years with a male:female ratio of 1. No retinopathy was found in 556 (61.5% patients. In all, 175 (19.4% patients had features of hypertensive retinopathy. Retinal vascular occlusion was a significant finding in 121 patients (13.4%, of which branch retinal vein occlusion, 43 (4.7%, and central retinal vein occlusion, 30 (3.3%, were the most prominent ones in cases. Hemicentral retinal vein occlusion, 26 (2.9%, and central retinal artery occlusion, 17 (1.9%, were significant presentations. Other findings included nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in five (0.6% patients, hypertensive choroidopathy in seven (0.8% patients, and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment in five (0.6% patients. Left ventricular (LV geometry was abnormal in 85 (55.5% patients. Concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy were observed in 43 (27.6%, 26 (17.2%, and 15 (9.7% patients, respectively. LV

  9. The unfolded protein response in retinal vascular diseases: implications and therapeutic potential beyond protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sarah X; Ma, Jacey H; Bhatta, Maulasri; Fliesler, Steven J; Wang, Joshua J

    2015-03-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex, step-wise process of new vessel formation that is involved in both normal embryonic development as well as postnatal pathological processes, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Aberrant blood vessel growth, also known as neovascularization, in the retina and the choroid is a major cause of vision loss in severe eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, and central and branch retinal vein occlusion. Yet, retinal neovascularization is causally and dynamically associated with vasodegeneration, ischemia, and vascular remodeling in retinal tissues. Understanding the mechanisms of retinal neovascularization is an urgent unmet need for developing new treatments for these devastating diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests a vital role for the unfolded protein response (UPR) in regulation of angiogenesis, in part through coordinating the secretion of pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as VEGF, and modulating endothelial cell survival and activity. Herein, we summarize current research in the context of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and UPR signaling in retinal angiogenesis and vascular remodeling, highlighting potential implications of targeting these stress response pathways in the prevention and treatment of retinal vascular diseases that result in visual deficits and blindness. PMID:25529848

  10. SD-OCT对视网膜中央静脉阻塞黄斑囊样水肿测量分析%Analysis of cystoid macular edema after central retinal vein occlusion with SD-OCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周娜磊; 安建斌; 马景学; 史俊芳; 戴丽; 崔月先; 刘丽娅; 郭从容

    2015-01-01

    目的 应用Spectralis频域OCT(SD-OCT)测量分析视网膜中央静脉阻塞(CRVO)黄斑囊样水肿(CME)时黄斑区视网膜厚度及容积变化.方法 临床病例系列研究.对2009年6月至2014年2月在河北医大二院眼科就诊的50例经眼底荧光血管造影诊断为CRVO-CME未经治疗患者50只眼行SD-OCT检查,以直径1、3、6 mm ETDRS对黄斑进行分区,分析黄斑区视网膜厚度、容积情况,并将之与对侧健眼或性别、年龄匹配眼对比、分析.结果 CRVO-CME黄斑视网膜各ETDRS分区较对侧健眼或匹配眼均增厚,中央区最厚,呈峰位于中央区的山峰样,分区容积变化与厚度相一致;CRVO-CME黄斑中央区中心小凹视网膜厚度(FT)、中央区平均视网膜厚度(FMcme)、中央区最厚值(Fmax)及中央区视网膜容积(FV)与最佳矫正视力(BCVA)相关.结论 CRVO-CME黄斑视网膜水肿增厚呈山峰样,较正常视网膜显著增厚,SD-OCT可以实现对黄斑区视网膜厚度容积的精确测量,对CRVO-CME的诊断及治疗提供有力依据.%Objective To investigate the changes of macular thickness and cubic volume of cystoid macular edema (CME) after central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Methods Diagnosed with CRVO and CME by fundus fluorescein angiography,50 eyes of 50 patients underwent SD-OCT.Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfield identification was employed to measure and analyze macular thickness and cubic volume,which were then compared with measurements of contralateral eyes or sex-controlled and age-controlled ones.Results Compared with contralateral eyes and controlled eyes,CRVO-CME eyes had thicker macula in hill shape with peak at central area.The changes of cubic volume of subfields were in accordance with thickness changes.There were correlations between foveola thickness (FT) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA in LogMAR),mean central area retinal thickness (FMcme) and

  11. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... varicose veins include venous lakes, reticular veins, and hemorrhoids. Venous lakes are varicose veins that appear on ... flat blue veins often seen behind the knees. Hemorrhoids are varicose veins in and around the anus. ...

  12. Retinal flow cytometer

    OpenAIRE

    Alt, C.; Veilleux, I.; Lee, H; Pitsillides, C. M.; D. Côté; Lin, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    The in vivo flow cytometer is an instrument capable of continuous, real-time monitoring of fluorescently labeled cells in the circulation without the need to draw blood samples. However, the original system probes a single vessel in the mouse ear; the small sample volume limits the sensitivity of the technique. We describe an in vivo retinal flow cytometer that simultaneously probes five artery–vein pairs in the mouse eye by circularly scanning a small laser spot rapidly around the optic nerv...

  13. Anatomic basis of the accompanying pattern of the superficial temporal arterial branches and veins and its clinical application%颞浅动脉分支与静脉伴行解剖基础及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范鹏举; 张丕红; 杨兴华; 黄晓元

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the course of branches of the superficial temporal artery (BSTA)and the accompanying pattern of their veins in order to provide anatomic basis for flap design. Methods Head and facial part of ten adult corpses(19 sides) were dissected and photographed. The coordinate system was set up with external auditory foramen as the point of origin, aided by the graph analysis software Digimizer. The course of the frontal branch and parietal branch of the superficial temporal artery (STA) ,and the accompanying pattern between the BSTA and the veins were measured and analyzed. The STA and its branches were located by Ultrasonic Doppler, and the corresponding branches of the superficial temporal vein (BSTV) were disclosed by bowing patient's head with breath holding or cerclaging the basement of the patient's skull. And then 10 sides of transposition (fascia) flaps with axis at the angular bisector between BSTA and BSTV were devised to repair wounds of 9 patients that hospitalized from February 2008 to December 2009. Data were processed with test of variance homogeneity. Results Frontal BSTV absence was found in 6 head sides, and the maximum distance between artery and vein was (2. 1 ± 1.2) cm. Parietal BSTV absence was found in 3 head sides, and the maximum distance was(1.4 ± 0. 7) cm. The distance between frontal BSTA and BSTV was larger than that between parietal BSTA and BSTV, and the dispersion degree of the former was higher than that of the latter(F =0. 0404, P =0. 0475). All the (fascia) flaps survived without congestion or necrosis. Conclusions When branch of the superficial temporal vessel was selected as the axial vessel of flap, the flap design shall depend on the accompanying pattern of BSTV to avoid the flap necrosis due to poor venous return after surgery. The superficial temporal vein and its branches can be well disclosed by bowing head or cerclaging skull. The approach is simple, useful, safe, and reliable.%目的 了解颞浅动脉分

  14. Retinal artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery occlusion; Branch retinal artery occlusion; CRAO; BRAO Images Retina References Sanborn GE, Magargal LE. Arterial obstructive disease ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  15. Improving Glaucoma Detection and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-09

    Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect; Diabetic Retinopathy; Ocular Hypertension; Cataract; Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion; Branch Retinal Arterial Occlusion; Central Retinal Vein Occlusion; Central Retinal Artery Occlusion; Epi-retinal Membrane; Macular Degeneration; Drusen; Loss of Vision

  16. Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Congenital Amaurosis Macular Degeneration Retinitis Pigmentosa Stargardt Disease Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & ... die. Forms of RP and related diseases include Usher syndrome, Leber’s congenital amaurosis, rod-cone disease, Bardet- ...

  17. Identifying All True Vessels from Segmented Retinal Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delucta Mary

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

  18. IDENTIFYING ALL TRUE VESSELS FROM SEGMENTED RETINAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Delucta Mary

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

  19. Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit; Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo;

    2009-01-01

    traveled by airplane to Copenhagen, Denmark, near sea level. RESULTS: In the study subjects, hematocrit decreased from 49.6% (day 2) to 45.9% (P = 0.0066, day 23) and 41.7% (P <0.0001, day 72); from days 2 to 23, retinal vein diameter increased by 2.68% (P = 0.0079); whereas retinal artery and vein...

  20. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  1. Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Hepatic Artery and the Hepatic Vein

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Howard; Malafa, M.; Coombs, Robert J.; Iannone, Anthony M.

    1989-01-01

    A patient is presented with multiple vascular anomalies in the branches of the celiac axis as well as in the portal vein and its branches. Apparently, unique in the literature is the presence of a large arteriovenous fistula between the hepatic artery and one of the hepatic veins. The anomalies are presumed to be congenital in origin.

  2. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.;

    2014-01-01

    . Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men......Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent) and...... retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected...

  3. Oral contraceptive pills: A risk factor for retinal vascular occlusion in in-vitro fertilization patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rohina S Aggarwal; Mishra, Vineet V; Somesh V Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Retinal vascular occlusion is the most common cause of retinopathy leading to severe visual loss in all age groups. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is usually seen in older age group and is often associated with systemic vascular diseases. Although the exact cause and effect relationship has not been proven, central retinal vein occlusion has been associated with various systemic pathological conditions, hence a direct review of systems toward the various systemic and local factors pred...

  4. Hypoxia-ischemia and retinal ganglion cell damage

    OpenAIRE

    Charanjit Kaur; Foulds, Wallace S.; Eng-Ang Ling

    2008-01-01

    Charanjit Kaur1, Wallace S Foulds2, Eng-Ang Ling11Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, SingaporeAbstract: Retinal hypoxia is the potentially blinding mechanism underlying a number of sight-threatening disorders including central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic central retinal vein thrombosis, complications of diabetic eye disease and some types of glaucoma. Hypoxia is implicated in loss of re...

  5. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  6. Retinal Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are three different types of retinal detachment: Rhegmatogenous [reg-ma-TAH-jenous]—A tear or break in the retina allows fluid to get under the retina and separate it from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the pigmented cell layer that nourishes the retina. These types of ...

  7. Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padrón-Pérez N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.Keywords: loss of vision, branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, Hollenhorst plaque

  8. Retinal vasculature classification using novel multifractal features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinal blood vessels have been implicated in a large number of diseases including diabetic retinopathy and cardiovascular diseases, which cause damages to retinal blood vessels. The availability of retinal vessel imaging provides an excellent opportunity for monitoring and diagnosis of retinal diseases, and automatic analysis of retinal vessels will help with the processes. However, state of the art vascular analysis methods such as counting the number of branches or measuring the curvature and diameter of individual vessels are unsuitable for the microvasculature. There has been published research using fractal analysis to calculate fractal dimensions of retinal blood vessels, but so far there has been no systematic research extracting discriminant features from retinal vessels for classifications. This paper introduces new methods for feature extraction from multifractal spectra of retinal vessels for classification. Two publicly available retinal vascular image databases are used for the experiments, and the proposed methods have produced accuracies of 85.5% and 77% for classification of healthy and diabetic retinal vasculatures. Experiments show that classification with multiple fractal features produces better rates compared with methods using a single fractal dimension value. In addition to this, experiments also show that classification accuracy can be affected by the accuracy of vessel segmentation algorithms. (paper)

  9. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit;

    2006-01-01

    , aged 20 to 46 years, interpolated diameter estimates for the central retinal artery (CRAE), the central retinal vein (CRVE), and the artery-to-vein diameter ratio (AVR) were assessed by analysis of digital gray-scale fundus photographs of right eyes. RESULTS: The heritability was 70% (95% CI: 54...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...... and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters and the...

  10. Frosted branch angiitis, neuroretinitis as initial ocular manifestation in Behçet disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mujaini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Behçet disease is an idiopathic, multisystem disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of orogenital ulceration and vasculitis of the veins and arteries of all calibers. Ocular involvement may affect the conjunctiva, sclera, uveal tract, vitreous, blood vessels, and retina. Many theories have pointed toward an autoimmune response behind its pathogenesis, which may be triggered by exposure to an infectious agent. Frosted branch angiitis is characterized by vascular inflammation, sheathing, retinal edema, and retinal hemorrhages. The disease may be idiopathic in a majority of the cases or may be associated with ocular and systemic pathology. Association between Behηet disease, Frosted branch angiitis, and neuroretinitis is not reported in literature. This uncommon combination reflects the varied systemic and ocular manifestations in Behηet disease, especially in patients who are not diagnosed and treated in time. We hereby report a case of bilateral frosted branch angiitis and neuroretinitis in a young male from Middle-east, suffering from Behçet disease.

  11. Other Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Congenital Amaurosis Macular Degeneration Retinitis Pigmentosa Stargardt Disease Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & ... affected by retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, Usher syndrome and the entire spectrum of retinal diseases. ...

  12. Bilateral Central Vein Occlusion in a Case of Diaphragmatic Eventration

    OpenAIRE

    STER, Anda-Maria; Stan, Cristina; GHERVAN, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a severe retinal pathology, which causes visual impairment usually after the age of 40. Mostly unilateral, less than 10% of cases are bilateral. Affected young adults (under the age of 40), usually exhibit a hidden, underlying systemic disease. Thorough testing has to be done in order to spot the pathogenic agent. We present the case of a 25 years old woman with bilateral CRVO caused by Diaphragmatic Eventration and Chronic Respiratory Failure.

  13. Bilateral central vein occlusion in a case of diaphragmatic eventration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Anda-Maria; Stan, Cristina; Ghervan, Mihaela

    2014-09-01

    Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) is a severe retinal pathology, which causes visual impairment usually after the age of 40. Mostly unilateral, less than 10% of cases are bilateral. Affected young adults (under the age of 40), usually exhibit a hidden, underlying systemic disease. Thorough testing has to be done in order to spot the pathogenic agent. We present the case of a 25 years old woman with bilateral CRVO caused by Diaphragmatic Eventration and Chronic Respiratory Failure. PMID:25705293

  14. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Deep Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep ...

  15. Septic thrombosis of the portal vein due to peripancreatic ligamental abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Septic thrombus formation of both the main portal vein and its intrahepatic branches were observed on CT in a patient with peripancreatic abscess. The septic thrombosis of portal vein (STPV) extended from the level of porta hepatis into the intrahepatic branches, but the portal vein and superior mesenteric vein at the level of pancreatic head were preserved with no evidence of thrombosis angiographically. The gas-containing abscess near the head of the pancreas extended toward the hepatic hilum and surrounded the portal vein and its branches on CT. It was concluded that these thrombi of portal vein branches at porta hepatis and intrahepatic branches were caused by extensions of peripancreatic abscess via the hepatoduodenal ligament and ligamentum teres. Computed tomography was useful in depicting the ligamentous spread of peripancreatic abscess resulting in STPV. (orig.) (orig.)

  16. Septic thrombosis of the portal vein due to peripancreatic ligamental abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, M.; Mori, H.; Kiyosue, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Oita Medical Univ. (Japan); Kamegawa, T. [Dept. of Surgery, Nankai Hospital (Japan); Uragami, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Nankai Hospital, Saiki (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Septic thrombus formation of both the main portal vein and its intrahepatic branches were observed on CT in a patient with peripancreatic abscess. The septic thrombosis of portal vein (STPV) extended from the level of porta hepatis into the intrahepatic branches, but the portal vein and superior mesenteric vein at the level of pancreatic head were preserved with no evidence of thrombosis angiographically. The gas-containing abscess near the head of the pancreas extended toward the hepatic hilum and surrounded the portal vein and its branches on CT. It was concluded that these thrombi of portal vein branches at porta hepatis and intrahepatic branches were caused by extensions of peripancreatic abscess via the hepatoduodenal ligament and ligamentum teres. Computed tomography was useful in depicting the ligamentous spread of peripancreatic abscess resulting in STPV. (orig.) (orig.) With 2 figs., 6 refs.

  17. Chickenpox Chorioretinitis with Retinal Exudates and Periphlebitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokuni Kitamei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is rarely associated with posterior segment inflammation. We report on a case of unilateral chickenpox chorioretinitis with retinal exudates and periphlebitis. Case Presentation: A 21-year-old healthy man, who suffered from chickenpox 2 weeks prior to symptom development, exhibited mild anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, sheathing of retinal veins, and yellow-white exudates in his right eye. Varicella zoster virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the aqueous humor. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral prednisolone and valaciclovir. Aqueous cells quickly disappeared and retinal exudates diminished within 1 month, leaving faint retinal scarring. Retinal arteritis had never been observed in this patient. Conclusions: Although the ocular findings in this case were similar to acute retinal necrosis (ARN, the clinical features differed from ARN in the following points: (1 mild anterior chamber inflammation, (2 absence of retinal arteritis, and (3 prompt resolution of inflammatory findings. The distinctive clinical features indicated that chorioretinitis associated with chickenpox may not have the same pathological conditions as ARN.

  18. New Portal-Superior Mesenteric Vein Reconstructions Using First Jejunal Vein Flap in Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Nobuyuki; Miki, Kenji; Kosuge, Tomoo

    2016-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the only potential treatment for pancreatic head adenocarcinomas, which are sometimes located close to or invade the portal-superior mesenteric vein (PSMV). Surgeons often attempt to obtain a negative resectional margin after resection of the PSMV. This attempt requires PSMV reconstruction through graft replacements or end-to-end anastomosis; however, possible complications should be concerned including anastomosis stenosis, damage to some of the PSMV branches, prosthetic graft infection, and that associated with autologous graft harvesting. The first jejunal artery and vein are often resected in PD with the intent of lymphadenectomy. In this study, jejunal vein flap was used for PSMV reconstruction without causing damage to any of the PSMV branches in two patients. Here, we describe the new methods of PSMV reconstruction using first jejunal vein flap in PD. PMID:26801505

  19. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ronny Cohen; Thierry Mallet; Michael Gale; Remigiusz Soltys; Pablo Loarte

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left...

  20. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Demirci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin achieves recanalization in more than half of acute cases.

  1. Ramification of the portal vein at the porta hepatis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, L J; Ortale, J R

    1995-01-01

    The ramification of the portal vein at the porta hepatis was studied by anatomic dissection performed in 32 formalin fixed human livers. In all the specimens there were branches which ran towards the caudate lobe, arising from the portal vein and either from the left or the right portal branches. Tri- and quadrifurcation of the portal vein was observed. In 5 cases (16%) there were branches arising from left portal branch or portal vein and directed anteriorly to the quadrate lobe or to the region of the gall-bladder sulcus. These branches ranged from 1.0 to 6.0 mm in diameter. The portal caudate branches were divided into 3 groups. Group 1: Branches to the papillary process; 1 or 2 branches in 26 cases (82%), 3 or 5 branches in 3 cases (9%) and no branches in 3 cases (9%); Group 2: Branches to the vena cava region, including the left part of the caudate process; 1 or 2 branches in 30 cases (94%), 3 branches in 1 case (3%) and no branches in 1 case (3%); Group 3: Branches to the right part of the caudate process; 1 or 2 branches in 12 cases (37%), and no branches in 20 cases (63%). PMID:7597563

  2. A 6-month, subject-masked, randomized controlled study to assess efficacy of dexamethasone as an adjunct to bevacizumab compared with bevacizumab alone in the treatment of patients with macular edema due to central or branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Raj K Maturi,1,2 Vincent Chen,3 Dan Raghinaru,3 Laurie Bleau,1 Michael W Stewart4 1Midwest Eye Institute, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Aims: To determine if intravitreal bevacizumab combined with the dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg improves visual acuity and macular ...

  3. A 6-month, subject-masked, randomized controlled study to assess efficacy of dexamethasone as an adjunct to bevacizumab compared with bevacizumab alone in the treatment of patients with macular edema due to central or branch retinal vein occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Maturi RK; Chen V; Raghinaru D; Bleau L; Stewart MW

    2014-01-01

    Raj K Maturi,1,2 Vincent Chen,3 Dan Raghinaru,3 Laurie Bleau,1 Michael W Stewart4 1Midwest Eye Institute, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Jaeb Center for Health Research, Tampa, FL, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA Aims: To determine if intravitreal bevacizumab combined with the dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7 mg improves visual acuity and macular thicknes...

  4. 视网膜毛细血管扩张临床观察%Characteristics of fundus fluoresceine angiography of retinal telangiectasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎铧; 张利伟; 韦春玲; 李娟娟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of fundus photography and fundusfluorescein angiography in patients of retinal telangiectasis.Methods Retrospective analysis of idiopathic macular telangiectasia,Coat's disease,retinal Branch vein occlusion,diabetic retinopathy,retinal vasculitis,the clinical data were summarized.Results Five cases of idiopathic paramacular telangiectasia showed white lesions,macular capillary network expanded and leakage; 6 cases of Coat's disease showed a large retinal exudation,retinal vascular ectasia; 18 cases of patients with branch retinal vein occlusion showed regional telangiectasia along the blocking vein,no-perfusion areas can be seen in the ischemic area; 21 cases of diabetic retinopathy showed widely scattered retinal telangiectasia,micro aneurysm formation,hemorrhage leakage lesions; 19 cases of retinal vasculitis showed dilated retinal veins,the blood vessel walls stained and leakage.Conclusions Idiopathic,hypoxia,inflammation,hemodynamic changes,and radiation damage can damage endothelial cells or pericytes,which manifest as telangiectasia,comprehensive analysis and determine the causes and measurements.%目的 探讨各类导致视网膜毛细血管扩张疾病的临床特征.方法 对2008~2012年在云南红十字会医院眼科经回顾分析特发性黄斑旁毛细血管扩张症、Coat's病、视网膜分支静脉阻塞、糖尿病视网膜病变、视网膜血管炎患者计69例(112只眼)的临床资料、眼底彩照、眼底荧光血管造影等进行总结分析.结果 5例特发性黄斑旁毛细血管扩张症表现为黄斑区灰白色病灶,黄斑毛细血管网扩张,渗漏;6例Coat's病患者表现为大片视网膜渗出,视网膜血管瘤样扩张;18例视网膜分支静脉阻塞患者表现为沿阻塞区域分布的毛细血管扩张,缺血型可见无灌注区;21例糖尿病视网膜病变者表现为广泛散在的视网膜毛细血管扩张、微动脉瘤形成,合并出血渗漏病变;19例视网

  5. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Christian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a rapid evolution over two decades or a slow progression that never leads to blindness. In some cases, the clinical presentation is a cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over the visual field loss. RP is usually non syndromic but there are also many syndromic forms, the most frequent being Usher syndrome. To date, 45 causative genes/loci have been identified in non syndromic RP (for the autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and digenic forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of night blindness and peripheral visual field defects, lesions in the fundus, hypovolted electroretinogram traces, and progressive worsening of these signs. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, but is not usually performed due to the tremendous genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, so the visual prognosis is poor. The therapeutic approach is restricted to slowing down the degenerative process by sunlight protection and vitaminotherapy, treating the complications (cataract and macular edema, and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. However, new therapeutic strategies are emerging from intensive research (gene therapy, neuroprotection, retinal prosthesis.

  6. Bim is Responsible for the Inherent Sensitivity of the Developing Retinal Vasculature to Hyperoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shoujian; Park, Sunyoung; Fei, Ping; Sorenson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in development and remodeling of vasculature during organogenesis. Coordinated branching and remodeling of the retinal vascular tree is essential for normal retinal function. Bcl-2 family members, such as bim can not only influence apoptosis, but also cell adhesive and migratory properties essential during vascular development. Here we examined the impact of bim deficiency on postnatal retinal vascularization, as well as retinal neovascularization during oxyg...

  7. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  8. Anatomy of the intrahepatic ramification of the portal vein in the right hemiliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortale, J R; Naves De Freitas Azevedo, C H; Mello De Castro, C

    2000-01-01

    The ramification of the portal vein in the right hemiliver was studied by anatomic dissection in 36 formalin-fixed human livers. In 28/36 (77.8%) cases, the portal vein bifurcated into a right branch and a left branch and the right branch bifurcated into anterior and posterior segmental branches. The anterior segmental branch terminated in the anterosuperior subsegment (S(8)) in two types: bifurcated when it divided into anterior P(8) and posterior P(8 )branches towards the respective regions of S(8) (24/28 cases) and monopodal when it had a single pedicle (4/28 cases). The maximum anteroinferior subsegmental branch (P(5 )maximum) originated either from the anterior segmental branch (16/28 cases) or from the anterior P(8) branch (12/28 cases). The posterior segmental branch vascularized the posteroinferior (S(6)) and the posterosuperior (S(7)) subsegments, and was terminated in three types: fan-shaped (16/28), bifurcated (9/28) and tripodal (3/28). In 4/36 (11.1%) cases the portal vein bifurcated into a right branch and a left branch but the posterior segmental branch was not present. In 4/36 (11.1%) the right branch of the portal vein was not present. These anatomical variations are explained separately and finally all cases are considered as a whole. PMID:10867440

  9. The design of an asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanglong; Qin, Jie; Guo, Wei; Fang, Kuang

    2013-06-01

    Inspired by the wing vein of Lepidoptera, a designment of asymmetric bionic branching channel for electronic chips cooling is developed. Lepidoptera vein D was chosen to measure the angle of first and second branch level. Based on these regular patterns, an asymmetric bionic branching channel is designed in a 35 mm × 35 mm chip. Comparing with fractal-like branching channel, it provides a stronger heat transfer capability, lower pressure drop and lower flow resistance in the experiment.

  10. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV) in the margin volume (MV) surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) before radiation therapy (RT) and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT) by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD). Clinical target volume (CTV) included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV) included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%). The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B) with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%). We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001). Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD

  11. Distribution of Functional Liver Volume in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus in the 1st Branch and Main Trunk Using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography—Application to Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ikoma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the distribution of functional liver volume (FLV in the margin volume (MV surrounding hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT before radiation therapy (RT and to verify the safety of single photon emission computed tomography-based three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (SPECT-B3DCRT by exploring the relation of FLV in MV to radiation-induced liver disease (RILD. Methods and Materials: Clinical target volume (CTV included main tumor and PVTT, and planning target volume (PTV included CTV with a 10 mm margin. MV was defined as PTV–CTV. FLV ratio in MV was calculated as FLV in MV/MV × 100 (%. The two high-dose beams were planned to irradiate FLV as little as possible. Fifty-seven cases of HCC (26/57, 46%; Child–Pugh grade B with PVTT underwent SPECT-B3DCRT which targeted the CTV to a total dose of 45 Gy/18 fractions. The destructive ratio was defined as radiation induced dysfunctional volume/FLV × 100 (%. Results: We observed a significant negative correlation between FLV ratio in MV and CTV (p < 0.001. Three cases with CTVs of 287, 587 and 1184 cm3 experienced transient RILD. The FLV ratio in MV was highest in patients with RILD: nine patients with CTV of 200–300 cm3, three with CTV of 500–600 cm3, and two with CTV of 1100–1200 cm3. The destructive ratio yielded a mean value of 24.2 ± 1.5%. Conclusions: Radiation planning that takes into account the distribution of FLV appears to result in the least possible RILD.

  12. Changes in retinal vessels related to varicocele: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, M; Ilhan, N; Elbeyli, A; Rifaioğlu, M M; Inci, M; Davran, R; Tuzcu, E A; Yarbağ, A; Davarci, M; Gökçe, A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether retinal vasculature changes had occurred (retinal artery diameter, retinal vein diameter and artery/vein ratio) in patients with varicocele. This pilot study included 50 healthy subjects with any eye disease apart from slight refractive errors and 55 patients with varicocele. Retinal arteriolar and venular diameters were measured and summarised as central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE). Retinal microvascular diameters and the arteriolar-to-venular ratio (AVR) were assessed with a digital retinal camera. All measurements and calculations were performed using a computer-based program. The mean CRAE value was 151.8 ± 3.6 μm in the study group and 150.4 ± 4.5 μm in the control group. Mean CRVE value was 209.4 ± 5.9 μm in the study group and 200.1 ± 8.7 μm in the control group. AVR was found 0.72 ± 0.02 in the study group and 0.75 ± 0.03 in the control group. There were significant differences between groups in terms of CRVE and AVR. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of CRAE. The results of this study showed that the patients with varicocele showed significant changes on retinal vascular diameter. PMID:26314401

  13. Focus on Varicose Veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... linked with the presence of varicose veins in women. What are the signs and symptoms? Varicose veins may be entirely symptom-free and cause no immediate health problems. Treatment in such cases is usually considered cosmetic. When symptoms are present, the most common are ...

  14. Bilateral meandering pulmonary veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupili, Chakradhar R.; Udayasankar, Unni [Pediatric Imaging, Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Renapurkar, Rahul [Imaging Institute Cleveland Clinic, Thoracic Imaging, L10, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Meandering pulmonary veins is a rare clinical entity that can be mistaken for more complex congenital syndromes such as hypogenetic lung syndrome. We report imaging findings in a rare incidentally detected case of bilateral meandering pulmonary veins. We briefly discuss the role of imaging in diagnosing this condition, with particular emphasis on contrast-enhanced CT. (orig.)

  15. Multiple vascular anomalies involving testicular, suprarenal arteries and lumbar veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Jyothsna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular arteries arise from the abdominal aorta and the inferior suprarenal artery from the renal artery. There are reports about variant origin and course of these arteries. Accessory testicular artery is also a common finding but its providing origin to inferior suprarenal artery is an important observation. During a routine dissection of abdomen of approximately 55-year-old male cadaver, unique vascular abnormality was observed. On the left side, a common arterial trunk originating from abdominal aorta immediately branched to give rise to superior testicular and inferior suprarenal arteries, the former after a short course hooked by the left suprarenal vein. In addition, the left suprarenal vein, second left lumbar vein, and left testicular vein joined to form a common trunk which drained into the left renal vein. A sound knowledge of vascular variations in relation to the kidney and suprarenal gland is important to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity.

  16. Oral contraceptive pills: A risk factor for retinal vascular occlusion in in-vitro fertilization patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina S Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular occlusion is the most common cause of retinopathy leading to severe visual loss in all age groups. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is usually seen in older age group and is often associated with systemic vascular diseases. Although the exact cause and effect relationship has not been proven, central retinal vein occlusion has been associated with various systemic pathological conditions, hence a direct review of systems toward the various systemic and local factors predisposing the central retinal vein occlusion is advocated. We describe the development of central retinal venous occlusion with associated cystoid macular edema (CME in two healthy infertile women who were recruited for in vitro fertilization cycle for infertility. Predisposing risk factors associated with central retinal vein occlusion are obesity, sedentary life style, smoking, and some systemic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, associated autoimmune disorders e.g., antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, lupus, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, bleeding or clotting disorders, vasculitis, closed-head trauma, alcohol consumption, primary open-angle glaucoma or angle-closure glaucoma.In our patients, they were ruled out afterdoing allpertaining investigations. The cases were managed with further avoidance of oral contraceptives and intra-vitreal injections of Bevacizumab (Avastin, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF drug and Triamcinolone acetonide (a long acting synthetic steroid. Hence, even if no systemic diseases are detected. Physical examinations are recommended periodically for young women on oral contraceptive pills.

  17. Branching out

    CERN Document Server

    Biggins, J D

    2010-01-01

    Results on the behaviour of the rightmost particle in the $n$th generation in the branching random walk are reviewed and the phenomenon of anomalous spreading speeds, noticed recently in related deterministic models, is considered. The relationship between such results and certain coupled reaction-diffusion equations is indicated.

  18. Postoperative Massive Pulmonary Embolism Due to Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation. PMID:26985256

  19. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein therapy ... after treatment. Your leg may be checked using ultrasound a few days after treatment to make sure ...

  20. Popliteal vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented. PMID:16796307

  1. Retinal glia promote dorsal root ganglion axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lorber

    Full Text Available Axon regeneration in the adult central nervous system (CNS is limited by several factors including a lack of neurotrophic support. Recent studies have shown that glia from the adult rat CNS, specifically retinal astrocytes and Müller glia, can promote regeneration of retinal ganglion cell axons. In the present study we investigated whether retinal glia also exert a growth promoting effect outside the visual system. We found that retinal glial conditioned medium significantly enhanced neurite growth and branching of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG in culture. Furthermore, transplantation of retinal glia significantly enhanced regeneration of DRG axons past the dorsal root entry zone after root crush in adult rats. To identify the factors that mediate the growth promoting effects of retinal glia, mass spectrometric analysis of retinal glial conditioned medium was performed. Apolipoprotein E and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC were found to be present in high abundance, a finding further confirmed by western blotting. Inhibition of Apolipoprotein E and SPARC significantly reduced the neuritogenic effects of retinal glial conditioned medium on DRG in culture, suggesting that Apolipoprotein E and SPARC are the major mediators of this regenerative response.

  2. A rare and unusual retinal arterioarterial communication in a prepapillary vascular loop

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Fundus examination of a 40-year-old man presenting with blurred vision in his right eye revealed mild vitreous hemorrhage, a prepapillary vascular loop, and a peripapillary epiretinal membrane. Additionally, a superotemporal branch retinal artery communicated directly with an inferotemporal branch retinal artery in the temporal fovea at 2 locations. Fluorescein angiography confirmed an extremely rare arterioarterial communication. Two weeks later the vitreous hemorrhage and small intraretinal...

  3. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Froger

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats. After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%, whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  4. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  5. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  6. Modern retinal laser therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Kozak, Igor; Luttrull, Jeffrey K.

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal lasers are a standard source of light to produce retinal tissue photocoagulation to treat retinovascular disease. The Diabetic Retinopathy Study and the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study were large randomized clinical trials that have shown beneficial effect of retinal laser photocoagulation in diabetic retinopathy and have dictated the standard of care for decades. However, current treatment protocols undergo modifications. Types of lasers used in treatment of retinal dise...

  7. Clinical features and outcomes of vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy with central retinal vein occlusion%糖尿病视网膜病变合并视网膜中央静脉阻塞的临床特征及玻璃体切割手术治疗效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江枫; 韩金栋; 颜华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical features and outcomes of vitrectomy for diabetic retinopathy (DR) with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Methods A total of 192 patients (241 eyes) with proliferative DR (PDR) who underwent vitrectomy were enrolled in this study.All the patients were diagnosed as vitreous hemorrhage (VH) because of suddenly decreased vision.There were 93 eyes with tractional retinal detachment (TRD) and six eyes with neovascularization of iris (NVI).The patients were divided into PDR with CRVO group (group A,41 eyes) and PDR group (group B,200 eyes) according to the results of fundus examination.All patients received vitrectomy with silicone oil and C3F8 gas tamponade.There were 138 eyes with silicone oil tamponade which including 30 eyes in group A and 108 eyes in group B.The difference of number in silicone oil-filled eyes in two groups was statistically significant (x2=5.110,P<0.05).There were 38 eyes with C3F8 gas tamponade which including six eyes in group A and 32 eyes in group B.There was no difference in C3F8 gas-filled eyes numbers in two groups (x2 =0.048,P>0.05).The follow-up ranged from one to 60 months,with the mean of (28.69± 17.28) months.The corrected vision,retinal reattachment,persisting macular edema (ME),neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and repeated VH after surgery were comparatively analyzed.Results Of 241 eyes,there were 41 eyes (17.0%) with CRVO.Before surgery,the differences of corrected vision (Z=-0.138),intraocular pressure (t=0.966),whether there was TRDor not (x2=0.412),whether underwent panretinal photocoagulation or not (x2 =1.416) were not statistically significant (P>0.05),but the difference of whether NVI were present or not was statistically significant (x2=31.724,P<0.05)between two groups.After surgery,the corrected vision improved in both two groups (Z=2.319,4.589;P<0.05).There was no difference of corrected vision after surgery between two groups (Z=0.782,P>0

  8. Carotid arteries in central retinal vessel occlusion as assessed by Doppler ultrasound.

    OpenAIRE

    Peternel, P; Keber, D; Videcnik, V

    1989-01-01

    Doppler ultrasound was used to detect possible flow changes in the carotid arteries of patients with central retinal artery and vein occlusion. Twenty-three patients with central retinal artery occlusion (mean age 56, SD 11, years) were examined 4 to 48 months after the development of the occlusion and compared with age and sex matched control subjects with no history of any disease known to be associated with pathological changes in carotid vessels. Significant stenosis or occlusion of one o...

  9. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization

  10. The retinal ciliopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, N A; Awadein, Ahmed; Toma, Hassanain S

    2007-09-01

    While the functions of many of the proteins located in or associated with the photoreceptor cilia are poorly understood, disruption of the function of these proteins may result in a wide variety of phenotypes ranging from isolated retinal degeneration to more pleiotropic phenotypes. Systemic findings include neurosensory hearing loss, developmental delay, situs-inversus, infertility, disorders of limb and digit development, obesity, kidney disease, liver disease, and respiratory disease. The concept of "retinal ciliopathies" brings to attention the importance of further molecular analysis of this organelle as well as provides a potential common target for therapies for these disorders. The retinal ciliopathies include retinitis pigmentosa, macular degeneration, cone-dystrophy, cone-rod dystrophy, Leber congenital amaurosis, as well as retinal degenerations associated with Usher syndrome, primary ciliary dyskinesia, Senior-Loken syndrome, Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Laurence-Moon syndrome, McKusick-Kaufman syndrome, and Biemond syndrome. Mutations for these disorders have been found in retinitis pigmentosa-1 (RP1), retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR), retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator interacting protein (RPGR-IP), as well as the Usher, Bardet-Biedl, and nephronophthisis genes. Other systemic disorders associated with retinal degenerations that may also involve ciliary abnormalities include: Alstrom, Edwards-Sethi, Ellis-van Creveld, Jeune, Meckel-Gruber, Orofaciodigital Type 9, and Gurrieri syndromes. Understanding these conditions as ciliopathies may help the ophthalmologist to recognize associations between seemingly unrelated diseases and have a high degree of suspicion that a systemic finding may be present. PMID:17896309

  11. Non satellite veins in the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziotti, G H; Ríos, C M; Rodríguez Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C L

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the major differences in the venous system of the pelvic limb of the llama (Lama glama) and that of other mammals, including humans. Eight adult llamas, preserved by means of 6% formalin solution at 0 degrees C, were dissected. The venous system was perfused with a solution of 17% coloured industrial gelatin. Two venous systems are recognised, superficial and deep. The veins of the deep system follow the same course as the arteries, except for two important veins located in the femoral, popliteal and crural regions. A more voluminous vein than the femoral originates in a venous tripod in the proximal part of the femoral canal and forms an anastomosis with the femoral vein distally. The popliteal vein gives off an expansion located along the popliteal region. In the leg, it continues with a vein that accompanies the tibial nerve and forms an anastomosis distally with the medial saphenous vein. The described venous distribution represents an interesting complement to the medial saphenous, popliteal and femoral veins, being more important than the last one for its volume. In the thigh it would correspond to the deep femoral vein as in humans and dogs; the homology in the popliteal and leg regions is too difficult because it probably corresponds to the caudal tibial vein of the human, the caudal branch of the medial saphenous vein, and the satellite vein of the tibial nerve in the horse. PMID:10456991

  12. Pelvic Vein Embolisation in the Management of Varicose Veins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelvic vein incompetence is common in patients with atypical varicose veins, contributing to their recurrence after surgery. Therefore, refluxing pelvic veins should be identified and treated. We present our experience with pelvic vein embolisation in patients presenting with varicose veins. Patients presenting with varicose veins with a duplex-proven contribution from perivulval veins undergo transvaginal duplex sonography (TVUS) to identify refluxing pelvic veins. Those with positive scans undergo embolisation before surgical treatment of their lower limb varicose veins. A total of 218 women (mean age of 46.3 years) were treated. Parity was documented in the first 60 patients, of whom 47 (78.3%) were multiparous, 11 (18.3%) had had one previous pregnancy, and 2 (3.3%) were nulliparous. The left ovarian vein was embolised in 78%, the right internal iliac in 64.7%, the left internal iliac in 56.4%, and the right ovarian vein in 42.2% of patients. At follow-up TVUS, mild reflux only was seen in 16, marked persistent reflux in 6, and new reflux in 3 patients. These 9 women underwent successful repeat embolisation. Two patients experienced pulmonary embolisation of the coils, of whom 1 was asymptomatic and 1 was successfully retrieved; 1 patient had a misplaced coil protruding into the common femoral vein; and 1 patient had perineal thrombophlebitis. The results of our study showed that pelvic venous embolisation by way of a transjugular approach is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of pelvic vein reflux.

  13. Idiopathic pediatric retinal artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manayath George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in a healthy young girl. An eight-year-old girl presented with sudden loss of vision in her left eye. She had a pale retina with macular edema consistent with extensive BRAO. A thorough workup was performed to determine any etiologic factor. All test results were within normal limits. Her visual acuity improved from finger counting to 20/40 over two weeks, on immediate treatment with intravenous steroids (methyl prednisolone. This case suggests that BRAO can occur in healthy children without any detectable systemic or ocular disorders and a dramatic improvement may be achieved with prompt treatment with intravenous steroids.

  14. A semi-automated computer tool for the analysis of retinal vessel diameter dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euvrard, Guillaume; Genevois, Olivier; Rivals, Isabelle; Massin, Pascale; Collet, Amélie; Sahel, José-Alain; Paques, Michel

    2013-06-01

    Retinal vessels are directly accessible to clinical observation. This has numerous potential interests for medical investigations. Using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer, a dedicated eye fundus camera enabling dynamic, video-rate recording of micrometric changes of the diameter of retinal vessels, we developed a semi-automated computer tool that extracts the heart beat rate and pulse amplitude values from the records. The extracted data enabled us to show that there is a decreasing relationship between heart beat rate and pulse amplitude of arteries and veins. Such an approach will facilitate the modeling of hemodynamic interactions in small vessels. PMID:23566397

  15. Flow patterns on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography reveal flow directions at retinal vessel bifurcations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Q; Munch, Inger C;

    2014-01-01

    from the population-based, observational Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 study. RESULTS: The blood stream in retinal arteries maintains a figure-of-8 SD-OCT profile consistent with a laminar flow in concentric sheets and a parabolic velocity distribution up to the point of divergence at arterial...... bifurcations. In contrast, the blood stream at the site of confluence of two retinal veins remains divided into two parallel sets of sheets with separate velocity distribution for a downstream distance of at least four trunk vessel diameters. Consequently, retinal trunk vessels near bifurcations...

  16. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-05

    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  17. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptom is leg pain and tenderness in the calf muscles. One may also observe swelling or a ... clotting. To find out more about the Vascular Disease Foundation, call 888.833.4463 or ... chronic respiratory failure, a history of smoking, varicose veins, pregnancy ...

  18. The vein collar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, F; Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2012-01-01

    Randomized studies evaluating the effect of a vein collar at the distal anastomosis of PTFE-grafts show conflicting results. The study of the Joint Vascular Research Group (JVRG) of UK found improved primary patency while the Scandinavian Miller Collar Study (SCAMICOS) found neither any effect on...

  19. Retinal vascular calibre and response to light exposure and serial imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Sjølie, Anne K.; Mathiesen, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether retinal vessel calibre measurements on optical retinal photography are affected by light and dark exposure prior to photography and whether the vessel calibre changes during an imaging sequence of several images. Methods: Digital optical retinal photographs were...... obtained from 32 healthy adults in two separate image sequences of six images during 1 min; one sequence with 10 min of dark exposure and one with 10 min of light exposure prior to imaging. Retinal arteriolar and venular calibres were measured computer-assisted and summarized as central retinal artery and...... vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE). Outcome measures were difference in calibres after prior light versus prior dark exposure and difference in calibre during each of the two imaging sequences. Results: CRVE was wider with prior light exposure (2.7%, p = 0.0001), comparing the first image in each image...

  20. Living with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Deep Vein Thrombosis Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  1. Clinical implications of concomitant variations of the testicular, suprarenal and renal veins: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcic-Gürbüz, Jasna; Akalin, Aytül; Gümüşcü, Burak; Cavdar, Safiye

    2002-01-01

    Multiple venous anomalies have been observed during dissection of the posterior abdominal wall in a 65-year-old, white male cadaver. The left testicular and suprarenal veins united inferior to the superior mesenteric artery, coursed anterior to the abdominal aorta and drained into the inferior vena cava (IVC). Further the left renal vein coursed retroaortically and divided into three branches. The superior branch coursed on the vertebral column and drained into the azygos vein while middle and inferior branches drained into the IVC. The right renal vein was double and both drained into the IVC separately. Due to implications for numerous therapeutical and diagnostic procedures in the retroperitoneal region knowledge of these variations could be useful for clinicians in its recognition and protection. PMID:11876480

  2. Hypoxia-ischemia and retinal ganglion cell damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charanjit Kaur

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Charanjit Kaur1, Wallace S Foulds2, Eng-Ang Ling11Department of Anatomy, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, SingaporeAbstract: Retinal hypoxia is the potentially blinding mechanism underlying a number of sight-threatening disorders including central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic central retinal vein thrombosis, complications of diabetic eye disease and some types of glaucoma. Hypoxia is implicated in loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs occurring in such conditions. RGC death occurs by apoptosis or necrosis. Hypoxia-ischemia induces the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and its target genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Increased production of VEGF results in disruption of the blood retinal barrier leading to retinal edema. Enhanced expression of NOS results in increased production of nitric oxide which may be toxic to the cells resulting in their death. Excess glutamate release in hypoxic-ischemic conditions causes excitotoxic damage to the RGCs through activation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Activation of glutamate receptors is thought to initiate damage in the retina by a cascade of biochemical effects such as neuronal NOS activation and increase in intracellular Ca2+ which has been described as a major contributing factor to RGC loss. Excess production of proinflammatory cytokines also mediates cell damage. Besides the above, free-radicals generated in hypoxic-ischemic conditions result in RGC loss because of an imbalance between antioxidant- and oxidant-generating systems. Although many advances have been made in understanding the mediators and mechanisms of injury, strategies to improve the damage are lacking. Measures to prevent neuronal injury have to be developed.Keywords: retinal hypoxia, retinal ganglion cells, glutamate receptors, neuronal injury, retina

  3. Retinal vessel diameter changes induced by transient high perfusion pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Ying; Zhao; Ping-Jun; Chang; Fang; Yu; Yun-E; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    ·AIM: To investigate the effects of transient high perfusion pressure on the retinal vessel diameter and retinal ganglion cells.·METHODS: The animals were divided into four groups according to different infusion pressure and infusion time(60 mm Hg-3min, 60 mm Hg-5min, 100 mm Hg-3min, 100 mm Hg-5min). Each group consisted of six rabbits. The left eye was used as the experimental eye and the right as a control. Retinal vascular diameters were evaluated before, during infusion, immediately after infusion, 5min, 10 min and 30 min after infusion based on the fundus photographs. Blood pressure was monitored during infusion. The eyes were removed after 24 h.Damage to retinal ganglion cell(RGC) was analyzed by histology.·RESULTS: Retina became whiten and papilla optic was pale during perfusion. Measurements showed significant decrease in retinal artery and vein diameter during perfusion in all of the four groups at the proximal of the edge of the optic disc. The changes were significant in the 100 mm Hg-3min group and 100 mm Hg-5min group compared with 60 mm Hg-3min group(P 1=0.025, P 2=0.000).The diameters in all the groups recovered completely after 30 min of reperfusion. The number of RGC)showed no significant changes at the IOP in 100 mm Hg with5 min compared with contralateral untreated eye(P >0.05).·CONCLUSION: Transient fluctuations during infusion lead to temporal changes of retinal vessels, which could affect the retinal blood circulation. The RGCs were not affected by this transient fluctuation. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of pressure during realtime phacoemusification on retinal blood circulation.

  4. Differential Diagnosis of Retinal Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Asrar, Ahmed M.; Herbort, Carl P.; Tabbara, Khalid F.

    2009-01-01

    Retinal vaculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography. Active vascular disease is characterized by exudates around retinal vessels resulting in white sheathing or cuffing of the affected vessels. In this review, a practical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis is discussed based on ophthalmoscopic and fundus fluorescein angiographic findings. PMID:20404987

  5. Differential Diagnosis of Retinal Vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Abu El-Asrar Ahmed; Herbort Carl; Tabbara Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Retinal vaculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography. Active vascular disease is characterized by exudates around retinal vessels resulting in white sheathing or cuffing of the affected vessels. In this review, a practical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis is discussed based on ophthalmoscopic and fundus fluorescein a...

  6. Differential diagnosis of retinal vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu El-Asrar Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vaculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography. Active vascular disease is characterized by exudates around retinal vessels resulting in white sheathing or cuffing of the affected vessels. In this review, a practical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis is discussed based on ophthalmoscopic and fundus fluorescein angiographic findings.

  7. Clinical and immunological features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Vasculitis is a clinical, pathologic process characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel occurring anywhere in the body. The aim of the study was to present some clinical and immunologic features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, Behcet's diseases, and others. Methods. A total of 1 254 patients with uveitis were included in the study. The immunochemical diagnostic methods were used to determine the pathogenesis of ocular manifestations. Ocular manifestations were examined using biomicroscope, direct or indirect ophtalmoscopy. Results. Primary retinal vasculitis was diagnosed in 85/1254 (6.8% of total uveitis. In more than half of the cases of vasculitis (58.8%, both arteries and veins were involved in inflammatory process. Periphlebitis was diagnosed far more commonly (36.5% than periarteritis (4.7%. Retinal vasculitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was characterized by microinfarctions and the consequent foci of inflammatory cells or diseases of large arteries manifesting in vasospasm and occlusions. Cotton wool spots occurred in 38.3% and retinal hemorrhages in 34% of the cases. In this study periphlebitis of the retina was one of the less frequent ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Comparing with the other changes of the retinal blood vessels, venous sheating occurred in 25.1% and occlusion and vein trombosis in 43.75% of the cases. Retinal vasculitis associated with chronic sarcoidosis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidosis. The most frequent manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis was intermediary uveitis (43.75%. Anterior granulomatous uveitis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidoses. Immune complexes occurred in 13/20 (65% of the patients. Antiretinal anti-S antibody in the serum occurred in 73% of the patients with retinal detachment as a complication of primary disease and in 25% those with vasculitis

  8. Relationship between encephalopathy and portal vein-vena cava shunt:Value of computed tomography during arterial portography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Chu; Zhen Li; Su-Ming Zhang; Dao-Yu Hu; Ming Xiao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To assess the value of computed tomography during arterial portography (CTAP) in portal vein-vena cava shunt,and analysis of the episode risk in encephalopathy.METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy due to portal hypertension were classified by West Haven method into grade Ⅰ(29 cases), gradeⅡ(16 cases), grade Ⅲ(10 cases), grade Ⅳ( 4 cases). All the patients were scanned by spiral-CT. Plane scans, artery phase and portal vein phase enhancement scans were performed, and the source images were thinly reconstructed to 1.25 mm. We reconstructed the celiac trunk, portal vein,inferior vena cava and their branches and subjected them to three-dimensional vessel analysis by volume rendering(VR) technique and multiplanar volume reconstruction(MPVR) technique. The blood vessel reconstruction technique was used to evaluate the scope and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt, portal vein emboli and the fistula of hepatic artery- portal vein. The relationship between the episode risk of portal-systemic encephalopathy and the scope and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt,portal vein emboli and fistula of hepatic artery- portal vein was studied.RESULTS: The three-dimensional vessel reconstruction technique of spiral-CT could display celiac trunk, portal vein,inferior vena cava and their branches at any planes and angles and the scope and extent of portal vein-vena cava shunt, portal vein emboli and the fistula of hepatic artery- portal vein. In twenty-nine patients with portal-systemic encephalopathy, grade Ⅰ accounted for 89.7% esophageal varices, 86.2% paragastric varices; grade Ⅱ accounted for68.75% cirsomphalos, 56.25% paraesophageal varices,62.5% retroperitoneal varices and 81.25% dilated azygos vein; grade Ⅲ accounted for 80% cirsomphalos, 60%paraesophageal varices, 70% retroperitoneal varices, 90%dilated azygos vein, and part of the patients in grades Ⅱand Ⅲ had portal vein emboli and fistula of hepatic arteryportal vein

  9. [Acute retinal necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, K; Reinking, U; el-Hifnawi, E; Dennin, R H; Laqua, H

    1988-12-01

    The authors report on three patients with acute retinal necrosis who were treated with the virostatic agent Acyclovir and who underwent vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil filling for total retinal detachment. In two eyes the retina was reattached, but useful vision was only preserved in one patient. Titers from blood and the vitreous, as well as microscopic findings in retinal biopsies, support the view that the necrosis is caused by a herpes simplex virus infection. After therapy with Acyclovir was instituted no further progression on the necrosis was observed. However, the development of retinal detachment could not be prevented. Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are essential to improve the otherwise poor prognosis in this rare syndrome. PMID:3221657

  10. Retinal laser optical aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Traprasad

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of optics, comparative magnification and working field of view is essential for rational use of ophthalmoscopic contact lenses for retinal photocoagulation. The three commonly used contact lenses are described and compared.

  11. Retinal Tears and Detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does not cause retinal damage. However, inflammation or myopia (nearsightedness) may cause the vitreous to pull away ... repaired? If your retina is only torn, prompt treatment may prevent detachment. Your eye surgeon will discuss ...

  12. Stenting of iliac vein obstruction following catheter-directed thrombolysis in lower extremity deep vein thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Qing-you; LI Xiao-qiang; JIANG Kun; QIAN Ai-min; SANG Hong-fei; RONG Jian-jie; DUAN Peng-fei

    2013-01-01

    Background Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremity has good effect,but whether iliac vein stent placement after thrombolytic therapy is still controversial.The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of stent placement in the iliac vein following CDT in lower extremity DVT.Methods This was a single-center,prospective,randomized controlled clinical trial.After receiving CDT,the major branch of the distal iliac vein was completely patent in 155 patients with lower extremity DVT,and 74 of these patients with iliac vein residual stenosis of >50% were randomly divided into a control group (n=29) and a test group (n=45).In the test group,stents were implanted in the iliac vein,whereas no stents were implanted in the control group.We evaluated the clinical indicators,including patency of the deep vein,C in CEAP classification,Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS),and Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaire (CIVIQ) Score.Results All patients had postoperative follow-up visits for a period of 6-24 months.Venography or color ultrasound was conducted in subjects.There was a significant difference between the patency rate at the last follow-up visit (87.5% vs.29.6%) and the 1-year patency rate (86.0% vs.54.8%) between the test and control groups.The change in the C in CEAP classification pre-and post-procedure was significantly different between the test and control groups (1.61±0.21 vs.0.69±0.23).In addition,at the last follow-up visit,VCSS and CIVIQ Score were both significantly different between the test and control groups (7.57±0.27 vs.0.69±0.23; 22.67±3.01 vs.39.34±6.66,respectively).Conclusion The stenting of iliac vein obstruction following CDT in lower extremity DVT may increase the patency of the deep vein,and thus provides better efficacy and quality of life.

  13. Intraocular retinal prosthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Humayun, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: An electronic implant that can bypass the damaged photoreceptors and electrically stimulate the remaining retinal neurons to restore useful vision has been proposed. A number of key questions remain to make this approach feasible. The goal of this thesis is to address the following 2 specific null hypotheses: (1) Stimulus parameters make no difference in the electrically elicited retinal responses. (2) Just as we have millions of photoreceptors, so it will take a device that can gene...

  14. A phyllosilicate-sulfide vein in Kaidun. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Zolensky, M. E.; Brandstatter, F.; Kurat, G.; Kononkova, N. N.

    1994-01-01

    A fragment of a carbonaceous chondrite (#53.12, maximal dimension about 2 mm) containing a phyllosilicate-sulfide vein was found during an inspection of small pieces of the Kaidun meteorite. Phyllosilicate veins are apparently rare in carbonaceous chondrites and have so far only been reported from the Y82162 CI chondrite. In hand sample the vein was visible on two perpendicular faces. The polished section prepared from one side displays a complex structure. A single vein, 150 microns in width, bifurcates, and each branch narrows toward a large rounded object (RO). The section contains abundant ROs, most of them less than or equal to 100 microns in diameter. The vein has sharp contacts to the surrounding matrix, whereas the RO contacts are diffuse. The phyllosilicate in the main vein has a massive texture along the contact, which becomes platy toward the vein center where the crystals protrude into an open space. The texture of the largest RO resembles that of a barred olivine (BO) chondrule. Some of the smaller ROs also texturally resemble chondrules. The BO chondrule contains rounded sulfide-silicate objects and small metal grains covered by oxides. Phyllosilicates of the main vein consist mainly of serpentine. The phyllosilicate near the contact with the matrix has low contents of minor elements and a high Mg/Fe ratio. The composition changes in a regular manner toward the center: Al, Na, Ca, Ni, and S increase, indicating increasing amounts of sulfates admixed. The phyllosilicate vein could only have formed after a substantial rock was formed. Mechanical stress probably opened a crack that was subsequently filled by phyllosilicate, pyrrhotite, and finally by a (Fe,Mg)-sulfate. The source of the matter mobilized to form the vein could have been within the rock itself or outside. No compositional or mineralogical zoning is apparent at the vein-rock contacts. The nature of the transporting agent (liquid H2O or vapor) must also remain an enigma. M. Zolensky has

  15. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids. PMID:27511757

  16. Hemoperitoneum due to ruptured paraumbilical vein in a cirrhotic patient with portal hypertension : treatment by means of coil embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paraumbilical vein is one of the anastomotic channels between the portal and systemic circulatory systems, and rupture of the intra-abdominal varix is an unusual complication of portal hypertension that can lead to life-threatening hemoperitoneum. We experienced a case of hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured paraumbilical vein revealed by ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and percutaneous transhepatic portography. The last mentioned demonstrated a dilated paraumbilical vein draining two branches of the left portal vein into the right external iliac vein, and we performed coil embolization at the site at which the presumed site of paraumbilical vein was presumed to cause hemoperitoneum. We describe this this unusual case of hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured paraumbilical vein in a known liver cirrhosis patient in whom portal hypertension was treated by means of coil embolization. (author)

  17. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    OpenAIRE

    René M. Werkmeister; Doreen Schmidl; Gerold Aschinger; Veronika Doblhoff-Dier; Stefan Palkovits; Magdalena Wirth; Gerhard Garhöfer; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Rainer A. Leitgeb; Leopold Schmetterer

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal b...

  18. Hemiretinal vein occlusion with macular hemorrhage and edema treated with intravitreal bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalamanchi S

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Shalini Yalamanchi, Harry W Flynn Jr.Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami Miller School of Medicine Miami, FL, USAAbstract: A 39-year-old male with decreased visual acuity and extensive macular hemorrhage and edema secondary to a hemiretinal vein occlusion was treated with multiple intravitreal injections of bevacizumab 1.25 mg every four to six weeks for over one year. Treatment outcomes were assessed by visual acuity and Cirrus spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Treatment resulted in ongoing visual and anatomic improvement, with resolution at the last visit.Keywords: retinal vein occlusion, macular edema, bevacizumab

  19. Repair of scars in submaxillary region using expanded forehead axial flaps with fascia pedicles carrying bilateral frontal branches of superficial temporal artery and vein%带双侧颞浅动静脉额支筋膜蒂的额部轴型扩张皮瓣修复下颌部瘢痕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新; 詹新华; 范金财; 郑静伟; 吴祖煌; 陈建崇; 刘世康

    2010-01-01

    applying expanded forehead axial flaps with fascia pedicles carrying bilateral frontal branches of superficial temporal artery and vein(expanded forehead axial flap with double pedicels in brief, EFAF-DP) in repairing scars in submaxillary region. Methods Sixteen patients with mandibular scars hospitalized in Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery of the First Hospital Affiliated to Fuzhou General Hospital in Nanjing Military Area Command from July 2005 to December 2009 were repaired with EFAF-DP. The operation consisted of 3 stages. Before operation, the location and course of superficial temporal arteries and veins (STAV) and their frontal and parietal branches were identified with Ultrasonic Doppler blood flow detector. In stage Ⅰ , STAV were dissected from the frontalis muscle as a pedicle to form a skin soft tissue space to hold the dilator of a proper size. In stage Ⅱ , after gradual dilation by repeated filling with saline, the dilator was removed. EFAF-DP was dissected to repair mandibular scar. Donor site was closed with sutures. In stage Ⅲ , flap pedicles were divided and pruned. Results Flap sizes ranged from 25 cm ×6 cm to 33 cm × 16 cm. The duration of dilation was 3-5 months, with 3.6 months in average. Ten patients underwent the operation of EFAF-DP transplantation and cervical skin dilatation. All flaps survived with healing of wounds. Disorder of venous return at the distal end of one flap was seen after second stage surgery, and it was corrected after comprehensive treatment including relieving spasm and improving venous return. Donor site wounds healed with normally grown hair without cicatricial alopecia along the hairline. Few hairs grew around mandible in one female patient out of the three(no hair grew on flaps of other two patients). This female patient and two male patients requesting for beard plasty received laser depilation treatment 1 to 3 months after discharge, with good result. Other male patients received no special treatment for

  20. Historical Overview of Varicose Vein Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, Jephta; Moll, Frans L.

    2010-01-01

    Varicose veins are as old as Hippocrates. Varicose vein treatments come and go. Surgery for varicose vein disease is one of the commonest elective general surgical procedures. The history of varicose vein surgery has been traced. We note the first descriptions of varicose veins, and we particularly

  1. Clinical features and etiology of retinal vasculitis in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanut Apinyawasisuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report on the clinical features and etiology of patients with retinal vasculitis (RV. Materials and Methods: We reviewed medical records of 47 patients (75 affected eyes diagnosed with RV. Clinical presentations, ocular complications, associated systemic diseases, and treatment regimens were registered. Results: Etiology of RV included infectious causes in 10/47, (21% while an association with systemic and/or ocular non-infectious disorders was noted in 22/47 (47%. Eales′ disease and Behcet′s disease represented the most common clinical entities in non-infectious group while tuberculosis-associated RV was diagnosed in 6/10 (60% among those with infectious disorders. RV was bilateral in 28/47 (60% patients. Retinal veins were most commonly affected (72%, 34/47. Involvement of arteries was present in 12/47 (25% and was associated with viral infections and Behcet′s disease. Ocular complications developed in 60/75 (80% eyes. The most common complications were elevated intraocular pressure and/or glaucoma (33/75, 44%. Retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, and cystoid macular edema developed in similar percentages (15%. Conclusions: RV in Thailand manifested mostly in male patients, was typically bilateral and involved mostly veins. Involvement of arteries was observed in patients with viral infections and Behcet′s disease. Tuberculosis was the most common infectious cause.

  2. Probabilistic retinal vessel segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Hua; Agam, Gady

    2007-03-01

    Optic fundus assessment is widely used for diagnosing vascular and non-vascular pathology. Inspection of the retinal vasculature may reveal hypertension, diabetes, arteriosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Due to various imaging conditions retinal images may be degraded. Consequently, the enhancement of such images and vessels in them is an important task with direct clinical applications. We propose a novel technique for vessel enhancement in retinal images that is capable of enhancing vessel junctions in addition to linear vessel segments. This is an extension of vessel filters we have previously developed for vessel enhancement in thoracic CT scans. The proposed approach is based on probabilistic models which can discern vessels and junctions. Evaluation shows the proposed filter is better than several known techniques and is comparable to the state of the art when evaluated on a standard dataset. A ridge-based vessel tracking process is applied on the enhanced image to demonstrate the effectiveness of the enhancement filter.

  3. Oxygen saturation imaging of human retinal vessels and measurement in eye disease patient for clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, D.; Matsuoka, N.; Tatsuguchi, K.; Ogata, M.; Yoshinaga, Y.; Enaida, H.; Okada, T.; Ishibashi, T.

    2010-02-01

    We have proposed a new automatic visualization procedure based the ratio of optical densities (ODs) obtained at two different wavelength for the oxygen saturation imaging in human retinal vessels. This method utilized the morphological processing and the line convergence index filter to estimate the reflection image of outside vessels and extract the vessel structure from retinal image, respectively. In the experimental measurement, clear difference between retinal arteries and veins has been observed. In this study, the data processing technique of the line convergence index filter was applied to a color fundus image to investigate the ability of vessel extraction. In addition, four-wavelength imaging was proposed to evaluate oxygen saturation of the retinal capillary vessels and to decrease the influence of the melanin pigmentation.

  4. Hemodynamic evaluation of the right portal vein in healthy dogs of different body weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida Mariana F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Doppler ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating hepatic portal hemodynamics. However, no study in dogs of different body weights, in the range encountered in routine clinical veterinary practice, has been reported. It can be difficult to obtain an ideal insonation angle when evaluating the main portal vein, so evaluation of the right portal vein branch has been described in humans as an alternative. The aim of this study was to analyze, through Doppler ultrasonography, the hemodynamics in the right portal vein branch in dogs of different body weights. Methods Thirty normal dogs were divided in three groups by weight, in order to establish normal values for mean velocity, flow volume and portal congestion index of the right portal vein branch by means of Doppler ultrasonography. Results In all dogs ideal insonation angles were obtained for the right portal vein branch. The average velocity was similar in the three groups, but the portal congestion index and the flow volume differed, showing that the weight of the dog can influence these values. Conclusion Doppler ultrasonography for the evaluation of flow in the right branch of the portal vein could be a viable alternative, or complement, to examining the main vessel segment. This is especially so in those animals in which an ideal insonation angle for examination of the main portal vein is hard to obtain. In addition, the weight of the dog must be considered for the correct evaluation of the portal system hemodynamics, particularly for portal blood flow and the congestion index.

  5. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos Gustavo C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  6. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Azad Raj; Nayak B; Sharma Y; Tiwari Hem; Khosla P

    1988-01-01

    150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain gu...

  7. Vein type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veins are tabular- or sheet-like masses of minerals occupying or following a fracture or a set of fractures in the enclosing rock. They have been formed later than the country rock and fractures, either by filling of the open spaces or by partial or complete replacement of the adjoining rock or most commonly by both of these processes combined. This volume begins with the occurrences and deposits known from old shield areas and the sedimentary belts surrounding them. They are followed by papers describing the European deposits mostly of Variscan age, and by similar deposits known from China being of Jurassic age. The volume is completed by two papers which do not fit exactly in the given scheme. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 papers in this report

  8. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of two painful, hard, palpable nodules in the right lower limb. A Doppler ultrasound scan revealed the presence of nodules, likely to be neoplastic. Computed angiography showed two solid hypervascular nodules in the right great saphenous vein, fed by branches of the posterior tibial artery. Embolization of the nodules using surgical cyanoacrylate was performed, followed by an excisional biopsy. Anatomical pathology and immunohistochemical analysis identified the nodule as a high-grade leiomyosarcoma, characterized by ten mitotic figures per ten high-power fields, necrosis and cell pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis results were positive for caldesmon and desmin labeling. A second surgical procedure was performed to enlarge the free margins.

  9. Automated measurement of retinal blood vessel tortuosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Vinayak; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities in the vascular pattern of the retina are associated with retinal diseases and are also risk factors for systemic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. The three-dimensional retinal vascular pattern is mostly formed congenitally, but is then modified over life, in response to aging, vessel wall dystrophies and long term changes in blood flow and pressure. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e. how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. We developed a new quantitative metric for vascular tortuosity, based on the vessel's angle of curvature, length of the curved vessel over its chord length (arc to chord ratio), number of curvature sign changes, and combined these into a unidimensional metric, Tortuosity Index (TI). In comparison to other published methods this method can estimate appropriate TI for vessels with constant curvature sign and vessels with equal arc to chord ratios, as well. We applied this method to a dataset of 15 digital fundus images of 8 patients with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and to the other publically available dataset of 60 fundus images of normal cases and patients with hypertensive retinopathy, of which the arterial and venous tortuosities have also been graded by masked experts (ophthalmologists). The method produced exactly the same rank-ordered list of vessel tortuosity (TI) values as obtained by averaging the tortuosity grading given by 3 ophthalmologists for FSHD dataset and a list of TI values with high ranking correlation with the ophthalmologist's grading for the other dataset. Our results show that TI has potential to detect and evaluate abnormal retinal vascular structure in early diagnosis and prognosis of retinopathies.

  10. Retinal tolerance to dyes

    OpenAIRE

    Lüke, C; Lüke, M; Dietlein, T S; Hueber, A; Jordan, J; Sickel, W.; Kirchhof, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function.

  11. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Gary E; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-10-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  12. Thrombosis of right ovarian vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare postpartum complication (0.1%). It can be fatal, since it can lead to sepsis, pulmonary thromboembolisms and inferior vena cava or renal vein thrombosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the techniques of choice for its diagnosis, while the value of ultrasound is limited due to its low sensitivity and specificity. We report the case of a woman who, during puerperium, developed thrombosis of right ovarian vein that presented clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features of appendicitis. We describe the radiological sings and stress the fact that this diagnosis should be suspected in puerperal women. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  14. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. A Case of Congenital Retinal Macrovessel Crossing the Foveola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Özgönül

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital retinal macrovessel is generally the presence of unilateral aberrant vessel crossing over the horizontal raphe through the macula. Typically, visual acuity is unaffected, although in rare cases, macular hemorrhage, foveolar cysts, foveal contour impairment, and the presence of anomalous vessel in the foveola can affect the vision. In our case, visual acuity of the right eye was counting fingers at 3 meters. He had four diopter oblique astigmatism, esotropia, and dissociated vertical deviation. Fundoscopy revealed a aberrant vein crossing the foveola. Spectral OCT examination showed hiperreflectivity of the vessel and fluorescein angiography showed no leakage of the vessel. Although in the literature it is specified that the aberrant vein crossing the fovea is a factor of lowering visual acuity, in our case we thought, low visual acuity is due to deep amblyopia. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 154-5

  16. LOCALIZATION OF PALM DORSAL VEIN PATTERN USING IMAGE PROCESSING FOR AUTOMATED INTRA-VENOUS DRUG NEEDLE INSERTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. Kavitha. R,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Vein pattern in palms is a random mesh of interconnected and inter- wining blood vessels. This project is the application of vein detection concept to automate the drug delivery process. It dealswith extracting palm dorsal vein structures, which is a key procedure for selecting the optimal drug needle insertion point. Gray scale images obtained from a low cost IR-webcam are poor in contrast, and usually noisy which make an effective vein segmentation a great challenge. Here a new vein image segmentation method is introduced, based on enhancement techniques resolves the conflict between poor contrast vein image and good quality image segmentation. Gaussian filter is used to remove the high frequency noise in the image. The ultimate goal is to identify venous bifurcations and determine the insertion point for the needle in between their branches.

  17. Right top pulmonary vein: Evaluation with 64 section multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and anatomic features of the rare variant of the pulmonary veins named 'right top pulmonary vein' as depicted with 64 section multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Materials and methods: MDCT of 610 patients obtained over 12 months period for diagnosis of suspected thoracic or cardiac pathology were routinely reviewed in transverse and 3D images. The frequency of right top pulmonary vein (RTPV) was determined and anatomic features were also documented. Results: Right top pulmonary vein (RTPV) is a supernumerary vein arising from the roof of the right part of the left atrium separately from the orifice of the right superior pulmonary vein. It crosses behind the intermediate bronchus and drains mainly posterior segment of the right upper lobe but also receives few subsegmental branches of superior segment of the right lower lobe. It was detected in 2.2% of patients (14/610). The mean diameter of RTPV was 5.1 mm. Conclusion: The RTPV is a rare venous drainage variation of pulmonary veins. It is important to be aware of this anatomic pattern for avoiding misinterpretation of pulmonary venographic findings, inadvertent ablation of pulmonary vein and perioperative bleeding during video assisted thorocoscopic lobectomy

  18. Veias do sistema porta-hepático em gansos domésticos Veins from hepatic portal vein system in domestic geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Santos

    2009-04-01

    hepatic lobe, connected by a parenchyma bridge. The right hepatic lobe had vessels exclusively from the hepatic portal system composed by intraparenchymal distribution of the right hepatic portal vein, while the vessels of the left hepatic lobe came from the right hepatic portal vein and from small left hepatic portal veins. The right hepatic portal vein emitted the right caudal branch, which emitted a small right caudolateral branch and a large right caudomedial branch. Cranially this vein emitted right cranial and right lateral branches. The tranverse portion of the right hepatic portal vein crossed to the left hepatic lobe, emitting 1 to 6 small cranial and caudal branches to the medial area of the liver. In the left hepatic lobe, the left branch from the right hepatic vein emitted the left cranial, left lateral and left median branches. One to six left hepatic portal veins were identified arising from the left branch or from the transverse portion of the right hepatic portal vein. These vessels arose from the gizzard and pro-ventricle. In 40% of geese one proper hepatic portal vein originated from venous vessels of the gizzard and was distributed into the caudal extremity of the left hepatic isolated lobe.

  19. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  20. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  1. Aphakic retinal detachment.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Mesurier, R; Vickers, S; Booth-Mason, S; Chignell, A H

    1985-01-01

    A study of 132 cases of aphakic retinal detachment (ARD) following mainly intracapsular cataract surgery has been made. Forty-nine cases (37%) were found to have vitreous incarcerated into the cataract section out of a total of 54 (41%) cases who had suffered a vitreous complication during cataract surgery. A study of the characteristics of ARD reveals that those cases having had a vitreous complication in the management of their cataracts are more likely to develop detachment within three mo...

  2. Retinal Thickening and Photoreceptor Loss in HIV Eyes without Retinitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Arcinue

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of structural changes in HIV retinae (i.e., photoreceptor density and retinal thickness in the macula compared with age-matched HIV-negative controls.Cohort of patients with known HIV under CART (combination Antiretroviral Therapy treatment were examined with a flood-illuminated retinal AO camera to assess the cone photoreceptor mosaic and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT to assess retinal layers and retinal thickness.Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients (n = 6 HIV-positive and 6 HIV-negative were imaged with the adaptive optics camera. In each of the regions of interest studied (nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, the HIV group had significantly less mean cone photoreceptor density compared with age-matched controls (difference range, 4,308-6,872 cones/mm2. A different subset of forty eyes of 20 patients (n = 10 HIV-positive and 10 HIV-negative was included in the retinal thickness measurements and retinal layer segmentation with the SD-OCT. We observed significant thickening in HIV positive eyes in the total retinal thickness at the foveal center, and in each of the three horizontal B-scans (through the macular center, superior, and inferior to the fovea. We also noted that the inner retina (combined thickness from ILM through RNFL to GCL layer was also significantly thickened in all the different locations scanned compared with HIV-negative controls.Our present study shows that the cone photoreceptor density is significantly reduced in HIV retinae compared with age-matched controls. HIV retinae also have increased macular retinal thickness that may be caused by inner retinal edema secondary to retinovascular disease in HIV. The interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE, as well as possible low-grade ocular inflammation causing diffuse inner retinal edema, may be the key to the progressive vision changes in HIV-positive patients without overt retinitis.

  3. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori

    2013-01-01

    Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face) are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using...

  4. Successful thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer in a patient with anatomic variation of the left inferior pulmonary vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano,Hideharu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary lung cancer with a rare distribution pattern of left inferior pulmonary vein (PV, encountered in the thoracoscopic left lower lobectomy. Thoracoscopic observation revealed 2 trunks of inferior PV (ventral and dorsal branch at the stem level. The ventral trunk consisted of a branch of vein (V(5 from the lingular segment and venous ramifications (V(8a, V(9 and V(10a from the basal segment. On the other hand, a branch of vein (V(6 from the superior segment in the lower lobe and other veins (V(8b and V(10b + c from the basal segment emptied together into the dorsal trunk. We successfully carried out a thoracoscopic left lower lobectomy without excision of the aberrant vein (V(5. Retrospective review of the preoperative chest CT demonstrates the double trunk inferior PV and the aberrant lingular branch emptying with V(8a into the ventral trunk. Knowledge of the branching variations of PV from preoperative evaluations leads to appropriate thoracoscopic procedures for lung cancer.

  5. Doppler-ultrasonographic finding of air in the portal vein: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Kwan Sup; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Bae, Sang Hoon [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    Classically air in the portal vein has been detected on plain radiography, but computed tomography and ultrasonography have been shown to be more sensitive. We report a case of air in the PV in a 10-day-old infant with pneumatosis intestinalis with its ultrasonographic and Doppler findings. The patient was a 10-day-old infant born by cesarean section at 41 weeks. Simple abdomen film revealed branching pattern of radiolucent air shadows within in contour of liver, gas distention of bowel loops and thickenod bowel walls with lincar intraluminal air shadows in abdomen, suggesting necrotizing enterocolitis. So we performed Doppler ultrasonography. Ultrasonography showed branching pattern of hyperechogenic dots and along the lumen of left portal vein. The color Doppler study revealed an aliasing duo to increased velocity and whirling pattern of blood flow, and the Duplex Doppler spectral display showed sharp, vertical bidirectional spikes by air in portal vein. Air in the portal vein can be easily diagnosed by the following signs: hyperechogenic dots in the portal vein on ultrasonography and vertical, sharp bidirectional spikes superimposed on the usual Doppler tracing of the portal vein on Duplex ultrasonography.

  6. Bank branches in supermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow

    1996-01-01

    The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.

  7. The thigh extension of the small saphenous vein: a hypothesis about its significance, based on morphological, embryological and anatomo-comparative reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, Fabrizio; Cavallini, Alvise; Caggiati, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The small saphenous vein in its modal pattern flows into the popliteal vein by means of a terminal arch (sapheno-popliteal junction), and frequently gives off an anastomotic branch, ascending on the medial aspect of the thigh, to the great saphenous vein. This branch has often been termed thigh extension of the small saphenous vein. As resulted in this report from autopsy, the venous extension coursed on the midline of the posterior aspect of the thigh, tributary to the deep femoral vein, and the small saphenous vein presented neither a sapheno-popliteal terminal arch, nor evident intersaphenous anastomoses. As a consequence, the small saphenous vein by means of its prolongation continued directly from the calf into the deep femoral vein. In the human embryo the small saphenous vein appears as direct communication with the posterior cardinal vein, and accompanies the developing ischiatic artery and nerve, as the main vein (ischiatic vein) of the lower limb bud. At the end of development, its proximal part persists as inferior gluteal vein. Comparative anatomy indicates that in animals the small saphenous vein is the only superficial vein well developed and that in humans its termination into the popliteal one might be an adaptation to the elongation and relative rigidity of the lower limb. In the horse a posterior vein of the thigh connects the small saphenous with the ischiatic one, and ascends along the ischiatic nerve to anastomose with the deep femoral vein. It would appear also that in the lower animals the small saphenous vein ascends to a higher level on the posterior aspect of the thigh. Thus, a venous extension like that we observed might be an atavism. Therefore, on the basis of these embryological and phylogenetical data, the Authors hypothesized that a small saphenous vein and a thigh extension of such a feature might be regarded as a unique venous channel, wholly axial throughout its course, formed by the small saphenous vein proper in the leg and by a

  8. New Wrinkles in Retinal Densitometry

    OpenAIRE

    Masella, Benjamin D.; Hunter, Jennifer J.; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal densitometry has the potential to provide objective information about the function of the retina. However, a number of factors complicate the interpretation of retinal reflectance. We have discovered additional sources of reflectance change and have defined a method to minimize their impact.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the combination of vision loss and hearing loss beginning early in life. Retinitis pigmentosa is also a feature of several other genetic syndromes, including Bardet-Biedl syndrome ; Refsum disease ; and neuropathy, ... for retinitis pigmentosa lead to a gradual loss of rods and cones in the retina. The ...

  10. Retinal detachment surgery without cryotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chignell, A H; Markham, R H

    1981-01-01

    A series of cases of retinal detachment treated without the application of cryotherapy at the time of surgery has been studied. The omission of cryotherapy while not interfering with retinal reattachment, carries the risk of redetachment at a later date. Macular pucker may still occur in spite of the absence of cryotherapy.

  11. A case of dural arteriovenous fistula draining to the diploic vein presenting with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yako, Rie; Masuo, Osamu; Kubo, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2016-03-01

    The authors report an unusual case of a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) draining only to the diploic vein and causing intracerebral hemorrhage. A 62-year-old woman presented with disturbance of consciousness and left hemiparesis. Brain CT scanning on admission showed a right frontal subcortical hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed an arteriovenous shunt located in the region around the pterion, which connected the frontal branch of the right middle meningeal artery with the anterior temporal diploic vein and drained into cortical veins in a retrograde manner through the falcine vein. The dAVF was successfully obliterated by percutaneous transarterial embolization with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The mechanism of retrograde cortical venous reflux causing intracerebral hemorrhage is discussed. PMID:26295918

  12. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  13. Retinal vessel diameters decrease with macular ganglion cell layer thickness in autosomal dominant optic atrophy and in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnbäck, Cecilia; Grønskov, Karen; Larsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    diameters (central retinal artery equivalent, CRAE, and central retinal vein equivalent, CRVE). Statistical analysis was corrected for age, gender, spherical equivalent refraction, axial length and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in a mixed model analysis. RESULTS: Retinal arteries and veins were...... thinner in ADOA than in healthy controls (CRAE (mean ± 2 standard deviations (SD)) 153.9 ± 41.0 μm and CRVE 236.1 ± 42.0 μm in ADOA, CRAE 172.5 ± 25.0 μm (p = 0.0004) and CRVE 254.2 ± 37.6 μm (p = 0.0019) in healthy controls). MABP was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.18), and in both groups, CRAE...... ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness (p = 0.0017 and p = 0.0057, respectively). CONCLUSION: Narrow retinal arteries and veins were associated not only with the severity of ADOA but with ganglion cell volume in patients with ADOA and in healthy subjects. This suggests that narrow vessels...

  14. Caffeine administration prevents retinal neuroinflammation and loss of retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Maria H.; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Nadal-Nícolas, Francisco; Ambrósio, António F.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, being characterized by progressive optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), accompanied by increased inflammatory response involving retinal microglial cells. The etiology of glaucoma is still unknown, and despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) being a major risk factor, the exact mechanisms responsible for RGC degeneration remain unknown. Caffeine, which is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Several evidences suggest that caffeine can attenuate the neuroinflammatory responses and afford protection upon central nervous system (CNS) injury. We took advantage of a well characterized animal model of glaucoma to investigate whether caffeine administration controls neuroinflammation and elicits neuroprotection. Caffeine or water were administered ad libitum and ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by laser photocoagulation of the limbal veins in Sprague Dawley rats. Herein, we show that caffeine is able to partially decrease the IOP in ocular hypertensive animals. More importantly, we found that drinking caffeine prevented retinal microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response and attenuated the loss of RGCs in animals with ocular hypertension (OHT). This study opens the possibility that caffeine or adenosine receptor antagonists might be a therapeutic option to manage RGC loss in glaucoma. PMID:27270337

  15. [Morphology and development of the veins of the uterus in cattle during the fetal and neonatal periods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrost, P; Molenda, O; Radek, J; Radek, T

    1990-03-01

    A total of 101 specimens were used; they came from 89 fetuses (4th to 40th week of gestation) and 12 neonates (1 to 14 days old). The age of the fetuses was determined according to the method of Kantorova (1960). The uterine veins were filled with latex using an automatic injection apparatus of our own construction. The study showed that blood left the uterus of the examined animals through constantly present veins (Ramus uterinus venae ovaricae, V. uterina and Ramus uterinus venae vaginalis) as well as through a number of inconstant veins to which belonged the Vv. vaginales accessoriae craniales et caudales. The constant uterine veins and their branches differed from their adult counterparts by being morphologically more differentiated, especially by having more branches of which some disappeared with time. The uterine veins developed toward the end of the fetal period. They arose either from the most caudal Vv. mesonephridicae lumbales (V. ovarica and its branches), or from the segmental, visceral veins of the pelvis (V. uterina and Vv. vaginales). PMID:2375507

  16. CRB1 mutations in inherited retinal dystrophies.

    OpenAIRE

    Bujakowska, Kinga; Audo, Isabelle; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Germain, Aurore; Léveillard, Thierry; Letexier, Mélanie; Saraiva, Jean-Paul; Lonjou, Christine; Carpentier, Wassila; Sahel, José-Alain; Bhattacharya, Shomi; Zeitz, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the CRB1 gene are associated with variable phenotypes of severe retinal dystrophies, ranging from leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) to rod-cone dystrophy, also called retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Moreover, retinal dystrophies resulting from CRB1 mutations may be accompanied by specific fundus features: preservation of the para-arteriolar retinal pigment epithelium (PPRPE) and retinal telangiectasia with exudation (also referred to as Coats-like vasculopathy). In this publication, we...

  17. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-Jung Su; Zongbin Liu; Kai Zhang; Xin Han; Yuki Saito; Xiaojun Xia; Kenji Yokoi; Haifa Shen; Lidong Qin

    2015-01-01

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demon...

  18. Retinal Image Preprocessing: Background and Noise Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Usman Akram

    2012-01-01

    Retinal images are used for the automated screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal image quality must be improved for the detection of features and abnormalities and for this purpose preprocessing of retinal images is vital. In this paper, we present a novel automated approach for preprocessing of colored retinal images. The proposed technique improves the quality of input retinal image by separating the background and noisy area from the overall image. It contains coarse ...

  19. Leiomyosarcoma of the Adrenal Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hung Shao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the adrenal gland is extremely rare in the literature. We present a patient with an adrenal leiomyosarcoma originating from the adrenal vein, the pathologic findings and management. A 66-year-old man who was a hepatitis B virus carrier was found to have a huge left suprarenal mass on sonography and computed axial tomography. A huge tumor in the left suprarenal area with a markedly engorged adrenal vein was found during an adrenalectomy. The tumor thrombus extended into the renal vein, close to the inferior vena cava. The left adrenal gland with the whole tumor thrombus was removed completely. Microscopically, the adrenal gland was compressed but not invaded by the spindle cell tumor, which was composed of interlacing fascicles of neoplastic smooth muscle cells. The tumor was localized within the adrenal vein and arose from the venous wall. The patient had no local recurrence for 18 months after en bloc excision of the tumor. We suggest that en bloc excision with a clear and adequate surgical margin is the most important cure procedure for adrenal leiomyosarcoma.

  20. Preoperative ultrasound mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Niels; Schroeder, T

    1997-01-01

    A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was...

  1. Separation of Veins and Arteries for estimating Hypertensive Retinopathy in Fundus Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR through retinal pictures turn out being a vital issue today since HR is quickly expanding ailment that is found in eyes. HR happens because of the height of the circulatory strain. The most imperative estimation that is used to analyze HR through retinal pictures is arteriovenous proportion (AVR. This paper depicts a strategy to decide AVR by first section the vessels using match separating method and afterward identify the optic circle to decide the Region of Interest. When the area of interest is discovered, we order the veins into supply routes and veins utilizing Neural Network to decide the AVR. Once the vessels are classified, we separate the arteries and veins based on the color separation. The work is performed by using MATLAB R2014. This paper is partitioned into four segments. Area one portrays the introduction. Area two decribes the technique/ systems to decide AVR. Area three depicts the examination of results with some past results. Segment four portrays the conclusion. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(6.000: 673-678

  2. Retinal detachment following excimer laser

    OpenAIRE

    Charteris, D; Cooling, R; Lavin, M; McLeod, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To report the clinical presentation, surgical management, and outcome of retinal detachment following excimer laser.
METHODS—Retrospective analysis of retinal detachments observed in 11 eyes of 10 myopic patients who had previously undergone photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) or phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) by excimer laser.
RESULTS—Symptoms of visual loss in two eyes were initially attributed to corneal haze. In 10 of 11 eyes visualisation of the retinal detachment and causative br...

  3. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Kesieme, Emeka

    2011-01-01

    Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of blood clots (thrombi) in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femo...

  4. Transcutaneous transsplenic catheterization of the splenic vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have developed a method for transcutaneous transsplenic catheterizaton of the portal vein basin and used this method in clinical studies. This method permits a higher quality of spot splenoportography, selective catheterization and embolization of the gastric veins in bleedings from varicose veins of the esophagus in the patients in whom catheterization of the portal vien basin via the transcutaneous transhepatic approach is impossible because of liver tumors of occulusive stenotic deformation of the portal vein

  5. Mechanical Buckling of Veins under Internal Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A.; Shireman, Paula K.; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical p...

  6. Vein thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Dejan; Savić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Having in mind the rate of occurrence and clinical importance, venous thromboembolism implies venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as a result of embolisation of the thrombotic particles from deep veins or pelvic veins. Venous thrombosis of the deep veins may result in chronic vein insufficiency, but the primary medical problem is the possibility of development of pulmonary embolism which may cause permanent respiratory function damage or even fatal outcome. Venous thromboemb...

  7. Materials Test Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  8. Flexible retinal electrode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  9. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  10. The Olive Branch Awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  11. Koenigs function and branching processes

    OpenAIRE

    Tchikilev, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  12. Adult retinal stem cells revisited.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, B; Singhal, S; Jayaram, H.; Khaw, P T; Limb, G A

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in retinal stem cell research have raised the possibility that these cells have the potential to be used to repair or regenerate diseased retina. Various cell sources for replacement of retinal neurons have been identified, including embryonic stem cells, the adult ciliary epithelium, adult Müller stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). However, the true stem cell nature of the ciliary epithelium and its possible application in cell therapies has now been question...

  13. Light and inherited retinal degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Paskowitz, D M; LaVail, M.M.; Duncan, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    Light deprivation has long been considered a potential treatment for patients with inherited retinal degenerative diseases, but no therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated to date. In the few clinical studies that have addressed this issue, the underlying mutations were unknown. Our rapidly expanding knowledge of the genes and mechanisms involved in retinal degeneration have made it possible to reconsider the potential value of light restriction in specific genetic contexts. This review summ...

  14. Cytomegalovirus retinitis mimicking intraocular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gooi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Gooi1, James Farmer2, Bernard Hurley3, Elliott Brodbaker41Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine University of Ottawa and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa Eye Institute and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: We present a case of an unusual retinal infiltrate requiring retinal biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 62-year-old man with treated lymphoma presented with decreased vision in the right eye associated with a white retinal lesion, which extended inferonasally from an edematous disc. Intraocular lymphoma was considered as a diagnosis; thus, the patient was managed with vitrectomy and retinal biopsy. Cytological analysis of the vitreous aspirate could not rule out a lymphoproliferative disorder. The microbial analysis was negative. Histology of the lesion showed extensive necrosis and large cells with prominent nucleoli. To rule out lymphoma, a battery of immunostains was performed and all were negative. However the limited amount of tissue was exhausted in the process. Subsequently, a hematoxylin and eosin (H/E slide was destained, on which a CMV immunostain was performed. This revealed positivity in the nuclei and intranuclear inclusions within the large atypical cells. A diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made. Retinal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis and direct patient care toward intravenous gancyclovir in the case of CMV or toward radiation and chemotherapy for intraocular lymphoma. When faced with a limited amount of tissue, destaining regular H/E slides is a possible avenue to performing additional immunohistochemical studies.Keywords: CMV retinitis, retinal biopsy, immunohistochemistry, destaining

  15. Retinal circulation and its role in macular disorders in patients without systemic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priyangshu; Chandra; Aditya; Sudhalkar; Souvik; Mandal; Jay; Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether retinal circulatory changes play a role in the pathogenesis of macular disorders in patients who are otherwise healthy. METHODS: Patients with macular disorders that required angiographic imaging were included in this prospective case series. After a complete ocular exam,fluorescein angiography was performed using a standardized technique on the HRA-II(Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) with special focus on the posterior pole. Only patients with good quality images were included in the analysis. Circulatory parameters recorded included the arm-choroid time,choroid-retinal artery, and finally the retinal artery-vein time. Zonal asymmetry(between the upper and lower zones divided by a line passing through the centre of the fovea) in transit times, if any was also noted. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. Circulation times were compared with age matched historical controls. Changes in retinal dye transit times relative to historical age matched controls, if any, were noted and compared between various disorders.RESULTS: A total of 156 eyes of 156 patients(120 males)were included in the study. Mean age: 49.14 ±14.93 y.Macular disorders studied were age related degeneration,polypoidal vasculopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy(CSCR) and parafoveal telangiectasia. Delayed circulation time was noted in CSCR patients only.CONCLUSION: CSCR patients appear to have delayed arterial filling, retinal circulatory disturbances do not seem to contribute to the pathogenesis of other macular disorders.

  16. Transhepatic Preoperative Portal Vein Embolization Using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug: Report of Four Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP) is a device originally intended for arterial and venous embolization in peripheral vessels. From December 2004 to March 2007 we implanted a total of 8 AVPs in the portal venous system in our institution for preoperative portal vein embolization in 4 patients (55-71 years) prior to right hemihepatectomy. AVP implantation was successful in all patients. Total occlusion of the embolized portal vein branches was achieved in all patients. There were no major complications associated with the embolization

  17. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26503332

  18. Anatomy of the portal and hepatic veins of the dog: a basis for systematic evaluation of the liver by ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to define, in detail, the anatomy of the portal and hepatic veins in the dog in order to establish a procedure for the systematic evaluation of the liver by ultrasonography. Anatomical details were obtained from the formalin fixed livers of ten dogs. The hepatic and portal veins were removed intact from these livers so that a detailed pattern of distribution could be established and the numbers of branches could be counted. Silastic casts were also made of the hepatic and portal veins of two livers, one in situ and one in which it had been removed. The former was to enable the relationship of the portal to the hepatic veins to be established as closely as possible within the animal and the other to provide a model of the distribution of each venous system within the liver. Contrast medium was infused into two other livers and radiographs taken to establish the relationship of each branch to each lobe. It was found that there was a consistent pattern of venous branching to each lobe of the liver in the dog with little variation between individual specimens. All liver lobes contained definite venous branches so that the left lateral and medial, quadrate, right medial and lateral, caudate and papillary veins could be distinguished in each venous system. We believe that an appreciation of this venous distribution will aid in the systematic evaluation of the liver during ultrasonography by enabling identification of each liver lobe. It should be of value for differentiating portal from hepatic veins and veins from dilated bile ducts

  19. Mechanical buckling of veins under internal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ricky; Fierro, Cesar A; Shireman, Paula K; Han, Hai-Chao

    2010-04-01

    Venous tortuosity is associated with multiple disease states and is often thought to be a consequence of venous hypertension and chronic venous disease. However, the underlying mechanisms of vein tortuosity are unclear. We hypothesized that increased pressure causes vein buckling that leads to a tortuous appearance. The specific aim of this study was to determine the critical buckling pressure of veins. We determined the buckling pressure of porcine jugular veins and measured the mechanical properties of these veins. Our results showed that the veins buckle when the transmural pressure exceeds a critical pressure that is strongly related to the axial stretch ratio in the veins. The critical pressures of the eight veins tested were 14.2 +/- 5.4 and 26.4 +/- 9.0 mmHg at axial stretch ratio 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. In conclusion, veins buckle into a tortuous shape at high lumen pressures or reduced axial stretch ratios. Our results are useful in understanding the development of venous tortuosity associated with varicose veins, venous valvular insufficiency, diabetic retinopathy, and vein grafts. PMID:20094913

  20. FINGER-VEIN RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Haritha Deepthi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the Person‟s/Organization‟s Private information‟s are becoming very easy to access, the demand for a Simple, Convenient, Efficient, and a highly Securable Authentication System has been increased. In considering these requirements for data Protection, Biometrics, which uses human physiological or behavioral system for personal Identification has been found as a solution for these difficulties. However most of the biometric systems have high complexity in both time and space. So we are going to use a Real time Finger-Vein recognition System for authentication purposes. In this paper we had implemented the Finger Vein Recognition concept using MATLAB R2013a. The features used are Lacunarity Distance, Blanket Dimension distance. This has more accuracy when compared to conventional methods.

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imao, Tetsuya; Amano, Toshiyasu; Takemae, Katsurou

    2011-02-01

    A 43-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of a left retroperitoneal mass. She presented to our internal medicine department complaining of back pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left retroperitoneal mass 55 mm in size in the hilum of the left kidney. Enhanced CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) disclosed a poorly staining mass. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy demonstrated no accumulation in the mass; moreover, endocrinologic examination was normal. Laparoscopic resection of the left retroperitoneal tumor was attempted; however, strong adhesion between the tumor and the left renal vein was encountered. Thus, left nephrectomy after open conversion was performed. Histological findings indicated leiomyosarcoma originating from the left renal vein. The postoperative course has been uneventful; neither recurrence nor metastasis is evident 2 years postsurgery. PMID:20694494

  2. Blood-retinal barrier in hypoxic ischaemic conditions: basic concepts, clinical features and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, C; Foulds, W S; Ling, E A

    2008-11-01

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) plays an important role in the homeostatic regulation of the microenvironment in the retina. It consists of inner and outer components, the inner BRB (iBRB) being formed by the tight junctions between neighbouring retinal capillary endothelial cells and the outer barrier (oBRB) by tight junctions between retinal pigment epithelial cells. Astrocytes, Müller cells and pericytes contribute to the proper functioning of the iBRB. In many clinically important conditions including diabetic retinopathy, ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion, and some respiratory diseases, retinal hypoxia results in a breakdown of the iBRB. Disruption of the iBRB associated with increased vascular permeability, results in vasogenic oedema and tissue damage, with consequent adverse effects upon vision. Factors such as enhanced production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), NO, oxidative stress and inflammation underlie the increased permeability of the iBRB and inhibition of these factors is beneficial. Experimental studies in our laboratory have shown melatonin to be a protective agent for the iBRB in hypoxic conditions. Although oBRB breakdown can occur in conditions such as accelerated hypertension and the toxaemia of pregnancy, both of which are associated with choroidal ischaemia and in age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and is a feature of exudative (serous) retinal detachment, our studies have shown that the oBRB remains intact in hypoxic/ischaemic conditions. Clinically, anti-VEGF therapy has been shown to improve vision in diabetic maculopathy and in neovascular ARMD. The visual benefit in both conditions appears to arise from the restoration of BRB integrity with a reduction of retinal oedema. PMID:18940262

  3. Validation of glaucoma-like features in the rat episcleral vein cauterization model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yujing; Zhu Yingting; Chen Qin; Xu Jing; Marinko V.Sarunic; Uri H.Saragovi; Zhuo Yehong

    2014-01-01

    Background Glaucoma,an irreversible optic nerve neuropathy,always results in blindness.This study aimed to evaluate glaucoma-like features in the rat episcleral vein cauterization (EVC) model by multiple in vivo and in vitro evidences.Methods Wistar rat was used in this study.The elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) was induced by cauterization of three episcleral veins.lOP was monitored with Tono-Pen XL tonometer.Time-dependent changes to the neuronal retinal layers were quantified by Fourier domain-optical coherence tomography.The function of retina was evaluated by electroretinogram (ERG).Survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was quantified by retrograde labeling.Histology study was performed with retinal sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin,glial fibrillary acidic protein,and neuronal nuclear antigen.Retina and aqueous humor protein were extracted and cytotoxic protein tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and alpha-2 macroglobulin (α2m) were measured with Western blotting.Results EVC is a relatively facile intervention,with low failure rates (<5%).After surgical intervention,chronic mild lOP elevation (about 1.6-fold over normal,P <0.05) was induced for at least 6 weeks without requiring a second intervention.High lOP causes chronic and progressive loss of RGCs (averaging about 4% per week),progressive thinning of neuronal retinal layers (3-5 μm per week),and reduction of a-and b-wave in ERG.EVC method can also induce glial cell activation and alterations of inflammation proteins,such as TNF-α and α2m.Conclusion EVC method can establish a robust,reliable,economic and highly reproducible glaucomatous animal model.

  4. Sensory Nerves Determine the Pattern of Arterial Differentiation and Blood Vessel Branching in the Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Mukouyama, Yoh-suke; Shin, Donghun; Britsch, Stefan; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Anderson, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Nerves and blood vessels are branched structures, but whether their branching patterns are established independently or coordinately is not clear. Here we show that arteries, but not veins, are specifically aligned with peripheral nerves in embryonic mouse limb skin. Mutations that eliminate peripheral sensory nerves or Schwann cells prevent proper arteriogenesis, while those that disorganize the nerves maintain the alignment of arteries with misrouted axons. In vitro, sensory neurons or Schw...

  5. Frosted Branch Angiitis in Pediatric Dyskeratosis Congenita: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Jia; Li, Wei; Li, Si-Si; Shi, Cai-Ping; Zhao, Zheng-Yan; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xi

    2016-03-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, usually presented with abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia. The main cause of mortality in DC is immunodeficiency and vital infection. DC involves multisystem, but retinal involvements are rare.Herein, we report an unusual case of pediatric DC suffering from frosted branch angiitis (FBA) after recovery of mycoplasma pneumonia. Cytomegalovirus infection and cytokine changes were found relevant to the onset of FBA. Despite corticosteroids, antiviral medication, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient ended in poor vision with optic atrophy.This case implies that pediatricians should be aware of FBA as a rare retinal manifestation in children with DC and bone marrow failure. Cytomegalovirus may be one of the common causes and cytokines could be triggering factors. PMID:27015183

  6. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-01-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% divided by 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtai

  7. Influence of occlusion of hepatic vein on drug concentration in portal vein during drug administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of transcatheter chemotherapy through superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and hepatic artery (HA) when hepatic vein (HV) was temporally occluded. Methods: Altogether ten dogs, each of them was undengone four groups of experiments (A, B, C, D) respectively and subjected under self-control. A: transcatheter infusion of 5-Fu by SMA with HV occlusion (SMAI-THVO). B: only transcatheter infusion of 5-Fu throguh SMA(SMAI). C: infusion of 5-Fu through HA with HV occlusion (TAI-THVO). D: only infusion of 5-Fu through HA(TAI). 5 ml PV blood, withdrawn each once at 0.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 min. after infusion of drug for each group respectively, was taken for analysis. The high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) was used to measure the blood concentration of 5-Fu in PV for pharmacokinetics, and the post-occlusion angiographic changes were analyzed. Results: The peak concentration (cm) of 5-Fu of occlusion groups (A and C) and the area under the curve (AUC) of 5-Fu were greater than those in control groups (B and D), A>B>C>D(P<0.05). The total value of clearance in occlusion groups (A and C) was lower than that of the control groups (B and C), A< B< C< D(P<0.01). Hepatic arterial angiography showed more arterial branches and dense shadows of the corresponding hepatic segments with hepatic venous occlusion. Conclusion: SMAI-THVO and TAI-THVO can markedly increase the blood concentration of 5-Fu in hepatic tissue and portal vein serving as a dual-route therapy with prolongation of anti-cancer effect. (authors)

  8. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eArredondo Zamarripa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  9. Retinal detachment in paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the causes of retinal detachment in children and the various operative procedures requiring vitreoretinal surgical intervention for the same. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to May 2009. Methodology: A total of 281 eyes of 258 patients, (aged 0 - 18 years) who underwent vitreo-retinal surgical intervention for retinal detachment were included. Surgical log was searched for the type of retinal detachment and its causes. Frequencies of various interventions done in these patients viz. vitrectomy, scleral buckle, use of tamponading agents, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy were noted. Results were described as descriptive statistics. Results: Myopia was the cause in 62 (22.1%) and trauma in 51 (18.1%) of the eyes. Total retinal detachment (RD) was treated in 94 (33.5%) eyes, sub total RD in 36 (12.8%), recurrent RD in 32 (11.4%), giant retinal tear in 28 (10%), tractional RD in 15 (5.3%) and exudative RD in 2 (0.7%). Prophylactic laser or cryotherapy was applied in 74 (26.3%) of the eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was carried out in 159 (56.6%) eyes while scleral buckle procedure was done in 129 (45.9%) eyes. Silicon oil was used in 149 (53%), perfluorocarbon liquid in 32 (11.4%) and gas tamponade in 20 (7.1%) eyes. Conclusion: The most common cause of retinal detachment in paediatric patients was myopia, followed by trauma. Total RD was more common as compared to the other types. The most common procedure adopted was pars plana vitrectomy followed by scleral buckle procedure. (author)

  10. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included in...... men vs. 0.5%/2.3% in women, P <0.001). Significant predictors of newly acquired RBBB were male gender, increasing age, high systolic blood pressure, and presence of IRBBB, whereas predictors of newly acquired IRBBB were male gender, increasing age, and low BMI. Right bundle branch block was associated...... with significantly increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch...

  11. Vein harvesting and techniques for infrainguinal bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albäck, Anders; Saarinen, Eva; Venermo, Maarit

    2016-04-01

    In order to achieve good long term results after bypass surgery, alongside with good inflow and outflow arteries, the bypass graft material also has an important role. The best patency and limb salvage rates are achieved with autologous vein. If great saphenous vein is not available, acceptable long-term results can be achieved with arm veins and lesser saphenous vein. The quality and size of the vein are important. A small-caliber vein, increased wall thickness, postphlebitic changes and varicosities are associated with a risk of early failure. Preoperative vein mapping with ultrasound reduces readmissions and postoperative surgical site infections. During the mapping, the vein to be used and its main tributaries are marked with a permanent marker pen. To reduce wound complication rates we recommend bridged incisions in vein harvesting. Endoscopic vein harvesting seems to have no benefit compared to open techniques in lower limb bypasses, and has been associated with higher risk of primary patency loss at one year. With deep tunneling of the graft the problems caused by wound infection can be avoided. PMID:26837257

  12. Effects of intravitreal injection of netrin-1 in retinal neovascularization of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yao Yu,1,2,* Jing Zou,3,* Yun Han,4 Luowa Quyang,4 Hui He,4 Peihong Hu,2 Yi Shao,2 Ping Tu11Nanchang Key Laboratory of Diabetes, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The Third Hospital of Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Clinical Ophthalmology Institute, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 4Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Eye Institute of Xiamen University, Fujian, People’s Republic of China*These authors have contributed equally to this workBackground: In a previous study, we confirmed that netrin-1 acts as an antiangiogenic factor by inhibiting alkali burn-induced corneal neovascularization in rats. Here, we continue working on the role of netrin-1 in retinal neovascularization.Methods: Using an in vitro angiogenesis assay, we detected the effects of netrin-1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation, viability and proliferation, migration, and invasion at concentrations of 0.1 µg/mL or 5 µg/mL. We intravitreally injected 0.1 µg/mL or 5 µg/mL netrin-1 into streptozotocin-induced rats to assess retinal neovascularization using retinal electrophysiology and electroretinography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fundus fluoresce in angiography, measurement of inner blood retinal barrier, retinal hematoxylin-eosin staining, and retinal flat-mount fluorescence assays.Results: Human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube formation, viability and proliferation, migration, and invasion were upregulated by netrin-1 at a concentration of 0.1 µg/mL (P<0.05, while 5 µg/mL netrin-1 had an opposite effect (P<0.05 in our in vitro angiogenesis assay. Retinal electrophysiology testing revealed that intravitreal injection of netrin-1 affected the amplitude of a- and b

  13. Temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Baade, Alexander; Birngruber, Reginald; Roider, Johann; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Retinal photocoagulation lacks objective dosage in clinical use, thus the commonly applied lesions are too deep and strong, associated with pain reception and the risk of visual field defects and induction of choroidal neovascularisations. Optoacoustics allows real-time non-invasive temperature measurement in the fundus during photocoagulation by applying short probe laser pulses additionally to the treatment radiation, which excite the emission of ultrasonic waves. Due to the temperature dependence of the Grüneisen parameter, the amplitudes of the ultrasonic waves can be used to derive the temperature of the absorbing tissue. By measuring the temperatures in real-time and automatically controlling the irradiation by feedback to the treatment laser, the strength of the lesions can be defined. Different characteristic functions for the time and temperature dependent lesion sizes were used as rating curves for the treatment laser, stopping the irradiation automatically after a desired lesion size is achieved. The automatically produced lesion sizes are widely independent of the adjusted treatment laser power and individual absorption. This study was performed on anaesthetized rabbits and is a step towards a clinical trial with automatically controlled photocoagulation.

  14. Risk Factors for Giant Retinal Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Mehdizadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors associated with giant retinal tears. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on medical records of 150 patients who had undergone retinal detachment surgery. Age, sex, history of trauma, lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic, and high myopia were evaluated in association with giant retinal tears. Results: Of 150 patients with retinal detachments, 99 subjects (66% were older than 30 years while 51 (34% were 30 years of age or younger. Overall, 26 (17.3% patients had giant retinal tears. Controlling for all variables, only age had a significant correlation with giant retinal tears. Each year of advancing age was associated with a 6% decrease in the incidence of giant retinal tears. Conclusion: Young age is a significant risk factor for development of giant retinal tears.

  15. A structural analysis of the Minas da Panasqueira vein network and related fracture generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Dominique; Vieira, Romeu; Muchez, Philippe; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Minas da Panasqueira is a world-class W-Cu-Sn vein-type deposit, situated within the Central Iberian Zone of the Palaeozoic Iberian Massif (Portugal). The deposit consists of a network of subhorizontal, sill-like massive quartz veins situated above the southwestern extremity of a greisen cupola, within regionally metamorphosed, isoclinally folded, lower-greenschist slates and greywackes. The greisen cupola is part of a larger intrusive complex, emplaced during the late- to post-tectonic stage of the Variscan orogeny. The late-Variscan granitoid(s) underlying the Panasqueira deposit is considered to have served as a major metal source. The structure of the network of subhorizontal extension veins, consists of numerous planar vein lobes that are separated by host-rock bridges and merge at branch-points. A structural analysis demonstrates that not only within the Panasqueira mine, but also on a more regional scale, one or more generations of flat-lying fractures are present. The veins clearly exploited these pre-existing discontinuities, as confirmed by (1) the vein geometry being directly influenced by variations in the orientation of the initial fracture sets and (2) the geometry of the rock bridges and overlapping vein morphologies, consistently showing straight-line propagating crack tips. If veining is governed by a preferential, strongly developed anisotropy in the host rock, the hypothesis of vein lobes and rock bridges forming during propagation of the parent crack by tip-line bifurcation and confinement processes (Foxford et al., 2000) does not seem plausible. Instead, we propose that the rock bridges formed from several, initially separate and small veinlets that eventually overlapped in an en echelon arrangement during progressive propagation and inflation. Bending of the rock bridges and incipient vein rotation indicate that veining occurred near the brittle-ductile transition. Using a quantitative analysis of bridge orientations, vein aspect ratios

  16. Risk Factors for Giant Retinal Tears

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Mehdizadeh; Mehrdad Afarid; Mohammad Shabanpour Haqiqi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors associated with giant retinal tears. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on medical records of 150 patients who had undergone retinal detachment surgery. Age, sex, history of trauma, lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic), and high myopia were evaluated in association with giant retinal tears. Results: Of 150 patients with retinal detachments, 99 subjects (66%) were older than 30 years while 51 (34%) were 30 years of age or you...

  17. Risk Factors for Giant Retinal Tears

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdizadeh, Morteza; Afarid, Mehrdad; Haqiqi, Mohammad Shabanpour

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the risk factors associated with giant retinal tears. Methods This retrospective study was performed on medical records of 150 patients who had undergone retinal detachment surgery. Age, sex, history of trauma, lens status (phakic, pseudophakic, or aphakic), and high myopia were evaluated in association with giant retinal tears. Results Of 150 patients with retinal detachments, 99 subjects (66%) were older than 30 years while 51 (34%) were 30 years of age or younger. Overa...

  18. Abnormal formation and communication of external jugular vein

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak SB; KV S

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in the origin, course and termination of external jugular vein may be important for surgeons, radiologists, and plastic surgeons. In this report, we present a variation in the origin of the external jugular vein and its abnormal communication with the cephalic vein. The external jugular vein was formed by the union of facial and retromandibular veins. Its course and termination were normal but it communicated with the cephalic vein through a large communicating vein, w...

  19. Ischemic Retinal Vasculitis and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazha Talat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic retinal vasculitis is an inflammation of retinal blood vessels associated with vascular occlusion and subsequent retinal hypoperfusion. It can cause visual loss secondary to macular ischemia, macular edema, and neovascularization leading to vitreous hemorrhage, fibrovascular proliferation, and tractional retinal detachment. Ischemic retinal vasculitis can be idiopathic or secondary to systemic disease such as in Behçet’s disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Corticosteroids with or without immunosuppressive medication are the mainstay treatment in retinal vasculitis together with laser photocoagulation of retinal ischemic areas. Intravitreal injections of bevacizumab are used to treat neovascularization secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus but should be timed with retinal laser photocoagulation to prevent further progression of retinal ischemia. Antitumor necrosis factor agents have shown promising results in controlling refractory retinal vasculitis excluding multiple sclerosis. Interferon has been useful to control inflammation and induce neovascular regression in retinal vasculitis secondary to Behçet’s disease and multiple sclerosis. The long term effect of these management strategies in preventing the progression of retinal ischemia and preserving vision is not well understood and needs to be further studied.

  20. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  1. Preduodenal portal vein: its surgical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, D A; Bowen, J C

    1978-11-01

    Preduodenal portal vein is a rare anatomical variant which may be one of many anomalies in the neonate with duodenal "atresia." Preduodenal portal vein also may be an occasional finding in an adult undergoing biliary, gastric, or pancreatic surgery. Awareness and recognition of the anomaly are essential for the avoidance of injury during such operations. We report here a symptomless patient whose preduodenal portal vein was discovered at cholecystectomy. PMID:715684

  2. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  3. Endovenous laser therapy for varicose vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Mulia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Laser has become a useful technology in treating venous incompetence especially superficial venous disease. Introduction of endovenous thermal ablation through endovenous laser therapy helped by duplex ultrasound guidance has provided an alternative for traditional saphenous vein stripping. High success rate, minor complications, and minimally invasive technique provide the advantages over traditional treatment. In this case illustrated, the endovenous laser therapy used for great saphenous varicose vein. Yet, future development in endovenous laser therapy is still needed and only long term follow-up and uniform reporting standards will provide the answers. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:117-20Keywords: Endovenous laser theraphy, great saphenous vein, varicose vein

  4. Retinal Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    The eye is essentially transparent, transmitting light with only minimal optical attenuation and scattering providing easy optical access to the anterior segment as well as the retina. For this reason, ophthalmic and especially retinal imaging has been not only the first but also most successful clinical application for optical coherence tomography (OCT). This chapter focuses on the development of OCT technology for retinal imaging. OCT has significantly improved the potential for early diagnosis, understanding of retinal disease pathogenesis, as well as monitoring disease progression and response to therapy. Development of ultrabroad bandwidth light sources and high-speed detection techniques has enabled significant improvements in ophthalmic OCT imaging performance, demonstrating the potential of three-dimensional, ultrahigh-resolution OCT (UHR OCT) to perform noninvasive optical biopsy of the living human retina, i.e., the in vivo visualization of microstructural, intraretinal morphology in situ approaching the resolution of conventional histopathology. Significant improvements in axial resolution and speed not only enable three-dimensional rendering of retinal volumes but also high-definition, two-dimensional tomograms, topographic thickness maps of all major intraretinal layers, as well as volumetric quantification of pathologic intraretinal changes. These advances in OCT technology have also been successfully applied in several animal models of retinal pathologies. The development of light sources emitting at alternative wavelengths, e.g., around #1,060 nm, not only enabled three-dimensional OCT imaging with enhanced choroidal visualization but also improved OCT performance in cataract patients due to reduced scattering losses in this wavelength region. Adaptive optics using deformable mirror technology, with unique high stroke to correct higher-order ocular aberrations, with specially designed optics to compensate chromatic aberration of the human eye, in

  5. Angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis and retinal-choroidal anastomosis after treatments in eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Masaaki Saito,1 Tomohiro Iida,1,2 Mariko Kano,1 Kanako Itagaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis (RRA and retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA for eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab injections as monotherapy or intravitreal bevacizumab combined with photodynamic therapy.Methods: In this interventional, consecutive case series, we retrospectively reviewed five naïve eyes from four patients (mean age 80 years treated with three consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injections as initial treatment, and followed up for at least 3 months. In cases with over 3 months of follow-up and having recurrence of RAP or leakage by fluorescein angiography, retreatment was performed with a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection and photodynamic therapy.Results: Indocyanine green angiography showed RRA in three eyes with subretinal neovascularization and RCA in two eyes with choroidal neovascularization at baseline. At 3 months after baseline (month 3, neither the RRA nor RCA was occluded in any eye on indocyanine green angiography. Retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab plus photodynamic therapy was performed in three eyes at months 3 (persistent leakage on fluorescein angiography, 6, and 7 (recurrence of RAP lesion, which achieved obvious occlusion of the RRA and RCA. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.13 to 0.21 at month 3 (P = 0.066. No complications or systemic adverse events were noted.Conclusion: Although intravitreal bevacizumab for RAP was effective in improving visual acuity during short-term follow-up, intravitreal bevacizumab could not achieve complete occlusion of RRA and RCA, which could

  6. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  7. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  8. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  9. Holographic Coulomb branch vevs

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, K; Skenderis, Kostas; Taylor, Marika

    2006-01-01

    We compute holographically the vevs of all chiral primary operators for supergravity solutions corresponding to the Coulomb branch of N=4 SYM and find exact agreement with the corresponding field theory computation. Using the dictionary between 10d geometries and field theory developed to extract these vevs, we propose a gravity dual of a half supersymmetric deformation of N=4 SYM by certain irrelevant operators.

  10. Modeling branching in cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Jochem B. Evers; Vos, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional–structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level....

  11. Retinal imaging and image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramoff, M.D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindne

  12. Retinitis Pigmentosa and Education Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa includes a number of inherited diseases which usually result in blindness. The disease is progressive in nature and begins with the deterioration of cells in the eye responsible for peripheral vision. As the condition worsens there is a gradual loss of peripheral vision and night blindness. Proper educational planning requires…

  13. Endovenous laser therapy for varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disselhoff, B.C.V.M.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the technique of endovenous laser ablation and the outcome of various series of patients with varicose veins due to reflux in the great saphenous vein, treated by endovenous laser ablation or cryostripping in a single-centre study. This study has shown clear advantages of endov

  14. Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the usefulness of the ultrasound-guided subclavian vein catheterization in difficult patients. We tried subclavian vein catheterization in 18 patients in which conventional blind technique failed(N=9): or was complicated by hemothorax or pneumothorax(N=3): or was prohibited by respirator care(N=4) and severe thoracic deformity(N=2). Initially, the patency of subclavian vein was evaluated with ultrasonography, and then, the puncture of the subclavian vein was performed under the guidance of ultrasonography. Under the fluoroscopy, the patency of the proximal subclavian vein and the superior vena cava was evaluated after contrast-media injection and a catheter was inserted into the subclavian vein and accurately positioned at the superior vena cava. Successful catheterization was performed in 17 patients. In the remaining one patient, we did not perform catheterization because of bilateral subclavian vein thrombosis detected during the procedure. There were no procedure-related complications. Ultrasound-guided subclavian vein catheterization is an easy and safe method even in difficult cases

  15. Preoperative mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Sillesen, H; Nielsen, Tina G;

    1996-01-01

    A series of 124 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. 33 (27%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first year. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered: 5.0-6.5 mm at mid-thigh lev...

  16. Lahore general hospital protocol for treatment of neovascular glaucoma caused by retinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate efficacy of LGH (Lahore General Hospital) protocol for treatment of neovascular glaucoma caused by retinal diseases. Material and Methods: This case series was performed on 9 consecutive eyes of nine patients with uncontrolled neovascular glaucoma at Department of Ophthalmology, Unit II, Lahore General Hospital/PGMI, Lahore. All nine patients completed six months follow up. Among them 6 patients were having PDR (proliferative diabetic retinopathy) and 3 patients having CRVO (central retinal vein occlusion). LGH protocol for treatment of neovascular glaucoma was: To give intravitreal injection of avastin and then PRP (Pan Retinal Photocoagulation) or Trabeculectomy with MMC (Mitomycin C), if PRP and intravitreal avastin fails to control the intra ocular-pressure (IOP). Results: Three patients had IOP control after intravitreal injection of avastin and PRP, 5 patients had uncontrolled IOP after intravitreal avastin and two sessions of PRP, so they under went trabeculectomy with MMC. One patient had uncontrolled IOP despite of full treatment protocol. All other 8 patients IOP remained stable for six months. Conclusion: Significant decrease in intraocular pressure was achieved after observing LGH protocol for treatment of NVG (Neovascular Glaucoma) caused by retinal diseases. (author)

  17. The role of the preoperative portal vein embolization in major hepatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sun Woo; Sung, Kyu Bo; Song, Ho Young; Cho, Kyoung Sik; Lee, Sung Gyu; Kwon, Tae Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-15

    To assess the role of the preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) in patients in need of major hepatectomy. Total of 11 cases consisted of Klatskin tumor (n = 6), gallbladder cancer (n = 2), and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 3). After percutaneous transhepatic puncture of portal vein (right: 7, left: 4), the embolization of 1st order branch of right portal vein was done with Gentamicin soaked Gelfoam cubes. Radiologically, the angle between the middle hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava was measured on pre-and post-PVE CT (F/U: 10 days) to evaluate the hypertrophy of the left lobe. Clinically, amount and nature of the drained bile through the PTBD tube of both lobes were analyzed in 5 patients with Klatskin tumor. The interval between PVE and operation was 10-24 days. Operative findings and the changes of postop, total bilirubin were analyzed and the complication after procedure was checked. There was decrease in mean angle between the middle hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava from 35.9 degree to 23.9 degree, but it was insignificant statistically ({rho} = 0.09). The embolization of right portal vein was done and there was increase in amount of drained bile from the nonembolized left lobe by 2-3 folds 8-14 days after PVE. The color and consistency between both lobes were significantly different; right lobe was darker in color and softer in consistency. Postoperative total bilirubin increased by 2-3 folds 1 to 4 days after PVE and normalized 10 to 14 days after PVE. Most of the patients had mild abdominal pain and fever after PVE and 1 patient had localized hematoma at puncture site which was subsided spontaneously. The preoperative portal vein embolization is a useful method for minimizing postoperative liver failure in patients in need of major hepatectomy.

  18. Regulation of retinal angiogenesis by phospholipase C-β3 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung Min; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Young Hwan; Jin, Seo Yeon; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Sun Ja; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Lee, Dong Hyung; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Chi Dae; Bae, Sun Sik

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis has an essential role in many pathophysiologies. Here, we show that phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) isoform regulates endothelial cell function and retinal angiogenesis. Silencing of PLC-β3 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) significantly delayed proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation. In addition, mice lacking PLC-β3 showed impaired retinal angiogenesis with delayed endothelial proliferation, reduced endothelial cell activation, abnormal vessel formation and hemorrhage. Finally, tumor formation was significantly reduced in mice lacking PLC-β3 and showed irregular size and shape of blood vessels. These results suggest that regulation of endothelial function by PLC-β3 may contribute to angiogenesis. PMID:27311705

  19. Effect of eye NGF administration on two animal models of retinal ganglion cells degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Colafrancesco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nerve growth factor (NGF administration on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in experimentally induced glaucoma (GL and diabetic retinopathy (DR. GL was induced in adult rats by injection of hypertonic saline into the episcleral vein of the eye and diabetes (DT was induced by administration of streptozoticin. Control and experimental rats were treated daily with either ocular application of NGF or vehicle solution. We found that both animal models present a progressive degeneration of RGCs and changing NGF and VEGF levels in the retina and optic nerve. We then proved that NGF eye drop administration exerts a protective effect on these models of retinal degeneration. In brief, our findings indicate that NGF can play a protective role against RGC degeneration occurring in GL and DR and suggest that ocular NGF administration might be an effective pharmacological approach.

  20. Element transport in veins during serpentinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, E. M.; Beard, J. S.; Caddick, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks has wide ranging implications for the petrology, rheology, and petrophysical properties of the oceanic lithosphere. During hydration of the peridotite, fluid-rock ratios and temperature control mineral formation in the veins. We studied a partly serpentinized peridotite from the Santa Elena ophiolite complex in Costa Rica and tracked element mobility during water-rock interaction. Serpentinization of the studied harzburgite is around 30 to 40%, with serpentinization of olivine being more advanced than serpentinization of orthopyroxene. Element mapping and point analyses show that the veins preserve characteristic element distributions within orthopyroxene and olivine, and with distance to orthopyroxene-hosted serpentine veins. With increasing distance from the orthopyroxene the following vein assemblages were observed in olivine: pure serpentine veins, serpentine + brucite veins, serpentine + brucite + magnetite veins. Veins are enriched in SiO2 in the proximity of orthopyroxene suggesting that a net transfer of SiO2 takes place from serpentinizing orthopyroxene to olivine. The magnetite-bearing serpentine veins mostly consist of Mg-rich serpentine (Mg# = 90 - 95) and Fe-rich brucite (Mg# = 70 - 75) finely intergrown. In contrast, the center of these veins contains a thin zone of high-Mg serpentine (Mg# 97), and high-Mg brucite (Mg# 92 - 94) next to magnetite. We infer from thermodynamic calculations that these mineral assemblages are controlled by H2O activity and low SiO2 activities. Within orthopyroxene, serpentine (Mg# = 84 - 89) with an elevated Al2O3 content ( 100 μm and > 200 μm, respectively, from the orthopyroxene. We infer that brucite is not stable in close proximity to orthopyroxene due to elevated SiO2 derived from orthopyroxene breakdown. Orthopyroxene serpentinization results in net transfer of Al2O3 into serpentine, but only in the immediate vicinity of the orthopyroxene. Overall, our study indicates that the

  1. Guide wire migration during femoral vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Rozita; Sadigh, Gelareh

    2010-10-01

    Central vein catheterization is a routine and relatively safe procedure in critically ill patients. Complications with this procedure depend to the site of catheterization and the skill of the operator. In addition to the common complications with femoral vein catheterization there are some rare usually preventable side effects related to guide wire and catheter. In our patient who underwent femoral catheterization for acute hemodialysis, we report migration of guide wire through the systemic circulation from the femoral vein to the jugular vein. This is a very rare complication that is a human error and is totally preventable by doing the procedure by a skilled doctor and considering the standards described for central vein catheter insertion. PMID:20852377

  2. Ultrasound assessment of great saphenous vein insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander RK

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rajiv K Chander,1 Thomas S Monahan1,2 1Section of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Duplex ultrasonography is the ideal modality to assess great saphenous vein insufficiency. Duplex ultrasonography incorporates both gray scale images to delineate anatomy and color-Doppler imaging that visualizes the flow of blood in a structure. Assessment of great saphenous vein requires definition of the anatomy, augmentation of flow, evaluation for both superficial and deep vein thrombosis, and determining the presence of reflux. Currently, evolution in the treatment of reflux also relies on ultrasound for the treatment of the disease. Understanding the utilization of the ultrasound for the diagnosis and treatment of greater saphenous vein reflux is important for practitioners treating reflux disease. Keywords: duplex ultrasonography, small saphenous vein 

  3. Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Amber Şenel; Rıfat Rasier; Alper Şengül; Erdal Yüzbaşıoğlu; Özgür Artunay; Halil Bahçecioğlu

    2011-01-01

    Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

  4. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Vascular Branching in the Human Retina with a Ground-Based Microgravity Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vu, Amanda C.; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment were discovered recently in astronauts following spaceflight, especially after long-duration missions.1 We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal vasculature that precede visual and other ocular impairments. We therefore are analyzing retinal vessels in healthy subjects with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2 before and after head-down tilt (HDT), a ground-based microgravity analog For our preliminary study of masked images, two groups of venous trees with and without small veins (G=7) were clearly identified by VESGEN analysis. Upon completing all images and unmasking the subject status of pre- and post- HDT, we will determine whether differences in the presence or absence of small veins are important correlates, and perhaps reliable predictors, of other ocular and physiological adaptations to prolonged HDT and microgravity. Greater peripapillary retinal thickening was measured following 70-day HDT bed rest than 14-day HDT bed rest, suggesting that time of HDT may increase the amount of optic disc swelling.3 Spectralis OCT detected retinal nerve fiber layer thickening post HDT, without clinical signs of optic disc edema. Such changes may have resulted from HDT-induced cephalad fluid shifts. Clinical methods for examining adaptive microvascular remodeling in the retina to microgravity space flight are currently not established.

  5. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Shuang; YE Jun-jie; ZHAO Jia-liang; LI Tai-sheng; HAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS.Methods It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 μg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients).Results Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque.Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6±25.3) ×106/L (range,(0-85) × 106/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed.Conclusions CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  6. Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the sole presenting sign of Susac syndrome in a young man: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Luiza dos Apóstolos-Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 24-year-old man presenting with sudden visual loss in the left eye from a central retinal artery occlusion. An extensive clinical investigation revealed no etiology. Three weeks later, however, the patient developed hearing loss followed by encephalopathy and multiple branch retinal artery occlusions in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography confirmed retinal vascular occlusions with no sign of vasculitis. The neurological examination revealed a diffuse encephalopathy while the MRI scan disclosed several small areas of infarcts in the brain. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on audiometry. The patient was diagnosed with Susac syndrome and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in slight improvement and stabilization. This case shows that Susac syndrome may be diagnosed late due to the absence at onset of one or more of the symptoms of the classic triad (encephalopathy, multiple branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss. This case also serves to emphasize that Susac syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion, even in apparently healthy young men.

  7. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  8. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  9. Automatic diagnosis of retinal diseases from color retinal images

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, D.; N. Devi; SwarnaParvathi, S.

    2010-01-01

    Teleophthalmology holds a great potential to improve the quality, access, and affordability in health care. For patients, it can reduce the need for travel and provide the access to a superspecialist. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine as it is a largely image based diagnosis. The main goal of the proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease in the retina and to automatically detect and segment retinal diseases without human supervision or interaction. The proposed system...

  10. Reliability of retinal vessel calibre measurements using a retinal oximeter

    OpenAIRE

    Heitmar, Rebekka; Kalitzeos, Angelos A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Summarised retinal vessel diameters are linked to systemic vascular pathology. Monochromatic images provide best contrast to measure vessel calibres. However, when obtaining images with a dual wavelength oximeter the red-free image can be extracted as the green channel information only which in turn will reduce the number of photographs taken at a given time. This will reduce patient exposure to the camera flash and could provide sufficient quality images to reliably measure vessel...

  11. Intrahepatic Left to Right Portoportal Venous Collateral Vascular Formation in Patients Undergoing Right Portal Vein Ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienden, K. P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Hoekstra, L. T. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bennink, R. J. [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands); Gulik, T. M. van [Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: We investigated intrahepatic vascular changes in patients undergoing right portal vein ligation (PVL) or portal vein embolization (PVE) in conjunction with the ensuing hypertrophic response and function of the left liver lobe. Methods: Between December 2008 and October 2011, 7 patients underwent right PVL and 14 patients PVE. Computed tomographic (CT) volumetry to assess future remnant liver (FRL) and functional hepatobiliary scintigraphy were performed in all patients before and 3 weeks after portal vein occlusion. In 18 patients an intraoperative portography was performed to assess perfusion through the occluded portal branches. Results: In all patients after initially successful PVL, reperfused portal veins were observed on CT scan 3 weeks after portal occlusion. This was confirmed in all cases during intraoperative portography. Intrahepatic portoportal collaterals were identified in all patients in the PVL group and in one patient in the PVE group. In all other PVE patients, complete occlusion of the embolized portal branches was observed on CT scan and on intraoperative portography. The median increase of FRL volume after PVE was 41.6 % (range 10-305 %), and after PVL was only 8.1 % (range 0-102 %) (p = 0.179). There were no differences in FRL function between both groups. Conclusion: Preoperative PVE and PVL are both methods to induce hypertrophy of the FRL in anticipation of major liver resection. Compared to PVE, PVL seems less efficient in inducing hypertrophy of the nonoccluded left lobe. This could be caused by the formation of intrahepatic portoportal neocollateral vessels, through which the ligated portal branches are reperfused within 3 weeks.

  12. Current perspectives of herpesviral retinitis and choroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, H N; Priya, K; Biswas, J

    2004-10-01

    Vision-threatening viral retinitis are primarily caused by members of the herpesvirus family. The biology and molecular characterization of herpesviruses, clinical presentations of retinopathies, pathology and pathogenesis including the host responses, epidemiology and the laboratory methods of aetiological diagnosis of these diseases are described. Clinical syndromes are acute retinal necrosis (ARN), progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, multifocal choroiditis and serpiginous choroiditis besides other viral retinopathies. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) retinitis is more common in immunocompetent persons while varicella zoster virus (VZV) affects both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients equally. CMV retinitis is most common among patients with AIDS. The currently employed laboratory methods of antigen detection, virus isolation and antibody detection by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) have low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the value of diagnosis due to its high clinical sensitivity and absolute specificity in detection of herpesviruses in intraocular specimens. PMID:16295367

  13. Advances in Retinal Stem Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells.

  14. Retinal Image Preprocessing: Background and Noise Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Akram

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Retinal images are used for the automated screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal image quality must be improved for the detection of features and abnormalities and for this purpose preprocessing of retinal images is vital. In this paper, we present a novel automated approach for preprocessing of colored retinal images. The proposed technique improves the quality of input retinal image by separating the background and noisy area from the overall image. It contains coarse segmentation and fine segmentation. Standard retinal images databases Diaretdb0, Diaretdb1, DRIVE and STARE are used to test the validation of our preprocessing technique. The experimental results show the validity of proposed preprocessing technique.

  15. Inner Retinal Oxygen Delivery and Metabolism in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Wanek, Justin; Teng, Pang-yu; Blair, Norman P.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of inner retinal oxygen delivery and oxygen metabolism in streptozotocin diabetic rats indicate that oxygen supplied by the retinal circulation and consumed by the inner retinal tissue were not altered within 6 weeks of diabetes.

  16. Hand vein recognition based on orientation of LBP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Gao, Enying

    2012-06-01

    Vein recognition is becoming an effective method for personal recognition. Vein patterns lie under the skin surface of human body, and hence provide higher reliability than other biometric traits and hard to be damaged or faked. This paper proposes a novel vein feature representation method call orientation of local binary pattern (OLBP) which is an extension of local binary pattern (LBP). OLBP can represent the orientation information of the vein pixel which is an important characteristic of vein patterns. Moreover, the OLBP can also indicate on which side of the vein centerline the pixel locates. The OLBP feature maps are encoded by 4-bit binary values and an orientation distance is developed for efficient feature matching. Based on OLBP feature representation, we construct a hand vein recognition system employing multiple hand vein patterns include palm vein, dorsal vein, and three finger veins (index, middle, and ring finger). The experimental results on a large database demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Karlsson, Robert;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using a......, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral......-measurements in three pigs. This relationship was approximately linear (R(2) = 0.45, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive spectrophotometric oximetry is sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation in pigs and correlated with intravitreal pO2-measurements and with femoral artery pO2. Pigs present a higher intra...

  18. Retinal detachment following cataract surgery with capsulorhexis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, J S; Doxanas, M T

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of retinal detachment after cataract surgery with capsulorhexis. METHODS: A consecutive series of 2,150 cataract operations were followed for incidence of retinal detachment. A series of 1,000 patients from this group were analyzed for high risk factors: myopia, age, sex, operative complications and capsulotomy. RESULTS: With minimum one year follow up in 90% of patients the incidence of retinal detachment was 0.25% (5 cases). CONCLUSION: The true incidence ...

  19. Chronic granulomatous disease presenting as retinal mass

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mansour; Al Dairy, Mays; Hamam, Rola; Hidayat, Ahmed A

    2008-01-01

    1-year-old girl was admitted for fever of unknown origin. Funduscopy revealed juxtapapillary retinal inflammatory mass in one eye with a differential diagnosis of sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, retinoblastoma or metastatic disease. Retinal biopsy showed necrotizing granulomatous retinitis. Extensive workup and therapeutic trials failed to confirm the diagnosis of tuberculosis or sarcoidosis. Her 7-month brother and 4-year-old male cousin presented with nystagmus, poor vision, paravascular pigment...

  20. Acquired retinal folds in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, A D

    1976-06-01

    Retinal folds were found in 5 cats. The apparent cause of the folding was varied: in 1 cat the folds appeared after a localized retinal detachment; in 2 cats the condition accompanied other intraocular abnormalities associated with feline infectious peritonitis; 1 cat had active keratitis, and the retinal changes were thought to have been injury related; and 1 cat, bilaterally affected, had chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:945253

  1. Cytomegalovirus retinitis mimicking intraocular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gooi, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Patrick Gooi1, James Farmer2, Bernard Hurley3, Elliott Brodbaker41Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine University of Ottawa and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa Eye Institute and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: We present a case of an unusual retinal infiltra...

  2. Astigmatism following retinal detachment surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, R.; Crewdson, J; Chignell, A H

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-three patients on whom successful retinal detachment had been performed were studied to note astigmatic changes following surgery. In the majority of cases the errors following such surgery are of no great clinical importance. However, in some situations a high degree of astigmatism may be produced. This study showed that these sequelae are particularly likely after radial buckling procedures, and surgeons favouring these techniques should be aware that astigmatic errors can be induced...

  3. Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion in Churg-Strauss syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Steffen; Johansen, Sven; Hamann, Steffen Ellitsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatology. Corticosteroid therapy was initiated. However, during the following year when tapering off the daily dosage, the patient experienced two relapses, with pulmonary symptoms and hypereosinophilia, and the corticosteroid dosage had to be augmented. The patient presented with neovascular glaucoma 7...

  4. Retinal artery and vein thrombotic occlusion during pregnancy: markers for familial thrombophilia and adverse pregnancy outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kurtz WS; Glueck CJ; Hutchins RK; Sisk RA; Wang P

    2016-01-01

    Will S Kurtz,1 Charles J Glueck,1 Robert K Hutchins,2,3 Robert A Sisk,2,3 Ping Wang1 1Cholesterol, Metabolism, and Thrombosis Center, Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati, 2Cincinnati Eye Institute, 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Background: Ocular vascular occlusion (OVO), first diagnosed during or immediately after giving birth, often reflects superposition of the physiologic thrombophilia of pregnancy on previously undiagnosed u...

  5. Individualized Ranibizumab Regimen Driven by Stabilization Criteria for Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Boscia, Francesco; Gerding, Heinrich; Monés, Jordi; Tadayoni, Ramin; Priglinger, Siegfried; Wenzel, Andreas; Barnes, Elizabeth; Pilz, Stefan; Stubbings, William; Pearce, Ian

    2016-01-01

    indicated a loss of VA resulting from disease activity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean change from baseline at month 12 in best-corrected VA (BCVA; primary end point) and safety over 12 months. The efficacy of this regimen in subgroups categorized by baseline BCVA score, CRVO duration, or presence of macular...... ischemia (exploratory analysis). RESULTS: At baseline, the mean BCVA was 53.0 letters and mean CRVO duration was 8.9 months (median, 2.4 months). Ranibizumab 0.5-mg treatment resulted in a statistically significant mean gain in BCVA from baseline at month 12 of 12.3 letters (standard deviation [SD], 16.......72 letters; P < 0.0001). The mean number of ranibizumab injections up to month 12 was 8.1 (SD, 2.77). At month 12, mean BCVA gains were similar with or without macular ischemia at baseline (11.6 vs. 12.1 letters); the mean BCVA gain was higher with baseline CRVO duration of less than 3 months (13.4 letters...

  6. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.PICKARD; Patricia; J.SOLLARS

    2010-01-01

    A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina.These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(ipRGCs) express a photopigment,melanopsin,that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input.Although relatively few in number,ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels.Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate rather than vertebrate photoreceptors.ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions.ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN),a circadian oscillator and biological clock,and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle.ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body.ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina,providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light.Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries,current progress and directions for future investigation.

  7. Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB, play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases. The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.

  8. Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Ramírez, Ana I.; Salazar, Juan J.; Gallego, Beatriz I.; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia) provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removing metabolic waste products, regulate local blood flow, induce the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), play fundamental roles in local immune response, and protect neurons from oxidative damage. In response to polyetiological insults, glia cells react with a process called reactive gliosis, seeking to maintain retinal homeostasis. When malfunctioning, macroglial cells can become primary pathogenic elements. A reactive gliosis has been described in different retinal pathologies, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetes, glaucoma, retinal detachment, or retinitis pigmentosa. A better understanding of the dual, neuroprotective, or cytotoxic effect of macroglial involvement in retinal pathologies would help in treating the physiopathology of these diseases. The extensive participation of the macroglia in retinal diseases points to these cells as innovative targets for new drug therapies.

  9. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  10. Huge Trombus including Left Renal Vein, Ovarian Vein, and Inferior Vena Cava Mimicking Renal Colic

    OpenAIRE

    Sakir Ongun; Sermin Coban; Abdullah Katgi; Funda Obuz; Aykut Kefi

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old female presented with acute left flank pain; she had a C/S at the postpartum day 24. Ureteral stone was suspected but ultrasound examination was normal. Then Doppler ultrasound revealed a trombus in left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Contrast enhanced MDCT scan showed swelled and nonfunctional left kidney, a trombus including distal part of left ovarian vein, left renal vein, and inferior vena cava. We started anticoagulation treatment. Further examination revealed diagnosi...

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contrast venography — During contrast venography, a catheter is threaded into a vein and a dye is injected. ... including all US export laws and regulations, in connection with the Licensed Materials. 5. SUBSCRIPTION TERM: You ...

  12. Axillary vein thrombosis mimicking muscular strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, J.

    1999-01-01

    Axillary vein thrombosis may occur on strenuous activity with a clinical picture similar to a simple strain. It carries significant morbidity but a good outcome is possible with early treatment. The aetiology, investigation, and treatment are discussed.

  13. Aneurysm of the vein of Galen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of a vein of Galen aneurysm in a neonate in which MR imaging provided essentially all pertinent diagnostic information prior to surgery. MR findings correlated well with selective cerebral angiography. (orig./MG)

  14. Clonorchis sinensis ova in bile juice cytology from a patient with severe hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiya, Keiichi; Ganno, Hideaki; Ando, Masayuki; Chong, Ja-Mun

    2016-03-01

    Infection with the trematode Clonorchis sinensis is the most common human fluke infection in East Asian populations. Although this infection is associated with obstructive jaundice or choledocholithiasis, portal vein thrombosis has not been reported. Here, we report the first case of a 60-year-old man who had both C. sinensis infection and portal vein thrombosis with severe hyperbilirubinemia (75.4 mg/dl). He initially presented with abdominal pain and jaundice. Computed tomography revealed gallstones, common bile duct calculus, and thrombus in the left main branch of the portal vein. A nasobiliary tube was inserted under endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Cytology of the bile juice revealed many C. sinensis eggs. The abdominal pain and jaundice improved following choledocholithotomy and combination treatment with a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant. This case suggests that inflammation around the portal vein as a result of C. sinensis infection has the potential to evoke portal vein thrombosis. Such cases should be treated with both a chemotherapeutic agent and anti-coagulant therapy. In conclusion, the possibility of infection with C. sinensis should be considered in patients presenting with hyperbilirubinemia and portal vein thrombosis, particularly in East Asian populations. PMID:26663478

  15. Maritime Branch Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, Krestine; Neugebauer, Line Maria; Garcia i Mateu, Adrià;

    after-sales service and have therefore embarked on business development activities that tightly combine product and service offerings in their portfolios. Closer customer contact, commoditisation of goods, total cost of ownership, and product liability are just some of the reasons for this transition......The vast majority of countries in the developed world are now dependent on their service sectors for between 70-80% of their gross domestic product. Even companies with decades of expertise in producing manufactured products are experiencing an increased need to understand before-, during- and...... and influencing a move towards intensified service integration into business- and product development activities. The workbook has been created by condensing the transcripts and the insights we have gained from a wealth of studies across the maritime branch, and it serves to provide a unique insight...

  16. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  17. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread. PMID:17349340

  18. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Vein Grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Barner, Hendrick B.; Farkas, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    The saphenous vein has been the principal conduit for coronary bypass grafting from the beginning, circa 1970. This report briefly traces this history and concomitantly presents one surgeons experience and personal views on use of the vein graft. As such it is not exhaustive but meant to be practical with a modest number of references. The focus is that of providing guidance and perspective which may be at variance with that of others and recognizing that there may be many ways to accomplish ...

  19. Behavioural recovery after treatment for varicose veins

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, S. C.; MacLennan, G.; Brittenden, J.; Prior, M. E.; Francis, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess behavioural recovery from the patient's perspective as a prespecified secondary outcome in a multicentre parallel-group randomized clinical trial comparing ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and surgery for the treatment of primary varicose veins. METHODS: Participants were recruited from 11 UK sites as part of the CLASS trial, a randomized trial of UGFS, EVLA or surgery for varicose veins. Patient...

  20. Renal vein thrombosis in transitional cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A rare case of renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) associated with bland thrombus of the renal vein extending into the inferior vena cava is described. Tumour thrombus in renal cell carcinoma is frequently encountered, but only very rarely occurs with TCC. Bland renal vein thrombosis occurring with renal TCC has not been described before. Contrast enhanced computed tomography assisted in distinguishing between bland and tumour thrombosis and aided in surgical management

  1. Portal Vein Aneurysm Presenting with Obstructive Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Chandana Lall; Sadhna Verma; Rajesh Gulati; Puneet Bhargava

    2012-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a portal vein aneurysm presenting with obstructive jaundice has not been reported in the literature. The preferred treatment for these aneurysms is surgical and a shunting procedure should be considered in cases with portal hypertension to preserve portal vein flow when portal hypertension is present or is secondary to the aneurysm itself. In our case, due to patient′s advanced age and co-morbidities, an endoscopic biliary stent was placed which led to successful...

  2. Canine mesenteric artery and vein convey no difference in the content of major contractile proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutafova-Yambolieva Violeta N

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenteric arteries and veins are composed of tonic smooth muscles and serve distinct functions in the peripheral circulation. However, the basis for the functional disparity of the resistive and capacitative parts of the mesenteric circulation is poorly understood. We studied potential differences in the expression levels of six contractile proteins in secondary and tertiary branches of the inferior mesenteric artery and vein along with differences in the vessel wall morphology. Results Bright field and electron microscopy showed that both vessel walls had the same major structural elements. The arterial walls, however, had greater number, and more tightly assembled, smooth muscle cell layers compared to vein walls. The content of actin, myosin heavy chain, myosin light chain, and calponin was similar in the two blood vessels. The artery expressed higher amount of the actin-binding protein caldesmon than the vein (41.86 ± 2.33 and 30.13 ± 3.37 μg/mg respectively, n = 12. Although the total tropomyosin content was almost identical in both blood vessels, the alpha isoform dominated in the artery, while the beta isoform prevailed in the vein. Conclusions Canine mesenteric artery and vein differ in vessel wall morphology but do not convey differences in the expression levels of actin, myosin light chain, myosin heavy chain and calponin. The two vascular networks express distinct amounts of caldesmon and tropomyosin, which might contribute to the fine tuning of the contractile machinery in a manner consistent with the physiological functions of the two vascular networks.

  3. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, John O.

    2015-01-01

    John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV) rate...

  4. Ocular neovascularization in eyes with a central retinal artery occlusion or a branch retinal artery occlusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mason lll JO; Patel SA; Feist RM; Albert Jr MA; Huisingh C; McGwin Jr G; Thomley ML

    2015-01-01

    John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel,1 Richard M Feist,1,2 Michael A Albert Jr,1,2 Carrie Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,3 Martin L Thomley1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA Purpose: To investigate the ocular neovascularization (ONV) rate...

  5. Research progress in non-permanent vein cava filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vein cava filter placement has already become one of the most effective measures for preventing pulmonary embolism which is usually secondary to deep vein thrombosis. With the development of research, non-permanent vein cava filter has been widely used. This paper aims to describe the recent progress in the research of non-permanent vein cava filters. (authors)

  6. Subclavian vein thrombosis: A continuing challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subclavian vein thrombosis is a relatively uncommon but potentially morbid disease entity. To determine the frequency, cause, and best mode of treatment of this problem, we performed a chart review of all patients with a diagnosis of subclavian vein thrombosis at two major metropolitan hospitals during a 6-year period. A total of 40 patients were identified with subclavian vein thrombosis, which represented 3.5% of all venous thromboses detected during the 6-year period. No side or sex predilection was noted and the majority of patients were outpatients. The cause was fairly evenly divided among intravenous catheters (32%), anatomic abnormalities (45%), and carcinoma with postoperative radiation (22.5%). Despite the increasing use of the subclavian veins for pacemaker leads, hyperalimentation, and permanent intravenous access for chemotherapy, there has not been an increase in diagnosed subclavian vein thrombosis. Anatomic abnormalities with compression of the vein respond well to either heparinization or lytic therapy but require surgery if the venous abnormality persists. Treatment consisted of lytic therapy in 20%, heparinization in 55%, and elevation with removal of the central line in 25% of patients. All patients responded well to treatment, with a decrease in swelling and symptoms; no patient progressed to venous gangrene and only one (2.5%) had a documented pulmonary embolus. Medical treatment provides excellent long-term benefit in most cases unless complicated by an anatomic abnormality

  7. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated

  8. Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosa, F. E-mail: fkhosa@hotmail.com; McNulty, J.G.; Hickey, N.; O' Brien, P.; Tobin, A.; Noonan, N.; Ryan, B.; Keeling, P.W.N.; Kelleher, D.P.; McDonald, G.S.A

    2003-06-01

    AIM: To study the safety, effectiveness and diagnostic value of transvenous forceps biopsy of the liver in 54 patients with coagulopathy, gross ascites or morbid obesity and suspected liver disease in whom percutaneous liver biopsy was contraindicated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forceps biopsy of the liver via the femoral vein was attempted in 54 adult patients with advanced liver disease of unknown aetiology who had coagulation disorders (41 cases), gross ascites (11 cases) or morbid obesity (two cases). In each patient two to six biopsies (average four) were taken using a radial jaw forceps inserted via the right or left femoral vein. RESULTS: The procedure was successful in 53 cases. Hepatic vein catheterization failed in one patient. Adequate liver tissue for diagnosis was obtained in 84% of cases. One patient developed delayed haemorrhage at 12 h from a capsular leak that was undetected during the biopsy procedure. This patient required blood transfusions and laparotomy to control bleeding. There were no deaths in the 53 patients studied. Transient minor chest and shoulder pain was encountered during sheath insertion into a hepatic vein in 23 patients. Three patients developed a femoral vein haematoma, which resolved with conservative treatment. CONCLUSION: Transvenous liver biopsy via the femoral vein is another safe, effective, simple alternative technique of biopsy when the percutaneous route is contraindicated.

  9. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  10. Suitability of UK Biobank Retinal Images for Automatic Analysis of Morphometric Properties of the Vasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J MacGillivray

    Full Text Available To assess the suitability of retinal images held in the UK Biobank--the largest retinal data repository in a prospective population-based cohort--for computer assisted vascular morphometry, generating measures that are commonly investigated as candidate biomarkers of systemic disease.Non-mydriatic fundus images from both eyes of 2,690 participants--people with a self-reported history of myocardial infarction (n=1,345 and a matched control group (n=1,345--were analysed using VAMPIRE software. These images were drawn from those of 68,554 UK Biobank participants who underwent retinal imaging at recruitment. Four operators were trained in the use of the software to measure retinal vascular tortuosity and bifurcation geometry.Total operator time was approximately 360 hours (4 minutes per image. 2,252 (84% of participants had at least one image of sufficient quality for the software to process, i.e. there was sufficient detection of retinal vessels in the image by the software to attempt the measurement of the target parameters. 1,604 (60% of participants had an image of at least one eye that was adequately analysed by the software, i.e. the measurement protocol was successfully completed. Increasing age was associated with a reduced proportion of images that could be processed (p=0.0004 and analysed (p<0.0001. Cases exhibited more acute arteriolar branching angles (p=0.02 as well as lower arteriolar and venular tortuosity (p<0.0001.A proportion of the retinal images in UK Biobank are of insufficient quality for automated analysis. However, the large size of the UK Biobank means that tens of thousands of images are available and suitable for computational analysis. Parametric information measured from the retinas of participants with suspected cardiovascular disease was significantly different to that measured from a matched control group.

  11. Effect of ocular shape and vascular geometry on retinal hemodynamics: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Andrea; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Hirani, Anil N; Rusjan, Edmond; Thistleton, William

    2016-08-01

    A computational model for retinal hemodynamics accounting for ocular curvature is presented. The model combines (i) a hierarchical Darcy model for the flow through small arterioles, capillaries and small venules in the retinal tissue, where blood vessels of different size are comprised in different hierarchical levels of a porous medium; and (ii) a one-dimensional network model for the blood flow through retinal arterioles and venules of larger size. The non-planar ocular shape is included by (i) defining the hierarchical Darcy flow model on a two-dimensional curved surface embedded in the three-dimensional space; and (ii) mapping the simplified one-dimensional network model onto the curved surface. The model is solved numerically using a finite element method in which spatial domain and hierarchical levels are discretized separately. For the finite element method, we use an exterior calculus-based implementation which permits an easier treatment of non-planar domains. Numerical solutions are verified against suitably constructed analytical solutions. Numerical experiments are performed to investigate how retinal hemodynamics is influenced by the ocular shape (sphere, oblate spheroid, prolate spheroid and barrel are compared) and vascular architecture (four vascular arcs and a branching vascular tree are compared). The model predictions show that changes in ocular shape induce non-uniform alterations of blood pressure and velocity in the retina. In particular, we found that (i) the temporal region is affected the least by changes in ocular shape, and (ii) the barrel shape departs the most from the hemispherical reference geometry in terms of associated pressure and velocity distributions in the retinal microvasculature. These results support the clinical hypothesis that alterations in ocular shape, such as those occurring in myopic eyes, might be associated with pathological alterations in retinal hemodynamics. PMID:26445874

  12. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  13. Can the branching exponent reliably relate the branching indexes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2015), s. 80-84. ISSN 1022-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching exponent * branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2014

  14. Imaging and radiological interventions in extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargewar, Sudheer S; Desai, Saloni N; Rajesh, S; Singh, Vaibhav P; Arora, Ankur; Mukund, Amar

    2016-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is a primary vascular condition characterized by chronic long standing blockage and cavernous transformation of portal vein with or without additional involvement of intrahepatic branches, splenic or superior mesenteric vein. Patients generally present in childhood with multiple episodes of variceal bleed and EHPVO is the predominant cause of paediatric portal hypertension (PHT) in developing countries. It is a pre-hepatic type of PHT in which liver functions and morphology are preserved till late. Characteristic imaging findings include multiple parabiliary venous collaterals which form to bypass the obstructed portal vein with resultant changes in biliary tree termed portal biliopathy or portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. Ultrasound with Doppler, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiography and magnetic resonance portovenography are non-invasive techniques which can provide a comprehensive analysis of degree and extent of EHPVO, collaterals and bile duct abnormalities. These can also be used to assess in surgical planning as well screening for shunt patency in post-operative patients. The multitude of changes and complications seen in EHPVO can be addressed by various radiological interventional procedures. The myriad of symptoms arising secondary to vascular, biliary, visceral and neurocognitive changes in EHPVO can be managed by various radiological interventions like transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, partial splenic embolization, balloon occluded retrograde obliteration of portosystemic shunt (PSS) and revision of PSS. PMID:27358683

  15. Pulmonary Vein Stenosis in a Newborn: A Commonly Overlooked Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Jeanne Magioli Bravo-valenzuela; Guilherme Ricardo Nunes Silva; Marcela Pinto Varella

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary pulmonary vein stenosis is often overlooked because its symptoms overlap lung diseases and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its diagnosis may be difficult because the condition is progressive and associated with other defects. We present a case of pulmonary vein stenosis in a newborn with stenosis of the left-sided common pulmonary vein, diffuse hypoplasia of the superior right pulmonary vein, and atresia of the inferior right pulmonary vein.

  16. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Gabai; Daniele Veritti; Paolo Lanzetta

    2015-01-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications.

  17. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gabai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundus autofluorescence (FAF is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications.

  18. Fundus autofluorescence applications in retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabai, Andrea; Veritti, Daniele; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is a relatively new imaging technique that can be used to study retinal diseases. It provides information on retinal metabolism and health. Several different pathologies can be detected. Peculiar AF alterations can help the clinician to monitor disease progression and to better understand its pathogenesis. In the present article, we review FAF principles and clinical applications. PMID:26139802

  19. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions. PMID:26855177

  20. Prevalence of generalized retinal dystrophy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Jensen, Hanne; Bregnhøj, Jesper F;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generalized retinal dystrophy is a frequent cause of visual impairment and blindness in younger individuals and a subject of new clinical intervention trials. Nonetheless, there are few nation-wide population-based epidemiological data of generalized retinal dystrophy. The purpose of thi...

  1. Anastomosing Haemangioma of the Kidney Involving a Segmental Branch of the Renal Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Oluwarotimi Omiyale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anastomosing variant of capillary haemangioma is a rare and recently described vascular tumour with a proclivity for the genitourinary tract. Here we present the case of a 64-year-old man with incidental finding of 3.4 cm renal mass on CT who had laparoscopic nephrectomy with a good postoperative recovery. Histopathological diagnosis of anastomosing haemangioma of the kidney was made and the patient was followed up for 10 months without evidence of tumour recurrence.

  2. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G

    2014-11-01

    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins. PMID:25448906

  3. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  4. Retinal Artery Occlusion Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Cakmak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal artery occlusion is one of the vision-threating emergency situations in ophthalmology. In this paper, a case of retinal artery occlusion is presented. Fifty seven year- old female patient presented with a sudden onset visual loss in her left eye. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA levels were 1.0 and 0.7 in the right and left eye, respectiveley. Dilated fundus examination revealed no pathological finding in the right eye. Whereas calcified plaque was seen in upper arquat artery bifurcation in the left eye. Pallorness with retinal edema was seen in this arterial trace. Retinal artery occlusion was diagnosed and patient was referred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. After a total of 20 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, the calcified plaques disappeared and her BCVA increased to 20/20. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment is vision-saving method which should be considered in retinal artery occlusion.

  5. Texton-based segmentation of retinal vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjeroh, Donald A.; Kandaswamy, Umasankar; Odom, J. Vernon

    2007-05-01

    With improvements in fundus imaging technology and the increasing use of digital images in screening and diagnosis, the issue of automated analysis of retinal images is gaining more serious attention. We consider the problem of retinal vessel segmentation, a key issue in automated analysis of digital fundus images. We propose a texture-based vessel segmentation algorithm based on the notion of textons. Using a weak statistical learning approach, we construct textons for retinal vasculature by designing filters that are specifically tuned to the structural and photometric properties of retinal vessels. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using a standard database of retinal images. On the DRIVE data set, the proposed method produced an average performance of 0.9568 specificity at 0.7346 sensitivity. This compares well with the best-published results on the data set 0.9773 specificity at 0.7194 sensitivity [Proc. SPIE5370, 648 (2004)].

  6. Sildenafil alters retinal function in mouse carriers of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zhu, Yuan; Whatham, Andrew; Bui, Bang V; Fletcher, Erica L; Acosta, Monica L; Kalloniatis, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sildenafil, the active ingredient in Viagra, has been reported to cause transient visual disturbance from inhibition of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), a key enzyme in the visual phototransduction pathway. This study investigated the effects of sildenafil on the rd1(+/-) mouse, a model for carriers of Retinitis Pigmentosa which exhibit normal vision but may have a lower threshold for cellular stress caused by sildenafil due to a heterozygous mutation in PDE6. Sildenafil caused a dose-dependent decrease in electroretinogram (ERG) responses of normal mice which mostly recovered two days post administration. In contrast, rd1(+/-) mice exhibited a significantly reduced photoreceptor and a supernormal bipolar cell response to sildenafil within 1 h of treatment. Carrier mice retinae took two weeks to return to baseline levels suggesting sildenafil has direct effects on both the inner and outer retina and these effects differ significantly between normal and carrier mice. Anatomically, an increase in expression of the early apoptotic marker, cytochrome C in rd1(+/-) mice indicated that the effects of sildenafil on visual function may lead to degeneration. The results of this study are significant considering approximately 1 in 50 people are likely to be carriers of recessive traits leading to retinal degeneration. PMID:25239397

  7. Differential responses accompanying sequential stimulation and ablation of vagal branches to dog heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, W C; Ardell, J L; Becker, D M

    1985-07-01

    Electrical excitation of small thoracic vagal branches elicited highly localized responses in the canine heart. Specific pathways to the sinoatrial nodal (SAN) regions were identified from negative chronotropic responses to stimulation (20 Hz, 5.0 ms, 3.0-5.0 V) of these branches. Pathways to the atrioventricular nodal (AVN) region were determined from changes in A-H interval (His bundle electrogram) and incidence of heart block as vagal branches were stimulated during concurrent atrial pacing. A few small branches influenced a single cardiac function (atrial rate, contractile force, or AV conduction). More commonly, activation of such branches elicited simultaneous chronotropic and dromotropic effects. However, many branches failed to elicit any detectable cardiac change. The major outflow from the left vagus to SAN and AVN regions is by way of cardiac branches from the recurrent laryngeal nerve at its reflection around the aorta. Activation of the left recurrent nerve reduced atrial rate by 43% and doubled A-H interval 84 to 167 ms. The right thoracic vagus or its branches induced A-H prolongation from 78 to 131 ms. H-V intervals remained constant at a mean of 35 ms. Outflows from the right thoracic vagus to SAN and/or AVN regions originated just below the middle cervical ganglion and at all levels down to the azygos vein. PMID:4014479

  8. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  9. A New Multimodal Biometric System Based on Finger Vein and Hand Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Boukhris Trabelsi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As a reliable and robust biological characteristic, the vein pattern increases more and more the progress in biometric researches. Generally, it was shown that single biometric modality recognition is not able to meet high performances. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on fusion of both hand vein and finger vein modalities. For finger vein recognition, we employ the Monogenic Local Binary Pattern (MLBP, and for hand vein recognitionan Improved Gaussian Matched Filter (IGMF. Experimental results confirm that the proposed multimodal biometric process achieves excellent recognition performance compared to unimodal biometric system. The Area Under Curve (AUC of the proposed approach is very close to unity (0.98.

  10. Anomalia anatômica da veia porta: uma causa rara de impossibilidade de doação do lobo direito em transplante hepático intervivos Anatomical anomaly of the portal vein: a rare cause of impossibility to right lobe donation in living related liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de Freitas

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Living related liver transplantation is being increasingly used for patients that can not wait for a cadaveric organ. We describe a case of a right lobe donor who had a type III portal vein anomaly. On this anomaly the portal vein gives branches first to the right posterior vein and then to the right anterior vein and the left portal vein. The recipient had portal vein thrombosis that was recognized only during the surgery. The Doppler examination performed before the operation did not detect this thrombosis. The transplant was not accomplished. Anatomical anomaly of the portal vein may be a rare cause impossibility to organ donation in living related liver transplantation.

  11. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  12. Animal Model of Acute Deep Vein Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop an animal model of acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Methods: In part I of the study nine juvenile domestic pigs were used. Each external iliac vein was transluminally occluded with a balloon catheter. Thrombin was infused through a microcatheter in one leg according to one of the following protocols: (1) intraarterial (IA): 1250 U at 25 U/min in the common femoral artery (n= 3); (2) intravenous (IV): 5000 U in the popliteal vein at 500 U/min (n= 3), or at 100 U/min (n= 3). Saline was administered in the opposite leg. After the animals were killed, the mass of thrombus in the iliofemoral veins was measured. The pudendoepiploic (PEV), profunda femoris (PF), and popliteal veins (PV) were examined. Thrombosis in the tributaries of the superficial femoral vein (SFVt) was graded according to a three-point scale (0, +, ++). In part II of the study IV administration was further investigated in nine pigs using the following three regimens with 1000 U at 25 U/min serving as the control: (1) 1000 U at 100 U/min, (2) 250 U at 25 U/min, (3) 250 U at 6.25 U/min. Results: All animals survived. In part I median thrombus mass in the test limbs was 1.40 g as compared with 0.25 g in the controls (p= 0.01). PEV, PFV and PV were thrombosed in all limbs infused with thrombin. IV infusion was more effective in inducing thrombosis in both the parent veins (mass 1.32-1.78 g) and SVFt (++ in 4 of 6 legs), as compared with IA infusion (mass 0.0-1.16 g; SFVt ++ in 1 of 3 legs). In part II thrombus mass in axial veins ranged from 1.23 to 2.86 g, and showed no relationship with the dose of thrombin or the rate of infusion. Tributary thrombosis was less extensive with 250 U at 25 U/min than with the other regimens. Conclusion: Slow distal intravenous thrombin infusion in the hind legs of pigs combined with proximal venous occlusion induces thrombosis in the leg veins that closely resembles clinical DVT in distribution

  13. Demarcation laser photocoagulation induced retinal necrosis and rupture resulting in large retinal tear formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Carlos; Pieramici, Dante J; Matsui, Rodrigo; Rabena, Melvin; Graue, Federico

    2015-06-01

    Retinal tears after laser photocoagulation are a rare complication that occurs after intense laser. It is talked about among retina specialist occurring particularly at the end of a surgical case while applying endophotocoagulation; to the best our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of a large retinal tear induced after attempted in-office demarcation laser photocoagulation (DLP) that simulated a giant retinal tear. DLP has been employed in the management of selected cases of macula sparring rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Even though extension of the retinal detachment through the "laser barrier" is considered a failure of treatment, few complications have been described with the use of this less invasive retinal detachment repair technique. We describe a case of a high myopic woman who initially was treated with demarcation laser photocoagulation for an asymptomatic retinal detachment associated with a single horseshoe tear and a full thickness large retinal tear was created where the laser was placed. Intense laser photocoagulation resulted in abrupt laser induced retinal necrosis and rupture creating this large retinal break. Proper laser technique should reduce the risks associated with this procedure. PMID:25770055

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Laser-Induced Retinal Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell therapy has shown encouraging results for neurodegenerative diseases. The retina provides a convenient locus to investigate stem cell functions and distribution in the nervous system. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs by systemic transplantation in a laser-induced retinal injury model. MSCs from C57BL/6 mice labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP were injected via the tail vein into mice after laser photocoagulation. We found that the average diameters of laser spots and retinal cell apoptosis were decreased in the MSC-treated group. Interestingly, GFP-MSCs did not migrate to the injured retina. Further examination revealed that the mRNA expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were lower in the injured eyes after MSC transplantation. Our results suggest that intravenously injected MSCs have the ability to inhibit retinal cell apoptosis, reduce the inflammatory response and limit the spreading of damage in the laser-injured retina of mice. Systemic MSC therapy might play a role in neuroprotection, mainly by regulation of the intraocular microenvironment.

  15. Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haruka Arai,1 Tsutomu Sakai,1 Kiichiro Okano,1 Ranko Aoyagi,1 Ayano Imai,2 Hiroshi Takase,2 Manabu Mochizuki,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka11Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma retinochoroiditis

  16. Angioid streaks - a rare cause of neovascular glaucoma. Case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Ungureanu, E; Geamanu, A; Careba, I; Grecescu, M; Gradinaru, S

    2014-01-01

    Rationale. Neovascular glaucoma is the type of glaucoma most refractory to treatment. The most frequent causes are those associated with retinal hypoxia, such as proliferative diabetic retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, branch retinal vein occlusion, central retinal arterial occlusion, ischemic ocular syndrome etc. Rare causes of neovascular glaucoma are multiple and are due to VEGF synthesis associated with chorioretinal inflammations or degenerations. We present a case with neovas...

  17. Comparative Study of Compensatory Liver Regeneration in a Rat Model: Portal Vein Ligation Only versus Sequential Ligation of the Portal Vein and Hepatic Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the volume change and the regenerative capacity between portal vein ligation (embolization) (PVL) and heterochronous PVL with hepatic artery ligation (HAL) in a rodent model. The animals were separated into three groups: group I, ligation of the left lateral and median portal vein branches; group II, completion of PVL, followed by ligation of the same branches of the hepatic artery after 48 h; control group, laparotomy without ligation was performed. Five rats from each group were sacrificed on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after the operation. Volume change measurement, liver function tests and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. The volume of the nonligated lobe between groups I and II was not significantly different by day 5 and day 7. Mean alanine aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels were significantly higher in group II, while the albumin level was higher in group I. Both c-kit- and MIB-5-positive cells used in the activity detection of regeneration were more prevalent in group I on day 1, 3, and 5, with statistical significance. There was no operation related mortality. PVL alone is safe and effective in compensatory liver regeneration. Performing both PVL and HAL does not confer any additional benefits.

  18. Neural remodeling in retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Robert E; Jones, Bryan W; Watt, Carl B; Strettoi, Enrica

    2003-09-01

    Mammalian retinal degenerations initiated by gene defects in rods, cones or the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) often trigger loss of the sensory retina, effectively leaving the neural retina deafferented. The neural retina responds to this challenge by remodeling, first by subtle changes in neuronal structure and later by large-scale reorganization. Retinal degenerations in the mammalian retina generally progress through three phases. Phase 1 initiates with expression of a primary insult, followed by phase 2 photoreceptor death that ablates the sensory retina via initial photoreceptor stress, phenotype deconstruction, irreversible stress and cell death, including bystander effects or loss of trophic support. The loss of cones heralds phase 3: a protracted period of global remodeling of the remnant neural retina. Remodeling resembles the responses of many CNS assemblies to deafferentation or trauma, and includes neuronal cell death, neuronal and glial migration, elaboration of new neurites and synapses, rewiring of retinal circuits, glial hypertrophy and the evolution of a fibrotic glial seal that isolates the remnant neural retina from the surviving RPE and choroid. In early phase 2, stressed photoreceptors sprout anomalous neurites that often reach the inner plexiform and ganglion cell layers. As death of rods and cones progresses, bipolar and horizontal cells are deafferented and retract most of their dendrites. Horizontal cells develop anomalous axonal processes and dendritic stalks that enter the inner plexiform layer. Dendrite truncation in rod bipolar cells is accompanied by revision of their macromolecular phenotype, including the loss of functioning mGluR6 transduction. After ablation of the sensory retina, Müller cells increase intermediate filament synthesis, forming a dense fibrotic layer in the remnant subretinal space. This layer invests the remnant retina and seals it from access via the choroidal route. Evidence of bipolar cell death begins in

  19. Opacification of portal vein on CT during hepatic arteriography via normal vascular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the frequency, distribution, and associated factors of the opacified normal portal vein as seen on CT, during hepatic arteriography(CTHA). One hundred and eighty-nine patients who underwent both CTHA and CT during arterioportography (CTAP) during a three-year period were reviewed. Of these, 66 patients without anomalous hepatic arterial supply and arterioportal (AP) shunt on celiac angiography were analyzed. Comparing CTHA with CTAP, we determined whether or not the portal vein(PV) is opacified within the second-order branch. The degree of contrast enhancement in the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas was graded as follows : grade I, all three organs were hypodensely enhanced; grade II, some organ were isodensely enhanced, but others hypodensely ; grade III, all three organs were isodensely enhanced relative to the CHA. The relationship between opacified portal vein (OPV) and the degree of enhancement of the three organs, amount of contrast media, and Child classification was statistically examined. The PV was opacified in 18 of the 66 patients (27%) ; This was the main PV in 16, right PV in 13, and left PV in two. Of the single branches, the right post posterior branch was most commonly opacified. Among 18 patients with OPV, the degree of three organs (stomach, duodenum, and pancreas) was grade I in two, grade II in two, and grade III in 14 while among 48 patients with nonopacified PV, the findings were grade I in 27, grade II in seven, and grade III in 14. The relationship between OPV and degree of enhancement of the three organs was statistically significant (p=0.001). There was however, no statistically significant difference between OPV and Child classification and the amount of contrast media. PV opacification during CTHA is not rare and this finding should not therefore be regarded as indicator of a pathologic conditions such as AP shunt

  20. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  1. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  2. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesieme EB

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is the formation of blood clots (thrombi in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality.Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT.Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google.Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome.Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and selective

  3. Duplicated Ižnternal Juguler Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirbas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available    Duplicated internal juguler vein (DIJV is a rare anomaly and reported incidence is 0.4 % in the literature. A 45-year-old female patient was referred to our hospital because of non pulsatile neck swelling. The magnetic resonance image (MRI showed left IJVs divided at the angles of the mandible running anterior to the common carotid artery until anterior mediastinal level. Clinicians should be aware of the rare possibility of duplicated IJVs in patients presenting with neck swelling. The development of imaging technics have revealed more cases of duplicated internal juguler vein.

  4. Vein morphology, host rock deformation and the origin of the fabrics of echelon mineral veins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, R.

    A system of sigmoidal echelon veins from a sample of sandstone from the Upper Carboniferous Culm sequence of southwest England is described. Veins are separated from one another by strips of sandstone, and divided internally by thin seams with crack—seal fabrics. The latter extend as thin veins into the sandstone host rock without change of fabric. Seams appear to be merely parts of crack—seal veins formed in a first phase of deposition in only minutely opened fractures. This phase ended as rates of fracture opening greatly increased. To allow for this widespread opening host rock between dilatating fractures (sandstone strips and seams) had to be deformed. This deformation was limited, however, to rotation, bending and fracture. Shear displacement was a function of dilatation, not zone-parallel ductile shear strain. The textures of the quartz and carbonate aggregates filling the sigmoidal veins show that second-phase crystallization took place into cavities opening more rapidly than growth was able to fill them. Growth for the greater part took place from fibres in seams and not off vein walls of the sandstone host rock. Coarsest aggregates fill the arcs of folds in seams, where rates of vein opening might be expected to have been highest and the scope for competitive cavity growth greatest.

  5. Automatic diagnosis of retinal diseases from color retinal images

    CERN Document Server

    Jayanthi, D; SwarnaParvathi, S

    2010-01-01

    Teleophthalmology holds a great potential to improve the quality, access, and affordability in health care. For patients, it can reduce the need for travel and provide the access to a superspecialist. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine as it is a largely image based diagnosis. The main goal of the proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease in the retina and to automatically detect and segment retinal diseases without human supervision or interaction. The proposed system will diagnose the disease present in the retina using a neural network based classifier.The extent of the disease spread in the retina can be identified by extracting the textural features of the retina. This system will diagnose the following type of diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Drusen.

  6. Segmental staining on hepatic arteriography as a sign of intrahepatic portal vein obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral obstruction of intrahepatic portal vein branches was detected by dynamic sequential computed tomography during arterial portography and subsequently confirmed surgically in 9 patients with hepatic neoplasm (7 hepatocellular carcinomas, 1 cholangiocarcinoma, and 1 metastatic lymphadenopathy from gastric carcinoma). Eight of these 10 segments showed more dense staining than other regions of the liver during infusion hepatic angiography. This pattern was attributed to trans-sinusoidal or peripheral arterioportal shunting. In 5 cases, the segmental staining obscured the tumor stain, making the tumor appear larger than it actually was or causing it to be missed altogether

  7. Portal venous arterialization resulting in increased portal inflow and portal vein wall thickness in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Gang Li; Yong-Liang Chen; Jing-Xi Chen; Lei Qu; Bin-Dang Xue; Zhi-Hai Peng; Zhi-Qiang Huang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To explore the influence of portal vein hemodynamic changes after portal venous arterialization(PVA) on peribiliary vascular plexus (PVP)morphological structure and hepatic pathology,and to establish a theoretical basis for the clinical application of PVA.METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control and PVA groups.After PVA,hemodynamic changes of the portal vein and morphological structure of hepatohilar PVP were observed using Doppler ultrasound,liver function tests,ink perfusion transparency management and three-dimensional reconstruction of computer microvisualization,and pathological examination was performed on tissue from the bile duct wall and the liver.RESULTS:After PVA,the cross-sectional area and blood flow of the portal vein were increased,and the increase became more significant over time,in a certain range.If the measure to limit the flow in PVA was not adopted,the high blood flow would lead to dilatation of intrahepatic portal vein and its branches,increase in collagen and fiber degeneration in tunica intima.Except glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT),other liver function tests were normal.CONCLUSION:Blood with a certain flow and oxygen content is important for filling the PVP and meeting the oxygen requirement of the bile duct wall.After PVA,It is the anatomic basis to maintain normal morphology of hepatohilar bile duct wall that the blood with high oxygen content and high flow in arterialized portal vein may fill PVP by collateral vessel reflux.A adequate measure to limit blood flow is necessary in PVA.

  8. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells and NMO-IgG cause primary retinal damage in experimental NMO/SD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeka, Bleranda; Hastermann, Maria; Kaufmann, Nathalie; Schanda, Kathrin; Pende, Marko; Misu, Tatsuro; Rommer, Paulus; Fujihara, Kazuo; Nakashima, Ichiro; Dahle, Charlotte; Leutmezer, Fritz; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica/spectrum disorder (NMO/SD) is a severe, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the majority of patients, it is associated with the presence of pathogenic serum autoantibodies (the so-called NMO-IgGs) directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), and with the formation of large, astrocyte-destructive lesions in spinal cord and optic nerves. A large number of recent studies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated that damage to optic nerves in NMO/SD is also associated with retinal injury, as evidenced by retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and microcystic inner nuclear layer abnormalities. These studies concluded that retinal injury in NMO/SD patients results from secondary neurodegeneration triggered by optic neuritis.However, the eye also contains cells expressing AQP4, i.e., Müller cells and astrocytes in the retina, epithelial cells of the ciliary body, and epithelial cells of the iris, which raised the question whether the eye can also be a primary target in NMO/SD. Here, we addressed this point in experimental NMO/SD (ENMO) induced in Lewis rat by transfer of AQP4268-285-specific T cells and NMO-IgG.We show that these animals show retinitis and subsequent dysfunction/damage of retinal axons and neurons, and that this pathology occurs independently of the action of NMO-IgG. We further show that in the retinae of ENMO animals Müller cell side branches lose AQP4 reactivity, while retinal astrocytes and Müller cell processes in the RNFL/ganglionic cell layers are spared. These changes only occur in the presence of both AQP4268-285-specific T cells and NMO-IgG.Cumulatively, our data show that damage to retinal cells can be a primary event in NMO/SD. PMID:27503347

  9. Photostress Testing Device for Diagnosing Retinal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Swan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Retinal diseases such as Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD affect nearly one in three elderly patients. ARMD damages the central vision photoreceptors in the fovea. The Photostress Test is a simple technique for testing for the early effects of ARMD. Here, the illumination sources in a novel self-administered Photostress Testing device were modeled for safety and distribution in illumination software. After satisfying the design constraints in the model, a prototype of the illumination system was fabricated and tested to confirm the modeling results. The resultant prototype can be used to aid in the diagnosis of retinal disease and is well within retinal safety levels.

  10. Retinal isomerization dynamics in dry bacteriorhodopsin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, Anne; Groma, Géza I.; Vos, Marten H.

    2005-10-01

    The primary photoprocesses in neutral and acid forms of oriented dried bacteriorhodopsin films were investigated by femtosecond absorption spectroscopy. The excitation energy dependence of the signals was used to distinguish photochemistry from processes involving photophysics of photocycle intermediates. Both the kinetics and the quantum yield of all- trans excited state decay by retinal photoisomerization and subsequent J → K transition were found to be very similar as in hydrated environments. Therefore, unlike slower photocycle phases, communication of the retinal with the environment does not play a role in retinal isomerization. Our results are important for understanding recent nonlinear optical applications of such films.

  11. Retinal Remodeling in the Tg P347L Rabbit, a Large-Eye Model of Retinal Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Bryan William; Kondo, Mineo; Terasaki, Hiroko; Watt, Carl Brock; Rapp, Kevin; Anderson, James; Lin, Yanhua; Shaw, Marguerite Victoria; Yang, Jia-Hui; Marc, Robert Edward

    2011-01-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited blinding disease characterized by progressive loss of retinal photo-receptors. There are numerous rodent models of retinal degeneration, but most are poor platforms for interventions that will translate into clinical practice. The rabbit possesses a number of desirable qualities for a model of retinal disease including a large eye and an existing and substantial knowledge base in retinal circuitry, anatomy, and ophthalmology. We have analyzed degenera...

  12. The Use Of The VEINES-QOL/Sym Questionnaire In Patients Operated For Varicose Veins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdalski Łukasz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Venous insufficiency is a common, chronic disease that affects nearly half of the population in highly developed countries. The vast majority of affected patients suffer from varicose veins (VV. Recently, the priority in medicine has been patient satisfaction with treatment and high quality of life. Therefore, disease-specific questionnaires that measure quality of life have been developed. One of these is VEINES-QOL/Sym with two subscales that assess quality of life and disease symptoms. To date, it has been used to examine patients with venous ulcers and thrombosis. No data are available concerning the use of VEINES to assess patients after VV surgery.

  13. Huge Trombus including Left Renal Vein, Ovarian Vein, and Inferior Vena Cava Mimicking Renal Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakir Ongun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old female presented with acute left flank pain; she had a C/S at the postpartum day 24. Ureteral stone was suspected but ultrasound examination was normal. Then Doppler ultrasound revealed a trombus in left renal vein and inferior vena cava. Contrast enhanced MDCT scan showed swelled and nonfunctional left kidney, a trombus including distal part of left ovarian vein, left renal vein, and inferior vena cava. We started anticoagulation treatment. Further examination revealed diagnosis of chronic myeloproliferative disease. The trombus was completely recanalized at 3-month followup.

  14. Internal vein texture and vein evolution of the epithermal Shila-Paula district, southern Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Chauvet, Alain; Bailly, Laurent; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Monié, Patrick; Cassard, Daniel; Llosa Tajada, Fernando; Rosas Vargas, Juan; Tuduri, Johann

    2006-01-01

    The epithermal Shila-Paula Au–Ag district is characterized by numerous veins hosted in Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Western Cordillera (southern Peru). Field studies of the ore bodies reveal a systematic association of a main E–W vein with secondary N55–60°W veins—two directions that are also reflected by the orientation of fluid-inclusion planes in quartz crystals of the host rock. In areas where this pattern is not recognized, such as the Apacheta sector, vein emplacement seems to have be...

  15. RNA-binding protein Hermes/RBPMS inversely affects synapse density and axon arbor formation in retinal ganglion cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnberg, Hanna; Wollerton-van Horck, Francis; Maurus, Daniel; Zwart, Maarten; Svoboda, Hanno; Harris, William A; Holt, Christine E

    2013-06-19

    The RNA-binding protein Hermes [RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS)] is expressed exclusively in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the CNS, but its function in these cells is not known. Here we show that Hermes protein translocates in granules from RGC bodies down the growing axons. Hermes loss of function in both Xenopus laevis and zebrafish embryos leads to a significant reduction in retinal axon arbor complexity in the optic tectum, and expression of a dominant acting mutant Hermes protein, defective in RNA-granule localization, causes similar defects in arborization. Time-lapse analysis of branch dynamics reveals that the decrease in arbor complexity is caused by a reduction in new branches rather than a decrease in branch stability. Surprisingly, Hermes depletion also leads to enhanced early visual behavior and an increase in the density of presynaptic puncta, suggesting that reduced arborization is accompanied by increased synaptogenesis to maintain synapse number. PMID:23785151

  16. Oversized vein grafts develop advanced atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thim Troels

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerated atherosclerosis is the main cause of late aortocoronary vein graft failure. We aimed to develop a large animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of vein graft atherosclerosis. Methods An autologous reversed jugular vein graft was inserted end-to-end into the transected common carotid artery of ten hypercholesteroemic minipigs. The vein grafts were investigated 12-14 weeks later with ultrasound and angiograpy in vivo and microscopy post mortem. Results One minipig died during follow up (patent vein graft at autopsy, and one vein graft thrombosed early. In the remaining eight patent vein grafts, the mean (standard deviation intima-media thickness was 712 μm (276 μm versus 204 μm (74 μm in the contralateral control internal jugular veins (P diameter of artery. No plaques were found in four non-oversized vein grafts (P Conclusions Our model of jugular vein graft in the common carotid artery of hypercholesterolemic minipigs displayed the components of human vein graft disease, i.e. thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and atherosclerosis. Advanced atherosclerosis, the main cause of late failure of human aortocoronary vein grafts was only seen in oversized grafts. This finding suggests that oversized vein grafts may have detrimental effects on patient outcome.

  17. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  18. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  19. Angiography reveals novel features of the retinal vasculature in healthy and diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLenachan, Samuel; Magno, Aaron Len; Ramos, David; Catita, Joana; McMenamin, Paul G; Chen, Fred Kuanfu; Rakoczy, Elizabeth Piroska; Ruberte, Jesus

    2015-09-01

    The mouse retina is a commonly used animal model for the study of pathogenesis and treatment of blinding retinal vascular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. In this study, we aimed to characterize normal and pathological variations in vascular anatomy in the mouse retina using fluorescein angiography visualized with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography (SLO-OCT). We examined eyes from C57BL/6J wild type mice as well as the Ins2(Akita) and Akimba mouse models of diabetic retinopathy using the Heidelberg Retinal Angiography (HRA) and OCT system. Angiography was performed on three focal planes to examine distinct vascular layers. For comparison with angiographic data, ex vivo analyses, including Indian ink angiography, histology and 3D confocal scanning laser microscopy were performed in parallel. All layers of the mouse retinal vasculature could be readily visualized during fluorescein angiography by SLO-OCT. Blood vessel density was increased in the deep vascular plexus (DVP) compared with the superficial vascular plexus (SVP). Arteriolar and venular typologies were established and structural differences were observed between venular types. Unexpectedly, the hyaloid artery was found to persist in 15% of C57BL/6 mice, forming anastomoses with peripheral retinal capillaries. Fluorescein leakage was easily detected in Akimba retinae by angiography, but was not observed in Ins2(Akita) mice. Blood vessel density was increased in the DVP of 6 month old Ins2(Akita) mice, while the SVP displayed reduced branching in precapillary arterioles. In summary, we present the first comprehensive characterization of the mouse retinal vasculature by SLO-OCT fluorescein angiography. Using this clinical imaging technique, we report previously unrecognized variations in C57BL/6J vascular anatomy and novel features of vascular retinopathy in the Ins2(Akita) mouse model of diabetes. PMID:26122048

  20. Retinal arterial occlusions in the young: Systemic associations in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanashree Ratra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the systemic associations in retinal arterial occlusions (RAO in young Indian individuals less than 40 years of age. Materials and Methods: Case records of 32 patients (35 eyes of less than 40 years, with non-traumatic RAO were analysed. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmic and systemic evaluation including hemogram, lipid profile, coagulation profile, vasculitis screening, carotid Doppler, echocardiogram. Results: In the study 21 were males and 11 were females. The age ranged from 11-39 years (Mean 27.6 ± 8.43. Nine (28% patients were below 20 years of age. Among 35 eyes, 28 (80% had central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, three (8.6% had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO, two (5.7% each had cilio-retinal (CLAO and hemi-retinal artery occlusion (HRAO. Vision ranged from no perception of light to 20/20. On systemic evaluation, in 21 (65.6% patients a hypercoagulable state was responsible for the RAO. Conditions leading to a hypercoagulable state included hyperhomocysteinemia (21.9%, hyperlipidemia (15.6%, anticardiolipin antibody (6.2%, antiphospholipid antibody (6.2%, polycythemia, thrombocytosis, protein S deficiency, use of oral contraceptives and renal disorder (3.1% each. Six (18.7% patients had cardiac valvular defects. Vasculitis screening was positive in three (9.4% patients. Two (6.2% had isolated systemic hypertension. In two (6.2% patients no abnormality could be detected. Conclusion: The systemic associations of RAOs in the Indian population were distinctly different from those reported in the Western population. Hyperhomocysteinemia was the commonest association found. Whereas associations reported in the Western population such as cardiac abnormalities, coagulation disorders, hemoglobinopathies and oral contraceptive use were uncommon.

  1. Left renal vein compression syndrome ("nutcracker phenomenon").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, C M; Weil, E H; Janevski, B K

    1989-06-01

    Four cases are presented with clinical diagnosis of scrotal varicocele on the left side, and one case with ureter varices and left-sided haematuria as a result of compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), also known as "nutcracker phenomenon". The clinical signs and the radiological diagnostic methods of the condition are discussed. PMID:2544950

  2. Left renal vein compression syndrome ('nutcracker phenomenon')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four cases are presented with clinical diagnosis of scrotal varicocele on the left side, and one case with ureter varices and left-sided haematuria as a result of compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), also known as 'nutcracker phenomenon'. The clinical signs and the radiological diagnostic methods of the condition are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  4. Complete guidewire retention after femoral vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat, Bahar Gulcay; Guler, Sertac; Soyuduru, Murat; Guven, Ibrahim; Ramadan, Hayri

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used for various purposes in the emergency departments (ED). The main uses of CVCs in the EDs are emergent hemodialysis, in situations where peripheral vein catheterization cannot be achieved, and continuous invasive hemodynamic monitoring. The complications related to CVC insertion are usually mechanical and observed in the near term after the procedure. Retained CVC guidewire after catheterization is a rare complication in the published reports and usually related with intra- or postoperative settings and jugular or subclavian vein. The present study reported a young female patient who underwent left femoral vein catheterization 6 months earlier in an intensive care unit of another hospital and was diagnosed with complete guidewire retention in the ED. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in published reports with a diagnosis of retained CVC guidewire with retrograde migration into the femoral vein. Surprisingly, the patient developed no thrombotic or embolic complication during this 6-month period. PMID:26657235

  5. Puzzles in practice: splenic vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Brittany; Marsh, Melanie; Walden, Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    This report details a 58-year-old gentleman who presented to his outpatient primary care physician's clinic several times over four weeks for ongoing epigastric pain radiating into his left flank, dry heaving, and constipation. He was presumed to have gastritis at each visit and prescribed escalating doses of proton pump inhibitors. Due to the unrelenting pain, he eventually was admitted to the hospital and diagnosed with splenic vein thrombosis after computed tomography imaging of the abdomen. Our literature search revealed that pancreatic pathology is overwhelmingly the contributing factor to splenic vein thrombosis. Our patient had prominent collateral vasculature, suggesting that his splenic vein thrombosis was chronic in nature and likely the cause of his ongoing abdominal pain. Splenic vein thrombosis is an uncommon cause of abdominal pain, but one that should be included in the treating physician's differential diagnoses when abdominal pain is ongoing despite medical therapy. Although he had no evidence of initial findings on radiography, our patient was eventually diagnosed with biopsy-proven pancreatic cancer. Our case report demonstrates how patients presenting with persistent or worsening abdominal pain despite the use of proton pump inhibitors or other acid reducing agents and potential 'red flag' findings such as decreased appetite and weight loss should be worked up for other potential sources of abdominal pathology. PMID:27157637

  6. Acute Retinal Necrosis in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Y. Pikkel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute retinal necrosis (ARN is a viral syndrome consisting of uveitis/vitritis, occlusive vasculitis and peripheral necrosis. Few incidents are reported in children. The etiology is reactivated herpes simplex virus (HSV or varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Treatment with acyclovir is often used. The administration of oral glucocorticosteroids is of unproven benefit. Prognosis is variable but poor. Methods: Three weeks after contracting mild chickenpox, a healthy 4-year-old girl developed blurred vision in her right eye. Severely reduced visual acuity was noted, together with anterior uveitis, ‘mutton-fat' precipitates and vitral flare. Retinal vasculitis with necrosis was present. Serology for toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus and HIV was negative, while HSV and VZV IgG antibodies were positive. She was treated with 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone (3 days, 30 mg of oral prednisone (3 days, and tapering for 8 weeks. Intravenous acyclovir was given for 10 days, followed by oral acyclovir for 4 months. Aspirin (100 mg/day was given for 4 months. Results: At 12 months, the girl felt good. Her right eye acuity was 6/9, with an intraocular pressure of 17 mm Hg. The peripheral retina showed scarring but no detachment. Conclusions: This is the first report of a once-daily high-dose methylprednisolone pulse therapy in one of the youngest known ARN cases. Pulsed steroid therapy was based on its known effectiveness in vasculitis, which is the main pathophysiology in ARN. There was no evidence of steroid-related viral over-replication. Our case achieved an excellent clinical and ophthalmic recovery in spite of the poor prognosis. The positive result of this case report provides a basis for further evaluation of high-dose steroid pulse therapy in ARN.

  7. Who Is at Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk for Deep Vein Thrombosis? Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  8. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms of Deep Vein Thrombosis? Explore Deep Vein Thrombosis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  9. Vein thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Having in mind the rate of occurrence and clinical importance, venous thromboembolism implies venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as a result of embolisation of the thrombotic particles from deep veins or pelvic veins. Venous thrombosis of the deep veins may result in chronic vein insufficiency, but the primary medical problem is the possibility of development of pulmonary embolism which may cause permanent respiratory function damage or even fatal outcome. Venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke The high incidence of deep vein thrombosis (30% clinically and up to 50% subclinically in acute stroke hemiparetic and bed ridden patients within two weeks from the onset and 1-2% pulmonary embolism with the fatal outcome in the first month clinically and 17% of all fatal outcomes in postmortem investigations present a necessity for the early venous thromboembolism prevention. On the other hand, the most powerful prevention strategy - anticoagulation has important limitations in acute stroke patients: almost impossible to be used in cerebral haemorrhage and a great risk for the development of hemorrhagic transformation in cerebral infarction. The fact that other prevention strategies have limited value requires an estimation of efectivity-risk ratio in venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke. Conclusion Venous thromboembolism prevention in stroke patients is necessary because of a greater risk for venous thromboembolism in these patients according to the nature of illness and functional disability, but also a problem because of limited possibility to recommend the proper medicament according to the risk of serious complications. The necessity of preventing venous thromboembolism and estimation of efficiency-risk ratio in stroke patients, beside plenty of studies and consensus conferences, remain individual and often very difficult.

  10. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Calibers

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Gerald; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Yin; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Objective The influence of hematological indices such as complete blood count on microcirculation is poorly understood. Retinal microvasculature can be directly visualized and vessel calibers are associated with a range of ocular and systemic diseases. We examined the association of complete blood count with retinal vessel calibers. Methods Cross-sectional population-based Blue Mountains Eye Study, n = 3009, aged 49+ years. Complete blood count was measured from fasting blood samples taken at...

  11. Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata Chakrabarti; Koushik Pan

    2014-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features...

  12. Retinal Prosthetics, Optogenetics, and Chemical Photoswitches

    OpenAIRE

    Marc, Robert; Pfeiffer, Rebecca; Jones, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Three technologies have emerged as therapies to restore light sensing to profoundly blind patients suffering from late-stage retinal degenerations: (1) retinal prosthetics, (2) optogenetics, and (3) chemical photoswitches. Prosthetics are the most mature and the only approach in clinical practice. Prosthetic implants require complex surgical intervention and provide only limited visual resolution but can potentially restore navigational ability to many blind patients. Optogenetics uses viral ...

  13. Delayed appearance of high altitude retinal hemorrhages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Barthelmes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal hemorrhages have been described as a component of high altitude retinopathy (HAR in association with altitude illness. In this prospective high altitude study, we aimed to gain new insights into the pathophysiology of HAR and explored whether HAR could be a valid early indicator of altitude illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 28 mountaineers were randomly assigned to two ascent profiles during a research expedition to Mt. Muztagh Ata (7546 m/24,751 ft. Digital fundus photographs were taken prior to expedition at 490 m (1,607 ft, during expedition at 4497 m (14,750 ft = base camp, 5533 m (18,148 ft, 6265 m (20,549 ft, 6865 m (22,517 ft and 4.5 months thereafter at 490 m. Number, size and time of occurrence of hemorrhages were recorded. Oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and hematocrit were also assessed. 79% of all climbers exhibited retinal hemorrhages during the expedition. Number and area of retinal bleeding increased moderately to medium altitudes (6265 m. Most retinal hemorrhages were detected after return to base camp from a high altitude. No post-expeditional ophthalmic sequelae were detected. Significant negative (SpO₂ Beta: -0.4, p<0.001 and positive (hematocrit Beta: 0.2, p = 0.002, time at altitude Beta: 0.33, p = 0.003 correlations with hemorrhages were found. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When closely examined, a very large amount of climbers exhibit retinal hemorrhages during exposure to high altitudes. The incidence of retinal hemorrhages may be greater than previously appreciated as a definite time lag was observed between highest altitude reached and development of retinal bleeding. Retinal hemorrhages should not be considered warning signs of impending severe altitude illness due to their delayed appearance.

  14. Multimodal Imaging in Hereditary Retinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Pichi; Mariachiara Morara; Chiara Veronese; Paolo Nucci; Ciardella, Antonio P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. In this retrospective study we evaluated the multimodal visualization of retinal genetic diseases to better understand their natural course. Material and Methods. We reviewed the charts of 70 consecutive patients with different genetic retinal pathologies who had previously undergone multimodal imaging analyses. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and genotyped at the known locus for the different diseases. Results. The medical records of 3 families of a 4-generation...

  15. Effects of aging in retinal image quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Artal, Pablo; Ferro, Manuel; Miranda, Ismael; Navarro, Rafael

    1993-01-01

    The retinal image quality characterized by the modulation-transfer function of the eye was measured for two groups of subjects aged in the late twenties and mid sixties, respectively. In both groups, we obtained modulation transfer functions by using a double-pass method under the same experimental conditions: 4-mm artificial pupil, paralyzed accommodation, and objective control of the refractive state and centering. Results showed lower values of modulation in the retinal image for older ...

  16. Retinal Macroglial Responses in Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoz, Rosa; Rojas, Blanca; Ramírez, Ana I.; Salazar, Juan J; Gallego, Beatriz I.; Triviño, Alberto; Ramírez, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their permanent and close proximity to neurons, glial cells perform essential tasks for the normal physiology of the retina. Astrocytes and Müller cells (retinal macroglia) provide physical support to neurons and supplement them with several metabolites and growth factors. Macroglia are involved in maintaining the homeostasis of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, are essential for information processing in neural circuits, participate in retinal glucose metabolism and in removin...

  17. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  18. Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, V.; Rassam, S; NEWSOM, R.; Wiek, J; Kohner, E.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(a) To report on the basic parameters of retinal blood flow in a population of diabetic patients with and without retinopathy and non-diabetic controls; (b) to formulate a haemodynamic model for the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy from this and other studies. DESIGN--Laser-Doppler velocimetry and computerised image analysis to determine retinal blood flow in a large cross sectional study. SETTING--Diabetic retinopathy outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS--24 non-diabetic controls and ...

  19. Two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in severely burned patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cen H; He X

    2013-01-01

    Hanghui Cen, Xiaojie HeDepartment of Burn, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Here we present two cases of jugular vein thrombosis in burn patients, with diagnosis, risk factor analysis, and treatment approaches. Severely burned patients have high risk of deep vein thrombosis occurrence due to multiple surgeries. The deep vein catheter should be carefully performed. Once deep vein thrombosis is detected, a w...

  20. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail: akursadpoyraz@yahoo.com.tr; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-03-15

    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  1. EndoVascular Laser Therapy (EVLT) of Varicose Veins

    OpenAIRE

    S. Akhlaghpour; M.R. Zafar Ghandi; Ebrahimi, M.; Alinaghizadeh

    2005-01-01

    Introduction & Background: Tens of millions of people – up to 40% of women and 25% of men – suffer from lower limb varicose veins. Several risk factors are also identified including genetics, gender, age, obesity, hor-mones, pregnancy, and occupation. Sclerotheraphy is commonly used to treat small varicose veins. Medium-sized and large varicose veins can be removed by a surgical procedure called Stab avulsion or phlebectomy. EVLT is a new alternative surgical method for varicose veins. Pa...

  2. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Young Ho Park; Kang Ryoung Park

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger‐vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger‐vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are diffic...

  3. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Liu, Zongbin; Zhang, Kai; Han, Xin; Saito, Yuki; Xia, Xiaojun; Yokoi, Kenji; Shen, Haifa; Qin, Lidong

    2015-01-01

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demonstrated by administration of glycinergic factors. In addition, an image-based analytical method was used to quantify the synaptic connections and to assess the kinetics of synaptic regeneration. The rate of RSR decreased significantly below 100 μM of inhibitor glycine and then approached to a relatively constant level at higher concentrations. Furthermore, RSR was enhanced by chemical stimulation with potassium chloride. Collectively, the microfluidic synaptic regeneration chip provides a novel tool for high-throughput investigation of RSR at the cellular level and may be useful in quality control of retinal precursor cell transplantation. PMID:26314276

  4. Digital imaging-based retinal photocoagulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Cain, Clarence P.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Welch, Ashley J.

    1997-05-01

    Researchers at the USAF Academy and the University of Texas are developing a computer-assisted retinal photocoagulation system for the treatment of retinal disorders (i.e. diabetic retinopathy, retinal tears). Currently, ophthalmologists manually place therapeutic retinal lesions, an acquired technique that is tiring for both the patient and physician. The computer-assisted system under development can rapidly and safely place multiple therapeutic lesions at desired locations on the retina in a matter of seconds. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion depth during irradiation and lesion placement to compensate for retinal movement. Both subsystems have been successfully demonstrated in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser. Two different design approaches are being pursued to combine the capabilities of both subsystems: a digital imaging-based system and a hybrid analog-digital system. This paper will focus on progress with the digital imaging-based prototype system. A separate paper on the hybrid analog-digital system, `Hybrid Retinal Photocoagulation System', is also presented in this session.

  5. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal vein locator. 880.6970 Section 880... Devices § 880.6970 Liquid crystal vein locator. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal vein locator is a... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  6. Protein kinase C in porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesslein, Bodil; Gustafsson, Lotta; Wackenfors, Angelica;

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the intracellular signal-transduction pathways activated in retinal ischemia may be important in revealing novel pharmacological targets. To date, most studies have focused on identifying neuroprotective agents. The retinal blood vessels are key organs in circulatory failure, an...

  7. Percutaneous Transhepatic Portography for the Treatment of Early Portal Vein Thrombosis After Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated three cases of early portal vein thrombosis (PVT) by minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography. All patients developed PVT within 30 days of major hepatic surgery (one case each of orthotopic liver transplantation, splenectomy in a previous liver transplant recipient, and right extended hepatectomy with resection and reconstruction of the left branch of the portal vein for tumor infiltration). In all cases minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography was adopted to treat this complication by mechanical fragmentation and pharmacological lysis of the thrombus. A vascular stent was also positioned in the two cases in which the thrombosis was related to a surgical technical problem. Mechanical fragmentation of the thrombus with contemporaneous local urokinase administration resulted in complete removal of the clot and allowed restoration of normal blood flow to the liver after a median follow-up of 37 months. PVT is an uncommon but severe complication after major surgery or liver transplantation. Surgical thrombectomy, with or without reconstruction of the portal vein, and retransplantation are characterized by important surgical morbidity and mortality. Based on our experience, minimally invasive percutaneous transhepatic portography should be considered an option toward successful recanalization of early PVT after major liver surgery including transplantation. Balloon dilatation and placement of a vascular stent could help to decrease the risk of recurrent thrombosis when a defective surgical technique is the reason for the thrombosis

  8. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  9. Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

  10. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The lessons we learned are (1 Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2 Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3 Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4 It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  11. Computer simulation of long-chain branching and branching indexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš

    Vienna : University of Vienna, 2014. s. 22. [International Conference on Polymer Behaviour /6./. 22.09.2014-26.09.2014, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-02938S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : branching indexes * intrinsic viscosity * radius of gyration Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  12. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  13. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed. PMID:27446690

  14. Lower extremity dep vein thrombosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 113 leg venograms performed in patients of all ages between 1969 and 1982, 68 were in children 16 years old or less. The patients were all studied on a tilt table (method of Rabinov and Paulin) in a head-up, 40-500 incline without tourniquets, supporting their weight on the unaffected leg. Among the 68 venograms, 12 (18%) were positive for deep vein thrombosis. The clinical settings for thrombosis in children were post-catheterization (two patients), post surgery (two), tumor/tumor therapy (three), drug abuse (one), and idiopathic (three). There were no long-term clinical sequelae in five patients. Pulmonary infarction occurred in three, and three patients required either long-term anticoagulation or IVC clipping. Clinical diagnosis is no more accurate for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis in children than it is in adults. Venography is the best method for making an accurate diagnosis and directing subsequent therapy.(orig.)

  15. Emergency intravenous access through the femoral vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, R S; Uhlig, P N; Gross, P L; McCabe, C J

    1984-04-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of femoral venous catheterization for resuscitation of critically ill patients in the emergency department setting. From May 1982 to April 1983, 100 attempts were made at percutaneous insertion of a large-bore catheter into the femoral veins of patients presenting to our emergency department in cardiac arrest or requiring rapid fluid resuscitation. Eighty-nine attempts were successful. Insertion was generally considered easy, and flow rates were excellent. The only noted complications were four arterial punctures and one minor groin hematoma. This study suggests that short-term percutaneous catheterization of the femoral vein provides rapid, safe, and effective intravenous access. PMID:6703430

  16. Visualization of calf veins by color flow imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, P S; Bedford, G; Strandness, D E

    1990-01-01

    Both indirect and direct noninvasive tests have been shown to be useful for the detection of deep venous thrombi involving the proximal veins (popliteal to inferior vena cava). However, thrombi that are confined to the calf veins will not affect venous outflow and cannot be detected by the plethysmographic methods. B-mode imaging, while excellent for the major deep veins, is also limited in the calf region because the veins are small, and imaging resolution is not always adequate to permit visualization of these smaller veins. With the availability of duplex scanning with "slow flow" color capability, these veins lend themselves to study. In 30 normal subjects, we were able to visualize all paired veins from the level of the ankle to the popliteal fossa. The clinical implications of this approach are discussed. PMID:2181759

  17. Absent right superior caval vein in situs solitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Sundberg, Karin; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In up to 0.07% of the general population, the right anterior cardinal vein obliterates and the left remains open, creating an absent right superior caval vein and a persistent left superior caval vein. Absent right superior caval vein is associated with additional congenital heart...... disease in about half the patients. We wished to study the consequences of absent right superior caval vein as an incidental finding on prenatal ultrasonic malformation screening. Material and methods This is a retrospective case series study of all foetuses diagnosed with absent right superior caval vein...... at the national referral hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark, from 2009 to 2012. RESULTS: In total, five cases of absent right superior caval vein were reviewed. No significant associated cardiac, extra-cardiac, or genetic anomalies were found. Postnatal echocardiographies confirmed the diagnosis and...

  18. NET impact on deep vein thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Tobias A.; Brill, Alexander; Wagner, Denisa D.

    2012-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major health problem that requires improved prophylaxis and treatment. Inflammatory conditions such as infection, cancer and autoimmune diseases are risk factors for DVT. We and others have recently shown that extracellular DNA fibers produced in inflammation and known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) contribute to experimental DVT. NETs stimulate thrombus formation and coagulation and are abundant in thrombi in animal models of DVT. It appears that, in...

  19. Brucellosis Associated with Deep Vein Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tolaj, Ilir; Mehmeti, Murat; Ramadani, Hamdi; Tolaj, Jasmina; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Fejza, Hajrullah

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10 years more than 700 cases of brucellosis have been reported in Kosovo, which is heavily oriented towards agriculture and animal husbandry. Here, brucellosis is still endemic and represents an uncontrolled public health problem. Human brucellosis may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations; among them, vascular complications are uncommon. Hereby we describe the case of a 37-year-old male patient with brucellosis complicated by deep vein thrombosis on his left ...

  20. INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN THROMBOSIS TWO DIFFERENT ETIOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Internal Jugular vein (IJV) thrombosis is a rare entity. It is usually secondary to various etiologies such as catheter, malignancy, trauma, infection and hypercoagulable status. Associated malignancies, either known or occult, are also uncommon and not well documented in the etiology of IJV thrombosis. We reported IJV thrombosis with two different pathologies i.e. malignacy and congestive heart failure. The diagnosis of IJV thrombosis was established with Doppler ultrasound and CT scan. Thes...